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Sample records for anomalous left coronary

  1. Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinalendu; Mahindrakar, Pallavi; Das, Debasis; Behera, Sukanta Kumar; Chowdhury, Saibal Roy; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit

    2011-08-01

    The usual presentation of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is severe left-sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. The manifestations of left heart failure may be masked if pulmonary artery pressure remains high. We believe this is a rarest of rare case of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with severe mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension in which pulmonary hypertension, along with good collateral circulation helped to preserve left ventricular function.

  2. Anomalous left main coronary artery detected by CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Forte, Ernesto; Inglese, Marianna; Infante, Teresa; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Tedeschi, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The growing improvements of computed tomography have made this technique more and more available for cardiac evaluation. Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are often incidental findings in subjects with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography or computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). In some cases, CAAs can be clinically relevant so their identification could change radically patient management and treatment. We report the case of a 68-year-old male patient with known CAD and associated anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from the opposite sinus.

  3. Anomalous Right Coronary Artery Originating from the Left Sinus of Valsalva in a Yucatan Minipig

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kristin A; Gogas, Bill D; Sumida, Arihiro; Nagai, Hiroyuki; King, Spencer B; Chronos, Nicolas; Hou, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    A 39.2-kg, castrated male Yucatan minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) was presented for enrollment in a coronary artery study. Angiography revealed an anomalous right coronary artery originating from the left sinus of Valsalva. The left anterior descending, left circumflex, and anomalous right coronary arteries were implanted with metallic stents without complications. The minipig remained on the study for 3 mo until it reached its predetermined study endpoint, during which time it showed no clinical signs of disease. Histologic examination of the implanted coronary arteries revealed no differences between the normal (left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries) and the anomalous right coronary artery. Swine are important models for coronary research. Although several cases of anomalous human coronary arteries have been documented, the current case is the first report of a coronary artery anomaly in a minipig. PMID:22546919

  4. Saphenous vein patch for correction of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    AlQuadan, Obadah F.; AlSmady, Moaath M.; Saleh, Suhayl S.; Aqel, Raed A.; Al-Antary, Eman T.

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the coronary arteries is a rare congenital heart defect that may lead to disturbed life style, myocardial infarction and sudden death. This report describes a young lady with the right coronary artery arising from the left main coronary artery, which was confirmed by coronary angiography and corrected surgically using saphenous vein patch. PMID:28096325

  5. Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery. Surgical considerations in the adult.

    PubMed

    Barrand, K G; Brooksby, I A; Webb-Peploe, M M; Braimbridge, M V

    1975-04-01

    The usually recommended treatment for anomalous origin of a left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is proximal ligation of the anomalous artery with a saphenous vein bypass graft to restore aortocoronary continuity. In an adult patient with large collateral vessels and with the left coronary artery arising from the back of the pulmonary artery, the technical surgical problems associated with this procedure are formidable. Closure of the orifice of the anomalous left coronary artery from inside the pulmonary artery is suggested as the treatment of choice in such a case.

  6. Echocardiographic diagnosis of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Drinkovic, Niksa; Margetic, Eduard; Smalcelj, Anton; Brida, Vojtjeh

    2008-03-01

    We found increased systolic coronary flow in transthoracic pulsed wave (PW) Doppler in a 42-year-old patient with anomalous origin of left main coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. This is a characteristic echocardiographic finding in this anomaly in the presence of collateral circulation and coronary L-R shunt. In comparison with so far used echocardiographic criteria this parameter when present allows quick recognition of anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, and its differentiation from other potentially lethal coronary anomalies.

  7. Percutaneous coronary intervention of an obstructive left anterior descending artery with anomalous origin of right coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Laxman

    2013-03-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are a rare type of congenital anomalies with an incidence of 1.3% during routine cardiac catheterization. Anomalous origin of the coronary arteries is considered an incidental finding without clinical significance. This case describes a patient in whom evaluation of chest pain revealed an obstructive left anterior descending artery as well as an anomalous right coronary artery arising from the left coronary sinus. The patient underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descending artery and was discharged home free of angina 3 days later.

  8. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention of an anomalous right coronary artery originating from the left sinus of valsalva.

    PubMed

    Conde-Vela, César; Sabaté, Manel; Quevedo, Pilar Jiménez; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana

    2006-01-01

    The presence of an anomalous origin of a coronary artery as the infarct related vessel during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction is rare and may present a technical challenge. We reported on a primary coronary percutaneous intervention performed in a right coronary artery originating from the left coronary sinus. The technical tips and tricks of treating congenital coronary anomalies are reviewed.

  9. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children: diagnostic use of multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Quanli; Yao, Qiong; Hu, Xihong

    2016-09-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. It is important to demonstrate the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery and its course before surgery. To explore the clinical diagnostic use of multidetector CT coronary angiography in detecting anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children. Nine children (2 boys, 7 girls) ages 2 months to 9 years with surgically confirmed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery were studied. Clinical data, transthoracic echocardiography and CT coronary angiography images were retrospectively analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiography correctly diagnosed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in 7 of 9 patients (95% CI: 40-97%). CT coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in all children (95% CI: 66-100%). In a 4-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, CT coronary angiography showed dilation of the right coronary artery and collateral circulation between the right and the left coronary arteries. CT coronary angiography is a useful method to show the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, especially for patients in whom origin of the left coronary artery cannot be detected by transthoracic echocardiography.

  10. Left Ventricular Thrombus Formation After Repair of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Freud, Lindsay R.; Koenig, Peter R.; Russell, Hyde M.; Patel, Angira

    2014-01-01

    Although thrombus formation following myocardial infarction in adults is well known, intracardiac thrombosis in children is uncommon. We report the case of a large left ventricular thrombus in an infant with ischemic cardiomyopathy secondary to anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Given its mobility and protrusion across the aortic valve, the patient underwent urgent thrombus removal through a transaortic approach. There were no embolic or neurologic complications. This case highlights that thrombectomy may be performed safely and successfully in critically ill pediatric patients. PMID:24668990

  11. Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery from the Midportion of the Left Anterior Descending Artery: A Rare Coronary Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Gholoobi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) as a branch from the left anterior descending artery (LAD) is a very rare variation of the single coronary artery anomaly. The anomalous vessel arises from the proximal or midportion of the LAD and courses anterior to the pulmonary artery trunk in most instances. In this case report, a 61-year-old woman is introduced who underwent coronary angiography following inferoposterior myocardial infarction, in which an anomalous RCA was seen originating from the midportion of the LAD. There was also a separate small artery originating from the right coronary sinus, which was most probably a right atrial branch. PMID:27956915

  12. Contrast Media Delivery in the Assessment of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Saade, Charbel; Al-Hamra, Salam; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2016-05-01

    A patient with a history of mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation that was corrected with a mitral ring repair 15 years earlier received a diagnosis of anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery and underwent repair. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) was employed to image the patient before surgical intervention. Synchronizing contrast media administration to opacify the right coronary artery in the arterial phase and the left coronary artery in the venous phase required a test-bolus approach. Matching compromised cardiovascular dynamics with patient-specific contrast media administration protocols was improved considerably with the use of a test-bolus technique during electrocardiography-gated coronary CTA.

  13. Single left coronary ostium and an anomalous prepulmonic right coronary artery in 2 dogs with congenital pulmonary valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Visser, Lance C; Scansen, Brian A; Schober, Karsten E

    2013-06-01

    A coronary artery anomaly characterized by the presence of a single left coronary ostium with absence of the right coronary ostium and an anomalous prepulmonic right coronary artery course was observed in two dogs with concurrent congenital pulmonary valve stenosis. This unique coronary artery anatomy is similar to the previously described single right coronary ostium with anomalous prepulmonic left coronary artery, the so-called type R2A anomaly, in that an anomalous coronary artery encircles the pulmonary valve annulus. Both dogs of this report, a boxer and an English bulldog, were of breeds known to be at risk for the type R2A anomaly. As such, veterinarians should be aware that the echocardiographic presence of a left coronary ostium in a dog with pulmonary valve stenosis does not exclude the possibility of a prepulmonic coronary artery anomaly that may enhance the risk of complications during balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. A descriptive naming convention for coronary artery anomalies in dogs is also presented, which may be preferable to the older coding classification scheme.

  14. Rare associations of tetralogy of Fallot with anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Sen, Supratim; Rao, Suresh G; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2016-06-01

    We describe the cases of two patients with tetralogy of Fallot, aged 4 years and 8 months, who were incidentally detected to have concomitant anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, respectively, on preoperative imaging. They underwent surgical correction with good mid-term outcomes. In this study, we discuss the embryological basis, physiological effects, and review the literature of these two unusual associations. Awareness of these rare associations will avoid missed diagnoses and consequent surgical surprises.

  15. Heart transplant for anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Nair, Kiron K S; Zisman, Lawrence S; Lader, Ellis; Dimova, Aneta; Canver, Charles C

    2003-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a congenital coronary artery malformation most commonly present in infancy. A variety of surgical procedures have been described to achieve physiological correction of the coronary flow abnormalities. These techniques are effective as long as there is potential for myocardial recovery. However the sequelae of chronic myocardial ischemia that characterize this entity often irreversibly damage the heart and preclude correction and palliation of the native anomaly. In this type of setting, heart transplantation is a realistic option. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) occasionally presents in adulthood. Anatomic repair with a two coronary artery system may not be optimal in patients presenting with ischemic cardiomyopathy. We report an adult patient with platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for ALCAPA.

  16. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Venkat; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ponders, Michael; Teixeira, Otto; Paul, Timir

    2017-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman was seen with complaints of exertional chest pain and shortness of breath. Her medical history included atrial fibrillation and diabetes. Physical examination was unremarkable except for an irregular cardiac rhythm. Myocardial perfusion imaging revealed the presence of a large area of infarction involving the entire anterior and apical walls and part of the anteroseptal wall with minimal periinfarct ischemia. Computed tomography coronary angiogram revealed an anomalous left main coronary artery arising from the main pulmonary artery. Right and left heart catheterizations demonstrated moderate pulmonary hypertension with a slight step-up in oxygen saturation between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery. Coronary angiography showed a large tortuous right coronary artery with collaterals to the left anterior descending artery that drained into the main pulmonary artery. She was referred for surgery. This case demonstrates a rare coronary artery anomaly in an adult where survival is dependent on collateral circulation. PMID:28210637

  17. [Anomalous left coronary artery origin from the pulmonary artery causing angina: Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Ugalde P, Héctor; Rozas A, Sebastián; Sanhueza F, María Ignacia; Yubini L, María Cecilia; García B, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Anomalies of the origin of coronary arteries are detected in 0.5-1.5% of all angiographies. Anomalous origin of the left main trunk is the most uncommon and its origin from pulmonary artery in adults is exceptional, usually because it is associated with a short survival. We report a 49-year-old female, presenting with a two months history of angina. The exercise electrocardiogram suggested ischemia. A coronary angiography was performed, showing the absence of the left main trunk in the left coronary sinus, a dilated right coronary artery, with no lesions and extensive collateral circulation to the anterior descending and circumflex arteries, with inverted flow and the left main trunk draining to the pulmonary artery. The left ventricle was mildly dilated with middle and apical anterior hypokinesia. Global systolic function was conserved. A surgical correction was decided, occluding the left main anomalous origin and performing a coronary artery bypass grafting from the left internal thoracic artery. The patient was discharged with no complications. At two years of follow-up she is symptom free and has a normal physical capacity.

  18. Malignant Course of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery Causing Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Anantha Narayanan, Mahesh; DeZorzi, Christopher; Akinapelli, Abhilash; Mahfood Haddad, Toufik; Smer, Aiman; Baskaran, Janani; Biddle, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest has been reported to occur in patients with congenital anomalous coronary artery disease. About 80% of the anomalies are benign and incidental findings at the time of catheterization. We present a case of sudden cardiac arrest caused by anomalous left anterior descending artery. 61-year-old African American female was brought to the emergency department after sudden cardiac arrest. Initial EKG showed sinus rhythm with RBBB and LAFB with nonspecific ST-T wave changes. Coronary angiogram revealed no atherosclerotic disease. The left coronary artery was found to originate from the right coronary cusp. Cardiac CAT scan revealed similar findings with interarterial and intramural course. Patient received one-vessel arterial bypass graft to her anomalous coronary vessel along with a defibrillator for secondary prevention. Sudden cardiac arrest secondary to congenital anomalous coronary artery disease is characterized by insufficient coronary flow by the anomalous left coronary artery to meet elevated left ventricular (LV) myocardial demand. High risk defects include those involved with the proximal coronary artery or coursing of the anomalous artery between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. Per guidelines, our patient received one vessel bypass graft to her anomalous vessel. It is important for clinicians to recognize such presentations of anomalous coronary artery. PMID:26257964

  19. An alternative technique for direct implantation of an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery with complex coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Kazuhiko; Araki, Kanta; Nakamura, Tsuneyuki; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    A 2-month-old patient with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) underwent an alternative repair involving coronary transfer with the bay window technique because of the very short left main coronary trunk. This procedure is a clinically relevant and feasible technique for ALCAPA with such a delicate coronary artery anomaly. PMID:27656197

  20. Anomalous left main coronary artery: case series of different courses and literature review.

    PubMed

    Marler, Adam T; Malik, Jamil A; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are a cause of sudden cardiac death. Of the known anatomic variants, anomalous origination of a coronary artery from an opposite sinus of Valsalva (ACAOS) remains the main focus of debate. Case Series. We present three cases, all presenting to our facility within one week's time, of patients with newly discovered anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva (L-ACAOS). All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of coronary anatomy along with other forms of functional testing. Despite the high risk nature of two of the anomalies, the patients are being treated medically without recurrence of symptoms. Summary. After review of the literature, we have found that the risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with congenital coronary anomalies, even among variants considered the highest risk, may be overestimated. In addition, the exact prevalence of coronary anomalies in the general population is currently underestimated. A national coronary artery anomaly registry based on cardiac computed tomography and invasive coronary angiography data would be helpful in advancing our understanding of these cardiac peculiarities. The true prevalence of congenital coronary anomalies and overall risk of sudden cardiac death in this population are not well known. Surgical intervention remains the mainstay of therapy in certain patients though recent investigations into the pathophysiology of these abnormalities have shown that the risk of surgery may outweigh the minimal reduction in risk of sudden cardiac death.

  1. Stress test to STEMI: Utility of coronary CTA in the diagnosis and management of anomalous right coronary artery from the left coronary cusp.

    PubMed

    Das, Anshuman; Joseph, Ajay; Jolly, Neeraj; Kalra, Dinesh K

    2017-10-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out. During dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), she developed chest pain and inferior ST elevation. Emergent coronary angiography revealed no culprit lesions but did show an anomalous right coronary artery (RCA). Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) confirmed an anomalous RCA arising from the left coronary cusp with a slit-like ostium and interarterial course (ARCA-LCC-IA). Herein, we review the extant literature on ARCA-LCC-IA, its clinical presentation, the vital role of CTA and MRI in its diagnosis, as well as challenges and controversies surrounding management. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery with coronary artery steal in adults. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Ihekwaba, F N; Davidson, K G; Ogilvie, B; Caves, P K

    1976-01-01

    Patients with anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery rarely survive to adult life. Those who attain adulthood may present with angina indistinguishable from coronary artery disease and are liable to sudden death. Myocardial infarction, though rare in young adults, may occur and may be due to coronary artery steal. Accurate diagnosis requires coronary arteriography. Two further cases of coronary artery steal in adults with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery are presented. In both patients aortocoronary bypass grafting using a reversed autogenous saphenous vein with closure of the origin of the anomalous left coronary artery was successfully performed. This operation provided complete symptomatic relief and may protect patients against the risk of sudden death. Images PMID:781907

  3. Echocardiographic presentation of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Norman H

    2015-12-01

    In the 1970s, diagnosing anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) was often uncertain using imaging alone; however, with the advances in high-frequency transducers, advanced image processing, and other ultrasound modalities such as Doppler colour flow imaging, tissue Doppler imaging, and speckle tracking to asses regional wall motion abnormalities, modern echocardiography now permits accurate diagnosis of ALCAPA with greater certainty. Although many consider ultrasound to be the only imaging test necessary if there is a question as to the diagnosis, other imaging modalities such as MRI, CT, and cardiac catheterisation with angiography remain valuable complementary tests, especially in older patients.

  4. Percutaneous intervention of chronic total occlusion of anomalous right coronary artery originating from left sinus – Use of mother and child technique using guideliner

    PubMed Central

    Senguttuvan, Nagendra Boopathy; Sharma, Samin K.; Kini, Annapoorna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous origin of right coronary artery (RCA) from left sinus is a rare clinical entity. Percutaneous coronary intervention of such an anomalous RCA, which is chronically occluded, is difficult and is rarely described. We describe such an intervention in a patient, who had a chronic total occlusion of anomalous RCA and discuss the technical issues associated with such interventions. PMID:26995429

  5. Is endovascular therapy the right choice for treatment of functional compression of anomalous right coronary artery arising from left coronary sinus with interarterial course?

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Ramalingam; Bagga, Shiv

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for reversible ischaemia owing to an anomalous right coronary artery arising from the left coronary sinus with malignant interarterial course and not associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). PCI for treatment of functional compression of the ostioproximal intramural segment of the anomalous vessel, though described in the literature, is technically challenging, requiring appropriate hardware selection; the peculiar anatomical milieu, in the absence of atherosclerotic CAD, lends itself to an uncertain long-term outcome following endovascular therapy with stenting. PMID:23362062

  6. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: an autopsied sudden death case with severe atherosclerotic disease of the left coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Mukai, T; Takahashi, S; Takada, A; Saito, K; Harada, K; Mori, S; Abe, N

    2014-03-01

    Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare anomaly. It may contribute to myocardial ischemia or sudden death, although the lesion is usually asymptomatic. We report a sudden death case of a 58-year-old man with ARCAPA coexisting with severe atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. He had been healthy until he complained of chest pain, several days before death, despite the discovery of heart murmur in childhood and suspicion of valvular heart disease. The autopsy revealed not only typical findings of the right coronary anomaly with well-developed collateral circulations but also severe atherosclerotic lesions of the left coronary artery, and ischemic change of the myocardium in the left and right coronary arterial perfusion territory. In addition to the "coronary steal" phenomenon primarily caused by ARCAPA, the reduced flow of both coronary arteries and further increase of "coronary steal" due to atherosclerotic obstructive coronary disease might have contributed to the patient's death.

  7. Coronary intervention in anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (ARCA) from the left sinus of valsalva (LSOV): a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Uthayakumaran, Kalaichelvan; Subban, Vijayakumar; Lakshmanan, Anitha; Pakshirajan, Balaji; Solirajaram, Ramkumar; Krishnamoorthy, Jaishankar; Janakiraman, Ezhilan; Pandurangi, Ulhas M; Kalidoss, Latchumanadhas; Sankaradas, Mullasari Ajit

    2014-01-01

    To assess the technical challenges in percutaneous coronary intervention of Anomalous right coronary artery arising from the left sinus of valsalva. Between year 2008 and 2012, a total of 17 patients underwent PCI for an angiographically significant lesion in the right coronary artery of an anomalous origin in the LSOV. Their procedure details such as usage of catheters, radiation time, amount of contrast used were assessed. A total of 17 patients with anomalous right coronary artery underwent PCI during the above mentioned period. 8 patients had type A origin, 3 had type B origin and the remaining 6 had type C origin. Type A origin RCA were successfully cannulated in 6 patients with Judkins left 5.0 and in 2 patients using Judkins left 4.0. Extra back up (EBU) 3.5 were doing well in 2 patients of Type B origin and the remaining one patient was successfully cannulated using Judkins left 4.0. In type C origin 4 patients had successful cannulation with Amplatz Left 1.0, 1 patient with Amplatz Left 2.0 and 1 patient with Judkins left 4.0. The mean fluoroscopic time was 20.7 min and amount of contrast used was 210 ml. PCI of anomalous RCA origin from LSOV requires appropriate guide catheter selection according to the anatomy of origin for successful cannulation and to reduce the contrast usage and radiation exposure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstration of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left coronary sinus associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmee; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Park, Jeong Euy

    2003-01-01

    Coronary MR angiography can be useful for noninvasive diagnosis of potentially life-threatening coronary artery anomalies. However, there has been no report to date on MR demonstration of acute myocardial infarction associated with right coronary artery anomaly. A 55-year-old man was admitted with chest pain. Catheter coronary angiography revealed an anomalous origin with compression in the proximal segment of right coronary artery. Breath-hold MR angiography using spiral acquisition technique showed that the right coronary artery originated from the left coronary sinus with a separate os. The proximal segment of the artery was compressed by right ventricle outflow tract during the diastolic phase of cine MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging 5 minutes after Gd-DTPA injection showed hyperenhancement suggestive of acute myocardial infarction in the posteroinferior wall of the left ventricle.

  9. Distinguishing between anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk and dilated cardiomyopathy: role of echocardiographic measurement of the right coronary artery diameter.

    PubMed Central

    Koike, K; Musewe, N N; Smallhorn, J F; Freedom, R M

    1989-01-01

    Patients with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk usually have a large right coronary artery. This study examines the diagnostic value of measuring the diameter of the right coronary artery by echocardiography in distinguishing between this lesion and other causes of dilated cardiomyopathy. The diameter of the right coronary artery and the right coronary artery/aorta ratio were measured in the parasternal short axis view in 40 controls, 11 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 10 with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. In the controls, the diameter of the right coronary artery increased with age, but the right coronary artery/aorta ratio remained constant. In the control group the 95% upper limits of prediction for right coronary artery diameter were 1.6 mm for one month of age, 1.8 mm for three months, 2.0 mm for one year, 2.2 mm for two years, 2.4 mm for three years, 2.6 mm for four years, 2.7 mm for six years, 3.0 mm for eight years, and 3.2 mm for 10 years; and for right coronary/aorta ratios the limits were 0.17 for one month to one year, 0.18 for one to six years, 0.19 for six to 10 years, and 0.20 for more than 10 years. All patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had normal right coronary artery diameters and right coronary artery/aorta ratios (0.10-0.13). Those patients with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk had larger than normal right coronary artery diameter and a significant increase in the right coronary artery/aorta ratio (0.21-0.29). The presence of an anomalous left coronary artery was likely if the diameter of the right coronary artery or the right coronary artery/aorta ratio was larger than the normal 95% limits of prediction. Images Fig 1 PMID:2923759

  10. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right side of the aortic valve in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Arqué, J M; Sans-Coma, V

    2006-05-01

    This study describes the coronary artery distribution patterns associated with the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right side of the aortic valve in Syrian hamsters. The hearts of 15 affected animals were examined by means of a corrosion-cast technique, histology and scanning electron microscopy. The hamsters belonged to a laboratory inbred colony with a high incidence of coronary artery anomalies and bicuspid aortic valves. The aortic valve was tricuspid in eight hamsters and bicuspid in the other seven. In all cases, the right coronary artery was normal, whereas the left main coronary artery trunk arose from the right aortic sinus or from the right side of the ventral aortic sinus when the aortic valve was bicuspid. In 12 specimens, the left main trunk crossed the infundibular septum and then divided into the left circumflex branch and the obtuse marginal branch. In another specimen, the course of the left main trunk was ventral to the right ventricular outflow tract; in the remaining two, it surrounded the aorta dorsally. In man, some of these distribution patterns may cause myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. The present findings prove that the origin of the left coronary artery from the right aortic sinus occurs in primitive mammals such as the Syrian hamster, suggesting that the defect may occur in other mammalian species. Its possible occurrence should be borne in mind in domestic animals, especially in those with signs of myocardial ischaemia after strenuous activity.

