Science.gov

Sample records for anomalous hollow electron

  1. Anomalous free electron laser interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einat, M.; Jerby, E.; Kesar, A.

    2002-05-01

    Free electron lasers (FELs) are considered, typically, as fast wave devices. The normal FEL interaction satisfies the tuning condition ω≅( kz+ kW) Vz , where ω and kz are the em-wave angular frequency and longitudinal wave number, respectively, Vz is the electron axial speed, and kW is the wiggler periodicity. This paper presents an anomalous FEL interaction, which may occur in slow-wave FELs (i.e. loaded by dielectric or periodic structures). The anomalous FEL effect presented here satisfies the tuning condition ω≅( kz- kW) Vz , and it resembles the anomalous effect in slow-wave cyclotron resonance masers. A necessary condition for the anomalous interaction is ω/ kz< Vz (i.e., the em-wave phase velocity should be slower than the electron beam). The paper presents a preliminary experimental result demonstrating the anomalous FEL effect in a stripline dielectric-loaded FEL experiment. A linear Pierce equation is applied to describe both the anomalous and normal FELs in the same framework. The paper is concluded with a conceptual discussion.

  2. Hollow cathode lamp based Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter.

    PubMed

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Shang, Haosen; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2016-07-15

    The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), which has acquired wide applications, is mainly limited to some gaseous elements and low melting-point metals before, for the restriction of the attainable atomic density. In conventional FADOF systems a high atomic density is usually achieved by thermal equilibrium at the saturated vapor pressure, hence for elements with high melting-points a high temperature is required. To avoid this restriction, we propose a scheme of FADOF based on the hollow cathode lamp (HCL), instead of atomic vapor cells. Experimental results in strontium atoms verified this scheme, where a transmission peak corresponding to the (88)Sr (5s(2))(1)S0 - (5s5p)(1)P1 transition (461 nm) is obtained, with a maximum transmittance of 62.5% and a bandwith of 1.19 GHz. The dependence of transmission on magnetic field and HCL discharge current is also studied. Since the state-of-art commercial HCLs cover about 70 elements, this scheme can greatly expand the applications of FADOFs, and the abundant atomic transitions they provide bring the HCL based FADOFs potential applications for frequency stabilization.

  3. Hollow cathode lamp based Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Shang, Haosen; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), which has acquired wide applications, is mainly limited to some gaseous elements and low melting-point metals before, for the restriction of the attainable atomic density. In conventional FADOF systems a high atomic density is usually achieved by thermal equilibrium at the saturated vapor pressure, hence for elements with high melting-points a high temperature is required. To avoid this restriction, we propose a scheme of FADOF based on the hollow cathode lamp (HCL), instead of atomic vapor cells. Experimental results in strontium atoms verified this scheme, where a transmission peak corresponding to the 88Sr (5s2)1S0 − (5s5p)1P1 transition (461 nm) is obtained, with a maximum transmittance of 62.5% and a bandwith of 1.19 GHz. The dependence of transmission on magnetic field and HCL discharge current is also studied. Since the state-of-art commercial HCLs cover about 70 elements, this scheme can greatly expand the applications of FADOFs, and the abundant atomic transitions they provide bring the HCL based FADOFs potential applications for frequency stabilization. PMID:27418112

  4. Collimation Studies with Hollow Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Johnson, T.R.; Saewert, G.W.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Recent experimental studies at the Fermilab Tevatron collider have shown that magnetically confined hollow electron beams can act as a new kind of collimator for high-intensity beams in storage rings. In a hollow electron beam collimator, electrons enclose the circulating beam. Their electric charge kicks halo particles transversely. If their distribution is axially symmetric, the beam core is unaffected. This device is complementary to conventional two-stage collimation systems: the electron beam can be placed arbitrarily close to the circulating beam; and particle removal is smooth, so that the device is a diffusion enhancer rather than a hard aperture limitation. The concept was tested in the Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the existing electron lenses. We describe some of the technical aspects of hollow-beam scraping and the results of recent measurements.

  5. Anomalous optogalvanic line shapes of argon metastable transitions in a hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Anomalous optogalvanic line shapes were observed in a commercial hollow cathode lamp containing argon buffer gas. Deviations from Gaussian line shapes were particularly strong for transitions originating from the 3P2 metastable level of argon. The anomalous line shapes can be described reasonably well by the assumption that two regions in the discharge are excited simultaneously, each giving rise to a purely Gaussian line shape, but with different polarities, amplitudes, and linewidths.

  6. Anomalous optogalvanic line shapes of argon metastable transitions in a hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Anomalous optogalvanic line shapes were observed in a commercial hollow cathode lamp containing argon buffer gas. Deviations from Gaussian line shapes were particularly strong for transitions originating from the 3P2 metastable level of argon. The anomalous line shapes can be described reasonably well by the assumption that two regions in the discharge are excited simultaneously, each giving rise to a purely Gaussian line shape, but with different polarities, amplitudes, and linewidths.

  7. Hollow cathodes as electron emitting plasma contactors Theory and computer modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.; Parks, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested using hollow cathodes as plasma contactors for electrodynamic tethers, particularly to prevent the Shuttle Orbiter from charging to large negative potentials. Previous studies have shown that fluid models with anomalous scattering can describe the electron transport in hollow cathode generated plasmas. An improved theory of the hollow cathode plasmas is developed and computational results using the theory are compared with laboratory experiments. Numerical predictions for a hollow cathode plasma source of the type considered for use on the Shuttle are presented, as are three-dimensional NASCAP/LEO calculations of the emitted ion trajectories and the resulting potentials in the vicinity of the Orbiter. The computer calculations show that the hollow cathode plasma source makes vastly superior contact with the ionospheric plasma compared with either an electron gun or passive ion collection by the Orbiter.

  8. The anomalous manipulation of acoustic waves based on planar metasurface with split hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Changlin; Chen, Huaijun; Zhai, Shilong; Liu, Song; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an acoustic metasurface (AMS) model consisting of split hollow sphere (SHS) resonator arrays with the property of negative modulus. It shows that the AMS can imprint phase discontinuities on an acoustic reflected wave as it traverses the interface between two media. By designing suitable phase gradients, the AMS enables the perpendicularly incident acoustic wave to be converted to a surface wave or reflected in any angle. Four kinds of AMSs, which can anomalously manipulate the reflected wave’s direction, are simulated to fulfill the generalized Snell’s law. The results provide an available and simple path to experimentally achieving the AMS.

  9. Photonic versus electronic quantum anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleu, O.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2017-03-01

    We derive the diagram of the topological phases accessible within a generic Hamiltonian describing quantum anomalous Hall effect for photons and electrons in honeycomb lattices in the presence of a Zeeman field and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The two cases differ crucially by the winding number of their SOC, which is 1 for the Rashba SOC of electrons, and 2 for the photon SOC induced by the energy splitting between the TE and TM modes. As a consequence, the two models exhibit opposite Chern numbers ±2 at low field. Moreover, the photonic system shows a topological transition absent in the electronic case. If the photonic states are mixed with excitonic resonances to form interacting exciton-polaritons, the effective Zeeman field can be induced and controlled by a circularly polarized pump. This new feature allows an all-optical control of the topological phase transitions.

  10. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.; /UC, San Diego

    2010-06-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  11. Hollow Electron Beam Collimator: R and D Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-11-04

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  12. Hollow Electron Beam Collimator: R&D Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-11-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  13. Statistical properties of an anomalous hollow beam with orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chenchen; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Chengliang; Wang, Kuilong; Cai, Yangjian

    2015-02-01

    Due to the wide application of the vortex beam, a new theoretical model is introduced to describe the anomalous hollow beam (AHB) with optical angular momentum (OAM). The analytical propagation expression for the AHB with OAM passing through an ABCD optical system is derived. The effect of topological charge (TC) on the propagation properties of the AHB with OAM is studied numerically. The dependence of the normalized intensity distribution, the phase distribution and the optical angular momentum density (OAMD) distribution of the proposed beam on its TC is illustrated numerically. Furthermore, it is found that the intensity distribution, phase distribution, and the OAMD distribution are shaped through varying the TC and propagation distance. Our results will be useful for optical communication and optical trapping.

  14. Propagation of energetic electrons in a hollow plasma fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.; Chew, L. Y.

    2010-08-02

    Transport of energetic electrons in a hollow plasma fiber is investigated. The high-current electron beam induces in the fiber strong radial electric fields and azimuthal magnetic fields on the inner and outer surfaces of the hollow fiber. The hot electrons are pushed out by the surface magnetic field and returned into the fiber by the sheath electric field. Imbalance of the latter fields can drive chaotic oscillations of electrons around the fiber wall. Intense thin return-current layers inside both the inner and outer wall surfaces are observed. This enhances local joule heating around both surfaces by the return current.

  15. Monodisperse Hollow Tricolor Pigment Particles for Electronic Paper

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A general approach has been designed to blue, green, and red pigments by metal ions doping hollow TiO 2. The reaction involves initial formation of PS at TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles via a mixed-solvent method, and then mixing with metal ions solution containing PEG, followed calcining in the atmosphere. The as-prepared hollow pigments exhibit uniform size, bright color, and tunable density, which are fit for electronic paper display. PMID:20651918

  16. Classical Aspect of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordovitsyn, V. A.; Kulikova, A. V.; Savitskaya, Yu. N.

    2017-03-01

    Some integral effects of electromagnetic interactions, such as the electromagnetic mass and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, are discussed on the basis of covariant methods of classical electrodynamics.

  17. Simulation Study of Hollow Electron Beam Collimation for LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Valishev, A.

    2014-05-02

    In this note we describe the results of numerical simulations of hollow electron beam collimation for the nominal LHC machine. The halo cleaning rates for various operating scenarios are predicted. The impact of electron lens imperfections on the collider luminosity performance is estimated.

  18. Anomalous confined electron states in graphene superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Anh Le, H.; Chien Nguyen, D.; Nam Do, V.

    2014-07-07

    We show that periodic scalar potentials can induce the localization of some electronic states in graphene. Particularly, localized states are found at energies outside the potential variation range and embedded in the continuum spectrum of delocalized ones. The picture of the connection of wave functions with typical symmetries defined in relevant-edge nanoribbons is employed to explain the formation of the electronic structure and to characterize/classify eigen-states in graphene superlattices.

  19. In situ conversion of nanostructures from solid to hollow in transmission electron microscopes using electron beam.

    PubMed

    El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Bittencourt, Carla

    2016-06-07

    With the current development of electron beam sources, the use of transmission electron microscopes is no more limited to imaging or chemical analysis but has rather been extended to nanoengineering. This includes the e-beam induced growth, etching and structural transformation of nanomaterials. In this review we summarize recent progress on the e-beam induced morphological transformation of nanostructures from solid to hollow. We provide a detailed account of the processes reported so far in the literature with a special emphasis on the mechanistic understanding of the e-beam induced hollowing of nanomaterials. Through an important number of examples, we discuss how one can achieve a precise control of such hollowing processes by understanding the fundamental mechanisms occurring at the atomic scale during the irradiation of solid nanostructures. Finally, we conclude with remarks and our own view on the prospective future directions of this research field.

  20. Computer Simulation of Intense Electron Beam Generation in a Hollow Cathode Diode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-05

    impedance diode.1 The experimental arrangement is depicted in Fig. 1. A simple carbon hollow cathode opposed a flat plate porous graphite anode...Availability Codeas B 1!Avail and/or OCT 2___isSeca V B COMPUTER SIMULATION OF INTENSE ELECTRON BEAM GENERATION IN A HOLLOW CATHODE DIODE Introduction...relatively easy to see. Figure 2 provides a scale drawing of the actual geometry of the diode modeled. The hollow -cathode projects into the

  1. Anomalous electron mobility in a coaxial Hall discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, Nathan B.; Hargus, William A.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2001-02-01

    A comprehensive analysis of measurements supporting the presence of anomalous cross-field electron mobility in Hall plasma accelerators is presented. Nonintrusive laser-induced fluorescence measurements of neutral xenon and ionized xenon velocities, and various electrostatic probe diagnostic measurements are used to locally determine the effective electron Hall parameter inside the accelerator channel. These values are then compared to the classical (collision-driven) Hall parameters expected for a quiescent magnetized plasma. The results indicate that in the vicinity of the anode, where there are fewer plasma instabilities, the electron-transport mechanism is likely elastic collisions with the background neutral xenon. However, we find that in the vicinity of the discharge channel exit, where the magnetic field is the strongest and where there are intense fluctuations in the plasma properties, the inferred Hall parameter departs from the classical value, and is close to the Bohm value of (ωceτ)eff~16. These results are used to support a simple model for the Hall parameter that is based on the scalar addition of the electron collision frequencies (elastic collision induced plus fluctuation induced), as proposed by Boeuf and Garrigues [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3541 (1998)]. The results also draw attention to the possible role of fluctuations in enhancing electron transport in regions where the electrons are highly magnetized.

  2. Band like Electronic Structures in Square Hollow Quantum Dots by 3D-MHFKS Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Tokihiro; Okada, Hoshihito; Matsuse, Takehiro

    To find novel aspects of the electronic structures in quantum dots (QD) from a view point of spatial broken symmetry, 3-dimensional-mesh Hartree-Fock-Kohn-Sham (3D-MHFKS) calculations1 are applied to the interacting electron system of electron number N in a symmetry broken hollow QD. For the case of a square hollow quantum dot confined in square hard wall (HW) potential (SSHQD), the magnetic (B) field dependence of the obtained single particle energy levels and chemical potentials in B-N diagram are shown to have a band like electronic structures over the wide B-field range up to 20T. To clarify the origin of the band like electronic structures in SSHQD, 3D-MHFKS calculations are also applied for the mixed symmetry QD's with a circular hollow in square HW potential (SCHQD) and with a square hollow in circular HW potential (CSHQD).

  3. Anomalous skin effects in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, G.; Sarfraz, M.; Shah, H. A.

    2014-09-01

    Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma is presented and a graphical comparison is made with the results obtained using relativistic Maxwellian distribution function [G. Abbas, M. F. Bashir, and G. Murtaza, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102115 (2011)]. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves for degenerate case is qualitatively small in comparison with the Maxwellian plasma case. The quantitative reduction due to weak magnetic field in the skin depth in R-wave for degenerate plasma is large as compared to the non-degenerate one. By ignoring the ambient magnetic field, previous results for degenerate field free case are salvaged [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Principles of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, 1984), p. 90].

  4. Anomalous skin effects in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, G. Sarfraz, M.; Shah, H. A.

    2014-09-15

    Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma is presented and a graphical comparison is made with the results obtained using relativistic Maxwellian distribution function [G. Abbas, M. F. Bashir, and G. Murtaza, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102115 (2011)]. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves for degenerate case is qualitatively small in comparison with the Maxwellian plasma case. The quantitative reduction due to weak magnetic field in the skin depth in R-wave for degenerate plasma is large as compared to the non-degenerate one. By ignoring the ambient magnetic field, previous results for degenerate field free case are salvaged [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Principles of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, 1984), p. 90].

  5. Hollow-fiber membranes for photosensitized electron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wamser, C.C.; Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1981-01-01

    Commercially available cellulose acetate hollow fiber membranes have been investigated for possible use in artificial photosynthesis solar energy schemes. The function of the membrane is to contain the photosensitizer and to separate the oxidized and reduced species which result from photosensitized electron transfer reactions on each side of the membrane wall. Membranes were successfully modified by a process of soaking in a THF solution saturated with porphyrin, followed by a water rinse. This procedure gives dark purple fibers which contain up to 30 mM zinc tetraphenylporphyrin in the fiber walls. A plumbing system has been developed to allow flow of a solution through the inner channels of a 24-fiber bundle while it is immersed in a separate outer solution. Preliminary studies indicate that the fibers are somewhat permeable to both EDTA and dimethyl viologen, the electron donor and acceptor molecules, respectively. Preliminary photochemical studies on cut-up pieces of the treated fiber indicate that it does photosensitize a reaction between EDTA and dimethyl viologen in aqueous solution.

  6. Hollow Cathode Produced Electron Beams for Plasma Generation: Cathode Operation in Gas Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6750--06-8992 Hollow Cathode Produced Electron Beams for Plasma Generation: Cathode...Operation in Gas Mixtures Scott Walton Darrin leonharDt richarD FernSler Charged Particle Physics Branch Plasma Physics Division December 15, 2006 Approved...17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Hollow Cathode Produced Electron Beams for Plasma Generation: Cathode Operation in Gas Mixtures Scott Walton, Darrin

  7. Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons by an electron beam interacting with a nonuniform plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sydorenko, D.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Chen, L.; Ventzek, P. L. G.

    2015-12-15

    Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons was observed in simulation of a high-voltage dc discharge with electron emission from the cathode. An electron beam produced by the emission interacts with the nonuniform plasma in the discharge via a two-stream instability. The energy transfer from the beam to the plasma electrons is ensured by the plasma nonuniformity. The electron beam excites plasma waves whose wavelength and phase speed gradually decrease towards anode. The waves with short wavelength near the anode accelerate plasma bulk electrons to suprathermal energies. The sheath near the anode reflects some of the accelerated electrons back into the plasma. These electrons travel through the plasma, reflect near the cathode, and enter the accelerating area again but with a higher energy than before. Such particles are accelerated to energies much higher than after the first acceleration. This mechanism plays a role in explaining earlier experimental observations of energetic suprathermal electrons in similar discharges.

  8. The Electronic Properties of Superatom States of Hollow Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Min; Zhao, Jin; Huang, Tian; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Petek, Hrvoje

    2011-05-17

    Electronic and optical properties of molecules and molecular solids are traditionally considered from the perspective of the frontier orbitals and their intermolecular interactions. How molecules condense into crystalline solids, however, is mainly attributed to the long-range polarization interaction. In this Account, we show that long-range polarization also introduces a distinctive set of diffuse molecular electronic states, which in quantum structures or solids can combine into nearly-free-electron (NFE) bands. These NFE properties, which are usually associated with good metals, are vividly evident in sp2 hybridized carbon materials, specifically graphene and its derivatives. The polarization interaction is primarily manifested in the screening of an external charge at a solid/vacuum interface. It is responsible for the universal image potential and the associated unoccupied image potential (IP) states, which are observed even at the He liquid/vacuum interface. The molecular electronic properties that we describe are derived from the IP states of graphene, which float above and below the molecular plane and undergo free motion parallel to it. Rolling or wrapping a graphene sheet into a nanotube or a fullerene transforms the IP states into diffuse atom-like orbitals that are bound primarily to hollow molecular cores, rather than the component atoms. Therefore, we named them the superatom molecular orbitals (SAMOs). Like the excitonic states of semiconductor nanostructures or the plasmonic resonances of metallic nanoparticles, SAMOs of fullerene molecules, separated by their van der Waals distance, can combine to form diatomic molecule-like orbitals of C60 dimers. For larger aggregates, they form NFE bands of superatomic quantum structures and solids. The overlap of the diffuse SAMO wavefunctions in van der Waals solids provides a different paradigm for band formation than the valence or conduction bands formed by interaction of the more tightly bound

  9. The electronic properties of superatom states of hollow molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Zhao, Jin; Huang, Tian; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Petek, Hrvoje

    2011-05-17

    Electronic and optical properties of molecules and molecular solids are traditionally considered from the perspective of the frontier orbitals and their intermolecular interactions. How molecules condense into crystalline solids, however, is mainly attributed to the long-range polarization interaction. In this Account, we show that long-range polarization also introduces a distinctive set of diffuse molecular electronic states, which in quantum structures or solids can combine into nearly-free-electron (NFE) bands. These NFE properties, which are usually associated with good metals, are vividly evident in sp(2) hybridized carbon materials, specifically graphene and its derivatives. The polarization interaction is primarily manifested in the screening of an external charge at a solid/vacuum interface. It is responsible for the universal image potential and the associated unoccupied image potential (IP) states, which are observed even at the He liquid/vacuum interface. The molecular electronic properties that we describe are derived from the IP states of graphene, which float above and below the molecular plane and undergo free motion parallel to it. Rolling or wrapping a graphene sheet into a nanotube or a fullerene transforms the IP states into diffuse atom-like orbitals that are bound primarily to hollow molecular cores, rather than the component atoms. Therefore, we named them the superatom molecular orbitals (SAMOs). Like the excitonic states of semiconductor nanostructures or the plasmonic resonances of metallic nanoparticles, SAMOs of fullerene molecules, separated by their van der Waals distance, can combine to form diatomic molecule-like orbitals of C(60) dimers. For larger aggregates, they form NFE bands of superatomic quantum structures and solids. The overlap of the diffuse SAMO wavefunctions in van der Waals solids provides a different paradigm for band formation than the valence or conduction bands formed by interaction of the more tightly bound

  10. Anomalous electron transport in ferromagnetic MnBi films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, Parashu; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2011-03-01

    Materials having high spin polarization, large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high Curie temperature hold great potential for a range of spintronic applications. MnBi has the hexagonal NiAs structure and possesses strong permanent magnet and magneto-optical properties. Our recent research shows that MnBi exhibits a high transport spin polarization of 63%, so it is useful to investigate the electron transport properties of this material. We have found that MnBi is a metallic conductor but the resistivity shows an anomalous temperature dependence at low temperature. Analysis of the Hall data for various samples shows that the extraordinary Hall effect is the dominant part in the transverse Hall effect and a Hall angle of 2.8% has been measured. An experimental investigation on the origin of the observed large extraordinary Hall effect in MnBi thin films will be discussed. This research is supported by NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR-0820521, the DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER46152 and NCMN. S. Mangin, D. Ravelosona, J. A. Katine, M. J. Carey, B. D. Terris and Eric E. Fullerton, Nature Mater. 5, 210 (2006).

  11. Simulation of Hollow Electron Beam Collimation in the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, I.A.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    The concept of augmenting the conventional collimation system of high-energy storage rings with a hollow electron beam was successfully demonstrated in experiments at the Tevatron. A reliable numerical model is required for understanding particle dynamics in the presence of a hollow beam collimator. Several models were developed to describe imperfections of the electron beam profile and alignment. The features of the imperfections are estimated from electron beam profile measurements. Numerical simulations of halo removal rates are compared with experimental data taken at the Tevatron.

  12. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, Giulio; Previtali, Valentina; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen

    2014-06-26

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. We are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were checked to ensure that undesired effects were suppressed. Hardware specifications were based on the Tevatron devices and on preliminary engineering integration studies in the LHC machine. Required resources and a possible timeline were also outlined, together with a brief discussion of alternative halo-removal schemes and of other possible uses of electron lenses to improve the performance of the LHC.

  13. Correlated Optical Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy of Individual Hollow Nanoparticles and their Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Linglu; Yan, Bo; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical spectra of individual Ag-Au alloy hollow particles were correlated with the particles’ structures obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM provided direct experimental access to the dimension of the cavity, thickness of the metal shell, and the interparticle distance of hollow particle dimers with high spatial resolution. The analysis of correlated spectral and structural information enabled the quantification of the influence of the core-shell structure on the resonance energy, plasmon lifetime, and plasmon coupling efficiency. Electron beam exposure during TEM inspection was observed to affect plasmon wavelength and lifetime, making optical inspection prior to structural characterization mandatory. PMID:19768108

  14. HOLLOW ELECTRON BEAM COLLIMATION FOR HL-LHC - EFFECT ON THE BEAM CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Fitterer, M.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.; Bruce, R.; Papadopoulou, S.; Papotti, G.; Pellegrini, D.; Pellegrini, S.; Valuch, D.; Wagner, J. F.

    2016-10-05

    Collimation with hollow electron beams or lenses (HEL) is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in HL-LHC. In previous studies it has been shown that the halo can be efficiently removed with a hollow electron lens. Equally important as an efficient removal of the halo, is also to demonstrate that the core stays unperturbed. In this paper, we present a summary of the experiment at the LHC and simulations in view of the effect of the HEL on the beam core in case of a pulsed operation.

  15. Positron Acceleration by Plasma Wakefields Driven by a Hollow Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Neeraj; Antonsen, T. M.; Palastro, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    A scheme for positron plasma wakefield acceleration using hollow or donut-shaped electron driver beams is studied. An annular-shaped, electron-free region forms around the hollow driver beam, creating a favorable region (longitudinal field is accelerating and transverse field is focusing) for positron acceleration. For Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET)-like parameters, the hollow beam driver produces accelerating gradients on the order of 10 GV /m . The accelerating gradient increases linearly with the total charge in the driver beam. Simulations show acceleration of a 23-GeV positron beam to 35.4 GeV with a maximum energy spread of 0.4% and very small emittance over a plasma length of 140 cm is possible.

  16. Positron Acceleration by Plasma Wakefields Driven by a Hollow Electron Beam.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neeraj; Antonsen, T M; Palastro, J P

    2015-11-06

    A scheme for positron plasma wakefield acceleration using hollow or donut-shaped electron driver beams is studied. An annular-shaped, electron-free region forms around the hollow driver beam, creating a favorable region (longitudinal field is accelerating and transverse field is focusing) for positron acceleration. For Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET)-like parameters, the hollow beam driver produces accelerating gradients on the order of 10  GV/m. The accelerating gradient increases linearly with the total charge in the driver beam. Simulations show acceleration of a 23-GeV positron beam to 35.4 GeV with a maximum energy spread of 0.4% and very small emittance over a plasma length of 140 cm is possible.

  17. Observation of anomalous Hall effect in a non-magnetic two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryenko, D.; Mishchenko, A. S.; Bahramy, M. S.; Ernst, A.; Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; Nagaosa, N.; Kawasaki, M.

    2017-03-01

    Anomalous Hall effect, a manifestation of Hall effect occurring in systems without time-reversal symmetry, has been mostly observed in ferromagnetically ordered materials. However, its realization in high-mobility two-dimensional electron system remains elusive, as the incorporation of magnetic moments deteriorates the device performance compared to non-doped structure. Here we observe systematic emergence of anomalous Hall effect in various MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures that exhibit quantum Hall effect. At low temperatures, our nominally non-magnetic heterostructures display an anomalous Hall effect response similar to that of a clean ferromagnetic metal, while keeping a large anomalous Hall effect angle θAHE~20°. Such a behaviour is consistent with Giovannini-Kondo model in which the anomalous Hall effect arises from the skew scattering of electrons by localized paramagnetic centres. Our study unveils a new aspect of many-body interactions in two-dimensional electron systems and shows how the anomalous Hall effect can emerge in a non-magnetic system.

  18. Observation of anomalous Hall effect in a non-magnetic two-dimensional electron system

    PubMed Central

    Maryenko, D.; Mishchenko, A. S.; Bahramy, M. S.; Ernst, A.; Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; Nagaosa, N.; Kawasaki, M.

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect, a manifestation of Hall effect occurring in systems without time-reversal symmetry, has been mostly observed in ferromagnetically ordered materials. However, its realization in high-mobility two-dimensional electron system remains elusive, as the incorporation of magnetic moments deteriorates the device performance compared to non-doped structure. Here we observe systematic emergence of anomalous Hall effect in various MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures that exhibit quantum Hall effect. At low temperatures, our nominally non-magnetic heterostructures display an anomalous Hall effect response similar to that of a clean ferromagnetic metal, while keeping a large anomalous Hall effect angle θAHE≈20°. Such a behaviour is consistent with Giovannini–Kondo model in which the anomalous Hall effect arises from the skew scattering of electrons by localized paramagnetic centres. Our study unveils a new aspect of many-body interactions in two-dimensional electron systems and shows how the anomalous Hall effect can emerge in a non-magnetic system. PMID:28300133

  19. Electron diffusion through the baffle aperture of a hollow cathode thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a hollow cathode in place of an oxide cathode to increase thruster operating lifetimes requires, among other things, the addition of a baffle to restrict the flow of electrons from the hollow cathode. A theoretical model is developed which relates the baffle aperture area of a hollow-cathode thruster to the magnetic flux density and plasma properties in the aperture region, with the result that this model could be used as an aid in thruster design. Extensive Langmuir probing is undertaken to verify the validity of the model and demonstrate its capability. It is shown that the model can be used to calculate the aperture area required to effect discharge operation at a specified discharge voltage and arc current.

  20. Anomalous Broadening of Balmer H{sub {alpha}} Line in Aluminum and Copper Hollow Cathode Glow Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Sisovic, N. M.; Majstorovic, G. Lj.; Konjevic, N.

    2008-10-22

    The presented results are concerned with the shape of Balmer alpha line emitted from a low pressure DC glow discharge with aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) hollow cathode (HC) in pure H{sub 2} and Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture. The analysis indicates that the line profile represents a convolution of Gaussian profiles resulting from different collision excitation processes.

  1. Non-nuclear electron transport channels in hollow molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-08-01

    Electron transport in inorganic semiconductors and metals occurs through delocalized bands formed by overlapping electron orbitals. Strong correlation of electronic wave functions with the ionic cores couples the electron and lattice motions, leading to efficient interaction and scattering that degrades coherent charge transport. By contrast, unoccupied electronic states at energies near the vacuum level with diffuse molecular orbitals may form nearly-free-electron bands with density maxima in non-nuclear interstitial voids, which are subject to weaker electron-phonon interaction. The position of such bands typically above the frontier orbitals, however, renders them unstable with respect to electronic interband relaxation and therefore unsuitable for charge transport. Through electronic-structure calculations, we engineer stable, non-nuclear, nearly-free-electron conduction channels in low-dimensional molecular materials by tailoring their electrostatic and polarization potentials. We propose quantum structures of graphane-derived Janus molecular sheets with spatially isolated conducting and insulating regions that potentially exhibit emergent electronic properties, as a paradigm for molecular-scale non-nuclear charge conductors; we also describe tuning of their electronic properties by application of external fields and calculate their electron-acoustic-phonon interaction.

  2. Experimental study of magnetically confined hollow electron beams in the Tevatron as collimators for intense high-energy hadron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable losses. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and tested at Fermilab for this purpose. It was installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses in the summer of 2010. We present the results of the first experimental tests of the hollow-beam collimation concept on 980-GeV antiproton bunches in the Tevatron.

  3. Non-nuclear Electron Transport Channels in Hollow Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-08-15

    Electron transport in inorganic semiconductors and metals occurs through delocalized bands formed by overlapping electron orbitals. Strong correlation of electronic wave functions with the ionic cores couples the electron and lattice motions, leading to efficient interaction and scattering that degrades coherent charge transport. By contrast, unoccupied electronic states at energies near the vacuum level with diffuse molecular orbitals may form nearly-free-electron bands with density maxima in non-nuclear interstitial voids, which are subject to weaker electron-phonon interaction. The position of such bands typically above the frontier orbitals, however, renders them unstable with respect to electronic interband relaxation and therefore unsuitable for charge transport. Through electronic-structure calculations, we engineer stable, non-nuclear, nearly-free-electron conduction channels in low-dimensional molecular materials by tailoring their electrostatic and polarization potentials. We propose quantum structures of graphane-derived Janus molecular sheets with spatially isolated conducting and insulating regions that potentially exhibit emergent electronic properties, as a paradigm for molecular-scale non-nuclear charge conductors; we also describe tuning of their electronic properties by application of external fields and calculate their electron–acoustic-phonon interaction.

  4. Plans for Deployment of Hollow Electron Lenses at the LHC for Enhanced Beam Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Redaelli, S.; Bertarelli, A.; Bruce, R.; Perini, D.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.

    2015-06-01

    Hollow electron lenses are considered as a possible means to improve the LHC beam collimation system, providing active control of halo diffusion rates and suppressing the population of transverse halos. After a very successful experience at the Tevatron, a conceptual design of a hollow e-lens optimized for the LHC was produced. Recent further studies have led to a mature preliminary technical design. In this paper, possible scenarios for the deployment of this technology at the LHC are elaborated in the context of the scheduled LHC long shutdowns until the full implementation of the HL-LHC upgrade in 2023. Possible setups of electron beam test stands at CERN and synergies with other relevant electron beam programmes are also discussed.

  5. Dynamics of a helium plasma sheet created by a hollow-cathode electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larigaldie, S.; Caillault, L.

    2000-12-01

    A hollow-cathode device has been shown to operate as a plasma reflector for electronic steering of radar beams using helium in the 0.2-0.5 Torr pressure range. Compared to previous experiments, the use of this light gas significantly reduces the spurious sputtering effects on the cathode materials. A semi-quantitative physical model was developed to describe the observed evolution of microwave beam transmissions through the plasma sheet as a function of frequency. This model stresses the importance of electron-ion recombination on the edge of the plasma sheet, due to simultaneous low electron temperatures and high electron densities.

  6. Steady-state hollow electron temperature profiles in the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hogeweij, G.M.; Oomens, A.A.; Barth, C.J.; Beurskens, M.N.; Chu, C.C.; van Gelder, J.F.; Lok, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Pijper, F.J.; Polman, R.W.; Rommers, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project steady-state hollow electron temperature ({ital T}{sub {ital e}}) profiles have been sustained with strong off-axis electron cyclotron heating, creating a region of reversed magnetic shear. In this region the effective electron thermal diffusivity ({chi}{sub {ital e}}{sup {ital pb}}) is close to neoclassical in high density plasmas. For medium density, {chi}{sub {ital e}}{sup {ital pb}} is lower than neoclassical and may even be negative, indicating that off-diagonal elements in the transport matrix drive an electron heat flux up the {ital T}{sub {ital e}} gradient. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Anomalous electron-ion energy coupling in electron drift wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei

    Turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, and it is well known that turbulence couples energy input to dissipation by cascade processes. Plasma turbulence play a critical role in tokamak confinement. Magnetized plasma turbulence is quasi 2D, anisotropic, wave like and two fluid (i.e. electrons and ions) in structure. Thus, weakly collisional plasma turbulence can mediate electron and ion energy transfer. The issue of anomalous electron and ion energy coupling is particularly important for low collisionality, electron heated plasmas, such as ITER. In this work, we reconsider the classic problem of turbulent heating and energy transfer pathways in drift wave turbulence. The total turbulent heating, composed of quasilinear electron cooling, quasilinear ion heating, nonlinear ion heating and zonal flow frictional heating, is analyzed. In Chapter 2, the electron and ion energy exchange via linear wave and particle resonance will be computed. To address net heating, we show the turbulent heating in an annulus arises due to a wave energy flux differential across this region. We show this net heating is proportional to the Reynolds work on the zonal flow. Zonal flow friction heats ions, thus the turbulence and zonal flow interaction enters as an important energy transfer channel. Since zonal flows are nonlinearly generated, it follows that we should apply weak turbulence theory to calculate the nonlinear ion turbulent heating via the virtual mode resonance in the electron drift wave turbulence, which will be discussed in Chapter 3. We defines a new collisionless turbulent energy transfer channel through nonlinear Landau damping in the electron and ion energy coupling process. The result shows that nonlinear ion heating can exceed quasilinear ion heating, so that nonlinear heating becomes the principal collisionless wave energy dissipation channel in electron drift wave turbulence. This follows since the beat mode resonates with the bulk of the ion distribution, in

  8. Electronic Origins of Anomalous Twin Boundary Energies in Hexagonal Close Packed Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Maarten; Kacher, J.; Sluiter, M. H. F.; Qi, L.; Olmsted, D. L.; van de Walle, A.; Morris, J. W.; Minor, A. M.; Asta, M.

    2015-08-01

    Density-functional-theory calculations of twin-boundary energies in hexagonal close packed metals reveal anomalously low values for elemental Tc and Re, which can be lowered further by alloying with solutes that reduce the electron per atom ratio. The anomalous behavior is linked to atomic geometries in the interface similar to those observed in bulk tetrahedrally close packed phases. The results establish a link between twin-boundary energetics and the theory of bulk structural stability in transition metals that may prove useful in controlling mechanical behavior in alloy design.

  9. Dependence of electron peak current on hollow cathode dimensions and seed electron energy in a pseudospark discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, S. O.; Stoltz, P.; Messmer, P.; Cambier, J.-L.

    2008-01-15

    The prebreakdown and breakdown phases of a pseudospark discharge are investigated using the two-dimensional kinetic plasma simulation code OOPIC PRO. Trends in the peak electron current at the anode are presented as function of the hollow cathode dimensions and mean seed injection velocities at the cavity back wall. The plasma generation process by ionizing collisions is examined, showing the effect on supplying the electrons that determine the density of the beam. The mean seed velocities used here are varied between the velocity corresponding to the energy of peak ionization cross section, 15 times this value and no mean velocity (i.e., electrons injected with a temperature of 2.5 eV). The reliance of the discharge characteristics on the penetrating electric field is shown to decrease as the mean seed injection velocity increases because of its ability to generate a surplus plasma independent of the virtual anode. As a result, the peak current increases with the hollow cathode dimensions for the largest average injection velocity, while for the smallest value it increases with the area of penetration of the electric field in the hollow cathode interior. Additionally, for a given geometry an increase in the peak current with the surplus plasma generated is observed. For the largest seed injection velocity used a dependence of the magnitude of the peak current on the ratio of the hole thickness and hollow cathode depth to the hole height is demonstrated. This means similar trends of the peak current are generated when the geometry is resized. Although the present study uses argon only, the variation in the discharge dependencies with the seed injection energy relative to the ionization threshold is expected to apply independently of the gas type. Secondary electrons due to electron and ion impact are shown to be important only for the largest impact areas and discharge development times of the study.

  10. Development of a New Generation of Coolers with a Hollow Electron Beam and Electrostatic Bending

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V. V.

    2006-03-20

    The basic features and design of a new generation coolers made for CSRm,CSRe (Lanzhow, IMP) and for LEIR (Geneva, CERN) will discussed. The hollow profile electron beam help suppress recombination at the accumulation zone. The low electron beam density at the core of the intensive ion beam decrease the amplitude coherent electron-ion beam oscillations (so called electron heating effect). The electrostatic bending made the recuperation loss electron beam current less then 1 mkA for 1-2 Amp the main electron beam current. Decreasing out gassing by the electrons desorption the vacuum chamber cooler open perspective for obtain the high vacuum at cooler on level 1E-12 Torr (for LEIR cooler)

  11. Anomalously low electronic thermal conductivity in metallic vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Yang, Fan; Hong, Jiawang; Ko, Changhyun; Suh, Joonki; Liu, Kai; Wang, Kevin; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Xiang; Dames, Chris; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Delaire, Olivier; Wu, Junqiao

    2017-01-01

    In electrically conductive solids, the Wiedemann-Franz law requires the electronic contribution to thermal conductivity to be proportional to electrical conductivity. Violations of the Wiedemann-Franz law are typically an indication of unconventional quasiparticle dynamics, such as inelastic scattering, or hydrodynamic collective motion of charge carriers, typically pronounced only at cryogenic temperatures. We report an order-of-magnitude breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law at high temperatures ranging from 240 to 340 kelvin in metallic vanadium dioxide in the vicinity of its metal-insulator transition. Different from previously established mechanisms, the unusually low electronic thermal conductivity is a signature of the absence of quasiparticles in a strongly correlated electron fluid where heat and charge diffuse independently.

  12. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R. D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Scott, B.; Wakeham, N.; Ghimire, N. J.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Ronning, F.

    2016-01-01

    The change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. Density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [ℤ2 invariant (0;111)] without Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions. PMID:27271852

  13. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R. D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; ...

    2016-01-01

    We report that the change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. In conclusion, density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [Z2 invariant (0;111)] withoutmore » Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions.« less

  14. Anomalously low electronic thermal conductivity in metallic vanadium dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Sangwook; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Yang, Fan; ...

    2017-01-26

    In electrically conductive solids, the Wiedemann-Franz law requires the electronic contribution to thermal conductivity to be proportional to electrical conductivity. Violations of the Wiedemann-Franz law are typically an indication of unconventional quasiparticle dynamics, such as inelastic scattering, or hydrodynamic collective motion of charge carriers, typically pronounced only at cryogenic temperatures. We report an order-of-magnitude breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law at high temperatures ranging from 240 to 340 kelvin in metallic vanadium dioxide in the vicinity of its metal-insulator transition. As a result, different from previously established mechanisms, the unusually low electronic thermal conductivity is a signature of the absence ofmore » quasiparticles in a strongly correlated electron fluid where heat and charge diffuse independently.« less

  15. Anomalously low electronic thermal conductivity in metallic vanadium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwook; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Yang, Fan; Hong, Jiawang; Ko, Changhyun; Suh, Joonki; Liu, Kai; Wang, Kevin; Urban, Jeffrey J; Zhang, Xiang; Dames, Chris; Hartnoll, Sean A; Delaire, Olivier; Wu, Junqiao

    2017-01-27

    In electrically conductive solids, the Wiedemann-Franz law requires the electronic contribution to thermal conductivity to be proportional to electrical conductivity. Violations of the Wiedemann-Franz law are typically an indication of unconventional quasiparticle dynamics, such as inelastic scattering, or hydrodynamic collective motion of charge carriers, typically pronounced only at cryogenic temperatures. We report an order-of-magnitude breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law at high temperatures ranging from 240 to 340 kelvin in metallic vanadium dioxide in the vicinity of its metal-insulator transition. Different from previously established mechanisms, the unusually low electronic thermal conductivity is a signature of the absence of quasiparticles in a strongly correlated electron fluid where heat and charge diffuse independently.

  16. Anomalous optical and electronic properties of dense sodium

    PubMed Central

    Lazicki, A.; Goncharov, A. F.; Struzhkin, V. V.; Cohen, R. E.; Liu, Z.; Gregoryanz, E.; Guillaume, C.; Mao, H.-K.; Hemley, Russell J.

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron infrared spectroscopy on sodium shows a transition from a high reflectivity, nearly free-electron metal to a low-reflectivity, poor metal in an orthorhombic phase at 118 GPa. Optical spectra calculated within density functional theory (DFT) agree with the experimental measurements and predict a gap opening in the orthorhombic phase at compression beyond its stability field, a state that would be experimentally attainable by appropriate choice of pressure-temperature path. We show that a transition to an incommensurate phase at 125 GPa results in a partial recovery of good metallic character up to 180 GPa, demonstrating the strong relationship between structure and electronic properties in sodium. PMID:19346481

  17. Intrashell Electron Interaction Mediated Photoformation of Hollow Atoms near Threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Houtari, S.; Kao, C.; Hamalainen, K.; Diamant, R.; Sharon, R.; Deutsch, M.

    2008-07-25

    Double photoionization (DPI) of an atom by a single photon is a direct consequence of electron-electron interactions within the atom. We have measured the evolution of the K-shell DPI from threshold up in transition metals by high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy of the K{sup h}a hypersatellites, photoexcited by monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The measured evolution of the single-to-double photoionization cross-section ratio with excitation energy was found to be universal. Theoretical fits suggest that near threshold DPI is predominantly a semiclassical knockout effect, rather than the purely quantum-mechanical shake-off observed at the infinite photon energy limit.

  18. Intense optical pulse compression with gas-filled hollow-core fibers and bulk materials in anomalous dispersion regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding; Leng, Yuxin

    2013-10-01

    We numerically study the propagation dynamics and compression of ultrashort laser pulses in a hollow-core fiber (HCF) filled with noble gases at different carrier wavelengths from 1.8 μm to 3.9 μm. In the optimal parameter range, single-cycle or even sub-cycle pulses with clean spatial and temporal profiles can be obtained due to chirp compensation beyond 3rd order by bulk material. It is found that the intensity-dependent group velocity sets the upper limits on both the gas pressures and input pulse energies if a clean and well-compressed pulse is required only through compression with bulk materials. In order to use higher gas pressures and larger input energies, two ways are demonstrated to deal with the limitations imposed by the intensity-dependent group velocity.

  19. Anomalous electron doping independent two-dimensional superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Xing, Xiangzhuo; Zhao, Haijun; Feng, Jiajia; Pan, Yongqiang; Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Yufeng; Qian, Bin; Shi, Zhixiang

    2017-07-01

    Transition metal (Co and Ni) co-doping effects are investigated on an underdoped Ca0.94La0.06Fe2As2 compound. It is discovered that electron doping from substituting Fe with transition metal (TM = Co, Ni) can trigger high-{T}{{c}} superconductivity around 35 K, which emerges abruptly before the total suppression of the innate spin-density-wave/anti-ferromagnetism (SDW/AFM) state. Remarkably, the critical temperature for the high-{T}{{c}} superconductivity remains constant against a wide range of TM doping levels. And the net electron doping density dependence of the superconducting {T}{{c}} based on the rigid band model can be nicely scaled into a single curve for Co and Ni substitutions, in stark contrast to the case of Ba(Fe1-x TM x )2As2. This carrier density independent superconductivity and the unusual scaling behavior are presumably resulted from the interface superconductivity based on the similarity with the interface superconductivity in a La2-x Sr x CuO4-La2CuO4 bilayer. Evidence of the two-dimensional character of the superfluid by angle-resolved magneto-resistance measurements can further strengthen the interface nature of the high-{T}{{c}} superconductivity.

  20. FEL indulators with the hollow-ring electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Epp, V.; Bordovitsyn, V.; Kozhevnikov, A.

    1995-12-31

    A conceptual design of undulators with a modulated longitudinal magnetic field is proposed. The magnetic field is created by use of a solenoid with axis coincident with the electron beam axis. In order to modulate the magnetic field we propose an insertion of a row of alternating ferromagnetic and superconducting diaphragms in line with electron beam. The simulation of two-dimensional distribution of the magnetic field in the plane containing undulator axis was made using the computer code {open_quotes}Mermaid{close_quotes}. The magnetic field was analysed as a function of the system geometry. The dependence on the spacing l between superconducting diaphragms, inner a and outer b radii of the last ones is investigated. Two versions of the device are considered: with ferromagnetic rings made of magnetically soft material placed between the superconducting diaphragms and without them. It is shown that the field modulation depth increases with ratio of b/l and can exceed 50% in case of the ferromagnetic insertions. An approximate analytical calculation of the magnetic field distribution is performed as follows. The axial-symmetrical magnetic field can be defined by the vector potential with only one nonzero component A(r,{phi}) where r and {phi} are the cylindrical coordinates. The solution of the Laplace`s equation is found under the assumption that the magnetic field is infinitely extended and periodic along the z-axis. The boundary conditions are defined by the undulator design. The result is used for the calculation of the particle dynamics and for the investigations of the trajectory stability. The spectral and angular distribution of the radiation emitted from the described systems is found. The estimations show that the proposed design allows to create relatively high magnitude of the magnetic field (up to 1 T) with a short period about 1 cm or less.

  1. Preliminary Mechanical Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoni, Carlo; Gobbi, Giorgia; Perini, Diego; Stancari, Giulio

    2017-07-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a hollow beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic field that drives the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters is analyzed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the feasibility study of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar devices.

  2. Photon equation of motion with application to the electron's anomalous magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, A B

    2007-12-06

    The photon equation of motion previously applied to the Lamb shift is here applied to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. Exact agreement is obtained with the QED result of Schwinger. The photon theory treats the radiative correction to the photon in the presence of the electron rather than its inverse as in standard QED. The result is found to be first-order in the photon-electron interaction rather than second-order as in standard QED, introducing an ease of calculation hitherto unavailable.

  3. Direct electron transfer and electrochemical study of hemoglobin immobilized in ZnO hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhua; Xu, Jing; Wu, Zongfang

    2011-10-01

    ZnO hollow spheres were firstly prepared. A new type of amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated by entrapping Hemoglobin (Hb) through the ZnO hollow spheres (ZHS) nanoparticles. The composition morphology and size were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The surface topography of the prepared films was imaged by atomic force microscope (AFM). Several techniques, including UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry were employed to characterize the performance of the biosensor. The results indicated that the ZHS nanoparticles had enhanced the performance of the hydrogen peroxide sensors. The electrochemical parameters of Hb in the ZHS were calculated by the results of the electron-transfer coefficient (α) and the apparent heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant K (s) as 0.5 and 3.1 s(-1), respectively. The resulting biosensors showed a wide linear range from 2.1 × 10(-6) to 5.18 × 10(-3) M, with a low detection limit of 7.0 × 10(-7) M (S/N = 3) under optimized experimental conditions. The results demonstrated that the ZHS matrix may improve the protein loading with the retention of bioactivity and greatly promote the direct electron transfer, which can be attributed to its unique morphology, high specific surface area, and biocompatibility. The biosensor obtained from this study possesses high sensitivity, good reproducibility, and long-term stability.