  11. Anomalous right coronary artery arising next to the left coronary ostium: unambiguous detection of the anatomy by computed tomography and evaluation of functional significance by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Heye, Tobias; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hosch, Waldemar; Kauczor, Hans U; Katus, Hugo A

    2010-11-19

    Herein we report on the diagnostic potential of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) combined with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for the diagnostic workup in an adult patient with a rare coronary anomaly. MDCT unambiguously detected the anomalous right coronary artery (RCA), which originated next to the left coronary ostium and coursed inter-arterially between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The intramural proximal intussusception of the ectopic RCA could be clearly appreciated on MDCT images, while multiple mixed plaques were detected in the left anterior descending (LAD), resulting in moderate stenosis of this vessel. CMR during adenosine infusion ruled-out inducible ischemia, yielding normal perfusion patterns both in the RCA and in the LAD coronary territory. Since ischemia was not demonstrated by stress CMR, revascularization was not performed.

  12. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: The Role of Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT)

    PubMed Central

    Al Umairi, Rashid Saif; Al Kindi, Faiza; Al Busaidi, Fadhila

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The incidence of ALCAPA is about 1 in every 300,000 live births, and constitutes 0.24% and 0.46% of all congenital cardiac disease. It has a high infant mortality rate reaching up to 90% if left untreated. For many years, the diagnosis of ALCAPA was by angiography or autopsy. However, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool that allows accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of ALCAPA. Here we report a case of ALCAPA in a six-month-old girl who presented with a two-week history of cough, fever, tachypnea, and sweating during feeding. During admission, an echocardiogram was performed that revealed ALCAPA, which was confirmed using CT. We discuss the role of MSCT in its diagnosis. PMID:27602196

  13. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) presenting with ventricular fibrillation in an adult: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Thomas; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Helqvist, Steffen; Helvind, Morten; Søndergaard, Lars

    2008-05-26

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly. The usual clinical course is severe left sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. However, in some cases collateral blood supply from the right coronary artery is sufficient and symptoms may be subtle or even absent. Arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death in adult life may be the first clinical presentation in patients with ALCAPA. We report a case, where a 39-year old woman presented with ventricular fibrillation during phycial exertion. Coronary angiography and CT-angiography revealed an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery, and an aortic reimplantation of the left coronary artery was performed followed by ICD implantation. A review of the literature on ALCAPA is presented along with CT images before and after surgery.

  14. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) presenting with ventricular fibrillation in an adult: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Thomas; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Helqvist, Steffen; Helvind, Morten; Søndergaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly. The usual clinical course is severe left sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. However, in some cases collateral blood supply from the right coronary artery is sufficient and symptoms may be subtle or even absent. Arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death in adult life may be the first clinical presentation in patients with ALCAPA. We report a case, where a 39-year old woman presented with ventricular fibrillation during phycial exertion. Coronary angiography and CT-angiography revealed an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery, and an aortic reimplantation of the left coronary artery was performed followed by ICD implantation. A review of the literature on ALCAPA is presented along with CT images before and after surgery. PMID:18503713

  15. Anomalous origin of the left circumflex coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. A very rare congenital anomaly in an adult patient diagnosed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Ringwald, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A

    2008-01-21

    Here we report for the first time on the diagnostic potential of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to delineate the proximal course of an anomalous left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) originating from the right pulmonary artery in an adult patient with no other form of congenital heart disease. The patient was referred to our institution due to exertional chest discomfort. X-Ray coronary angiography showed a normal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA), while the LCX was filled retrograde by collateral flow through the LAD and the RCA. The origin of the LCX was postulated to be the pulmonary artery, but the exact origin of the anomalous artery could not be depicted on conventional angiograms. CMR provided the unambiguous depiction of the origin of the anomalous LCX from the right pulmonary artery and the delineation of its proximal course in this case of a very rare coronary anomaly in adults.

  16. An Alternative Surgical Technique for Repair of Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-su; Lee, Mina; Cho, Yang Hyun; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    Background For the surgical management of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), there have been various techniques that reduce the tension and kinking of the coronary artery during reimplantation to the aorta. The aim of this study is to describe the results of our modified technique of coronary reimplantation for the treatment of ALCAPA. Methods Between October 2003 and February 2011, seven patients underwent coronary reimplantation with the modified technique (tubing formation with the sinus wall of the pulmonary artery and trapdoor formation at the site of implantation in the aorta). The median follow-up duration was 52 months (range, 4 to 72 months). Clinical outcomes and serial echocardiographic data were reviewed. Results There was no mortality. One patient had a small amount of cerebral hemorrhage postoperatively and improved without any sequelae. Another patient had left diaphragm palsy and underwent diaphragm plication. Follow-up echocardiogram showed that all patients had normal ventricular function without chamber enlargement. Conclusion Our modified technique (tubing formation with the sinus wall of the pulmonary artery and trapdoor formation at the site of implantation in the aorta) demonstrated successful clinical outcomes. We conclude that this surgical technique can be a potential alternative for the treatment of ALCAPA. PMID:25207218

  17. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in combination with anomalous insertion of papillary muscle directly into anterior mitral leaflet and "sawfish" systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, O; Küçükaksu, D S; Kural, T; Bayazit, K

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an unusual case of subaortic stenosis in which hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was found in combination with both anomalous insertion of papillary muscle directly into the anterior mitral leaflet and "sawfish" systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Definitive diagnosis was made on operation. We freed the left anterior descending coronary artery by incising the muscular bridge, resected both papillary muscles, and replaced the mitral valve.

  18. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in combination with anomalous insertion of papillary muscle directly into anterior mitral leaflet and "sawfish" systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Taşdemir, O; Küçükaksu, D S; Kural, T; Bayazit, K

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an unusual case of subaortic stenosis in which hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was found in combination with both anomalous insertion of papillary muscle directly into the anterior mitral leaflet and "sawfish" systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Definitive diagnosis was made on operation. We freed the left anterior descending coronary artery by incising the muscular bridge, resected both papillary muscles, and replaced the mitral valve. Images PMID:7888810

  19. Late presentation of an anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery treated with conservative surgical management with long-term cardiac magnetic resonance imaging follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Pishoy; Gouda, John; Butler, Craig; Welsh, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is rare congenital abnormality that most commonly presents in childhood and is associated with a high mortality. In the elderly, patients may present acutely with arrhythmias or signs of ischemia or with vague chronic presentations of shortness of breath and fatigue. In the high-risk elderly population, it is unclear as to whether conservative surgical management by means of suture ligation of the left coronary artery is associated with positive long-term outcomes. We present a case of a 69-year-old patient diagnosed with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, which was treated with conservative surgical management and followed up for 15 years with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, with positive outcomes.

  20. Late presentation of an anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery treated with conservative surgical management with long-term cardiac magnetic resonance imaging follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Pishoy; Gouda, John; Butler, Craig; Welsh, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is rare congenital abnormality that most commonly presents in childhood and is associated with a high mortality. In the elderly, patients may present acutely with arrhythmias or signs of ischemia or with vague chronic presentations of shortness of breath and fatigue. In the high-risk elderly population, it is unclear as to whether conservative surgical management by means of suture ligation of the left coronary artery is associated with positive long-term outcomes. We present a case of a 69-year-old patient diagnosed with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, which was treated with conservative surgical management and followed up for 15 years with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, with positive outcomes. PMID:28321308

  1. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of an aneurysm on a cervical aortic arch associated with an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Charrot, Florent; Tarmiz, Amine; Glock, Yves; Léobon, Bertrand

    2010-02-01

    Cervical aortic arch (CAA) is a rare congenital anomaly. An aneurysm developed on a CAA is even rarer and a life threatening condition. We report the diagnosis and surgical treatment of an aneurysm on a CAA associated with an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery. The surgical procedure consisted in the resection of the aneurysm, a direct aorto aortic anastomosis and a coronary artery bypass to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery with a good result at 11 months. This first case reported of an anomaly of a coronary artery origin associated with an aneurysm on a CAA, underlines the interest of a preoperative complete anatomical and functional diagnosis, to define an optimal intraoperative strategy.

  2. Unusual Survival of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery With Severe Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis in Septuagenarian Women: Foes Becoming Friends?

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Singh, Karandeep; Razi, Mahamdulla; Goel, Amit; Mishra, Vikas; Asif, Mohammad; Sachan, Mohit; Afdaali, Nasar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Thakur, Ramesh; Krishna, Vinay; Pandey, Umeshwar; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    ALCAPA syndrome (anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery) is a rare disease but lethal with clinical expression from myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure to death during early infancy and unusual survival to adulthood. We report a 73-year-old woman with ALCAPA who presented with exertional dyspnea (NYHA functional class II) over past 2 years. Physical examination revealed soft S, long mid diastolic rumbling murmur and apical pan-systolic murmur. Electrocardiography displayed biatrial enlargement and poor R progression and normal sinus rhythm. Echocardiography established calcified severe mitral stenosis (MS), presence of continuous flow entering the pulmonary trunk, turbulent continuous flow in inter-ventricular septum with left to right shunt in contrast echocardiography and normal systolic function. Coronary angiogram showed absence of left coronary artery (LCA) originating from aorta, dilated and tortuous right coronary artery (RCA) and abundant Rentrop grade 3 intercoronary collateral communicating with LCA originating from pulmonary trunk which was also confirmed on coronary CT angiogram thus establishing diagnosis of ALCAPA. It is exceedingly rare to be associated with severe MS. However, such a long survival in our patient can be explained by the severe pulmonary arterial hypertension which may be contributing to lesser coronary steal. PMID:27635184

  3. Coronary spasm as the cause of myocardial ischaemia in a patient with anomalous origin of the left anterior descending artery from the proximal right coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Jun; Hirata, Kazuhito; Wake, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman developed angina at rest. A CT of the coronary artery revealed that the left anterior descending artery arose from the right coronary artery, and traversed between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. An exercise stress myocardial scintigraphy did not reproduce myocardial ischaemia or anginal symptoms. A coronary angiography did not show any atherosclerotic changes. Finally, an ergotamine provocation test for vasospasm revealed diffuse severe spasm in the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending artery. Surgical correction of the anomaly was deferred and the patient was managed with medications to control spasm with good clinical outcome. PMID:24920513

  4. Rare case of truncus arteriosus with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) and unilateral left pulmonary artery agenesis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Kartik; Dey, Amit K; Gadewar, Rohit; Sharma, Rajaram; Pandit, Nilesh; Rajput, Priya; Hira, Priya

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is 2.4-3.8/1000 live births. Up to 70.7 % of all cases of CHD are reported to be benign; complex heart anomalies are extremely rare. Our case is extremely rare, as we report three very rare findings-truncus arteriosus, anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA), and unilateral left pulmonary artery agenesis-in a single patient. Congenital complex cardiac abnormalities are very rare, and two-dimensional echocardiography screening should be supported by cardiac computed tomography (CT). We report a case of truncus arteriosus associated with ARCAPA and left pulmonary artery agenesis diagnosed by cardiac computed tomography; we believe that such an unusual case with all three of these entities has never been reported before.

  5. A Rare Case of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery (Bland-White-Garland Syndrome) in a 68-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Michael; Banbury, Trey; Mehta, Anand

    2016-07-09

    Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), or Bland-White-Garland syndrome, is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that results in altered myocardial perfusion and a left to right shunt. It occurs in 1:300000 live births and represents 0.24% to 0.46% of all congenital cardiac diseases. Despite its rarity, it is one of the most common causes of ischemia and infarction in children. Ninety percent of these patients will die within the first year of life if untreated and diagnosing this abnormality in adulthood is extremely rare. Of those patients who survive to adulthood, the average age of sudden cardiac death is 35 years. The initial symptoms of the adult presentation vary widely from progressive dyspnea to sudden cardiac death; therefore, immediate surgical correction is highly recommended upon diagnosis. Understanding the pathophysiology and nature of collateral coronary flow in this congenital anomaly is paramount to the safe anesthetic management of adults with ALCAPA. Here we describe the intraoperative management and echocardiographic findings in a 68-year-old with with recently diagnosed ALCAPA undergoing surgical repair.

  6. Anomalous Origin of Right Coronary Artery from Distal Left Circumflex Artery: A Case Study and a Review of its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Pourafkari, Leili; Taban, Mohammadreza; Ghaffari, Samad

    2014-01-01

    Single coronary arteries are rare congenital anomalies in which the whole heart circulation is supplied by a coronary artery arising from a single ostium. Single left coronary artery with right coronary artery (RCA) originating from distal left circumflex artery (LCX) is a very rare anomaly with only few cases reported in the literature. We report a 44 years old male presenting with anterior myocardial infarction who was found to have a single left coronary artery during angiography. RCA had an abnormal origin arising from distal of a dominant LCX that retrogradely followed the course of a normal RCA to the base of the heart. A brief review of the reported cases with emphasis on the clinical significance of this unusual anomaly is presented. PMID:25031830

  7. Anomalous Origination of Right Coronary Artery from Left Sinus in Asymptomatic Young Male Presenting with Positive Ischemic Response on Treadmill Test

    PubMed Central

    Setianto, Budi Yuli; Hartopo, Anggoro Budi; Gharini, Putrika Prastuti Ratna; Taufiq, Nahar

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origination of coronary artery from the opposite sinus (ACAOS) is a rare coronary artery anomaly. Right ACAOS with interarterial course is a type of ACAOS, which conveys a high risk for myocardial ischemia or sudden death. We reported a case of right ACAOS with interarterial course in otherwise healthy young male. He was asymptomatic, until an obligatory medical check-up with treadmill test showed a sign of positive ischemic response. Further work-up revealed that he had right ACAOS with interarterial course. Watchful observation was applied to him, while strenuous physical activity and competitive sport were absolutely prohibited. PMID:26885410

  8. Anomalous right coronary artery in a middle-aged patient

    PubMed Central

    Rosseel, Liesbeth; Bonnier, Hans; Sonck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An anomalous right coronary artery originating from the left sinus of Valsalva is a rare, but often incidental, finding in middle-aged to elderly people. Prevalence is difficult to define, as well as determining potential harmful hemodynamic consequences. Moreover, the optimal treatment remains debatable. Case summary: The authors present a case of a middle-aged patient diagnosed with an anomalous right coronary artery causing ischemia, who was treated surgically. Conclusion: By reviewing literature, the authors conclude that choice of treatment depends on age, symptoms, and certain anatomic features of this anomaly. However, there are no randomized trials available in this field. PMID:27930539

  9. Evaluation of Anomalous Coronary Arteries from the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Guzeltas, Alper; Ozturk, Erkut; Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Kasar, Taner; Haydin, Sertac

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated clinical and diagnostic findings, treatment methods, and follow-up of cases of anomalous coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery. Methods The study included all cases diagnosed with anomalous coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery between January 2012 and January 2016. Data from patients’ demographic characteristics, electrocardiography, echocardiography, angiographic findings, operation, intensive care unit stay, and follow-up were evaluated. Results The study included 12 patients (8 male, 4 female), 10 with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) and 2 with anomalous right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA). Median age at diagnosis was 4 months (range, 1 month - 10 years old) and median weight was 5.5 kg (range, 3-30 kg). The most common complaints were murmur (n=7) and respiratory distress (n=5). In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrocardiographs were pathologic in all cases. Echocardiographic examination revealed medium to severe mitral valve regurgitation in 4 cases and reduced (< 40%) ejection fraction in 6 patients. Of the 12 patients, 8 underwent direct implantation of the left coronary artery into the aorta, 2 underwent implantation of the right coronary artery into the aorta, and the remaining 2 underwent a Takeuchi procedure. There were no early mortalities. Median hospital stay was 20 days (range, 5-35 days). Median follow-up duration was 18 months (range, 5-36 months), and no cases required further surgery during follow-up. Conclusions Anomalous coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery can be successfully repaired providing there is early diagnosis and effective, appropriate intensive care unit follow-up. Therefore, coronary artery origins should be evaluated carefully, especially in cases with dilated cardiomyopathies.

  10. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  11. Asymptomatic anomalous origin of left anterior descending artery from the pulmonary artery and multiple atherosclerotic stenoses revealed by silent ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Murat, Gurbuz; Cellier, François; Leobon, Bertand; Boudou, Nicolas

    2015-02-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital disease responsible for a high mortality rate in childhood. Here, we report for the first time the case of an asymptomatic 61-year old patient showing a combination of anomalous origin of the left anterior descending artery from pulmonary artery and atherosclerotic stenosis in both the right coronary artery and the left circumflex artery without anomalous origin.

  12. The radiologist's tragedy, or Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWGS). On the 80th anniversary of the first clinical description of ALCAPA (anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery)

    PubMed Central

    Kusa, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    In 1933, three doctors from the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Paul Dudley White, William Franklin Bland, and Joseph Garland, described a case of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) in a three-month-old boy. The infant died following two weeks of hospitalization. The child's father was Dr. Aubrey Hampton, a radiologist and colleague of White, Bland, and Garland. The paper presents a perspective view on the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the first clinical description of ALCAPA. PMID:26336427

  13. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of anomalous coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anitha; Keegan, Jennifer; Pennell, Dudley J

    2005-09-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of anomalous coronary arteries is a class I indication. The term anomalous coronary artery encompasses those with an abnormal origin (from the incorrect sinus, too-high or too-low from the correct sinus, or from the pulmonary artery) and/or number of ostia. Their clinical significance results from the increased risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death associated with those traversing an interarterial course between the aorta and main pulmonary artery/right ventricular outflow tract. In this article, we review the role and practice of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in this field.

  14. Anomalous hepatic vein drainage into a giant left atrium.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Lengua, Carlos Andres; Rioboo Leston, Lucia; Hecht, Harvey S; Jacobi, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old man with a history of complex atrial-septal defect repair, atrial fibrillation, and severe mitral regurgitation presented with progressive shortness of breath. A cardiac CT examination was done as part of a preoperative protocol before mitral valve replacement and it showed a severely enlarged left atrium and an anomalous hepatic vein draining into the left atrium. These findings were totally unsuspected and changed the patient management, highlighting the benefit of cardiac CT beyond the coronary finding. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Left Main Coronary Artery Hypoplasia in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kenar Tiryakioglu, Selma; Bahadir, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the coronary artery causing coronary occlusive disease may be of many different types. A 67-year-old woman with no coronary risk factors was referred for coronary angiography with few months' history of angina. The patient underwent coronary angiography due to ischemic cardiac symptoms with nondiagnostic exercising test. In coronary angiography, the left main coronary artery was arising from normal anatomical position; however, left anterior descending artery and circumflex artery were hypoplastic. The treatment of patient was discussed in cardiology-cardiovascular surgery council and coronary surgery was found inappropriate due to the hypoplasia of the left coronary system entirely. PMID:27047696

  16. Number of coronary ostia in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with normal and anomalous coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Fernández, M C; Fernández, B; Fernández-Gallego, T; Arqué, J M; Sans-Coma, V

    2007-12-01

    Little attention is being paid to the presence of accessory coronary artery ostia in man and non-human mammals due to their limited clinical relevance. However, information about their frequency and the cardiac territories irrigated by the vessels arising from them is of interest to obtain an accurate survey of the establishment of the coronary artery system in each species. The aim here was to compare the incidence and significance of the accessory coronary ostia in Syrian hamsters with normal coronary arteries and several coronary anomalies characterized by the absence of a left coronary artery originating from the left aortic sinus. The hearts from 2829 hamsters were examined using a corrosion-cast technique, micro-dissection, histochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscopy. Overall, 148 specimens displayed accessory ostia. A limited number of them belonged to the conal artery which supplies the wall of the right ventricular outflow tract. The other accessory ostia led to the septal artery, a vessel which irrigates the most part of the interventricular septum. The incidence of accessory ostia in normal and anomalous coronary artery patterns was quite similar. This suggests that the morphogenetic deviations producing the coronary artery anomalies reported in this study do not alter the connections of the septal and conal arteries to the aorta. The present observations lead to the notion that in the Syrian hamster, the septal artery should be regarded as a third coronary artery.

  17. High Take Off Left Main and Abnormal Origin of Right Coronary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Negar; Abdi, Seyfollah; Pouraliakba, Hamid Reza; Vakili-Zarch, Anoushiravan

    2013-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are rare congenital disorders with mostly benign course. We report a case of 54-year-old white male who was with stable angina scheduled for coronary angiography. Due to the difficulty of catheterization, patient underwent CT angiography and high take off left main and right coronary arteries were revealed. We conclude that anomalous coronary arteries are important and coronary interventions may be difficult in their presence.

  18. Isolated anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in an asymptomatic 12-year-old girl: role of MRI in depicting the anatomy, detecting the ischemic burden, and quantifying the amount of left-to-right shunt.

    PubMed

    Shariat, Masoud; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Seed, Mike; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2013-04-01

    Asymptomatic 12-year-old girl with a heart murmur underwent echocardiogram and suspicious continuous flow was detected in her interventricular septum. She underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for further investigation. The CMR images demonstrated anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Adenosine stress perfusion scan showed an inducible perfusion defect in the right coronary artery and left circumflex artery territories. Flow quantification showed a left-to-right shunt with pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (Qp/Qs) of 1.25.

  19. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery: First familial cases in Asia.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Hideki; Yokokawa, Mari; Fukunaga, Hirofumi; Nakagaki, Mari; Hasuwa, Tomoyuki; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    Congenital coronary artery abnormalities may cause sudden death, particularly in athletes. Two siblings, aged 10 and 9 years, respectively, were diagnosed with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). The right coronary artery arose from the left coronary cusp, and was wedged between the aorta and pulmonary artery. This was also noted on cardiac ultrasonography (UCG), but in general this might not be seen on electrocardiography at rest. Although the surgical indications are unclear in the case of unproven ischemia, early recognition of the condition may reduce risk of the cardiac events during exercise. The majority of proximal coronary artery anomalies can be screened for on UCG, and confirmed on MDCT, which yields more precise clinical details and is less invasive than angiography. This is the first report of familial cases of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery in Asia. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Anomalous Single Coronary Artery Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Padmakumar; Krishnan, Anand Muthu; Chowdary, Ravella Keerthika; Malpe, Umesh Pai

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous origin of the entire coronary system from the right coronary sinus is a very rare anomaly. Here a patient with this rare anomaly, who developed acute coronary syndrome, requiring revascularization, is presented and treated successfully. His coronary angiographic findings are also discussed. We would like to highlight the rarity of the origin of all 3 coronary arteries from a single coronary trunk. The case also highlights the importance of using Amplantzer AR1 guiding catheter for such anatomical variations arising in the right coronary cusp. PMID:28208910

  1. Catastrophic myocardial ischemia resulting from a left coronary artery anomaly with an origin in the right sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Ippei; Kawahito, Koji; Sugaya, Akira; Yokota, Ayako; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    A congenital left coronary artery anomaly originating from the right aortic sinus is a rare congenital defect associated with the risk of sudden death in young individuals. In most cases, the proximal portion of the anomalous left coronary artery exists between the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk, and it has an intramural aortic course; this could critically impair the left coronary flow owing to compression of the anomalous left main trunk between the great vessels during exercise. Herein, we report a 14-year-old boy who experienced cardiac collapse due to an acute myocardial infarction after long-distance running. After resuscitation using percutaneous cardiopulmonary support, computed tomography and coronary angiography revealed an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery in the right sinus of Valsalva and a proximal course between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. The patient was successfully treated using an unroofing procedure of the intramural left coronary artery.