  4. Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots.

    PubMed

    Harutyunyan, Hayk; Martinson, Alex B F; Rosenmann, Daniel; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Besteiro, Lucas V; Govorov, Alexander O; Wiederrecht, Gary P

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of light and matter in metallic nanosystems is mediated by the collective oscillation of surface electrons, called plasmons. After excitation, plasmons are absorbed by the metal electrons through inter- and intraband transitions, creating a highly non-thermal distribution of electrons. The electron population then decays through electron-electron interactions, creating a hot electron distribution within a few hundred femtoseconds, followed by a further relaxation via electron-phonon scattering on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In the spectral domain, hot plasmonic electrons induce changes to the plasmonic resonance of the nanostructure by modifying the dielectric constant of the metal. Here, we report on the observation of anomalously strong changes to the ultrafast temporal and spectral responses of these excited hot plasmonic electrons in hybrid metal/oxide nanostructures as a result of varying the geometry and composition of the nanostructure and the excitation wavelength. In particular, we show a large ultrafast, pulsewidth-limited contribution to the excited electron decay signal in hybrid nanostructures containing hot spots. The intensity of this contribution correlates with the efficiency of the generation of highly excited surface electrons. Using theoretical models, we attribute this effect to the generation of hot plasmonic electrons from hot spots. We then develop general principles to enhance the generation of energetic electrons through specifically designed plasmonic nanostructures that could be used in applications where hot electron generation is beneficial, such as in solar photocatalysis, photodetectors and nonlinear devices.

  5. Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots

    DOE PAGES

    Harutyunyan, Hayk; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Rosenmann, Daniel; ...

    2015-08-03

    The interaction of light and matter in metallic nanosystems is mediated by the collective oscillation of surface electrons, called plasmons. After excitation, plasmons are absorbed by the metal electrons through inter- and intraband transitions, creating a highly non-thermal distribution of electrons. The electron population then decays through electron-electron interactions, creating a hot electron distribution within a few hundred femtoseconds, followed by a further relaxation via electron-phonon scattering on the timescale of a few pico-seconds. In the spectral domain, hot plasmonic electrons induce changes to the plasmonic resonance of the nanostructure by modifying the dielectric constant of the metal. Here, wemore » report on the observation of anomalously strong changes to the ultrafast temporal and spectral responses of these excited hot plasmonic electrons in hybrid metal/oxide nanostructures as a result of varying the geometry and composition of the nanostructure and the excitation wavelength. In particular, we show a large ultrafast, pulsewidth-limited contribution to the excited electron decay signal in hybrid nanostructures containing hot spots. The intensity of this contribution correlates with the efficiency of the generation of highly excited surface electrons. Using theoretical models, we attribute this effect to the generation of hot plasmonic electrons from hot spots. Finally, we then develop general principles to enhance the generation of energetic electrons through specifically designed plasmonic nanostructures that could be used in applications where hot electron generation is beneficial, such as in solar photocatalysis, photodetectors and nonlinear devices.« less

  6. Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots

    SciTech Connect

    Harutyunyan, Hayk; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Govorov, Alexander O.; Wiederrecht, Gary P.

    2015-08-03

    The interaction of light and matter in metallic nanosystems is mediated by the collective oscillation of surface electrons, called plasmons. After excitation, plasmons are absorbed by the metal electrons through inter- and intraband transitions, creating a highly non-thermal distribution of electrons. The electron population then decays through electron-electron interactions, creating a hot electron distribution within a few hundred femtoseconds, followed by a further relaxation via electron-phonon scattering on the timescale of a few pico-seconds. In the spectral domain, hot plasmonic electrons induce changes to the plasmonic resonance of the nanostructure by modifying the dielectric constant of the metal. Here, we report on the observation of anomalously strong changes to the ultrafast temporal and spectral responses of these excited hot plasmonic electrons in hybrid metal/oxide nanostructures as a result of varying the geometry and composition of the nanostructure and the excitation wavelength. In particular, we show a large ultrafast, pulsewidth-limited contribution to the excited electron decay signal in hybrid nanostructures containing hot spots. The intensity of this contribution correlates with the efficiency of the generation of highly excited surface electrons. Using theoretical models, we attribute this effect to the generation of hot plasmonic electrons from hot spots. Finally, we then develop general principles to enhance the generation of energetic electrons through specifically designed plasmonic nanostructures that could be used in applications where hot electron generation is beneficial, such as in solar photocatalysis, photodetectors and nonlinear devices.

  7. Acceleration and evolution of a hollow electron beam in wakefields driven by a Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guo-Bo; Chen, Min E-mail: yanyunma@126.com; Luo, Ji; Zeng, Ming; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Li, Fei-Yu; Ma, Yan-Yun E-mail: yanyunma@126.com; Yu, Tong-Pu; Sheng, Zheng-Ming

    2016-03-15

    We show that a ring-shaped hollow electron beam can be injected and accelerated by using a Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse and ionization-induced injection in a laser wakefield accelerator. The acceleration and evolution of such a hollow, relativistic electron beam are investigated through three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that both the ring size and the beam thickness oscillate during the acceleration. The beam azimuthal shape is angularly dependent and evolves during the acceleration. The beam ellipticity changes resulting from the electron angular momenta obtained from the drive laser pulse and the focusing forces from the wakefield. The dependence of beam ring radius on the laser-plasma parameters (e.g., laser intensity, focal size, and plasma density) is studied. Such a hollow electron beam may have potential applications for accelerating and collimating positively charged particles.

  8. Electron Anomalous Magnetic Moment in Basis Light-Front Quantization Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We apply the Basis Light-Front Quantization (BLFQ) approach to the Hamiltonian field theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in free space. We solve for the mass eigenstates corresponding to an electron interacting with a single photon in light-front gauge. Based on the resulting non-perturbative ground state light-front amplitude we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The numerical results from extrapolating to the infinite basis limit reproduce the perturbative Schwinger result with relative deviation less than 1.2%. We report significant improvements over previous works including the development of analytic methods for evaluating the vertex matrix elements of QED.

  9. Hollow Cone Electron Imaging for Single Particle 3D Reconstruction of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chun-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lobato, Ivan; Van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The main bottlenecks for high-resolution biological imaging in electron microscopy are radiation sensitivity and low contrast. The phase contrast at low spatial frequencies can be enhanced by using a large defocus but this strongly reduces the resolution. Recently, phase plates have been developed to enhance the contrast at small defocus but electrical charging remains a problem. Single particle cryo-electron microscopy is mostly used to minimize the radiation damage and to enhance the resolution of the 3D reconstructions but it requires averaging images of a massive number of individual particles. Here we present a new route to achieve the same goals by hollow cone dark field imaging using thermal diffuse scattered electrons giving about a 4 times contrast increase as compared to bright field imaging. We demonstrate the 3D reconstruction of a stained GroEL particle can yield about 13.5 Å resolution but using a strongly reduced number of images. PMID:27292544

  10. Hollow Cone Electron Imaging for Single Particle 3D Reconstruction of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lobato, Ivan; Van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-06-13

    The main bottlenecks for high-resolution biological imaging in electron microscopy are radiation sensitivity and low contrast. The phase contrast at low spatial frequencies can be enhanced by using a large defocus but this strongly reduces the resolution. Recently, phase plates have been developed to enhance the contrast at small defocus but electrical charging remains a problem. Single particle cryo-electron microscopy is mostly used to minimize the radiation damage and to enhance the resolution of the 3D reconstructions but it requires averaging images of a massive number of individual particles. Here we present a new route to achieve the same goals by hollow cone dark field imaging using thermal diffuse scattered electrons giving about a 4 times contrast increase as compared to bright field imaging. We demonstrate the 3D reconstruction of a stained GroEL particle can yield about 13.5 Å resolution but using a strongly reduced number of images.

  11. Hollow Cone Electron Imaging for Single Particle 3D Reconstruction of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chun-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lobato, Ivan; van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The main bottlenecks for high-resolution biological imaging in electron microscopy are radiation sensitivity and low contrast. The phase contrast at low spatial frequencies can be enhanced by using a large defocus but this strongly reduces the resolution. Recently, phase plates have been developed to enhance the contrast at small defocus but electrical charging remains a problem. Single particle cryo-electron microscopy is mostly used to minimize the radiation damage and to enhance the resolution of the 3D reconstructions but it requires averaging images of a massive number of individual particles. Here we present a new route to achieve the same goals by hollow cone dark field imaging using thermal diffuse scattered electrons giving about a 4 times contrast increase as compared to bright field imaging. We demonstrate the 3D reconstruction of a stained GroEL particle can yield about 13.5 Å resolution but using a strongly reduced number of images.

  12. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    DOE PAGES

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; ...

    2015-02-06

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I2-I1), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current Ib = (I2 + I1). The values of I1more » and I2 depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. As a result, solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.« less

  13. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-15

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I{sub 1}), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I{sub 2}). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I{sub 2}-I{sub 1}), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current I{sub b} = (I{sub 2} + I{sub 1}). The values of I{sub 1} and I{sub 2} depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. Solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.

  14. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-06

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I2-I1), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current Ib = (I2 + I1). The values of I1 and I2 depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. As a result, solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.

  15. Visible light photocatalysis and electron emission from porous hollow spherical BiVO4 nanostructures synthesized by a novel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Subrata; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-04-01

    Hollow spheres of BiVO4, made of pyramid like nanocrystals have been synthesized in an aqueous medium through a precursor solution mediated growth method with appropriate amount of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). It was found that concentration of PVA in the precursor solution played a crucial role in determining the morphology of the product. Hollow spherical BiVO4 was formed with PVA concentration of 64 mg/mL in the precursor solution while with 32 mg/mL PVA concentration mixed morphology of hollow spherical and cubical structure was formed. Without adding PVA, only cubical (bulk like) BiVO4 powder was obtained. The structures have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). As-prepared hollow spherical BiVO4 samples were having monoclinic structure with energy band gap 2.42 eV. The hollow spherical BiVO4 exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency for degrading N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraethylated rhodamine (RhB) organic dye, which was nearly 13 times efficient than that of the samples prepared by the same method but without PVA in the precursor solution. After five recycles, the hollow spherical BiVO4 catalyst did not exhibit any significant loss of photocatalytic activity, confirming the photocatalyst is essentially stable. The BiVO4 hollow spheres also exhibited electron field emission indicating that BiVO4 with tailored morphology can be used as a multi-functional material.

  16. Velocity space evolution of a minority energetic electron population undergoing the anomalous Doppler instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2015-11-15

    The kinetic evolution in velocity space of a minority suprathermal electron population that is undergoing the anomalous Doppler instability (ADI) is investigated using the results from fully nonlinear numerical simulations that self-consistently evolve particles and fields in a plasma. Electron trajectories in phase space during different stages of the ADI are captured, and are analysed in relation to the characteristics of the excited electric fields and of the overall distribution of particles. For some electrons, trapping and mirroring effects are observed during the saturation phase. A relationship between the second order moments of the perpendicular electron distribution function and time is established, and is used to investigate the range of applicability of analytical approximations drawn from classical theory, that involve a quasilinear wave-driven diffusion operator.

  17. Theory for the anomalous electron transport in Hall effect thrusters. II. Kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, T.; Baalrud, S. D.; Chabert, P.

    2016-05-01

    In Paper I [T. Lafleur et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 053502 (2016)], we demonstrated (using particle-in-cell simulations) the definite correlation between an anomalously high cross-field electron transport in Hall effect thrusters (HETs), and the presence of azimuthal electrostatic instabilities leading to enhanced electron scattering. Here, we present a kinetic theory that predicts the enhanced scattering rate and provides an electron cross-field mobility that is in good agreement with experiment. The large azimuthal electron drift velocity in HETs drives a strong instability that quickly saturates due to a combination of ion-wave trapping and wave-convection, leading to an enhanced mobility many orders of magnitude larger than that expected from classical diffusion theory. In addition to the magnetic field strength, B0, this enhanced mobility is a strong function of the plasma properties (such as the plasma density) and therefore does not, in general, follow simple 1 /B02 or 1 /B0 scaling laws.

  18. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  19. Turbulence-induced anomalous electron diffusion in the plume of the VASIMR VX-200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Christopher; Ballenger, Maxwell; Squire, Jared; Longmier, Benjamin; Carter, Mark; Glover, Tim

    2012-10-01

    The separation of electrons from magnetic nozzles is critical to the function of the VASIMR engine and is of general importance to the field of electric propulsion. Separation of electrons by means of anomalous cross field diffusion is considered. Plume measurements using spectral analysis of custom high frequency probes characterizes the nature of oscillating electric fields in the expanding magnetic nozzle. The oscillating electric field results in frequency dependent density variations that can lead to anomalously high transport in the absence of collisions mimicking collisional transport. The spatial structure of the fluctuating fields is consistent with turbulence caused by separation of energetic (> 100 eV) non-magnetized ions and low energy magnetized electrons via the modified two-stream instability (MTSI) and generalized lower hybrid drift instability (GLHDI). Electric fields as high as 300 V/m are observed at frequencies up to an order of magnitude above the lower hybrid frequency. The electric field fluctuations dissipate with increasing axial distance consistent with changes in ion flux streamlines as plasma detachment occurs.

  20. Interaction of runaway electrons with lower hybrid waves via anomalous Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Sánchez, R.; Esposito, B.

    2002-05-01

    Due to the relativistic decrease of the electron cyclotron frequency, a cyclotron resonance may appear between runaway electrons and lower hybrid waves. A single particle description of the runaway dynamics [J. R. Martín-Solís et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2370 (1998)] is extended to analyze the effect of the interaction of runaway electrons with lower hybrid waves via anomalous Doppler broadening. The conditions under which the resonant interaction can play a role in limiting the runaway energy are established and it is shown that, under typical lower hybrid current drive operation parameters, an efficient wave-particle coupling may occur. Observations of a fast pitch angle scattering event during the current decay phase of Ohmic discharges in the Toroidal Experiment for Technically Oriented Research (TEXTOR) [R. J. E. Jaspers, Ph.D. thesis, Technical University Eindhoven (1995)] are interpreted in terms of such interaction.

  1. Anomalous electron heating effects on the E region ionosphere in TIEGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Wenbin; Oppenheim, Meers; Dimant, Yakov; Wiltberger, Michael; Merkin, Slava

    2016-03-01

    We have recently implemented a new module that includes both the anomalous electron heating and the electron-neutral cooling rate correction associated with the Farley-Buneman Instability (FBI) in the thermosphere-ionosphere electrodynamics global circulation model (TIEGCM). This implementation provides, for the first time, a modeling capability to describe macroscopic effects of the FBI on the ionosphere and thermosphere in the context of a first-principle, self-consistent model. The added heating sources primarily operate between 100 and 130 km altitude, and their magnitudes often exceed auroral precipitation heating in the TIEGCM. The induced changes in E region electron temperature in the auroral oval and polar cap by the FBI are remarkable with a maximum Te approaching 2200 K. This is about 4 times larger than the TIEGCM run without FBI heating. This investigation demonstrates how researchers can add the important effects of the FBI to magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere models and simulators.

  2. Anomalous electron heating and energy balance in an ion beam generated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Guethlein, G.

    1987-04-01

    The plasma described in this report is generated by a 15 to 34 kV ion beam, consisting primarily of protons, passing through an H/sub 2/ gas cell neutralizer. Plasma ions (or ion-electron pairs) are produced by electron capture from (or ionization of) gas molecules by beam ions and atoms. An explanation is provided for the observed anomalous behavior of the electron temperature (T/sub e/): a step-lite, nearly two-fold jump in T/sub e/ as the beam current approaches that which minimizes beam angular divergence; insensitivity of T/sub e/ to gas pressure; and the linear relation of T/sub e/ to beam energy.

  3. Anomalous-circular photogalvanic effect in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. G.; Chen, Y. H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z. G.

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas excited by near infrared light at room temperature. The anomalous CPGE observed under normal incidence indicates a swirling current which is realized by a radial spin current via the reciprocal spin-Hall effect. The anomalous CPGE exhibits a cubic cosine dependence on the incidence angle, which is discussed in line with the above interpretation.

  4. Anomalous-circular photogalvanic effect in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas.

    PubMed

    Tang, C G; Chen, Y H; Liu, Y; Wang, Z G

    2009-09-16

    We have studied the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas excited by near infrared light at room temperature. The anomalous CPGE observed under normal incidence indicates a swirling current which is realized by a radial spin current via the reciprocal spin-Hall effect. The anomalous CPGE exhibits a cubic cosine dependence on the incidence angle, which is discussed in line with the above interpretation.

  5. Nonlinear simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with anomalous electron viscosity and their role in edge localized mode crashes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. Q.; Dudson, B.; Snyder, P. B.; Umansky, M. V.; Wilson, H.

    2010-10-22

    A minimum set of equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, E×B drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the new BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Nonlinear simulations of P-B modes demonstrate that the P-B modes trigger magnetic reconnection, which leads to the pedestal collapse. With the addition of a model of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, it is found from simulations using a realistic high-Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the edge localized mode (ELM) size is about 5–10% of the pedestal stored energy. Furthermore, this is consistent with many observations of large ELMs.

  6. Nonlinear Simulations of Peeling-Ballooning Modes with Anomalous Electron Viscosity and their Role in Edge Localized Mode Crashes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. Q.; Umansky, M. V.; Dudson, B.; Wilson, H.; Snyder, P. B.

    2010-10-22

    A minimum set of equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, ExB drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the new BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Nonlinear simulations of P-B modes demonstrate that the P-B modes trigger magnetic reconnection, which leads to the pedestal collapse. With the addition of a model of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, it is found from simulations using a realistic high-Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the edge localized mode (ELM) size is about 5%-10% of the pedestal stored energy. This is consistent with many observations of large ELMs.

  7. Nonlinear simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with anomalous electron viscosity and their role in edge localized mode crashes

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, X. Q.; Dudson, B.; Snyder, P. B.; ...

    2010-10-22

    A minimum set of equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, E×B drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the new BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Nonlinear simulations of P-B modes demonstrate that the P-B modes trigger magnetic reconnection, which leads to the pedestal collapse. With the addition of a model of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, it is found from simulations using a realisticmore » high-Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the edge localized mode (ELM) size is about 5–10% of the pedestal stored energy. Furthermore, this is consistent with many observations of large ELMs.« less

  8. Hollow cone illumination for fast TEM, and outrunning damage with electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, J. C. H.; Subramanian, G.; Musumeci, P.

    2015-11-01

    We consider the possibility of imaging individual bioparticles using snapshot diffraction from femotsecond pulses, using a 3 MeV electron beam, based on the recent experimental performance of these coherent beams. Assuming that radiation damage can be outrun using 100 fs pulses (or less), we find that a sufficient number of electrons are scattered per particle only if the beam diameter can be matched to that of the particle (e.g. a virus), about three orders of magnitude smaller than has currently been demonstrated (and limited by space-charge effects). We then propose the use of the hollow-cone illumination mode for fast transmission electron microscope imaging, because it can provide full-field atomic resolution imaging despite the use of the large incoherent annular source required for an efficient photocathode, so that coherent illumination is not needed for high-resolution imaging. Reciprocity arguments are used to compare this full-field mode with data aquisition times and source brightness in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Neutral cloud theory of the Jovian nebula: Anomalous ionization effect of superthermal electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    The standard model of the Jovian nebula postulates that its particle source is the extended cloud of neutral sulfur and oxygen atoms that escape from the satellite Io and become ionized through electron impact from the corotating plasma. Its energy source is the gyroenergy acquired by newly formed pickup ions as they are swept up to corotation velocity by the planetary magnetic field. Elastic collisions between plasma ions and electrons cool the ions and heat the electrons, while inelastic collisions cool the electrons and excite the ions to radiate intense line emission, which is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the plasma. This neutral cloud theory of the Io plasma torus, as it has come to be known, has been the subject of recent critcism which asserts that the theory cannot account for the observed charge state of the plasma which features O(+) and S(2+) as the dominant ions. It is shown in this work that the inclusion of a small population of super-thermal electrons is required to achieve the correct ion partitioning among various charge states. It is also argued that the anomalous ionization effect of the superthermal electrons is responsible for the overall spatial bifurcation of the nebula into a hot multiply charged plasma region outside of 5.7 Jovian radii and a cool singly ionized plasma inside this distance.

  10. Neutral cloud theory of the Jovian nebula: Anomalous ionization effect of superthermal electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    The standard model of the Jovian nebula postulates that its particle source is the extended cloud of neutral sulfur and oxygen atoms that escape from the satellite Io and become ionized through electron impact from the corotating plasma. Its energy source is the gyroenergy acquired by newly formed pickup ions as they are swept up to corotation velocity by the planetary magnetic field. Elastic collisions between plasma ions and electrons cool the ions and heat the electrons, while inelastic collisions cool the electrons and excite the ions to radiate intense line emission, which is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the plasma. This neutral cloud theory of the Io plasma torus, as it has come to be known, has been the subject of recent critcism which asserts that the theory cannot account for the observed charge state of the plasma which features O(+) and S(2+) as the dominant ions. It is shown in this work that the inclusion of a small population of super-thermal electrons is required to achieve the correct ion partitioning among various charge states. It is also argued that the anomalous ionization effect of the superthermal electrons is responsible for the overall spatial bifurcation of the nebula into a hot multiply charged plasma region outside of 5.7 Jovian radii and a cool singly ionized plasma inside this distance.

  11. Electronic Transition Spectra of Thiophenoxy and Phenoxy Radicals in Hollow Cathode Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Wako, Hiromichi; Niwayama, Kei; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) still remain the longest standing unsolved problem in spectroscopy and astrochemistry, although several hundreds of DIBs have been already detected. It is expected that identifications of DIBs can give us crucial information for extraterrestrial organic molecule. One of the best approaches to identify carrier molecules of DIBs is a measurement of DIB candidate molecule produced in the laboratory to compare their absorption spectra with astronomically observed DIB spectra. Radical in a gas phase is a potential DIB candidate molecule. The electronic transitions of polyaromatic hydrocarbon radicals result in optical absorption. However, because radicals are unstable, their electronic transitions are difficult to observe using a laboratory spectrometer system. To solve this difficulty, we have developed a glow-discharge cell using a hollow cathode in which radicals can be effectively produced as a high-density plasma. The radicals produced were measured by using the cavity ringdown (CRD) spectrometer and the discharge emission spectrometer. The CRD spectrometer, which consists of a tunable pulse laser system, an optical cavity and a discharge device, is an apparatus to observe an high-resolution optical absorption spectrum. The electronic transition of the thiophenoxy radical C6H5OS was observed in the discharge emission of thiophenol C6H5OH. The electronic transition frequency of the thiophenoxy radical was measured. A optical discharge emission was examined by using a HORIBA Jobin Yvon iHR320 monochromator. We detected the phenoxy radical C6H5O in the discharge of phenol C6H5OH. The band observed at 6107 Å in the discharge was assigned to the electronic transition of the phenoxy radical on the basis of the sample gas dependences and the reported low resolution spectrum. The electronic transition frequency of the phenoxy radical was measured. Comparison studies of the thiophenoxy and phenoxy radicals were made with known DIB spectra

  12. Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude control electronics box design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.

  13. Defect control of conventional and anomalous electron transport at complex oxide interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Gunkel, F.; Bell, Chris; Inoue, Hisashi; ...

    2016-08-30

    Using low-temperature electrical measurements, the interrelation between electron transport, magnetic properties, and ionic defect structure in complex oxide interface systems is investigated, focusing on NdGaO3/SrTiO3 (100) interfaces. Field-dependent Hall characteristics (2–300 K) are obtained for samples grown at various growth pressures. In addition to multiple electron transport, interfacial magnetism is tracked exploiting the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). These two properties both contribute to a nonlinearity in the field dependence of the Hall resistance, with multiple carrier conduction evident below 30 K and AHE at temperatures ≲10 K. Considering these two sources of nonlinearity, we suggest a phenomenological model capturing themore » complex field dependence of the Hall characteristics in the low-temperature regime. Our model allows the extraction of the conventional transport parameters and a qualitative analysis of the magnetization. The electron mobility is found to decrease systematically with increasing growth pressure. This suggests dominant electron scattering by acceptor-type strontium vacancies incorporated during growth. The AHE scales with growth pressure. In conclusion, the most pronounced AHE is found at increased growth pressure and, thus, in the most defective, low-mobility samples, indicating a correlation between transport, magnetism, and cation defect concentration.« less

  14. Defect Control of Conventional and Anomalous Electron Transport at Complex Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunkel, F.; Bell, Chris; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Bongju; Swartz, Adrian G.; Merz, Tyler A.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Harashima, Satoshi; Sato, Hiroki K.; Minohara, Makoto; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Dittmann, Regina; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2016-07-01

    Using low-temperature electrical measurements, the interrelation between electron transport, magnetic properties, and ionic defect structure in complex oxide interface systems is investigated, focusing on NdGaO3 /SrTiO3 (100) interfaces. Field-dependent Hall characteristics (2-300 K) are obtained for samples grown at various growth pressures. In addition to multiple electron transport, interfacial magnetism is tracked exploiting the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). These two properties both contribute to a nonlinearity in the field dependence of the Hall resistance, with multiple carrier conduction evident below 30 K and AHE at temperatures ≲10 K . Considering these two sources of nonlinearity, we suggest a phenomenological model capturing the complex field dependence of the Hall characteristics in the low-temperature regime. Our model allows the extraction of the conventional transport parameters and a qualitative analysis of the magnetization. The electron mobility is found to decrease systematically with increasing growth pressure. This suggests dominant electron scattering by acceptor-type strontium vacancies incorporated during growth. The AHE scales with growth pressure. The most pronounced AHE is found at increased growth pressure and, thus, in the most defective, low-mobility samples, indicating a correlation between transport, magnetism, and cation defect concentration.

  15. Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses. Practical explanation on basis of Tevatron electron lens test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, Vince

    2014-06-08

    The purpose of this guide is to help successive students handle WARP. It outlines the installation of WARP on personal computers as well as super-computers and clusters. It furthermore teaches the reader how to handle the WARP environment and run basic scripts. Lastly it outlines how to execute the current Hollow Electron Beam Lens scripts.

  16. Anomalous skin effects in relativistic parallel propagating weakly magnetized electron plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Gohar; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.

    2011-10-15

    Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized electron plasma is presented and general expressions for longitudinal and transverse permittivites are derived. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves increases as we move from non-relativistic to highly relativistic regime. The ambient magnetic field reduces/enhances the skin effects for R-wave/L-wave as the strength of the field is increased. In general, the weak magnetic field effects are pronounced for the weakly relativistic regime as compared with other relativistic cases. The results are also graphically illustrated. On switching off the magnetic field, previous results for field free case are retrieved [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Priniples of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1984), Vol. 9, p. 106].

  17. Runaway electron distributions and their stability with respect to the anomalous Doppler resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, V.; Shoucri, M.; Teichmann, J.; Bers, A.

    1986-06-01

    The stability of non-relativistic runaway electron distributions with respect to the anomalous Doppler resonance is examined in a range of parameters of interest to tokamaks, i.e., for Y identical to ..omega../sub pe//..cap omega../sub ce/ less than or equal to 2 and for ohmic electric fields epsilon identical to E/E/sub c/ less than or equal to 0.1. Distribution functions are calculated numerically within a region up to 35 v/sub e/ (thermal velocities) using a finite-element 2-D Fokker-Planck code. Alternatively, an analytic approximation for the runaway distribution function is used, valid beyond the critical velocity v/sub c/ approx. = v/sub e/ (E/sub c//E)/sup 1/2/. Stability thresholds in (..omega.., k/sub parallel/) - space are then determined.

  18. Revealing the anomalous tensile properties of WS2 nanotubes by in situ transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Wei, Xianlong; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Kawamoto, Naoyuki; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Mitome, Masanori; Zak, Alla; Tenne, Reshef; Golberg, Dmitri

    2013-03-13

    Mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of multiwalled WS2 nanotubes produced by large scale fluidized bed method were investigated under uniaxial tension using in situ transmission electron microscopy probing; these were directly correlated to the nanotube atomic structures. The tubes with the average outer diameter ∼40 nm sustained tensile force of ∼2949 nN and revealed fracture strength of ∼11.8 GPa. Surprisingly, these rather thick WS2 nanotubes could bear much higher loadings than the thin WS2 nanotubes with almost "defect-free" structures studied previously. In addition, the fracture strength of the "thick" nanotubes did not show common size dependent degradation when the tube diameters increased from ∼20 to ∼60 nm. HRTEM characterizations and real time observations revealed that the anomalous tensile properties are related to the intershell cross-linking and geometric constraints from the inverted cone-shaped tube cap structures, which resulted in the multishell loading and fracturing.

  19. Anomalous ion heating and superthermal electrons in the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Assadi, S.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Chartas, G.; Crocker, N.; Cudzinovic, M.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Dexter, R.; Fiksel, G.; Fonck, R.; Henry, J.; Holly, D.; Prager, S.; Rempel, T.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Sprott, C.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1992-09-01

    Anomalous ion heating and superthermal electron populations have been studied in the MST reversed-field pinch. The ion heating is much stronger than that given by classical electron-ion friction, and is particularly strong during dynamo bursts. The heating displays a marked density dependence: in a 350-kA discharge with a maximum {bar n} = 0.9 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus} 3}, T{sub i} rises sharply as {bar n} drops below 0.4 {times} 10{sub 13} cm{sup {minus}3} late in the discharge. Superthermal electrons are produced in the core, with temperatures of T{sub eh}, = 350--700 eV while the bulk core temperature is T{sub e}o = 130--230 eV. The fraction of superthermal electrons decreases with increasing density, from 40% at {bar n} = 0.5 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} to 8% at {bar n} = 1.9 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} at I = 350 kA. However, data with similar plasma parameters but higher oxygen impurity content had a lower T{sub eh} and higher hot fraction. The edge superthermal electron distribution is well fit by a drifted bi-Maxwellian distribution with T{sub {parallel}} {approximately} T{sub e0} and relative drift speed v{sub d}/v{sub th} = 0.4. With the assumption that the parallel heat flux measured with a pyroelectric probe is carried by superthermal electrons, the measured electron current is consistent with T{sub {perpendicular}} {approximately} T{sub ea} {approximately} T{sub e0}/3 and accounts for over half of the total edge parallel current measured with magnetic probes.

  20. Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons by an electron beam interacting with a nonuniform plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganovich, Igor; Sydorenko, Dmytro; Ventzek, Peter L. G.

    2016-09-01

    Electrons emitted from electrodes are accelerated by the sheath electric field and become the electron beams penetrating the plasma. The electron beam can interact with the plasma in collisionless manner via two-stream instability and produce suprathermal electrons. In order to understand the mechanism of suprathermal electrons acceleration, a beam-plasma system was simulated using a 1D3V particle-in-cell code EDIPIC. These simulation results show that the acceleration may be caused by the effects related to the plasma nonuniformity. The electron beam excites plasma waves whose wavelength and phase speed gradually decrease towards anode. The short waves near the anode accelerate plasma bulk electrons to suprathermal energies. Rich complexity of beam-plasma interaction phenomena was also observed: intermittency and multiple regimes of two-stream instability in a dc discharge, band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma, multi-stage acceleration of electrons in a finite system. This research was funded by US Department of Energy.

  1. Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons by an electron beam interacting with a nonuniform plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydorenko, Dmytro; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Ventzek, Peter L. G.

    2016-10-01

    Electrons emitted from electrodes are accelerated by the sheath electric field and become the electron beams penetrating the plasma. The electron beam can interact with the plasma in collisionless manner via two-stream instability and produce suprathermal electrons. In order to understand the mechanism of suprathermal electrons acceleration, a beam-plasma system was simulated using a 1D3V particle-in-cell code EDIPIC. These simulation results show that the acceleration may be caused by the effects related to the plasma nonuniformity. The electron beam excites plasma waves whose wavelength and phase speed gradually decrease towards anode. The short waves near the anode accelerate plasma bulk electrons to suprathermal energies. Rich complexity of beam- plasma interaction phenomena was also observed: intermittency and multiple regimes of two-stream instability in a dc discharge, band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma, multi-stage acceleration of electrons in a finite system.

  2. Collisionless reversed magnetic shear trapped electron instability and contribution of sidebands to anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogister, André L.; Singh, Raghvendra

    2005-11-01

    By keeping account of the trapped electron ∇B and curvature drifts, it is found that the spatial decay of the collisionless electron drift wave is governed either by the trapped electron response or by the resonant interaction of ions with the sidebands of the primary oscillation. In the former case, pairs of spatially bounded unstable and damped solutions are obtained for negative magnetic shear (ŝ<0) if, as usual, LTe=1/∂rlnTe<0; there are no bounded solutions if ŝLTe<0. In the latter case, there is either a set of bounded damped solutions if ηi>0 or a set of bounded unstable solutions if ηi<0. The unstable modes have a radiating character and the growth rates are γ ˜(2n+1)√1+2q2 ∣ŝ∣∣LNωe*/qR∣ (n is the Hermite polynomial solution index, q the safety factor, ŝ the magnetic shear parameter, R the major radius, ωe* the electron diamagnetic frequency, LN=1/∂rlnNe, and ηi=LN/LTi).The sidebands are responsible for unusually large ratios Qe/TeΓe, where Qe and Γe are the anomalous electron energy flux and the particle flux. These results may explain the box-type Te profile observed in lower hybrid current drive reversed magnetic shear plasmas on the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak 60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [H. Ninomiya and the JT-60U Team, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2070 (1992)]. It is finally demonstrated that the ballooning hypothesis generally leads to conflicting requirements: it is thus hardly relevant for the electron drift branch! The "radiating" boundary condition that has formerly been imposed on the slab solution is finally discussed.

  3. Self-consistent nonlinear kinetic simulations of the anomalous Doppler instability of suprathermal electrons in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2013-10-15

    Suprathermal tails in the distributions of electron velocities parallel to the magnetic field are found in many areas of plasma physics, from magnetic confinement fusion to solar system plasmas. Parallel electron kinetic energy can be transferred into plasma waves and perpendicular gyration energy of particles through the anomalous Doppler instability (ADI), provided that energetic electrons with parallel velocities v{sub ||}≥(ω+Ω{sub ce})/k{sub ||} are present; here Ω{sub ce} denotes electron cyclotron frequency, ω the wave angular frequency, and k{sub ||} the component of wavenumber parallel to the magnetic field. This phenomenon is widely observed in tokamak plasmas. Here, we present the first fully self-consistent relativistic particle-in-cell simulations of the ADI, spanning the linear and nonlinear regimes of the ADI. We test the robustness of the analytical theory in the linear regime and follow the ADI through to the steady state. By directly evaluating the parallel and perpendicular dynamical contributions to j·E in the simulations, we follow the energy transfer between the excited waves and the bulk and tail electron populations for the first time. We find that the ratio Ω{sub ce}/(ω{sub pe}+Ω{sub ce}) of energy transfer between parallel and perpendicular, obtained from linear analysis, does not apply when damping is fully included, when we find it to be ω{sub pe}/(ω{sub pe}+Ω{sub ce}); here ω{sub pe} denotes the electron plasma frequency. We also find that the ADI can arise beyond the previously expected range of plasma parameters, in particular when Ω{sub ce}>ω{sub pe}. The simulations also exhibit a spectral feature which may correspond to the observations of suprathermal narrowband emission at ω{sub pe} detected from low density tokamak plasmas.

  4. Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Di Sante, D.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Okuda, T.; Bruyer, E.; Gyenis, A.; Feldman, B. E.; Tao, J.; Ciancio, R.; Rossi, G.; Ali, M. N.; Picozzi, S.; Yadzani, A.; Panaccione, G.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. Here we report angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of WTe2 single crystals, through which we disentangle the role of W and Te atoms in the formation of the band structure and identify the interplay of charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Supported by first-principles calculations and high-resolution surface topography, we reveal the existence of a layer-dependent behaviour. The balance of electron and hole states is found only when considering at least three Te–W–Te layers, showing that the behaviour of WTe2 is not strictly two dimensional. PMID:26924386

  5. Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Di Sante, D.; Vobornik, I.; ...

    2016-02-29

    The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. We report angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of WTe2 single crystals, through which we disentangle the role of W and Te atoms in the formation of the band structure and identify the interplay of charge, spin and orbitalmore » degrees of freedom. Supported by first-principles calculations and high-resolution surface topography, we also reveal the existence of a layer-dependent behaviour. The balance of electron and hole states is found only when considering at least three Te–W–Te layers, showing that the behaviour of WTe2 is not strictly two dimensional.« less

  6. Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2.

    PubMed

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Di Sante, D; Vobornik, I; Fujii, J; Okuda, T; Bruyer, E; Gyenis, A; Feldman, B E; Tao, J; Ciancio, R; Rossi, G; Ali, M N; Picozzi, S; Yadzani, A; Panaccione, G; Cava, R J

    2016-02-29

    The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. Here we report angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of WTe2 single crystals, through which we disentangle the role of W and Te atoms in the formation of the band structure and identify the interplay of charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Supported by first-principles calculations and high-resolution surface topography, we reveal the existence of a layer-dependent behaviour. The balance of electron and hole states is found only when considering at least three Te-W-Te layers, showing that the behaviour of WTe2 is not strictly two dimensional.

  7. Effects of Anomalous Electron Cross-Field Transport in a Low Temperature Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny

    2014-10-01

    The application of the magnetic field in a low pressure plasma can cause a spatial separation of low and high energy electrons. This so-called magnetic filter effect is used for many plasma applications, including ion and neutral beam sources, plasma processing of semiconductors and nanomaterials, and plasma thrusters. In spite of successful practical applications, the magnetic filter effect is not well understood. In this work, we explore this effect by characterizing the electron and ion energy distribution functions in a plasma column with crossed electric and magnetic fields. Experimental results revealed a strong dependence of spatial variations of plasma properties on the gas pressure. For xenon and argon gases, below ~ 1 mtorr, the increase of the magnetic field leads to a more uniform profile of the electron temperature. This surprising result is due to anomalously high electron cross-field transport that causes mixing of hot and cold electrons. High-speed imaging and probe measurements revealed a coherent structure rotating in E cross B direction with frequency of a few kHz. Theory and simulations describing this rotating structure has been developed and points to ionization and electrostatic instabilities as their possible cause. Similar to spoke oscillations reported for Hall thrusters, this rotating structure conducts the large fraction of the cross-field current. The use of segmented electrodes with an electrical feedback control is shown to mitigate these oscillations. Finally, a new feature of the spoke phenomenon that has been discovered, namely a sensitive dependence of the rotating oscillations on the gas pressure, can be important for many applications. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Hollow radial electron density profiles in surface wave discharges. An inside job?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Diaz, Manuel; Rahimi, Sara; Carbone, Emile A. D.; Dijk, Jan Van

    2013-09-01

    In many microwave excited plasmas, there is a part of the discharge (tube) hidden from optical access e.g. because of the metal parts that cover it; it is the region where the transformation occurs between the EM modes found in the (metal) waveguide to modes in the plasma (waveguide). Because in most of cases optical access is not an option here, studies of this region remain scarce. Regardless of this, it is a well-known fact that the discharge tube can easily break due to the high temperatures inside the launcher of surfaguide discharges, which means the temperature is higher there than in other regions of the plasma. In this work, we use a 2D model to show how the inner region changes for increasing power absorbed and electromagnetic wave frequency. The shaping of the EM coupling into the plasma region by the cavity is explored as well. We discuss when the hollow radial profiles for the electron density appear in a surfaguide plasma, and how they are related to the radial inhomogeneity of the EM fields and the plasma properties (e.g. gas temperature). All these results were obtained using the modeling platform Plasimo. Supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW Project Nos. 10497 and 10744) and by the Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN).

  9. Anomalous resistivity due to low-frequency turbulence. [of collisionless plasma with limited acceleration of high velocity runaway electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, H. L.; Palmadesso, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Large amplitude ion cyclotron waves have been observed on auroral field lines. In the presence of an electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field these waves prevent the acceleration of the bulk of the plasma electrons leading to the formation of a runaway tail. It is shown that low-frequency turbulence can also limit the acceleration of high-velocity runaway electrons via pitch angle scattering at the anomalous Doppler resonance.

  10. Protein structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing of X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE PAGES

    Nass, Karol; Meinhart, Anton; Barends, Thomas R. M.; ...

    2016-03-09

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems that are prone to radiation damage. However, phasing XFEL data de novo is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of SFX data, and only a few successful examples, mostly based on exceedingly strong anomalous or isomorphous difference signals, have been reported. Here, it is shown that SFX data from thaumatin microcrystals can be successfully phased using only the weak anomalous scattering from the endogenous S atoms. Furthermore, a step-by-step investigation is presented of the particular problems of SAD phasing of SFX data, analysingmore » data from a derivative with a strong anomalous signal as well as the weak signal from endogenous S atoms.« less

  11. Protein structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing of X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect

    Nass, Karol; Meinhart, Anton; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Foucar, Lutz; Gorel, Alexander; Aquila, Andrew; Botha, Sabine; Doak, R. Bruce; Koglin, Jason; Liang, Mengning; Shoeman, Robert L.; Williams, Garth; Boutet, Sebastien; Schlichting, Ilme

    2016-03-09

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems that are prone to radiation damage. However, phasing XFEL data de novo is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of SFX data, and only a few successful examples, mostly based on exceedingly strong anomalous or isomorphous difference signals, have been reported. Here, it is shown that SFX data from thaumatin microcrystals can be successfully phased using only the weak anomalous scattering from the endogenous S atoms. Furthermore, a step-by-step investigation is presented of the particular problems of SAD phasing of SFX data, analysing data from a derivative with a strong anomalous signal as well as the weak signal from endogenous S atoms.

  12. Protein structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing of X-ray free-electron laser data.

    PubMed

    Nass, Karol; Meinhart, Anton; Barends, Thomas R M; Foucar, Lutz; Gorel, Alexander; Aquila, Andrew; Botha, Sabine; Doak, R Bruce; Koglin, Jason; Liang, Mengning; Shoeman, Robert L; Williams, Garth; Boutet, Sebastien; Schlichting, Ilme

    2016-05-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems that are prone to radiation damage. However, phasing XFEL data de novo is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of SFX data, and only a few successful examples, mostly based on exceedingly strong anomalous or isomorphous difference signals, have been reported. Here, it is shown that SFX data from thaumatin microcrystals can be successfully phased using only the weak anomalous scattering from the endogenous S atoms. Moreover, a step-by-step investigation is presented of the particular problems of SAD phasing of SFX data, analysing data from a derivative with a strong anomalous signal as well as the weak signal from endogenous S atoms.

  13. Protein structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing of X-ray free-electron laser data

    PubMed Central

    Nass, Karol; Meinhart, Anton; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Foucar, Lutz; Gorel, Alexander; Aquila, Andrew; Botha, Sabine; Doak, R. Bruce; Koglin, Jason; Liang, Mengning; Shoeman, Robert L.; Williams, Garth; Boutet, Sebastien; Schlichting, Ilme

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems that are prone to radiation damage. However, phasing XFEL data de novo is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of SFX data, and only a few successful examples, mostly based on exceedingly strong anomalous or isomorphous difference signals, have been reported. Here, it is shown that SFX data from thaumatin microcrystals can be successfully phased using only the weak anomalous scattering from the endogenous S atoms. Moreover, a step-by-step investigation is presented of the particular problems of SAD phasing of SFX data, analysing data from a derivative with a strong anomalous signal as well as the weak signal from endogenous S atoms. PMID:27158504

  14. Anomalous Kondo transport in a single-electron transistor driven by microwave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhan; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Fu-Zhou; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2014-03-01

    The Kondo transport in a single-electron transistor continues to provide unexpected physics due to the interplay between magnetic field and microwave applied, as shown in a recent experiment(B. Hemingway et al., arXiv:1304.0037). For a given microwave frequency, the Kondo differential conductance shows an anomalous magnetic field dependence, and a very sharp peak is observed for certain field applied. Additionally, the microwave frequency is found to be larger of about one order than the corresponding Zeeman energy. These two features are not understood in the current theory. Here we propose a phenomenological mechanism to explain these observations. When both magnetic field and microwave are applied in the SET, if the frequency matches the (renormalized) Zeeman energy, it is assumed that the microwave is able to induce spin-ip in the single-electron transistor, which leads to two consequences. One is the dot level shifts down and the other is the renormalization of the Zeeman energy. This picture can not only explain qualitatively the main findings in the experiment but also further stimulate the related experimental study of the Kondo transport. Additional microwave modulation may provide a novel way to explore the functional of the SET in nanotechnology and quantum information processing.

  15. Gas pressure and electron density at the level of the active zone of hollow cathode arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minoo, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the longitudinal variations of the partial pressures of electrons, ions, and neutral particles is proposed as a result of an experimental study of pressure variations at the level of the active zone as a function of the various discharge parameters of a hollow cathode arc. The cathode region where the temperature passes through its maximum is called active zone. The proposed model embodies the very important variations which the partial electron and neutral particles pressures undergo at the level of the active zone.

  16. Runaway electron distributions and their stability with respect to the anomalous Doppler resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, V.; Shoucri, M.; Teichmann, J.; Bers, A.

    1988-08-01

    The stability of nonrelativistic runaway electron distributions with respect to the anomalous Doppler resonance is examined in a range of parameters of interest to tokamaks, i.e., for Yequivalent..omega../sub p//sub e//..cap omega../sub c//sub e/less than or equal to2 and for Ohmic electric fields epsilonequivalentE/E/sub c/less than or equal to0.1. Distribution functions are calculated numerically within a region up to 35v/sub e/ (thermal velocities) using a finite-element 2-D Fokker--Planck code. Alternatively, an analytic approximation for the runaway distribution function is used, valid beyond the critical velocity v/sub c/approx. =v/sub e/(E/sub c//E)/sup 1//sup ///sup 2/. Stability thresholds in (..omega..,k/sub parallel/) space are then determined. For example, for Y = 1 and epsilon = 0.1, and providing that the runaway tail extends at least to 30v/sub e/, unstable waves exist having ..omega..less than or equal to0.6..cap omega../sub c//sub e/ and k/sub parallel/less than or equal to0.03..cap omega../sub c//sub e//v/sub e/.

  17. Electronic Coupling between Graphene and Topological Insulator Induced Anomalous Magnetotransport Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Lin, Ben-Chuan; Wu, Yan-Fei; Wu, Han-Chun; Huang, Tsung-Wei; Chang, Ching-Ray; Ke, Xiaoxing; Kurttepeli, Mert; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van; Xu, Jun; Yu, Dapeng; Liao, Zhi-Min

    2017-06-27

    It has been theoretically proposed that the spin textures of surface states in a topological insulator can be directly transferred to graphene by means of the proximity effect, which is very important for realizing a two-dimensional topological insulator based on graphene. Here we report the anomalous magnetotransport properties of graphene-topological insulator Bi2Se3 heterojunctions, which are sensitive to the electronic coupling between graphene and the topological surface state. The coupling between the pz orbitals of graphene and the p orbitals of the surface states on the Bi2Se3 bottom surface can be enhanced by applying a perpendicular negative magnetic field, resulting in a giant negative magnetoresistance at the Dirac point up to about -91%. An obvious resistance dip in the transfer curve at the Dirac point is also observed in the hybrid devices, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of the distorted Dirac bands with nontrivial spin textures inherited from the Bi2Se3 surface states.

  18. Magnetic and electronic properties of bimagnetic materials comprising cobalt particles within hollow silica decorated with magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; González-Alfaro, Y.; Espinosa, A.; Watanabe, N.; Haeiwa, T.; Sonehara, M.; Mishima, S.; Sato, T.; Muñoz-Noval, A.; Aranda, P.; Garcia-Hernández, M.; Ruiz-Hitzky, E.

    2013-09-01

    Bimagnetic materials were fabricated by decorating the external surface of rattle-type hollow silica microspheres (which themselves contain metallic cobalt nanoparticles) with magnetite nanoparticles; thus, each magnetic substance was spatially isolated by the silica shell. The amount of magnetite decoration on the co-occluded hollow silica was varied from 1 to 17 mass %. Magnetic and electronic properties of the resulting bimagnetic materials were characterized by superconducting quantum interference device measurements and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The ferrous iron in the bimagnetic sample was slightly more oxidized than in the magnetite reference, probably from some charge-transfer because of the SiO2 surface contact, although the overall oxidation state of the samples is very similar to that of magnetite. The temperature dependence of the sample magnetization recorded with Zero Field Cooling and Field Cooling resulted in blocking temperatures for the bimagnetic materials that were close to that of magnetite nanoparticles (176 K) and were lower than that for the bare Co-occluded hollow silica (which was above room temperature). Values of coercive force and exchange bias at 300 K became quite small after decoration with only minimal amounts of magnetite nanoparticles (1-3 mass %) and were lower than those of magnetite. This is the first example of enhancing superparamagnetism by spatial separation of both Co and magnetite magnetic nanoparticles using a thin wall of diamagnetic silica.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of CuO hollow microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.G.; Yin, J.Z.; Yang, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CuO hollow microspheres were synthesized through hydrothermal route. • The possible growth mechanism was proposed according to the experimental results. • CuO hollow microspheres show an anomalous ferromagnetic behavior at 5 K and 300 K. - Abstract: In the present work, CuO hollow microspheres with the diameter about 2 μm were successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The phase purity, morphologies and structure features of the as obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that reaction temperature, reaction time and different volume ratios of ethanol and distilled water played important roles on the morphologies of the obtained CuO hollow microspheres. The possible formation mechanism was also proposed according to the corresponding experimental results. The magnetic properties were investigated by superconducting quantum interference device, revealing that the CuO hollow microspheres exhibited an anomalous ferromagnetic behavior at 5 K and 300 K. At the same time, the origin of the ferromagnetism in CuO hollow microspheres was also discussed.

  20. Enhanced electron collection efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanostructured TiO(2) hollow fibers.

    PubMed

    Ghadiri, Elham; Taghavinia, Nima; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E

    2010-05-12

    Nanostructured TiO(2) hollow fibers have been prepared using natural cellulose fibers as a template. This cheap and easily processed material was used to produce highly porous photoanodes incorporated in dye-sensitized solar cells and exhibited remarkably enhanced electron transport properties compared to mesoscopic films made of spherical nanoparticles. Photoinjected electron lifetime, in particular, was multiplied by 3-4 in the fiber morphology, while the electron transport rate within the fibrous photoanaode was doubled. A nearly quantitative absorbed photon-to-electrical current conversion yield exceeding 95% was achieved upon excitation at 550 nm and a photovoltaic power conversion efficiency of 7.2% reached under simulated AM 1.5 (100 mW cm(-2)) solar illumination.

  1. Theoretical determination of two-electron one-photon transition characteristics for low-Z K -shell hollow atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozioł, Karol; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek

    2017-09-01

    Studying K -shell hollow atom spectra broadens our knowledge on femtosecond phenomena in atomic physics, chemistry, and biology. Recent synchrotron measurements of the two-electron one-photon (TEOP) transitions of low-Z atoms have shown discrepancies between experiment and theoretical predictions of the TEOP relative intensities and their linewidths. The discrepancies seem to be a result of an incomplete description of an atomic response to the strong perturbation due to the K -shell double photoionization (DPI). A theoretical attempt, based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock relativistic configuration interaction method, is presented for Mg, Al, and Si atoms. It is demonstrated that both the branching ratios and the TEOP linewidths can be closely reproduced by taking into account the influences of the core and valence electron correlations, open-shell valence configuration, and the outer-shell ionization and excitation processes following the K -shell DPI.

  2. Formation of Nanoparticles by Control of Electron Temperature in Hollow-Typed Magnetron Radio Frequency CH4/H2 Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emi, Junichi; Kato, Kohgi; Abe, Toshimi; Iizuka, Satoru

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of electron temperature Te on the production of nanoparticles by using the grid-biasing method in hollow-typed magnetron radio frequency (RF) CH4/H2 plasma. We find that nanoparticles are produced in low-Te plasma. On the other hand, thin film depositions, such as nanowalls, are mainly observed and almost no nanoparticles are created in high-Te plasma. This implies that a reduction in the CH2/CH3 radical ratio is important for producing nanoparticles, together with a reduction in sheath potential in front of the substrate. The change in electron temperature in plasma has a marked effect on film quality.

  3. Role of electrostatic and magnetic electron confinement in a hollow-cathode glow discharge in a nonuniform magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Metel, A. S. Grigoriev, S. N.; Volosova, M. A.; Bolbukov, V. P.; Melnik, Yu. A.

    2015-02-15

    Glow discharge with electron confinement in an electrostatic trap has been studied. The trap is formed by a cylindrical hollow cathode, as well as by a flat target on its bottom and a grid covering its output aperture, both being negatively biased relative to the cathode. At a gas pressure of 0.2–0.4 Pa, the fraction of ions sputtering the target (δ = 0.13) in the entire number of ions emitted by the uniform discharge plasma corresponds to the ratio of the target surface area to the total surface area of the cathode, grid, and target. When a nonuniform magnetic field with force lines passing through the target center (where the magnetic induction reaches 35 mT), as well as through the grid, hollow cathode, and target periphery (where the field lines are arc-shaped), is applied to the trap, its influence on the discharge depends on the magnetic induction B{sub 0} at the target edge. At B{sub 0} = 1 mT, the electrons emitted from the target periphery and drifting azimuthally in the arc-shaped field insignificantly contribute to gas ionization. Nevertheless, since fast electrons that are emitted from the cathode and oscillate inside it are forced by the magnetic field to come more frequently to the target, thereby intensifying gas ionization near the latter, the fraction δ doubles and the plasma density near the target becomes more than twice as high as that near the grid. At B{sub 0} = 6 mT, the contribution of electrons emitted from the target surface to gas ionization near the target grows up and δ increases two more times. At cathode-target voltages in the range of 0–3 kV, the current in the target circuit vanishes as the voltage between the anode and the cathode decreases to zero.

  4. STEREO SWEA Observations of Solar Wind Halo Electron Anomalous Heat Fluxes and their Organization by Solar Wind Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Ellenburg, M. A.; Lee, C. O.; Schroeder, P. C.; Opitz, A.; Penou, E.; Lavraud, B.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Jian, L.; Russell, C. T.; Simunac, K. D.; Galvin, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    STEREO SWEA (Solar Wind Electron Analyzer) provides the opportunity to observe solar wind halo electron heat fluxes and strahl over 4pi steradians at locations free of Earth bow shock contamination. We have analyzed these measurements together with the magnetic field and plasma parameters to determine their organization with solar wind stream structure during the period between early 2007 and late 2009. This period is characterized by a very low level of solar activity and thus presents an opportunity to diagnose the anomalous features, determining their location and character. This includes heat fluxes that appear to be traveling back toward the Sun, possibly indicating folded interplanetary field lines, interplanetary field loops which may be part of ICMEs, or sources of suprathermal electrons at shocks beyond 1 AU. Our results give a broad view of the issues related to using heat fluxes to interpret interplanetary field topology, even with the benefit of 4pi observations and two spacecraft.

  5. Effect of entropy on anomalous transport in electron-temperature-gradient-modes

    SciTech Connect

    Yaqub Khan, M.; Iqbal, J.; Ul Haq, A.

    2014-05-15

    Due to the interconnection of entropy with temperature and density of plasma, it would be interesting to investigate plasma related phenomena with respect to entropy. By employing Braginskii transport equations, it is proved that entropy is proportional to a function of potential and distribution function of entropy is re-defined, ∇S–drift in obtained. New dispersion relation is derived; it is found that the anomalous transport depends on the gradient of the entropy.

  6. Wear Mechanisms in Electron Sources for Ion Propulsion, 2: Discharge Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Polk, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The wear of the keeper electrode in discharge hollow cathodes is a major impediment to the implementation of ion propulsion onboard long-duration space science missions. The development of a predictive theoretical model for hollow cathode keeper life has long been sought, but its realization has been hindered by the complexities associated with the physics of the partially ionized gas and the associated erosion mechanisms in these devices. Thus, although several wear mechanisms have been hypothesized, a quantitative explanation of life test erosion profiles has remained incomplete. A two-dimensional model of the partially ionized gas in a discharge cathode has been developed and applied to understand the mechanisms that drove the erosion of the keeper in two long-duration life tests of a 30-cm ion thruster. An extensive set of comparisons between predictions by the numerical simulations and measurements of the plasma properties and of the erosion patterns is presented. It is found that the near-plume plasma oscillations, predicted by theory and observed by experiment, effectively enhance the resistivity of the plasma as well as the energy of ions striking the keeper.

  7. Wear Mechanisms in Electron Sources for Ion Propulsion, 2: Discharge Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Polk, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The wear of the keeper electrode in discharge hollow cathodes is a major impediment to the implementation of ion propulsion onboard long-duration space science missions. The development of a predictive theoretical model for hollow cathode keeper life has long been sought, but its realization has been hindered by the complexities associated with the physics of the partially ionized gas and the associated erosion mechanisms in these devices. Thus, although several wear mechanisms have been hypothesized, a quantitative explanation of life test erosion profiles has remained incomplete. A two-dimensional model of the partially ionized gas in a discharge cathode has been developed and applied to understand the mechanisms that drove the erosion of the keeper in two long-duration life tests of a 30-cm ion thruster. An extensive set of comparisons between predictions by the numerical simulations and measurements of the plasma properties and of the erosion patterns is presented. It is found that the near-plume plasma oscillations, predicted by theory and observed by experiment, effectively enhance the resistivity of the plasma as well as the energy of ions striking the keeper.

  8. Wear Mechanisms in Electron Sources for Ion Propulsion, 1: Neutralizer Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Upon the completion of two long-duration life tests of a 30-cm ion engine, the orifice channel of the neutralizer hollow cathode was eroded away to as much as twice its original diameter. Whereas the neutralizer cathode orifice opened significantly, no noticeable erosion of the discharge cathode orifice was observed. Noquantitative explanation of these erosion trends has been established since the completion of the two life tests. A two-dimensional model of the partially ionized gas inside these devices has been developed and applied to the neutralizer hollow cathode. The numerical simulations show that the main mechanism responsible for the channel erosion is sputtering by Xe+. These ions are accelerated by the sheath along the channel and bombard the surface with kinetic energy/charge of about 17 V at the beginning of cathode life. The density of the ions inside the neutralizer orifice is computed to be as high as 2.1 x 10(sup 22) m(sup -3). Because of the 3.5-times larger diameter of the discharge cathode orifice, the ion density inside the orifice is more than 40 times lower and the sheath drop 7 V lower compared with the values in the neutralizer. At these conditions, Xe+ can cause no significant sputtering of the surface.

  9. Wear Mechanisms in Electron Sources for Ion Propulsion, 1: Neutralizer Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Upon the completion of two long-duration life tests of a 30-cm ion engine, the orifice channel of the neutralizer hollow cathode was eroded away to as much as twice its original diameter. Whereas the neutralizer cathode orifice opened significantly, no noticeable erosion of the discharge cathode orifice was observed. Noquantitative explanation of these erosion trends has been established since the completion of the two life tests. A two-dimensional model of the partially ionized gas inside these devices has been developed and applied to the neutralizer hollow cathode. The numerical simulations show that the main mechanism responsible for the channel erosion is sputtering by Xe+. These ions are accelerated by the sheath along the channel and bombard the surface with kinetic energy/charge of about 17 V at the beginning of cathode life. The density of the ions inside the neutralizer orifice is computed to be as high as 2.1 x 10(sup 22) m(sup -3). Because of the 3.5-times larger diameter of the discharge cathode orifice, the ion density inside the orifice is more than 40 times lower and the sheath drop 7 V lower compared with the values in the neutralizer. At these conditions, Xe+ can cause no significant sputtering of the surface.

  10. The measurement of electron number density in helium micro hollow gas discharge using asymmetric He I lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovović, J.; Šišović, N. M.

    2015-09-01

    The electron number density N e in helium micro hollow gas discharge (MHGD) is measured by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. The structure of MHGD is a gold-alumina-gold sandwich with 250 μm alumina thickness and 100 μm diameter hole. The electron temperature T e and gas temperature T g in the discharge is determined using the relative intensity of He I lines and {{\\text{N}}2}+≤ft({{\\text{B}}2}Σ\\text{u}+- {{X}2}Σ\\text{g}+\\right) R branch lines in the frame of BP technique, respectively. The simple procedure based on spectral line broadening theory was developed in MATLAB to generate synthetic neutral line asymmetric profiles. The synthetic profiles were compared with an experimental He I 447.1 nm and He I 492.2 nm line to obtain N e from the centre of a micro hollow gas discharge (MHGD) source in helium. The N e results were compared with N e values obtained from the forbidden-to-allowed (F/A) intensity ratio technique. The comparison confirmed higher N e determined using a F/A ratio due to large uncertainty of the method. Applying the fitting formula for a He I 492.2 nm line derived from computer simulation (CS) gives the same N e values as the one determined using the MATLAB procedure in this study. The dependence of N e on gas pressure and electric current is investigated as well.

  11. Performance of 75-millimeter-bore bearings using electron-beam-welded hollow balls with a diameter ratio of 1.26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, H. H.; Parker, R. J.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to determine the rolling element fatigue life of electron beam-welded hollow balls with a diameter ratio (o.d./i.d.) of 1.26 and to determine the operating characteristics of bearings using these hollow balls. Similar bearings with solid balls were also tested and the data compared. The bearings were operated at shaft speeds up to 28,000 rpm with a thrust load of 2200 N (500 lb). Ball failures during the bearing tests were due to flexure fatigue. The solid and hollow ball bearings tested showed little difference in outer race temperatures and indicated the same bearing torque. The 17.5-mm (0.6875-in.) diameter balls were also tested in the five-ball fatigue tester and showed no significant difference in life when compared with the life of a solid ball.

  12. Hollow cathode apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hollow cathode apparatus is described, which can be rapidly and reliably started. An ignitor positioned upstream from the hollow cathode, generates a puff of plasma that flows with the primary gas to be ionized through the cathode. The plasma puff creates a high voltage breakdown between the downstream end of the cathode and a keeper electrode, to heat the cathode to an electron-emitting temperature.

  13. Theory for the anomalous electron transport in Hall effect thrusters. I. Insights from particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.; Baalrud, S. D.; Chabert, P.

    2016-05-15

    Using a 1D particle-in-cell simulation with perpendicular electric, E{sub 0}, and magnetic, B{sub 0}, fields, and modelling the azimuthal direction (i.e., the E{sub 0} × B{sub 0} direction), we study the cross-field electron transport in Hall effect thrusters (HETs). For low plasma densities, the electron transport is found to be well described by classical electron-neutral collision theory, but at sufficiently high densities (representative of typical HETs), a strong instability is observed to significantly enhance the electron mobility, even in the absence of electron-neutral collisions. This instability is associated with correlated high-frequency (of the order of MHz) and short-wavelength (of the order of mm) fluctuations in both the electric field and the plasma density, which are shown to be the cause of the anomalous transport. Saturation of the instability is observed to occur due to a combination of ion-wave trapping in the E{sub 0} × B{sub 0} direction, and convection in the E{sub 0} direction.

  14. Electron's anomalous magnetic-moment effects on electron-hydrogen elastic collisions in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Elhandi, S.; Taj, S.; Attaourti, Y.; Manaut, B.; Oufni, L.

    2010-04-15

    The effect of the electron's anomalous magnetic moment on the relativistic electronic dressing for the process of electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions is investigated. We consider a laser field with circular polarization and various electric field strengths. The Dirac-Volkov states taking into account this anomaly are used to describe the process in the first order of perturbation theory. The correlation between the terms coming from this anomaly and the electric field strength gives rise to the strong dependence of the spinor part of the differential cross section (DCS) with respect to these terms. A detailed study has been devoted to the nonrelativistic regime as well as the moderate relativistic regime. Some aspects of this dependence as well as the dynamical behavior of the DCS in the relativistic regime have been addressed.

  15. Anomalous transition of major charge carriers from holes to electrons observed in single-crystal films of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Liu, G. Z.; Gao, J.; Wang, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten (W) films were grown on SrTi O3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that these as-grown films are highly epitaxial and single crystalline with the [00 l ] orientation. A special lattice stacking for the W/STO interface is observed to significantly reduce the lattice mismatching, which can be explained by the coincidence lattice model. The Hall effect has been investigated over the temperature range of 4-330 K. An anomalous transition of the major charge carriers from holes to electrons was observed in these W films upon cooling. The threshold temperature, in which the sign of the Hall coefficient RH was reversed, was found to increase with the film thinning. With the sample's thickness reduced to several unit cells, its major carriers remained electrons even at room temperature. Calculations using the density functional perturbation theory revealed that such a transition from p type to n type could be attributed to the appearance of an electron pocket along the M-Γ direction induced by the lattice mismatching between the W film and SrTi O3 substrate.

  16. Anomalous Electron Transport Due to Multiple High Frequency Beam Ion Driven Alfven Eigenmode

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Boozer, A.; Delgardo-Aparicio, L.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; White, R.

    2010-07-13

    We report on the simulations of recently observed correlations of the core electron transport with the sub-thermal ion cyclotron frequency instabilities in low aspect ratio plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In order to model the electron transport of the guiding center code ORBIT is employed. A spectrum of test functions of multiple core localized Global shear Alfven Eigenmode (GAE) instabilities based on a previously developed theory and experimental observations is used to examine the electron transport properties. The simulations exhibit thermal electron transport induced by electron drift orbit stochasticity in the presence of multiple core localized GAE.

  17. Momentum and energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion in the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors.

    PubMed

    Inosov, D S; Fink, J; Kordyuk, A A; Borisenko, S V; Zabolotnyy, V B; Schuster, R; Knupfer, M; Büchner, B; Follath, R; Dürr, H A; Eberhardt, W; Hinkov, V; Keimer, B; Berger, H

    2007-12-07

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-T_{c} superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong dependence on the photon energy around 75 eV, which we associate with the resonant photoemission at the Cu3p-->3d_{x;{2}-y;{2}} edge. We conclude that the high-energy "waterfall" dispersion results from a strong suppression of the photoemission intensity at the center of the Brillouin zone due to matrix element effects and is, therefore, not an intrinsic feature of the spectral function. This indicates that the new high-energy scale in the electronic structure of cuprates derived from the waterfall-like dispersion may be incorrect.

  18. Momentum and Energy Dependence of the Anomalous High-Energy Dispersion in the Electronic Structure of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inosov, D. S.; Fink, J.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Borisenko, S. V.; Zabolotnyy, V. B.; Schuster, R.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Follath, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Eberhardt, W.; Hinkov, V.; Keimer, B.; Berger, H.

    2007-12-01

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-Tc superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong dependence on the photon energy around 75 eV, which we associate with the resonant photoemission at the Cu3p→3dx2-y2 edge. We conclude that the high-energy “waterfall” dispersion results from a strong suppression of the photoemission intensity at the center of the Brillouin zone due to matrix element effects and is, therefore, not an intrinsic feature of the spectral function. This indicates that the new high-energy scale in the electronic structure of cuprates derived from the waterfall-like dispersion may be incorrect.

  19. About a peculiar extra U(1): Z{sup '} discovery limit, muon anomalous magnetic moment, and electron electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Jae Ho

    2009-08-01

    The model (Lagrangian) with a peculiar extra U(1)[S. M. Barr and I. Dorsner, Phys. Rev. D 72, 015011 (2005); S. M. Barr and A. Khan, Phys. Rev. D 74, 085023 (2006)] is clearly presented. The assigned extra U(1) gauge charges give a strong constraint to build Lagrangians. The Z{sup '} discovery limits are estimated and predicted at the Tevatron and the LHC. The new contributions of the muon anomalous magnetic moment are investigated at one and two loops, and we predict that the deviation from the standard model may be explained. The electron electric dipole moment could also be generated because of the explicit CP-violation effect in the Higgs sector, and a sizable contribution is expected for a moderately sized CP phase [argument of the CP-odd Higgs], 0.1{<=}sin{delta}{<=}1[6 deg. {<=}arg(A){<=}90 deg.].

  20. Anomalous electron diffusion across a magnetic field in a beam-plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, H.; Ono, M.; Armstrong, R.J.

    1987-10-01

    The diffusion of electrons across a magnetic field in the presence of a beam-plasma instability has been studied by means of two-dimensional numerical simulations. It is found that the beam electrons can diffuse much faster across the magnetic field than the thermal electrons. This can be explained by the fact that the electrons in the beam are in resonance with the waves excited by the beam-plasma instability so that they experience a nearly dc electric field, causing large cE x B/B/sup 2/ excursions. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Anomalous correlation effects and unique phase diagram of electron-doped FeSe revealed by photoemission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wen, C H P; Xu, H C; Chen, C; Huang, Z C; Lou, X; Pu, Y J; Song, Q; Xie, B P; Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud; Chareev, D A; Vasiliev, A N; Peng, R; Feng, D L

    2016-03-08

    FeSe layer-based superconductors exhibit exotic and distinctive properties. The undoped FeSe shows nematicity and superconductivity, while the heavily electron-doped KxFe2-ySe2 and single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 possess high superconducting transition temperatures that pose theoretical challenges. However, a comprehensive study on the doping dependence of an FeSe layer-based superconductor is still lacking due to the lack of a clean means of doping control. Through angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy studies on K-dosed thick FeSe films and FeSe0.93S0.07 bulk crystals, here we reveal the internal connections between these two types of FeSe-based superconductors, and obtain superconductivity below ∼ 46 K in an FeSe layer under electron doping without interfacial effects. Moreover, we discover an exotic phase diagram of FeSe with electron doping, including a nematic phase, a superconducting dome, a correlation-driven insulating phase and a metallic phase. Such an anomalous phase diagram unveils the remarkable complexity, and highlights the importance of correlations in FeSe layer-based superconductors.

  2. Anomalously strong two-electron one-photon X-ray decay transitions in CO caused by avoided crossing

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Rafael C.; Guarise, Marco; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Jaouen, Nicolas; Chiuzbăian, Gheorghe S.; Lüning, Jan; Ekholm, Victor; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Såthe, Conny; Hennies, Franz; Kimberg, Victor; Guimarães, Freddy F.; Agren, Hans; Gel’mukhanov, Faris; Journel, Loïc; Simon, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The unique opportunity to study and control electron-nuclear quantum dynamics in coupled potentials offered by the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) technique is utilized to unravel an anomalously strong two-electron one-photon transition from core-excited to Rydberg final states in the CO molecule. High-resolution RIXS measurements of CO in the energy region of 12–14 eV are presented and analyzed by means of quantum simulations using the wave packet propagation formalism and ab initio calculations of potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. The very good overall agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions allows an in-depth interpretation of the salient spectral features in terms of Coulomb mixing of “dark” with “bright” final states leading to an effective two-electron one-photon transition. The present work illustrates that the improved spectral resolution of RIXS spectra achievable today may call for more advanced theories than what has been used in the past. PMID:26860458

  3. Anomalous correlation effects and unique phase diagram of electron-doped FeSe revealed by photoemission spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, C. H. P.; Xu, H. C.; Chen, C.; Huang, Z. C.; Lou, X.; Pu, Y. J.; Song, Q.; Xie, B. P.; Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud; Chareev, D. A.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Peng, R.; Feng, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    FeSe layer-based superconductors exhibit exotic and distinctive properties. The undoped FeSe shows nematicity and superconductivity, while the heavily electron-doped KxFe2−ySe2 and single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 possess high superconducting transition temperatures that pose theoretical challenges. However, a comprehensive study on the doping dependence of an FeSe layer-based superconductor is still lacking due to the lack of a clean means of doping control. Through angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy studies on K-dosed thick FeSe films and FeSe0.93S0.07 bulk crystals, here we reveal the internal connections between these two types of FeSe-based superconductors, and obtain superconductivity below ∼46 K in an FeSe layer under electron doping without interfacial effects. Moreover, we discover an exotic phase diagram of FeSe with electron doping, including a nematic phase, a superconducting dome, a correlation-driven insulating phase and a metallic phase. Such an anomalous phase diagram unveils the remarkable complexity, and highlights the importance of correlations in FeSe layer-based superconductors. PMID:26952215

  4. Magnetic and anomalous electronic transport properties of the quaternary Heusler alloys Co2Ti1-xFexGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, B.; Midhunlal, P. V.; Babu, P. D.; Kumar, N. Harish

    2016-06-01

    The half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2TiGe has a ferromagnetic ground state with a low magnetic moment (2 μB). It is free of atomic antisite disorder but has low Curie temperature (~390 K). In contrast the other cobalt based Heusler alloy Co2FeGe has high Curie temperature (~980 K) and high magnetic moment (5.6 μB) while exhibiting antisite disorder and lack of half-metallicity. Hence it is of interest to investigate the magnetic and transport properties of solid solutions of these two materials with contrasting characteristics. We report the structural, magnetic and electronic transport properties of quaternary Co2Ti1-x FexGe (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) Heusler alloys. The alloys crystallize in L21 structure but with antisite disorder. The magnetization measurements revealed that the alloys were of soft ferromagnetic type with high Curie temperatures. Deviation from Slater-Pauling behavior and drastic change in electronic transport properties with some anomalous features were observed.The complex electronic transport properties have been explained using different scattering mechanisms.

  5. Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Di Sante, D.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Okuda, T.; Bruyer, E.; Gyenis, A.; Feldman, B. E.; Tao, J.; Ciancio, R.; Rossi, G.; Ali, M. N.; Picozzi, S.; Yadzani, A.; Panaccione, G.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-02-29

    The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. We report angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of WTe2 single crystals, through which we disentangle the role of W and Te atoms in the formation of the band structure and identify the interplay of charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Supported by first-principles calculations and high-resolution surface topography, we also reveal the existence of a layer-dependent behaviour. The balance of electron and hole states is found only when considering at least three Te–W–Te layers, showing that the behaviour of WTe2 is not strictly two dimensional.

  6. Anomalously Large Chiral Sensitivity in the Dissociative Electron Attachment of 10-Iodocamphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiling, J. M.; Lewis, F. W.; Mills, J. D.; Gay, T. J.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied dissociative electron attachment (DEA) between low energy (≤0.6 eV ) longitudinally polarized electrons and gas-phase chiral targets of 3-bromocamphor (C10 H15 BrO ), 3-iodocamphor (C10 H15 IO ), and 10-iodocamphor. The DEA rate depends on the sign of the incident electron helicity for a given target handedness, and it varies with both the atomic number (Z ) and location of the heaviest atom in the molecule. While simple dynamic mechanisms can account for the asymmetry dependence on Z , they fail to explain the large asymmetry variation with the heavy atom location.

  7. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and biosensing of glucose on hollow sphere-nanostructured conducting polymer/metal oxide composite.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun Xian; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-10-14

    A hollow sphere-nanostructured conductive polymer/metal oxide composite was synthesized and used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of glucose oxidase, demonstrating a significantly enhanced direct electron transfer ability of glucose oxidase. In particular, the long-standing puzzle of whether enzymatic glucose sensing involves an enzyme direct electron transfer process was studied. The results indicate the mechanism is indeed a glucose oxidase direct electron transfer process with competitive glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction to detect glucose. A glucose biosensor with the glucose oxidase-immobilized nanomaterial was further constructed, demonstrating superior sensitivity and reliability, and providing great potential in clinical applications.

  8. Understanding the dramatic role of anomalous dispersion on the measurement of electron densities in plasmas using interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, J; Johnson, W R; Iglesias, C A; Scofield, J H

    2005-07-20

    For decades the electron density of plasmas has been measured using optical interferometers. With the availability of good X-ray laser sources in the last decade interferometers have been extended into the wavelength range 14-47 nm, which has enabled researchers to probe even higher density plasmas. The data analysis assumes the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons, which makes the index less than one. Recent interferometer experiments in Al plasmas observed plasmas with index of refraction greater than one at 14 nm and brought into question the validity of the usual formula for calculating the index. In this paper we show how the anomalous dispersion from bound electrons can dominate the free electron contribution to the index of refraction in many plasmas and make the index greater than one or enhance the contribution to the index such that one would greatly overestimate the density of the plasma using interferometers. Using a new average-atom code we calculate the index of refraction in many plasmas at different temperatures for photon energies from 0 to 100 eV and compare against calculations done with OPAL. We also present examples of other plasmas that may have index of refraction greater than one at X-ray laser energies. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other X-ray sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas will be even more essential.

  9. Anomalously high efficiencies for electronic energy transfer from saturated to aromatic hydrocarbons at low aromatic concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Yiming Wang; Johnston, D.B.; Lipsky, S. )

    1993-01-14

    The absolute efficiency of electric energy transfer from cis-decalin excited at 161 nm to 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) has been measured over a PPO concentration range from 1.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] to 2.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] M via measurements of both the cis-decalin and the PPO fluorescence. At concentrations above ca. 10[sup [minus]3] M, the normal fluorescing state of cis-decalin plays the dominant role in the energy transfer. At lower concentrations, however, there appears to be an important contribution from some other nonfluorescing state of cis-decalin. The fraction of PPO fluorescence generated by this dark state rises from ca.10% at 0.01 M to ca. 70% at 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] M. The effects of addition of O[sub 2] of dilution with isooctane, and of cooling to [minus]35[degrees]C on the quantum yield of this process are reported. The results obtained here confirm earlier results with other saturated hydrocarbon donor + aromatic acceptor systems that have suggested the existence of a dark donor state that dominates the transfer process at low acceptor concentrations via some anomalously efficient mechanism. For the system cis-decalin + PPO at 21[degrees]C, the transfer probability for this process at the lowest concentration studied of 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] M is 2.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] per photon absorbed and 0.060 per dark state produced. 34 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Cyclotron maser using the anomalous Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, A. N.; Borisov, A. R.; Fomenko, G. P.; Shlapakovskii, A. S.; Shtein, Iu. G.

    1983-11-01

    The operation of an anomalous-Doppler-effect cyclotron-resonance maser using a waveguide partially filled with dielectric as the slow-wave system is reported. The device investigated is similar to that of Didenko et al. (1983) and comprises a 300-mm-long 50-mm-o.d. 30-mm-i.d. waveguide with fabric-laminate dielectric, located 150 mm from the cathode in a 500-mm-long region of uniform 0-20-kG magnetic field, and a coaxial magnetic-insulation gun producing a 13-mm-i.d. 25-mm-o.d. hollow electron beam. Radiation at 12 + or - 1 mm wavelength and optimum power 20 MW is observed using hot-carrier detectors, with a clear peak in the power-versus-magnetic-field curve at about 6.4 kG.

  11. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  12. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  13. Hollow-fiber solvent bar microextraction with gas chromatography and electron capture detection determination of disinfection byproducts in water samples.

    PubMed

    Correa, Liliana; Fiscal, Jhon Alex; Ceballos, Sandra; de la Ossa, Alberto; Taborda, Gonzalo; Nerin, Cristina; Rosero-Moreano, Milton

    2015-09-10

    A liquid-phase microextraction method that uses a hollow-fiber solvent bar microextraction technique was developed by combining gas chromatography with electron capture detection for the analysis of four trihalomethanes (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, and bromoform) in drinking water. In the microextraction process, 1-octanol was used as the solvent. The technique operates in a two-phase mode with a 5 min extraction time, a 700 rpm stirring speed, a 30°C extraction temperature, and NaCl concentration of 20%. After microextraction, one edge of the membrane was cut, and 1 μL of solvent was collected from the membrane using a 10 μL syringe. The solvent sample was directly injected into the gas chromatograph. The analytical characteristics of the developed method were as follows: detection limits, 0.017-0.037 ng mL(-1) ; linear working range, 10-900 ng mL(-1) ; recovery, 74 ± 9-91 ± 2; relative standard deviation, 5.7-10.3; and enrichment factor, 330-455. A simple, fast, economic, selective, and efficient method with big possibilities for automation was developed with a potential use to apply with other matrices and analytes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  15. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  16. Intrashell Electron-Interaction-Mediated Photoformation of Hollow Atoms near Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huotari, S.; Hämäläinen, K.; Diamant, R.; Sharon, R.; Kao, C. C.; Deutsch, M.

    2008-07-01

    Double photoionization (DPI) of an atom by a single photon is a direct consequence of electron-electron interactions within the atom. We have measured the evolution of the K-shell DPI from threshold up in transition metals by high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy of the Khα hypersatellites, photoexcited by monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The measured evolution of the single-to-double photoionization cross-section ratio with excitation energy was found to be universal. Theoretical fits suggest that near threshold DPI is predominantly a semiclassical knockout effect, rather than the purely quantum-mechanical shake-off observed at the infinite photon energy limit.

  17. Evidence for Anomalous Energization of Electrons by Beam-Ionosphere Interactions in the Auroral F-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, H.; Semeter, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    We and others have previously identified anomalous Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) spectra confined to narrow altitude ranges near the F-region peak and correlated with dynamic auroral precipitation [Isham et al., 2012; Akbari et al., 2012, 2013]. The radar echoes are attributed to beam-generated Langmuir turbulence. In this work we used a 1-dimentional Zakharov simulation to constrain the range of physical mechanisms underlying these observational features. Our results suggest the presence of a local F-region energy source, possibly produced by non-linear wave-wave interactions. In details we have found that: 1) Simultaneous enhancements in ion-line and plasma-line channels of the PFISR can be produced by strong Langmuir turbulence and caviton collapse generated by relatively strong soft electron beams (< 1 keV) that lack the electron population directly resonant with the detectable waves. 2) Except for cases of very high electron to ion temperature ratios (Tr > 6), caviton collapse would give rise to a dominant zero-frequency peak in the ion-line channel. In these cases simulated spectral features do not match those measured by ISRs. 3) Observations of enhanced ion-acoustic shoulders and lack of observation of such high temperature ratios in ISR measurements, therefore, suggest that the Parametric Decay Instability (PDI) operates at the observations wavenumbers. This in turns requires local energization of lower energy electrons (< 20 eV) at ~250 km. 4) The existence of other modes and processes is also supported by observations of non-linear features in the plasma-line measurements.

  18. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R. D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Scott, B.; Wakeham, N.; Ghimire, N. J.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Ronning, F.

    2016-01-01

    We report that the change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. In conclusion, density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [Z2 invariant (0;111)] without Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions.

  19. Efficiency enhancement of anomalous-Doppler electron cyclotron masers with tapered magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chao-Ran; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Kong, Ling-Bao E-mail: pkliu@pku.edu.cn; Liu, Pu-Kun E-mail: pkliu@pku.edu.cn; Du, Chao-Hai; Jin, Hai-Bo

    2014-02-15

    The efficiency of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) is usually low, thus limiting the practical applications. Here, a method of tapered magnetic field is introduced for the efficiency enhancement of the slow-wave ECM. The numerical calculations show that the tapered magnetic-field method can enhance the efficiency of slow-wave ECM significantly. The effect of beam electron velocity spread on the efficiency has also been studied. Although the velocity spread reduces the efficiency, a great enhancement of efficiency can still be obtained by the tapered magnetic field method.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Microwave Millimeter Radiation from Hollow, Rotating Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-30

    project includes an Imagen laser printer and several graphics terminals. This facility has been installed in a separate shielded room in our high bay...of several experi- has an electron beam propagating in some cylindrical "- " mental studies on the University of Marland’s high-en- waveguide immersed...try FEL has been explored both theoretically and experi- trons rotate is added an azimuthally periodic wiggler field, mentally in a collaborative

  1. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of anomalous plutonium behavior in nuclear waste materials.

    PubMed

    Buck, Edgar C; Finn, Patricia A; Bates, John K

    2004-01-01

    Plutonium-enriched layer has been observed in corroded spent uranium oxide fuel (CSNF). These Pu-enriched regions were examined with analytical transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The enriched region also contained U, Am, Ru, Zr, but only minor enrichment of rare earth elements. The Pu, possibly as Pu(V) according to EELS measurements, was dispersed within re-precipitated uranium oxide (identified as U3O8) nano-crystals between U(VI) secondary phases and the CSNF surface. The U, Pu, and Am enrichment was observed in the corrosion products with tests on different nuclear fuels. This may have implications for the long-term behavior of CSNF under storage in a geologic waste repository. Furthermore, there may be an increased potential for the generation of Pu-bearing colloids from this type of weathered CSNF.

  2. EBSD and electron channeling study of anomalous slip in oligocrystals of high chromium ferritic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Ting-Yi; Chen, Delphic; Kuo, Jui-Chao; Lin, Dong-Yih

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) techniques were applied to investigate the deformation pattern of coarse ferrite grains after being subjected to 3%, 6%, and 10% tensile deformation. Oligocrystals of Crofer(®) 22H ferritic steel were obtained as experimental material at 1075°C for 22min annealing. Using kernel average misorientation (KAM) mapping obtained from EBSD, possible slip planes are (110), (101), (12-1) and (32-1) in grain A; (0-11), (-101), (-112), (1-21) in grain B; and (0-11), (1-21) and (11-2) in grain C. Combining ECCI and EBSD techniques enables us to identify two a0[11¯1]/2 edge dislocations that occur on the (110)[1-11] and (32-1)[1-11] slip systems for grain A, thereby breaking down Schmid's law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anomalous organic magnetoresistance from competing carrier-spin-dependent interactions with localized electronic and nuclear spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatté, Michael E.

    Transport of carriers through disordered electronic energy landscapes occurs via hopping or tunneling through various sites, and can enhance the effects of carrier spin dynamics on the transport. When incoherent hopping preserves the spin orientation of carriers, the magnetic-field-dependent correlations between pairs of spins influence the charge conductivity of the material. Examples of these phenomena have been identified in hopping transport in organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots, as well as tunneling through oxide barriers in complex oxide devices, among other materials. The resulting room-temperature magnetic field effects on the conductivity or electroluminescence require external fields of only a few milliTesla. These magnetic field effects can be dramatically modified by changes in the local spin environment. Recent theoretical and experimental work has identified a regime for low-field magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors in which the spin-relaxing effects of localized nuclear spins and electronic spins interfere1. The regime is studied experimentally by the controlled addition of localized electronic spins, through the addition of a stable free radical (galvinoxyl) to a material (MEH-PPV) that exhibits substantial room-temperature magnetoresistance (20 initially suppressed by the doping, as the localized electronic spin mixes one of the two spins whose correlation controls the transport. At intermediate doping, when one spin is fully decohered but the other is not, there is a regime where the magnetoresistance is insensitive to the doping level. For much greater doping concentrations the magnetoresistance is fully suppressed as both spins that control the charge conductivity of the material are mixed. The behavior is described within a theoretical model describing the effect of carrier spin dynamics on the current. Generalizations to amorphous and other disordered crystalline semiconductors will also be described. This work was

  4. Hollow Retroreflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A hollow retroreflector is a mirror-like instrument that reflects light and other radiations back to the source. After developing a hollow retroreflector for NASA's Apollo-Soyuz mission, PLX, Inc. continued to expand the technology and develop a variety of retroreflector systems. The Lateral Transfer Hollow Retroreflector maintains precise separation, at any wavelength, of incoming and existing beams regardless of their orientation. It can be used as an instrument or as a component of an optical system. In the laboratory, it offers a new efficient means of beam positioning. In other applications, it connects laser resonators, aligns telescope mirrors and is useful in general boresighting and alignment.

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Radiation from Hollow, Rotating, Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    detection bands (X, Ku, K (a) produced by a rotating electron beam in a cylindrical drif t tube. 9- 600 (a a)400- ~200. 28 32 36 f (GHz) 600 (b) ~400...are plotted in an radii Rj,Ro, as shown in Fig. 2. o- k , diagram. At the interaction points indicated ( k -f ,a-) The stability of the system is examined...by linearizingw-kqs diaram Atd t5h. i ercto porbit indicaton ( k -naw -) and ( k ,’ ,w), we have "resopant interaction". If these are Eqs. (4) and (5

  6. Dependence of Electron Peak Current on Hollow Cathode Dimensions and Seed Electron Energy in a Pseudospark Discharge (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-18

    two - dimensional kinetic plasma simulation code OOPIC ™ Pro. Trends in the peak electron current at the...DESCRIPTION The current investigation is performed through the analysis of two - dimensional electrostatic kinetic particle - in - cell PIC simulations ...The prebreakdown and breakdown phases of a pseudospark discharge are investigated using the two - dimensional kinetic plasma simulation code OOPIC

  7. Anomalous quasiparticle lifetime and strong electron-phonon coupling in graphite.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, K; Sato, T; Souma, S; Takahashi, T; Suematsu, H

    2007-01-19

    We have performed ultrahigh-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on high-quality single crystals of graphite to elucidate the character of low-energy excitations. We found evidence for a well-defined quasiparticle (QP) peak in the close vicinity of the Fermi level comparable to the nodal QP in high-T(c) cuprates, together with the mass renormalization of the band at an extremely narrow momentum region around the K(H) point. Analysis of the QP lifetime demonstrates the presence of strong electron-phonon coupling and linear energy dependence of the QP scattering rate indicative of a marked deviation from the conventional Fermi-liquid theory.

  8. Anomalous temperature evolution of the electronic structure of FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnirenko, Y. S.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.; Haubold, E.; Wolf, T.; Büchner, B.; Borisenko, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    We present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data taken from the structurally simplest representative of iron-based superconductors, FeSe, in a wide temperature range. Apart from the variations related to the nematic transition, we detect very pronounced shifts of the dispersions on the scale of hundreds of degrees Kelvin. Remarkably, upon warming up the sample, the band structure has a tendency to relax to the one predicted by conventional band structure calculations, directly opposite to what is intuitively expected. Our findings shed light on the origin of the dominant interaction shaping the electronic states responsible for high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based materials.

  9. High electron mobility, quantum Hall effect and anomalous optical response in atomically thin InSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurin, Denis A.; Tyurnina, Anastasia V.; Yu, Geliang L.; Mishchenko, Artem; Zólyomi, Viktor; Morozov, Sergey V.; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Gorbachev, Roman V.; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R.; Pezzini, Sergio; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D.; Zeitler, Uli; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Patanè, Amalia; Eaves, Laurence; Grigorieva, Irina V.; Fal'Ko, Vladimir I.; Geim, Andre K.; Cao, Yang

    2016-11-01

    A decade of intense research on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has revealed that their properties can differ greatly from those of the parent compound. These differences are governed by changes in the band structure due to quantum confinement and are most profound if the underlying lattice symmetry changes. Here we report a high-quality 2D electron gas in few-layer InSe encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride under an inert atmosphere. Carrier mobilities are found to exceed 103 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and 104 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at room and liquid-helium temperatures, respectively, allowing the observation of the fully developed quantum Hall effect. The conduction electrons occupy a single 2D subband and have a small effective mass. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the bandgap increases by more than 0.5 eV with decreasing the thickness from bulk to bilayer InSe. The band-edge optical response vanishes in monolayer InSe, which is attributed to the monolayer's mirror-plane symmetry. Encapsulated 2D InSe expands the family of graphene-like semiconductors and, in terms of quality, is competitive with atomically thin dichalcogenides and black phosphorus.

  10. High electron mobility, quantum Hall effect and anomalous optical response in atomically thin InSe

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurin, Denis A.; Tyurnina, Anastasia V.; Yu, Geliang L.; Mishchenko, Artem; Zólyomi, Viktor; Morozov, Sergey V.; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Gorbachev, Roman V.; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R.; Pezzini, Sergio; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D.; Zeitler, Uli; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Patanè, Amalia; Eaves, Laurence; Grigorieva, Irina V.; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Geim, Andre K.; Cao, Yang

    2016-11-21

    A decade of intense research on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has revealed that their properties can differ greatly from those of the parent compound. These differences are governed by changes in the band structure due to quantum confinement and are most profound if the underlying lattice symmetry changes. Here we report a high-quality 2D electron gas in few-layer InSe encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride under an inert atmosphere. Carrier mobilities are found to exceed 103 cm2 V–1s–1 and 104 cm2 V–1 s–1 at room and liquid-helium temperatures, respectively, allowing the observation of the fully developed quantum Hall effect. The conduction electrons occupy a single 2D subband and have a small effective mass. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the bandgap increases by more than 0.5 eV with decreasing the thickness from bulk to bilayer InSe. The band-edge optical response vanishes in monolayer InSe, which is attributed to the monolayer's mirror-plane symmetry. As a result, encapsulated 2D InSe expands the family of graphene-like semiconductors and, in terms of quality, is competitive with atomically thin dichalcogenides and black phosphorus.

  11. High electron mobility, quantum Hall effect and anomalous optical response in atomically thin InSe.

    PubMed

    Bandurin, Denis A; Tyurnina, Anastasia V; Yu, Geliang L; Mishchenko, Artem; Zólyomi, Viktor; Morozov, Sergey V; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Gorbachev, Roman V; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R; Pezzini, Sergio; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D; Zeitler, Uli; Novoselov, Konstantin S; Patanè, Amalia; Eaves, Laurence; Grigorieva, Irina V; Fal'ko, Vladimir I; Geim, Andre K; Cao, Yang

    2017-03-01

    A decade of intense research on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has revealed that their properties can differ greatly from those of the parent compound. These differences are governed by changes in the band structure due to quantum confinement and are most profound if the underlying lattice symmetry changes. Here we report a high-quality 2D electron gas in few-layer InSe encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride under an inert atmosphere. Carrier mobilities are found to exceed 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room and liquid-helium temperatures, respectively, allowing the observation of the fully developed quantum Hall effect. The conduction electrons occupy a single 2D subband and have a small effective mass. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the bandgap increases by more than 0.5 eV with decreasing the thickness from bulk to bilayer InSe. The band-edge optical response vanishes in monolayer InSe, which is attributed to the monolayer's mirror-plane symmetry. Encapsulated 2D InSe expands the family of graphene-like semiconductors and, in terms of quality, is competitive with atomically thin dichalcogenides and black phosphorus.

  12. High electron mobility, quantum Hall effect and anomalous optical response in atomically thin InSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurin, Denis A.; Tyurnina, Anastasia V.; Yu, Geliang L.; Mishchenko, Artem; Zólyomi, Viktor; Morozov, Sergey V.; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Gorbachev, Roman V.; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R.; Pezzini, Sergio; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D.; Zeitler, Uli; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Patanè, Amalia; Eaves, Laurence; Grigorieva, Irina V.; Fal'Ko, Vladimir I.; Geim, Andre K.; Cao, Yang

    2017-03-01

    A decade of intense research on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has revealed that their properties can differ greatly from those of the parent compound. These differences are governed by changes in the band structure due to quantum confinement and are most profound if the underlying lattice symmetry changes. Here we report a high-quality 2D electron gas in few-layer InSe encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride under an inert atmosphere. Carrier mobilities are found to exceed 103 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 104 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room and liquid-helium temperatures, respectively, allowing the observation of the fully developed quantum Hall effect. The conduction electrons occupy a single 2D subband and have a small effective mass. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the bandgap increases by more than 0.5 eV with decreasing the thickness from bulk to bilayer InSe. The band-edge optical response vanishes in monolayer InSe, which is attributed to the monolayer's mirror-plane symmetry. Encapsulated 2D InSe expands the family of graphene-like semiconductors and, in terms of quality, is competitive with atomically thin dichalcogenides and black phosphorus.