  2. Anomalous left anterior descending artery arising from the pulmonary trunk: a rare cause of angina.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdalla; Power, Stephen P; Kelly, Peter

    2017-09-07

    A 60-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension and dyslipidaemia presented to our rapid access chest pain clinic with a 2-month history of chest pain on exertion. An exercise stress test was arranged, which showed electrical evidence of inducible ischaemia. Subsequently, a coronary angiogram revealed an anomalous left anterior descending artery arising from the main pulmonary artery that received grade 3 collaterals from a large right coronary artery arising from the aorta. The circumflex arises from the right coronary sinus with a retroaortic course and provided collaterals to the anomalous left anterior descending artery. The patient was managed medically with the recommended pharmacological measures for stable angina and responded well with complete resolution of his symptoms, and he is currently under regular follow-up in the cardiology outpatient department. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Acute myocardial infarction in a patient with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery: depiction at whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography and delayed-enhanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Mitsuru; Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kunimasa, Taeko; Tani, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Eizo; Kikushima, Kimio; Nagao, Ken; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2008-12-17

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of anterior chest pain. His electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and cardiac enzymes were normal. Non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction was suspected and whole-heart magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva and delayed-enhanced imaging showed transmural hyperenhancement of the inferior wall. Coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left sinus of Valsalva and occlusion in the proximal portion of the RCA. Coronary revascularization was achieved by intracoronary thrombolysis followed by stent implantation. Whole-heart coronary MRA and delayed-enhanced imaging allows simultaneous assessment of coronary artery anomaly and extent of myocardial infarction.

  4. [Gigantic coronary aneurysm arisen from coronary fistula between the left circumflex artery and the left ventricle].

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Andou, H; Yasutsune, T; Iwai, T; Fukumura, F; Tanaka, J

    2008-12-01

    A 71-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to abnormality detected by a chest roentgenogram. He had no symptoms except for slight chest oppression. He was found to have a giant coronary aneurysm. It was originated from a coronary artery (left circum flex branch) left ventricular fistula. The orifice of this fistula to the left ventricle was also dilated and formed diverticulum. Ligation of the feeding coronary branch, closure of the aneurysmal fistula in the left ventricular wall and aneurysmectomy were performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative course was uneventful. A giant aneurysm originated from a coronary-left ventricular fistula was considered to be very rare.

  5. A One-Sided Affair: Unoriginal Origin of the Left Coronary Artery, a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Omair; Rehman, Saifur; Jbara, Yaser; White, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies constitute a group of congenital malformations that have a multitude of clinical manifestations and highly variable pathophysiology. We report a 56-year-old male with angina due to an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery; approach and management.

  6. Anomalous right coronary artery from pulmonary artery discovered incidentally in an asymptomatic young infant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Seon; Jo, Eun Young; Yu, Jae Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Isolated anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that is asymptomatic and discovered incidentally in most cases. ARCAPA is generally not considered a fatal defect in infancy or childhood, although cases of sudden death have been reported. Here, we report a 2-month-old female infant who presented with a prolonged fever that was determined to be caused by rhinovirus infection. Myocardial ischemia of the left ventricular posterior wall was already seen on echocardiography, and ARCAPA was discovered incidentally. The patient underwent successful surgical reimplantation of the right coronary artery to the aortic root to re-establish dual ostial circulation. PMID:28018453

  7. Anomalous right coronary artery from pulmonary artery discovered incidentally in an asymptomatic young infant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Seon; Jo, Eun Young; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Kil, Hong Rang

    2016-11-01

    Isolated anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that is asymptomatic and discovered incidentally in most cases. ARCAPA is generally not considered a fatal defect in infancy or childhood, although cases of sudden death have been reported. Here, we report a 2-month-old female infant who presented with a prolonged fever that was determined to be caused by rhinovirus infection. Myocardial ischemia of the left ventricular posterior wall was already seen on echocardiography, and ARCAPA was discovered incidentally. The patient underwent successful surgical reimplantation of the right coronary artery to the aortic root to re-establish dual ostial circulation.

  8. Anomalous origin and interarterial course of right coronary artery associated with angina and proven ischemia.

    PubMed

    Izgi, Cemil; Feray, Hasan; Erdem, Guliz; Kaya, Zafer

    2014-12-01

    Clinical significance of coronary arteries with anomalous origin and/or course is highly heterogeneous. Anomalies with the origin from the opposite sinus and interarterial course can be associated with angina, syncope, and sudden cardiac death. However, there are no clear guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of such cases. We present the case of a young lady who presented with typical angina, and later proved to have an anomalous right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left sinus of Valsalva coursing between the aorta and pulmonary artery. This was associated with demonstrable stress ischemia with nuclear perfusion scan. The patient underwent surgery with a bypass graft to the anomalous RCA with complete relief of her angina.

  9. Anomalous Origin and Interarterial Course of Right Coronary Artery Associated with Angina and Proven Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Izgi, Cemil; Feray, Hasan; Erdem, Guliz; Kaya, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Clinical significance of coronary arteries with anomalous origin and/or course is highly heterogeneous. Anomalies with the origin from the opposite sinus and interarterial course can be associated with angina, syncope, and sudden cardiac death. However, there are no clear guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of such cases. We present the case of a young lady who presented with typical angina, and later proved to have an anomalous right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left sinus of Valsalva coursing between the aorta and pulmonary artery. This was associated with demonstrable stress ischemia with nuclear perfusion scan. The patient underwent surgery with a bypass graft to the anomalous RCA with complete relief of her angina. PMID:25484559

  10. Intravascular ultrasound for angiographically indeterminant left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Parashara, D K; Jacobs, L E; Ledley, G S; Yazdanfar, S; Oline, J; Kotler, M N

    1994-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of the presence of significant left main coronary artery disease has profound prognostic and therapeutic implications. Coronary cineangiography has shown to be imprecise and inaccurate to determine the percent stenosis of the left main coronary artery. We report a case with significant left main coronary artery disease in whom coronary cineangiography was in discordance with the clinical data and intravascular ultrasonography. Based on the intravascular ultrasound findings, the patient underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Therefore, the intravascular ultrasonography may be the procedure of choice for assessing indeterminant left main coronary artery lesions by coronary angiography.

  11. Coronary arteries anomalous aortic origin on a computed tomography angiography population: prevalence, characteristics and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Amado, José; Carvalho, Mónica; Ferreira, Wilson; Gago, Paula; Gama, Vasco; Bettencourt, Nuno

    2016-06-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of coronary arteries (AAOCA) is one of the most frequent causes of cardiovascular sudden death among the young population. We aimed to determine the prevalence and anatomic characteristics of AAOCA in a population referred to computed tomography angiography (CTA) and to describe the clinical prognosis of these findings at middle term follow-up. From a total of 3539 CTA, 53 were found to have AAOCA. This population was compared to an age and gender matched control group (n = 106) from the same CTA list. A telephone follow-up to determine cardiac events was conducted, with a mean follow-up of 45.9 ± 28.2 months. Prevalence of AAOCA was 1.5 %. The most common AAOCA was an origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left coronary sinus, followed by an origin of the left circumflex artery (LCX) arising from the right coronary sinus. All patients with an anomalous origin of the RCA had an interarterial course. Four additional patients were found to have an interarterial course: 1 with an anomalous origin of LCX and 3 with an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). At follow-up there were 33 (21.2 %) cardiac events, 9 (17.6 %) on the AAOCA group and 24 (22.9 %) on the control group (p = 0.46). Cardiac events and cardiovascular deaths were not related to any particular AAOCA or to interarterial courses. Among an adult population referred to CTA, AAOCA were not related with worse middle term prognosis when compared to an age- and gender- matched population.

  12. Surgical treatment of anomalous coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Canale, Leonardo S; Monteiro, Andrey J O; Rangel, Isabela; Wetzel, Evanice; Pinto, Divino F; Barbosa, Rosa C; Méier, Milton A; Marcial, Miguel L B

    2009-01-01

    Anomalous coronary arteries arising from the pulmonary trunk is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We report the clinical presentation, surgical treatment and long-term follow-up of seven surgical cases of anomalous left coronary and one case of anomalous right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery. Age ranged from 7 months to 13 years (average: 5.09+/-3.7 years) and weight ranged from 7 to 50 kg (average: 19.9+/-8.8 kg). Follow-up was 100% complete: average 78 months (S.D.: 52.7 months). Direct reimplantation was the surgical technique in six cases, Takeuchi procedure in one case and subclavian artery interposition in one case. Concomitant mitral valve repair was undertaken in two cases. In two children the coronary artery anomaly was diagnosed and treated only after a first surgery for other congenital heart anomaly. Left ventricle ejection fraction was restored in those cases of pre-operative dysfunction. Mortality was not observed and all children are asymtomatic and free of reoperation.

  13. Separate origin of the main components of the left coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Sans-Coma, V

    2007-08-01

    This study describes a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly in the Syrian hamster; namely, the separate origin of the obtuse marginal and left circumflex arteries which are the main components of the left coronary artery. The hearts of nine affected animals were examined by means of a corrosion-cast technique and histology. The hamsters belonged to a laboratory inbred family with a high incidence of coronary artery anomalies and bicuspid aortic valve. The aortic valve was tricuspid in three hamsters and bicuspid in the other six hamsters. In all cases, the right coronary artery was normal, whereas the left coronary artery main trunk was absent. The present anomalous coronary artery patterns could be classified into two main entities: (i) ectopic origin of the obtuse marginal artery from the right aortic sinus or from the right coronary artery, with the left circumflex artery arising from the left side of the aortic valve; and (ii) ectopic origin of both the obtuse marginal artery from the right aortic sinus or from the right coronary artery and left circumflex artery from the dorsal aortic sinus. In all cases, the obtuse marginal artery coursed to the right side of the heart through the ventral wall of the right ventricular outflow tract. When the left circumflex artery arose from the dorsal aortic sinus, it formed an acute angle with the aortic wall. This report seems to be the first to describe the separate origin of the main components of the left coronary artery in a non-human mammalian species. In man, the congenital coronary artery and aortic valve defects reported herein may entail the risk of clinical complications. However, none of the affected hamsters showed signs of disease.

  14. Right coronary ostium agenesis with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from an ectasic circumflex artery. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ayala, F; Badui, E; Murillo, H; Madrid, R; Almazan, A; Rangel, A; Gutierrez-Vogel, S

    1995-07-01

    In this report the authors present a case with right coronary ostium agenesis with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from an ectasic circumflex artery, which, according to the literature review, they consider to be a unique case.

  15. Right coronary artery from the left sinus of valsalva: Multislice CT and transradial PCI

    PubMed Central

    Bagur, Rodrigo; Gleeton, Onil; Bataille, Yoann; Bilodeau, Sylvie; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bertrand, Olivier F

    2011-01-01

    A 42-year-old-woman presented with de novo crescendo angina. Thallium-scintigraphy showed inferior ischemia. Coronary angiogram revealed a right coronary artery (RCA), originating from the left sinus of Valsalva with a severe proximal systolic compression. She underwent successful transradial percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) is usually used to evaluate coronary artery anomalies and can effectively show the anomalous RCA and the inter-arterial trajectory between the aorta and pulmonary arteries. Anomalies of the origin of the coronary arteries are rare, but can produce specific clinicopathological entities that should be diagnosed with accuracy. This case report illustrates the role of MSCT in the detailed description of an abnormal coronary artery and the use of stenting for symptoms relief. PMID:21390197

  16. Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery: a report from the Congenital Heart Surgeons Society Registry.

    PubMed

    Poynter, Jeffrey A; Williams, William G; McIntyre, Susan; Brothers, Julie A; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is a common congenital heart lesion that may be rarely associated with myocardial ischemia and sudden death in the young. Evidence-based criteria for managing young patients with AAOCA are lacking. The Congenital Heart Surgeons Society (CHSS) established a multicenter registry of patients with AAOCA aged ≤30 years to develop these criteria. All institutional members of the CHSS are eligible to enroll patients. Patients were enrolled retrospectively if diagnosis of AAOCA occurred between January 1, 1998, and January 20, 2009, and prospectively from January 20, 2009 forward. The first phase of analysis explored possible associations between demographics, symptoms, coronary anatomy, and management using correlation analysis and logistic regression. As of June 2012, 198 patients were enrolled from CHSS member institutions (median age at diagnosis = 10.2 years; 64% male). Data were extracted from clinical records. Fifty-four percent were symptomatic at presentation (most commonly chest pain, N = 78). The AAOCA was diagnosed at autopsy in two patients who presented with sudden death (one with anomalous aortic origin of the left coronary artery [AAOLCA]; one with a single ostium above a commissure giving rise to both left and right coronary arteries). Imaging reports documented anomalous aortic origin of the right coronary artery (AAORCA) in 144 patients, AAOLCA in 51 patients, and AAOLCA/AAORCA in 1 patient. Surgery or autopsy without surgery was performed in 106 patients (71 AAORCA [67%]; 31 AAOLCA [29%]; and 4 AAORCA/AAOLCA [4%]) at a median age of 12.6 years. Overall, 52% of patients with AAORCA versus 67% with AAOLCA had surgery. Most surgical operative reports described an intramural segment of the coronary artery with anomalous origin. Surgery correlated with symptoms, older age, and presence of an intramural segment in the setting of AAOLCA. Management decisions, including surgical referral, are associated

  17. Anomalous Coronary Arteries and Myocardial Bridges: Risk Stratification in Children Using Novel Cardiac Catheterization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Hitesh; Molossi, Silvana; Alam, Mahboob; Sexson-Tejtel, S Kristen; Mery, Carlos M; McKenzie, E Dean; Fraser, Charles D; Qureshi, Athar M

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation of the vast majority of children with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) and/or myocardial bridges is performed with non-invasive testing. However, a subset of these patients may benefit from invasive testing for risk stratification. All patients included in the Coronary Anomalies Program (CAP) at Texas Children's Hospital who underwent cardiac catheterization were included. Techniques included selective coronary angiograms (SCA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements with provocative testing using adenosine and/or dobutamine infusions. Out of the 131 patients followed by the CAP between 12/12-4/16, 8 (6%) patients underwent 9 cath investigations at median age 13.1 (2.6-18.7) years and median weight 49.5 (11.4-142.7) kg. Six patients presented with cardiac signs/symptoms. Four patients had myocardial bridges of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, 2 patients had isolated AAOCA, and 2 patients had an anomalous left coronary artery (LCA) with an intramyocardial course of the LAD. SCA was performed in all patients. FFR was positive in 4/6 patients: IVUS showed >70% intraluminal narrowing in 3/5 patients. One patient had hemodynamic instability that reversed with catheter removal from the coronary ostium. Based on the catheterization data obtained, findings were reassuring in three patients, surgery was performed in three patients, and two patients are being medically managed/restricted from competitive sports. In our small cohort of patients, we demonstrated that IVUS and FFR can safely be performed in children and may help to risk stratify some patients with AAOCA and myocardial bridges.

  18. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery evaluated with multidetector computed tomography and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Keiichi; Hata, Yukiko; Miyao, Naruaki; Nakaoka, Hideyuki; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Ibuki, Keijiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ozawa, Sayaka; Higuma, Tomonori; Yoshimura, Naoki; Nishida, Naoki; Ichida, Fukiko

    2016-09-01

    Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (AORCA) is a rare congenital anomaly that may cause myocardial ischemia and sudden death. We reviewed the clinicopathological records of three cases of AORCA, and compared these with two cases of sudden cardiac death with AORCA revealed by autopsy. We report three juvenile cases with an AORCA originating above the commissural junction between the left and right aortic sinuses, with interarterial and intramural compression. They presented with exertional symptoms and were diagnosed with an AORCA by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), which successfully delineated the spatial resolution of the anomalous origin and course of the right coronary artery (RCA), in the operating room. All three underwent successful surgical unroofing of the RCA. Two cases of sudden cardiac death with AORCA revealed by autopsy showed a slit-like orifice, acute-angled take-off, and long intramural course of the RCA, resembling the RCAs of three juvenile cases. It is crucial to be alert to the presentation of exertional symptoms, as sudden death may be the first manifestation of an anomalous coronary artery, such as those observed in these three cases. MDCT provided an excellent definition and spatial resolution of the unusual origin and intramural course of the RCA, facilitating the correct surgical remedy and resulting in a good outcome for the patients. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anomalous aortic origin of coronary arteries from the opposite sinus: A critical appraisal of risk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary artery (AAOCA) from the opposite sinus of Valsalva with an interarterial course has received much attention due to its association with sudden death in otherwise healthy individuals. AAOCA is relatively common and may have significant public health implications. While our knowledge of its pathophysiology and natural history remains incomplete, an emphasis has been placed on surgical correction. Discussion In 2005 we published a review examining the rates of sudden death with AAOCA, as well as complications of surgical management. Evidence now points even more strongly to lower rates of sudden death, while surgical outcomes data now better documents associated risks. Summary Armed with this updated information, we agree with the need for a national registry to better track patients with AAOCA. We submit that the risks of surgical management outweigh any benefits in the asymptomatic patient with anomalous right coronary artery, and expectant management should also be strongly considered even in asymptomatic patients with anomalous left coronary artery. PMID:23025810

  20. Coronary fistula to the left ventricle: assessed by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Roberto Moreno; Bandeira, Rodrigo Lima; Fonseca, Fredson J S; Macedo Filho, Robson

    2011-10-01

    Coronary artery fistulas are rare and are most often diagnosed by echocardiography or by cine-angiocardiography. However, the computed tomography angiography (CTA) of coronary arteries has been gaining ground. The incidence of this disease is very low, with a more frequent occurrence of fistulas originating in the right coronary artery. There is a higher incidence of coronary artery fistulas to right heart chambers, with coronary artery fistulas to the left ventricle (LV) being rare. Treatment can be surgical or percutaneous. This report describes a case of coronary fistula to left ventricle diagnosed by CT angiography of coronary arteries in a hypertensive and asymptomatic 46-year-old male, who was tested positive for ischemia in an exercise test. The CT angiography ruled out coronary obstructive disease, but it revealed a coronary fistula to the left ventricular cavity.

  1. A different kind of Christmas tree: anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA).

    PubMed

    Afolabi-Brown, Olayinka; Witzke, Christian; Moldovan, Raul; Pressman, Gregg

    2014-02-01

    Anomalous right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that has an incidence of 0.002%. We report a case of a previously healthy female who presented to our hospital with pneumonia and was incidentally discovered to have ARCAPA. This was initially diagnosed on echocardiography by the unusual echocardiographic finding of multiple color flow Doppler signals around the right ventricular free wall and apex which were subsequently confirmed by angiography to be due to extensive collateral circulation between the left and right coronary arteries. This represents an unusual echocardiographic manifestation of this very rare condition. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Symptomatic Type IV Dual Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Kyriacos; Georgiou, Georgios M.; Nicolaides, Evagoras

    2016-01-01

    Dual left anterior descending coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly with 4 subtypes. Double left anterior descending coronary artery originating from the left main stem and the right coronary artery (type IV dual left anterior descending artery) has been reported to occur in 0.01% to 0.7% of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who was found to have this anomaly during coronary angiography. The patient had been complaining of chest pain that mimics angina pectoris and exercise tolerance test was positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:28203572

  3. Rare Anomalous Origin of Superior Left Pulmonary Artery from Left Subclavian Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Tian-shi Wang, Chao Song, Li Lv, Yong-xing Zou, Ying-hua

    2013-10-15

    We report for the first time an extremely rare anomalous origin of the superior left pulmonary artery in a 60 year-old man. Although it was occult in clinical indications, such a malformation still ought to be considered, especially during endovascular procedures.

  4. Absence of left circumflex with superdominant right coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Quijada-Fumero, Alejandro; Pimienta-González, Raquel; Rodriguez-Esteban, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of coronary arteries are a group of diseases that are infrequently found. Their prevalence has been reported from 0.6% to 1.3%. Most clinical manifestations are benign and asymptomatic. Congenital absence of the left circumflex artery is a very rare congenital anomaly of the coronary circulation, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 51-year-old man who underwent a cardiac catheterisation. Coronary angiography showed a left anterior descending coronary artery with no circumflex and a dominant right coronary artery. PMID:25535241

  5. Anomalous origin of the coronary arteries: an account of six cases.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Laxman

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous origin of coronary arteries is a rare type of congenital anomalies with a low incidence. It is considered an incidental finding without clinical significance, however, these abnormalities may be responsible for angina pectoris, heart failure, arrhythmias and increased risk of sudden death. In this paper, six cases that were diagnosed with anomalous origin of coronary arteries confirmed by coronary angiography has been described and also briefly reviewed the literature concerning current views and therapy of this abnormality.

  6. Total occlusion of left main coronary artery without angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Kimbiris, D; Iskandrian, A S; Bemis, C E; Segal, B L

    1983-05-01

    A patient had total occlusion of the left main coronary artery that was proved by coronary arteriography. The patient was initially seen with clinical signs of congestive heart failure but without symptoms of angina pectoris or ECG evidence of myocardial infarction. The patient's extensive right-to-left coronary artery collaterals may have contributed to the absence of chest pain. Because of the severe left ventricular dysfunction and the absence of chest pain, the patient was treated with medical therapy. Six months after the cardiac catheterization, he was alive and well under New York Heart Association functional classification II.

  7. Chronic cyanosis due to persistent left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of a coronary sinus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Mejia, Aura; Singh, Himanshu; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Singh, Gautam K

    2013-08-01

    We report a rare case of a 5-year-old child who presented with chronic hypoxemia and a normal cardiac examination, and was found to have a persistent left superior vena cava draining directly into the left atrium. The coronary sinus was absent. This case introduces a contradiction to the generally accepted concept that this anomalous connection can only occur in the presence of a partly or completely unroofed coronary sinus. High index of suspicion is required to include this pathology in the differential diagnosis for a patient with persistent cyanosis with normal cardiac examination.

  8. Functional assessment of a left coronary-pulmonary artery fistula by coronary flow reserve

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Viktor; Forster, Tamás; Ungi, Imre

    2014-01-01

    We report a 71-year-old man who presented with atypical chest pain. Coronary angiography did not reveal left main or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, but a fistulous communication with a stronger tube-like fistula was present originating from the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery and emptying into the main pulmonary artery. Fractional flow reserve and coronary flow reserve measurements were performed to gain more data on the potential functional aspects of this fistula. With the present case, the importance of functional evaluation of these fistulas is demonstrated. PMID:25061466

  9. Coronary steal by left atrial myxoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose Rubio; Quiroga, Juan Sierra; Cereijo, Jose Manuel Martinez; Lopez, Laura Reija

    2009-06-18

    This report describes a 41-year-old man who had atypical angina resulting from coronary steal by left atrial myxoma. The tumor was completely excised and the patient was symptoms free after operation.

  10. Transesophageal echocardiography assessment of severe ostial left main coronary stenosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Lin, S. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Alexander, L. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography is commonly used in the assessment of stenotic valvular orifices. We describe the application of transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of a critical ostial left main coronary stenosis. Because preoperative coronary angiography often is not routinely performed in young patients undergoing valve surgery, application of Doppler echocardiography can potentially prevent catastrophic complications, particularly in atypical cases.

  11. Transesophageal echocardiography assessment of severe ostial left main coronary stenosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Lin, S. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Alexander, L. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography is commonly used in the assessment of stenotic valvular orifices. We describe the application of transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of a critical ostial left main coronary stenosis. Because preoperative coronary angiography often is not routinely performed in young patients undergoing valve surgery, application of Doppler echocardiography can potentially prevent catastrophic complications, particularly in atypical cases.

  12. Left atrial myxoma associated with obstructive coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg Odebrecht Curi; Kaufman, Renato; Correa, Gabriel Angelo de Cata Preta; Nascimento, César; Weitzel, Luiz Henrique; Reis, José Oscar Brito; da Rocha, Antônio Sérgio Cordeiro; da Cunha, Ademir Batista

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of a 67 year-old patient with obstructive coronary artery disease that, in the preoperative survey for inguinal herniorraphy surgery, discovered, by a two-dimensional echocardiogram, a tumor in left atrium, mobile, non-obstructive. The patient underwent a cineangiocoronariography showing severe stenosis in the left anterior descending artery, moderate stenosis in the left circumflex artery, near the origin of the first marginal branch, and a non-obstructive plaque in the right coronary artery. There was also moderate left ventricular dysfunction. After that, the patient has gone coronary artery bypass surgery and resection of the left atrial tumor. The histological exam revealed that the tumor was, in fact, a myxoma.

  13. Anomalous chord of the left atrium without involvement of the mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Arya, Bhawna; Challenger, Margaret; Lai, Wyman W

    2012-08-01

    An anomalous chord from the left side of the atrial septum to the left atrial free wall was incidentally noted on transthoracic echocardiography in a 14-year-old boy with vasovagal syncope. Previously reported cases of anomalous chords in the left atrium were associated with the mitral valve leaflets in all but two cases. This is the first reported case of an echocardiographic diagnosis of anomalous left atrial chord without insertion of the chord into the mitral valve. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the posterior, non-coronary sinus of Valsalva diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Adebo, Dilachew; Jacobson, Zev; Harris, Matthew A

    2015-06-01

    Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the posterior, non-coronary sinus is extremely rare and has never been reported in a paediatric-age competitive athlete. We report this very rare case of the right coronary artery arising from the posterior sinus. In the anomalous right coronary from the posterior sinus, the proximal right coronary artery appears widely patent and has no interarterial course.

  15. Coronary flow and left ventricular function during environmental stress.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Adams, J. D.; Stone, H. L.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    A canine model was used to study the effects of different environmental stresses on the heart and coronary circulation. The heart was surgically instrumented to measure coronary blood flow, left ventricular pressure, and other cardiovascular variables. Coronary flow was recorded by telemetry. Physiologic data were processed and analyzed by analog and digital computers. By these methods the physiologic response to altitude hypoxia, carbon monoxide, hypercapnia, acceleration, exercise, and the interaction of altitude hypoxia and carbon monoxide were described. The effects of some of these stresses on the heart and coronary circulation are discussed.

  16. Multimodality Imaging of Left Circumflex Artery to Coronary Sinus Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Tan Ling; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Abu Bakar, Norzailin; Mohd Sani, Fadhli; Oemar, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare anomaly of the coronary artery. Patients with this condition are usually asymptomatic. However, cardiac failure may occur later in life due to progressive enlargement of the fistula. Diagnosis is traditionally made by echocardiogram and conventional angiogram. However with the advantage of new technologies such as computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography, the course and communications of these fistulae can be delineated non-invasively and with greater accuracy. We report a case of a left circumflex artery fistula to the coronary sinus which was suspected on echocardiogram and the diagnosis was clinched on ECG-gated CT. PMID:25793089

  17. Coronary flow and left ventricular function during environmental stress.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Adams, J. D.; Stone, H. L.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    A canine model was used to study the effects of different environmental stresses on the heart and coronary circulation. The heart was surgically instrumented to measure coronary blood flow, left ventricular pressure, and other cardiovascular variables. Coronary flow was recorded by telemetry. Physiologic data were processed and analyzed by analog and digital computers. By these methods the physiologic response to altitude hypoxia, carbon monoxide, hypercapnia, acceleration, exercise, and the interaction of altitude hypoxia and carbon monoxide were described. The effects of some of these stresses on the heart and coronary circulation are discussed.

  18. Neovascularization in Left Atrial Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Laxman; Chaurasia, Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report a case with a left atrial mass who underwent coronary angiography to rule out coronary artery disease. Coronary angiography revealed an anomalous tortuous vascular structure originating from the left circumflex coronary artery to the left atrial tumor suggestive of neovascularization. Preoperative coronary angiography is useful for coronary artery evaluation and also provides additional information regarding the feeding vessel supplying the mass. PMID:24757609

  19. Multivessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection of left and right coronary systems

    PubMed Central

    Asrar ul Haq, Muhammad; Mutha, Vivek; van Gaal, William J

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) involving multiple coronary arteries simultaneously is extremely rare. It should be considered in younger patients, especially who do not have traditional cardiac risk factors. We present a case of young male patient presenting with acute coronary syndrome associated with ST segments elevation on ECG following physical stress whose coronary angiography revealed SCAD of the left anterior descending as well as the right coronary artery and discuss the therapeutic options with a brief review of the limited evidence. PMID:24158301

  20. Left circumflex coronary artery occlusion due to a left atrial appendage closure device

    PubMed Central

    Katona, András; Temesvári, András; Szatmári, András; Forster, Tamás; Fontos, Géza

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is spreading, and a large number of patients with this procedure have concomitant coronary artery disease. With the presented case it could be concluded that coronary angiography is recommended before LAA closure. PMID:25848378

  1. Emergency Stenting of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery after Acute Catheter-Induced Occlusive Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Ferit; Batyraliev, Talantbek; Besnili, Fikret; Karben, Zarema

    2006-01-01

    Left main coronary artery dissection occurs very rarely during selective coronary angiography, but it generally progresses to complete coronary occlusion. The traditional treatment of occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery has been surgical. Percutaneous treatment has been sporadic and controversial. We report a case of iatrogenic occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery during diagnostic coronary angiography, followed by successful stenting of the lesion. PMID:17215985

  2. Phasic Compression of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery during Atrial Systole.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Edward Samuel; Agarwal, Ajay

    2017-04-01

    Phasic coronary artery compression is typically associated with spasm or myocardial bridging. Compression caused by acquired anatomic changes to the surrounding heart chambers has been reported only infrequently. We present a possibly unique case of phasic compression of the proximal left circumflex coronary artery during atrial contraction in association with a dilated left atrium. A 55-year-old man with multiple cardiac risk factors presented with worsening exertional dyspnea. An electrocardiogram and echocardiogram revealed marked left atrial dilation and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.15 to 0.20 with elevated filling pressures. Angiograms showed compression of the proximal segment of the left circumflex coronary artery during late ventricular diastole: the compression occurred in phase with atrial systole, whereas good flow without compression was present during atrial diastole. We attributed this phenomenon to ballooning of the lateral region of the atrial wall toward the atrioventricular groove during atrial systole. The patient complied with antihypertensive therapy, and his status improved after one year. To identify coronary artery compression in the presence of abnormal chamber geometry and to guide the treatment of the contributing medical conditions, we recommend careful analysis of angiographic results.

  3. Laser angioplasty and laser-induced thrombolysis in revascularization of anomalous coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rakesh; Martin, Robert E; Topaz, On

    2002-04-01

    Acute coronary syndromes such as unstable angina and myocardial infarction are attributed to a pathophysiologic process that involves rupture of atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent thrombosis. Percutaneous intervention of anomalous coronary arteries in patients who present with acute coronary syndromes impose unique technical challenges related to the specific anatomic course and morphology of these vessels. Selection of appropriate guiding catheter configuration, choice of supportive guidewire, and proper delivery and activation of debulking devices and stents are important steps toward achieving adequate results. Excimer laser angioplasty is a debulking technology for removal of atherosclerotic plaque and associated thrombi. To date, application of laser angioplasty in anomalous coronary arteries is unreported. We herein present clinical data and discuss technical aspects related to performance of excimer laser angioplasty in three symptomatic patients with acute coronary syndrome, two having an anomalous right coronary artery and one with an anomalous circumflex artery. The delivery of laser energy in these cases resulted in rapid thrombolysis of an occlusive thrombus, successful debulking of the underlying atherosclerotic plaque, facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty and stenting, and ultimately, improved clinical condition.

  4. Diffuse coronary artery ectasia in a patient with left main coronary artery trifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Desperak, Piotr; Bujak, Kamil; Głowacki, Jan; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The term coronary ectasia is reserved to describe a diffuse dilatation of coronary artery segments that have a diameter that exceeds the size of normal adjacent coronary segments by 1.5 times. The occurrence of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) ranges from 3% to 8% in the group of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. The CAE is associated with traditional risk factors and often co-exists with coronary atherosclerosis, which suggests that ectasia may represent an advanced form of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, there is a lack of consensus on the clinical implications and management of patients in whom the occurrence of CAE is observed, especially in patients without concomitant obstructive atherosclerosis. Here, we present a rare case of a 62-year-old patient with multiple CAEs and left main trifurcation. PMID:27785148

  5. Left atrial intramural hematoma after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Franks, Russell J; de Souza, Anthony; Di Mario, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    We describe a rare complication of a complex chronic total occlusion recanalization procedure. Perforation of a distal right coronary artery collateral results in a left atrial intramural hematoma with consequent circulatory collapse. Access to prompt transoesophageal echocardiography and urgent surgical intervention were lifesaving and the case highlights possible implications on the planning of complex chronic total occlusion recanalization procedures.

  6. Left coronary aneurysmal dilation and subaortic stenosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Juan L; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Girard, Christiane; Pibarot, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    A 6-month-old German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Upon physical examination, the auscultated heart rate was 120 beats/min, and a grade IV/VI systolic heart murmur with a point of maximal intensity over the left heart base radiating up the neck was heard. The standard echocardiographic examination showed subaortic stenosis and an anechoic tubular structure extending from the sinus of Valsalva to the left ventricular posterior wall. Aneurysmal left coronary artery (CA) was confirmed by angiography. The dog was euthanized and post-mortem examination showed severe dilatation of the proximal left CA and confirmed the subaortic stenosis. Histopathology did not demonstrate abnormalities in the walls of the CA, aorta or pulmonary artery. The exact cause of the CA aneurysmal dilation remains unknown. Subaortic stenosis, elevated coronary vascular resistance or a congenital anomaly may have contributed to the dilation. To our knowledge, coronary aneurysmal dilation has never been described in dogs. Standard echocardiography provides reliable information on coronary anatomy.

  7. A Rare Case of Angina Pectoris with the Longest Ectopic Left Main Coronary Artery Arising from Right Sinus of Valsalva and a Prepulmonic Course

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas; Abdali, Nasar; Singh, Karandeep; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the main trunk of the left coronary artery as well as its variations is cornerstone of hemodynamic, correct interpretation of coronary angiogram and for revascularization purpose. The left main coronary artery (LMCA) ranges from 3 to 6 mm in diameter and may be up to 10 to 15 mm in length in humans. We here report a case of the longest anomalous LMCA (56 mm) reported so far in a 35-year-old man with chronic stable angina arising from right sinus of valsalva as seen on conventional angiogram and multidetector computerized tomogram (MDCT). PMID:28182111

  8. Pulmonary valve-sparing technique in patient with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous coronary artery crossing the infundibulum.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Zucchetta, Fabio; Padalino, Massimo A; Milanesi, Ornella; Stellin, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    A 15-month-old girl who presented at birth with tetralogy of Fallot and was followed after an echocardiographic diagnosis of an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left anterior descending coronary artery, crossing the right ventricular infundibulum very close to the pulmonary valve annulus, was scheduled for repair. At surgery, after routine trans-atrial/trans-pulmonary repair, the pulmonary valve (PV) was balloon-dilated through the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) up to a 'normal size' PV annulus, based on the patient's body surface area. Two-dimensional echocardiography at discharge revealed an adequate relief of the RVOT obstruction, with a normal-sized PV annulus and a competent PV. In this subset of patients, this technique can be considered an additional surgical strategy to avoid the use of conduits.

  9. Acute left main coronary artery thrombosis due to cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Koniari, Ioanna; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios

    2010-08-19

    It is common knowledge that cocaine has been linked to the development of various acute and chronic cardiovascular complications including acute coronary syndromes. We present a young, male patient, drug abuser who underwent CABG due to anterolateral myocardial infarction. Our presentation is one of the very rare cases reported in literature regarding acute thrombosis of left main coronary artery related to cocaine use, in a patient with normal coronary arteries, successfully operated. Drug-abusers seem to have increased mortality and morbidity after surgery and high possibility for stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary interventions, because of their usually terrible medical compliance and coexistent several problems of general health. There are no specific guidelines about treatment of thrombus formation in coronary arteries, as a consequence of cocaine use. So, any decision making concerning the final treatment of these patient is a unique and individualized approach. We strongly recommend that all these patients should be treated surgically, especially patients with thrombus into the left main artery.

  10. Left coronary artery stenosis causing left ventricular dysfunction in two children with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Okan; Altin, Firat H; Kaya, Mehmet; Ozyılmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Erek, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) is an arteriopathy associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and other isolated elastin gene deletions. Cardiovascular manifestations associated with WBS are characterized by obstructive arterial lesions such as SVAS and pulmonary artery stenosis in addition to bicuspid aortic valve and mitral valve prolapse. However, coronary artery ostial stenosis may be associated with SVAS, and it increases the risk of sudden death and may complicate surgical management. In this report, we present our experience with two patients having SVAS and left coronary artery ostial stenosis with associated left ventricular dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Stress echocardiography in paediatrics: implications for the evaluation of anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W Reid

    2015-12-01

    Stress echocardiography in paediatrics is used to evaluate pre- and post-operative coronary artery conditions, as well as to gain haemodynamic information for a variety of diagnoses, although evidence regarding sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value is lacking. This review will consider the available literature with a focus on anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries and discuss a practical approach to test selection and use.

  12. Excimer laser debulking for percutaneous coronary intervention in left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Topaz, On; Polkampally, Pritam R; Mohanty, Pramod K; Rizk, Maged; Bangs, Julie; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2009-11-01

    Excimer laser has been successfully applied to complex atherosclerotic plaques in acute coronary syndromes; however, its role in debulking in left main coronary artery disease has not been fully explored. Details of a series of 20 patients who underwent excimer laser revascularization of a spectrum of left main coronary artery lesions are presented. Twenty symptomatic patients who received excimer laser debulking were examined for procedural outcome and follow up results. The left main coronary artery was characterized as protected, semi-protected, poorly protected, or unprotected, depending on the presence or absence of patent bypass grafts to the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (CX) arteries. A fully protected left main coronary artery (LMCA) was present in only 20% of the patients. The target lesions included 11(55%) distal LMCA stenoses, six (30%) ostial stenoses, and one (5%) mid-portion lesions. Two (10%) patients had in-stent re-stenosis of the entire length of the LMCA. Small (0.7 mm-1.4 mm) excimer laser catheters were mostly used. A relatively high number of laser energy pulses (1,334 +/- 643) were required to achieve adequate debulking. Successful LMCA intervention was performed in 19 (95%) patients, while in-hospital complications occurred in only one (5%) patient. Subacute/late stent thrombosis developed 3 months after the procedure in one patient, and two patients died from non-cardiac causes during follow-up. Lesions in LMCAs can be revascularized in selected patients by laser debulking and adjunct stenting. Inadequate protection by bypass grafts and decreased left ventricular function do not contradict utilization of excimer laser. Small laser catheters and high energy levels are required during laser debulking of stenoses of left main coronary arteries.

  13. Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF. Other congenital heart and vascular malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 432. ... Read more Latest Health News Read ...

  14. Quantification of left coronary bifurcation angles and plaques by coronary computed tomography angiography for prediction of significant coronary stenosis: A preliminary study with dual-source CT

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yue; Zeng, Wenjuan; Yu, Jie; Lu, Jing; Hu, Yuannan; Diao, Nan; Liang, Bo; Han, Ping; Shi, Heshui

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of left coronary bifurcation angles and plaque characteristics for prediction of coronary stenosis by dual-source CT. Methods 106 patients suspected of coronary artery disease undergoing both coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography (CAG) within three months were included. Left coronary bifurcation angles including the angles between the left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery (LAD-LCx), left main coronary artery and left anterior descending artery (LM-LAD), left main coronary artery and left circumflex artery (LM-LCx) were measured on CT images. CCTA plaque parameters were calculated by plaque analysis software. Coronary stenosis ≥ 50% by CAG was defined as significant. Results 106 patients with 318 left coronary bifurcation angles and 126 vessels were analyzed. The bifurcation angle of LAD-LCx was significantly larger in left coronary stenosis ≥ 50% than stenosis < 50%, and significantly wider in the non-calcified plaque group than calcified. Multivariable analyses showed the bifurcation angle of LAD-LCx was an independent predictor for significant left coronary stenosis (OR = 1.423, P = 0.002). In ROC curve analysis, LAD-LCx predicted significant left coronary stenosis with a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 78.4%, positive predictive value of 85.2% and negative predictive value of 55.8%. The lipid plaque volume improved the diagnostic performance of CCTA diameter stenosis (AUC: 0.854 vs. 0.900, P = 0.045) in significant coronary stenosis. Conclusions The bifurcation angle of LAD-LCx could predict significant left coronary stenosis. Wider LAD-LCx is related to non-calcified lesions. Lipid plaque volume could improve the diagnostic performance of CCTA for coronary stenosis prediction. PMID:28346530

  15. Percutaneous coronary intervention in left main coronary artery disease in a patient with hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Arzu, Er; Emre, Altekin R; Mehmet, Kabukcu; Selim, Yalcinkaya; Necmi, Deger

    2011-05-01

    A 77-year-old male patient with the diagnosis of hemophilia presented himself at the cardiology clinic with unstable angina and a coronary angiography was planned. Factor IX was prepared before the procedure due to the risk of hemorrhage. Critical lesions were detected in the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and the procedure was performed on the LMCA in the same session. No complication of hemorrhage developed. Having rarely found in literature on any procedure on the LMCA without factor IX infusion we wished to report on this rare case of concurrent hemophilia B and acute coronary syndrome.

  16. Left Ventricular Performance and Coronary Flow after Coronary Embolization with Plastic Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, R. G.; LaFarge, C. G.; Gamble, W. J.; Kumar, A. E.; Manasek, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    Coronary flow, left ventricular circumference, and left ventricular pressure were observed in the isovolumically contracting, isolated canine heart supported with arterial blood from a donor. Systolic pressure, heart rate, and coronary perfusion pressure were held constant while the coronary bed was progressively embolized with either large (average 865 μ) or small (average 10 μ) polystyrene microspheres. During embolization with large microspheres, coronary flow diminished progressively. After sufficient embolization, decreased ventricular performance was indicated by a rise in end-diastolic pressure. During embolization with small microspheres, coronary flow initially increased, which suggests the effective release of a vasodilator substance. Return of coronary flow to control levels occurred only after the end-diastolic pressure rose, on the average, to above 30 mm Hg. After embolization with both sizes of microspheres, ventricular diastolic pressure-volume relationships showed decreased ventricular compliance. This was attributed, in part, to edema of the ventricular wall and, in part, to focal shortening of the sarcomeres where the circulation was compromised. Embolization with both sizes of microspheres ultimately caused a decrease in ventricular performance, although when the systolic pressure was increased the usual relationship between peak developed wall stress, and end-diastolic pressure showed less of a descending limb than that found in the nonembolized, isolated heart. It is felt that the data summarized above have bearing on ventricular performance and coronary flow in clinical situations where hearts are perfused through pump oxygenator systems and are thereby subject to embolization from aggregated clumps of platelets and fibrin. Images PMID:4999636

  17. Isolated Anomalous Origin of Left Pulmonary Artery From the Descending Aorta: An Embryologic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Gnanappa, Ganesh Kumar; Laohachai, Karina; Orr, Yishay; Ayer, Julian

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta is a rare malformation, accounting for 0.12% of all congenital heart defects. Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the aorta (ALPA) constitutes a small proportion of these cases. ALPA has been reported to arise from the ascending aorta with various embryologic postulates. We report a case of isolated ALPA arising from the descending aorta in association with a patent ductus arteriosus, to emphasize its embryologic ambiguity.

  18. Detection of left anterior descending coronary artery disease in patients with left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Civelek, A C; Gozukara, I; Durski, K; Ozguven, M A; Brinker, J A; Links, J M; Camargo, E E; Wagner, H N; Flaherty, J T

    1992-12-15

    The detection of coronary artery disease is difficult if a patient has electrocardiographic evidence of left bundle branch block (BBB). Septal blood flow may be reduced in patients with left BBB, despite no angiographic evidence of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery disease. We have developed a new method of quantification of Thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images with the aim of better separating patients with left BBB and LAD disease from those with left BBB alone. The study cohort comprised 8 normal subjects (group I) and 20 patients with left BBB and chest pain who underwent thallium-201 SPECT imaging and coronary angiography. Eight patients (group II) had < or = 50% LAD stenosis, and 12 (group III) had > or = 70% LAD stenosis. Septal abnormality scores on the second short-axis slice from the base were computed, based on comparison of each subject's short-axis circumferential profile with a normal reference curve. This followed a procedure in which each profile was scaled to minimize differences in its absolute level in relation to the reference curve. Septal abnormality scores on stress images were 0.8 +/- 22 for group I, 27 +/- 43 for group II, and 165 +/- 67 for group III (p = 0.15 for group I vs II, and p < 0.0001 between groups I and III, and II and III).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Double-outlet technique for tetralogy of Fallot-type disease with an anomalous coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Asano, M; Saito, T; Nomura, N; Mishima, A

    2005-01-01

    To reduce the right ventricular (RV) pressure and the pressure gradient between the RV and the pulmonary artery (PA) in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with small pulmonary annulus, it is inevitable to enlarge the small annulus by incising and patching from RV to PA via PA annulus. If the anomalous coronary artery exists in the RV outflow tract, the procedure can not be done.

  20. Direct communication between the left circumflex and the right coronary arteries: a very rare coronary anomaly circulation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcos Danillo Peixoto; Cavalcanti, Rafael R. César; Kajita, Alexandre H.; Miranda, Thais; Kajita, Luiz J.; Horta, Pedro E.; Ribeiro, Expedito E.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies (CAA) are congenital changes in their origin, course, and/or structure. Intercoronary communication (ICC) is a very rare subset with uni- or bidirectional blood flow between two or more coronary arteries. We present the case of a 58-year-old man with an acute coronary syndrome whose coronary angiography incidentally showed a surprising and very rare communication between the right coronary and left circumflex arteries. PMID:26885496

  1. Single Coronary Artery with Prepulmonic Coursing Left Main Coronary Artery Manifesting as Prinzmetal's Angina

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Garrett B.; Molavi, Behzad; Sinha, Anjan K.; Garza, Luis; Angelini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old man who presented at the emergency department with severe chest pressure, left arm pain, and dizziness. These symptoms were described as intermittent, occurring after exercise and at rest. He had undergone several stress tests during the past 8 years, but no objective evidence of ischemia was produced. His history of hyperlipidemia and increasing frequency of symptoms prompted us to perform coronary angiography, which showed a single coronary artery with an ostium at the right sinus of Valsalva. The vessel had an initial, mixed common trunk that gave rise to both the right coronary artery proper and to the left coronary artery. The left main trunk followed a prepulmonic course. The anatomic features were eventually confirmed by computed tomographic angiography. The left main stem had a fixed 50% to 60% area narrowing, at baseline study. A treadmill stress myocardial perfusion study showed no evidence of ischemia. The patient was referred to a 2nd facility, where intravascular ultrasonography, at baseline, revealed 63% left main narrowing without evidence of atherosclerosis. Acetylcholine provocation demonstrated worsening of the stenosis to about 80%, with reproduction of angina and ST-segment depression, which indicated that medical management of spasm might provide symptomatic relief. PMID:18172528

  2. Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass and Stents for Unprotected Left Main Coronary Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Shu; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Chang, Da-Wei

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the short-, medium-, and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting vs stenting for patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and major conference proceedings databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials of coronary artery bypass grafting compared with stents in unprotected left main coronary artery disease. End points assessed were all-cause death, myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, target vessel revascularization, and cerebral stroke. A meta-analysis was conducted according to predefined clinical end points. All-cause death and stroke were similar between stenting and coronary artery bypass grafting at 1 year and at follow-up beyond 1 year. The incidence of myocardial infarction was similar between stenting and coronary artery bypass grafting at each separate time point. The incidence of repeat revascularization was similar between the two groups at 30 days but was higher for stenting at 1 year and beyond. There was a trend toward fewer major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events after stenting compared with coronary artery bypass grafting at 30 days, but this difference was no longer significant at 1 year and reversed at follow-up beyond 1 year. The early advantages of stenting over coronary artery bypass grafting have been shown to progressively shift to coronary artery bypass grafting over time. Further larger sample randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm the results. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aplastic right coronary artery and left coronary artery with a separate origin of the circumflex branch in a 31-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Wollersen, Heike; Madea, Burkhard

    2007-12-20

    Singular coronary arteries are a rare feature appearing in approximately 0.05% of the population. The clinical relevance of those anomalies varies a lot. The wide range of descriptions reaches from asymptomatic cases to sudden cardiac death. This will be discussed in a case report concerning a 31-year-old woman who was found dead in her apartment. Due to drugs that were found next to her, a suicide was assumed. The autopsy yielded an aplastic right coronary artery and a left coronary artery with an anomalous origin of the circumflex branch as well as a myocardial scar. The autopsy findings and the results of the toxicological examinations are presented and discussed in view of the cause of death.