  13. High electron mobility, quantum Hall effect and anomalous optical response in atomically thin InSe

    DOE PAGES

    Bandurin, Denis A.; Tyurnina, Anastasia V.; Yu, Geliang L.; ...

    2016-11-21

    A decade of intense research on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has revealed that their properties can differ greatly from those of the parent compound. These differences are governed by changes in the band structure due to quantum confinement and are most profound if the underlying lattice symmetry changes. Here we report a high-quality 2D electron gas in few-layer InSe encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride under an inert atmosphere. Carrier mobilities are found to exceed 103 cm2 V–1s–1 and 104 cm2 V–1 s–1 at room and liquid-helium temperatures, respectively, allowing the observation of the fully developed quantum Hall effect. The conductionmore » electrons occupy a single 2D subband and have a small effective mass. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the bandgap increases by more than 0.5 eV with decreasing the thickness from bulk to bilayer InSe. The band-edge optical response vanishes in monolayer InSe, which is attributed to the monolayer's mirror-plane symmetry. As a result, encapsulated 2D InSe expands the family of graphene-like semiconductors and, in terms of quality, is competitive with atomically thin dichalcogenides and black phosphorus.« less

  14. Selenium single-wavelength anomalous diffraction de novo phasing using an X-ray-free electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Mark S.; Yoon, Chun Hong; DeMirci, Hasan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Dao, E. Han; Ahmadi, Radman; Aksit, Fulya; Aquila, Andrew L.; Ciftci, Halilibrahim; Guillet, Serge; Hayes, Matt J.; Lane, Thomas J.; Liang, Meng; Lundström, Ulf; Koglin, Jason E.; Mgbam, Paul; Rao, Yashas; Zhang, Lindsey; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Holton, James M.; Boutet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Structural information about biological macromolecules near the atomic scale provides important insight into the functions of these molecules. To date, X-ray crystallography has been the predominant method used for macromolecular structure determination. However, challenges exist when solving structures with X-rays, including the phase problem and radiation damage. X-ray-free electron lasers (X-ray FELs) have enabled collection of diffraction information before the onset of radiation damage, yet the majority of structures solved at X-ray FELs have been phased using external information via molecular replacement. De novo phasing at X-ray FELs has proven challenging due in part to per-pulse variations in intensity and wavelength. Here we report the solution of a selenobiotinyl-streptavidin structure using phases obtained by the anomalous diffraction of selenium measured at a single wavelength (Se-SAD) at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Our results demonstrate Se-SAD, routinely employed at synchrotrons for novel structure determination, is now possible at X-ray FELs. PMID:27811937

  15. Selenium single-wavelength anomalous diffraction de novo phasing using an X-ray-free electron laser

    DOE PAGES

    Hunter, Mark S.; Yoon, Chun Hong; DeMirci, Hasan; ...

    2016-11-04

    Structural information about biological macromolecules near the atomic scale provides important insight into the functions of these molecules. To date, X-ray crystallography has been the predominant method used for macromolecular structure determination. However, challenges exist when solving structures with X-rays, including the phase problem and radiation damage. X-ray-free electron lasers (X-ray FELs) have enabled collection of diffraction information before the onset of radiation damage, yet the majority of structures solved at X-ray FELs have been phased using external information via molecular replacement. De novo phasing at X-ray FELs has proven challenging due in part to per-pulse variations in intensity andmore » wavelength. Here we report the solution of a selenobiotinyl-streptavidin structure using phases obtained by the anomalous diffraction of selenium measured at a single wavelength (Se-SAD) at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Finally, our results demonstrate Se-SAD, routinely employed at synchrotrons for novel structure determination, is now possible at X-ray FELs.« less

  16. Selenium single-wavelength anomalous diffraction de novo phasing using an X-ray-free electron laser.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark S; Yoon, Chun Hong; DeMirci, Hasan; Sierra, Raymond G; Dao, E Han; Ahmadi, Radman; Aksit, Fulya; Aquila, Andrew L; Ciftci, Halilibrahim; Guillet, Serge; Hayes, Matt J; Lane, Thomas J; Liang, Meng; Lundström, Ulf; Koglin, Jason E; Mgbam, Paul; Rao, Yashas; Zhang, Lindsey; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Holton, James M; Boutet, Sébastien

    2016-11-04

    Structural information about biological macromolecules near the atomic scale provides important insight into the functions of these molecules. To date, X-ray crystallography has been the predominant method used for macromolecular structure determination. However, challenges exist when solving structures with X-rays, including the phase problem and radiation damage. X-ray-free electron lasers (X-ray FELs) have enabled collection of diffraction information before the onset of radiation damage, yet the majority of structures solved at X-ray FELs have been phased using external information via molecular replacement. De novo phasing at X-ray FELs has proven challenging due in part to per-pulse variations in intensity and wavelength. Here we report the solution of a selenobiotinyl-streptavidin structure using phases obtained by the anomalous diffraction of selenium measured at a single wavelength (Se-SAD) at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Our results demonstrate Se-SAD, routinely employed at synchrotrons for novel structure determination, is now possible at X-ray FELs.

  17. Dependence of Electron Peak Current on Hollow Cathode Dimensions and Seed Electron Energy in a Pseudospark Discharge (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-03

    pseudospark, the electric field distribution is non- uniform and time-dependent, resulting in a breakdown voltage that is shown to scale d 8 as a...the angle of incidence and the energy dependence of the yield. Secondary electron emission due to ion impact employs a constant secondary coefficient ...Frank and J. Christiansen , IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 17, 748 (1989) 7 Chunqi Jiang, Andras Kuthi and Martin A. Gunderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86

  18. Probing anomalous couplings using di-Higgs production in electron-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Ruan, Xifeng; Islam, Rashidul; Cornell, Alan S.; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Mellado, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    A proposed high energy Future Circular Hadron-Electron Collider would provide sufficient energy in a clean environment to probe di-Higgs production. Using this channel we show that the azimuthal angle correlation between the missing transverse energy and the forward jet is a very good probe for the non-standard hhh and hhWW couplings. We give the exclusion limits on these couplings as a function of integrated luminosity at a 95% C.L. using the fiducial cross sections. With appropriate error fitting methodology we find that the Higgs boson self coupling could be measured to be ghhh(1) = 1.00-0.17(0.12)+0.24(0.14) of its expected Standard Model value at √{ s} = 3.5 (5.0) TeV for an ultimate 10 ab-1 of integrated luminosity.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: An Extended Extrinsic Mechanism for Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hui-Wu; Hu, Liang-Bin

    2009-12-01

    The extrinsic mechanism for anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnets is extended to include the contributions both from spin-orbit-dependent impurity scattering and from the spin-orbit coupling induced by external electric fields. The results obtained suggest that, within the framework of the extrinsic mechanisms, the anomalous Hall current in a ferromagnet may also contain a substantial amount of dissipationless contribution independent of impurity scattering. After the contribution from the spin-orbit coupling induced by external electric fields is included, the total anomalous Hall conductivity is about two times larger than that due to spin-orbit dependent impurity scatterings.

  20. Vacuum current induced by an axial-vector condensate and electron anomalous magnetic moment in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, A. F.; Gubina, N. V.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider vacuum polarization effects in the model of charged fermions with anomalous magnetic moment and axial-vector interaction term in a constant and uniform magnetic field. Nontrivial corrections to the effective Lagrangian from the anomalous moment and axial-vector term are calculated with account for various configurations of parameters of the model. An analogue of the chiral magnetic effect in the axial-vector background as well as a vacuum current induced under the combined action of the anomalous magnetic moment of fermions and the axial vector background in a magnetic field is also calculated.

  1. Anomalous High-Energy Waterfall-Like Electronic Structure in 5 d Transition Metal Oxide Sr2IrO4 with a Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Li; Jia, Xiaowen; Zhao, Jianzhou; Weng, Hongming; Peng, Yingying; Chen, Chaoyu; Xie, Zhuojin; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Feng, Ya; Yi, Hemian; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Guodong; He, Shaolong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Chuangtian; Cao, Gang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhou, X J

    2015-08-12

    The low energy electronic structure of Sr2IrO4 has been well studied and understood in terms of an effective Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulator model. However, little work has been done in studying its high energy electronic behaviors. Here we report a new observation of the anomalous high energy electronic structure in Sr2IrO4. By taking high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on Sr2IrO4 over a wide energy range, we have revealed for the first time that the high energy electronic structures show unusual nearly-vertical bands that extend over a large energy range. Such anomalous high energy behaviors resemble the high energy waterfall features observed in the cuprate superconductors. While strong electron correlation plays an important role in producing high energy waterfall features in the cuprate superconductors, the revelation of the high energy anomalies in Sr2IrO4, which exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling and a moderate electron correlation, points to an unknown and novel route in generating exotic electronic excitations.

  2. Anomalous High-Energy Waterfall-Like Electronic Structure in 5 d Transition Metal Oxide Sr2IrO4 with a Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Li; Jia, Xiaowen; Zhao, Jianzhou; Weng, Hongming; Peng, Yingying; Chen, Chaoyu; Xie, Zhuojin; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Feng, Ya; Yi, Hemian; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Guodong; He, Shaolong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Chuangtian; Cao, Gang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhou, X. J.

    2015-01-01

    The low energy electronic structure of Sr2IrO4 has been well studied and understood in terms of an effective Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulator model. However, little work has been done in studying its high energy electronic behaviors. Here we report a new observation of the anomalous high energy electronic structure in Sr2IrO4. By taking high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on Sr2IrO4 over a wide energy range, we have revealed for the first time that the high energy electronic structures show unusual nearly-vertical bands that extend over a large energy range. Such anomalous high energy behaviors resemble the high energy waterfall features observed in the cuprate superconductors. While strong electron correlation plays an important role in producing high energy waterfall features in the cuprate superconductors, the revelation of the high energy anomalies in Sr2IrO4, which exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling and a moderate electron correlation, points to an unknown and novel route in generating exotic electronic excitations. PMID:26267653

  3. Anomalous High-Energy Waterfall-Like Electronic Structure in 5 d Transition Metal Oxide Sr2IrO4 with a Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Li; Jia, Xiaowen; Zhao, Jianzhou; Weng, Hongming; Peng, Yingying; Chen, Chaoyu; Xie, Zhuojin; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Feng, Ya; Yi, Hemian; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Guodong; He, Shaolong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Chuangtian; Cao, Gang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhou, X. J.

    2015-08-01

    The low energy electronic structure of Sr2IrO4 has been well studied and understood in terms of an effective Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulator model. However, little work has been done in studying its high energy electronic behaviors. Here we report a new observation of the anomalous high energy electronic structure in Sr2IrO4. By taking high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on Sr2IrO4 over a wide energy range, we have revealed for the first time that the high energy electronic structures show unusual nearly-vertical bands that extend over a large energy range. Such anomalous high energy behaviors resemble the high energy waterfall features observed in the cuprate superconductors. While strong electron correlation plays an important role in producing high energy waterfall features in the cuprate superconductors, the revelation of the high energy anomalies in Sr2IrO4, which exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling and a moderate electron correlation, points to an unknown and novel route in generating exotic electronic excitations.

  4. Subtractive procedure for calculating the anomalous electron magnetic moment in QED and its application for numerical calculation at the three-loop level

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, S. A.

    2016-06-15

    A new subtractive procedure for canceling ultraviolet and infrared divergences in the Feynman integrals described here is developed for calculating QED corrections to the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The procedure formulated in the form of a forest expression with linear operators applied to Feynman amplitudes of UV-diverging subgraphs makes it possible to represent the contribution of each Feynman graph containing only electron and photon propagators in the form of a converging integral with respect to Feynman parameters. The application of the developed method for numerical calculation of two- and threeloop contributions is described.

  5. Anomalous nanoclusters, anisotropy, and electronic nematicity in the doped manganite La1/3Ca2/3MnO3

    DOE PAGES

    Tao, J.; Sun, K.; Tranquada, J. M.; ...

    2017-06-07

    In doped manganites, a superlattice (SL) modulation associated with charge/orbital ordering is accepted as a key component in understanding many intriguing properties. It has been reported that the SL modulation always appears on the a axis of the crystals. Here in this study, by using multiple transmission electron microscopic techniques, we observe a type of anomalous nanocluster in which the SL modulation appears on the c axis of La1/3Ca2/3MnO3. By correlating the thermal evolution of the anomalous nanoclusters to other property measurements, we suggest that strain is responsible for the formation of the anomalous nanoclusters. The phase separation and phasemore » transition scenario in La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 are also described using electronic-liquid-crystal (ELC) phases. Lastly, an ELC phase diagram in La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 is constructed as a function of temperature based on our observations.« less

  6. Anomalous Hall effect in Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4}: Universal scaling law and electron localization below the Verwey transition

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrecy, N. Hamieh, M.; Hebert, C.; Escudier, M.; Becerra, L.; Perriere, J.

    2016-08-15

    We show that the well-established universal scaling σ{sub xy}{sup AHE} ∼ σ{sub xx}{sup 1.6} between anomalous Hall and longitudinal conductivities in the low conductivity regime (σ{sub xx} < 10{sup 4} Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1}) transforms into the scaling σ{sub xy}{sup AHE} ∼ σ{sub xx}{sup 2} at the onset of strong electron localization. The crossover between the two relations is observed in magnetite-derived Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} thin films where an insulating/hopping regime follows a bad metal/hopping regime below the Verwey transition temperature T{sub v}. Our results demonstrate that electron localization effects come into play in the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) modifying significantly the scaling exponent. In addition, the thermal evolution of the anomalous Hall resistivity suggests the existence of spin polarons whose size would decrease below T{sub v}.

  7. Fast Ignition relevant study of the flux of high intensity laser generated electrons via a hollow cone into a laser-imploded plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M; Adam, J; Akli, K; Borgheshi, M; Chen, M; Evans, R; Freeman, R; Hatchett, S; Hill, J; Heron, A; King, J; Lancaster, K; Mackinnon, A; Norreys, P; Phillips, T; Romagnani, L; Snavely, R; Stephens, R; Stoeckl, C

    2005-10-11

    An integrated experiment relevant to fast ignition is described. A Cu doped CD spherical shell target is imploded around an inserted hollow Au cone by a six beam 600J, 1ns laser to a peak density of 4gcm{sup -3} and a diameter of 100 {micro}m. A 10 ps, 20TW laser pulse is focused into the cone at the time of peak compression. The flux of high-energy electrons through the imploded material is determined from the yield of Cu K{alpha} fluorescence by comparison with a Monte Carlo model and is estimated to carry 15% of the laser energy. Collisional and Ohmic heating are modeled. An electron spectrometer shows significantly greater reduction of the transmitted electron flux than is due to binary collisions and Ohmic potential. Enhanced scattering by instability-induced magnetic fields is suggested.

  8. Grain size determination in nano-scale polycrystalline aggregates by precession illumination-hollow cone dark field imaging in the transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kulovits, A.K. Facco, G.; Wiezorek, J.M.K.

    2012-01-15

    Precession illumination hollow cone dark field (PI-HCDF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides high contrast multi-beam dark field images, which are suitable for effective and robust grain size measurements in nano-scale polycrystalline aggregates. Precession illumination with slightly converged electron beam probes and precession angles up to 3 Degree-Sign has been produced using a computer-controlled system using a JEOL JEM 2000FX TEM instrument. Theoretical and practical aspects of the experimental technique are discussed using example precession illumination hollow cone diffraction patterns from single crystalline NiAl and the importance of selecting the appropriate precession angle for PI-HCDF image formation and interpretation is described. Results obtained for precession illumination are compared with those of conventional parallel beam illumination experiments. Nanocrystalline Al has been used to evaluate the influence of the precession angle on PI-HCDF image contrast with a focus on grain size analysis. PI-HCDF imaging has been applied for grain size measurements in regions of a nanocrystalline Al thin film adjacent to the edge of a pulsed laser melted and rapidly solidified region and determined the dimensions of a heat-affected zone. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New TEM method for grain size measurements combines TEM resolution with obtainability of statistically significant data sets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use precession illumination to produce time precession illumination hollow cone diffraction patterns PI-HCDP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrast in dark field images (PI-HCDF) formed from PI-HCDP is easy to interpret as dynamical effects are reduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI-HCDFs use several time-averaged g-rings simultaneously and contain more information than conventional DF-images. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Easy contrast interpretation and less dark field images required, allows fast, robust and

  9. Anomalous Local Fermi Liquid in f2-Singlet Configuration: Impurity Model for Heavy-Electron System UPt3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Kusunose, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    It is shown by the Wilson numerical renormalization group method that a strongly correlated impurity with a crystalline-electric-field singlet ground state in the f2-configuration exhibits an anomalous local Fermi liquid state in which the static magnetic susceptibility remains an uncorrelated value while the NMR relaxation rate is enhanced in proportion to the square of the mass enhancement factor. Namely, the Korringa-Shiba relation is apparently broken. This feature closely matches the anomalous behaviors observed in UPt3, i.e., the coexistence of an unenhanced value of the Knight shift due to quasiparticles contribution (the decrease across the superconducting transition) and the enhanced relaxation rate of NMR. Such an anomalous Fermi liquid behavior suggests that the Fermi liquid corrections for the susceptibility are highly anisotropic.

  10. Anomalous excitons and screenings unveiling strong electronic correlations in SrTi1 -xNbxO3 (0 ≤x ≤0.005 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Pranjal Kumar; Sponza, Lorenzo; Schmidt, Daniel; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Diao, Caozheng; Lim, Jason C. W.; Poh, Sock Mui; Kimura, Shin-ichi; Trevisanutto, Paolo E.; Olevano, Valerio; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2015-07-01

    Electron-electron (e-e) and electron-hole (e-h) interactions are often associated with many exotic phenomena in correlated electron systems. Here, we report an observation of anomalous excitons at 3.75, 4.67, and 6.11 eV at 4.2 K in bulk SrTiO3. Fully supported by ab initio G W Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations, these excitons are due to strong e-h and e-e interactions with different characters: 4.67 and 6.11 eV are resonant excitons and 3.75 eV is a bound Wannier-like exciton with an unexpectedly higher level of delocalization. Measurements and calculations on SrTi1 -xNbxO3 for 0.0001 ≤x ≤0.005 further show that the energy and spectral-weight of the excitonic peaks vary as a function of electron doping (x ) and temperature, which are attributed to screening effects. Our results show the importance of e-h and e-e interactions yielding to anomalous excitons and thus bring out a new fundamental perspective in SrTiO3.

  11. Hollow memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

  12. Goodbye, Hollows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-21

    As NASA MESSENGER enters its final days, we are getting our last looks at some of our favorite features. Hollows, discovered in MDIS images during the orbital phase of the mission, are always photogenic. Three small hollows can be spotted in this scene located to the northwest of the Caloris basin near Timgad Vallis, including one that is surrounded by low-reflectance material. Date acquired: April 14, 2015 Image Mission Elapsed Time (MET): 71304311 Image ID: 8326733 Instrument: Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Center Latitude: 59.1° Center Longitude: 116.2° E Resolution: 17.1 meters/pixel Scale: This scene is approximately 17 km (11 miles) across http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19425

  13. Nanodomain induced anomalous magnetic and electronic transport properties of LaBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+δ} highly epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Zepeda, F.; Ma, C.; Bahena Uribe, D.; Cantu-Valle, J.; Wang, H.; Xu, Xing; Yacaman, M. J.; Ponce, A.; Chen, C.; Lorenz, B.; Jacobson, A. J.; Chu, P. C. W.

    2014-01-14

    A giant magnetoresistance effect (∼46% at 20 K under 7 T) and anomalous magnetic properties were found in a highly epitaxial double perovskite LaBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+δ} (LBCO) thin film on (001) MgO. Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy and related analytical techniques were employed to understand the nature of these unusual physical properties. The as-grown film is epitaxial with the c-axis of the LBCO structure lying in the film plane and with an interface relationship given by (100){sub LBCO} || (001){sub MgO} and [001]{sub LBCO} || [100]{sub MgO} or [010]{sub MgO}. Orderly oxygen vacancies were observed by line profile electron energy loss spectroscopy and by atomic resolution imaging. Especially, oxygen vacancy and nanodomain structures were found to have a crucial effect on the electronic transport and magnetic properties.

  14. Nanodomain induced anomalous magnetic and electronic transport properties of LaBaCo2O5.5+δ highly epitaxial thin films

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Zepeda, F.; Ma, C.; Bahena Uribe, D.; Cantu-Valle, J.; Wang, H.; Xu, Xing; Yacaman, M. J.; Chen, C.; Lorenz, B.; Jacobson, A. J.; Chu, P. C. W.; Ponce, A.

    2014-01-01

    A giant magnetoresistance effect (∼46% at 20 K under 7 T) and anomalous magnetic properties were found in a highly epitaxial double perovskite LaBaCo2O5.5+δ (LBCO) thin film on (001) MgO. Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy and related analytical techniques were employed to understand the nature of these unusual physical properties. The as-grown film is epitaxial with the c-axis of the LBCO structure lying in the film plane and with an interface relationship given by (100)LBCO || (001)MgO and [001]LBCO || [100]MgO or [010]MgO. Orderly oxygen vacancies were observed by line profile electron energy loss spectroscopy and by atomic resolution imaging. Especially, oxygen vacancy and nanodomain structures were found to have a crucial effect on the electronic transport and magnetic properties. PMID:24453381

  15. Extreme anisotropy and anomalous transport properties of heavily electron doped Lix(NH3)yFe2Se2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanshan; Wang, Shaohua; Yu, Rong; Lei, Hechang

    2017-08-01

    We report the growth of heavily electron doped Li-NH3 intercalated FeSe single crystals that are free of material complexities and allow access to the intrinsic superconducting properties. Lix(NH3)yFe2Se2 single crystals show extremely large electronic anisotropy in both normal and superconducting states. They also exhibit anomalous transport properties in the normal state, which are believed to possibly be related to the anisotropy of relaxation time and/or temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Taking into account the great chemical flexibility of intercalants in the system, our findings provide a platform to understanding the origin of superconductivity in FeSe-related superconductors.

  16. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Origins of Anomalous Particle Size Distributions in Supported Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Genc, Arda; Agrawal, Nitin; Larsson, Elin M.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2012-10-31

    In this Environmental TEM (ETEM) study of supported Pt and Pd model catalysts, individual nanoparticles were tracked during heat treatments at temperatures up to 600°C in H2, O2, and vacuum. We found anomalous growth of nanoparticles occurred during the early stages of catalyst sintering wherein some particles started to grow significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a broadening of the particle size distribution. We can rule out sample non-uniformity as a cause for the growth of these large particles, since images were recorded prior to heat treatments. The anomalous growth of these particles may help explain particle size distributions in heterogeneous catalysts which often show particles that are significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a long tail to the right. It has been suggested that particle migration and coalescence could be the likely cause for the broad size distributions. This study shows that anomalous growth of nanoparticles can occur under conditions where Ostwald ripening is the primary sintering mechanism.

  17. Model of a Hollow Cathode Insert Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-D axisymmetric fluid model of the plasma in the insert region of a hollow cathode is presented. The level of sophistication included in the model is motivated in part by the need to determine quantitatively plasma fluxes to the emitter surface. The ultimate goal is to assess whether plasma effects can degrade the life of impregnated inserts beyond those documented throughout the 30-50 year history of vacuum cathode technologies. Results from simulations of a 1.2-cm diameter cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A, and a gas flow rate of 5 sccm, suggest that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.5 A of ion current return to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current computed by the model is about 35 A. Comparisons with plasma measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma due to two-stream instabilities is possible near the orifice region. Solution to the heavy species energy equation, with classical transport and no viscous effects, predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2640 K.

  18. Model of a Hollow Cathode Insert Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-D axisymmetric fluid model of the plasma in the insert region of a hollow cathode is presented. The level of sophistication included in the model is motivated in part by the need to determine quantitatively plasma fluxes to the emitter surface. The ultimate goal is to assess whether plasma effects can degrade the life of impregnated inserts beyond those documented throughout the 30-50 year history of vacuum cathode technologies. Results from simulations of a 1.2-cm diameter cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A, and a gas flow rate of 5 sccm, suggest that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.5 A of ion current return to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current computed by the model is about 35 A. Comparisons with plasma measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma due to two-stream instabilities is possible near the orifice region. Solution to the heavy species energy equation, with classical transport and no viscous effects, predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2640 K.

  19. The plasma properties and electron emission characteristics of near-zero differential resistance of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors with a discharge chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Kan; Farnell, Casey C.; Williams, John D.

    2014-08-15

    The formation of electron emission-bias voltage (I-V) characteristics of near-zero differential resistance in the cathodic plasma contactor for bare electrodynamic tether applications, based on a hollow cathode embedded in a ring-cusp ionization stage, is studied. The existence of such an I-V regime is important to achieve low impedance performance without being affected by the space plasma properties for a cathodic plasma contactor. Experimental data on the plasma structure and properties downstream from the ionization stage are presented as functions of the xenon flow rate and the electron emission current. The electrons were emitted from the cathode to the cylindrical vacuum chamber wall (r = 0.9 m) under ≈10{sup −5 }Torr of vacuum pressure. The ring-cusp configuration selected for the plasma contactor created a 125-Gauss axial field near the cathode orifice, along with a large-volume 50-Gauss magnitude pocket in the stage. A baseline ion energy cost of ≈300 eV/ion was measured in the ionization stage when no electrons were emitted to the vacuum chamber wall. In addition, the anode fall growth limited the maximum propellant unitization to below ≈75% in the discharge loss curves for this ion stage. Detailed measurements on the plasma properties were carried out for the no-electron emission and 3 A emission conditions. The experimental data are compared with 1-D models, and the effectiveness of the model is discussed. The four key issues that played important roles in the process of building the near-zero different resistance I-V regime are: a significant amount of ionization by the emission electrons, a decrease in the number of reflected electrons in the plume, the electron-temperature increment, and low initial ion energy at the source outlet.

  20. Poisson effect driven anomalous lattice expansion in metal nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ganesh; Shervani, Suboohi; Mishra, Gargi; De, Deb; Kumar, Arun; Sivakumar, Sri; Balani, Kantesh; Pala, Raj; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2017-03-01

    Surface stress can have profound effects on nanoscale materials and can lead to a contraction of the lattice in nanoparticles to compensate for the under-coordination of the surface atoms. The effect of elastic properties like Poisson's ratio can be accentuated in lower dimensional systems. The current study focuses on hollow metal nanoshells (MNSs), wherein there is interplay between the surface stresses existing in the inner and outer surfaces. Using a two scale computational method and transmission electron microscopy, we not only show a lattice expansion (in the radial direction) due to purely surface stress effects in a metallic system but also discover anomalous lattice expansion in the case of very thin walled MNSs. We argue that this effect, wherein the stress in the outer surface causes expansion in the radial lattice parameter (instead of compression), is a Poisson effect driven phenomenon. Although Ni nanoshells are used as an illustrative system for the studies, we generalize this effect for all metal nanoshells.

  1. Channeling of high-power radio waves under conditions of strong anomalous absorption in the presence of an averaged electron heating source

    SciTech Connect

    Vas'kov, V. V.; Ryabova, N. A.

    2010-02-15

    Strong anomalous absorption of a high-power radio wave by small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the formation of self-consistent channels (solitons) in which the wave propagates along the magnetic field, but has a soliton-like intensity distribution across the field. The structure of a cylindrical soliton as a function of the wave intensity at the soliton axis is analyzed. Averaged density perturbations leading to wave focusing were calculated using the model proposed earlier by Vas'kov and Gurevich (Geomagn. Aeron. 16, 1112 (1976)), in which an averaged electron heating source was used. It is shown that, under conditions of strong electron recombination, the radii of individual solitons do not exceed 650 m.

  2. A New Geometric Method Based on Two-Dimensional Transmission Electron Microscopy for Analysis of Interior versus Exterior Pd Loading on Hollow Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuai, Danmeng; Wang, Chong M.; Genc, Arda; Werth, Charles J.

    2011-04-18

    Hallow carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are being explored as catalyst supports because of their unique properties; catalytic activities with both interior and exterior metal loadings are being evaluated. Electron tomography (3D transmission electron microscopy, 3D TEM) has been used to estimate internal versus external loading of metal nanoclusters. However, this method is time consuming and requires a specialized TEM. We prepared three hollow CNF supported Pd samples with various Pd localizations, and developed a geometric analysis method based on 2D TEM images to estimate Pd internal versus external loading percentages. Results show the similar localization for the same sample in terms of the number, surface area, and mass of Pd nanoclusters but distinct values for different samples. To test our method, we compare results for one segment of a CNF using both 3D scanning transmission electron microscopy (3D TEM) and our new 2D geometic analysis method. Agreement is within 15.1%. Our results also agree with 3D TEM results from the literature for similarly prepared Pd on CNFs (within 5.6%). Our geometric analysis method is proposed as a more straightforward and fast way to evaluate metal nanocluster localizations on tubular supports.

  3. 2D Particle-In-Cell simulations of the electron-cyclotron instability and associated anomalous transport in Hall-Effect Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croes, Vivien; Lafleur, Trevor; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Péchereau, François; Bourdon, Anne; Chabert, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    This work studies the electron-cyclotron instability in Hall-Effect Thrusters (HETs) using a 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation is configured with a Cartesian coordinate system where a magnetic field, B0, is aligned along the X-axis (radial direction, including absorbing walls), a constant electric field, E0, along the Z-axis (axial direction, perpendicular to simulation plane), and the E0xB0 direction along the Y-axis (O direction, with periodic boundaries). Although for low plasma densities classical electron-neutral collisions theory describes well electron transport, at sufficiently high densities (as measured in HETs) a strong instability can be observed that enhances the electron mobility, even in the absence of collisions. The instability generates high frequency ( MHz) and short wavelength ( mm) fluctuations in both the electric field and charged particle densities. We investigate the correlation between these fluctuations and their role with anomalous electron transport; complementing previous 1D simulations. Plasma is self-consistently heated by the instability, but since the latter does not reach saturation in an infinitely long 2D system, saturation is achieved through implementation of a finite axial length that models convection in E0 direction. With support of Safran Aircraft Engines.

  4. Anomalous Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malov, I. F.

    Many astrophysicists believe that Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars (AXP), Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGR), Rotational Radio Transients (RRAT), Compact Central Objects (CCO) and X-Ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINS) belong to different classes of anomalous objects with neutron stars as the central bodies inducing all their observable peculiarities. We have shown earlier [1] that AXPs and SGRs could be described by the drift model in the framework of the preposition on usual properties of the central neutron star (rotation periods P 0.01 - 1 sec and, surface magnetic fields B ~ 10^11-10^13 G). Here we shall try to show that some differences of the sources under consideration will be explained by their geometry (particularly, by the angle β between their rotation and magnetic axes). If β <~ 100 (the aligned rotator) the drift waves at the outer layers of the neutron star magnetosphere should play a key role in the observable periodicity. For large values of β (the case of the nearly orthogonal rotator) an accretion from the surrounding medium (for example, from the relic disk) can cause some modulation and transient events in received radiation. Recently Kramer et al. [2] and Camilo et al. [3] have shown that AXPs J1810-197 and 1E 1547.0 - 5408 have both small angles β, that is these sources are nearly aligned rotators, and the drift model should be used for their description. On the other hand, Wang et al. [4] detected IR radiation from the cold disk around the isolated young X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61. This was the first evidence of the disk-like matter around the neutron star. Probably there is the bimodality of anomalous pulsars. AXPs, SGRs and some radio transients belong to the population of aligned rotators with the angle between the rotation axis and the magnetic moment β < 200. These objects are described by the drift model, and their observed periods are connected with a periodicity of drift waves. Other sources have β ~ 900, and switching on's and switching off

  5. Operating characteristics of a hollow-cathode neutralizer for 5 and 8 centimeter-diameter electron bombardment mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Thin-tip 0.3-cm-outside-diameter hollow-cathode neutralizers were used to investigate causes of neutralizer tip erosion experienced in thruster endurance tests. Bell-jar tests indicated that neutralizers with new rolled tantalum foil inserts coated with an emissive mixture eroded very little over the neutral flow rates investigated (3 to 10 mA) for simulated 5- and 8-cm-diameter thruster neutralizer conditions. Tip erosion rates of neutralizers operated with no insert or emissive mixture increased by two orders of magnitude for both configurations as the neutral flow rate decreased. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharge plasma from neutralizers operated with inserts coated with the emissive mixture detected tungsten at all neutral flow rates for both thruster neutralizer conditions. The only source of tungsten was the tip. Therefore, detection of tungsten indicated neutralizer tip erosion. Barium, an element of the emissive mixture, was detected at low neutral flow rates for the 5-cm-diameter thruster neutralizer operating condition only.

  6. Effects of the Electronic Spin-Orbit Interaction on the Anomalous Asymmetric Scattering of the Spin-Polarized 4He+ Beam with Paramagnetic Target Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Osamu; Suzuki, Taku T.

    2017-06-01

    The scattering of the electron-spin-polarized 4He+ beam on paramagnetic materials has an anomalously large asymmetric scattering component (ASC) around 5%, which is 104 of that expected from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for the potential of the target nucleus. In addition, the ASC of some materials (for example, Au and Pt) changes sign near the scattering angle (θ) of 90° unlike the result predicted by using the potential scattering theory. When the 4He+ approaches the target, virtual electron-transfer (ET) excitations between them occur. The effects of the SOC of electrons (SOEs) on the target atom in the ET intermediate state are studied within the frame of the lowest-order perturbation theory about the ET process. The ASC is caused through the combination of the quantum development of electron orbital states under the SOEs and the He nucleus motion in the intermediate state because the preferred orbital states for the ET depend on the position of the He nucleus. It is shown by a numerical calculation that the present process has the possibility of producing the ASC with a magnitude of around 0.1. In the present process, the ASC shows a θ dependence of cos θ sin θ, which changes sign at θ = 90° when the excited orbital in the ET state has the d-character like the Au and Pt cases.

  7. The Origin of Anomalous Electronic Circular Dichroism Spectra of [RuPt_2(tppz)_2Cl_2]^{4+} in Acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. G.

    2013-06-01

    The [RuPt_2(tppz)_2Cl_2]^{4+} (tppz=2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) is a potential material for water photo-oxidation to produce oxygen molecules. Recent experiments found that it has anomalous electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra in acetonitrile. In order to explain the ECD spectra, we have carried out a detailed study using a hybrid density functional theory (DFT), together with the Stuttgart/Dresden effective core potentials (MWB) for the metal and P atoms. The solvation effects in acetonitrile were taken into account in terms of the conductor polarizable continuum model (C-PCM) with the universal force field (UFF) approach. The UV-vis spectra of the complexes were calculated using the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) method on the optimized geometry of individual system. In this talk, we will discuss the DFT/TDDFT calculations and propose a mechanism for the abnormal ECD spectra.

  8. Hollow cathodes for arcjet thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebben, Craig R.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent exterior spot emission, hollow cathode bodies and orifice plates were constructed from boron nitride which is an electrical insulator, but the orifice plates melted and/or eroded at high interelectrode pressures. The most suitable hollow cathodes tested included a refractory metal orifice plate in a boron nitride body, with the insert insulated electrically from the orifice plate. In addition, the hollow cathode interior was evacuated to assure a low pressure at the insert surface, thus promoting diffuse electron emission. At high interelectrode pressures, the electrons tended to flow through the orifice plate rather than through the orifice, which could result in overheating of the orifice plate. Using a carefully aligned centerline anode, electron flow through the orifice could be sustained at interelectrode pressures up to 500 torr - but the current flow path still occasionally jumped from the orifice to the orifice plate. Based on these tests, it appears that a hollow cathode would operate most effectively at pressures in the arcjet regime with a refractory, chemically stable, and electrically insulating cathode body and orifice plate.

  9. Hydrogen hollow cathode ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J., Jr.; Sovey, J. S.; Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A source of hydrogen ions is disclosed and includes a chamber having at one end a cathode which provides electrons and through which hydrogen gas flows into the chamber. Screen and accelerator grids are provided at the other end of the chamber. A baffle plate is disposed between the cathode and the grids and a cylindrical baffle is disposed coaxially with the cathode at the one end of the chamber. The cylindrical baffle is of greater diameter than the baffle plate to provide discharge impedance and also to protect the cathode from ion flux. An anode electrode draws the electrons away from the cathode. The hollow cathode includes a tubular insert of tungsten impregnated with a low work function material to provide ample electrons. A heater is provided around the hollow cathode to initiate electron emission from the low work function material.

  10. Evidence of nonclassical plasma transport in hollow cathodes for electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2007-03-15

    Measurements, simplified analyses, and two-dimensional numerical simulations with a fluid plasma model show that classical resistivity cannot account for the elevated electron temperatures and steep plasma potential gradients measured in a 25-27.5 A electric propulsion hollow cathode. The cathode consisted of a 1.5 cm hollow tube with an {approx}0.28 cm diameter orifice and was operated with 5.5 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) of xenon flow using two different anode geometries: a segmented cone and a circular flat plate. The numerical simulations show that classical resistivity yields as much as four times colder electron temperatures compared to the measured values in the orifice and near-plume regions of the cathode. Classical transport and Ohm's law also predict exceedingly high electron-ion relative drift speeds compared to the electron thermal speed (>4). It is found that the addition of anomalous resistivity based on existing growth rate formulas for electron-ion streaming instabilities improves qualitatively the comparison between the numerical results and the time-averaged measurements. Simplified analyses that have been based largely on the axial measurements support the conclusion that additional resistivity is required in Ohm's law to explain the measurements. The combined results from the two-dimensional simulations and the analyses bound the range of enhanced resistivity to be 3-100 times the classical value.

  11. A Field of Hollows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-01

    Mercury's hollows are among its most distinctive -- and unusual -- surface features. In this stunning view, we see a field of hollows in the western portion of the floor of Zeami impact basin. Hollows populate much of the rest of the basin's interior, with large concentrations several kilometers across occurring in the north and northeast parts of the floor. Individual hollows, however, can be as small as a couple of hundred meters in width. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19267

  12. Phase diagrams and anomalous thermodynamic behavior of a correlated spin-electron system on doubly decorated planar lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strečka, Jozef; Čenčariková, Hana; Lyra, Marcelo L.

    2015-12-01

    Phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of a correlated spin-electron system considering localized Ising spins on nodal sites and mobile electrons on decorating sites of doubly decorated planar lattices are rigorously examined with the help of generalized decoration-iteration transformation. The investigated model defined on loose-packed (honeycomb and square) lattices exhibits the phase diagram including a spontaneous ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in a vicinity of quarter and half-filling, respectively, while the same model on close-packed (triangular and kagome) lattices only shows a spontaneous ferromagnetic order due to a kinetically-driven spin frustration at high electron concentrations. The lower critical concentration, at which the ferromagnetic order appears, is remarkably close to a bond percolation threshold in spite of the annealed character of the developed procedure. The specific heat exhibits at the critical temperature either a logarithmic divergence for integer-valued electron concentrations or it shows a finite-cusp for any non-integer electron concentration due to the annealed bond disorder.

  13. Origin of anomalous electronic circular dichroism spectrum of RuPt2(tppz)2Cl2(PF6)4 in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-07-24

    We report a theoretical study of the structures, energetics, and electronic spectra of the Pt(II)/Ru(II) mixed-metal complex RuPt2(tppz)2Cl2(PF6)4 (tppz = 2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) in acetonitrile. The hybrid B3LYP density functional theory and its TDDFT methods were used with a complete basis set (CBS) extrapolation scheme and a conductor polarizable continuum model (C-PCM) for solvation effects. Results showed that the trinuclear complex has four types of stable conformers and/or enantiomers. They are separated by high barriers owing to the repulsive H/H geometrical constraints in tppz. A strong entropy effect was found for the dissociation of RuPt2(tppz)2Cl2(PF6)n in acetonitrile. The UV-visible and emission spectra of the complex were also simulated. They are in good agreement with experiments. In this work we have largely focused on exploring the origin of anomalous electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of the RuPt2(tppz)2Cl2(PF6)4 complex in acetonitrile. As a result, a new mechanism has been proposed together with a clear illustration by using a physical model.

  14. Anomalously large effects of pressure on electron transfer kinetics in solution: The aqueous manganate(VI)-permanganate(VII) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaddle, T. W.; Spiccia, L.

    1986-05-01

    The classical Stranks-Hush-Marcus theory of pressure effects on the rates of outer-sphere electron transfer reaction rates in solution underestimates |ΔV ∗| specifically, for the MnO 4/MnO 42- (aq) exchange, ΔV ∗=-21.2 (observed) vs. -6.6 cm3mol-1 (calculated). This discrepancy can best be resolved by conceding that the Mn-Mn separation σ in the transition state is variable and pressure-sensitive in the context of non-adiabatic electron transfer within an ellipsoidal cavity with σ ∼ 550 pm.

  15. On the parameters of runaway electron beams and on electrons with an "anomalous" energy at a subnanosecond breakdown of gases at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. K.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.; Sorokin, D. A.

    2015-09-01

    The generation of runaway electron beams in gases at atmospheric pressure has been studied with a real picosecond accuracy. Their main parameters have been determined. It has been found that three groups of electrons can be separated at a subnanosecond voltage pulse in a runaway electron beam generated in air at atmospheric pressure. It has been proven that the duration of a beam pulse in air at atmospheric pressure behind an anode foil is ~100 ps.

  16. Anomalous electron transport in metal/carbon multijunction devices by engineering of the carbon thickness and selecting metal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Dhand, Chetna; Rawal, Ishpal; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani

    2017-06-01

    A longstanding concern in the research of amorphous carbon films is their poor electrical conductivity at room temperature which constitutes a major barrier for the development of cost effective electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we propose metal/carbon hybrid multijunction devices as a promising facile way to overcome room temperature electron transport issues in amorphous carbon films. By the tuning of carbon thickness and swapping metal layers, we observe giant (upto ˜7 orders) reduction of electrical resistance in metal/carbon multijunction devices with respect to monolithic amorphous carbon device. We engineer the maximum current (electrical resistance) from about 10-7 to 10-3 A (˜107 to 103 Ω) in metal (Cu or Ti)/carbon hybrid multijunction devices with a total number of 10 junctions. The introduction of thin metal layers breaks the continuity of relatively higher resistance carbon layer as well as promotes the nanostructuring of carbon. These contribute to low electrical resistance of metal/carbon hybrid multijunction devices, with respect to monolithic carbon device, which is further reduced by decreasing the thickness of carbon layers. We also propose and discuss equivalent circuit model to explain electrical resistance in monolithic carbon and metal/carbon multijunction devices. Cu/carbon multijunction devices display relatively better electrical transport than Ti/carbon devices owing to low affinity of Cu with carbon that restricts carbide formation. We also observe that in metal/carbon multijunction devices, the transport mechanism changes from Poole-Frenkel/Schottky model to the hopping model with a decrease in carbon thickness. Our approach opens a new route to develop carbon-based inexpensive electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  17. Direct observation of melting behaviors at the nanoscale under electron beam and heat to form hollow nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Wang, Chun-Wen; Chu, Fu-Hsuan; Kao, Chen-Yen; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lu, Kuo-Chang; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2012-08-07

    We report the melting behaviours of ZnO nanowire by heating ZnO-Al(2)O(3) core-shell heterostructures to form Al(2)O(3) nanotubes in an in situ ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope (UHV-TEM). When the ZnO-Al(2)O(3) core-shell nanowire heterostructures were annealed at 600 °C under electron irradiation, the amorphous Al(2)O(3) shell became single crystalline and then the ZnO core melted. The average vanishing rate of the ZnO core was measured to be 4.2 nm s(-1). The thickness of the Al(2)O(3) nanotubes can be precisely controlled by the deposition process. Additionally, the inner geometry of nanotubes can be defined by the initial ZnO core. The result shows a promising method to obtain the biocompatible Al(2)O(3) nanotubes, which may be applied in drug delivery, biochemistry and resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM).

  18. Anomalous Magnetism in Hexaborides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Hans Rudolf

    2001-03-01

    The compounds of the type M2+B (M=alkaline- or rare-earth element) reveal highly anomalous electronic and magnetic properties. Because of their peculiar electronic band structure they are close to a metal-insulator transition. In alkaline-earth hexaborides, ferromagnetic order among rather small moments but stable up to amazingly high temperatures between 600 and 900 K, is almost inevitably due to a novel type of partial polarization of the itinerant electron system. Various scenarios, ranging from the polarization of a low density electron gas to the formation of an exciton condensate and subsequent breaking of the time reversal symmetry upon doping and novel types of magnetism in doped semiconductors have been considered. In EuB6, the ferromagnetic order is among localized 4f-electron moments, but it occurs only below a Curie temperature of 15 K and is accompanied by a drastic enhancement of the conduction electron concentration in the ordered phase. A number of experiments, also probing microscopic features, indicate an intricate interplay between the magnetic and the electronic features of these, both chemically and structurally, seemingly simple materials.

  19. Anomalous spin Josephson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jun; Hao, Lei; Liu, Jun-Feng

    2016-10-01

    We report a theoretical study on the spin Josephson effect arising from the exchange coupling of the two ferromagnets (Fs), which are deposited on a two-dimensional (2D) time-reversal-invariant topological insulator. An anomalous spin supercurrent Js z˜sin(α +α0) is found to flow in between the two Fs and the ground state of the system is not limited to the magnetically collinear configuration (α =n π ,n is an integer) but determined by a controllable angle α0, where α is the crossed angle between the two F magnetizations. The angle α0 is the dynamic phase of the electrons traveling in between the two Fs and can be controlled electrically by a gate voltage. This anomalous spin Josephson effect, similar to the conventional φ0 superconductor junction, originates from the definite electron chirality of the helical edge states in the 2D topological insulator. These results indicate that the magnetic coupling in a topological system is different from the usual one in conventional materials.

  20. Anomalous effective polarity of an air/liquid-mixture interface: a heterodyne-detected electronic and vibrational sum frequency generation study.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudip Kumar; Inoue, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Tahara, Tahei

    2015-10-07

    We study the effective polarity of an air/liquid-mixture interface by using interface-selective heterodyne-detected electronic sum frequency generation (HD-ESFG) and vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) spectroscopies. With water and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) chosen as two components of the liquid mixture, the bulk polarity of the mixture is controlled nearly arbitrarily by the mixing ratio. The effective polarity of the air/mixture interface is evaluated by HD-ESFG with a surface-active solvatochromic molecule used as a polarity indicator. Surprisingly, the interfacial effective polarity of the air/mixture interface increases significantly, when the bulk polarity of the mixture decreases (i.e. when the fraction of DMF increases). Judging from the hydrogen-bond structure at the air/mixture interface clarified by HD-VSFG, this anomalous change of the interfacial effective polarity is attributed to the interface-specific solvation structure around the indicator molecule at the air/mixture interface.

  1. Selenium single-wavelength anomalous diffraction de novo phasing using an X-ray-free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Mark S.; Yoon, Chun Hong; DeMirci, Hasan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Dao, E. Han; Ahmadi, Radman; Aksit, Fulya; Aquila, Andrew L.; Ciftci, Halilibrahim; Guillet, Serge; Hayes, Matt J.; Lane, Thomas J.; Liang, Meng; Lundstrom, Ulf; Koglin, Jason E.; Mgbam, Paul; Rao, Yashas; Zhang, Lindsey; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Holton, James M.; Boutet, Sebastien

    2016-11-04

    Structural information about biological macromolecules near the atomic scale provides important insight into the functions of these molecules. To date, X-ray crystallography has been the predominant method used for macromolecular structure determination. However, challenges exist when solving structures with X-rays, including the phase problem and radiation damage. X-ray-free electron lasers (X-ray FELs) have enabled collection of diffraction information before the onset of radiation damage, yet the majority of structures solved at X-ray FELs have been phased using external information via molecular replacement. De novo phasing at X-ray FELs has proven challenging due in part to per-pulse variations in intensity and wavelength. Here we report the solution of a selenobiotinyl-streptavidin structure using phases obtained by the anomalous diffraction of selenium measured at a single wavelength (Se-SAD) at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Finally, our results demonstrate Se-SAD, routinely employed at synchrotrons for novel structure determination, is now possible at X-ray FELs.