  4. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging in left main coronary artery disease: sensitive but not specific

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, T.; Griffith, L.S.; Achuff, S.C.; Bailey, I.K.; Bulkley, B.H.; Burow, R.; Pitt, B.; Becker, L.C.

    1981-08-01

    To determine the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy for identifying left main coronary artery disease, the results of scintigraphy at rest and during exercise were compared in 24 patients with 50 percent or greater narrowing of the left main coronary artery and 80 patients with 50 percent or greater narrowing of one or more of the major coronary arteries but without left main coronary involvement. By segmental analysis of the scintigrams, perfusion defects were assigned to the left anterior descending, left circumflex or right coronary artery, singly or in combination, and the pattern of simultaneous left anterior descending and circumflex arterial defects was used to identify left main coronary artery disease. Of the 24 patients with left main coronary artery disease, 22 (92 percent) had abnormal exercise scintigrams. Despite this high sensitivity, the pattern of perfusion defects was not specific; the ''left main pattern'' was found in 3 patients (13 percent) with left main coronary artery disease but also in 3 (33 percent) of 9 patients with combined left anterior descending and left circumflex arterial disease, 4 (19 percent) of 21 patients with three vessel disease and 3 (6 percent) of 50 patients with one or two vessel disease but excluding the group with left anterior descending plus left circumflex arterial disease. The pattern of perfusion defects in the patients with left main coronary artery disease was determined by the location and severity of narrowings in the coronary arteries downstream from the left main arterial lesion. Concomitant lesions in other arteries were found in all patients with left main coronary disease (one vessel in 1 patient, two vessels in 7 patients and three vessels in 16). For this reason, it is unlikely that even with improvements in radiopharmaceutical agents and imaging techniques, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy will be sufficiently specific for definitive identification of left main coronary artery disease.

  5. Coronary Ostioplasty for Congenital Atresia of the Left Main Coronary Artery Ostium in a Teenage Boy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Ai; Shiraishi, Shuichi; Moon, Jiyong; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2016-11-01

    Atresia of the left coronary artery ostium is extremely rare. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who played volleyball in school and collapsed with severe chest pain during practice. He was referred to our hospital, and imaging modalities showed atresia of the left main coronary artery ostium. Urgent coronary ostioplasty was performed using a patch of 0.6% glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he has had a normal everyday life without chest pain 8 months postoperatively. Physicians should be aware of the patient's history, as in this case, because prompt imaging diagnosis is essential when there is a high likelihood that the event is related to myocardial ischemia. Since long-term outcome is uncertain even after successful surgical revascularization, close follow-up is required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Occlusion of the left main coronary artery and collateral circulation via the conus branch.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; Nunez-Gil, Ivan Javier; del Carmen Manzano, Maria; Vivas, David; Mateos, Borja Ruiz; Carda, Rocio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Macaya, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old-man, a smoker, admitted for unstable angina. Subsequent investigation revealed complete proximal occlusion of the left main coronary with an unusual collateral circulation. The left coronary artery was filled by a large conus branch originating from the right sinus of Valsalva. This case shows the importance of looking for atypical collateral circulation in patients with chronic occlusion of the left main coronary artery and normal left ventricular function.

  7. Percutaneous closure of a coronary fistula between the right coronary artery to the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Drago, Manuela; Chessa, Massimo; Gianfranco, Butera; Bossone, Eduardo; Carminati, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a congenital coronary artery fistula of the right coronary artery draining into the left atrium in an eight-year-old boy. The initial diagnosis was made after the detection of a continuous cardiac murmur at the age of six years. Transthoracic echocardiography showed the right coronaric ostium dilatation, the site of drainage in the left atrium and left ventricle volume overload. Catheterization confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent percutaneous closure by PDA occluder device. Immediate post-closure angiograms showed complete occlusion of the fistula. The patient showed transient ischemic changes on ECG associated to an increase of plasmatic levels of the cardiac enzyme. ECG and cardiac enzyme were normal one week after the procedure.

  8. Congenital coronary artery fistula in an intercoronary communication between the left main and the diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery: an interesting case report.

    PubMed

    Turker, Yasin; Tibilli, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Intercoronary communication is a very rare coronary artery anomaly. It is defined as an open-ended circulation with bidirectional blood flow between two coronary arteries. Coronary artery fistulas are abnormal communications between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or major vessel. A 62-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with sudden development of general weakness, dizziness and a sensation of compression in his chest. At presentation his blood pressure was 80/40 mmHg and heart rate was 65 beats/min. The ECG revealed sinus rhythm and 1-2 mm ST elevation in the anterior leads. The patient was taken to the catheterization laboratory for percutaneous coronary intervention. The left main and left circumflex coronary arteries were normal. Coronary angiography showed a communication between the left main and the diagonal branch of the left anterior descending and a fistula between the intercoronary connection and the left atrium. The other coronary arteries were normal. Laboratory test results, including cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB levels, were normal. The angina symptoms disappeared and the ST elevation resolved within four hours. We report an interesting case of congenital coronary artery fistula in an intercoronary communication between the left main and the diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature involving a coronary artery fistula in an intercoronary communication. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical Repair for Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dairy, Alwaleed; Rezaei, Yousef; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Bayati, Parvin

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a very rare congenital heart defect. Herein, we describe three cases of ARCAPA in an 8 months old, 18 months old, and 4 year old child. Two cases were incidentally diagnosed using a computed tomographic angiograph, and the other was incidentally diagnosed using a coronary angiograph. These cases underwent a reimplantation technique on diagnosis and resulting in positive clinical outcomes during the follow-up period which was a mean of 1.5 years. PMID:28154604

  10. Risk stratification with exercise N13-ammonia PET in adults with anomalous right coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Paul C; Mentias, Amgad; Koneru, Srikanth; Schoenhagen, Paul; Majdalany, David; Lorber, Richard; Flamm, Scott D; Hobbs, Robert E; Pettersson, Gosta; Jaber, Wael A

    2016-01-01

    Objective In adults with an interarterial and intramural course of an anomalous right coronary artery from the left sinus (AAORCA), surgical unroofing is recommended in the setting of myocardial ischaemia. However, data regarding functional testing are limited, and the management of adults without ischaemia is unclear. To evaluate these patients, we employed an exercise N13-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) protocol. We hypothesised that patients with typical angina and exertional dyspnoea would be more likely to have ischaemia and that patients without ischaemia could be managed conservatively. Methods Between July 2008 and December 2014, we retrospectively identified 27 consecutive patients >18 years old with an interarterial and intramural course of an AAORCA who had exercise N13-ammonia PET. Results The majority of patients had anatomic delineation with cardiac CT (25, 93%), and most patients had chest pain (24, 89%). Myocardial ischaemia with PET was common (13, 48%), and ischaemia was more likely in patients with typical angina and exertional dyspnoea (p<0.05). Surgery was performed in 12 patients including 11 patients with ischaemia. At a median follow-up of 245 days, there were no deaths in patients with surgery or in patients managed conservatively. Conclusions In patients with an interarterial and intramural course of an AAORCA, typical angina and exertional dyspnoea are associated with ischaemia on exercise N13-ammonia PET. Referral for surgical unroofing in symptomatic patients with ischaemia on exercise N13-ammonia PET and initial conservative management in patients without ischaemia seems appropriate, though larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed. PMID:27621834

  11. Aberrant positioning of a central venous dialysis catheter to reveal a left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    PubMed Central

    Chintu, Manohar R; Chinnappa, Shammikumar; Bhandari, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    We describe the identification of a rare, left-sided, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection during routine central venous catheterization. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature to describe this anomaly in a hemodialysis patient. A young man had anomalous connection of the veins draining the upper lobe of the left lung and left innominate vein. Our case demonstrates the importance of routine fluoroscopy during insertion of central venous catheters to detect these anomalies and minimize complications. PMID:19183765

  12. Aberrant positioning of a central venous dialysis catheter to reveal a left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Chintu, Manohar R; Chinnappa, Shammikumar; Bhandari, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    We describe the identification of a rare, left-sided, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection during routine central venous catheterization. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature to describe this anomaly in a hemodialysis patient. A young man had anomalous connection of the veins draining the upper lobe of the left lung and left innominate vein. Our case demonstrates the importance of routine fluoroscopy during insertion of central venous catheters to detect these anomalies and minimize complications.

  13. Reversible segmental left ventricular dysfunction after coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, E K; Popma, J J; Dehmer, G J; Snow, F R; Lewis, S A; Vetrovec, G W; Nixon, J V

    1990-04-01

    Patients with chronic segmental myocardial dysfunction may demonstrate improvement after coronary revascularization. To evaluate the early effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) on resting left ventricular segmental function, we obtained serial two-dimensional echocardiograms 1.1 +/- 0.9 days before and 3.1 +/- 2 days after elective PTCA in 40 patients. Echocardiograms were reviewed in a blind fashion; left ventricular segmental wall motion was analyzed in four short-axis views, and a score was assigned to each region (0, normal; 1, hypokinetic; and 2, akinetic). Abnormal regional wall motion was present in 20 of the patients before PTCA. Summed segment scores in these 20 patients showed an improvement in regional wall motion from 4.5 +/- 2.5 to 1.6 +/- 2.1 (p less than 0.01) after successful PTCA. Similar results were obtained when the patients were divided into those with or without a previous myocardial infarction. Improvement occurred in the seven patients without a previous myocardial infarction; the summed segment score decreased from 4.2 +/- 3.4 to 0.86 +/- 1.6 (p less than 0.05) after PTCA. Ten of the 13 patients with a prior myocardial infarction demonstrated improvement in wall motion after PTCA; the summed segment scores decreased 54% (p less than 0.001). Of the 260 segments analyzed in the study, 180 were normal before and after PTCA. Forty-nine of the 69 hypokinetic segments were normal, and 10 of 12 akinetic segments were hypokinetic after successful coronary revascularization. There was no deterioration in wall motion after PTCA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Aborted sudden cardiac death associated with an anomalous right coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Rienzi A; Valdés, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies arising from the opposite sinus of Valsalva and having an interarterial course between the aorta (AO) and pulmonary artery (PA) are the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death among young athletes, after hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the AO above the left sinus of Valsalva (LSV) is an extremely rare anomaly. We report the first case of a RCA arising from the AO above the LSV that subsequently runs between the AO and the PA, discovered by a 64-slice multidetector coronary CT, in a patient who was successfully resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest while running in a marathon race. PMID:26153291

  15. Coronary angioplasty and left ventricular function in single vessel coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Najm, Y C; Timmis, A D; Maisey, M N; Pinies, L M; Salinas, A; Curry, P V; Sowton, E

    1989-03-01

    Left ventricular function was investigated in 86 patients with single vessel coronary artery disease before and three to six months after successful angioplasty. Before angioplasty thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy and technetium-99m gated equilibrium ventriculography in most patients showed that stress testing (exercise and ice water stimulation and isometric handgrip respectively) induced myocardial perfusion defects that were associated with a mean (SD) drop in left ventricular ejection fraction from 64 (6)% to 56 (7)%. After angioplasty there was residual coronary stenosis of less than or equal to 20% of the diameter of the vessel in 78 patients (group 1) and of between 20 and 50% in eight patients (group 2). After the procedure the perfusion defects seen during stress resolved in 86% of group 1 and in 87% of group 2. Despite the apparent improvement in myocardial perfusion left ventricular dysfunction persisted in group 2--that is during stress the left ventricular ejection fraction fell from 65% (6) to 56% (5). In group 1, on the other hand, the improvement in myocardial perfusion was associated with significant improvement in left ventricular function with a normal increase in ejection fraction from 63 (5) at rest to 67 (6) during stress. Radionuclide studies, one to six weeks after angioplasty in 30 group 1 patients showed continuing left ventricular decompensation during stress in nine (30%) of them despite correction of perfusion defects. But reinvestigation three to six months after the procedure showed recovery of left ventricular function with an increase in ejection fraction from 66 (5) at rest to 69 (7) during stress. These data indicate that coronary angioplasty procedures that give a residual stenosis of left ventricle to stress. The functional improvement may be delayed for up to three months, however, possibly because arterial healing at the angioplasty site is delayed. On the other

  16. Coronary steal from a left internal mammary artery coronary bypass graft by a left upper extremity arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Steven D; Butterly, David W; Peter, Robert H; Schwab, Steve J

    2002-10-01

    In patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis, the upper extremity arteriovenous (AV) fistula is the dialysis access recommended by the DOQI guidelines for patients with appropriate vasculature. Upper extremity AV fistulae have long periods of usefulness, high flow rates, and low associated complication rates. Placement of AV access may result in increased cardiac output and increased cardiac oxygen demand in these patients. In general, cardiovascular complications from AV access have been limited. We report a novel cardiovascular complication of AV access in an end-stage renal disease patient with a coronary artery bypass graft employing the left internal mammary artery who experienced angina while undergoing hemodialysis. The angina was mediated at least in part by cardiac catheterization laboratory-documented steal of blood flow from the internal mammary artery graft. This phenomenon suggests the need to consider the impact of upper extremity access placement on blood flow to the left internal mammary artery in patients who previously have undergone placement of a coronary artery bypass graft. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  17. Atresia of right pulmonary veins and anomalous left pulmonary venous drainage into portal circulation

    PubMed Central

    Šamánek, M.; Tůma, S.; Benešová, D.; Povýšilová, V.; Pražský, F.; Čápová, E.

    1974-01-01

    Šamánek, M., Tůma, S., Benešová, D., Povýšilová, V., Pražský, F., and Čápová, E. (1974).Thorax, 29, 446-450. Atresia of right pulmonary veins and anomalous left pulmonary venous drainage into portal circulation. An anomaly of pulmonary venous drainage in a male newborn infant is described whereby the left pulmonary veins entered the portal vein and the right pulmonary veins were atretic. A correct diagnosis was made by detecting high-oxygen saturation in the hepatic veins, right-to-left shunt at atrial level, and increased pulmonary artery wedge pressure in comparison with the left atrial pressure, and was confirmed by angiography. Images PMID:4850684

  18. Giant aneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery in a pediatric patient with Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amanda L; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Williams, Derek A; Hines, Michael H

    2010-07-01

    Behcet's disease is a rare autoimmune vasculitis characterized by oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and ocular and cutaneous lesions. Vascular involvement usually affects the veins more commonly than the arteries, and coronary arterial involvement is extremely rare. We report an adolescent with Behcet's disease who developed a large pseudoaneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery requiring a coronary arterial bypass graft.

  19. Off-pump coronary revascularization for left main coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mannam, Gopichand; Sajja, Lokeswara R; Dandu, Satya B R; Pathuri, Satyendra N; Saikiran, Krishnamurthy V S S; Sompalli, Sriramulu

    2008-12-01

    Experience of on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass in 379 patients with significant left main coronary artery stenosis was retrospectively reviewed. Beating-heart operations were performed on 219 patients between January 2001 and October 2007. Their results were compared with 160 who underwent revascularization under cardiopulmonary bypass during the same period. All patients had multivessel grafting via a median sternotomy. Both groups were comparable demographically. Off-pump patients received significantly fewer grafts per patient (3.21 +/- 0.86 vs 3.74 +/- 0.82). The use of moderate or high doses of inotropics (> 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was more frequent in the on-pump group (44% vs 26%). Postoperative blood transfusion requirement was lower in off-pump patients, and fewer of them experienced worsening of preexisting renal insufficiency. There were 2 operative deaths in the on-pump group and 1 in the off-pump group. The off-pump procedure is safe and effective in patients with left main coronary artery disease.

  20. A rare case of single right coronary artery with congenital absence of left coronary artery in an adult: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fengli; Jin, Hongfeng; Feng, Yue

    2015-04-21

    Single right coronary artery with congenital absence of left coronary artery is one of the rarest coronary artery anomalies. Most coronary anomalies are asymptomatic and incidental findings. We report a case of single right coronary artery with congenital absence of left coronary artery detected by coronary CT angiography. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished female with a blood pressure of 130/75 mmHg and a pulse rate of 56 beats per minute. The myocardial enzymes and blood lipid levels showed normal findings. The dynamic electrocardiogram revealed frequent ventricular premature beats. Dual-source CT angiography was performed for evaluation of coronary artery. The imaging showed a very large single coronary artery arising from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva, and demonstrated absence of the left coronary artery. Meanwhile, the findings were confirmed by coronary angiography.

  1. Rare multiple fistulas with large saccular aneurysms originating from left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Emre, Ender; Aktas, Mujdat; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Ertan; Ural, Dilek

    2014-12-16

    A 49-year-old female patient consulted us for a cardiac evaluation before undergoing colon adenocarcinoma surgery. Three years prior, the patient underwent coronary angiography for dyspnea. The coronary angiography examination revealed a fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery, which had soft aneurysmal sacs and most likely drained into the pulmonary artery. Parasternal short axis echocardiography revealed a color flow that could be related to the fistula, but the other echocardiographic findings were normal. The patient did not accept the proposed examination and invasive treatment.

  2. Rare multiple fistulas with large saccular aneurysms originating from left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Ender; Aktas, Mujdat; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Ertan; Ural, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    A 49-year-old female patient consulted us for a cardiac evaluation before undergoing colon adenocarcinoma surgery. Three years prior, the patient underwent coronary angiography for dyspnea. The coronary angiography examination revealed a fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery, which had soft aneurysmal sacs and most likely drained into the pulmonary artery. Parasternal short axis echocardiography revealed a color flow that could be related to the fistula, but the other echocardiographic findings were normal. The patient did not accept the proposed examination and invasive treatment. PMID:25516873

  3. Increased myocardial ischemia during nitrate therapy: caused by multiple coronary artery-left ventricle fistulae?

    PubMed

    Heper, Gulumser; Kose, Sedat

    2005-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who had crescendo angina during nitrate therapy. Selective coronary angiograms showed no atherosclerotic lesions, but did show plexuses of intramural vessels that connected the distal thirds of the left and right coronary systems with the left ventricle. The cause of our patient's increased myocardial ischemia during nitrate therapy may have been the coronary "steal" phenomenon.

  4. [Anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal basal segments of the left lung (Pryce type I)].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Chusei; Sawada, Takahiro; Machino, Ryusuke

    2013-03-01

    Patient 1 was a 54-year-old female diagnosed with anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal basal segments of the left lung discovered as an abnormality on chest X-ray radiography. Patient 2 was a 47-year-old male in whom the disease was diagnosed by close examination of bloody sputum. Division of the abnormal artery and left lower lobectomy were performed in patient 1. Arterial congestion and serpentine distribution were noted in the basal segments of the lung, which was the region perfused by the abnormal artery, on histopathological examination. Arteriosclerotic changes were noted in the vascular wall, but no abnormal vascular wall or alveolar structure was noted in S6, which was not included in theperfused region. Based on the above findings, division of the abnormal artery and left basal segmentectomy were performed in patient 2. Bloody sputum disappeared, and activity of daily living( ADL) were not impaired after surgery.

  5. Pre-procedural combined coronary angiography and stress myocardial perfusion imaging using 320-detector CT in unprotected left main and ostial left anterior descending artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Ko, Brian S; Crossett, Marcus; Seneviratne, Sujith K

    2015-07-01

    Pre-procedural anatomic and functional coronary assessment plays a crucial role in selection of patients suitable for unprotected left main percutaneous coronary intervention. Combined coronary computed tomography angiography and adenosine stress computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging is a non-invasive technique which may provide this information. This is the first report describing its use to assist patient selection and procedural planning prior to elective left main and ostial left anterior descending artery coronary intervention.

  6. Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery Is Not Always a Surgical Disease.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Ralph S; Phoon, Colin K L

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary artery (AAOCA) from the opposite sinus of Valsalva with an interarterial course has become a high-profile lesion as a result of its association with sudden cardiac death in otherwise young and healthy individuals. Despite our incomplete knowledge of its pathophysiology and natural history, surgical intervention is often recommended. Evidence now shows AAOCA to be relatively common, with lower than previously suspected rates of sudden cardiac death. Analysis of this information reveals that AAOCA is not always a surgical disease. Future multi-institutional studies will continue to define those subgroups best served by observation or surgery.

  7. Surgical reconstruction of the left main coronary artery: fresh autologous pericardium or saphenous vein patch.

    PubMed

    Raanani, Ehud; Kogan, Alexander; Shapira, Yaron; Sagie, Alex; Kornowsky, Ran; Vidne, Bernardo A

    2004-11-01

    Isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is usually treated by coronary bypass surgery. However, this approach restores a less physiologic perfusion of the myocardium that leads to occlusion of the left main coronary artery, and restores only a retrograde perfusion of a rather extensive myocardial area. Coronary ostial plasty has been described as an alternative surgical technique in isolated ostial left main coronary artery stenosis without calcification. We review our experience with 15 patients. After placing the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping, the main pulmonary trunk was retracted laterally. The left main coronary artery was approached anteriorly through a curved aortotomy. Reconstruction was performed using fresh pericardial patch or saphenous vein that was tailored as a patch. There were no early mortality or perioperative myocardial infarctions. During mean follow-up of 55 +/- 39 months, no patients had any cardiac events or required repeated coronary intervention. All patients underwent follow-up transesophageal echocardiography, which demonstrated a wide open left main coronary artery (range 3 to 8 mm), normal flow pattern by pulsed-wave Doppler, and no aneurysmal dilatation or calcification of the onlay patch. Coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound were performed in 2 patients because of nonspecific chest discomfort. In both cases, the left main coronary artery was found to be wide open, and there were no signs of patch calcification. Surgical reconstruction of the left main coronary artery is safe and effective for the treatment of selected cases of isolated left main stenosis. The use of autologous pericardium appears to be as safe as saphenous vein patch. Neither method was associated with postoperative aneurysmal dilatation or calcification.

  8. Anomalous left-to-right shunting communication between the ascending aorta and right pulmonary artery in a dog.

    PubMed

    Scollan, Katherine; Salinardi, Brenda; Bulmer, Barret J; Sisson, D David

    2011-06-01

    Anomalies of conotruncal septation are rare in dogs and uncommon in humans. Congenital conotruncal defects most commonly reported in veterinary medicine include aorto-pulmonary window and persistent truncus arteriosus. We report a case of an anomalous vessel connecting the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery causing left-to-right shunting, left-sided volume overload, and pulmonary overcirculation. Transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography assisted in the diagnosis and facilitated the surgical correction of the anomalous vessel. The authors hypothesize this defect represents an unusual anomalous vessel connecting the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery.