  2. Pressure effect and electron diffraction on the anomalous transition in ternary superconductor Bi2Rh3Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. Y.; Chan, C. L.; Mukherjee, S.; Chou, C. C.; Tseng, C. M.; Hsu, S. L.; Chu, M.-W.; Lin, J.-Y.; Yang, H. D.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of external hydrostatic pressure up to 22.23 kbar on the temperature-dependent transport properties of the ternary compound Bi2Rh3Se2 is investigated. Interestingly, the resistive anomaly at Ts~250 K, previously proposed as a charge-density-wave (CDW) transition, is shifted to higher temperature with increasing pressure, in distinct contrast to an established knowledge for CDW. Using temperature-dependent electron-diffraction characterizations, we have unraveled that this transition is, in effect, of a structural phase-transformation nature, experiencing the symmetry reduction from a high-symmetry C-centered monoclinic lattice to a low-symmetry primitive one below Ts. A more elaborately determined room-temperature C-centered lattice was also proposed.

  3. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-09-01

    A novel direct phase-selection method to select optimized phases from the ambiguous phases of a subset of reflections to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases has been developed. With the improved phases, the completeness of built residues of protein molecules is enhanced for efficient structure determination. Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (ϕ{sub 1} and ϕ{sub 2}) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ{sub DS} list as a criterion to select optimized phases ϕ{sub am} from ϕ{sub 1} or ϕ{sub 2} of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases ϕ{sub SAD} has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ{sub DS} in the range 35–145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ{sub DS} is the angle between the initial phase ϕ{sub SAD} and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase ϕ{sub DM}{sup NHL}. The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination.

  4. Dynamic hollow fiber protected liquid phase microextraction and quantification using gas chromatography combined with electron capture detection of organochlorine pesticides in green tea leaves and ready-to-drink tea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Huang, Shang-Da

    2006-11-24

    The dynamic hollow fiber protected liquid phase microextraction (DHFP-LPME) technique was evaluated for the extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green tea leaves and ready-to-drink tea prior to gas chromatography combined-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) analysis. A conventional microsyringe with a 1.5 cm length of hollow fiber attached to its needle was connected to a syringe pump to perform the extraction. The microsyringe was used as both the microextraction device and the sample introduction device for GC-ECD analysis. In this work, the organochlorine pesticides were extracted and condensed to a volume of 3 microl of organic extracting solvent (1-octanol) confined within a 1.5 cm length of hollow fiber. The effects of extraction solvent, extraction time, sample agitation, plunger speed, and extraction temperature and salt concentration content on the extraction performance were also investigated. Good enrichments were achieved (34-297-fold) with this method, and good repeatabilities of extraction were obtained, with full name (RSDs) below 12.57%. Detection limits were much below 1 microg l(-1) for ready-to-drink tea and much below 1 microg g(-1) for green tea leaves.

  5. 2D particle-in-cell simulations of the electron drift instability and associated anomalous electron transport in Hall-effect thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croes, Vivien; Lafleur, Trevor; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne; Chabert, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    In this work we study the electron drift instability in Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) using a 2D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation is configured with a Cartesian coordinate system modeling the radial-azimuthal (r{--}θ ) plane for large radius thrusters. A magnetic field, {{B}}0, is aligned along the Oy axis (r direction), a constant applied electric field, {{E}}0, along the Oz axis (perpendicular to the simulation plane), and the {{E}}0× {{B}}0 direction is along the Ox axis (θ direction). Although electron transport can be well described by electron–neutral collisions for low plasma densities, at high densities (similar to those in typical HETs), a strong instability is observed that enhances the electron cross-field mobility; even in the absence of electron–neutral collisions. The instability generates high frequency (of the order of MHz) and short wavelength (of the order of mm) fluctuations in both the azimuthal electric field and charged particle densities, and propagates in the {{E}}0× {{B}}0 direction with a velocity close to the ion sound speed. The correlation between the electric field and density fluctuations (which leads to an enhanced electron–ion friction force) is investigated and shown to be directly responsible for the increased electron transport. Results are compared with a recent kinetic theory, showing good agreement with the instability properties and electron transport.

  6. High Performance Hollow Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Development of hollow projectiles was first advocated to achieve ’silent’ (low pressure signal) projectiles having higher performance. Although the...present effort concentrates on small arms (specifically 7.62 mm), the confirmed fundamental theory applies to all sizes of hollow projectiles. The...report can thus serve as a basis for (1) evaluating specific hollow projectile developments and (2) formulating programs to develop a wide spectrum of

  7. Hollow lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Mitchell, Scott; Lang, John; Maderas, Dennis; Speth, Joel; Payne, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    A hollow lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of focusing using a spherical or cylindrical lens followed by reflective waveguiding. The hollow duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side consisting of a lens that may be coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The inside surfaces of the hollow lens duct are appropriately coated to be reflective, preventing light from escaping by reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The hollow duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials.

  8. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  9. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  10. Anomalous electronic conductance in quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Stephan; Moulopoulos, Konstantinos

    2000-03-01

    Subtle quantum interference effects in one-dimensional quasicrystals are reported. Quite opposite to their metallic counterparts, quasiperiodic systems are shown to exhibit interesting variations of their conducting properties upon disruption of their long-range order. A sudden phason change in the structure leads to a series of transitions that proceed from extremely simple and regular to highly complex self-similar resistive patterns.

  11. Anomalous zones (domal)

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, D.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Each zone contains several anomalous salt properties (anomalous features). Zones cannot be characterized by any single property Zones are highly variable, lenticular, and discontinuous in detail; however, once established, they commonly have a predictable trend. The individual anomalous features can occur alone (locally in pairs) over areas of various sizes and shapes. These alone occurrences are not anomalous zones. Anomalous zones may be of any origin, and origin is not part of the definition. Typical origins include: primary (sedimentary), external sheath zone, separating two spines of salt, or caused by toroidal flow. The major importance of an anomalous zone is that it consists of various anomalous features distributed discontinuously along the zone. Thus, if three or more anomalous properties are observed together, one should look for others. The anomalous zones observed in the Gulf Coast thus far are vertical, linear, and semicontinuous. Most are reasonably straight, but some bend sharply, end abruptly, or coalesce. Textures in salt involve grain size, color (white to dark gray), grain shape, or grain distribution of the salt. Typical anomalous textures are coarse-grain, poikiloblastic, and friability. A change in color is commonplace and seldom anomalous. Structural anomalous features, broadly defined, account for most of the rest of the anomalous features. Not uncommonly they cause mining problems. Among the structural anomalous features: INCLUSIONS: Sediments, hydrocarbons, brine, gases. Common gases are air (as N{sub 2}), CH-compounds, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. STRUCTURES: Sheared salt, undue stabbing or jointing, voids (crystal-lined pockets), permeability, increased porosity COMPOSITION: High anhydrite content, visible anhydrite as grains or boudins, very black salt = disseminated impurities such as clay.

  12. The Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao-Xing; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-03-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect is defined as a quantized Hall effect realized in a system without an external magnetic field. The quantum anomalous Hall effect is a novel manifestation of topological structure in many-electron systems and may have potential applications in future electronic devices. In recent years, the quantum anomalous Hall effect was proposed theoretically and realized experimentally. In this review article, we provide a systematic overview of the theoretical and experimental developments in this field.

  13. Anomalous Diffraction in Crystallographic Phase Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from crystals of biological macromolecules contain sufficient information to define atomic structures, but atomic positions are inextricable without having electron-density images. Diffraction measurements provide amplitudes, but the computation of electron density also requires phases for the diffracted waves. The resonance phenomenon known as anomalous scattering offers a powerful solution to this phase problem. Exploiting scattering resonances from diverse elements, the methods of multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) now predominate for de novo determinations of atomic-level biological structures. This review describes the physical underpinnings of anomalous diffraction methods, the evolution of these methods to their current maturity, the elements, procedures and instrumentation used for effective implementation, and the realm of applications. PMID:24726017

  14. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Henning, S.A.

    1990-12-31

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800--1200{mu} diameter and 100--300{mu} wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  15. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Henning, Sten A.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800-1200 .mu. diameter and 100-300 .mu. wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  16. Application of modified hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction in conjunction with chromatography-electron capture detection for quantification of acrylamide in waste water samples at ultra-trace levels.

    PubMed

    Sobhi, Hamid Reza; Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Behbahani, Mohammad; Esrafili, Ali

    2017-03-03

    Herein, a simple and sensitive method was successfully developed for the extraction and quantification of acrylamide in water samples. Initially, acrylamide was derivatized through a bromination process. Subsequently, a modified hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction was applied for the extraction of the brominated acrylamide from a 10-ml portion of an aqueous sample. Briefly, in this method, the derivatized acrylamide (2,3-dibromopropionamide) was extracted from the aqueous sample into a thin layer of an organic solvent sustained in pores of a porous hollow fiber. Then, it was back-extracted using a small volume of organic acceptor solution (acetonitril, 25μl) located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The optimal conditions were examined for the extraction of the analyte such as: the organic solvent: dihexyl ether+10% tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide; stirring rate: 750rpm; no salt addition and 30min extraction time. These optimal extraction conditions allowed excellent enrichment factor values for the method. Enrichment factor, detection limit (S/N=3) and dynamic linear range of 60, 2ngL(-1) and 50-1000ngL(-1) to be determined for the analyte. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) representing precision of the method were in the range of 2.2-5.8 based on the average of three measurements. Accuracy of the method was tested by the relative recovery experiments on spiked samples, with results ranging from 93 to 108%. Finally, the method proved to be simple, rapid, and cost-effective for routine screen of acrylamide-contaminated highly-complicated untreated waste water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Anomalous Hall Effect in Spin-Polarized Two-Dimensional Hole Gas with Cubic-Rashbsa Spin-Orbit Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Li; Mi, Yi-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Based on the Kubo formalism, the anomalous Hall effect in a magnetic two-dimensional hole gas with cubic-Rashba spin-orbit coupling is studied in the presence of δ-function scattering potential. When the weak, short-ranged disorder scattering is considered in the Born approximation, we find that the self-energy becomes diagonal in the helicity basis and its value is independent of the wave number, and the vertex correction to the anomalous Hall conductivity due to impurity scattering vanishes when both subbands are occupied. That is to say, the anomalous Hall effect is not vanishing or influenced by the vertex correction for two-dimensional heavy-hole system, which is in sharp contrast to the case of linear-Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the electron band when the short-range disorder scattering is considered and the extrinsic mechanism as well as the effect of external electric field on the SO interaction are ignored.

  18. Preparation of magnetic nickel hollow fibers with a trilobe structure using cellulose acetate fibers as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Changfeng; Li, Ping; Zhang, Lixiong

    2013-02-01

    Nickel hollow fibers with trilobe shape in cross section and monolithic nickel structures composed of trilobe shaped nickel hollow fibrous networks were prepared by using cellulose acetate fibers from cigarette filters as the template. Magnetic ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers were then fabricated by using the nickel-based hollow fibers as the support. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that nickel hollow fibers and ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers retain the morphology of the cellulose acetate fibers, and the monolithic nickel structures can be prepared by pre-shaping the cellulose acetate fibers. The thickness of the nickel layer can be regulated by controlling the electroless plating times. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the trilobe shaped nickel hollow fibers and ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers are 27.78 and 21.59 emu/g and 78 and 61 Oe, respectively.

  19. 20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick lining of exterior wall; view to south, 135mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  20. Hollow-Fiber Clinostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Miller, Teresa Y.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    Hollow-fiber clinostat, is bioreactor used to study growth and other behavior of cells in simulated microgravity. Cells under study contained in porous hollow fiber immersed in culture medium inside vessel. Bores in hollow fiber allow exchange of gases, nutrients, and metabolic waste products between living cells and external culture media. Hollow fiber lies on axis of vessel, rotated by motor equipped with torque and speed controls. Desired temperature maintained by operating clinostat in standard tissue-culture incubator. Axis of rotation made horizontal or vertical. Designed for use with conventional methods of sterilization and sanitation to prevent contamination of specimen. Also designed for asepsis in assembly, injection of specimen, and exchange of medium.

  1. Hollow-Fiber Clinostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Miller, Teresa Y.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    Hollow-fiber clinostat, is bioreactor used to study growth and other behavior of cells in simulated microgravity. Cells under study contained in porous hollow fiber immersed in culture medium inside vessel. Bores in hollow fiber allow exchange of gases, nutrients, and metabolic waste products between living cells and external culture media. Hollow fiber lies on axis of vessel, rotated by motor equipped with torque and speed controls. Desired temperature maintained by operating clinostat in standard tissue-culture incubator. Axis of rotation made horizontal or vertical. Designed for use with conventional methods of sterilization and sanitation to prevent contamination of specimen. Also designed for asepsis in assembly, injection of specimen, and exchange of medium.

  2. Anomalous Enhancement of the Superconducting Transition Temperature of Electron-doped La2-xCexCuO4 and Pr2-xCexCuO4 Cuprate Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    K Jin; P Vach; X Zhang; U Grupel; E Zohar; I Diamant; Y Dagan; S Smadici; P Abbamonte; R Greene

    2011-12-31

    The superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} of multilayers of electron-doped cuprates, composed of underdoped (or undoped) and overdoped La{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LCCO) and Pr{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (PCCO) thin films, is found to increase significantly with respect to the T{sub c} of the corresponding single-phase films. By investigating the critical current density of superlattices with different doping levels and layer thicknesses, we find that the T{sub c} enhancement is caused by a redistribution of charge over an anomalously large distance.

  3. Hollow nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. The size of the inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. The existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet argon excimer laser excited by optical-field-induced ionized electrons produced in an argon-filled hollow fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Katto, Masahito

    2011-10-01

    Short-wavelength lasers in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region between 100 and 200 nm have not yet been developed to the same degree as visible and infrared lasers. We have demonstrated the production of argon excimers via an optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) process by using a high-intensity infrared laser. We here report optical amplification of argon excimers at the wavelength of 126 nm by producing an extended OFI plasma inside an argon-filled hollow fiber with an inner diameter of 250 microns with a length of 5.0 cm. A gain-length product of 4.3 through the use of single-pass amplification with VUV optics was observed, indicating a small signal gain coefficient of 0.86 cm-1 with an uncertainty of 0.03. It was found that the hollow fiber served to extend the OFI plasma length and to guide the excitation of the infrared laser and the produced VUV emissions at 126 nm, but did not affect the OFI plasma conditions to produce argon excimer molecules. Short-wavelength lasers in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region between 100 and 200 nm have not yet been developed to the same degree as visible and infrared lasers. We have demonstrated the production of argon excimers via an optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) process by using a high-intensity infrared laser. We here report optical amplification of argon excimers at the wavelength of 126 nm by producing an extended OFI plasma inside an argon-filled hollow fiber with an inner diameter of 250 microns with a length of 5.0 cm. A gain-length product of 4.3 through the use of single-pass amplification with VUV optics was observed, indicating a small signal gain coefficient of 0.86 cm-1 with an uncertainty of 0.03. It was found that the hollow fiber served to extend the OFI plasma length and to guide the excitation of the infrared laser and the produced VUV emissions at 126 nm, but did not affect the OFI plasma conditions to produce argon excimer molecules. Part of this work has been supported by

  5. General sacrificial template method for the synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide hollow structures.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jian-Jun; Jiang, Li-Ping; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Jian-Min; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2007-07-09

    Semiconductor CdX (X=Te, Se, S) hollow structures have been successfully prepared by using Cd(OH)Cl precursors as a sacrificial template. The hollow structures can be hollow spheres or tubes by controlling the shape of the sacrificial template. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. The obtained results showed that the hollow structures had complementary shapes and sizes of the original sacrificial templates. This is a general method for the synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide hollow structures, and the method is simpler and more practical than direct synthesis of certain hollow structures, which further widens the avenue to using those materials that have been synthesized with various shapes to fabricate specific hollow structures.

  6. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: a signal processing electronics check, a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and lastly, a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on proposal 11884, visits 1 to 4.

  7. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: 1} a signal processing electronics check, 2} a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and 4} a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 12738 from Cycle 19.

  8. Electron beam generation in open hollow-cathode discharge and the characteristics of He-Xe laser on the Xe line at {lambda} = 2.026 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'skaya, E V; Bokhan, P A; Zakrevskii, D E

    2010-09-10

    An open hollow-cathode discharge, generating an electron beam, is implemented in a cell with an active volume of 6.2 L. An electron-beam current of 3.4 A at an average power of 2.5 kW is obtained in helium in the quasi-cw regime at an anode voltage of 1.5 kV. Lasing in a He-Xe mixture on the 5d[3/2]{sup 0}{sub 1}-6p[3/2]{sub 1} transition in xenon at the wavelength {lambda} = 2.026 {mu}m under electron-beam excitation is investigated. The optimal component ratio in the He : Xe mixture is 99.5 : 0.5 (p{sub He} = 4-8 Torr). The lasing power linearly increases with increasing the electron-beam power. It is shown that the discharge of this type can be used as an electron-beam source for exciting gaseous active media. (lasers)

  9. Nonlocal anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shulei; Vignale, Giovanni

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a distinctive transport property of ferromagnetic metals arising from spin orbit coupling (SOC) in concert with spontaneous spin polarization. Nonetheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also appears in a nonmagnetic metal in contact with a magnetic insulator. The main puzzle lies in the apparent absence of spin polarized electrons in the non-magnetic metal. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the scattering of electrons from a rough metal-insulator interface is generally spin-dependent, which results in mutual conversion between spin and charge currents flowing in the plane of the layer. It is the current-carrying spin polarized electrons and the spin Hall effect in the bulk of the metal layer that conspire to generate the AH current. This novel AHE differs from the conventional one only in the spatial separation of the SOC and the magnetization, so we name it as nonlocal AHE. In contrast to other previously proposed mechanisms (e.g., spin Hall AHE and magnetic proximity effect (MPE)), the nonlocal AHE appears on the first order of spin Hall angle and does not rely on the induced moments in the metal layer, which make it experimentally detectable by contrasting the AH current directions of two layered structures such as Pt/Cu/YIG and β -Ta/Cu/YIG (with a thin inserted Cu layer to eliminate the MPE). We predict that the directions of the AH currents in these two trilayers would be opposite since the spin Hall angles of Pt and β -Ta are of opposite signs. Work supported by NSF Grants DMR-1406568.

  10. Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Q.; Hendrickson, W.

    2017-01-01

    The normal elastic X-ray scattering that depends only on electron density can be modulated by an ?anomalous? component due to resonance between X-rays and electronic orbitals. Anomalous scattering thereby precisely identifies atomic species, since orbitals distinguish atomic elements, which enables the multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD and SAD) methods. SAD now predominates in de novo structure determination of biological macromolecules, and we focus here on the prevailing SAD method. We describe the anomalous phasing theory and the periodic table of phasing elements that are available for SAD experiments, differentiating between those readily accessible for at-resonance experiments and those that can be effective away from an edge. We describe procedures for present-day SAD phasing experiments and we discuss optimization of anomalous signals for challenging applications. We also describe methods for using anomalous signals as molecular markers for tracing and element identification. Emerging developments and perspectives are discussed in brief.

  11. Low-pressure glow discharge with a hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, Valeriy; Bogodielnyi, Illia

    2011-10-01

    We measured the breakdown curves of a dc glow discharge with hollow cathode and flat electrodes in the gap between the electrodes L = 100 mm. At low gas pressure, the left branches of the breakdown curves for the hollow cathode and the flat electrodes are identical. At high gas pressures, the right branch of the breakdown curve of the discharge with a hollow cathode is close to the breakdown curve for the distance between the plane electrodes, equal to the gap between the edge of the plates of the hollow cathode and flat anode. Current-voltage characteristics of the hollow cathode discharge were measured. At low gas pressure discharge is in the high-voltage (electron beam) form with ascending CVC. In the gas pressure range p > 0.1 Torr the discharge first burns in the glow mode. At higher current the discharge goes into the hollow cathode mode, filling the space between the plates, and it has an almost vertical CVC. The transition from a glow discharge mode into a hollow one possesses a hysteresis. At gas pressures p ~ 1 Torr the hollow cathode effect disappears, since the thickness of the cathode layer is small compared with the gap between the plates of the cathode.

  12. Drought Contingency Plan Mansfield Hollow Lake, Mansfield Hollow, Connecticut.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    AD -A 127 543 DROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLAN MANSFIELD HOLLOW LAKE / MANSFIELD HOLLOW CONNECTICUT(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAM MA NEW ENGLAND DIV MAR 83...3. RECIPICHT’S CATALOG NumlIER 4. TITLE (and Subliffe) S. TYp5 OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Drought Contingency Plan Mansfield Hollow Lake, Mansfield...oaigrySud Hollow , Connecticut 06. PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMSCIR(e) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers _ New

  13. Fabrication of hollow silver spheres by MPTMS-functionalized hollow silica spheres as templates

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Gon; Oh, Chul; Shin, Seung-Il; Kim, Young-Chai; Oh, Seong-Geun . E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr; Kong, Sung-Ho

    2005-02-15

    In this study, we provide a strategy to prepare the hollow silver spheres by accumulating the silver nanoparticles on the surface of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS)-functionalized silica as templates, which was accomplished by the chemisorption between silver nanoparticles and thiol groups. Then, the resulting hollow silver spheres were obtained through the chemical wet etching process with 10 M HF solution. In conventional method, the fabrication of hollow silver spheres from core-shell spheres was not easy due to the difficulties in retaining the shell structures during core removal. The method in this paper could overcome this limitation. The major focus of study is on understanding the mechanism of formation of the hollow silver spheres through the self-assembly behavior by chemisorption between silver nanoparticles and thiol groups. The silver-coated silica and hollow silver spheres were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  14. Boron nitride hollow nanospheres: Synthesis, formation mechanism and dielectric property

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, B.; Tang, X.H.; Huang, X.X.; Xia, L.; Zhang, X.D.; Wang, C.J.; Wen, G.W.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • BN hollow nanospheres are fabricated in large scale via a new CVD method. • Morphology and structure are elucidated by complementary analytical techniques. • Formation mechanism is proposed based on experimental observations. • Dielectric properties are investigated in the X-band microwave frequencies. • BN hollow nanospheres show lower dielectric loss than regular BN powders. - Abstract: Boron nitride (BN) hollow nanospheres have been successfully fabricated by pyrolyzing vapors decomposed from ammonia borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}) at 1300 °C. The final products have been extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The BN hollow nanospheres were ranging from 100 to 300 nm in diameter and around 30–100 nm in thickness. The internal structure of the products was found dependent on the reaction temperatures. A possible formation mechanism of the BN hollow nanospheres was proposed on the basis of the experimental observations. Dielectric measurements in the X-band microwave frequencies (8–12 GHz) showed that the dielectric loss of the paraffin filled by the BN hollow nanospheres was lower than that filled by regular BN powders, which indicated that the BN hollow nanospheres could be potentially used as low-density fillers for microwave radomes.

  15. Anomalous Transport Effects in Auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasperse, J. R.; Basu, B.; Lund, E. J.; Grossbard, N.

    2011-12-01

    The physical processes that determine the fluid quantities and the self-consistent, electric field (Epar) parallel to the magnetic field have been an unresolved problem in magnetospheric physics for over forty years. Recently, we have published a new kinetic and multimoment fluid theory for inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized plasma with temperature anisotropy and applied the theory to solve for the quasi steady state in the long-range potential region of a downward Birkeland current sheet when electrostatic ion cyclotron turbulence was dominant. See Jasperse et al. [2006a, 2006b, 2010a, 2010b, and 2011]. We find that the turbulence produces an enhancement in the magnitude of Epar by nearly a factor of forty compared to the case when it is absent. Anomalous momentum transfer (anomalous resistivity) by itself has a very small effect on Epar; however, the presence of the turbulence and the anomalous energy transfers (anomalous heating and cooling) that result have a very large effect on the entire solution. In the electron and ion momentum-balance equations for Epar, the turbulence enhances the magnitude of Epar by reducing the effect of the generalized parallel pressure gradients and thereby enhancing the effect of the mirror forces. A new, nonlinear formula for the current-voltage relation in downward current regions is also given which is different from the Knight relation for upward currents. Jasperse et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 072903 [2006a], Phys. Plasmas 13, 112902 [2006b], Phys. Plasmas 17, 062903 [2010a], Phys. Plasmas 17, 062904 [2010b], and J. Geophys. Res., in press [2011].

  16. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  17. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  18. Anomalous diffraction approximation limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videen, Gorden; Chýlek, Petr

    It has been reported in a recent article [Liu, C., Jonas, P.R., Saunders, C.P.R., 1996. Accuracy of the anomalous diffraction approximation to light scattering by column-like ice crystals. Atmos. Res., 41, pp. 63-69] that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) accuracy does not depend on particle refractive index, but instead is dependent on the particle size parameter. Since this is at odds with previous research, we thought these results warranted further discussion.

  19. How do Colluvial Hollows Fill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, T. C.; Parker, R.; Mudd, S. M.; Grieve, S. W. D.

    2016-12-01

    In humid, soil-mantled mountains shallow landslides commonly initiate in colluvial hollows, areas where convergent topography can lead to high pore pressures during storms. Immediately post-landslide initiation, a thin veneer of colluvial material accumulates by small-scale slumping from landslide headscarps. Thereafter colluvium accumulates in hollows primarily through creep-dominated processes like tree throw and animal burrowing, recording the hillslope sediment flux since the last landslide event. We measured the post-landslide hillslope sediment flux in 30 colluvial hollows in the southern Appalachians using radiocarbon measurements collected from soil pits excavated at the centre of steep, landslide-prone hollows. We collected material from the soil-saprolite/bedrock boundary at each location for radiocarbon dating and dated different chemical fractions of the soil (humic acid, humin, charcoal) in an attempt to bracket the "true" age of the soil. We calculated infilling rates of each hollow by measuring soil depths in cross-hollow transects and dividing this by the age of the hollow. The interquartile range of hollow basal ages is 2278-8184 cal. yrs B.P., demonstrating the long return period of landslides in most colluvial hollows. Hillslope erosion rates calculated assuming a linear diffusion transport law show that the transport coefficient (diffusivity) of the hollows varied by 4 orders of magnitude 10-5 to 10-1 m2 yr-1, despite the hollows being formed in regionally consistent geology and vegetation. Uncertainty in the dating and hollow geometry measurements can, at most, account for an order of magnitude of that variability. Our results show that hollows have a phase of rapid infilling that slows through time, consistent with previous observations. Despite this, the oldest hollows show several orders of magnitude variation in the transport coefficient, suggesting local, hollow scale variations in process significantly affect hillslope erosion rates.

  20. Anomalous is ubiquitous

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2011-09-15

    Brownian motion is widely considered the quintessential model of diffusion processes-the most elemental random transport processes in Science and Engineering. Yet so, examples of diffusion processes displaying highly non-Brownian statistics-commonly termed 'Anomalous Diffusion' processes-are omnipresent both in the natural sciences and in engineered systems. The scientific interest in Anomalous Diffusion and its applications is growing exponentially in the recent years. In this Paper we review the key statistics of Anomalous Diffusion processes: sub-diffusion and super-diffusion, long-range dependence and the Joseph effect, Levy statistics and the Noah effect, and 1/f noise. We further present a theoretical model-generalizing the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model-which provides a unified explanation for the prevalence of Anomalous Diffusion statistics. Our model shows that what is commonly perceived as 'anomalous' is in effect ubiquitous. - Highlights: > The article provides an overview of Anomalous Diffusion (AD) statistics. > The Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model is extended and generalized. > The generalized model universally generates AD statistics. > A unified 'universal macroscopic explanation' for AD statistics is established. > AD statistics are shown to be fundamentally connected to robustness.

  1. Revealing bismuth oxide hollow nanoparticle formation by the Kirkendall effect.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kai-Yang; Park, Jungwon; Zheng, Haimei; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2013-01-01

    We study the formation of bismuth oxide hollow nanoparticles by the Kirkendall effect using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rich dynamics of bismuth diffusion through the bismuth oxide shell have been captured in situ. The diffusion coefficient of bismuth through bismuth oxide shell is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk. Observation reveals that defects, temperature, sizes of the particles, and so forth can affect the diffusion of reactive species and modify the kinetics of the hollowing process.

  2. Hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction followed by solid-phase microextraction and in situ derivatization for the determination of chlorophenols by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

    2015-10-30

    A method based on the combination of hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection was developed for the determination of chlorophenols in water and wastewater samples. Silica microstructures fabricated on the surface of a stainless steel wire were coated by an organic solvent and used as a SPME fiber. The analytes were extracted through a hollow fiber membrane containing n-decane from sample solution to an alkaline aqueous acceptor phase. They were then extracted and in situ derivatized on the SPME fiber using acetic anhydride. Experimental parameters such as the type of extraction solvent, acceptor phase NaOH concentration, donor phase HCl concentration, the amount of derivatizing reagent, salt concentration, stirring rate and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The precision of the method for the analytes at 0.02-30μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 7.1 to 10.2% (as intra-day relative standard deviation) and 6.4 to 9.8% (as inter-day relative standard deviation). The linear dynamic ranges were in the interval of 5-500μgL(-1), 0.05-5μgL(-1), 0.02-1μgL(-1) and 0.001-0.5μgL(-1) for 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, respectively. The enrichment factors were between 432 and 785. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.0004-1.2μgL(-1). Tap water, well water and wastewater samples were also analyzed to evaluate the method capability for real sample analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Anomalous Kondo-Switching Effect of a Spin-Flip Quantum Dot Embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiong-Wen; Shi, Zhen-Gang; Song, Ke-Hui

    2009-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the Kondo effect of a quantum dot embedded in a mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring in the presence of the spin flip processes by means of the one-impurity Anderson Hamiltonian. Based on the slave-boson mean-field theory, we find that in this system the persistent current (PC) sensitively depends on the parity and size of the AB ring and can be tuned by the spin-flip scattering (R). In the small AB ring, the PC is suppressed due to the enhancing R weakening the Kondo resonance. On the contrary, in the large AB ring, with R increasing, the peak of PC firstly moves up to max-peak and then down. Especially, the PC phase shift of π appears suddenly with the proper value of R, implying the existence of the anomalous Kondo effect in this system. Thus this system may be a candidate for quantum switch.

  4. Facile Synthesis and High Photocatalytic Degradation Performance of ZnO-SnO2 Hollow Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Changqing; Ge, Chenghai; Jian, Zengyun; Wei, Yongxing

    2016-11-01

    ZnO-SnO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized through a hydrothermal method-combined carbon sphere template. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The average diameter of hollow spheres is about 150 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was investigated by photodegrading Rhodamine B. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activities of ZnO-SnO2 hollow spheres are higher than ZnO hollow spheres. The degradation efficiency of the hollow spheres could reach 99.85% within 40 min, while the ZnO hollow spheres need 50 min.

  5. Facile Synthesis and High Photocatalytic Degradation Performance of ZnO-SnO2 Hollow Spheres.

    PubMed

    Jin, Changqing; Ge, Chenghai; Jian, Zengyun; Wei, Yongxing

    2016-12-01

    ZnO-SnO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized through a hydrothermal method-combined carbon sphere template. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The average diameter of hollow spheres is about 150 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was investigated by photodegrading Rhodamine B. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activities of ZnO-SnO2 hollow spheres are higher than ZnO hollow spheres. The degradation efficiency of the hollow spheres could reach 99.85% within 40 min, while the ZnO hollow spheres need 50 min.

  6. Preparation and surface encapsulation of hollow TiO nanoparticles for electrophoretic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Tan, Tingfeng; Qi, Peng; Wang, Shirong; Bian, Shuguang; Li, Xianggao; An, Yong; Liu, Zhaojun

    2011-02-01

    Hollow black TiO nanosparticles were obtained via deposition of inorganic coating on the surface of hollow core-shell polymer latex with Ti(OBu)4 as precursor and subsequent calcination in ammonia gas. Hollow TiO particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. Encapsulation of TiO via dispersion polymerization was promoved by pretreating the pigments with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate, making it possible to prepare hollow TiO-polymer particles. When St and DVB were used as polymerization monomer, hollow TiO-polymer core-shell particles came into being via dispersion polymerization, and the lipophilic degree is 28.57%. Glutin-arabic gum microcapsules containing TiO-polymer particles electrophoretic liquid were prepared using via complex coacervation. It was founded that hollow TiO-polymer particles had enough electrophoretic mobility after coating with polymer.

  7. Discharge with Hollow Cathode (Selected Chapters),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-12

    view of its mechanism made Rose in [77]. Let us dismantle/select the fundamental conclusions of this work which are based on the study of the...too little in order to support discharge by means of : 7-processes, and therefore the mechanism of secondary processes in the arc with hollow cathode...which leads to the output of electrons from the cathode, thermoemission, then the temperature of cathode surface T3 must be T.=p33OK. Unfortunately, the

  8. Hollow Cathode With Multiple Radial Orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Improved hollow cathode serving as source of electrons has multiple radial orifices instead of single axial orifice. Distributes ion current more smoothly, over larger area. Prototype of high-current cathodes for ion engines in spacecraft. On Earth, cathodes used in large-diameter ion sources for industrial processing of materials. Radial orientation of orifices in new design causes current to be dispersed radially in vicinity of cathode. Advantageous where desireable to produce plasma more nearly uniform over wider region around cathode.

  9. Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2017-01-01

    The normal elastic X-ray scattering that depends only on electron density can be modulated by an ‘anomalous’ component due to resonance between X-rays and electronic orbitals. Anomalous scattering thereby precisely identifies atomic species, since orbitals distinguish atomic elements, which enables the multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD and SAD) methods. SAD now predominates in de novo structure determination of biological macromolecules, and we focus here on the prevailing SAD method. We describe the anomalous phasing theory and the periodic table of phasing elements that are available for SAD experiments, differentiating between those readily accessible for at-resonance experiments and those that can be effective away from an edge. We describe procedures for present-day SAD phasing experiments and we discuss optimization of anomalous signals for challenging applications. We also describe methods for using anomalous signals as molecular markers for tracing and element identification. Emerging developments and perspectives are discussed in brief. PMID:28573582

  10. Dispersion analysis of hollow-core modes in ultralarge-bandwidth all-silica Bragg fibers with nanosupports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    2006-03-01

    Dispersion of the fundamental confined modes in hollow-core all-silica Bragg fibers with nanosupports is analyzed. The transfer-matrix formalism is applied. Anomalies in the group-velocity dispersion are evidenced at long wavelengths, toward the upper limit of the bandgap. The results confirm that, as in microstructured photonic crystal fibers, this anomalous dispersion is due to prevention of the confined hollow-core modes from crossing the surface modes, the avoided crossings are more apparent in the variation of group velocity with wavelength. The dependence of these avoided crossings on the hollow-core radius and the layer thicknesses is briefly analyzed.

  11. Hollow cathode plasma coupling study, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    The electron collection and emission characteristics of a simple hollow cathode contactor, an extended anode hollow cathode contactor supplied by JSC, and a ring cusp magnetic field contactor are presented and the effects of discharge power and argon or xenon expellant flowrate on these characteristics are examined. All of the contactors are shown to exhibit good electron emission performance over a wide range of discharge power and expellant type and flowrate. Good electron performance is shown to be more difficult to achieve. Results suggest that the extended anode and ring cusp contactors should perform satisfactorily to electron emission currents beyond 1000 mA and electron collection currents beyond 500 mA. All contactors performed better on xenon than argon. A general theory of plasma contactor operation in both the electron collection and electron emission modes, which describes the current-limiting effects of space-charge phenomena is given. This current-limiting and collecting phenomenon is shown to be a function of driving potential differences and emitting and collecting surface radius ratio for the case of a spherical geometry. Discharge power did not appear to influence the electron collection current substantially in the experiments so it is suggested in light of the model that the contactors are generally not limited by their ion production capabilities under conditions at which they were tested.

  12. Is anomalous transport diffusive

    SciTech Connect

    Rewoldt, G.

    1989-09-01

    It has often been assumed that the anomalous transport from saturated plasma instabilities is diffusive'' in the sense that the particle flux, {Gamma}, the electron energy flux, q{sub e}, and the ion energy flux, q{sub i}, can be written in forms that are linear in the density gradient, dn/dr, the electron temperature gradient, dT{sub e}/dr, and the ion temperature gradient dT{sub i}/dr. In the simplest form, {Gamma} = {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), q{sub e} = {minus} D{sub e}{sup e}n(dT{sub e}/dr), and q{sub i} = {minus}D{sub i}{sup i}n(dT{sub i}/dr). A possible generalization of this is to include so-called off-diagonal'' terms, with {Gamma} = nV{sub n} {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup e}(n/T{sub e})(dT{sub e}/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup i}(n/T{sub i})(dT{sub i}/dr), with corresponding forms for the energy fluxes. Here, general results for the quasilinear particle and energy fluxes, resulting from tokamak linear microinstabilities, are evaluated to assess the relative importance of the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms. A further possible generatlization is to include also contributions to the fluxes from higher powers of the gradients, specifically quadratic'' contributions proportional to (dn/dr){sup 2}, (dn/dr)(dT{sub e}/dr), and so on. A procedure is described for evaluating the corresponding coefficients, and results are presented for illustrative realistic tokamak cases. Qualitatively, it is found that the off-diagonal diffusion coefficients can be as big as the diagonal ones, and that the quadratic terms can be larger than the linear ones. The results thus strongly suggest that the commonly used diffusive'' approximation with only diagonal terms, {Gamma} = {minus}D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), and correspondingly for the energy fluxes, is not adequate in practice. 9 refs., 1 tabs.

  13. Macromolecular X-ray structure determination using weak, single-wavelength anomalous data

    SciTech Connect

    Bunkóczi, Gábor; McCoy, Airlie J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.; Holton, James M.; Read, Randy J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2014-12-22

    We describe a likelihood-based method for determining the substructure of anomalously scattering atoms in macromolecular crystals that allows successful structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) X-ray analysis with weak anomalous signal. With the use of partial models and electron density maps in searches for anomalously scattering atoms, testing of alternative values of parameters and parallelized automated model-building, this method has the potential to extend the applicability of the SAD method in challenging cases.

  14. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  15. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  17. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  18. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  19. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  20. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  1. Preparation and Application of Hollow Silica/magnetic Nanocomposite Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Chien; Lin, Jing-Mo; Lin, Chun-Rong; Wang, Sheng-Chang

    The hollow silica/cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic microsphere with amino-groups were successfully prepared via several steps, including preparing the chelating copolymer microparticles as template by soap-free emulsion polymerization, manufacturing the hollow cobalt ferrite magnetic microsphere by in-situ chemical co-precipitation following calcinations, and surface modifying of the hollow magnetic microsphere by 3-aminopropyltrime- thoxysilane via the sol-gel method. The average diameter of polymer microspheres was ca. 200 nm from transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement. The structure of the hollow magnetic microsphere was characterized by using TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The spinel-type lattice of CoFe2O4 shell layer was identified by using XRD measurement. The diameter of CoFe2O4 crystalline grains ranged from 54.1 nm to 8.5 nm which was estimated by Scherrer's equation. Additionally, the hollow silica/cobalt ferrite microsphere possesses superparamagnetic property after VSM measurement. The result of BET measurement reveals the hollow magnetic microsphere which has large surface areas (123.4m2/g). After glutaraldehyde modified, the maximum value of BSA immobilization capacity of the hollow magnetic microsphere was 33.8 mg/g at pH 5.0 buffer solution. For microwave absorption, when the hollow magnetic microsphere was compounded within epoxy resin, the maximum reflection loss of epoxy resins could reach -35dB at 5.4 GHz with 1.9 mm thickness.

  2. Low solvothermal synthesis and characterization of hollow nanospheres molybdenum sulfide.

    PubMed

    Akram, H; Mateos-Pedrero, C; Gallegos-Suárez, E; Allali, N; Chafik, T; Rodriguez-Ramos, I; Guerrero Ruiz, A

    2012-08-01

    Hollow nanospheres of molybdenum disulfide have been synthesized by a novel solvothermal method under low temperature (180 degrees C). These nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). A mechanism for the synthesis reaction is tentatively proposed and discussed.

  3. Plasma generation near an Ion thruster disharge chamber hollow cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Anderson, John R.; Goebel, Dan M.; Wirz, Richard; Sengupta, Anita

    2003-01-01

    In gridded electrostatic thrusters, ions are produced by electron bombardment in the discharge chamber. In most of these thrusters, a single, centrally located hollow cathode supplies the ionizing electrons. An applied magnetic field in the discharge chamber restricts the electrons leaving the hollow cathode to a very narrow channel. In this channel, the high electron current density ionizes both propellant gas flowing from the hollow cathode, and other neutrals from the main propellant flow from the plenum. The processes that occur just past the hollow cathode exit are very important. In recent engine tests, several cases of discharge cathode orifice place and keeper erosion have been reported. In this paper we present results from a new 1-D, variable area model of the plasma processes in the magnetized channel just downstream of the hollow cathode keeper. The model predicts plasma densities, and temperatures consistent with those reported in the literature for the NSTAR engine, and preliminary results from the model show a potential maximum just downstream of the cathode.

  4. Plasma generation near an Ion thruster disharge chamber hollow cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Anderson, John R.; Goebel, Dan M.; Wirz, Richard; Sengupta, Anita

    2003-01-01

    In gridded electrostatic thrusters, ions are produced by electron bombardment in the discharge chamber. In most of these thrusters, a single, centrally located hollow cathode supplies the ionizing electrons. An applied magnetic field in the discharge chamber restricts the electrons leaving the hollow cathode to a very narrow channel. In this channel, the high electron current density ionizes both propellant gas flowing from the hollow cathode, and other neutrals from the main propellant flow from the plenum. The processes that occur just past the hollow cathode exit are very important. In recent engine tests, several cases of discharge cathode orifice place and keeper erosion have been reported. In this paper we present results from a new 1-D, variable area model of the plasma processes in the magnetized channel just downstream of the hollow cathode keeper. The model predicts plasma densities, and temperatures consistent with those reported in the literature for the NSTAR engine, and preliminary results from the model show a potential maximum just downstream of the cathode.

  5. Fabrication of hollow spheres by dry-gel conversion and its application in the selective hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinchang; Wang, Gang; Jin, Fengying; Fang, Xiangchen; Song, Chunshan; Guo, Xinwen

    2013-04-15

    Hollow spheres were synthesized from MCM-41 solid spheres by dry-gel conversion. It was found that water amount has a major impact on the formation of hollow spheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the hollow spheres are between 500 and 600 nm in size with a dense shell of ca. 100 nm. The synthesized hollow sphere sample was examined as a support for hydrodesulfurization catalyst. The sulfur removal was enhanced while olefin hydrogenation of FCC gasoline was suppressed, and thus, the octane value was preserved when the hollow spheres (Na type) were loaded with Ni and Mo oxides as catalyst.

  6. Geomagnetically trapped anomalous cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Selesnick, R.S.; Cummings, A.C.; Cummings, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    Since its launch in July 1992, the polar-orbiting satellite SAMPEX has been collecting data on geomagnetically trapped heavy ions, predominantly O, N, and Ne, at energies {ge}15 MeV/nucleon and in a narrow L shell range L = 2. Their location, elemental composition, energy spectra, pitch angle distribution, and time variations all support the theory that these particles originated as singly ionized interplanetary anomalous cosmic rays that were stripped of electrons in the Earth`s upper atmosphere and subsequently trapped. The O are observed primarily at pitch angles outside the atmospheric loss cones, consistent with a trapped population, and their distribution there is nearly isotropic. The abundances relative to O of the N, possible Ne, and especially C are lower than the corresponding interplanetary values, which may be indicative of the trapping efficiencies. The distributions of trapped N, O, and Ne in energy and L shell suggest that most of the ions observed at the SAMPEX altitude of {approximately}600 km are not fully stripped when initially trapped. A comparison of the trapped intensity with the much lower interplanetary intensity of anomalous cosmic rays provides model-dependent estimates of the product of the trapping probability and the average trapped particle lifetime against ionization losses in the residual atmosphere for particles that mirror near the SAMPEX altitude. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effect of growth temperature on the electronic transport and anomalous Hall effect response in co-sputtered Co2FeSi thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anjali; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2015-11-01

    Co-sputtered Co2FeSi thin films are studied by varying the growth temperature (Ts) as a control parameter in terms of the appreciable change in the disorder. The effect of Ts on structural, magnetic, electrical, and magneto-transport properties was investigated. As Ts is increased from room temperature to 400 °C, an improvement in the crystallinity and atomic ordering are observed. These are found to be correlated with the associated reduction in residual resistivity ( ρ x x 0 ) from 410 to 88 μΩ cm, an increment in residual resistivity ratio (r) from 0.8 to 1.23, and an increase in saturation magnetization from 1074 to 1196 emu/cc. The spin wave stiffness constant in these films is found to increase with Ts, with a reasonably high value of 358 meVÅ2 at the optimum value of Ts of 400 °C. Further, the obtained high carrier concentration and mobility values (at 10 K) of ˜30 e-s/f.u. and ˜0.11 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the films deposited at Ts = 400 °C shows the presence of compensated Fermi surface. The transport properties are investigated qualitatively from the scaling of anomalous Hall resistivity ρx y s (T) with the longitudinal resistivity ρ x x ( T ) data, employing the extrinsic (skew- and side-jump scatterings) and intrinsic scattering contributions. The variation in the intrinsic scattering contributions observed via the variation in linear dependence of ρx y s on ρx x 2 with the change in Ts is found to be associated with the improvement in the crystallinity of these films.

  8. Metal oxide hollow nanoparticles formation by a single nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhen; Hwang, David J.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the trend of metal oxide hollow nanoparticles formation is experimentally inspected by a single nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a bulk metal material in water and/or ethanol. Analysis results by transmission electron microscope indicate that the hollow formation can be completed or initiated by a single nanosecond laser pulse, dictated by the diffusive thermo-chemical and/or bubble-assisted assembly mechanisms, depending on the surrounding liquid medium and laser parameters. The results not only provide experimental clues to unveiling complex mechanisms involved with the hollow formation by the multiple laser shots but also will contribute to improving the hollow particle production efficiency.

  9. Attenuated retroreflectors for electronic distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David H.; Goldman, Michael A.; Radcliff, Bill; Shelton, John W.

    Methods are described for attenuating solid glass and hollow retroreflectors, without introducing optical path length modifications, for electronic distance measurement. Construction of a prototype novel-design hollow retroreflector is described.

  10. 28,000 Hour Xenon Hollow Cathode LifeTest Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    The International Space Station Plasma Contactor System requires a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) with a lifetime of at least 18,000 hours. Critical components of the HCA include the hollow cathode and electron emitter. A series of hollow cathode wear tests was performed which included a life test operated at the maximum current of the HCA. This test sought to verify the hollow cathode design and contamination control protocols. The life test accumulated 27,800 hours of operation before failing to ignite. The hollow cathode exhibited relatively small changes in operating parameters over the course of the test. This life test is the longest duration test of a high current xenon hollow cathode reported to date.

  11. Demystifying fluorine chemical shifts: electronic structure calculations address origins of seemingly anomalous (19)F-NMR spectra of fluorohistidine isomers and analogues.

    PubMed

    Kasireddy, Chandana; Bann, James G; Mitchell-Koch, Katie R

    2015-11-11

    Fluorine NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying biomolecular structure, dynamics, and ligand binding, yet the origins of (19)F chemical shifts are not well understood. Herein, we use electronic structure calculations to describe the changes in (19)F chemical shifts of 2F- and 4F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole upon acid titration. While the protonation of the 2F species results in a deshielded chemical shift, protonation of the 4F isomer results in an opposite, shielded chemical shift. The deshielding of 2F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole upon protonation can be rationalized by concomitant decreases in charge density on fluorine and a reduced dipole moment. These correlations do not hold for 4F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole, however. Molecular orbital calculations reveal that for the 4F species, there are no lone pair electrons on the fluorine until protonation. Analysis of a series of 4F-imidazole analogues, all with delocalized fluorine electron density, indicates that the deshielding of (19)F chemical shifts through substituent effects correlates with increased C-F bond polarity. In summary, the delocalization of fluorine electrons in the neutral 4F species, with gain of a lone pair upon protonation may help explain the difficulty in developing a predictive framework for fluorine chemical shifts. Ideas debated by chemists over 40 years ago, regarding fluorine's complex electronic effects, are shown to have relevance for understanding and predicting fluorine NMR spectra.

  12. Demystifying fluorine chemical shifts: Electronic structure calculations address origins of seemingly anomalous 19F-NMR spectra of fluorohistidine isomers and analogues

    PubMed Central

    Kasireddy, Chandana; Bann, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying biomolecular structure, dynamics, and ligand binding, yet the origins of 19F chemical shifts are not well understood. Herein, we use electronic structure calculations to describe the changes in 19F chemical shifts of 2F- and 4F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole upon acid titration. While the protonation of the 2F species results in a deshielded chemical shift, protonation of the 4F results in an opposite, shielded chemical shift. The deshielding of 2F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole upon protonation can be rationalized by concomitant decreases in charge density on fluorine and a reduced dipole moment. These correlations do not hold for 4F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole, however. Molecular orbital calculations reveal that for the 4F species, there are no lone pair electrons on the fluorine until protonation. Analysis of a series of 4F-imidazole analogues, all with delocalized fluorine electron density, indicates that the deshielding of 19F chemical shifts through substituent effects correlates with increased C-F bond polarity. In summary, the delocalization of fluorine electrons in the neutral 4F species, with gain of a lone pair upon protonation may help explain the difficulty in developing a predictive framework for fluorine chemical shifts. Ideas debated by chemists over 40 years ago, regarding fluorine's complex electronic effects, are shown to have relevance for understanding and predicting fluorine NMR spectra. PMID:26524669

  13. Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers derived from Y2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2013-06-01

    YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers were successfully fabricated via fluorination of the relevant Y2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers which were obtained by calcining the electrospun PVP/[Y(NO3)3 + Yb(NO3)3 + Er(NO3)3] composite nanofibers. The morphology and properties of the products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence spectrometer. YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers were pure orthorhombic phase with space group Pnma and were hollow-centered structure with mean diameter of 174 ± 22 nm, and YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers are composed of nanoparticles with size in the range of 30-60 nm. Upconversion emission spectrum analysis manifested that YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers emitted strong green and weak red upconversion emissions centering at 523, 545, and 654 nm, respectively. The green and red emissions were, respectively, originated from 2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 → 4Il5/2 energy levels transitions of the Er3+ ions. Moreover, the emitting colors of YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers were located in the green region in CIE chromaticity coordinates diagram. This preparation technique could be applied to prepare other rare earth fluoride upconversion luminescence hollow nanofibers.

  14. Mercury - the hollow planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury is turning out to be a planet characterized by various kinds of endogenous hole (discounting impact craters), which are compared here. These include volcanic vents and collapse features on horizontal scales of tens of km, and smaller scale depressions ('hollows') associated with bright crater-floor deposits (BCFD). The BCFD hollows are tens of metres deep and kilometres or less across and are characteristically flat-floored, with steep, scalloped walls. Their form suggests that they most likely result from removal of surface material by some kind of mass-wasting process, probably associated with volume-loss caused by removal (via sublimation?) of a volatile component. These do not appear to be primarily a result of undermining. Determining the composition of the high-albedo bluish surface coating in BCFDs will be a key goal for BepiColombo instruments such as MIXS (Mercury Imaging Xray Spectrometer). In contrast, collapse features are non-circular rimless pits, typically on crater floors (pit-floor craters), whose morphology suggests collapse into void spaces left by magma withdrawal. This could be by drainage of either erupted lava (or impact melt) or of shallowly-intruded magma. Unlike the much smaller-scale BCFD hollows, these 'collapse pit' features tend to lack extensive flat floors and instead tend to be close to triangular in cross-section with inward slopes near to the critical angle of repose. The different scale and morphology of BCFD hollows and collapse pits argues for quite different modes of origin. However, BCFD hollows adjacent to and within the collapse pit inside Scarlatti crater suggest that the volatile material whose loss was responsible for the growth of the hollows may have been emplaced in association with the magma whose drainage caused the main collapse. Another kind of volcanic collapse can be seen within a 25 km-wide volcanic vent outside the southern rim of the Caloris basin (22.5° N, 146.1° E), on a 28 m/pixel MDIS NAC image

  15. Anomalous magnetotransport properties of a ballistic non-interacting three-dimensional electron gas confined to narrow potential wells with corrugated barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Sotomayor, N. M.; Davila, L. Y. D.; Lima, B. C.; Gusev, G. M.

    2013-12-04

    The classical dynamics of ballistic non-interacting electrons confined to a narrow electrostatic potential well with corrugated barriers in uniform magnetic field was numerically studied. Trajectories in phase space were analyzed and longitudinal and transversal resistivities were calculated. Commensurability oscillations and negative magnetoresistance similar to those found in antidot lattice devices were observed.

  16. Hollow Polyimide Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A shaped article composed of an aromatic polyimide has a hollow, essentially spherical structure and a particle size of about 100 to about 1500 microns, a density of about I to about 6 pounds/ft3 and a volume change of 1 to about 20% by a pressure treatment of 30 psi for 10 minutes at room temperature. A syntactic foam, made of a multiplicity of the shaped articles which are bounded together by a matrix resin to form an integral composite structure, has a density of about 3 to about 30 pounds/cu ft and a compression strength of about 100 to about 1400 pounds/sq in.

  17. Hollow Polyimide Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A shaped article composed of an aromatic polyimide has a hollow, essentially spherical structure and a particle size of about 100 to about 1500 microns a density of about 1 to about 6 pounds/cubic ft and a volume change of 1 to about 20 percent by a pressure treatment of 30 psi for 10 minutes at room temperature. A syntactic foam, made of a multiplicity of the shaped articles which are bonded together by a matrix resin to form an integral composite structure, has a density of about 3 to about 30 pounds/cubic ft and a compression strength 2 of about 100 to about 1400 pounds/sq in.

  18. Hollow Polyimide Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A shaped article composed of an aromatic polyimide has a hollow, essentially spherical structure and a particle size of about 100 to about 1500 micrometers, a density of about 1 to about 6 pounds/cubic foot and a volume change of 1 to about 20% by a pressure treatment of 30 psi for 10 minutes at room temperature. A syntactic foam, made of a multiplicity of the shaped articles which are bonded together by a matrix resin to form an integral composite structure, has a density of about 3 to about 30 pounds/cubic feet and a compression strength of about 100 to about 1400 pounds/sq inch.

  19. Preparation and characterization of optical-functional diblock copolymer brushes on hollow sphere surface via atom transfer radical polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Zhi; Zhao, Li-Min; Zhang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yan-Dong; Kong, Li-Li; Li, Ling-Ling

    2010-09-15

    The optical-functional poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-Tb complex diblock copolymer brushes grafted from hollow sphere surface via atom transfer radical polymerization were investigated in this work. A sufficient amount of azo initiator was introduced onto hollow sphere surface firstly. Then the monomer methyl methacrylate was polymerized via surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization using azo group modified hollow sphere as initiator. Following, the poly(methyl methacrylate) modified hollow sphere was used as maroinitiator for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of Tb complex. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatographer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) had grafted from hollow sphere surface and the average diameter of hollow core was about 1 {mu}m. The optical properties of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-Tb copolymer modified hollow sphere were also reported.

  20. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.

  1. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  2. Comparison of hollow cathode discharge plasma configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnell, Casey C.; Williams, John D.; Farnell, Cody C.

    2011-04-01

    Hollow cathodes used in plasma contactor and electric propulsion devices provide electrons for sustaining plasma discharges and enabling plasma bridge neutralization. Life tests show erosion on hollow cathodes exposed to the plasma environment produced in the region downstream of these devices. To explain the observed erosion, plasma flow field measurements are presented for hollow cathode generated plasmas using both directly immersed probes and remotely located plasma diagnostics. Measurements on two cathode discharge configurations are presented: (1) an open, no magnetic field configuration and (2) a setup simulating the discharge chamber environment of an ion thruster. In the open cathode configuration, large amplitude plasma potential oscillations, ranging from 20 to 85 V within a 34 V discharge, were observed using a fast response emissive probe. These oscillations were observed over a dc potential profile that included a well-defined potential hill structure. A remotely located electrostatic analyzer (ESA) was used to measure the energy of ions produced within the plasma, and energies were detected that met, and in some cases exceeded, the peak oscillatory plasma potentials detected by the emissive probe. In the ion thruster discharge chamber configuration, plasma potentials from the emissive probe again agreed with ion energies recorded by the remotely located ESA; however, much lower ion energies were detected compared with the open configuration. A simplified ion-transit model that uses temporal and spatial plasma property measurements is presented and used to predict far-field plasma streaming properties. Comparisons between the model and remote measurements are presented.

  3. Microinfusion using hollow microneedles.

    PubMed

    Martanto, Wijaya; Moore, Jason S; Kashlan, Osama; Kamath, Rachna; Wang, Ping M; O'Neal, Jessica M; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of experimental parameters on microinfusion through hollow microneedles into skin to optimize drug delivery protocols and identify rate-limiting barriers to flow. Glass microneedles were inserted to a depth of 720-1080 microm into human cadaver skin to microinfuse sulforhodamine solution at constant pressure. Flow rate was determined as a function of experimental parameters, such as microneedle insertion and retraction distance, infusion pressure, microneedle tip geometry, presence of hyaluronidase, and time. Single microneedles inserted into skin without retraction were able to infuse sulforhodamine solution into the skin at flow rates of 15-96 microl/h. Partial retraction of microneedles increased flow rate up to 11.6-fold. Infusion flow rate was also increased by greater insertion depth, larger infusion pressure, use of a beveled microneedle tip, and the presence of hyaluronidase such that flow rates ranging from 21 to 1130 microl/h were achieved. These effects can be explained by removing or overcoming the large flow resistance imposed by dense dermal tissue, compressed during microneedle insertion, which blocks flow from the needle tip. By partially retracting microneedles after insertion and other methods to overcome flow resistance of dense dermal tissue, protocols can be designed for hollow microneedles to microinfuse fluid at therapeutically relevant rates.

  4. Preparation of hollow magnetite microspheres and their applications as drugs carriers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hollow magnetite microspheres have been synthesized by a simple process through a template-free hydrothermal approach. Hollow microspheres were surface modified by coating with a silica nanolayer. Pristine and modified hollow microparticles were characterized by field-emission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, and VSM magnetometry. The potential application of the modified hollow magnetite microspheres as a drug carrier was evaluated by using Rhodamine B and methotrexate as model drugs. The loading and release kinetics of both molecules showed a clear pH and temperature dependent profile. Graphical abstract Hollow magnetite microspheres have been synthesized. Load-release experiments with Rhodamine-B as a model drug and with Methotrexate (chemotherapy drug used in treating certain types of cancer) demonstrated the potential applications of these nanostructures in biomedical applications. PMID:22490731

  5. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13150.

  6. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.

  7. COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13129. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.

  8. COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ??s health after an anomalous shutdown: signal processing electronics check, slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, ramp-up to full operating voltage, and fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 18 proposal 12430.

  9. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12779.

  10. COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes almost the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12723. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.

  11. Lattice contracted Pd-hollow nanocrystals: Synthesis, structure and electrocatalysis for formic acid oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Mingjun; Chen, Ju; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Hollow metal nanocrystals with tuned electronic and geometric structure are highly desirable for the efficient catalytic and/or electrocatalytic reactions. Herein, we report the synthesis of carbon-supported Pd hollow nanocrystal (Pd-hollow/C) catalyst through a galvanic replacement reaction combined with Kirkendall effect without the use of polymeric stabilizer. The Pd-hollow structure is verified by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Noticeable lattice contraction in the Pd-hollow nanocrystal has been observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction with a decrease in the Pd (111) lattice distance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the surface Pd atoms donate more electrons to the overlap with the sub-layer atoms, suggesting a strengthened d-hybridization and a down-shift of d-band center relative to the Fermi level on the surface. Electrochemical measurements show that the Pd-hollow/C catalyst exhibits a significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation. The collective effects of the hollow structure and down-shift of Pd d-band center could explain well such an enhanced catalytic activity. The present study provides new insights into the relevancy of lattice parameter, electronic structure with catalytic property, and suggests design features for excellent nanostructured catalysts.

  12. High efficiency ionizer using a hollow cathode discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Prelec, K.

    1984-01-01

    A proposal for an ionizer using a hollow cathode discharge plasma is described. Ionization is via the very high current density electron beam component in the plasma, as well as from charge exchange with plasma ions. Extraction of a He/sup +/ current corresponding to approximately 50% of the incoming atomic beam flux should be possible.

  13. 'Laguna Hollow'Undisturbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the patch of soil at the bottom of the shallow depression dubbed 'Laguna Hollow' where the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will soon begin trenching. Scientists are intrigued by the clustering of small pebbles and the crack-like fine lines, which indicate a coherent surface that expands and contracts. A number of processes can cause materials to expand and contract, including cycles of heating and cooling; freezing and thawing; and rising and falling of salty liquids within a substance. This false-color image was created using the blue, green and infrared filters of the rover's panoramic camera. Scientists chose this particular combination of filters to enhance the heterogeneity of the martian soil.

  14. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  15. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  16. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  17. Anomalous in-plane magnetoresistance of electron-doped cuprate La2- x Ce x CuO4± δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Heshan; He, Ge; Jia, Yanli; Zhang, Xu; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Beiyi; Kusmartseva, A.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Jin, Kui

    2017-09-01

    We report systematic in-plane magnetoresistance measurements on the electron-doped cuprate La2- x Ce x CuO4± δ thin films as a function of Ce doping and oxygen content in the magnetic field up to 14 T. A crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance occurs between the doping level x = 0.07 and 0.08. Above x = 0.08, the positive magnetoresistance effect appears, and is almost indiscernible at x = 0.15. By tuning the oxygen content, the as-grown samples show negative magnetoresistance effect, whereas the optimally annealed ones display positive magnetoresistance effect at the doping level x = 0.15. Intriguingly, a linear-field dependence of in-plane magnetoresistance is observed at the underdoping level x = 0.06, the optimal doping level x = 0.1 and slightly overdoping level x = 0.11. These anomalies of in-plane magnetoresistance may be related to the intrinsic inhomogeneity in the cuprates, which is discussed in the framework of network model.

  18. Communication: Localized molecular orbital analysis of the effect of electron correlation on the anomalous isotope effect in the NMR spin-spin coupling constant in methane

    SciTech Connect

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C. Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2014-10-21

    We discuss the effect of electron correlation on the unexpected differential sensitivity (UDS) in the {sup 1}J(C–H) coupling constant of CH{sub 4} using a decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals and compare with the {sup 1}J(N–H) coupling constant in NH{sub 3}. In particular, we discuss the well known fact that uncorrelated coupled Hartree-Fock (CHF) calculations are not able to reproduce the UDS in methane. For this purpose we have implemented for the first time a localized molecular orbital analysis for the second order polarization propagator approximation with coupled cluster singles and doubles amplitudes—SOPPA(CCSD) in the DALTON program. Comparing the changes in the localized orbital contributions at the correlated SOPPA and SOPPA(CCSD) levels and at the uncorrelated CHF level, we find that the latter overestimates the effect of stretching the bond between the coupled atoms on the contribution to the coupling from the localized bonding orbital between these atoms. This disturbs the subtle balance between the molecular orbital contributions, which lead to the UDS in methane.

  19. Communication: Localized molecular orbital analysis of the effect of electron correlation on the anomalous isotope effect in the NMR spin-spin coupling constant in methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Provasi, Patricio F.

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the effect of electron correlation on the unexpected differential sensitivity (UDS) in the 1J(C-H) coupling constant of CH4 using a decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals and compare with the 1J(N-H) coupling constant in NH3. In particular, we discuss the well known fact that uncorrelated coupled Hartree-Fock (CHF) calculations are not able to reproduce the UDS in methane. For this purpose we have implemented for the first time a localized molecular orbital analysis for the second order polarization propagator approximation with coupled cluster singles and doubles amplitudes—SOPPA(CCSD) in the DALTON program. Comparing the changes in the localized orbital contributions at the correlated SOPPA and SOPPA(CCSD) levels and at the uncorrelated CHF level, we find that the latter overestimates the effect of stretching the bond between the coupled atoms on the contribution to the coupling from the localized bonding orbital between these atoms. This disturbs the subtle balance between the molecular orbital contributions, which lead to the UDS in methane.

  20. Communication: Localized molecular orbital analysis of the effect of electron correlation on the anomalous isotope effect in the NMR spin-spin coupling constant in methane.

    PubMed

    Zarycz, M Natalia C; Sauer, Stephan P A; Provasi, Patricio F

    2014-10-21

    We discuss the effect of electron correlation on the unexpected differential sensitivity (UDS) in the (1)J(C-H) coupling constant of CH4 using a decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals and compare with the (1)J(N-H) coupling constant in NH3. In particular, we discuss the well known fact that uncorrelated coupled Hartree-Fock (CHF) calculations are not able to reproduce the UDS in methane. For this purpose we have implemented for the first time a localized molecular orbital analysis for the second order polarization propagator approximation with coupled cluster singles and doubles amplitudes--SOPPA(CCSD) in the DALTON program. Comparing the changes in the localized orbital contributions at the correlated SOPPA and SOPPA(CCSD) levels and at the uncorrelated CHF level, we find that the latter overestimates the effect of stretching the bond between the coupled atoms on the contribution to the coupling from the localized bonding orbital between these atoms. This disturbs the subtle balance between the molecular orbital contributions, which lead to the UDS in methane.

  1. Cavity-hollow cathode-sputtering source for titanium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Murawski, A.; Maszl, C.; Asandulesa, M.; Nastuta, A.; Rusu, G.; Douat, C.; Olenici, S. B.; Vojvodic, I.; Dobromir, M.; Luca, D.; Jaksch, S.; Scheier, P.

    2010-08-01

    A cavity-hollow cathode was investigated as low-cost sputtering source for titanium. An argon discharge is produced inside a hollow cathode consisting of two specifically formed disks of titanium. An additional cavity further enhances the pendulum effect of the electrons. Measurements with small Langmuir probes yielded evidence for the formation of a space charge double layer above the cathode. The sputtered atoms form negatively charged clusters. After further acceleration by the double layer the clusters impinge on the substrates. Titanium thin films were produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The films were investigated by a scanning tunnel microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  2. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  3. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    DOE PAGES

    Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan

    2015-06-22

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion wemore » illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.« less

  4. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan

    2015-06-22

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  5. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  6. Numerical Simulations of the Partially-Ionized Gas in a 100-A LaB6 Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.; Guerrero, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a hollow cathode with a LaB6 emitter operating at 100 A have been performed for the first time using the 2-D Orificed Cathode (OrCa2D) code. Results for a variety of plasma properties are presented and compared with laboratory measurements. The large size of the device permits peak electron number densities in the cathode interior that are lower than those established in the NSTAR hollow cathode, which operates with a 7.3x lower discharge current and 3.2x lower mass flow rate. Also, despite the higher discharge current in the LaB6 cathode, the maximum electron current density is lower, by 4.2x, than that in the NSTAR cathode due to the larger orifice size. Simulations and direct measurements show that at 12 sccm of xenon flow the peak emitter temperature is in the range of 1594-1630 C. It is also found that the conditions for the excitement of current-driven streaming instabilities and ion-acoustic turbulence (IAT) are satisfied in this cathode, similarly to what was found in the past in its smaller counterparts like the NSTAR cathode. Based on numerical simulations, it has long been argued that these instabilities may be responsible for the anomalously large ion energies that have been measured in these discharges as well as for the enhancement of the plasma resistivity. Confirmation of the presence of IAT in this cathode is presented for the first time in a companion paper.

  7. Numerical Simulations of the Partially-Ionized Gas in a 100-A LaB6 Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.; Guerrero, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a hollow cathode with a LaB6 emitter operating at 100 A have been performed for the first time using the 2-D Orificed Cathode (OrCa2D) code. Results for a variety of plasma properties are presented and compared with laboratory measurements. The large size of the device permits peak electron number densities in the cathode interior that are lower than those established in the NSTAR hollow cathode, which operates with a 7.3x lower discharge current and 3.2x lower mass flow rate. Also, despite the higher discharge current in the LaB6 cathode, the maximum electron current density is lower, by 4.2x, than that in the NSTAR cathode due to the larger orifice size. Simulations and direct measurements show that at 12 sccm of xenon flow the peak emitter temperature is in the range of 1594-1630 C. It is also found that the conditions for the excitement of current-driven streaming instabilities and ion-acoustic turbulence (IAT) are satisfied in this cathode, similarly to what was found in the past in its smaller counterparts like the NSTAR cathode. Based on numerical simulations, it has long been argued that these instabilities may be responsible for the anomalously large ion energies that have been measured in these discharges as well as for the enhancement of the plasma resistivity. Confirmation of the presence of IAT in this cathode is presented for the first time in a companion paper.

  8. Neoclassical and anomalous flows in stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, A. S.; Marine, T.; Spong, D. A.

    2009-11-01

    The impact of magnetic geometry and plasma profiles on flows and viscosities in stellarators is investigated. This work examines both neoclassical and anomalous flows for a number of configurations including a particular focus on the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) and other quasi-symmetric configurations. Neoclassical flows and viscosities are calculated using the PENTA code [1]. For anomalous flows, the neoclassical viscosities from PENTA are used in a transport code that includes Reynolds stress flow generation [2]. This is done for the standard quasi-helically symmetric configuration of HSX, a symmetry-breaking mirror configuration and a hill configuration. The impact of these changes in the magnetic geometry on neoclassical viscosities and flows in HSX are discussed. Due to variations in neoclassical viscosities, HSX can have strong neoclassical flows in the core region. In turn, these neoclassical flows can provide a seed for anomalous flow generation. These effects are shown to vary as the ratio of electron to ion temperature varies. In particular, as the ion temperature increases relative to the electron flow shear is shown to increase. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).

  9. 12Cao-7Al2o3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al.sub.2O.sub.3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  10. Hollow Retroreflectors Offer Solid Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A technician who lead a successful team of scientists, engineers, and other technicians in the design, fabrication, and characterization of cryogenic retroreflectors for the NASA Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) mission to Saturn, developed a hollow retroreflector technology while working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. With 16 years of NASA experience, the technician teamed up with another NASA colleague and formed PROSystems, Inc., of Sharpsburg, Maryland, to provide the optics community with an alternative source for precision hollow retroreflectors. The company's hollow retroreflectors are front surface glass substrates assembled to provide many advantages over existing hollow retroreflectors and solid glass retroreflectors. Previous to this new technology, some companies chose not to use hollow retroreflectors due to large seam widths and loss of signal. The "tongue and groove" facet design of PROSystems's retroreflector allows for an extremely small seam width of .001 inches. Feedback from users is very positive regarding this characteristic. Most of PROSystems's primary customers mount the hollow retroreflectors in chrome steel balls for laser tracker targets in applications such as automobile manufacturing and spacecraft assembly.

  11. Hollow filler-binders as excipients for direct compaction.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Gerad K; Eissens, Anko C; Adrichem, Thijl P; Wesselingh, Johannes A; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2003-03-01

    As an effect of their plastic deformation behavior, ductile materials create a large surface for bonding during compaction. However, a serious drawback is their high lubricant sensitivity, preventing the formation of strong bonds. The purpose of this study was both an increase in compactibility and a reduction of the lubricant sensitivity of ductile filler-binders by using hollow particles. This was illustrated for inulin. Both solid and hollow inulin particles were prepared by spray-drying. Unlubricated tablets and tablets containing 0.5% magnesium stearate were compressed in a compaction simulator, operating at 300 mm/s. The tablet crushing strength was determined with a Schleuniger apparatus. The compaction of unlubricated, solid inulin particles showed that the product had good compatibility. This was caused by plastic deformation of the ductile, amorphous material under load, creating a large surface for bonding. After lubrication, however, the bonding properties decreased significantly, which was caused by the presence of a lubricant film. Hollow inulin particles have an increased compactibility as compared with solid particles and a strongly reduced lubricant sensitivity. Scanning electron micrographs show that hollow particles fragment before they start plastic deformation. This fragmentation behavior is supported by tablet surface area measurements and calculation of the buckling strength. This effect was responsible for both a higher crushing strength and a lower lubricant sensitivity as compared with solid inulin particles. Compactibility of inulin particles can be increased, and lubricant sensitivity can be decreased by using hollow instead of solid particles.

  12. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ran; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α. The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine.

  13. Tunable Optical Performances on a Periodic Array of Plasmonic Bowtie Nanoantennas with Hollow Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Chou Chao, Chung-Ting; Rao, Jhin-Yu; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Lim, Chee Ming; Lim, Ren Chong; Voo, Nyuk Yoong

    2016-09-01

    We propose a design method to tune the near-field intensities and absorption spectra of a periodic array of plasmonic bowtie nanoantennas (PBNAs) by introducing the hollow cavities inside the metal nanostructures. The numerical method is performed by finite element method that demonstrates the engineered hollow PBNAs can tune the optical spectrum in the range of 400-3000 nm. Simulation results show the hollow number is a key factor for enhancing the cavity plasmon resonance with respect to the hotspot region in PBNAs. The design efforts primarily concentrate on shifting the operation wavelength and enhancing the local fields by manipulating the filling dielectric medium, outline film thickness, and hollow number in PBNAs. Such characteristics indicate that the proposed hollow PBNAs can be a potential candidate for plasmonic enhancers and absorbers in multifunctional opto-electronic biosensors.

  14. Hematite template route to hollow-type silica spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yang-Su; Jeong, Gee-Young; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Ho-Kun

    2007-10-15

    Hollow-type silica spheres with controlled cavity size were prepared from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} core-shell composite particles by selective leaching of the iron oxide core materials using acidic solution. The spherical Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core particles with a diameter range of 20-400 nm were first prepared by the hydrolysis reaction of iron salts. Next, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} core-shell particles were prepared by the deposition of a SiO{sub 2} layer onto the surface of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using a two-step coating process, consisting of a primary coating with sodium silicate solution and a subsequent coating by controlled hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilicate (TEOS). The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core was then removed by dissolving with acidic solution, giving rise to hollow-type silica particles. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed that the cavity size was closely related to the initial size of the core Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle. According to the cross-sectional view obtained by transmission electron microscopy, the silica shell thickness was about 10 nm. The porous texture of the hollow-type silica particles was further characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. - Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of the hollow silica particles. Wall thickness, as estimated by TEM from the ring around the perimeter of the hollow spheres, was {approx}10 nm. TEM micrographs of hollow silica spheres show that the sphericity of the core Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was preserved.

  15. In-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2013-08-23

    The quantum Hall effect can only be induced by an out-of-plane magnetic field for two-dimensional electron gases, and similarly, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has also usually been considered for systems with only out-of-plane magnetization. In the present work, we predict that the quantum anomalous Hall effect can be induced by in-plane magnetization that is not accompanied by any out-of-plane magnetic field. Two realistic two-dimensional systems, Bi2Te3 thin film with magnetic doping and HgMnTe quantum wells with shear strains, are presented and the general condition for the in-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect is discussed based on the symmetry analysis. Nonetheless, an experimental setup is proposed to confirm this effect, the observation of which will pave the way to search for the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a wider range of materials.

  16. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  17. Anomalous absorption of laser light on ion acoustic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozmus, Wojciech; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Theory of laser light absorption due to ion acoustic turbulence (IAT) is discussed in high Z plasmas where ion acoustic waves are weakly damped. Our theory applies to the whole density range from underdense to critical density plasmas. It includes an absorption rate for the resonance anomalous absorption due to linear conversion of electromagnetic waves into electron plasma oscillations by the IAT near the critical density in addition to the absorption coefficient due to enhanced effective electron collisionality. IAT is driven by large electron heat flux through the return current instability. Stationary spectra of IAT are given by weak plasma turbulence theory and applied in description of the anomalous absorption in the inertial confinement fusion plasmas at the gold walls of a hohlraum. This absorption is anisotropic in nature due to IAT angular anisotropy and differs for p- and s-polarization of the laser radiation. Possible experiments which could identify the resonance anomalous absorption in a laser heated plasma are discussed.

  18. Magnetic hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres: facile fabrication and ultrafast immobilization of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Guo, Limin; Shi, Jianlin

    2011-12-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres with large pore size of around 11 nm have been synthesized by a structural difference based selective etching strategy, and the highly dispersed hydrophobic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a particle size of 5 nm were then impregnated into hollow cores of nanospheres through these large pores by a vacuum impregnation technique. The structural characteristics of obtained magnetic composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The results show that the obtained Fe3O4-hollow mesoporous silica composites exhibit superparamagnetic property with saturation magnetization value of 4.17 emu/g. Furthermore, the obtained supports show ultrafast immobilization of hemoglobin and the immobilized enzymes are not denatured, indicating that the superparamagnetic hollow mesoporous silica spheres are excellent support for immobilization of enzymes with magnetic recycling property.

  19. Hollow gold nanoparticles encapsulating horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Maitra, A N; Patanjali, P K; Sharma, Parvesh

    2005-11-01

    Hollow nanoshells of gold entrapping an enzyme, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), in the cavity of the nanoshell have been prepared in the reverse micelles by leaching out silver chloride (AgCl) from Au(shell)AgCl(core) nanoparticles with dilute ammonia solution. The particles have been characterised by dynamic laser light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron diffraction. The particle size is below 100 nm diameter, depending upon the size of the aqueous core of reverse micelles in which these particles have been prepared. This soft-chemical method for the preparation of such particles allows the entrapped enzyme to remain active inside the hollow gold nanoparticles. Small substrate molecules such as o-dianisidine can easily enter through the pores of the nanoshell and can undergo enzymatic oxidation by H2O2. The enzyme kinetics follows Michaelis-Menten mechanism. When the substrate is chemically conjugated with dextran molecule (10 kDa), the enzymatic reaction is practically completely prevented perhaps by the inability of dextran-o-dianisidine conjugate to penetrate the pores of the nanoshells. However, HRP did not show any activity when trapped inside solid gold nanoparticles.

  20. Anomalous ballistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1986-07-01

    We introduce a novel two-component random network. Unit resistors are placed at random along the bonds of a pure superconducting linear chain, with the distance l between successive resistors being chosen from the distribution P(l)~l-(α+1) where α>0 is a tunable parameter. We study the transport exponents dw and ζ~ defined by ~t2/dw and ρ~Lζ~, where is the mean-square displacement, ρ the resistivity, and L the system size. We find that for α>=1 both dw and ζ~ stick at their value for a nonzero concentration of resistors. For α<1 they vary continuously with α: dw=2α and ζ~=α. In the presence of a bias field, we find dw=α. This is the first exactly soluble model displaying ``anomalous ballistic diffusion,'' which we interpret physically in terms of a Lévy-flight random walk on a linear chain lattice.

  1. Detection of anomalous events

    DOEpatents

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  2. The hollow cathode effect in a radio-frequency driven microhollow cathode discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lianzhu; Zhao, Guoming; Wang, Jing; Han, Qing

    2016-02-01

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo code has been developed to study the physical mechanism of the hollow cathode effect (HCE) in an rf microhollow cathode discharge (rf-MHCD). Under the simulated conditions, the HCE in the rf-MHCD is the result of sheath-superposition, and both α ionization and γ ionization play a role. However, α ionization mode is predominant. Electrons undergo a pendular motion during the negative portion of the rf cycle. When the rf hollow electrode has a positive voltage, the majority of the electrons move toward the rf electrode, and the mean electron energy near the rf electrode is higher than that in a dc hollow cathode discharge, resulting in a large number of energetic electrons bombarding the hollow cathode wall, an important characteristic of the rf-MHCD. When the hollow cathode aperture is sufficiently small, many electrons strike the hollow electrode and are removed from the discharge space, so that the plasma density decreases. The average energy of the ions in the quasi-neutral plasma region near the axis is greater than the thermal energy in a molecular gas. Therefore, high density, high energy, and high chemical activity are characteristic advantages of rf-MHCD plasma sources.

  3. Single crystalline hollow metal-organic frameworks: a metal-organic polyhedron single crystal as a sacrificial template.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyehyun; Oh, Minhak; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Jeongin; Seong, Junmo; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Lah, Myoung Soo

    2015-02-28

    Single crystalline hollow metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with cavity dimensions on the order of several micrometers and hundreds of micrometers were prepared using a metal-organic polyhedron single crystal as a sacrificial hard template. The hollow nature of the MOF crystal was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy of the crystal sliced using a focused ion beam.

  4. ZnO-based hollow microspheres with mesoporous shells: Polyoxometalate-assisted fabrication, growth mechanism and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qiuyu; Chen Weilin; Ju Mingliang; Liu Lin; Wang Enbo

    2011-06-15

    With the assistance of Keggin-type polyoxometalate, ZnO hollow microspheres with mesoporous shells were synthesized via a simple solvothermal approach without any templates and surfactants. The observations of morphology and structure performed by field emission scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the shells of the ZnO hollow spheres were built from nanosheets which were composed of nanoparticles. The transformation of structure and composition of samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. The formation mechanism of the hollow spheres is proposed based on time-dependent experimental results. The ZnO hollow microspheres exhibited a high photocatalytic activity for decolorization of Rhodamine B under ultraviolet irradiation. - Graphical Abstract: ZnO hollow spheres with mesporous shells were synthesized by an one-pot polyoxometalate-assisted solvothermal route. The ZnO hollow microspheres exhibited a high photocatalytic activity for decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV irradiation. Highlights: > ZnO hollow microspheres were synthesized via a solvothermal route with polyoxometalate. > The polyoxometalate was vital for the formation of the hollow microspheres. > The ZnO hollow microspheres exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity of Rhodamine B.

  5. Hollow glass waveguides: New variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Daniel Joseph

    This study is an effort to develop new variations on the infrared silver-silver iodide hollow glass waveguide (HGW) with application specific properties. Four variations are presented: a HGW with a long, gradual taper, a HGW with a rectangular cross-section, curved HGW tips and a new all-dielectric hollow waveguide based on photonic bandgap guidance principles. A hollow glass waveguide tapered over its entire length offers ease of coupling at the proximal end and excellent flexibility at the distal end. Waveguides tapered from 1000 to 500 mum and 700 to 500 mum over 1.5 m were fabricated in this study. Compared to similarly sized non-tapered waveguides, laser losses for the tapered guides were high but decreased when bent. This behavior is contrary to that of non-tapered guides and an iterative ray tracing model was also developed to explain the observed loss characteristics of tapered hollow waveguides. Hollow glass waveguides with round profiles do not maintain the polarization state of the delivered radiation to any appreciable degree. HGWs with large- and small-aspect ratio rectangular cross sections were developed and shown to preserve polarization up to 96%, even when bent. The large aspect ratio guide was able to effectively rotate the transmitted polarization when twisted along its axis. Curved distal tips for medical and dental laser applications were developed by removing the low-OH silica fiber from commercially available stainless steel dental tips, and inserting HGWs of various sizes. The optical performances and heating profiles of the various configurations indicate the tips are suitable for certain medical applications, but the minimum bending radius is limited by the mechanical properties of the glass substrate. A small radii bending loss study confirms that propagating modes periodically couple as the radius of curvature is reduced. Through the application of the photonic bandgap (PBG) guidance, hollow waveguides can be made entirely from

  6. Co-Flow Hollow Cathode Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    Hall thrusters utilize identical hollow cathode technology as ion thrusters, yet must operate at much higher mass flow rates in order to efficiently couple to the bulk plasma discharge. Higher flow rates are necessary in order to provide enough neutral collisions to transport electrons across magnetic fields so that they can reach the discharge. This higher flow rate, however, has potential life-limiting implications for the operation of the cathode. A solution to the problem involves splitting the mass flow into the hollow cathode into two streams, the internal and external flows. The internal flow is fixed and set such that the neutral pressure in the cathode allows for a high utilization of the emitter surface area. The external flow is variable depending on the flow rate through the anode of the Hall thruster, but also has a minimum in order to suppress high-energy ion generation. In the co-flow hollow cathode, the cathode assembly is mounted on thruster centerline, inside the inner magnetic core of the thruster. An annular gas plenum is placed at the base of the cathode and propellant is fed throughout to produce an azimuthally symmetric flow of gas that evenly expands around the cathode keeper. This configuration maximizes propellant utilization and is not subject to erosion processes. External gas feeds have been considered in the past for ion thruster applications, but usually in the context of eliminating high energy ion production. This approach is adapted specifically for the Hall thruster and exploits the geometry of a Hall thruster to feed and focus the external flow without introducing significant new complexity to the thruster design.

  7. Morphology conserving aminopropyl functionalization of hollow silica nanospheres in toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobó, Dorina G.; Berkesi, Dániel; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nanostructures containing cavities of monodisperse diameter distribution find applications in e.g. catalysis, adsorption and drug delivery. One of their possible synthesis routes is the template assisted core-shell synthesis. We synthesized hollow silica spheres around polystyrene cores by the sol-gel method. The polystyrene template was removed by heat treatment leaving behind a hollow spherical shell structure. The surface of the spheres was then modified by adding aminopropyl groups. Here we present the first experimental evidence that toluene is a suitable alternative functionalization medium for the resulting thin shells, and report the comprehensive characterization of the amino-functionalized hollow silica spheres based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrokinetic potential measurement. Both the presence of the amino groups and the preservation of the hollow spherical morphology were unambiguously proven. The introduction of the amine functionality adds amphoteric character to the shell as shown by the zeta potential vs. pH function. Unlike pristine silica particles, amino-functionalized nanosphere aqueous sols can be stable at both acidic and basic conditions.

  8. Hollow sphere ceramic particles for abradable coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, F.N.; Bader, N.F. III; Dorfman, M.R.

    1984-05-22

    A hollow sphere ceramic flame spray powder is disclosed. The desired constituents are first formed into agglomerated particles in a spray drier. Then the agglomerated particles are introduced into a plasma flame which is adjusted so that the particles collected are substantially hollow. The hollow sphere ceramic particles are suitable for flame spraying a porous and abradable coating. The hollow particles may be selected from the group consisting of zirconium oxide and magnesium zirconate.

  9. Physical Processes in Hollow Cathode Discharge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    BUIT FiLE COPY NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California 0DTIC x ,, , ’ AELECTEi<AU 17U THESIS L . PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN HOLLOW CATHODE...IPROJECT ITASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Physical Processes in Hollow Cathode Discharge 12...number) The hollow cathode is an effective source of dense, low energy plasma. Hollow cathodes find use in ion beam sources for laboratory and space

  10. Hollow nanotubular toroidal polymer microrings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyeong; Baek, Kangkyun; Kim, Myungjin; Yun, Gyeongwon; Ko, Young Ho; Lee, Nam-Suk; Hwang, Ilha; Kim, Jeehong; Natarajan, Ramalingam; Park, Chan Gyung; Sung, Wokyung; Kim, Kimoon

    2014-02-01

    Despite the remarkable progress made in the self-assembly of nano- and microscale architectures with well-defined sizes and shapes, a self-organization-based synthesis of hollow toroids has, so far, proved to be elusive. Here, we report the synthesis of polymer microrings made from rectangular, flat and rigid-core monomers with anisotropically predisposed alkene groups, which are crosslinked with each other by dithiol linkers using thiol-ene photopolymerization. The resulting hollow toroidal structures are shape-persistent and mechanically robust in solution. In addition, their size can be tuned by controlling the initial monomer concentrations, an observation that is supported by a theoretical analysis. These hollow microrings can encapsulate guest molecules in the intratoroidal nanospace, and their peripheries can act as templates for circular arrays of metal nanoparticles.

  11. New route for hollow materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Ferreira, F. F.; Landi, G. T.; Souza, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures.

  12. New route for hollow materials

    PubMed Central

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Ferreira, F. F.; Landi, G. T.; Souza, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures. PMID:27554448

  13. Photocatalytic action of cerium molybdate and iron-titanium oxide hollow nanospheres on Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Kontogiani, P.; Pappas, G. S.; Kordas, G.

    2013-06-01

    This study is focused on the production of hollow nanospheres that reveal antibacterial action. Cerium molybdate and iron-titanium oxide hollow nanospheres with a diameter of 175 ± 15 and 221 ± 10 nm, respectively, were synthesized using emulsion polymerization and the sol-gel process. Their morphology characterization was accomplished using scanning electron microscopy. Their antibacterial action was examined on pure culture of Escherichia coli considering the loss of their viability. Both hollow nanospheres presented photocatalytic action after illumination with blue-black light, but those of cerium molybdate also demonstrated photocatalytic action in the dark. Therefore, the produced nanospheres can be used for antibacterial applications.

  14. Growth of solid and hollow gold particles through the thermal annealing of nanoscale patterned thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Junhao; He, Weidong; Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Wang, Bin; Palepu, Sandeep; Remec, Miroslav; Hess, Wayne P.; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Dickerson, James

    2013-11-27

    Through thermally annealing well-arrayed, circular, nanoscale thin films of gold, deposited onto [111] silicon/silicon dioxide substrates, both solid and hollow gold particles of different morphologies with controllable sizes were obtained. The thin film could form individual particle or clusters of particles by tuning the diameter of it. Hollow gold particles were featured by their large size whose diameter was larger than 500 nm and confirmed by a cross-section view. Hollow gold particles show greater plasmonic field enhancement under photoemission electron microscopy. Potential growth mechanisms for these structures are explored

  15. Oriented-assembly of hollow FePt nanochains with tunable catalytic and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jialong; Xia, Tianyu; Wang, Shouguo; Yang, Guang; Dong, Bowen; Wang, Chao; Ma, Qidi; Sun, Young; Wang, Rongming

    2016-06-01

    structures. Compared with commercial Pt/C, well aligned hollow FePt nanochains show greatly enhanced catalytic activities in the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) due to more favorable mass flow. Magnetic measurements indicate that the magnetic properties including Curie temperature and saturation magnetization can be tuned by the control of the size and shape of hollow nanochains. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00883f

  16. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  17. Anomalous transport modelling of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, J.; Singer, C.; Malone, G.; Tiouririne, N.

    1992-12-31

    Theory based transport simulations of DIII-D, JET, ITER are compared to experimental data using a combination of anamolous transport models. The Multiple-mode Transport Model is calibrated to a give set of L-mode and H-mode discharges with an emphasis on testing the adequacy of anomalous flux contributions from drift/{eta}{sub i} and resistive ballooning mode theories. A survey of possible additions and/or alternatives to the model from recent theories on neoclassical MHD effects, hot ion modes, circulating electron modes, and high-m tearing modes is also included.

  18. Anomalous transport modelling of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, J.; Singer, C.; Malone, G.; Tiouririne, N.

    1992-01-01

    Theory based transport simulations of DIII-D, JET, ITER are compared to experimental data using a combination of anamolous transport models. The Multiple-mode Transport Model is calibrated to a give set of L-mode and H-mode discharges with an emphasis on testing the adequacy of anomalous flux contributions from drift/[eta][sub i] and resistive ballooning mode theories. A survey of possible additions and/or alternatives to the model from recent theories on neoclassical MHD effects, hot ion modes, circulating electron modes, and high-m tearing modes is also included.

  19. Microinstability-based model for anomalous thermal confinement in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, W.M.

    1986-03-01

    This paper deals with the formulation of microinstability-based thermal transport coefficients (chi/sub j/) for the purpose of modelling anomalous energy confinement properties in tokamak plasmas. Attention is primarily focused on ohmically heated discharges and the associated anomalous electron thermal transport. An appropriate expression for chi/sub e/ is developed which is consistent with reasonable global constraints on the current and electron temperature profiles as well as with the key properties of the kinetic instabilities most likely to be present. Comparisons of confinement scaling trends predicted by this model with the empirical ohmic data base indicate quite favorable agreement. The subject of anomalous ion thermal transport and its implications for high density ohmic discharges and for auxiliary-heated plasmas is also addressed.

  20. Synthesis of multi-shelled ZnO hollow microspheres and their improved photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report an effective, facile, and low-cost route for preparing ZnO hollow microspheres with a controlled number of shells composed of small ZnO nanoparticles. The formation mechanism of multiple-shelled structures was investigated in detail. The number of shells is manipulated by using different diameters of carbonaceous microspheres. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared ZnO hollow microspheres and ZnO nanoparticles were then used to study the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, and the triple-shelled ZnO hollow microspheres exhibit the best photocatalytic activity. This work is helpful to develop ZnO-based photocatalysts with high photocatalytic performance in addressing environmental protection issues, and it is also anticipated to other multiple-shelled metal oxide hollow microsphere structures. PMID:25328500

  1. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Klein, Elias (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, cross-linked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  2. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Yen, S. P. S.; Klein, E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, crosslinked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  3. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Klein, Elias (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, cross-linked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  4. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  5. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

    MedlinePlus

    ... atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (passage between the left and right atria) must exist ... heart disease - TAPVR Images Heart, section through the middle Totally anomalous pulmonary venous return, x-ray Totally ...

  6. Hollow flower micelles from a diblock copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changez, Mohammad; Kang, Nam-Goo; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2013-11-01

    A poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(2-(4-vinylphenyl)pyridine) (P2VP106-b-PVPPy95) coil-coil diblock copolymer forms hollow flower micelles in a mixed solvent of methanol and water (95/5, v/v) in a one step process. The geometry and composition of the micelles allow formation of a Pt-Au bimetallic dendritic nanocatalyst with a Pt leaf at room temperature.A poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(2-(4-vinylphenyl)pyridine) (P2VP106-b-PVPPy95) coil-coil diblock copolymer forms hollow flower micelles in a mixed solvent of methanol and water (95/5, v/v) in a one step process. The geometry and composition of the micelles allow formation of a Pt-Au bimetallic dendritic nanocatalyst with a Pt leaf at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03063f

  7. RHETT/EPDM Flight Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Patterson, Michael; Pastel, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the BMDO Russian Hall Electric Thruster Technology program two xenon hollow cathodes, a flight unit and a flight spare were fabricated, acceptance tested and delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory for use on the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module. These hollow cathodes, based on the International Space Station plasma contactor design, were fabricated at the NASA Lewis Research Center for use with a D-55 anode layer thruster in the first on-orbit operational application of this technology. The 2.2 Ampere nominal emission current of this device was obtained with a xenon flow rate of 0.6 mg/s. Ignition of the cathode discharge was accomplished through preheating the active electron emitter with a resistive heating element before application of a 650 volt ignition pulse between the emitter and an external starting electrode. The successful acceptance testing of the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module utilizing these cathodes demonstrated the suitability of cathodes based on barium impregnated inserts in an enclosed keeper configuration for use with Hall thruster propulsion systems.