  9. Huge Left Atrial Myxoma and Concomitant Silent Coronary Artery Disease in a Young Man.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Marco; Rubino, Mara; Andreini, Daniele; Polvani, Gianluca; Agrifoglio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Severe but silent coronary artery disease may rarely exist in young patients with a low-risk profile but with a family history of coronary artery disease. We describe the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian male with progressive shortness of breath caused by a huge left atrial myxoma who was diagnosed to have significant coronary artery disease in the preoperative assessment. After investigations, the patient underwent resection of the left atrial tumor and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a successful outcome. Even in the case of a young male, it may be prudent to investigate silent coronary artery disease in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and family history of coronary artery disease. The learning objective of this case is to debate about the usefulness of a preoperative coronary study even in the young population with cardiac nonischemic pathologies (ie, valve pathology, cardiac tumors, etc.).

  10. Huge Left Atrial Myxoma and Concomitant Silent Coronary Artery Disease in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, Marco; Rubino, Mara; Andreini, Daniele; Polvani, Gianluca; Agrifoglio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Severe but silent coronary artery disease may rarely exist in young patients with a low-risk profile but with a family history of coronary artery disease. We describe the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian male with progressive shortness of breath caused by a huge left atrial myxoma who was diagnosed to have significant coronary artery disease in the preoperative assessment. After investigations, the patient underwent resection of the left atrial tumor and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a successful outcome. Even in the case of a young male, it may be prudent to investigate silent coronary artery disease in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and family history of coronary artery disease. The learning objective of this case is to debate about the usefulness of a preoperative coronary study even in the young population with cardiac nonischemic pathologies (ie, valve pathology, cardiac tumors, etc.). PMID:28096692

  11. Improvement of left ventricular exercise hemodynamic function after aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Vlietstra, R E; Chesebro, J H; Frye, R L; Wallace, R B

    1981-01-01

    In 39 patients with coronary artery disease and angina pectoris, exercise hemodynamic evaluation, left ventriculography, and coronary arteriography were performed both before and 3 to 36 months (mean 17 months) after aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting. Of the 32 patients with abnormal exercise hemodynamic responses before operation, 11 returned to normal at the postoperative study (Group N) and 21 remained abnormal (Group A). Preoperative characteristics (mean age, functional class, prior myocardial infarction, left ventriculographic appearance, mean ejection fraction, and mean number of vessels diseased) were similar in the two groups. Of the perioperative and postoperative characteristics examined (mean number of grafts, operative myocardial infarction, postoperative functional class, treadmill test result, and adequacy of left coronary artery revascularization), only the adequacy of left coronary artery revascularization differed between Groups N and A. Eight of 11 Group N and only three of 20 Group A patients had complete revascularization, with patent grafts, of the left coronary artery. We conclude that improved exercise hemodynamic function does occur in some patients after aorta-coronary artery bypass operations. Such improvement is most likely when all major lesions of the left coronary artery are completely revascularized.

  12. Typical coronary appearance of dilated cardiomyopathy versus left ventricular concentric hypertrophy: coronary volumes measured by multislice computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Shoichi; Matsumoto, Kenji; Shirai, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Koki; Otsuka, Kenichiro; Iguchi, Tomokazu; Hasegawa, Takao; Nakata, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2013-03-01

    Several coronary angiographic studies have reported that enlarged and tortuous epicardial coronary arteries are characteristic of patients with left ventricular concentric hypertrophy (LVCH). Recently, we showed that small volumes opacified by contrast medium can be accurately measured by 64-multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and that there is a direct relationship between the coronary artery volume and left ventricular (LV) mass. However, the relationship of coronary artery volume with LV mass in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is unknown. The present study was designed to investigate this issue. Thirteen patients with DCM and 18 patients with LVCH who underwent MSCT angiography were included in this analysis. The coronary arteries were segmented on a workstation, and the appropriate window settings obtained from the results of the phantom experiments were applied to the volume-rendered images to calculate the total coronary artery volume (right and left coronary arteries). The absolute coronary lengths and volumes in patients with LVCH and DCM were greater than those in controls. The coronary artery volumes adjusted for LV mass in patients with DCM were found to be smaller than those in patients with LVCH or in controls, and these values did not differ between patients with LVCH and controls (DCM 4.1 ± 0.9, LVCH 5.4 ± 1.4, controls 5.5 ± 2.3 ml/100 g of LV mass, P < 0.005; DCM vs LVCH, P < 0.01; and DCM vs control, P < 0.0005). This study showed that the increase in the coronary artery volume in patients with LVCH matched the increase in LV mass, but a decreased coronary volume with regard to LV mass was characteristic of patients with DCM.

  13. Anomalous Origins of Coronary Arteries From the Pulmonary Artery: A Comprehensive Review of Literature and Surgical Options.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohsen; Kirshbom, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous origins of coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery are rare malformations in which the coronary arteries originate from pulmonary artery sinuses or branches. The consequences are variable although, in most cases, these anomalies lead to severe coronary hypoperfusion and ventricular dysfunction. Surgical correction is indicated once the diagnosis is established due to high early mortality associated with the disease. In nearly all cases, the anomalous artery can be excised from its pulmonary origin, mobilized, and reimplanted directly into the ascending aorta using different surgical techniques. In rare circumstances, technical modifications must be used to restore a normal dual coronary perfusion. The emphasis of this article is to provide a collective review of surgical options published in the literature.

  14. Acquired and congenital coronary artery abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ming-Lon; McLeary, Michael; Chan, Kak-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Sudden unexpected cardiac deaths in approximately 20% of young athletes are due to acquired or congenital coronary artery abnormalities. Kawasaki disease is the leading cause for acquired coronary artery abnormalities, which can cause late coronary artery sequelae including aneurysms, stenosis, and thrombosis, leading to myocardial ischaemia and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery can develop adequate collateral circulation from the right coronary artery in the newborn period, which remains asymptomatic only to manifest in adulthood with myocardial ischaemia, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the opposite sinus occurs in 0.7% of the young general population aged between 11 and 15 years. If the anomalous coronary artery courses between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, sudden cardiac death may occur during or shortly after vigorous exercise, especially in patients where the anomalous left coronary artery originates from the right sinus of Valsalva. Symptomatic patients with evidence of ischaemia should have surgical correction. No treatment is needed for asymptomatic patients with an anomalous right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. At present, there is no consensus regarding how to manage asymptomatic patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva and interarterial course. Myocardial bridging is commonly observed in cardiac catheterisation and it rarely causes exercise-induced coronary syndrome or cardiac death. In symptomatic patients, refractory or β-blocker treatment and surgical un-bridging may be considered.

  15. Interventional treatment of the left subclavian in 2 patients with coronary steal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heid, Julia; Vogel, Britta; Kristen, Arnt; Kloos, Wanda; Kohler, Benedikt; Katus, Hugo A; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2017-01-01

    In patients with history of coronary artery disease angina pectoris is usually attributed to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. However, in patients with previous coronary artery bypass graft operation (CABG) using internal mammary artery grafts, great vessel disease should also be considered. Herein we present two patients with history of CABG whose symptoms were suspicious for coronary ischemia. During cardiac catheterization reverse blood flow was observed from the left artery disease to the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft in both cases. After angioplasty and stent implantation of the left subclavian artery antegrade flow was restored in the LIMA grafts and both patients had complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28163839

  16. Recovery of Left Ventricular Function After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Compared to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Multi-Vessel Coronary Disease and Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Andrea M; Davis, James; Kao, John

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of left ventricular (LV) function after revascularization has been described for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); however, LV recovery after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and how it compares to CABG has not been well described in the literature. The aim of this single center retrospective study was to evaluate LV recovery in patients with severely reduced LV function undergoing PCI compared to those undergoing CABG. Patients with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing revascularization with either CABG (n=16) or PCI (n=176), and with 12 months of follow up data were included in the study. LVEF at baseline exhibited significant differences between PCI (28.5 ± 8.0) and CABG (24.2 ± 6.8) groups (P=.05). LVEF recovery at 6-month follow up showed no difference between PCI and CABG groups. LVEF recovery differences at one-year follow-up was significantly different between PCI (4.82) and CABG (15.25) groups (P=.005). Patients with severely reduced LV function undergoing multivessel PCI had a statistically significant increase in LVEF over time; however patients undergoing CABG demonstrated greater gains in LVEF over the same time period. Surgical revascularization with CABG may be a procedure of choice in patients with depressed LV function and multivessel CAD. PMID:27688953

  17. Left main coronary artery atresia and associated cardiac defects: report on concomitant surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Jatene, Marcelo; Juaneda, Ignacio; Miranda, Rogerio Dos Anjos; Gato, Rafaella; Marcial, Miguel Lorenzo Barbero

    2011-10-01

    A 9-year-old boy with congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery underwent myocardial revascularization. Coarctation of the aorta and ventricular septal defect were diagnosed at the age of 1 year. At age 7 years, the child presented with syncope while exercising. Preoperative evaluation included cardiac catheterization which revealed the unexpected finding of congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery with origin of the circumflex artery from the right coronary artery. Surgical correction included myocardial revascularization by means of left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery, coarctation resection, and ventricular septal defect repair. The patient recovered uneventfully. We report the details of this extremely rare case with successful concomitant surgical management of the congenital coronary artery anomaly and the associated structural heart disease.

  18. [Diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis mimicking dilated cardiomyopathy with multi-vessel coronary vasospasm].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Kawata, M; Okada, T; Mizutani, T

    2000-06-01

    We investigated 7 patients with multi-vessel coronary vasospasm (> or = 75%) and diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis by coronary angiography and echocardiography. Four patients were male and 3 were female and mean +/- SD age was 63.0 +/- 11.2 years. Chief complaints were dyspnea in 3 patients, and chest pain, appetite loss, palpitation and general fatigue in one each. New York Heart Association functional classification was I in one patient, II in 5 and III in one. Mean heart rate was 73.9 +/- 11.6 beats/min. Initial echocardiography showed left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd) 54.4 +/- 5.5 mm, left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVDs) 43.7 +/- 4.8 mm and percentage fractional shortening (%FS) 19.7 +/- 2.6%. The left ventricle was not remarkably enlarged despite poor contraction. Coronary vasospasm was induced after acetylcholine injection into the right coronary artery in 6 patients, left anterior descending artery in 7 and circumflex artery in 5. Four patients developed three-vessel coronary vasospasm. Three patients underwent endomyocardial biopsy which showed non-specific mild fibrosis. They were treated with nitrates and/or Ca-antagonists to prevent coronary vasospasm. Follow-up echocardiography was performed in 6 patients after 8.5 +/- 6.6 months. Echocardiography revealed marked improvement in left ventricular contraction (LVDd 49.7 +/- 4.6 mm, LVDs 35.8 +/- 4.4 mm, p < 0.05; %FS 27.9 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). These data suggested that left ventricular dilation was not prominent despite the poor contractility in patients with multi-vessel coronary vasospasm and diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis. The left ventricular dysfunction might be hibernating myocardium produced by multiple episodes of coronary vasospasm. Anti-vasospastic agents were effective in these patients.

  19. Intrathymic and other anomalous courses of the left brachiocephalic vein in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Karl, K; Sinkovskaya, E; Abuhamad, A; Chaoui, R

    2016-10-01

    The left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV), or innominate vein, connects the left jugular vein to the right superior vena cava. Its course is posterior to the thymus and directly anterior and superior to the aortic arch. Pediatric and adult cardiology studies have reported on the subaortic or retrotracheal courses of the LBCV and the presence of double LBCV. We observed recently in the fetus that the LBCV may have a course through the thymus (intrathymic) or be absent in the presence of a left superior vena cava. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of isolated intrathymic and absent LBCV in normal fetuses undergoing second-trimester ultrasound screening, as well as the prevalence of other courses in association with cardiac anomalies. In the prospective part of this study, consecutive second-trimester ultrasound examinations were evaluated to assess the presence and course of the fetal LBCV. In the retrospective case-control part of this study, the databases of two fetal medicine centers were reviewed for cardiac anomalies and the pattern and prevalence of anomalous courses of the LBCV were reported. One thousand four hundred and eighteen consecutive fetuses were examined prospectively. An intrathymic course of the LBCV with a typical bent shape was found in 1.76% (1 : 57) of cases and the absence of a LBCV in association with a persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) was found in 0.28% (1 : 350). All fetuses with an isolated intrathymic course or absence of the LBCV had a normal outcome. Over a period of 4.5 years, a total of 1544 fetuses with cardiac malformations were reviewed at two centers. Among these, an anomalous course of the LBCV was noted in eight (0.5%) cases: six subaortic, one retrotracheal and one double LBCV. An intrathymic LBCV is a common condition and appears to be a normal variant in the fetus. The prevalence of a LSVC in our screening population was similar to that reported in previous studies. Anomalous courses of the LBCV

  20. An acquired Gerbode defect from the left ventricle to the coronary sinus following mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Collis, Richard; Afoke, Jonathan; McGregor, Christopher Ga

    2017-06-01

    We report the management of an acquired Gerbode defect, from the left ventricle to the coronary sinus, following mechanical mitral valve replacement. Following a failed percutaneous closure, surgical patch closure of the defect was performed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Contained rupture of mycotic aneurysm of the left circumflex coronary artery in a child.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Reena K; Jyoti, Aman; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Mridul; Joshi, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is defined as dilatation of a coronary artery segment to a diameter of more than 1.5-fold normal size. Rupture of CAA is a catastrophic event and may result in sudden death or myocardial infarction. We report this unusual case of contained rupture of the left circumflex CAA. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation in pregnancy: role of CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shahid; Abdul-Waheed, Mohammed; Helmy, Tarek; Huffman, Lynn C; Koshal, Vipin; Guitron, Julian; Merrill, Walter H; Lewis, David F; Dunlap, Stephanie; Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Weintraub, Neal L; Meyer, Christopher; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    We report a case of a 26-year-old female, who presented at 34 weeks of an uncomplicated pregnancy with an acute ST elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization suggested a left main coronary artery dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation. The patient's course was complicated by congestive heart failure. She was initially managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team including heart failure specialists, obstetricians, and cardiovascular surgeons. 4 days after admission, her LMC was imaged by dual-source 64 slice Cardiac computed tomography, coronary dissection was identified extending to the lumen, and the presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed. She underwent subsequently a staged procedure, which included placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump, cesarean section, and coronary artery bypass grafting. This case illustrates the utility of coronary artery CT imaging to assess the complexity and stability of coronary artery dissections, thereby helping to determine the need for, and timing of revascularization procedures.

  3. Young male survivor of a spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection treated with surgery

    PubMed Central

    Endara, Santiago A.; Ayala, Andres V.; Davalos, Gerardo A.; Moscoso, Juan; Montero, R. Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the coronary arteries is a rare disease with a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from angina to myocardial infarction (MI); its pathophysiology has not yet been fully established. In this paper, we present the case of a 31-year-old male with an acute coronary syndrome. The initial results of the electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes were consistent with MI. However, a coronary angio-tomography revealed a dissection of the left main coronary artery and the patient underwent emergent surgery with coronary artery bypass grafting. The treatment of spontaneous dissection of the coronary arteries depends on the anatomical location and the patient's clinical presentation. Coronary revascularization is associated with good results. PMID:24964467

  4. A rare type of single coronary artery with right coronary artery originating from the left circumflex artery in a child

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Ok Jeong; Kang, I-Seok; Huh, June; Kim, Geena

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a single coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly; such patients often present with severe myocardial ischemia. We experienced the case of a 13-year-old girl with the right coronary artery originating from the left circumflex artery. She visited our Emergency Department owing to severe chest pain; her cardiac enzyme levels were elevated, but her initial electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal. Echocardiography showed normal anatomy and normal regional wall motion. When she presented with recurrent chest pain on admission, the ECG showed significant ST-segment elevation in the left precordial leads and inferior leads with ST-segment depression in aVR lead, suggesting myocardial ischemia, and her cardiac enzyme levels were also elevated. We performed coronary angiography that showed a single right coronary artery originating from the left circumflex artery without stenosis. We confirmed the presence of a single coronary artery using coronary computed tomography. In addition, the treadmill test that was performed showed normal results. She was discharged from the hospital without any medications but with a recommendation of a regular follow-up. PMID:25729398

  5. Left anterior descending coronary artery dissection during ventricular tachycardia ablation - case report.

    PubMed

    Kresimir, Kordic; Sime, Manola; Ivan, Zeljkovic; Ivica, Benko; Nikola, Pavlovic

    2017-07-26

    Fascicular left ventricular tachycardia (VT) is the second most frequent idiopathic left VT in the setting of a structurally normal heart. Catheter ablation is curative in most patients with low complication rates. We report a case of ostial left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion during fascicular ventricular tachycardia ablation. Dissection was the most likely cause of LAD obstruction. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first case reporting selective LAD dissection during electrophysiology study with no left main coronary artery (LMCA) affection.

  6. Association between mitral and aortic valve calcification and preferential left or right coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Yosefy, Chaim; Malushitsky, Ariela; Jamal, Jafary; Sahar, Gideon; Katz, Amos

    2009-11-01

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) and aortic valve calcification (AVC) are predictive of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, no data exist concerning the association between preferential CAD side localization to the left or right coronary arteries and MAC or AVC. A cohort analysis was performed of 1,000 consecutive coronary angiographies recorded in patients with CAD. The angiographies were divided according to the distribution of CAD to the isolated right coronary tree disease, left coronary tree disease, or both. The echocardiograms were reviewed for MAC, AVC or combined valvular calcification (CVC). Significant CAD (lumenal stenosis > 70%) was observed in 688 patients, among whom 167 had isolated (right or left) CAD and 521 double-sided coronary tree disease. Valvular calcification (VC) was observed in 70 (42%) of the isolated CAD patients; of these, 41 had isolated left CAD and 29 isolated right CAD. Among the isolated left CAD patients with VC, 13 (32%) had AVC, 22 (53%) had CVC, and only six (15%) had MAC (p < 0.01). Among the isolated right CAD patients with VC, 18 (62%) had MAC, nine (31%) had CVC, and only two (7%) had AVC (p < 0.01). VC was observed in 266 patients (51%) with mixed CAD; of these, 152 (57%) had CVC, 103 (39%) had AVC, and 11 (4%) had MAC (p < 0.01). Isolated left CAD is associated with AVC or CVC more frequently than with MAC. In contrast, isolated right CAD is associated with MAC or CVC, but rarely with AVC.

  7. Randomized comparison of transradial coronary angiography via right or left radial artery approaches.

    PubMed

    Kanei, Yumiko; Nakra, Navin C; Liou, Michael; Vales, Lori L; Gowda, Ramesh; Rosero, Hugo; Kwan, Tak; Fox, John T

    2011-01-15

    Previous studies have shown that the right radial approach encounters more tortuosity than the left radial approach during transradial coronary angiography. The objective of this study was to compare the procedural difficulty of the right and left radial approaches in the modern era with dedicated transradial catheters. One hundred ninety-three patients scheduled for transradial coronary angiography with normal Allen test results and without histories of coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized to the right or left radial approach. The choice of catheter was left to the discretion of the operator, with the preferred catheter being a dedicated transradial Optitorque catheter. The primary end point was procedural difficulty, defined as (1) hydrophilic or coronary wire use for tortuosity, (2) stiff wire use for the coronary engagement, (3) multiple catheters used, or (4) nonselective injection. The clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Procedural success was achieved in 98 of 101 (98%) in the right radial group and 91 of 92 (99%) in the left radial group. Procedural difficulty, fluoroscopy time, and contrast use were similar between the 2 groups. The use of a single catheter was more common in the right radial group (73% vs 18%, p <0.001). In conclusion, procedural success and difficulty were similar in the comparison groups. The right and left radial approaches are feasible and effective to perform coronary angiography and intervention.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Effect of Plaques in the Left Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Chaichana, Thanapong; Sun, Zhonghua; Jewkes, James

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate the hemodynamic effect of simulated plaques in left coronary artery models, which were generated from a sample patient's data. Plaques were simulated and placed at the left main stem and the left anterior descending (LAD) to produce at least 60% coronary stenosis. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to simulate realistic physiological conditions that reflect the in vivo cardiac hemodynamics, and comparison of wall shear stress (WSS) between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models was performed. The pressure gradient (PSG) and flow velocities in the left coronary artery were measured and compared in the left coronary models with and without presence of plaques during cardiac cycle. Our results showed that the highest PSG was observed in stenotic regions caused by the plaques. Low flow velocity areas were found at postplaque locations in the left circumflex, LAD, and bifurcation. WSS at the stenotic locations was similar between the non-Newtonian and Newtonian models although some more details were observed with non-Newtonian model. There is a direct correlation between coronary plaques and subsequent hemodynamic changes, based on the simulation of plaques in the realistic coronary models. PMID:22400051

  9. Value of left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise in predicting the extent of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Iskandrian, A S; Hakki, A H; Kane, S A; Segal, B L

    1983-04-01

    To determine the relation between left ventricular performance during exercise and the extent of coronary artery disease, the results of exercise radionuclide ventriculography were analyzed in 65 patients who also underwent cardiac catheterization. A scoring system was used to quantitate the extent of coronary artery disease. This system takes into account the number and site of stenoses of the major coronary vessels and their secondary branches. The conventional method of interpreting the coronary angiograms indicated that 26 patients had significant coronary artery disease (defined as 70% or more narrowing of luminal diameter) of one vessel, 21 had multivessel disease and 18 had no significant coronary artery disease. Although the exercise left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in patients with no coronary artery disease than in patients with one or multivessel disease (probability [p] less than 0.001), there was considerable overlap among the three groups. With the scoring system, a good correlation was found between the coronary artery disease score and the exercise left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.70; p less than 0.001). If the exercise heart rate was 130 beats/min or greater or the age of the patient was 50 years or less, an even better correlation was found (r = -0.73 and r = -0.82, respectively). The exercise ejection fraction (but not the change in ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume from rest to exercise) correlated with the extent of coronary artery disease. The exercise ejection fraction is the most important exercise variable that correlates with the extent of coronary artery disease when the latter is assessed quantitatively by a scoring system rather than the conventional method of reporting coronary angiograms. Young age and greater exercise heart rate strengthened the correlation. The change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise is useful in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

  10. Disappearance of myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery after inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Bekir Serhat; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoğlu, Yusuf Izzettin; Kılıç, Ismail Doğu; Evrengül, Harun

    2014-06-01

    Myocardial bridging (MB) is defined as the intramural course of a major epicardial coronary artery, and is mostly confined to the left ventricle and the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). MB is a common congenital abnormality of a coronary artery, and is usually thought to be a benign anatomical variant. Although rare, previous studies have reported that patients with MB may suffer from myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmias, and even sudden death. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of MB are both important. Since MB is congenital, its disappearance is unlikely. We here report a very rare case of disappearance of MB after inferior MI.

  11. Management of left main coronary artery obstruction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement utilizing a periscope approach.

    PubMed

    Drexel, Todd; Helmer, Gregory; Garcia, Santiago; Raveendran, Ganesh

    2017-09-20

    Coronary obstruction is a rare but potentially fatal complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). It can result from native leaflet or stent frame obstruction of the coronary ostia. There are reports detailing the difficulty of percutaneous coronary intervention following TAVR, but none that describe a periscope approach to access the left main ostia in the presence of a braided nitinol frame. This report describes an alternative approach to access a coronary artery when the valve stent struts are prohibitive to equipment delivery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Multiple coronary artery-left ventricular fistulas associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Jacob, M A; Goyal, S B; Pacifico, L; Spodick, D H

    2001-10-01

    Coronary artery-left ventricular (LV) fistulas are extremely rare and can cause myocardial ischemia from coronary steal. We describe an elderly woman who presented with unstable angina from multiple and extensive coronary artery-LV fistulas. She also had clinical features suggestive of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Association of coronary artery-LV fistulas with HHT has not been reported and can pose a management dilemma in view of the risks of extensive cardiopulmonary surgery and potential complications of myocardial ischemia, stroke, and brain abscess.