  8. Shape-controlled synthesis and properties of dandelion-like manganese sulfide hollow spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Wei; Chen, Gen; Zhang, Dan; Zhu, Jianyu; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Dandelion-like MnS hollow spheres assembled with nanorods could be successfully synthesized in large quantities through a simple and convenient hydrothermal synthetic method under mild conditions using soluble hydrated manganese chloride as Mn source, L-cysteine as both a precipitator and complexing reagent. The dandelion-like MnS hollow spheres might have potential applications in microdevices and magnetic cells. Highlights: ► MnS hollow spheres assembled with nanorods could be synthesized. ► The morphologies and sizes of final products could be controlled. ► Possible formation mechanism of MnS hollow spheres is proposed. -- Abstract: Dandelion-like gamma-manganese (II) sulfide (MnS) hollow spheres assembled with nanorods have been prepared via a hydrothermal process in the presence of L-cysteine and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). L-cysteine was employed as not only sulfur source, but also coordinating reagent for the synthesis of dandelion-like MnS hollow spheres. The morphology, structure and properties of as-prepared products have been investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The probable formation mechanism of as-prepared MnS hollow spheres was discussed on the basis of the experimental results. This strategy may provide an effective method for the fabrication of other metal sulfides hollow spheres.

  9. Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.

  10. Optical response in subnanometer hollow sodium nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bin; Yang, You-chang; Wu, Bo; Ren, Chongdan; Kang, Shuai; Li, Yangjun; Liu, Jian-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    We simulate and analyze the influence of nonlocal effects on the optical properties of thin metal hollow nanowires by finite element method. Nonlocal effects in hollow nanowires with both nm-sized overall volume and a tiny metal shell are considerable for extinction cross section but more for field enhancement, resulting in nonlocal plasmonic modes excited. Then, we show the dependence of extinction effects of a hollow super-nanowire on its parameters, including the metal shell thickness, the average radius and the optical constant of the hollow core. We find that nonlocal quadrupolar mode is very sensitive to the thickness of metal layer but with great stability as increasing the hollow nanowire dimension or changing the hollow core. Furthermore, the eccentricity of the hollow nanowire brings out new physical phenomena, such as nanofocusing and multimodes. The proposed structure promises a great of applications in nanoscale, such as designing nanoplasmonic antenna, sensing and nonlinear optics, etc.

  11. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  12. Hollow Plasma in a Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-11-30

    A ring cathode for a pulsed, high-current, multi-spot cathodic arc discharge was placed inside a pulsed magnetic solenoid. Photography is used to evaluate the plasma distribution. The plasma appears hollow for cathode positions close the center of the solenoid, and it is guided closer to the axis when the cathode is away from the center.

  13. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOEpatents

    Ballou, Nathan E.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures.

  14. Hollow Nanospheres Array Fabrication via Nano-Conglutination Technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Xia, Liangping; Shi, Lifang; Cao, Axiu; Pang, Hui; Hu, Song

    2015-09-01

    Hollow nanospheres array is a special nanostructure with great applications in photonics, electronics and biochemistry. The nanofabrication technique with high resolution is crucial to nanosciences and nano-technology. This paper presents a novel nonconventional nano-conglutination technology combining polystyrenes spheres (PSs) self-assembly, conglutination and a lift-off process to fabricate the hollow nanospheres array with nanoholes. A self-assembly monolayer of PSs was stuck off from the quartz wafer by the thiol-ene adhesive material, and then the PSs was removed via a lift-off process and the hollow nanospheres embedded into the thiol-ene substrate was obtained. Thiolene polymer is a UV-curable material via "click chemistry" reaction at ambient conditions without the oxygen inhibition, which has excellent chemical and physical properties to be attractive as the adhesive material in nano-conglutination technology. Using the technique, a hollow nanospheres array with the nanoholes at the diameter of 200 nm embedded into the rigid thiol-ene substrate was fabricated, which has great potential to serve as a reaction container, catalyst and surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate.

  15. Plasma flow field measurements downstream of a hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnell, Casey Coffman

    2007-12-01

    The focus of the research described herein is to investigate and characterize the plasma produced downstream of a hollow cathode with the goal of identifying groups of ions and possible mechanisms of their formation within a plasma discharge that might cause erosion, especially with respect to the hollow cathode assembly. In space applications, hollow cathodes are used in electrostatic propulsion devices, especially in ion thrusters and Hall thrusters, to provide electrons to sustain the plasma discharge and neutralize the ion beam. This research is considered important based upon previous thruster life tests that have found erosion occurring on hollow cathode, keeper, and ion optics surfaces exposed to the discharge plasma. This erosion has the potential to limit the life of the thruster, especially during ambitious missions that require ultra long periods of thruster operation. Results are presented from two discharge chamber configurations that produced very different plasma environments. Four types of diagnostics are described that were used to probe the plasma including an emissive probe, a triple Langmuir probe, a remotely located electrostatic analyzer (ESA), and an ExB probe attached to the ESA. In addition, a simulation model was created that correlates the measurements from the direct and remotely located probes.

  16. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide assisted hydrothermal growth of hematite hollow cubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Yao, Jia-Liang

    2010-11-15

    Hematite hollow cubes have been prepared by forced hydrolysis of ferric chloride solutions under hydrothermal conditions. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on the transformation process from akageneite to hematite were investigated in detail. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide was a critical factor influencing the phase transformation process of akageneite and the final morphology of the as-prepared products. With cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, hematite hollow cubes and porous spheres were obtained. Otherwise only dense cubes were observed even prolonging reaction time or increasing reaction temperature. The mechanism was proposed.

  17. Uniform hollow magnetite spheres: Facile synthesis, growth mechanism, and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xing; Zhao, Guizhe; Liu, Yaqing

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow spheres with high saturation magnetization were synthesized through a simple solvothermal process. • Without using any hard templates or external magnetic field. • The as-prepared magnetite hollow spheres exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with high Ms of ca. 85.9 emu/g at room temperature. • The morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with nanoparticles, hollow, and irregular structures could be adjusted by changing the reactive conditions. - Abstract: Hierarchical porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow spheres with high saturation magnetization were synthesized through a simple solvothermal process in ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of Tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC) and urea. By investigating the effect of reaction temperature, time, the amount of urea, and concentration of iron ion on the formation of hollow spheres, it was proposed that the main formation mechanism of hollow spheres is Ostwald ripening process combined with assembly-then-inside-out evacuation process. Additionally, it is found that the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with nanoparticles, hollow, and irregular structures could be adjusted by changing the above factors. The resulting products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The hierarchical porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow spheres exhibited enhanced saturation magnetization as compared with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles.

  18. An Investigation of the Initiation of Hollow Cathode Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    process, dependent on temperature, mercury vapour flow rate, voltage, geometry, and the availability of a low work function material. For a given...such cathodes have concentrated on parametric studies5,6 and life tests , apart from a number of experiments at the RAE8,9 and in the USAl10ll112 in...In the case of the electron bombardment thruster, the ability to initiate the discharge on demand is largely dependent on the hollow cathode. For

  19. Anomalous transport and confinement scaling studies in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, W.M.; Cheng, C.Z.; Krommes, J.A.; Lee, W.W.; Oberman, C.R.; Perkins, F.W.; Rewoldt, G.; Smith, R.; Bonoli, P.; Coppi, B.

    1984-09-01

    In addressing the general issue of anomalous energy transport, this paper reports on results of theoretical studies concerning: (1) the characteristics and relative strength of the dominant kinetic instabilities likely to be present under realistic tokamak operating conditions; (2) specific nonlinear processes relevant to the saturation and transport properties of drift-type instabilities; (3) the construction of semiempirical models for electron thermal transport and the scaling trends inferred from them; and (4) the application of specific anomalous transport models to simulate recent large-scale confinement experiments (TFTR and JET) and current drive experiments.

  20. Evidence for Anomalous Effects on the Current Evolution in Tokamak Operating Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T; Jayakumar, R; Allen, S; Holcomb, C; Makowski, M; Pearlstein, L; Berk, H; Greenfield, C; Luce, T; Petty, C; Politzer, P; Wade, M; Murakami, M; Kessel, C

    2006-10-03

    Alternatives to the usual picture of advanced tokamak (AT) discharges are those that form when anomalous effects alter the plasma current and pressure profiles and those that achieve stationary characteristics through mechanisms so that a measure of desired AT features is maintained without external current-profile control. Regimes exhibiting these characteristics are those where the safety factor (q) evolves to a stationary profile with the on-axis and minimum q {approx} 1 and those with a deeply hollow current channel and high values of q. Operating scenarios with high fusion performance at low current and where the inductively driven current density achieves a stationary configuration with either small or non-existing sawteeth may enhance the neutron fluence per pulse on ITER and future burning plasmas. Hollow current profile discharges exhibit high confinement and a strong ''box-like'' internal transport barrier (ITB). We present results providing evidence for current profile formation and evolution exhibiting features consistent with anomalous effects or with self-organizing mechanisms. Determination of the underlying physical processes leading to these anomalous effects is important for scaling of current experiments for application in future burning plasmas.

  1. Multiple Hollow Cathode Wear Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been baselined for use on the Space Station to reduce station charging. The plasma contactor provides a low impedance connection to space plasma via a plasma produced by an arc discharge. The hollow cathode of the plasma contactor is a refractory metal tube, through which xenon gas flows, which has a disk-shaped plate with a centered orifice at the downstream end of the tube. Within the cathode, arc attachment occurs primarily on a Type S low work function insert that is next to the orifice plate. This low work function insert is used to reduce cathode operating temperatures and energy requirements and, therefore, achieve increased efficiency and longevity. The operating characteristics and lifetime capabilities of this hollow cathode, however, are greatly reduced by oxygen bearing contaminants in the xenon gas. Furthermore, an optimized activation process, where the cathode is heated prior to ignition by an external heater to drive contaminants such as oxygen and moisture from the insert absorbed during exposure to ambient air, is necessary both for cathode longevity and a simplified power processor. In order to achieve the two year (approximately 17,500 hours) continuous operating lifetime requirement for the plasma contactor, a test program was initiated at NASA Lewis Research Center to demonstrate the extended lifetime capabilities of the hollow cathode. To date, xenon hollow cathodes have demonstrated extended lifetimes with one test having operated in excess of 8000 hours in an ongoing test utilizing contamination control protocols developed by Sarver-Verhey. The objectives of this study were to verify the transportability of the contamination control protocols developed by Sarver-Verhey and to evaluate cathode contamination control procedures, activation processes, and cathode-to-cathode dispersions in operating characteristics with time. These were accomplished by conducting a 2000 hour wear test of four hollow

  2. Current-driven plasma acceleration versus current-driven energy dissipation. III - Anomalous transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choueiri, Edgar Y.; Kelly, Arnold J.; Jahn, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    In the present paper the linear stability description and weak turbulence theory are used to develop a second order description of wave-particle transport and anomalous dissipation. The goal is to arrive at anomalous transport coefficients that can be readily included in fluid flow codes. In particular, expressions are derived for the heating rates of ions and electrons by the unstable waves and for the electron-wave momentum exchange rate that controls the anomalous resistivity effect. Comparative calculations were undertaken assuming four different saturation models: ion trapping, electron trapping, ion resonance broadening, and thermodynamic bound. A foremost finding is the importance of the role of electron Hall parameter in scaling the level of anomalous dissipation for the parameter range of the MPD thruster plasma. Polynomial expressions of the relevant transport coefficients cast solely in terms of macroscopic parameters are also obtained for inclusion in plasma fluid codes for the self-consistent numerical simulation of real thruster flows including microturbulent effects.

  3. Anomalous Earth flybys of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2015-07-01

    A small deviation from the potential is expected for the gravitational interaction of extended bodies. It is explained as a consequence of a recently proposed gravitational impact model (Wilhelm et al. in Astrophys. Space Sci. 343:135-144, 2013) and has been applied to anomalous perihelion advances by Wilhelm and Dwivedi (New Astron. 31:51-55, 2014). The effect—an offset of the effective gravitational centre from the geometric centre of a spherical symmetric body—might also be responsible for the observed anomalous orbital energy gains and speed increases during Earth flybys of several spacecraft. However, close flybys would require detailed considerations of the orbit geometry. In this study, an attempt is made to explain the anomalous Earth flybys of the Galileo, NEAR Shoemaker and Rosetta spacecraft.

  4. Anomalous Diffraction at Ultra-High Energy for Protein Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Jakoncic,J.; Di Michiel, M.; Zhong, Z.; Honkimaki, V.; Jouanneau, Y.; Stojanoff, V.

    2006-01-01

    Single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD), multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) phasing at ultra-high X-ray energy, 55 keV, are used successfully to determine a high-quality and high-resolution experimental electronic density map of hen egg-white lysozyme, a model protein. Several combinations, between single- and three-wavelength, with native data were exploited to demonstrate that standard phasing procedures with standard equipment and software can successfully be applied to three-dimensional crystal structure determination of a macromolecule, even at these very short wavelengths. For the first time, a high-quality three-dimensional molecular structure is reported from SAD phasing with ultra-high-energy X-rays. The quality of the crystallographic data and the experimental electron density maps meet current standards. The 2.7% anomalous signal from three Ho atoms, at the Ho K edge, was sufficient to obtain a remarkable electron density and build the first lanthanide structure for HEWL in its entirety.

  5. Theoretical prediction of low-density hexagonal ZnO hollow structures

    SciTech Connect

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc; Huan, Tran Doan; Thao, Nguyen Thi; Tuan, Le Manh

    2016-10-14

    Along with wurtzite and zinc blende, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been found in a large number of polymorphs with substantially different properties and, hence, applications. Therefore, predicting and synthesizing new classes of ZnO polymorphs are of great significance and have been gaining considerable interest. Herein, we perform a density functional theory based tight-binding study, predicting several new series of ZnO hollow structures using the bottom-up approach. The geometry of the building blocks allows for obtaining a variety of hexagonal, low-density nanoporous, and flexible ZnO hollow structures. Their stability is discussed by means of the free energy computed within the lattice-dynamics approach. Our calculations also indicate that all the reported hollow structures are wide band gap semiconductors in the same fashion with bulk ZnO. The electronic band structures of the ZnO hollow structures are finally examined in detail.

  6. Theoretical prediction of low-density hexagonal ZnO hollow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc; Huan, Tran Doan; Thao, Nguyen Thi; Tuan, Le Manh

    2016-10-01

    Along with wurtzite and zinc blende, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been found in a large number of polymorphs with substantially different properties and, hence, applications. Therefore, predicting and synthesizing new classes of ZnO polymorphs are of great significance and have been gaining considerable interest. Herein, we perform a density functional theory based tight-binding study, predicting several new series of ZnO hollow structures using the bottom-up approach. The geometry of the building blocks allows for obtaining a variety of hexagonal, low-density nanoporous, and flexible ZnO hollow structures. Their stability is discussed by means of the free energy computed within the lattice-dynamics approach. Our calculations also indicate that all the reported hollow structures are wide band gap semiconductors in the same fashion with bulk ZnO. The electronic band structures of the ZnO hollow structures are finally examined in detail.

  7. Fabrication, magnetic, and ferroelectric properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 hollow nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi; Cheng, Zhen Xiang; Xue Dou, Shi; Attard, Darren Jon; Lin Wang, Xiao

    2011-04-01

    Hollow BiFeO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by an electrospray route for the first time. The phase purity and structure have been investigated by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Transmission and scanning electron microscope investigations revealed that the as-obtained BiFeO3 hollow spheres were polycrystalline, with a shell thickness of 35 nm. The formation mechanism can be possibly explained by Ostwald ripening. Raman spectra have verified decreased vibrational frequencies in BiFeO3 nanoparticles. These hollow and core-shell multiferroic nanoparticles exhibit significantly enhanced ferromagnetism from 5 to 600 K due to a broken spiral spin structure. The ferroelectricity of hollow BiFeO3 particles exhibits a lower switching electric field, which is confirmed by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

  8. Decay time of hollow argon atoms formed below metal and dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, J. P.; Phaneuf, R.; Aryal, N. B.; Baral, K. K.; Thomas, C. M.; Esteves, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    Slow highly charged ions penetrating surfaces quickly capture many electrons in highly excited states, leaving empty the innermost shells, forming hollow atoms. These hollow atoms then fill their innermost shells in a stepwise manner through a long cascade of Auger and x-ray transitions. We have measured the mean emission depths of the series of x rays emitted during the decay cascade of Ar hollow atoms formed below the surface of metal and dielectric materials. It has been found that the decay times of these hollow atoms are much longer in dielectrics than in metals, and at keV/q kinetic energies, at depths of the order of 10-20 nm, considerably deeper than any expected value. These findings have been tentatively explained by the different responses of metals and dielectrics to the slow penetration of a highly charged ion.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Hollow Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yian

    This dissertation describes fundamental studies of hollow carbon nanostructures, which may be used as electrodes for practical energy storage applications such as batteries or supercapacitors. Electron microscopy is heavily utilized for the nanoscale characterization. To control the morphology of hollow carbon nanostructures, ZnO nanowires serve as sacrificial templates. The first part of this dissertation focuses on the optimization of synthesis parameters and the scale-up production of ZnO nanowires by vapor transport method. Uniform ZnO nanowires with 40 nm width can be produced by using 1100 °C reaction temperature and 20 sccm oxygen flow rate, which are the two most important parameters. The use of ethanol as carbon source with or without water steam provides uniform carbonaceous deposition on ZnO nanowire templates. The amount of as-deposited carbonaceous material can be controlled by reaction temperature and reaction time. Due to the catalytic property of ZnO surface, the thicknesses of carbonaceous layers are typically in nanometers. Different methods to remove the ZnO templates are explored, of which hydrogen reduction at temperatures higher than 700 °C is most efficient. The ZnO templates can also be removed under ethanol environment, but the temperatures need to be higher than 850 °C for practical use. Characterizations of hollow carbon nanofibers show that the hollow carbon nanostructures have a high specific surface area (>1100 m2/g) with the presence of mesopores ( 3.5 nm). The initial data on energy storage as electrodes of electrochemical double layer capacitors show that high specific capacitance (> 220 F/g) can be obtained, which is related to the high surface area and unique porous hollow structure with a thin wall.

  10. Design of PdAg Hollow Nanoflowers through Galvanic Replacement and Their Application for Ethanol Electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Caiqin; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Jiatai; Feng, Yue; Guo, Jun; Du, Yukou

    2016-11-07

    In this study, galvanic replacement provides a simple route for the synthesis of PdAg hollow nanoflower structures by using the Ag-seeds as sacrificial templates in the presence of l-ascorbic acid (reductant) and CTAC (capping agent). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and EDS mapping were used to characterize the as-prepared PdAg hollow nanoflower catalysts, where they were alloyed nanoflower structures with hollow interiors. By maneuvering the Pd/Ag ratio, we found that the as-prepared Pd1 Ag3 hollow nanoflower catalysts had the optimized performance for catalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation reaction. Moreover, these as-prepared PdAg hollow nanoflower catalysts exhibited noticeably higher electrocatalytic activity as compared to pure Pd and commercial Pd/C catalysts due to the alloyed Ag-Pd composition as well as the hollow nanoflower structures. It is anticipated that this work provides a rational design of other architecturally controlled bimetallic nanocrystals for application in fuel cells. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.

  12. Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sena-Junior, M. I.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample's average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry-Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry-Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov's universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels.

  13. Compact lanthanum hexaboride hollow cathode.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Dan M; Watkins, Ronald M

    2010-08-01

    A compact lanthanum hexaboride hollow cathode has been developed for space applications where size and mass are important and research and industrial applications where access for implementation might be limited. The cathode design features a refractory metal cathode tube that is easily manufactured, mechanically captured orifice and end plates to eliminate expensive e-beam welding, graphite sleeves to provide a diffusion boundary to protect the LaB6 insert from chemical reactions with the refractory metal tube, and several heater designs to provide long life. The compact LaB(6) hollow cathode assembly including emitter, support tube, heater, and keeper electrode is less than 2 cm in diameter and has been fabricated in lengths of 6-15 cm for different applications. The cathode has been operated continuously at discharge currents of 5-60 A in xenon. Slightly larger diameter versions of this design have operated at up to 100 A of discharge current.

  14. Fabrication of Metallic Hollow Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sr., Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoshells, particularly transition metal nanoshells, are fabricated using dendrimer molecules. Metallic colloids, metallic ions or semiconductors are attached to amine groups on the dendrimer surface in stabilized solution for the surface seeding method and the surface seedless method, respectively. Subsequently, the process is repeated with additional metallic ions or semiconductor, a stabilizer, and NaBH.sub.4 to increase the wall thickness of the metallic or semiconductor lining on the dendrimer surface. Metallic or semiconductor ions are automatically reduced on the metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles causing the formation of hollow metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles. The void size of the formed hollow nanoparticles depends on the dendrimer generation. The thickness of the metallic or semiconductor thin film around the dendrimer depends on the repetition times and the size of initial metallic or semiconductor seeds.

  15. Purification of nanoparticles by hollow fiber diafiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeken, J.

    2012-09-01

    Hollow Fiber Diafiltration (Hollow Fiber Tangential Flow Filtration) is an efficient and rapid alternative to traditional methods of nanoparticle purification such as ultracentrifugation, stirred cell filtration, dialysis or chromatography. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration can be used to purify a wide range of nanoparticles including liposomes, colloids, magnetic particles and nanotubes. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration is a membrane based method where pore size determines the retention or transmission of solution components. It is a flow process where the sample is gently circulated through a tubular membrane. With controlled replacement of the permeate or (dialysate), pure nanoparticles can be attained. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration can be directly scaled up from R&D volumes to production. By adding more membrane fibers and maintaining the operating parameters, large volumes can be processed in the same time with the same pressure, and flow dynamics as bench-scale volumes. Keywords: hollow fiber, Diafiltration, filtration, purification, tangential flow filtration.

  16. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  17. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  18. HOLLOW CATHODES IN NEGATIVE-GRID TUBES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This study involved factors important to the successful operation of hollow cathodes in negative-grid tubes: (1) activation rate; (2) mechanism of...operation; and (3) grid action with truncated pyramidal hollow cathodes. A method of reducing the activation rate by ten-fold was investigated and...et als. Unusual grid-control characteristics associated with hollow cathodes were experimentally derived and indicated the basis for the observed transconductance limitation. (Author)

  19. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Ingersoll, David; Schmidt, Carrie; Flemming, Jeb

    2006-11-07

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  20. A general approach towards multi-faceted hollow oxide composites using zeolitic imidazolate frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renbing; Wang, Dan Ping; Han, Jianyu; Liu, Hai; Zhou, Kun; Huang, Yizhong; Xu, Rong; Wei, Jun; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Zhong

    2014-12-01

    that these complex hollow oxide composites, especially the Co3O4/SiO2 hollow dodecahedra, exhibit a significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance as oxygen evolution photocatalysts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05135a

  1. Rational synthesis of carbon-coated hollow Ge nanocrystals with enhanced lithium-storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Chu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chaoji; Xiang, Jingwei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2016-06-01

    capability. The small size and the high structural integrity of hollow Ge@C structures contribute to the superior lithium-storage performances. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM/SEM images, XRD pattern, TG results, XPS spectra, and electrochemical properties. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00937a

  2. Current self-limitation of the nanosecond hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, Dmitry

    2017-08-01

    The nanosecond hollow cathode discharge in argon gas at the pressure of 1-10 Torr is studied using 2D particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model. We obtain that at the low gas pressure discharge operates in the plane-to-plane mode. This mode allows the generation of energetic electrons (>1 keV) in the gap between the cathode and the anode. However, these electrons do not form the focused beam. At higher pressures, the rather dense plasma penetrates inside the cathode which allows the generation of energetic electrons inside the cathode. However, since the energy relaxation length of 1 keV electrons is shorter than the cathode-anode gap, these electrons dissipate almost all their energy in collisions with neutrals during their propagation toward the anode. Additionally, the optimal conditions necessary for the generation of high-energy electrons are discussed.

  3. Fabrication and upconversion luminescence properties of YF3:Er3+ hollow nanofibers via monoaxial electrospinning combined with fluorination method.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2014-06-01

    YF3:Er3+ hollow nanofibers were successfully fabricated via fluorination of the relevant Y2O3:Er3+ hollow nanofibers which were obtained by calcining the electrospun PVP/[Y(NO3)3 + Er(NO3)3] composite nanofibers. The morphology and properties of the products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and fluorescence spectrometer. YF3:Er3+ hollow nanofibers were pure orthorhombic phase with space group Pnma and were hollow-centered structure with the mean diameter of 172 +/- 23 nm, and YF3:Er3+ hollow nanofibers were composed of nanoparticles with the diameter ranging from 30 nm to 50 nm. Upconversion emission spectrum analysis manifested that YF3:Er3+ hollow nanofibers emitted strong green and weak red upconversion emission centering at 524 nm, 543 nm and 653 nm, respectively. The green emissions and the red emission were respectively originated from 2H11/2/4S3/2 --> 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 --> 4I15/2 energy levels transitions of the Er3+ ions. Moreover, the emitting colors of YF3:Er3+ hollow nanofibers were located in the green region in CIE chromaticity coordinates diagram. The luminescent intensity of YF3:Er3+ hollow nanofibers was increased remarkably with the increasing doping concentration of Er3+ ions. The possible formation mechanism of YF3:Er3+ upconversion luminescence hollow nanofibers was also discussed. This preparation technique could be applied to prepare other rare earth fluoride upconversion luminescence hollow nanofibers.

  4. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  5. Hollow cathode-based plasma contactor experiments for electrodynamic tether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The role plasma contactors play in effective electrodynamic tether operation is discussed. Hollow cathodes and hollow cathode-based plasma sources have been identified as leading candidates for the electrodynamic tether plasma contactor. Present experimental efforts to evaluate the suitability of these devices as plasma contactors are reviewed. This research includes the definition of preliminary plasma contactor designs, and the characterization of their operation as electron collectors from a simulated space plasma. The discovery of an 'ignited mode' regime of high contactor efficiency and low impedance is discussed, as well as is the application of recent models of the plasma coupling process to contactor operation. Results indicate that ampere-level electron currents can be exchanged between hollow cathode-based plasma contactors and a dilute plasma in this regime. A discussion of design considerations for plasma contactors is given which includes expressions defining the total mass flow rate and power requirements of plasma contactors operating in both the cathodic and anodic regimes, and correlation of this to the tether current. Finally, future ground and spaceflight experiments are proposed to resolve critical issues of plasma contactor operation.

  6. Hollow cathode-based plasma contactor experiments for electrodynamic tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The role plasma contactors play in effective electrodynamic tether operation is discussed. Hollow cathodes and hollow cathode-based plasma sources have been identified as leading candidates for the electrodynamic tether plasma contactor. Present experimental efforts to evaluate the suitability of these devices as plasma contactors are reviewed. This research includes the definition of preliminary plasma contactor designs, and the characterization of their operation as electron collectors from a simulated space plasma. The discovery of an 'ignited mode' regime of high contactor efficiency and low impedance is discussed, as well as is the application of recent models of the plasma coupling process to contactor operation. Results indicate that ampere-level electron currents can be exchanged between hollow cathode-based plasma contactors and a dilute plasma in this regime. A discussion of design considerations for plasma contactors is given which includes expressions defining the total mass flow rate and power requirements of plasma contactors operating in both the cathodic and anodic regimes, and correlation of this to the tether current. Finally, future ground and spaceflight experiments are proposed to resolve critical issues of plasma contactor operation.

  7. Nickel titanates hollow shells: nanosphere, nanorod, and their photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuye; Xing, Yangyang; Zong, Lanlan; Li, Rui; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Two kinds of hollow shell structured nickel titanates (nanosphere, nanorod) were prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method using carbon material as the template. Their phase structure, morphology, and optical properties were well characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Comparing with the template-free NiTiO3 (NiTiO3-TF), the two kinds of hollow shell structured NiTiO3 have larger Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface areas. Both NiTiO3 nanosphere (NiTiO3-NS) and nanorod (NiTiO3-NR) showed remarkably photocatalytic H2 evolution from the methanol aqueous solution under full-arc lamp and visible light. Additional, their photocatalytic activities were also determined by photo-degradation of methyl blue (MB), and the degradation yield reached nearly 100% within 100 min on NiTiO3-NR under visible light. Whatever in photocatalytic H2 evolution or MB degradation, their photocatalytic activities all followed the order: NiTiO3-NR > NiTiO3-NS > NiTiO3-TF. The higher photocatalytic activities of the hollow shelled NiTiO3 should be due to their larger BET surface areas and more utilization of the incident light.

  8. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  9. Multiwavelength Anomalous Diffraction at High X-Ray Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Chapman, Henry N.; Santra, Robin

    2011-11-01

    The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method is used to determine phase information in x-ray crystallography by employing anomalous scattering from heavy atoms. X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) show promise for revealing the structure of single molecules or nanocrystals, but the phase problem remains largely unsolved. Because of the ultrabrightness of x-ray FEL, samples experience severe electronic radiation damage, especially to heavy atoms, which hinders direct implementation of MAD with x-ray FELs. Here, we propose a generalized version of MAD phasing at high x-ray intensity. We demonstrate the existence of a Karle-Hendrickson-type equation in the high-intensity regime and calculate relevant coefficients with detailed electronic damage dynamics of heavy atoms. The present method offers a potential for ab initio structural determination in femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography.

  10. Multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at high x-ray intensity.

    PubMed

    Son, Sang-Kil; Chapman, Henry N; Santra, Robin

    2011-11-18

    The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method is used to determine phase information in x-ray crystallography by employing anomalous scattering from heavy atoms. X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) show promise for revealing the structure of single molecules or nanocrystals, but the phase problem remains largely unsolved. Because of the ultrabrightness of x-ray FEL, samples experience severe electronic radiation damage, especially to heavy atoms, which hinders direct implementation of MAD with x-ray FELs. Here, we propose a generalized version of MAD phasing at high x-ray intensity. We demonstrate the existence of a Karle-Hendrickson-type equation in the high-intensity regime and calculate relevant coefficients with detailed electronic damage dynamics of heavy atoms. The present method offers a potential for ab initio structural determination in femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography.

  11. Template synthesis of graphene/polyaniline hybrid hollow microspheres as electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Bin; Zhang, Wenbo; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-06-01

    Graphene/polyaniline hybrid hollow microspheres are prepared via combining layer-by-layer assembly technique with in situ chemical oxidative polymerization after etching the templates for high-performance supercapacitor application. The hollow structure is characterized by transmission electron microscopy indicating that the inner diameter of the hollow microspheres is about 2.0 µm. The electrochemical tests show that the specific capacitance of the graphene/polyaniline hybrid hollow microsphere electrode materials can reach about 633 F g-1 in a 1.0 M H2SO4 electrolyte. It is higher than that of polyaniline hollow microspheres (389 F g-1), pure polyaniline particles (152 F g-1), and graphene/sodium alginate hollow microspheres (16 F g-1). The high specific capacitance might be attributed to the unique hollow structure and the synergistic effect of the hybrid shell. Their unique structure provides an enhanced surface-to-volume ratio and reduced transport lengths for both mass and charge transport. Furthermore, graphene/polyaniline hybrid hollow microsphere electrode materials display good cycle stability with 92 % of its original specific capacitance after 1,000 cycles by continuous cyclic voltammetric scans at 80 mV s-1.

  12. Tailored Fabrication of Transferable and Hollow Weblike Titanium Dioxide Structures.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Arto; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Saari, Jesse; Ojanperä, Anniina; Sarlin, Essi; Wondraczek, Holger; Efimov, Alexander; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Vivo, Paola; Maccato, Chiara; Barreca, Davide; Fardim, Pedro; Tkachenko, Nikolai; Valden, Mika; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2017-01-04

    The preparation of weblike titanium dioxide thin films by atomic layer deposition on cellulose biotemplates is reported. The method produces a TiO2 web, which is flexible and transferable from the deposition substrate to that of the end application. Removal of the cellulose template by calcination converts the amorphous titania to crystalline anatase and gives the structure a hollow morphology. The TiO2 webs are thoroughly characterized using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to give new insight into manufacturing of porous titanium dioxide structures by means of template-based methods. Functionality and integrity of the TiO2 hollow weblike thin films were successfully confirmed by applying them as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hollow spheres based on mesostructured lead titanate with amorphous framework.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingmei; Wang, Guangguo; Xu, Huifang; Long, Junbiao; Shek, Fanny L Y; Lo, Samuel M-F; Williams, Ian D; Feng, Shouhua; Xu, Ruren

    2003-02-18

    Hollow spheres of mesostructured lead titanate, denoted as PTM-1, have been prepared via a combined oil-in-water emulsion mediated and neutral amine supermolecular templated route. The variety of reaction temperatures and KOH concentrations indicates hollow spheres can be formed under a very critical condition. The structure and composition of the as-synthesized PTM-1 have been determined by powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), CHN (carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen) elemental analysis, and thermal analysis. Chemical extraction of organic templates by a cosolvent of weak acid and alcohol has resulted in the formation of a new mesoporous material of non-silica oxide with high porosity.

  14. Thermodynamic anomalous Hall effect in quantum oscillation regime in a semiconductor with low concentration of transition element impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonchakov, A. T.; Okulov, V. I.; Pamyatnykh, E. A.; Bobin, S. B.; Deryushkin, V. V.; Govorkova, T. E.; Neverov, V. N.; Paranchich, L. D.

    2017-10-01

    The given report is devoted to the study of anomalous Hall resistance of donor electron system of hybridized states of transition element impurities of low concentration in quantum oscillation regime. There presented theoretical description of predicted specific behaviors on the base of the ideas about thermodynamic anomalous Hall effect. In experiments on mercury selenide crystals with cobalt impurities of low concentration one revealed the quantum oscillations of anomalous contribution to the Hall resistance corresponding to the developed concepts.

  15. Electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Beckner, E.H.; Clauser, M.J.

    1975-08-12

    This patent pertains to an electron beam device in which a hollow target is symmetrically irradiated by a high energy, pulsed electron beam about its periphery and wherein the outer portion of the target has a thickness slightly greater than required to absorb the electron beam pulse energy. (auth)

  16. Instability of plasma plume of micro-hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-11-15

    The micro-hollow cathode gas discharge driven by thermionic emission is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions simulation. The electron current is extracted from the plasma plume penetrating into the keeper–anode space through a small keeper orifice from the cathode-keeper space. The results of simulations and a simplified analytical model showed that the plasma density and extracted current can exhibit deep modulation in the range of frequencies of tens of MHz. This modulation appears when the space-charge limited current between the plume boundary and the anode exceeds the plasma thermal electron current through the orifice.

  17. Revisiting the Anomalous rf Field Penetration into a Warm Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Oleg V. Polomarov; Constantine E. Theodosiou

    2005-06-24

    Radio-frequency [rf] waves do not penetrate into a plasma and are damped within it. The electric field of the wave and plasma current are concentrated near the plasma boundary in a skin layer. Electrons can transport the plasma current away from the skin layer due to their thermal motion. As a result, the width of the skin layer increases when electron temperature effects are taken into account. This phenomenon is called anomalous skin effect. The anomalous penetration of the rf electric field occurs not only for transversely propagating to the plasma boundary wave (inductively coupled plasmas) but also for the wave propagating along the plasma boundary (capacitively coupled plasmas). Such anomalous penetration of the rf field modifies the structure of the capacitive sheath. Recent advances in the nonlinear, non-local theory of the capacitive sheath are reported. It is shown that separating the electric field profile into exponential and non-exponential parts yields an efficient qualitative and quantitative description of the anomalous skin effect in both inductively and capacitively coupled plasma.

  18. How anomalous resistivity accelerates magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, H.

    2017-08-01

    Whether turbulence induced anomalous resistivity (AR) can facilitate a fast magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasma is a subject of active debate for decades. Recent space observations suggest that the reconnection rate can be higher than the Hall-reconnection rate and turbulent dissipation is required. In this paper, using particle-in-cell simulations, we present a case study of how AR produced by Buneman instability accelerates magnetic reconnection. We first show that the AR/drag produced by Buneman instability in a thin electron current layer (1) can dissipate magnetic energy stored in the current layer through dissipation of the kinetic energy of electron beams; (2) the inhomogeneous drag caused by wave couplings spontaneously breaks the magnetic field lines and causes impulsive fast non-Hall magnetic reconnection on electron-scales with a mean rate reaching of 0.6 VA. We then show that a Buneman instability driven by intense electron beams around the x-point in a 3D magnetic reconnection significantly enhances the dissipation of the magnetic energy. Electron-scale magnetic reconnections driven by the inhomogeneous drag around the x-line enhance the reconnection electric field and the in-plane perpendicular magnetic field. About 40% of the released magnetic energy is converted into electron thermal energy by AR while 50% is converted into kinetic energy of the electron beams through the acceleration by the reconnection electric field. The enhanced magnetic energy dissipation is balanced by a net Poynting flux in-flow. About 10% of the released magnetic energy is brought out by an enhanced Poynting flux out-flow. These results suggest that AR with sufficient intensity and electron-scale inhomogeneity can significantly accelerate magnetic reconnection.

  19. Electron microscope aperture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An electron microscope including an electron source, a condenser lens having either a circular aperture for focusing a solid cone of electrons onto a specimen or an annular aperture for focusing a hollow cone of electrons onto the specimen, and an objective lens having an annular objective aperture, for focusing electrons passing through the specimen onto an image plane are described. The invention also entails a method of making the annular objective aperture using electron imaging, electrolytic deposition and ion etching techniques.

  20. Microanalysis of extended-test xenon hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Four hollow cathode electron sources were analyzed via boroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x ray analysis, and x ray diffraction analysis. These techniques were used to develop a preliminary understanding of the chemistry of the devices that arise from contamination due to inadequate feed-system integrity and improper insert activation. Two hollow cathodes were operated in an ion thruster simulator at an emission current of 23.0 A for approximately 500 hrs. The two tests differed in propellant-feed systems, discharge power supplies, and activation procedures. Tungsten deposition and barium tungstate formation on the internal cathode surfaces occurred during the first test, which were believed to result from oxygen contamination of the propellant feed-system. Consequently, the test facility was upgraded to reduce contamination, and the test was repeated. The second hollow cathode was found to have experienced significantly less tungsten deposition. A second pair of cathodes examined were the discharge and the neutralizer hollow cathodes used in a life-test of a 30-cm ring-cusp ion thruster at a 5.5 kW power level. The cathodes' test history was documented and the post-test microanalyses are described. The most significant change resulting from the life-test was substantial tungsten deposition on the internal cathode surfaces, as well as removal of material from the insert surface. In addition, barium tungstate and molybdate were found on insert surfaces. As a result of the cathode examinations, procedures and approaches were proposed for improved discharge ignition and cathode longevity.

  1. Reflected wavefronts modulation with acoustic metasurface based on double-split hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Changlin; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Chen, Huaijun; Zhai, Shilong; Shen, Fangliang

    2015-08-01

    Metasurfaces with sub-wavelength thickness and planar profile have exhibited abnormal manipulation to waves that could not be realized by traditional materials. Here, we present an acoustic metasurface (AMS) model composed of double-split hollow sphere (DSHS) resonator arrays with the functionality of modulating reflected wavefronts at will. By tailoring the split-hole diameter of DSHS, the AMS can be designed to cover 2 π phase shifts with a step of π/4. The acoustic waves perpendicularly and obliquely incident on the AMS can be reflected at any angle, including anomalous reflection and negative reflection. These anomalous manipulations of the reflected wave are simulated to fulfill the generalized Snell's law by projecting suitable phase gradient. Such AMS provides another path to acoustic applications such as acoustic imaging, cloaking, beam steering devices.

  2. Hollow carbon nanobubbles: monocrystalline MOF nanobubbles and their pyrolysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04903f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xiangfen; Zhao, Yanyi; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Malgras, Victor; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Ho; Wang, Shaobin; Jiang, Ji-Sen

    2017-01-01

    While bulk-sized metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) face limits to their utilization in various research fields such as energy storage applications, nanoarchitectonics is believed to be a possible solution. It is highly challenging to realize MOF nanobubbles with monocrystalline frameworks. By a spatially controlled etching approach, here, we can achieve the synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) nanobubbles with a uniform size of less than 100 nm. Interestingly, the ZIF-8 nanobubbles possess a monocrystalline nanoshell with a thickness of around 10 nm. Under optimal pyrolytic conditions, the ZIF-8 nanobubbles can be converted into hollow carbon nanobubbles while keeping their original shapes. The structure of the nanobubble enhances the fast Na+/K+ ion intercalation performance. Such remarkable improvement cannot be realized by conventional MOFs or their derived carbons. PMID:28580098

  3. Structural analysis of hollow blades: Torsional stress analysis of hollow fan blades for aircraft jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, A.; Sofue, Y.; Isobe, T.

    1979-01-01

    A torsional stress analysis of hollow fans blades by the finite element method is presented. The fans are considered to be double circular arc blades, hollowed 30 percent, and twisted by a component of the centrifugal force by the rated revolution. The effects of blade hollowing on strength and rigidity are discussed. The effects of reinforcing webs, placed in the hollowed section in varying numbers and locations, on torsional rigidity and the convergence of stresses, are reported. A forecast of the 30 percent hollowing against torsional loadings is discussed.

  4. Model of the Plasma Potential Distribution in the Plume of a Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present results from a new model of the plasma potentials in the plume just downstream of the hollow cathode keeper. We examine the electron drift velocity as the hollow cathode plasma and neutral gas expand downstream of the keeper. If the drift velocity exceeds the thermal velocity a double layer potential structure develops that is the source of hot electrons. Ions are accelerated upstream through the double layer. The locations of the double layers are calculated using a simple model. It is shown that as the cathode gas flow increases, the location of the double layer moves farther downstream.

  5. Periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Polymeric micelles with core-shell-corona architecture have been found to be the efficient colloidal templates for synthesis of periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres over a broad pH range from acidic to alkaline media. In alkaline medium, poly (styrene-b-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl] trimethylammonium chloride-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PMAPTAC-PEO) micelles yield benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity of benzene groups in the shell domain of hollow particles. Whereas, an acidic medium (pH 4) produces diverse hollow particles with benzene, ethylene, and a mixture of ethylene and dipropyldisulfide bridging functionalities using poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PVP-PEO) micelles. These hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance ((29)Si MAS NMR and (13)CP-MAS NMR), Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. The benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity in the shell domain exhibit higher cycling performance of up to 300 cycles in lithium ion rechargeable batteries compared with micron-sized dense benzene-silica particles.

  6. Stimuli-sensitive hollow spheres from chitosan-graft-β-cyclodextrin for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nana; Li, Guiying; Gao, Yurong; Liu, Xunyong; Ma, Songmei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, sensitive polymeric hollow spheres self-assembled from chitosan-grafted-β-cyclodextrin (CS-g-CD) and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). The assemblies were formed by electrostatic interactions between positively charged amino group in CS-g-CD and negatively charged phosphate in TPP. The hollow spheres with diameters about 100nm were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser particle analyzer. The microspheres with hollow cavity were beneficial to improve the drug loading capacity for DOX with entrapment efficiency above 60%. The cumulative release of DOX from CS-g-CD/TPP hollow microspheres increased with the decrease of pH and the increase of temperature or ionic strength. At 37 °C and pH 5.2, the maximum drug release was above 90% with a continuous release rate. In-vitro cytotoxicity tests indicate that drug loaded hollow spheres exhibited evidently inhibition against cancer cells. These sensitive polymeric hollow spheres are expected to be used in biomedical field as potential carrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of titania hollow fiber and its application to the microextraction of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaozhang; Hu, Bin

    2011-04-07

    A titania hollow fiber membrane was successfully synthesized in a macro range via a template method coupled with a sol-gel process. Thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) was employed to study the effect of heat treatment on the synthesized hollow fiber, and the crystal forms of the titania hollow fiber membranes at different temperatures were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore structure of the prepared titania hollow fiber was characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. The prepared titania hollow fiber membrane was explored as a new adsorption material for trace metals for the first time and a new method of titania hollow fiber membrane solid phase microextraction (MSPME) online coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of trace amount of Cd, Co, V and Ni in human serum samples. In order to validate the developed method, two certified reference materials of NIES.No.10-b rice flour and BCR No.184 bovine muscle were analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values.

  8. Hierarchical flower-like Co3-xFexO4 ferrite hollow spheres: facile synthesis and catalysis in the degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Zhang, Zhe; Pan, Shunhao; Lu, Baoping; Ke, Xi; Zhang, Bailin; Tang, Jilin

    2013-03-01

    A facile method is proposed for the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) flower-like Co3-xFexO4 ferrite (CF) hollow spheres, using SiO2@FeOOH as precursor. The CF hollow spheres are efficient for the catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2 at 80 °C. The obtained CF hollow spheres were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. The formation of 3D hierarchical flower-like superstructure was influenced by the relative amount of urea used. As the mole ratio of CoCl2 and urea decreased, the structure of the products was tailored from yolk-like spheres to hollow spheres with different sized void interiors. Moreover, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis showed that the CF hollow spheres have a large specific surface area (163 m2 g-1) which provided more activity sites. The CF hollow spheres can catalyze the oxidation of MB efficiently. These results indicate that the designed CF hollow spheres exhibit promising capability for the degradation of dyes.A facile method is proposed for the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) flower-like Co3-xFexO4 ferrite (CF) hollow spheres, using SiO2@FeOOH as precursor. The CF hollow spheres are efficient for the catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2 at 80 °C. The obtained CF hollow spheres were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. The formation of 3D hierarchical flower-like superstructure was influenced by the relative amount of urea used. As the mole ratio of CoCl2 and urea decreased, the structure of the products was tailored from yolk-like spheres to hollow spheres with different sized void interiors. Moreover, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm

  9. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  10. Precise Quantization of Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestwick, Andrew

    In the quantum anomalous Hall effect, electron transport in a magnetically-doped topological insulator takes place through chiral, dissipationless edge channels. In this talk, we discuss the behavior of a nearly ideal implementations of the effect in which the Hall resistance is within a part per 10,000 of its quantized value and the longitudinal resistivity can reach below 1 Ω per square. Nearly all Cr-doped topological insulator samples demonstrate extreme temperature dependence that is well-modeled by a small effective gap, allowing control over quantization with an unexpected magnetocaloric effect. We also discuss measurements of new device geometries and non-local resistances that identify the sources of dissipation that limit the effect. (Now at Rigetti Computing).

  11. High Current Hollow Cathode Plasma Plume Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Kamhawi, Hani; Williams, George J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma plume measurements are reported for a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) operated at discharge currents of 50, 70, and 100 A at xenon flow rates between 19 - 46 standard cubic centimeter per minute. The HCA was centrally mounted in the NASA-300MS Hall Thruster and was operated in the "spot" and "plume" modes with additional data taken with an applied magnetic field. Langmuir probes, retarding potential analyzers, and optical emission spectroscopy were employed to measure plasma properties near the orifice of the HCA and to assess the charge state of the near-field plasma. Electron temperatures (2-6 electron volt) and plasma potentials are consistent with probe-measured values in previous investigations. Operation with an applied-field yields higher discharge voltages, increased Xe III production, and increased signals from the 833.5 nm C I line. While operating in plume mode and with an applied field, ion energy distribution measurements yield ions with energies significantly exceeding the applied discharge voltage. These findings are correlated with high-frequency oscillations associated with each mode.

  12. Hollow plasmonic antennas for broadband SERS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Messina, Gabriele C; Malerba, Mario; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Miele, Ermanno; Dipalo, Michele; Ferrara, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The chemical environment of cells is an extremely complex and multifaceted system that includes many types of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and various other components. With the final aim of studying these components in detail, we have developed multiband plasmonic antennas, which are suitable for highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and are activated by a wide range of excitation wavelengths. The three-dimensional hollow nanoantennas were produced on an optical resist by a secondary electron lithography approach, generated by fast ion-beam milling on the polymer and then covered with silver in order to obtain plasmonic functionalities. The optical properties of these structures have been studied through finite element analysis simulations that demonstrated the presence of broadband absorption and multiband enhancement due to the unusual geometry of the antennas. The enhancement was confirmed by SERS measurements, which showed a large enhancement of the vibrational features both in the case of resonant excitation and out-of-resonance excitation. Such characteristics indicate that these structures are potential candidates for plasmonic enhancers in multifunctional opto-electronic biosensors.