  13. Further evaluation of the surgical treatment of obstructive disease of the left main coronary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Alford, W C; Page, H L; Burrus, G R; Frist, R A; Stoney, W S; Thomas, C S; Walker, W E

    1978-01-01

    A protocol for the operative management of two patient groups with left main coronary artery disease has been evaluated. The period prior to and during induction of anesthesia is managed without using aortic balloon counterpulsation. Of the 86 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass for left main coronary artery disease from 1970 to 1973, there was a surgical mortality of 8.1%. Follow-up of the survivors from 48 to 87 months revealed three coronary and five non-coronary related deaths with survival to seven years of 75.6 +/- 5%. If the operative mortality is excluded, there is an observed survival to seven years of 82.4 +/- 4.8%, almost the same as a "normal" population of similar age and sex. Utilizing the same protocol, 90 similar patients undergoing coronary artery bypass in 1976 had an operative mortality of 4.4%. The deaths were not related to induction of anesthesia. The perioperative infarction rate (2%) and postoperative cardiac enzyme determinations were no greater in a random group having the same operation for less severe forms of coronary artery disease during the same time period. This method of management for patients with significant left main coronary artery disease is judged superior to other more complex techniques. PMID:306229

  14. [Coronary disease. II. Analysis of diastolic pressure-volume correlations and left ventricular elasticity in 110 patients].

    PubMed

    Strauer, B E; Bolte, H D; Heimburg, P; Riecker, G

    1975-04-01

    Left ventricular pressure-volume relationships as well as diastolic compliance were determined in 110 patients with coronary heart disease during routine right and left heart catheterization, coronary angiography and ventriculography. 1. Enddiastolic and endystolic volume of the left ventricle were increased in severe coronary heart disease dependent on the degree of coronary stenosis; left ventricular ejection fraction was consecutively reduced. 2. Left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, diastolic pressure difference and diastolic rate of pressure rise were increased in corrleation with coronary artery stenosis. In contrast, last diastolic volume inflow into the left ventricle was nearly the same in all groups. Left ventricular stiffness, expressed as dP/dV, was significantly increased dependent on the severity degree of coronary artery disease. 3. Diastolic pressure-volume relationships revealed greater steepness in coronary artery disease, significantly dependent, on the corresponding severity degree. 4. Hemodynamic measures (stroke volume, cardiac index, ejection fraction) were decreased parallel to the increased left ventricular wall stiffness. The results demonstrated decreased left ventricular compliance in coronary heart disease. There was a striking correlation between the severity degree of coronary heart disease and the decrease of left ventricular compliance. Validity and limitations of the techniques of estimating left ventricular compliance from diastolic pressures and volumes as well as the effects of a decrease of left ventricular compliance on cardiac mechanics are discussed.

  15. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy and Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsin-Ru; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Shih, Chun-Che; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chan, Wan-Leong; Wu, Cheng-Hsueh; Lu, Tse-Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetic nephropathy and unprotected left main (LM) coronary artery disease suffer from high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although surgical revascularization is currently recommended in this special patient population, the optimal revascularization method for this distinct patient group has remained unclear. Methods We collected 99 consecutive patients with unprotected LM disease and diabetic nephropathy, including 46 patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and 53 who had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), with a mean age of 72 ± 10; with 80.8% male. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as overt proteinuria (proteinuria > 500 mg/day) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The baseline characteristics, angiographic results and long-term clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results The baseline characteristic of all patients were similar except for smokers, low density lipoprotein (LDL) level and extension of coronary artery disease involvement. The median follow-up period was 3.8 years. There were 73 patients (74%) considered as high risk with additive European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) ≥ 6. During follow-up period, the long term rate of all-cause death (PCI vs. CABG: 45.7% vs. 58.5%, p = 0.20) and all-cause death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke (PCI vs. CABG: 52.2% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.41) were comparable between the PCI and CABG group, whereas the repeat revascularization rate was significantly higher in the PCI group (PCI vs. CABG: 32.6% vs. 9.4%, p < 0.01). eGFR remained an independent predictor for all-cause death [hazard ratio: 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 0.99; p = 0.002] in multivariate logistic regression. Conclusions In the real-world practice of high-risk patients with unprotected LM disease and diabetic nephropathy, we found

  16. Total left main coronary artery occlusion after aortic aneurysm repair and valve replacement.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Lemole, G M; Wolf, N W; Dowinsky, S; Untereker, W; Spagna, P M

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery secondary to cannulation during aortic valve replacement is presented. The clinical course was characterized by progressive left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Recognition of this potential problem when it occurs is important as to institute therapeutic measures which may interrupt a patient's progressive clinical deterioration.

  17. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Nissan; Karkabi, Basheer; Jaffe, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years. PMID:28078145

  18. A rare case of myocardial bridge involving left anterior descending, obtuse marginal and ramus intermediate coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Koprulu, Diyar; Elmali, Muzaffer; Zeren, Gonul; Erdogan, Guney

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial bridging, a congenital coronary anomaly, is a cluster of myocardial fibers crossing over the epicardial coronary arteries. It is most frequently seen in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), and rarely involves the circumflex (CX) and right coronary artery (RCA). We report a patient with an unusual coronary bridge crossing over the left anterior descending, obtuse marginal and ramus intermediate branches. The patient presented with exercise-induced angina pectoris that was relieved with medical therapy. PMID:28096838

  19. Right Aortic Arch with a Retroesophageal Left Subclavian Artery and an Anomalous Origin of the Pulmonary Artery from the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chang-Seok; Shim, Man-shik; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a newborn with a rare anatomic variation: a right aortic arch with a retroesophageal left subclavian artery and an anomalous origin of the pulmonary artery from the aorta. This variation was diagnosed using echocardiography and computed tomography, and we treated the condition surgically. PMID:28180103

  20. Anomalous origin of the left brachiocephalic artery in the right aortic arch: Is there a method to the madness?

    PubMed

    Krishna, Mani Ram; Gnanappa, Ganesh Kumar; Fitzpatrick, Rachel; Ayer, Julian; Winlaw, David

    2017-01-01

    The anomalous origin of the left brachiocephalic artery in a right sided aortic arch is a rare vascular ring which might lead to esophageal compression. The exact embryological origin of this anomaly is still widely debated. We present an infant who presented with esophageal compression symptoms and review the various hypotheses about the embryological origin of this anomaly.

  1. Right coronary artery fistula to left ventricle treated by transcatheter coil embolization: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenni; Chen, Han; Wang, Jian'an

    2012-01-01

    A coronary artery fistula between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber is a rare condition. We reported a case of right coronary artery fistula to the left ventricle in a 57-year-old man who had 2-year history of chest pain and exercise dyspnea without significant coronary atherosclerosis with abnormal left ventricular size and function. It was important to recognize this anomaly and our experience showed that transcatheter occlusion of coronary artery fistula was a safe and effective procedure in the presence of symptoms of congestive heart failure, significant left-to-right shunt or refractory to medical treatment.

  2. [Coronary blood outflow along parasinoidal pathways in the left heart (possible pathogenesis of angina attacks with normal coronary circulation)].

    PubMed

    Kositskiĭ, G I; D'iakonova, I N; Tverskaia, M S

    1984-04-01

    Acute experiments on isolated cat hearts were made to study the involvement of the parasinus pathways of the left heart in the blood outflow from the myocardium. The magnitude of the blood outflow to the left heart via the parasinus pathways may vary within a wide range, depending on heart function conditions. During heart work normalization, the specific values of the outflow to the left heart are minimal, amounting on an average to 10%, those under heart perfusion with venous blood to 39%, reaching 64% after 30 minutes of ischemia. The data obtained indicate that the assessment of myocardial supply by the blood inflow to the coronary arteries cannot be regarded as adequate and that angina pectoris attacks may occur because of the shunt drainage of the coronary blood, by-passing the myocardial capillaries.

  3. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy and coronary fistulae: a case report. One genotype, three phenotypes?

    PubMed

    Delgado, Anne; Moreira, Davide; Rodrigues, Bruno; Correia, Emanuel; Gama, Pedro; Cabral, Costa; Marinho, António; Santos, Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    The authors present a rare case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy and coronary artery-left ventricular fistulae in a 42-year-old woman presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography, transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance revealed the structural abnormalities of the left ventricle and the coronary tree. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Coronary endarterectomy in left anterior descending artery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting – midterm mortality and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Domaradzki, Wojciech; Krauze, Jolanta; Kinasz, Leszek; Jankowska-Sanetra, Justyna; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Paradowski, Krzysztof; Cisowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Completeness of myocardial revascularization is essential in surgical treatment of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the most difficult cases. Material and methods Among 1559 patients who had CABG in our department, the cases of 17 who underwent an adjunct left anterior descending endarterectomy were analyzed. All procedures were performed with median sternotomy, extracorporeal circulation and in mild hypothermia (34°C), by the same surgeon. No coronary artery endarterectomy was planned before surgery. Results There was no infarction or cardiac arrest during hospitalization. Only one patient required mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation). Each patient was contacted and investigation for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was performed. Eleven patients (65%) already underwent midterm clinical evaluation. There was no death, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular incident during the entire period (mean follow-up at 15.3 months). One patient required urgent coronarography due to chest pain. No other patient had chest pain or significant deterioration of ventricular function in echocardiography. Conclusions Outcomes and potential indications for performing left anterior descending coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to CABG are discussed. PMID:26855644

  5. Coronary endarterectomy in left anterior descending artery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting - midterm mortality and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Domaradzki, Wojciech; Sanetra, Krzysztof; Krauze, Jolanta; Kinasz, Leszek; Jankowska-Sanetra, Justyna; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Paradowski, Krzysztof; Cisowski, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Completeness of myocardial revascularization is essential in surgical treatment of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the most difficult cases. Among 1559 patients who had CABG in our department, the cases of 17 who underwent an adjunct left anterior descending endarterectomy were analyzed. All procedures were performed with median sternotomy, extracorporeal circulation and in mild hypothermia (34°C), by the same surgeon. No coronary artery endarterectomy was planned before surgery. There was no infarction or cardiac arrest during hospitalization. Only one patient required mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation). Each patient was contacted and investigation for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was performed. Eleven patients (65%) already underwent midterm clinical evaluation. There was no death, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular incident during the entire period (mean follow-up at 15.3 months). One patient required urgent coronarography due to chest pain. No other patient had chest pain or significant deterioration of ventricular function in echocardiography. Outcomes and potential indications for performing left anterior descending coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to CABG are discussed.

  6. Anastomosis of left to right superior vena cava for repair of unroofed coronary sinus.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Shingo; Yasunaga, Hiroshi; Todo, Kageshige

    2012-04-01

    Left superior vena cava (LSVC) draining into the left atrium is a rare congenital cardiac complex. It may appear as an isolated anomaly or as part of more complex cardiac anomalies. Intraatrial rerouting techniques have been the most common approaches to correcting LSVC drainage into the left atrium in patients without a connecting vein. Although these techniques have proved reliable and successful, there are cases in which extracardiac methods for managing this form of anomalous systemic drainage may be preferable. In the present report, we describe an extracardiac approach to the correction of LSVC draining into the left atrium.

  7. Drug-eluting stents in unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bernelli, Chiara

    2014-11-01

    Though coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) has traditionally been the cornerstone of therapy in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease, recent evidence supports the use of percutaneous coronary intervention in appropriate patients. Indeed in patients with ULMCA disease, drug-eluting stents (DES) have shown similar incidence of hard end points, fewer periprocedural complications and lower stroke rates compared with CABG, though at the cost of increased revascularization with time. Furthermore, the availability of newer efficacious and safer DES as well as improvements in diagnostic tools, percutaneous techniques and, importantly, a better patient selection, allowed percutaneous coronary intervention a viable alternative to CABG of left main-patients with low disease complexity; however, even in this interventional era characterized by efficacious DES, patients with ULMCA disease remain a challenging high-risk population where outcomes strongly depend on clinical characteristics, anatomical disease complexity and extension and operator's experience. This review summarizes the role of DES in ULMCA disease patients.

  8. Left coronary ostial obstruction after aortic valve replacement with a supra-annular aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Kanji; Unno, Hideya; Konishi, Taisuke; Shigeta, Osamu

    2006-05-01

    We report a rare case of left coronary ostial obstruction after aortic valve replacement with a Top Hat supra-annular aortic valve, which was diagnosed with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography and successfully treated with an unplanned coronary bypass. The patient was a 76-year-old woman (height 143 cm, weight 44 kg) with aortic stenosis and regurgitation. A 19-mm Top Hat valve was implanted in the supra-annular position because of a small aortic annulus. There was a possibility that the high profile of this prosthesis might block the left coronary ostium. There may be a problem with the use of this prosthesis in patients with small and rigid aortic roots with little compliance. Although the Top Hat valve has a great advantage for small aortic annuli, care in its use should be taken due to possible interference with the coronary ostia.

  9. Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction associated with coronary heart disease and myopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Bonner, Elisabeth

    2011-05-05

    The association of left ventricular hypertrabeculation (LVHT), also known as noncompaction, coronary heart disease, and metabolic myopathy, as presented in the following report, is rare. In a 77-yo male with a history of arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, dilative cardiomyopathy, mitral and tricuspid insufficiency, AV-block III, implantation of a pacemaker, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, LVHT was detected on transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization for worsening heart failure. Clinical neurologic investigation, revealing bilateral ptosis, madarosis, absent eyelashes, bilateral hypacusis, sore neck muscles, generally absent deep tendon reflexes, weakness for foot extension, and ataxic stance, and recurrently elevated creatine-kinase with normal troponine, suggested a metabolic myopathy. Autopsy after death from intractable heart failure. 17 months later confirmed severe coronary heart disease and LVHT in the apex. LVHT may be associated with coronary heart disease and myopathy and may be exclusively located in the left ventricular apex. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single-trunk anomalous origin of both coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery. Diagnosis and surgical management

    SciTech Connect

    Goldblatt, E.; Adams, A.P.; Ross, I.K.; Savage, J.P.; Morris, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The cases of two infants with heart failure and myocardial infarction because of single-trunk anomalous origin of both coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery are reported. Electrocardiography and thallium 201 imaging indicated preoperative myocardial infarction. The diagnosis was confirmed by cardiac catheterization and angiography in each case. To our knowledge these are the first reports of this diagnosis being made during life prior to attempts at surgical correction. Both patients underwent cardiac operations and the operative techniques used are described. Corrective operations for this abnormality have not been attempted previously. At autopsy radiopaque contrast material injected into the aorta confirmed flow from the aorta to the coronary arteries.

  11. Rescue AVE Stent Placement for Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Occlusion During Diagnostic Angiography.

    PubMed

    van Dijk D; Ernst; Six; Plokker

    1996-06-01

    In a 65-year-old male with coronary artery disease a proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery occurred during diagnostic coronary angiography. The most likely cause was an occlusive dissection. This resulted in acute myocardial ischemia and immediate cardiogenic shock. The decision was made to proceed to emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). After balloon dilatation, a 3.5 mm AVE stent was deployed successfully at the site of the lesion. This resulted in a satisfactory angiographic result and an immediate improvement of the clinical picture. We conclude that placement of an AVE stent can provide a means for restoring flow in case of acute occlusive dissection during coronary angiography.

  12. Thrombotic Occlusion of All Left Coronary Branches in a Young Woman with Severe Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, Carl Gunnar; Svensson, Peter J.; Hertervig, Erik; Sandhall, Lennart; Hårdhammar, Peter; Malcevschi-Lind, Natascia; Olsson, Sven-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background. The thrombosis risk is increased in active ulcerative colitis. The limited number of reported complications have predominantly been cerebrovascular but other vessel territories may also be affected. Patient. During a severe attack of ulcerative colitis a 37-year-old woman suffered occlusion of all left coronary artery branches. Serial angiographies showed progressive recanalisation of the coronary arteries during anticoagulation, but no atherosclerotic stenosis. The cause of infarction was thus considered to be an extensive coronary thrombosis. However, a large battery of blood tests failed to identify any procoagulant abnormality. Conclusion. Evidence is now accumulating that the increased thrombosis risk also may involve the coronary arteries, even in young patients. To the best of our knowledge this is the third reported case of myocardial infarction despite angiographically normal coronary arteries in a patient with active ulcerative colitis. The extent of affected myocardium was in this case exceptionally large. PMID:22347627

  13. [Hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms of impaired left ventricular contraction in coronary artery disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bleifeld, W; Pop, T

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chronic coronary insufficiency on the hemodynamics, the geometry and muscle mass of the left ventricle were studied in 30 patients and compared to 13 controls. In these patients the cardiac output was normal in spite of impaired contractility and left ventricular wall movement. The impaired cardiac performance was compensated by 1. hypertrophy and 2. dialatation of the left ventricle. In one-vessel disease of the the coronary arteries left ventricular muscle mass was modestly, but not significant increased. Hypertrophy decreased from +20% in one vessel disease to +10% in three vessel disease. In contrast, left ventricular dilatation increased from +23% in one vessel disease to 43% in two vessel disease and to 70% in patients with sclerotic lesions in three vessels. Left ventricular dilatation seems to be the main hemodynamic compensatory mechnism resulting in a relative increase of the pump function of the heart compared to non dilated hearts. However, dilatation leads in the end-phase to left ventricular failure. By increased wall tension in the presence of impaired coronary blood flow dilatation bears the risk of deterioration of left ventricular function.

  14. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Coronary Sinus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kurtoglu, Ertugrul; Cakin, Ozlem; Akcay, Selahaddin; Akturk, Erdal; Korkmaz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a congenital anomaly of the thoracic venous system resulting from the abnormal persistence of an embryological vessel that normally regresses during early fetal life. This anomaly is often discovered incidentally during surgery, cardiovascular imaging or invasive cardiovascular procedures. In most cases, a PLSVC drains into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. In the remainder of cases, it enters directly or through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. A dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should always raise the suspicion of a PLSVC as it has important clinical implications. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. We report a patient with persistent left superior vena cava with an enlarged coronary sinus and normal right superior vena cava.

  15. [False aneurysm of the left ventricle and coronary aneurysms in Behçet disease].

    PubMed

    Rolland, J M; Bical, O; Laradi, A; Robinault, J; Benzidia, R; Vanetti, A; Herreman, G

    1993-09-01

    A false left ventricular aneurysm and coronary artery aneurysm were discovered in a 29 year old patient with Behçet's syndrome. The operation under cardiopulmonary bypass consisted of closing the neck of the false aneurysm by an endo-aneurysmal approach with a Gore-Tex patch. The coronary artery aneurysms were respected. There were no postoperative complications. Cardiac involvement is rare in Behçet's syndrome (6%). The originality of this case is the association of two aneurysmal pathologies: the coronary and ventricular aneurysms due to the angiitis and the myocardial fragility induced by ischaemia.

  16. [Incidence and management of acute left main coronary artery dissection as a complication of acute transluminal coronary angioplasty].

    PubMed

    Dittel, M; Prachar, H; Spiel, R; Mlczoch, J

    1996-09-01

    Out of 1730 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) of left descending coronary artery (LAD) or circumflex artery (CX) five patients (0.3%) suffered an acute dissection of left main coronary artery. In three patients dissection developed because of manipulation of the guiding catheter. In one patient retrograde dissection of the left main stem occurred because of balloon angioplasty of ostial LAD stenosis and in a second patient because of balloon rupture in the setting of stent deployment in the proximal part of the LAD. Four patients were selected for emergency operation, but one patient died before reacting the operation theatre. Out of the three remaining patients one patient died postoperatively and another patient suffered a transmural myocardial infarction. In the fifth patient three AVE Micro stents were implanted; one just at the origin of the LAD, one at the origin of the CX and the third in the left main stem. This patient was not sent for operation and was discharged without symptoms.

  17. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease — A Single Hospital Experience without On-Site Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsiao-Yang; Wang, Kuang-Te; Lin, Wen-Hsiung; Tsai, Jui-Peng; Chen, Yung-Tzi

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the safety and outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention for left main coronary artery disease in hospital without on-site cardiac surgery. Methods Between January 2007 and December 2010, all patients diagnosed with left main coronary artery disease and refused coronary artery bypass graft surgery in our hospital or a tertiary center, were enrolled. Data including clinical course, angiographic characteristics, and 1- and 3-years outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results Seventy patients (mean age 73.4 ± 10.2 years, 47 male, 23 females) were treated with a mean SYNTAX score of 34.8 ± 12.6 and EuroSCORE of 6.7 ± 3.3. Thirty-two (45.7%) patients had stable angina, 35 (50.0%) had unstable angina/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and 3 (4.3%) had ST-elevation Myocardial infarction. Forty-three (61.4%) patients received a single-stent, 26 (37.1%) received two-stents, and 1 (1.4%) received balloon angioplasty. No procedure-related mortalities were noted and no emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery was required. In the 3-year follow-up period, 2 (2.9%) patients had non-fetal myocardial infarction, 11 (15.7%) had left main target lesion revascularization. The major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events rates were 24.3% at 1 year and 37.1% at 3-years. The all-cause mortality rate was 41.4% (29 patients), including 18 (25.7%) cases of septic shock, 7 (10.0%) of sudden cardiac death, 2 (2.8%) of hypovolemic shock due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 1 (1.4%) of terminal stage malignancy, and 1 (1.4%) of suffocation at 3 years. Conclusions Percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with left main coronary artery disease was found to be a safe and effective strategy in our hospital without on-site cardiac surgery. PMID:27122882

  18. Morphologic expression of the left coronary artery in pigs. An approach in relation to human heart

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Fabian Alejandro; Ballesteros, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In spite of its importance as an experimental model, the information on the left coronary artery in pigs is sparse. Objective To determine the morphologic features of the left coronary artery in pigs. Methods We evaluated 158 pig hearts. The left coronary artery was perfused with synthetic resin after their ostia had been catheterized. Diameters and courses of the vascular beds were measured with an electronic caliper (Mitutoyo®). Results The diameter of left coronary artery was 6.98 ± 1.56 mm and its length was 3.51±0.99 mm. It was found to end up by bifurcating itself into the anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery in 79% of the cases, and by trifurcating in 21% of the cases, with the presence of the diagonal artery. The anterior interventricular artery ended up at the apex in 79.7% of the cases, and the circumflex artery at the posterior aspect of the left ventricle in 64% of the case, this artery never reached the posterior interventricular sulcus. An anastomosis between the terminal branches of the anterior interventricular artery and the posterior interventricular artery was found in 7.6% of the specimens. The antero-superior branch of the anterior interventricular artery occurred in 89.9% of the hearts. A left marginal branch was observed in 87.9% of the cases with a diameter of 2.25±0.55 mm. Conclusion Compared with humans, pigs have shorter left coronary artery trunks and branches; even the circumflex artery never reaches the posterior interventricular sulcus. Our findings are useful for the design of experimental hemodynamic and procedural models. PMID:25140471

  19. The myocardial and coronary histopathology and pathogenesis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cole, Charles R; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome has the greatest mortality rate among all CHDs and without palliation is uniformly fatal. Despite noble efforts, the aetiology of this syndrome is unknown and a cure remains elusive. The genetic and anatomic heterogeneity of hypoplastic left heart syndrome supports a rethinking of old hypotheses and warrants further investigation into the histological and vascular variations recognised with this syndrome. In an effort to elucidate the pathogenesis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, this review will focus on its unique myocardial and coronary pathology as well as evaluate the association of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with the endocardial fibroelastosis reaction.