  13. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA; Yin, Yadong [Moreno Valley, CA; Erdonmez, Can Kerem [Berkeley, CA

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction of anomalous eutectic in laser remelted Ni-30 wt.% Sn alloy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yong-Qing; Lin, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Tai; Wang, Li-Lin; Song, Meng-Hua; Yang, Hai-Ou; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2015-12-01

    Laser remelting has been performed on Ni-30 wt.% Sn hypoeutectic alloy. An anomalous eutectic formed at the bottom of the molten pool when the sample was remelted thoroughly. 3D morphologies of the α-Ni and Ni3Sn phases in the anomalous eutectic region were obtained and investigated using serial sectioning reconstruction technology. It is found that the Ni3Sn phase has a continuous interconnected network structure and the α-Ni phase is distributed as separate particles in the anomalous eutectic, which is consistent with the electron backscatter diffraction pattern examinations. The α-Ni particles in the anomalous eutectic are supersaturated with Sn element as compared with the equilibrium phase diagram. Meanwhile, small wavy lamella eutectics coexist with anomalous eutectics. The Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz model was used to estimate undercooling with lamellar spacing. The results suggest that the critical undercooling found in undercooling solidification is not a sufficient condition for anomalous eutectic formation. Besides, α-Ni particles in the anomalous eutectic do not exhibit a completely random misorientation and some neighboring α-Ni particles have the same orientation. It is shown that both the coupled and decoupled growth of the eutectic two phases can generate the α-Ni + Ni3Sn anomalous eutectic structure.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of anomalous eutectic in laser remelted Ni-30 wt.% Sn alloy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yong-Qing; Lin, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Tai; Wang, Li-Lin; Song, Meng-Hua; Yang, Hai-Ou; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Laser remelting has been performed on Ni-30 wt.% Sn hypoeutectic alloy. An anomalous eutectic formed at the bottom of the molten pool when the sample was remelted thoroughly. 3D morphologies of the α-Ni and Ni3Sn phases in the anomalous eutectic region were obtained and investigated using serial sectioning reconstruction technology. It is found that the Ni3Sn phase has a continuous interconnected network structure and the α-Ni phase is distributed as separate particles in the anomalous eutectic, which is consistent with the electron backscatter diffraction pattern examinations. The α-Ni particles in the anomalous eutectic are supersaturated with Sn element as compared with the equilibrium phase diagram. Meanwhile, small wavy lamella eutectics coexist with anomalous eutectics. The Trivedi–Magnin–Kurz model was used to estimate undercooling with lamellar spacing. The results suggest that the critical undercooling found in undercooling solidification is not a sufficient condition for anomalous eutectic formation. Besides, α-Ni particles in the anomalous eutectic do not exhibit a completely random misorientation and some neighboring α-Ni particles have the same orientation. It is shown that both the coupled and decoupled growth of the eutectic two phases can generate the α-Ni + Ni3Sn anomalous eutectic structure. PMID:27877849

  16. Multi-crystal Anomalous Diffraction for Low-resolution Macromolecular Phasing

    SciTech Connect

    Q Liu; Z Zhang; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    Multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) are the two most commonly used methods for de novo determination of macromolecular structures. Both methods rely on the accurate extraction of anomalous signals; however, because of factors such as poor intrinsic order, radiation damage, inadequate anomalous scatterers, poor diffraction quality and other noise-causing factors, the anomalous signal from a single crystal is not always good enough for structure solution. In this study, procedures for extracting more accurate anomalous signals by merging data from multiple crystals are devised and tested. SAD phasing tests were made with a relatively large (1456 ordered residues) poorly diffracting (d{sub min} = 3.5 {angstrom}) selenomethionyl protein (20 Se). It is quantified that the anomalous signal, success in substructure determination and accuracy of phases and electron-density maps all improve with an increase in the number of crystals used in merging. Structure solutions are possible when no single crystal can support structural analysis. It is proposed that such multi-crystal strategies may be broadly useful when only weak anomalous signals are available.

  17. Design and Synthesis of TiO2 Hollow Spheres with Spatially Separated Dual Cocatalysts for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qianqian; Li, Li; Bi, Jinhong; Liang, Shijing; Liu, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 hollow spheres modified with spatially separated Ag species and RuO2 cocatalysts have been prepared via an alkoxide hydrolysis–precipitation method and a facile impregnation method. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that Ag species and RuO2 co-located on the inner and outer surface of TiO2 hollow spheres, respectively. The resultant catalysts show significantly enhanced activity in photocatalytic hydrogen production under simulated sunlight attributed to spatially separated Ag species and RuO2 cocatalysts on TiO2 hollow spheres, which results in the efficient separation and transportation of photogenerated charge carriers. PMID:28336859

  18. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.

  19. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.

  20. Anomalous Thermalization in Ergodic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luitz, David J.; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2016-10-01

    It is commonly believed that quantum isolated systems satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) are diffusive. We show that this assumption is too restrictive since there are systems that are asymptotically in a thermal state yet exhibit anomalous, subdiffusive thermalization. We show that such systems satisfy a modified version of the ETH ansatz and derive a general connection between the scaling of the variance of the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators, written in the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian, and the dynamical exponent. We find that for subdiffusively thermalizing systems the variance scales more slowly with system size than expected for diffusive systems. We corroborate our findings by numerically studying the distribution of the coefficients of the eigenfunctions and the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators of the random field Heisenberg chain, which has anomalous transport in its thermal phase. Surprisingly, this system also has non-Gaussian distributions of the eigenfunctions, thus, directly violating Berry's conjecture.

  1. Anomalous Thermalization in Ergodic Systems.

    PubMed

    Luitz, David J; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2016-10-21

    It is commonly believed that quantum isolated systems satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) are diffusive. We show that this assumption is too restrictive since there are systems that are asymptotically in a thermal state yet exhibit anomalous, subdiffusive thermalization. We show that such systems satisfy a modified version of the ETH ansatz and derive a general connection between the scaling of the variance of the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators, written in the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian, and the dynamical exponent. We find that for subdiffusively thermalizing systems the variance scales more slowly with system size than expected for diffusive systems. We corroborate our findings by numerically studying the distribution of the coefficients of the eigenfunctions and the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators of the random field Heisenberg chain, which has anomalous transport in its thermal phase. Surprisingly, this system also has non-Gaussian distributions of the eigenfunctions, thus, directly violating Berry's conjecture.

  2. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  3. Colligative properties of anomalous water.

    PubMed

    Everett, D H; Haynes, J M; McElroy, P J

    1970-06-13

    Investigations of the phase behaviour on freezing and subsequent melting and of other properties indicate that anomalous water is a solution containing a fixed amount of relatively involatile material in normal water. There seems to be no need to postulate the existence of a new polymer of water in such solutions. If only water and silica are present, the properties are consistent with those of a silicic acid gel.

  4. Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles Facilitated Biodegradation of an Azo Dye by Electrically Active Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Dye wastewater severely threatens the environment due to its hazardous and toxic effects. Although many methods are available to degrade dyes, most of them are far from satisfactory. The proposed research provides a green and sustainable approach to degrade an azo dye, methyl orange, by electrically active biofilms (EABs) in the presence of solid and hollow palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The EABs acted as the electron generator while nanoparticles functioned as the electron carrier agents to enhance degradation rate of the dye by breaking the kinetic barrier. The hollow Pd nanoparticles showed better performance than the solid Pd nanoparticles on the dye degradation, possibly due to high specific surface area and cage effect. The hollow cavities provided by the nanoparticles acted as the reaction centers for the dye degradation. PMID:28773775

  5. Silicon dioxide hollow microspheres with porous composite structure: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiuli; Lei, Zhongli

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, a strategy for hollow porous silica microspheres with ideally flower structure is presented. SiO(2)/PAM hybrid composite microspheres with porous were synthesized by the reaction that the porous polyacrylamide (PAM) micro-gels immersed in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) anhydrous alcohol solution and water in a moist atmosphere, with ammonium hydroxide as a catalyst. The SiO(2) hollow microspheres with porous were obtained after calcination of the composite microspheres at 550 °C for 4 h. The morphology, composition, and crystalline structure of the microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) absorption analysis, respectively. The results indicated that the obtained hollow porous SiO(2) microspheres were a perfect flower structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-dimensional model of orificed micro-hollow cathode discharge for space application

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Vekselman, V.; Haber, I.

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, we describe results of self-consistent two-dimensional (x-z) particle-in-cell simulations, with a Monte Carlo collision model, of an orificed micro-hollow cathode operating in a planar diode geometry. The model includes thermionic electron emission with Schottky effect, secondary electron emission due to cathode bombardment by the plasma ions, several different collision processes, and a non-uniform xenon background gas density in the cathode-anode gap. Simulated results showing behavior of the plasma density, potential distribution, and energy flux towards the hollow cathode and orifice walls, are discussed. In addition, results of simulations showing the effect of different Xe gas pressures, orifice size, and cathode voltage, on operation of the micro-hollow cathode are presented.

  7. Controllable synthesis of helical, straight, hollow and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xun; Xu, Zheng

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The helical, straight and hollow carbon nanofibers can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. Display Omitted Highlights: ► CNFs were synthesized via pyrolysis of acetylene on copper NPs. ► The helical, straight, hollow and N-doped CNFs can be selectively synthesized. ► The growth mechanism of different types of CNFs was proposed. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with various morphologies were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on copper nanoparticles which were generated from the in situ decomposition of copper acetylacetonate. The morphology of the pristine and acid-washed CNFs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Helical, straight and hollow CNFs can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. The growth mechanism for these three types of CNFs was proposed.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of hollow cadmium oxide sphere with carbon microsphere as template.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongling; Lai, Xiaoyong; Wang, Dan

    2013-02-01

    Cadmium Oxide (CdO) hollow spheres have been synthesized by using carbon microsphere as sacrificial template. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter and shell thickness of as-prepared hollow spheres are about 600 nm and 50 nm, respectively. The formation of hollow spheres was investigated and it was found that the shell formed when the heating temperature reached about 673 K and the sequential heat treatment could remove the carbon template. Moreover, the influence of other experimental parameters including concentration (0.1-5 M) and type of cadmium salts (cadmium chloride, cadmium acetate and cadmium nitrate, etc.) as well as type of solvents (water, ethanol and dimethylfomamide) were also investigated.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties of Ni12P5 hollow microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; Han, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hongzhe; Liu, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Ni12P5 hollow microspheres were prepared by a simple mixed cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide/sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route. The as-prepared Ni12P5 microstructures were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was interesting to find that cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide/sodium dodecyl sulfate could form a micro-reactor by the mixed micelles in the aqueous solution, which served as a soft template for Ni12P5 hollow microspheres with a diameter of 2 6 μm. Moreover, the as-prepared Ni12P5 hollow microspheres exhibited a good photocatalytic degradation activity for some organic dyes (such as Rhodamine B, Methylene Blue, Pyronine B, and Safranine T), and the degradation ratio could achieve more than 80%.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Gd₂O₃ Hollow Microspheres Using a Template-Directed Method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xueliang; Yu, Lu; Yao, Chu; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Chenjian

    2016-04-28

    Uniform rare-earth gadolinium oxide (Gd₂O₃) hollow microspheres, as formed through a urea-assisted homogenous precipitation process using carbon spheres as a template and a subsequent heat treatment, were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet surface area measurement. The results indicate that the final products can be indexed to a cubic Gd₂O₃ phase with high purity and have a uniform morphology at 500 nm in diameter and 20 nm in shell thickness. The as-synthesized Gd₂O₃ hollow microspheres exhibited a superior photooxidation activity to that of Gd₂O₃ powder and an effect similar to P25, significantly broadening the potential of Gd₂O₃ hollow microspheres for many practical applications.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Gd2O3 Hollow Microspheres Using a Template-Directed Method

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xueliang; Yu, Lu; Yao, Chu; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Chenjian

    2016-01-01

    Uniform rare-earth gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) hollow microspheres, as formed through a urea-assisted homogenous precipitation process using carbon spheres as a template and a subsequent heat treatment, were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet surface area measurement. The results indicate that the final products can be indexed to a cubic Gd2O3 phase with high purity and have a uniform morphology at 500 nm in diameter and 20 nm in shell thickness. The as-synthesized Gd2O3 hollow microspheres exhibited a superior photooxidation activity to that of Gd2O3 powder and an effect similar to P25, significantly broadening the potential of Gd2O3 hollow microspheres for many practical applications. PMID:28773446

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of Ni(12)P(5) hollow microspheres, characterization and photocatalytic degradation property.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ni, Yonghong; Liao, Kaiming; Hong, Jianming

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we report the successful synthesis of Ni(12)P(5) hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal route, employing white phosphorus (WP) and nickel nitrate as the reactants in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polyethylene glycol 10000 (PEG-10000). The phase and morphology of the product were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HMT and surfactant (PEG-10000) played important roles in the formation of Ni(12)P(5) hollow microspheres. Furthermore, research also showed that the as-prepared Ni(12)P(5) hollow spheres could photocatalytically degrade some organic dyes such as Safranine T and Pyronine B under irradiation of 365 nm UV light.

  13. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Jinhao; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang; Xu, Bing

    2010-03-16

    Nanoparticles that self-assemble on a liquid-liquid interface serve as the building block for making heterodimeric nanostructures. Specifically, hollow iron oxide nanoparticles within hexane form colloidosomes in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, and SQUID were used to characterize the heterodimers. Interestingly, the formation of silver nanoparticles helps the removal of spinglass layer on the hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a powerful yet convenient strategy for producing sophisticated, multifunctional nanostructures.

  14. Fast plasma heating by anomalous and inertial resistivity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duijveman, A.; Hoyng, P.; Ionson, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Fast plasma heating by anomalous and inertial resistivity effects is described. A small fraction of the plasma contains strong currents that run parallel to the magnetic field and are driven by an exponentiating electric field. The anomalous character of the current dissipation is caused by the excitation of electrostatic ion cyclotron and/or ion acoustic waves. The role of resistivity due to geometrical effects is considered. Through the use of a marginal stability analysis, equations for the average electron and ion temperatures are derived and numerically solved. The evolution of the plasma is described as a path in the drift velocity diagram, in which the drift velocity is plotted as a function of the electron to ion temperature ratio.

  15. Modification of W surfaces by exposure to hollow cathode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancu, C.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Moldovan, A.; Dinescu, M.; Grisolia, C.; Dinescu, G.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we assess the surface modifications induced on W samples following exposure to He and He/H2 radiofrequency plasmas in hollow cathode discharge configuration. Our study addresses issues that relate to the use of W in next-generation fusion reactors and, therefore, the investigation of W surface degradation following exposure and heating by plasmas to temperatures above 1000 °C is of practical importance. For these experiments, we used commercially available tungsten samples having areas of 30 × 15 mm and 0.1 mm thickness. The hollow cathode plasma was produced using a radiofrequency (RF) generator (13.56 MHz) between parallel plate electrodes. The W samples were mounted as one of the electrodes. The He and He/H2 plasma discharges had a combined effect of heating and bombardment of the W surfaces. The surface modifications were studied for discharge powers between 200 and 300 W, which resulted in the heating of the samples to temperatures between 950 and 1230 °C, respectively. The samples were weighed prior and after plasma exposure, and loss of mass was measured following plasma exposure times up to 90 min. The analysis of changes in surface morphology was carried out by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Additionally, optical emission spectra of the respective plasmas were recorded from the region localized inside the hollow cathode gap. We discuss the influence of experimental parameters on the changes in surface morphology.

  16. Transition characteristics of low-pressure discharges in a hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yangyang; Verboncoeur, John P.; Christlieb, Andrew J.; Wang, Xinxin

    2017-08-01

    Based on a two-dimensional (2-D) fluid model, the transition processes of discharges in a hollow cathode at low pressure are observed by changing three parameters, i.e., applied voltage U0, gas pressure p, and external circuit ballast resistance Rb. The voltage-current characteristic curves, electron density distributions, and electric potential distributions of different discharge operating points in a hollow cathode are obtained. The transition processes are characterized by the voltage-current characteristic curves, the electron density distributions, and the electrical potential distributions. The transition modes observed from the voltage-current characteristics include the low-current abnormal mode, normal mode, and high-current abnormal mode. Increasing the applied voltage U0 can have a similar effect on the discharge transition processes to decreasing the ballast resistance. By increasing U0 from 200 V to 500 V and decreasing Rb from 5000 kΩ to 100 kΩ independently, it is observed that the discharge transfers from the outside to the inside of the hollow cavity, thus forming the virtual anode potential. By increasing the gas pressure p from 50 Pa to 5 kPa, the discharge also moves into the hollow cavity from the outside; however, a further increase in the gas pressure leads to the discharge escaping from the hollow cavity. Simulation results and characterizations for different parameters are presented for the transition properties of low-pressure discharges in a hollow cathode. It is verified that the hollow cathode discharge only exists under certain ranges of the above parameters.

  17. Anomalous Alloy Properties in Mixed Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Yan, Yanfa; Wei, Su-Huai

    2014-11-06

    Engineering halide perovskite through mixing halogen elements, such as CH3NH3PbI3-xClx and CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx, is a viable way to tune its electronic and optical properties. Despite many emerging experiments on mixed halide perovskites, the basic electronic and structural properties of the alloys have not been understood and some crucial questions remain, for example, how much Cl can be incorporated into CH3NH3PbI3 is still unclear. In this Letter, we chose CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) as an example and use a first-principle calculation together with cluster-expansion methods to systematically study the structural, electronic, and optical properties of mixed halide perovskites and find that unlike conventional semiconductor alloys, they exhibit many anomalous alloy properties such as small or even negative formation energies at some concentrations and negligible or even negative band gap bowing parameters at high temperature. We further show that mixed-(I,Cl) perovskite is hard to form at temperature below 625 K, whereas forming mixed-(Br,Cl) and (I,Br) alloys are easy at room temperature.

  18. Anomalous transport due to shear-Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.; Chance, M.S.; Okuda, H.

    1980-10-01

    The behavior of shear-Alfven eigenmodes and the accompanied anomalous transport have been investigated. In the particle simulation, equilibrium thermal fluctuations associated with the eigenmodes have been observed to nullify the zeroth-order shear near the rational surface through the induced second-order eddy current, and, in turn, give rise to the formation of magnetic islands which cause rapid electron energy transport in the region. The theoretical verification of the observed behavior is discussed.

  19. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  20. Anomalous Epitaxial Growth in Thermally Sprayed YSZ and LZ Splats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are essentially layered materials, and lamellar interfaces are of great importance to coatings' performances. In the present study, to investigate the microstructures and defect features at thermally sprayed coating interfaces, homoepitaxial 8 mol.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and heteroepitaxial lanthanum zirconia (LZ) films were fabricated. The epitaxial interfaces were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) in detail. As a result, we report, for the first time, an anomalous incommensurate homoepitaxial growth with mismatch-induced dislocations in thermally sprayed YSZ splats to create a homointerface. We also find the anomalous heteroepitaxial growth in thermally sprayed LZ splats. The mechanism of the anomalous incommensurate growth was analyzed in detail. Essentially, it is a pseudo-heteroepitaxy because of the lattice mismatch between the film and the locally heated substrate, as the locally heated substrate is significantly strained by its cold surroundings. Moreover, the super-high-density dislocations were found in the interfacial region, which resulted from sufficient thermal fluctuations and extremely rapid cooling rates. Both the anomalous lattice mismatch and super-high-density dislocations lead to weak interfaces and violent cracking in thermally sprayed coatings. These were also the essential differences between the conventional and the present epitaxy by thermal spray technique.

  1. Anomalous Epitaxial Growth in Thermally Sprayed YSZ and LZ Splats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2017-06-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are essentially layered materials, and lamellar interfaces are of great importance to coatings' performances. In the present study, to investigate the microstructures and defect features at thermally sprayed coating interfaces, homoepitaxial 8 mol.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and heteroepitaxial lanthanum zirconia (LZ) films were fabricated. The epitaxial interfaces were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) in detail. As a result, we report, for the first time, an anomalous incommensurate homoepitaxial growth with mismatch-induced dislocations in thermally sprayed YSZ splats to create a homointerface. We also find the anomalous heteroepitaxial growth in thermally sprayed LZ splats. The mechanism of the anomalous incommensurate growth was analyzed in detail. Essentially, it is a pseudo-heteroepitaxy because of the lattice mismatch between the film and the locally heated substrate, as the locally heated substrate is significantly strained by its cold surroundings. Moreover, the super-high-density dislocations were found in the interfacial region, which resulted from sufficient thermal fluctuations and extremely rapid cooling rates. Both the anomalous lattice mismatch and super-high-density dislocations lead to weak interfaces and violent cracking in thermally sprayed coatings. These were also the essential differences between the conventional and the present epitaxy by thermal spray technique.

  2. Hollow GdPO4:Eu3+ microspheres: Luminescent properties and applications as drug carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yanxia; Mei, Rui; Yang, Shaokun; Tang, Hongxia; Yin, Wenzhong; Xu, Yongchun; Gao, Yaping

    2016-04-01

    GdPO4:Eu3+ samples were synthesized by a hydrothermal process using melamine formaldehyde (MF) as template. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum suggested that GdPO4:Eu3+ has a hexagonal phase. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the obtained GdPO4:Eu3+ are hollow microspheres with diameters in the range of 1-1.5 μm. Under the excitation at 245 nm, hexagonal GdPO4:Eu3+ hollow microspheres showed emission bands originating from the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions of Eu3+. The drug release properties of hexagonal GdPO4:Eu3+ hollow microspheres were exhibited by the doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) release test. The biocompatibility of hexagonal GdPO4:Eu3+ hollow microsphere was tested by the standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated that hollow GdPO4:Eu3+ microspheres have potential applications in biomedicine fields.

  3. Formation of hollow bone-like morphology of calcium carbonate on surfactant/polymer templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilaka, M. M. M. G. P. G.; Pitawala, H. M. T. G. A.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Karunaratne, D. G. G. P.; Upul Wijayantha, K. G.

    2014-04-01

    Novel hollow, bone-like structures of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) are fabricated, for the first time, starting from naturally occurring dolomite. The hollow, bone-like structures are prepared by precipitating calcium carbonate on self-assembled poly(acrylic acid)/cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (PAA/CTAC) template. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FE-SEM) studies reveal that the bone-like structure is composed of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate (ACC) nanoparticles in the center and calcite nanoparticles at the edges. Bone-like PCC particles are in particle length of 2-3 μm and particle width of 1 μm. The internal hollow structures of bone-like particles are observed from TEM images. As identified by FE-SEM images, the bone-like structure has been formed through the crystal growth of initially formed ACC nanoparticles. The ACC particles are stabilized in the center while the calcite crystals have been grown from the ACC toward the edges of the structure to form a bone-like morphology. We also propose a possible mechanism for the formation of hollow bone-like PCC in this study. The fabricated hollow, bone-like PCC has potential applications in the preparation of release systems such as drugs, cosmetics and pigments.

  4. Anomalous Centrifugal Distortion in NH_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier; Coudert, L. H.

    2017-06-01

    The NH2 radical spectrum, first observed by Herzberg and Ramsay, is dominated by a strong Renner-Teller effect giving rise to two electronic states: the bent X ^{2}B_1 ground state and the quasi-linear A ^{2}A_1 excited state. The NH2 radical has been the subject of numerous high-resolution investigations and its electronic and ro-vibrational transitions have been measured. Using synchrotron radiation, new rotational transitions have been recently recorded and a value of the rotational quantum number N as large as 26 could be reached. In the X ^{2}B_1 ground state, the NH2 radical behaves like a triatomic molecule displaying spin-rotation splittings. Due to the lightness of the molecule, a strong coupling between the overall rotation and the bending mode arises whose effects increase with N and lead to the anomalous centrifugal distortion evidenced in the new measurements.^d In this talk the Bending-Rotation approach developed to account for the anomalous centrifugal distortion of the water molecule is modified to include spin-rotation coupling and applied to the fitting of high-resolution data pertaining to the ground electronic state of NH2. A preliminary line position analysis of the available data^{c,d} allowed us to account for 1681 transitions with a unitless standard deviation of 1.2. New transitions could also be assigned in the spectrum recorded by Martin-Drumel et al.^d In the talk, the results obtained with the new theoretical approach will be compared to those retrieved with a Watson-type Hamiltonian and the effects of the vibronic coupling between the ground X ^{2}B_1 and the excited A ^{2}A_1 electronic state will be discussed. Herzberg and Ramsay, J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) 347 Dressler and Ramsay, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 25 (1959) 553 Hadj Bachir, Huet, Destombes, and Vervloet, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 193 (1999) 326 McKellar, Vervloet, Burkholder, and Howard, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 142 (1990) 319 Morino and Kawaguchi, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 182 (1997) 428

  5. Dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes and its recoil effect

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Chen, Qunzhi; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Kaile; Jiang, Zhe; Sun, Zhili; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-06-15

    A dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes (HEDBS), in which gas flow oriented parallel to the electric field, was proposed. Results showed that with this structure, air can be effectively ignited, forming atmospheric low temperature plasma, and the proposed HEDBS could achieve much higher electron density (5 × 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3}). It was also found that the flow condition, including outlet diameter and flow rate, played a key role in the evolution of electron density. Optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic results showed that the concentration of reactive species had the same variation trend as the electron density. The simulated distribution of discharge gas flow indicated that the HEDBS had a strong recoil effect on discharge gas, and could efficiently promote generating electron density as well as reactive species.

  6. Experimental detection of quantum oscillations of anomalous Hall resistance in mercury selenide crystals with cobalt impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonchakov, A. T.; Bobin, S. B.; Deryushkin, V. V.; Okulov, V. I.; Govorkova, T. E.; Neverov, V. N.; Pamyatnykh, E. A.; Paranchich, L. D.

    2017-04-01

    Quantum oscillations of the anomalous component of Hall resistance with an amplitude exceeding the amplitude of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of transverse magnetoresistance are observed in mercury selenide crystals doped with low concentrations of cobalt impurity. In accordance with the predictions of the Hall effect theory for systems with spontaneous spin polarization of hybridized donor electrons, the observed oscillations correspond to magnetic quantum oscillations caused by the thermodynamic anomalous Hall effect.

  7. Anomalous behavior of 1/f noise in graphene near the charge neutrality point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Shunpei; Matsuo, Sadashige; Tanaka, Takahiro; Nakaharai, Shu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo; Arakawa, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the noise in single layer graphene devices from equilibrium to far-from equilibrium and found that the 1/f noise shows an anomalous dependence on the source-drain bias voltage (VSD). While the Hooge's relation is not the case around the charge neutrality point, we found that it is recovered at very low VSD region. We propose that the depinning of the electron-hole puddles is induced at finite VSD, which may explain this anomalous noise behavior.

  8. Synthesis of mesoporous hollow silica nanospheres using polymeric micelles as template and their application as a drug-delivery carrier.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Zenibana, Haruna; Nandi, Mahasweta; Bhaumik, Asim; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2013-10-07

    Mesoporous hollow silica nanospheres with uniform particle sizes of 31-33 nm have been successfully synthesized by cocondensation of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and alkyltrimethoxysilanes [RSi(OR)3], where the latter also acts as a porogen. ABC triblock copolymer micelles of poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PVP-PEO) with a core-shell-corona architecture have been employed as a soft template at pH 4. The cationic shell block with 2-vinyl pyridine groups facilitates the condensation of silica precursors under the sol-gel reaction conditions. Phenyltrimethoxysilane, octyltriethoxysilane, and octadecyltriethoxysilanes were used as porogens for generating mesopores in the shell matrix of hollow silica and the octadecyl precursor produced the largest mesopore among the different porogens, of dimension ca. 4.1 nm. The mesoporous hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SXRD), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen sorption analyses, infra-red (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-CP MAS NMR and (29)Si MAS NMR) spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mesoporous hollow silica nanospheres have been investigated for drug-delivery application by an in vitro method using ibuprofen as a model drug. The hollow silica nanospheres exhibited higher storage capacity than the well-known mesoporous silica MCM-41. Propylamine functionalized hollow particles show a more sustained release pattern than their unfunctionalized counterparts, suggesting a huge potential of hollow silica nanospheres in the controlled delivery of small drug molecules.

  9. Fabrication of flocculation-resistant pH/ionic strength/temperature multiresponsive hollow microspheres and their controlled release.

    PubMed

    Mu, Bin; Liu, Peng; Li, Xiaorui; Du, Pengcheng; Dong, Yun; Wang, Yunjiao

    2012-01-01

    pH/ionic strength/temperature multiresponsive hollow microspheres were successfully prepared by the Ce(IV) initiated grafting polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) onto the multilayered polyelectrolyte shells encapsulating the polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) microsphere templates fabricated by the layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan (CS) and alginate (SAL), after etching the templates by dialysis. The hollow structure of the obtained multiresponsive hollow microspheres was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which indicated that the inner diameter of the hollow microspheres was about 200 nm. The environmental responsive properties of the multiresponsive hollow microspheres were characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS) in an aqueous system. The introduction of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) brushes onto the pH/ionic strength dual-responsive hollow microspheres achieved temperature-responsive characteristics. It also could prevent flocculation among the obtained multiresponsive hollow microspheres in a solution with higher salt concentration. Their controlled release of drug molecules (a model hydrophobic drug, dipyridamole (DIP)) was also investigated.

  10. Non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Norman L.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2003-04-15

    The non-lead hollow point bullet of the instant invention comprises a mixed construction slug further comprising, a monolithic metal insert having a tapered (preferred conical) hollow point tip and a tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion, and an unsintered powdered metal composite core in tandem alignment with the insert. The core has a hollow tapered (preferred conical) cavity tip portion coupled with the tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion on the insert. An open tip jacket envelops at least a portion of the insert and the core. The jacket is swaged at the open tip.

  11. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  12. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  13. Microring embedded hollow polymer fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Linslal, C. L. Sebastian, S.; Mathew, S.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Girijavallabhan, C. P.; Kailasnath, M.

    2015-03-30

    Strongly modulated laser emission has been observed from rhodamine B doped microring resonator embedded in a hollow polymer optical fiber by transverse optical pumping. The microring resonator is fabricated on the inner wall of a hollow polymer fiber. Highly sharp lasing lines, strong mode selection, and a collimated laser beam are observed from the fiber. Nearly single mode lasing with a side mode suppression ratio of up to 11.8 dB is obtained from the strongly modulated lasing spectrum. The microring embedded hollow polymer fiber laser has shown efficient lasing characteristics even at a propagation length of 1.5 m.

  14. Designing Hollow Nano Gold Golf Balls

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hollow/porous nanoparticles, including nanocarriers, nanoshells, and mesoporous materials have applications in catalysis, photonics, biosensing, and delivery of theranostic agents. Using a hierarchical template synthesis scheme, we have synthesized a nanocarrier mimicking a golf ball, consisting of (i) solid silica core with a pitted gold surface and (ii) a hollow/porous gold shell without silica. The template consisted of 100 nm polystyrene beads attached to a larger silica core. Selective gold plating of the core followed by removal of the polystyrene beads produced a golf ball-like nanostructure with 100 nm pits. Dissolution of the silica core produced a hollow/porous golf ball-like nanostructure. PMID:24937196

  15. Designing hollow nano gold golf balls.

    PubMed

    Landon, Preston B; Mo, Alexander H; Zhang, Chen; Emerson, Chris D; Printz, Adam D; Gomez, Alan F; DeLaTorre, Christopher J; Colburn, David A M; Anzenberg, Paula; Eliceiri, Matthew; O'Connell, Connor; Lal, Ratnesh

    2014-07-09

    Hollow/porous nanoparticles, including nanocarriers, nanoshells, and mesoporous materials have applications in catalysis, photonics, biosensing, and delivery of theranostic agents. Using a hierarchical template synthesis scheme, we have synthesized a nanocarrier mimicking a golf ball, consisting of (i) solid silica core with a pitted gold surface and (ii) a hollow/porous gold shell without silica. The template consisted of 100 nm polystyrene beads attached to a larger silica core. Selective gold plating of the core followed by removal of the polystyrene beads produced a golf ball-like nanostructure with 100 nm pits. Dissolution of the silica core produced a hollow/porous golf ball-like nanostructure.

  16. Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal of Alcator C-Mod discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Hughes, J. W.; Greenwald, M. J.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.

    2017-02-01

    Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal region of five Alcator C-Mod discharges, representing a collisionality scan is analyzed. The understanding of anomalous transport in the pedestal region is important for the development of a comprehensive model for the H-mode pedestal slope. In this research, a possible role of the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes (Rafiq et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 082511) in the edge of Alcator C-Mod discharges is analyzed. The stability analysis, carried out using the TRANSP code, indicates that the DRIBM modes are strongly unstable in Alcator C-Mod discharges with large electron collisionality. An improved interpretive analysis of H-mode pedestal experimental data is carried out utilizing the additive flux minimization technique (Pankin et al 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 102501) together with the guiding-center neoclassical kinetic XGC0 code. The neoclassical and neutral physics are simulated in the XGC0 code and the anomalous fluxes are computed using the additive flux minimization technique. The anomalous fluxes are reconstructed and compared with each other for the collisionality scan Alcator C-Mod discharges. It is found that the electron thermal anomalous diffusivities at the pedestal top increase with the electron collisionality. This dependence can also point to the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes as the modes that drive the anomalous transport in the plasma edge of highly collisional discharges.

  17. High Current Hollow Cathode Plasma Plume Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Kamhawi, Hani; Williams, George J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma plume measurements are reported for a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) oper-ated at discharge currents of 50, 70, and 100 A at xenon ow rates between 19 - 46 sccm.The HCA was centrally mounted in the annulus of the NASA-300MS Hall Thruster andwas operated in the spot and plume modes with additional data taken with an appliedmagnetic eld. Langmuir probes, retarding potential analyzers, and optical emission spec-troscopy were employed to measure plasma properties near the orice of the HCA and toassess the charge state of the near-eld plasma. Electron temperatures (2-6 eV) and plasmapotentials are consistent with probe-measured values in previous investigations. Operationwith an applied-eld yields higher discharge voltages, increased Xe III production, andincreased signals from the 833.5 nm C I line. While operating in plume mode and with anapplied eld, ion energy distribution measurements yield ions with energies signicantlyexceeding the applied discharge voltage. These ndings are correlated with high-frequencyoscillations associated with each mode.

  18. Analysis of MESSENGER high-resolution images of Mercury's hollows and implications for hollow formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, David T.; Stadermann, Amanda C.; Susorney, Hannah C.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Xiao, Zhiyong; Chabot, Nancy L.; Denevi, Brett W.; Murchie, Scott L.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Kinczyk, Mallory J.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-09-01

    High-resolution images from MESSENGER provide morphological information on the nature and origin of Mercury's hollows, small depressions that likely formed when a volatile constituent was lost from the surface. Because graphite may be a component of the low-reflectance material that hosts hollows, we suggest that loss of carbon by ion sputtering or conversion to methane by proton irradiation could contribute to hollows formation. Measurements of widespread hollows in 565 images with pixel scales <20 m indicate that the average depth of hollows is 24 ± 16 m. We propose that hollows cease to increase in depth when a volatile-depleted lag deposit becomes sufficiently thick to protect the underlying surface. The difficulty of developing a lag on steep topography may account for the common occurrence of hollows on crater central peaks and walls. Disruption of the lag, e.g., by secondary cratering, could restart growth of hollows in a location that had been dormant. Images at extremely high resolution (~3 m/pixel) show that the edges of hollows are straight, as expected if the margins formed by scarp retreat. These highest-resolution images reveal no superposed impact craters, implying that hollows are very young. The width of hollows within rayed crater Balanchine suggests that the maximum time for lateral growth by 1 cm is ~10,000 yr. A process other than entrainment of dust by gases evolved in a steady-state sublimation-like process is likely required to explain the high-reflectance haloes that surround many hollows.

  19. Au20Si12: A hollow Catalan pentakis dodecahedron.

    PubMed

    Guo, J J; Zhao, H Y; Wang, J; Ai, L Y; Liu, Y

    2017-02-14

    A stable hollow Au20Si12 cage with Ih symmetry has been predicted using first-principles density functional theory. The stability of the cage-like Au20Si12 structure is verified by vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. A relatively large highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap of 1.057 eV is found. Electronic structure analysis shows that clearly p-d hybridizations between Si atoms and Au atoms are of great importance for the stability of Au20Si12 cage. The cage-like Au20Si12 structure may have potential applications in semiconductor industry and microelectronics.

  20. Gas temperature measurements in deuterium hollow cathode glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Majstorović, Gordana; Šišović, Nikola

    2016-03-25

    We report results of optical emission spectroscopy measurements of rotational T{sub rot} and translational (gas) temperature of deuterium molecules in a hollow cathode (HC) glow discharge. The rotational temperature of excited electronic state of D{sub 2} was determined from the intensity distribution in the rotational structure of Q branch of the two Fulcher-α diagonal bands: (ν’=ν”=2) and (ν’=ν”=3). The population of excited energy levels, determined from relative line intensities, was used to derive radial rotational temperature distributions as well as gas temperature distribution of deuterium molecule.

  1. Comparative Spectroscopic Temperature Measurements In Hydrogen Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majstorovic, G. Lj.; Šišovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2010-07-01

    We report results of optical emission spectroscopy measurements of rotational Trot and translational temperature Ttr of hydrogen molecules. The light source was hollow cathode glow discharge with titanium cathode operated in hydrogen at low pressure. The rotational temperature of excited electronic states of H2 was determined either from relative line intensities of the R branch of the GK ? B band or from the Q branch of the Fulcher-a diagonal band. The population of excited energy levels, determined from relative line intensities, was used to derive ro-vibronic temperature of the ground state of hydrogen molecule.

  2. Au20Si12: A hollow Catalan pentakis dodecahedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. J.; Zhao, H. Y.; Wang, J.; Ai, L. Y.; Liu, Y.

    2017-02-01

    A stable hollow Au20Si12 cage with Ih symmetry has been predicted using first-principles density functional theory. The stability of the cage-like Au20Si12 structure is verified by vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. A relatively large highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap of 1.057 eV is found. Electronic structure analysis shows that clearly p-d hybridizations between Si atoms and Au atoms are of great importance for the stability of Au20Si12 cage. The cage-like Au20Si12 structure may have potential applications in semiconductor industry and microelectronics.

  3. Galilean satellites - Anomalous temperatures disputed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Veeder, G. J.; Cutts, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Anomalous averaged infrared brightness temperatures of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter reported by Gross (1975) are rejected as falsely conceived and lacking physical reality. It is argued that the calculations of equilibrium temperatures should be corrected, whereupon predictions would be in satisfactory agreement with observations, in conformity with the radiometric method of determining the diameters of asteroids and satellites. The IR irradiance and the related disk-averaged brightness temperature for the spectral band are recommended as more relevant. Attention is drawn to some interesting discrepancies between calculated and observed temperatures of the Jovian satellites which merit further investigation.

  4. Spatial behavior of anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, Gennady; Berkowitz, Brian

    2002-03-01

    We present a general derivation of one-dimensional spatial concentration distributions for anomalous transport regimes. Such transport can be captured in the framework of a continuous time random walk with a broad transition time distribution. This general theory includes a Fokker-Planck equation as a particular limiting case. All of the concentration profiles, as well as the associated temporal first passage time distributions, can be written in terms of a single special function (that belongs to the class of Fox functions). In addition, we consider the first two moments of the spatial concentration distributions, and determine not only their scaling behavior with time but also the coefficients and correction terms.

  5. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.

    1992-01-01

    The present calculations of the performance of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters (FADOF) on IR transitions indicate that such filters may furnish high transmission, narrow-pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth under optimum operating conditions. A FADOF consists of an atomic vapor cell between crossed polarizers that are subject to a dc magnetic field along the optical path; when linearly polarized light travels along the direction of the magnetic field through the dispersive atomic vapor, a polarization rotation occurs. If FADOF conditions are suitably adjusted, a maximum transmission with very narrow bandwidth is obtained.

  6. Minimal model for anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2017-01-01

    A random walk model with a local probability of removal is solved exactly and shown to exhibit subdiffusive behavior with a mean square displacement the evolves as ˜t1 /2 at late times. This model is shown to be well described by a diffusion equation with a sink term, which also describes the evolution of a pressure or temperature field in a leaky environment. For this reason a number of physical processes are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion. The presence of the sink term is shown to change the late time behavior of the field from 1 /t1 /2 to 1 /t3 /2 .

  7. Effect of anomalous transport coefficients on the thermal structure of the storm time auroral ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontheim, E. G.; Ong, R. S. B.; Roble, R. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Hoegy, W. H.; Ionson, J. A.; Baron, M. J.; Wickwar, V. B.; Vondrak, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    By analyzing an observed storm time auroral electron temperature profile it is shown that anomalous transport effects strongly influence the thermal structure of the disturbed auroral ionosphere. Such anomalous transport effects are a consequence of plasma turbulence, the existence of which has been established by a large number of observations in the auroral ionosphere. The electron and composite ion energy equations are solved with anomalous electron thermal conductivity and parallel electrical resistivity coefficients. The solutions are parameterized with respect to a phenomenological altitude-dependent anomaly coefficient A and are compared with an observed storm time electron temperature profile above Chatanika. The calculated temperature profile for the classical case (A = 1) disagrees considerably with the measured profile over most of the altitude range up to 450 km. It is shown that an anomaly coefficient with a sharp peak of the order of 10,000 centered around the F2 peak is consistent with observations.

  8. Terahertz plasmon and surface-plasmon modes in hollow nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic subband structure and collective electronic excitation associated with plasmon and surface plasmon modes in metal-based hollow nanosphere. The dependence of the electronic subband energy on the sample parameters of the hollow nanosphere is examined. We find that the subband states with different quantum numbers l degenerate roughly when the outer radius of the sphere is r2 ≥ 100 nm. In this case, the energy spectrum of a sphere is mainly determined by quantum number n. Moreover, the plasmon and surface plasmon excitations can be achieved mainly via inter-subband transitions from occupied subbands to unoccupied subbands. We examine the dependence of the plasmon and surface-plasmon frequencies on the shell thickness d and the outer radius r2 of the sphere using the standard random-phase approximation. We find that when a four-state model is employed for calculations, four branches of the plasmon and surface plasmon oscillations with terahertz frequencies can be observed, respectively. PMID:23092121

  9. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  10. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  11. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in real materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Zhongqin

    2016-11-01

    Under a strong magnetic field, the quantum Hall (QH) effect can be observed in two-dimensional electronic gas systems. If the quantized Hall conductivity is acquired in a system without the need of an external magnetic field, then it will give rise to a new quantum state, the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state. The QAH state is a novel quantum state that is insulating in the bulk but exhibits unique conducting edge states topologically protected from backscattering and holds great potential for applications in low-power-consumption electronics. The realization of the QAH effect in real materials is of great significance. In this paper, we systematically review the theoretical proposals that have been brought forward to realize the QAH effect in various real material systems or structures, including magnetically doped topological insulators, graphene-based systems, silicene-based systems, two-dimensional organometallic frameworks, quantum wells, and functionalized Sb(111) monolayers, etc. Our paper can help our readers to quickly grasp the recent developments in this field. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574051), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZR1403400), and Fudan High-end Computing Center, China.

  12. Hollow sphere NiS2 as high-performance hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Jianxia; Xie, Shengli; Liu, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Hollow sphere NiS2 is fabricated by a two-step hydrothermal method. When used as hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials, the NiS2 displays good electrochemical behaviors. The specific capacitance achieves 1382.0 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 506.1 F g-1 at 20 A g-1, and the specific capacitance still maintains 451.1 F g-1 at 10 A g-1 after 5000 circles. The enhanced performances may be attributed to its hollow sphere structure, which promotes ion and electron transfer and provides a large number of active sites.

  13. Influence of the floating potential on micro-hollow cathode operation

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a keeper electrode with a floating potential on the operation of a micro-hollow cathode is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The floating potential is determined self-consistently, taking into account the electron and ion charges collected by the keeper and the potential induced by the plasma non-compensated space charge. It is shown that the parameters of the micro-hollow cathode operation vary significantly, according to whether the keeper potential is floating or has a specified constant value.

  14. Facile fabrication of AgCl@polypyrrole-chitosan core-shell nanoparticles and polymeric hollow nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daming; Xia, Haibing; Chan, Hardy Sze On

    2004-11-09

    A one-step sequential method for preparing AgCl@polypyrrole-chitosan core-shell nanoparticles and subsequently the formation of polypyrrole-chitosan hollow nanospheres is reported. The formation of the core and the shell is performed in one reaction medium almost simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the presence of core-shell nanoparticles and hollow nanospheres. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) studies reveal that AgCl was formed first followed by polypyrrole. X-ray diffration (XRD) and UV-vis studies show that AgCl was present in the core-shell nanoparticles and could be removed completely from the core.

  15. A templated method to Bi2WO6 hollow microspheres and their conversion to double-shell Bi2O3/Bi2WO6 hollow microspheres with improved photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaona; Huang, Renkun; Hu, Yanhua; Chen, Yongjuan; Liu, Wenjun; Yuan, Rusheng; Li, Zhaohui

    2012-06-04

    Bi(2)WO(6) hollow microspheres with dimension of ca. 1.5 μm were synthesized via a hydrothermal method using polystyrene particles as the template. The as-prepared Bi(2)WO(6) hollow microspheres can be further transformed to double-shell Bi(2)O(3)/Bi(2)WO(6) hollow microspheres. The samples were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, N(2)-sorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, UV-vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-formed double-shell Bi(2)O(3)/Bi(2)WO(6) hollow microspheres exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity due to the hollow nature and formation of the p-n junction between p-type Bi(2)O(3) and n-type Bi(2)WO(6). The study provides a general and effective method in the fabrication of composition and dimension-tunable composite hollow microspheres with sound heterojunctions that may show a variety of applications.

  16. Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans.

  17. Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans. PMID:25382656

  18. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ► Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles. ► The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ► Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ∼29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g{sup −1}. The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  19. 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-03-03

    Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded

  20. Titania coated hollow glass microspheres for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, Mark C.

    The potential applicability of titania coated hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) to the photocatalytic degradation of microbiological and organic chemical water pollutants could have dramatic positive effects on improving the quality of industrial wastewaters that empty into rivers and streams, as well as potential use in economically improving the quality of drinking water. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using titania has been extensively studied since the 1990's because of its non-toxic nature, its high quantum yield of electrons and photo-holes, and its ability to use ambient solar radiation as a power source. Although titania embodies extraordinarily attractive properties for a range of environmental applications, a viable substrate or method of using the material effectively has not been recognized. HGMs are particularly attractive as a support for titania because of their low density and high surface area to volume ratio, but details of how they react to imposed loading, wear, and impact have not been addressed, nor have materials engineering analyses that could maximize their utility been made. In this study we have examined the microstructure, morphology and micro-compression properties of two types of titania coated hollow microspheres, a commercially produced HGM and cenospheres, a derivative of fly ash. Comparisons of uncoated and titania coated hollow microspheres showed improved failure loads and facture energies for the titania coated materials over the uncoated hollow microspheres. Also, the relationship between failure load and hollow microsphere diameter was characterized and the function employed to explain part of the gain in average failure load for the HGMs. Microscopic examination of titania coated HGMs that were subjected to various turbulent conditions, as well as intentional fracture, indicated good interfacial integrity, which supports the viability of both types of HGMs for potential applications. The photocatalytic reactivity of the titania