  20. Left Radial Versus Femoral Access for Coronary Angiography in Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Pasley, Thomas F; Khan, Ali; Yen, Lu-Yin; Newcombe, Ruth; Humphreys, Hayley; El-Jack, Seif

    2016-03-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that coronary angiography of native coronary arteries via the radial artery results in reduced morbidity and mortality, when compared with a femoral approach. However, the efficacy and safety of the transradial approach in patients with coronary grafts is relatively unknown. We performed a retrospective audit of all patients with a history of previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery who underwent diagnostic angiography at our institution from 2008-2012. The primary efficacy endpoint was procedure time (minutes), while the secondary efficacy measure was patient radiation exposure (μGy/m²). There were 326 post-CABG patients studied during the defined period, with 254 via femoral approach and 72 via left radial artery. There was no significant difference between the two approaches in procedure time (37 minutes in radial group vs 35 minutes in femoral group; t-test, P=.43). There was also no difference in radiation exposure (7855 μGy/m² in femoral group vs 6825 μGy/m² in radial group; Satterthwaite t-test, P=.08). This study shows the validity of a left radial approach in patients who have undergone angiography post CABG. It suggests that transradial angiography can be safely performed in these patients, without significant increase in procedural time or radiation exposure.

  1. Effect of age on left ventricular function during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; DePace, N.L.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in 79 patients with coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 50% narrowing of one or more major coronary arteries). Fifty patients under the age of 60 years (group I) and 29 patients 60 years or older (group II) were studied. Radionuclide angiograms were obtained at rest and during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. The history of hypertension, angina or Q wave myocardial infarction was similar in both groups. Multivessel coronary artery disease was present in 30 patients (60%) in group I and in 19 patients (66%) in group II (p . not significant). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the hemodynamic variables (at rest or during exercise) of left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and cardiac index. Exercise tolerance was higher in group I than in group II (7.8 +/- 0.4 versus 5.7 +/- 0.4 minutes, p . 0.009), although the exercise heart rate and rate-pressure product were not significantly different between the groups. There was poor correlation between age and ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume at rest and during exercise. Abnormal left ventricular function at rest or an abnormal response to exercise was noted in 42 patients (84%) in group I and in 25 patients (86%) in group II (p . not significant). Thus, in patients with coronary artery disease, age does not influence left ventricular function at rest or response to exercise. Older patients with coronary artery disease show changes in left ventricular function similar to those in younger patients with corresponding severity of coronary artery disease.

  2. Effect of age on left ventricular function during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hakki, A H; DePace, N L; Iskandrian, A S

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in 79 patients with coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 50% narrowing of one or more major coronary arteries). Fifty patients under the age of 60 years (group I) and 29 patients 60 years or older (group II) were studied. Radionuclide angiograms were obtained at rest and during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. The history of hypertension, angina or Q wave myocardial infarction was similar in both groups. Multivessel coronary artery disease was present in 30 patients (60%) in group I and in 19 patients (66%) in group II (p = not significant). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the hemodynamic variables (at rest or during exercise) of left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and cardiac index. Exercise tolerance was higher in group I than in group II (7.8 +/- 0.4 versus 5.7 +/- 0.4 minutes, p = 0.009), although the exercise heart rate and rate-pressure product were not significantly different between the groups. There was poor correlation between age and ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume at rest and during exercise. Abnormal left ventricular function at rest or an abnormal response to exercise was noted in 42 patients (84%) in group I and in 25 patients (86%) in group II (p = not significant). Thus, in patients with coronary artery disease, age does not influence left ventricular function at rest or response to exercise. Older patients with coronary artery disease show changes in left ventricular function similar to those in younger patients with corresponding severity of coronary artery disease.

  3. Left Atrial Coronary Perfusion Territories in Isolated Sheep Hearts: Implications for Atrial Fibrillation Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Morgenstern, Sherry; Klos, Matthew; Campbell, Katherine; Buerkel, Daniel; Kalifa, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role played by coronary perfusion in the maintenance of AF electrical sources that anchor to the posterior wall of the left atrium (PLA) has been incompletely investigated. OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that the PLA-pulmonary vein region is perfused by branches originating from both the right and left coronary arteries, and evaluated whether such branches could serve as conduits to chemically ablate restricted PLA regions. METHODS In Langendorff-perfused sheep hearts, we identified the right and left anterior atrial arteries (RAAA and LAAA), and branches of the left circumflex artery (LCX) as main coronary artery branches perfusing the atria. During sustained AF, we injected 20 ml boluses of cold Tyrode’s solution (4°C) into each artery to determine changes in dominant frequency (DF). The injection that yielded the largest DF decrease indicated the coronary branch to be subsequently perfused with ethanol. We selectively injected ethanol into the LAAA (n=4), the LCX (n=4) or the RAAA (n=1). RESULTS Six out of 9 AF cases rapidly terminated upon ethanol perfusion. In those hearts and in 8 additional preparations (n=17), Congo Red or Evans Blue were subsequently perfused into the remaining atrial branches. The perfusion territories were classified as follows: Triple vessel PLA perfusion (n=4), LAAA dominant PLA perfusion (n=5), balanced double vessel PLA perfusion (n=5) and LCX or RAAA dominant (n=3). CONCLUSIONS The PLA coronary perfusion relies on a variable contribution of right and left coronary branches. Regional irrigation of ethanol in well-delineated PLA perfusion territories enabled ablation of high frequency sites during AF. PMID:20621203

  4. Anomalous origin of the left innominate (brachiocephalic) artery in the right aortic arch: How can it be anomalous when the left innominate artery is absent?

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Francesca; Bonnet, Damien; Geva, Tal; Sanders, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    An unusual case of a rare vascular ring, which has been called right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery, is presented. The appearance of this case led to the realization that there is really no innominate artery present in this anomaly but only the left dorsal aorta. We present a clarification of the nature and likely development of the vessels present. PMID:27212855

  5. A Combination of Two Rare Coronary Anomalies Makes It Even Rarer: Right Sided Single Coronary Artery with Dual Left Anterior Descending Artery

    PubMed Central

    Addai, Theodore; Kola, Monahar; Raqeem, Muhammad Wajih; Barsamyan, Sergey; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.

    2016-01-01

    An 82-year-old female with history of hyperlipidemia and hypertension presented to the clinic with chief complaint of nonradiating chest tightness accompanied by exertional dyspnea. Cardiac catheterization showed the absence of left coronary system; the entire coronary system originated from the right aortic sinus as a common trunk which then gave off the right coronary artery and the left main coronary artery. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated also another rare coronary anomaly: dual left anterior descending artery. Patient underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and subsequent multidetector computed tomography angiography confirmed the above angiography findings. Patient was subsequently discharged home on double antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel and has been asymptomatic since then. PMID:27293909

  6. Effect of tachycardia and constriction of left circumflex artery on coronary flow and pressure in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lavore, P; Gattullo, D; Guiot, C; Losano, G; Mary, D A; Vacca, G; Vono, P

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of graded changes in heart rate between 100 and 160 beats/min and constriction of the left circumflex coronary artery which reduced coronary blood flow was examined in seven anaesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs in the absence of significant changes in aortic blood pressure. Mean diastolic coronary blood flow, and the difference between the mean diastolic pressures in the coronary artery and the left ventricle were related to the increase in heart rate. 2. In all seven dogs diastolic coronary blood flow showed linear increases with heart rate increments with and without coronary narrowing which averaged 70 and 82% respectively. 3. A significant shift to the right in the relation between heart rate and mean diastolic coronary blood flow occurred with each grade of coronary constriction. Coronary blood flow became lower at any given heart rate. 4. The shift to the right in the relation between heart rate and coronary blood flow was associated with decreases in the difference between the mean diastolic pressures in the coronary artery and the left ventricle which accompanied the increase in heart rate. 5. The results suggest that increases in heart rate can enhance diastolic coronary blood flow despite coronary narrowing which reduced flow, possibly through dilatation in myocardial blood vessels. PMID:3254420

  7. Surgical reconstruction of the left main coronary artery with patch-angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been established as the treatment of choice for left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis However, the conventional grafting provides a retrograde perfusion to extensive myocardial area and leads prospectively to competitive flow of the non-occluded coronaries thus consuming the grafts. Surgical reconstruction of the LMCA with patch-angioplasty is an alternative method that eliminates these drawbacks. Methods Between February 1997 and July 2007, 37 patients with isolated LMCA stenosis were referred for surgical ostial reconstruction. In 27 patients (73%) surgical angioplasties have been performed. All patients were followed up clinically and with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and coronary angiography when required. Results In 10 patients (27%) a LMCA stenosis could not be confirmed. There were no early mortality or perioperative myocardial infarctions. The postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. In 25 patients, TEE demonstrated a wide open main stem flow pattern one to six months after reconstruction of the left main coronary artery with one patch mild aneurysmal dilated. Conclusions The surgical reconstruction with patch-angioplasty is a safe and effective method for the treatment of proximal and middle LMCA stenosis. Almost one third of the study group had no really LMCA stenosis: antegrade flow pattern remained sustained and the arterial grafts have been spared. In the cases of unclear or suspected LMCA stenosis, cardio-CT can be performed to unmask catheter-induced coronary spasm as the underlying reason for isolated LMCA stenosis. PMID:21375723

  8. Relation between coronary arterial dominance and left ventricular ejection fraction after ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction in patients having percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Caroline E; Hoogslag, Georgette E; Kharbanda, Rohit K; de Graaf, Michiel A; van Zwet, Erik W; van der Hoeven, Bas L; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2014-12-01

    The presence of a left dominant coronary artery system is associated with worse outcome after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) compared with right dominance or a balanced coronary artery system. However, the association between coronary arterial dominance and left ventricular (LV) function at follow-up after STEMI is unclear. The present study aimed at evaluating the relation between coronary arterial dominance and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) shortly after STEMI and at 12-month follow-up. A total of 741 patients with STEMI (mean age 60 ± 11 years and 77% men) were evaluated with 2-dimentional echocardiography within 48 hours of admission (baseline) and at 12-month follow-up after STEMI. Coronary arterial dominance was assessed on the angiographic images obtained during primary percutaneous coronary intervention. A right, left, and balanced dominant coronary artery system was noted in 640 (86%), 58 (8%), and 43 (6%) patients, respectively. At baseline, significant difference in LV function was observed, with slightly lower LVEF in patients with a left dominant coronary artery system (LVEF 45 ± 8% vs 48 ± 9% and 50 ± 9%, for left dominant, right dominant, and balanced coronary artery system respectively, p = 0.03). However, at 12-month follow-up no differences in LV function or volumes were observed among the different coronary arterial dominance groups. In conclusion, patients with a left dominant coronary artery system had lower LVEF early after STEMI. At 12-month follow-up, differences in LVEF were no longer present among the different coronary arterial dominance groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Early left ventricular remodelling following acute coronary accident].

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Roger; Logeart, Damien; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Mercadier, Jean-Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Ventricular remodelling following acute coronary syndromes is both complex and multiform. It is due to the response of the myocardium to the different agressions associated with these syndromes, in particular the ischemia and necrosis downstream of the occluded artery. We must not however neglect the role of the remodelling of the lesions resulting from spontaneous reperfusion or provoked by the cells and tissues associated with coronary microcirculation embolisms and the no-reflow phenomenon. Acute post-infarct remodelling is dominated by early ventricular dilatation which largely affects late prognosis, necrosis elimination and its replacement by a fibrotic scar in parallel with a compensatory hypertrophy of the non-infarcted myocardium. The diverse cellular and molecular components of this remodelling are increasingly well-known, allowing us to better explain the beneficial effects of the currently available medications and providing us with new potential therapeutic targets. A grading of this knowledge associated with the identification of new risk factors and early therapeutic interventions should help us to further limit the deleterious aspects of this remodelling in the goal of preventing, or at least delaying, the devolution towards heart failure.

  10. Direct and reflex effects of nitroglycerin on coronary and left ventricular dynamics in conscious dogs

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Stephen F.; Higgins, Charles B.; Millard, Ronald W.; Franklin, Dean

    1972-01-01

    The effects of intravenous and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin), 40 μg/kg, were studied on coronary blood flow and resistance, left ventricular (LV) pressures (P) and diameters (D), rate of change of pressure (dP/dt), (dP/dt)/P, and on the velocity (V) of myocardial fiber shortening in conscious dogs. Nitroglycerin i.v. caused substantial coronary vasodilatation prior to any changes in systemic hemodynamics. Mean coronary flow increased by a maximum of 47 ml/min and coronary sinus Po2 rose from 16 to 26 mm Hg while pressure and diameter began to fall, and heart rate began to rise. After the maximal fall in mean arterial pressure (—26 mm Hg), a secondary peak in coronary flow occurred which was associated with increases in heart rate (100 beats/min), (dP/dt)/P (22%), and isolength V (12%). Beta blockade prevented the reflex increases in contractility but only a part of the reflex tachycardia; the remainder was prevented by cholinergic blockade. Maintaining heart rate constant minimized the decreases in LV D and increases in contractility. When the reflex inotropic and chronotropic effects were prevented by a combination of atrial pacing and beta blockade the early coronary vasodilatation was unaltered, but the later coronary vasodilatation was minimized. Thus i.v. nitroglycerin in the conscious dog exerts a potent direct coronary vasodilating action and also a secondary coronary vasodilation caused by reflex increases in contractility and heart rate. The decreases in diameter are largely the result of tachycardia. Sublingual nitroglycerin produced directionally similar, but quantitatively lesser effects on coronary flow and resistance, LV D, LV P, and contractility. Images PMID:4404139

  11. Relationship between left coronary artery bifurcation angle and restenosis after stenting of the proximal left anterior descending artery

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tadashi; Funayama, Naohiro; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hotta, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Restenosis after a percutaneous coronary intervention for proximal left anterior descending (pLAD) coronary artery disease remains a clinical challenge. However, the relationship between the left main trunk (LMT)/LAD bifurcation angle and the pLAD artery restenosis is unclear. This study examined the relationship between the LMT–LAD bifurcation angle and restenosis after stent implantation for pLAD disease. Methods We analysed the data of 177 consecutive patients who underwent stent implantation for pLAD disease, followed by coronary angiography between December 2008 and September 2013. The LMT–LAD bifurcation angle was measured in the left or the right anterior oblique caudal (CAU) angiographic view. Results and discussion Out of 177 patients, 12 developed in-stent restenosis and 21 developed in-segment restenosis. The mean angle in patients with in-stent restenosis (52.2°±14.5°) in the left anterior oblique CAU view was significantly larger than that in patients without restenosis (32.0°±18.1°; P<0.001). The LMT–LAD angle in the right anterior oblique CAU view was significantly larger in patients with in-segment restenosis (27.3°±14.3°) than in patients without restenosis (17.5°±10.1°; P<0.001). Moreover, by multivariate analysis, the LMT–LAD angle was an independent predictor of in-stent and in-segment restenosis, after adjustment for significant confounders such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, final minimum lesion diameter and lesion length. Conclusion This study suggests that a wide LMT–LAD angle is a predictor of restenosis after stent implantation for pLAD artery disease. PMID:27214275

  12. Isolated huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery in a 22-year-old patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Pontailler, Margaux; Vilarem, Didier; Paul, Jean-François; Deleuze, Philippe H

    2015-03-01

    A 22-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with acute chest pain. A computed tomography scan and coronary angiography revealed a partially thrombosed huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. Despite medical treatment, the patient's angina recurred. The patient underwent a coronary bypass grafting operation and surgical exclusion of the aneurysm. Postoperative imaging disclosed good permeability of the 3 coronary artery bypass grafts and complete thrombosis of the excluded aneurysm.

  13. Left main coronary artery obstruction by dislodged native-valve calculus after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Tahir; Ayhan, Huseyin; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

  14. Nuclear medical determination of left ventricular diastolic function in coronary heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brugger, P.; Laesser, W.K.; Kullich, W.; Stoiberer, I.; Klein, G.

    1985-06-01

    In 64 patients with coronary heart disease, the left ventricular diastolic function was determined by means of a new nuclear medical method (nuclear stethoscope). The investigations revealed an abnormal diastolic filling in 85.9% of the cases on the basis of the parameters peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate as manifestation of a disturbed ventricular function.

  15. Surgical Results and Outcomes After Reimplantation for the Management of Anomalous Aortic Origin of the Right Coronary Artery.

    PubMed

    Law, Timothy; Dunne, Ben; Stamp, Nikki; Ho, Kwok M; Andrews, David

    2016-07-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of the right coronary artery (AAORCA) has been reported to cause myocardial ischemia, leading to angina, dyspnea, and decreased exercise tolerance. Reimplantation is a repair technique devised to exclude the abnormal intramural portion of the anomalous artery and avoid the known late attrition of saphenous vein grafts. Our study aims to evaluate the medium-term clinical outcomes with this technique. A retrospective review was made of patients who underwent repair of AAORCA by reimplantation between 2002 and 2014 in two institutions in Western Australia. Follow-up computed tomography coronary angiography was used to assess the status of the reimplanted right coronary artery (RCA). Data on survival, freedom from symptoms, cardiac events, and cardiac interventions were also analyzed. Of the 16 patients (aged 17 to 70 years old), 14 (88%) were symptomatic before surgery, with angina (50%) and exertional dyspnea (56%) being the most common symptoms. Surgical reimplantation was successful in 15 patients (94%) without operative mortality. One patient required saphenous vein bypass grafting of the RCA intraoperatively after presumed failed repair and difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. All patients who had successful reimplantation of AAORCA were symptom-free after surgery, and none had subsequent cardiac events attributable to the RCA or required further interventions. Ten patients (67%) had computed tomography coronary angiography after surgery; none had stenosis, kinking, or compression of the RCA by the pulmonary artery. Two further patients (including the patient who underwent saphenous vein grafting for presumed failed reimplantation) underwent conventional angiography, which demonstrated patent reimplantations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of anomalous RCA managed by surgical reimplantation. Our results suggest that this technique is safe and has excellent medium to long-term results

  16. Effects of morphine on coronary and left ventricular dynamics in conscious dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, S F; Marsh, J D; Swain, J A

    1975-01-01

    We studied the effects of i.v. 2 mg/kg morphine sulfate (MS) on coronary blood flow and resistance, left ventricular (LV) diameter and pressure (P), rate of change of pressure (dP/dt), and dP/dt/P in conscious dogs. An initial transient reduction in coronary vascular resistance, associated with increases in heart rate, dP/dt, dP/dt/P, and reductions in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic size were observed. This was followed by a prolonged increase in mean coronary vascular resistance, lasting from 5 to 30 min, while heart rate, arterial pressure, and LV end-diastolic diameter returned to control levels and dP/dt/P remained slightly but significantly above control. At 10 min, late diastolic coronary flow had fallen from 44 plus or minus 3 ml/min to a minimum level of 25 plus or minus 3 ml/min, while late diastolic coronary resistance had risen from 1.68 plus or minus 0.10 to 3.04 plus or minus 0.28 mm Hg/ml/min. Morphine also induced substantial coronary vasoconstriction when heart rate was held constant. Neither the MS-induced coronary vasoconstriction nor the positive inotropic response was abolished by bilateral adrenalectomy. The positive inotropic response of MS was reversed after beta blockade, but not the coronary vasoconstriction. Alpha receptor blockade abolished the late coronary vasoconstriction effects of morphine, and only dilatation occurred. In anesthetized dogs MS failed to produce late coronary vasoconstriction. Coronary after a respiratory-depressant dose of morphine, 10 mg/kg i.v. Smaller doses of MS, 0.25 mg/kg every 15 min, produced significant coronary vasoconstriction after a total dose of 0.75 mg/kg in the conscious dogs. The effects of morphine may differ in the normal dog and man and may vary depending upon the presence or absence of coronary artery disease. However, in the normal conscious dog, MS elicits a mild beta adrenergic increase in contractility and an important coronary vasoconstrictor effect, which is mediated through alpha

  17. Unusual Combination of Total Occlusion of Left Main Coronary Artery and Heart Failure with Pulmonary Hemosiderosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Elayda, MacArthur A.; Mathur, Virendra S.; Hall, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A case of total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary hemosiderosis in a 54-year-old man is reported. Cardiac catheterization showed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, subtotal occlusion of the right coronary artery, severely deranged hemodynamics, and an akinetic left ventricle except for a hypokinetic posterobasal segment. A radionuclide left ventricular performance study revealed an ejection fraction of 0.16 with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis and dilatation. Despite all the risk factors, the patient underwent a total of six saphenous vein grafts without perioperative or immediate postoperative complications. Images PMID:15227138

  18. Bilateral vs single internal thoracic artery grafting for left main coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Otaki, M; Lust, R M; Sun, Y S; Norton, T O; Spence, P A; Zeri, R S; Hopson, S B; Chitwood, R

    1994-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the coronary flow distributed by single and bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts in the setting of the left main coronary occlusion. Ten dogs underwent coronary artery bypass grafting through a left thoracotomy, off pump, using a brief local occlusion to perform the anastomosis. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a single left ITA (LITA) graft to the circumflex coronary artery (CFX), or bilateral ITA grafts, with additional placement of the right ITA (RITA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). After the grafts were placed, the left main coronary artery was ligated. Electromagnetic flows were obtained in the LAD and the CFX proximally and distally to ITA grafts in both groups before grafting and after grafting. ITA flow in situ was also measured before rotation from the chest wall. Total left ventricular flow requirements were satisfied equally well by either a single LITA graft (116.7 +/- 11.6 mL/min) or bilateral ITA grafts (total, 116.8 +/- 9.6 mL/min divided as LITA, 55.9 +/- 7.4 mL/min; RITA, 60.9 +/- 12.0 mL/min). When two grafts were replaced, competitive flow in the proximal regions of both native vessels was noted, although basal flow requirements were maintained. When an individual graft was occluded in the bilaterally grafted system, the remaining graft immediately recruited the additional flow, demonstrating that either right or left ITA can support flow demands five to six times higher than in situ chest wall flow (RITA, 21.9 +/- 3.1 mL/min; LITA, 22.3 +/- 4.9 mL/min). These data suggest that in this canine model, a single ITA graft can support the entire flow requirements of the left ventricle. Assuming no intervening stenosis is present in native coronary systems, bilateral ITA grafting may provide a margin of safety, but under resting conditions, provides no perfusion advantages over a single ITA graft.

  19. Reflex responses to stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the left ventricle and coronary arteries in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    al-Timman, J K; Drinkhill, M J; Hainsworth, R

    1993-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that physiological increases in mean aortic root pressure, which change the pressure in both the coronary circulation and the left ventricle, result in reflex vasodilatation. This study was undertaken to attempt to localize the reflexogenic area mainly responsible for the reflex. 2. In anaesthetized, artificially ventilated dogs, cannulae connected to perfusion systems were inserted in the ascending aorta, left ventricular apex and left atrium. This allowed us to change the pressures in: (a) the aortic root including both the coronary arteries and the left ventricle; (b) aortic root and coronary arteries, at constant ventricular pressure; and (c) in the ventricle, with mean (although not pulse) aortic pressure constant. Aortic and carotid baroreceptors were perfused at constant pressure and reflex responses were determined from changes in perfusion pressures (flows constant) to a vascularly isolated hindlimb and to the remainder of the systemic circulation. 3. Combined changes in mean aortic root (coronary arterial) and ventricular systolic pressures consistently resulted in decreases in perfusion pressures. A change in only mean aortic root (coronary arterial) pressure, with ventricular pressure constant, also resulted in decreases in perfusion pressures and these were only a little smaller than those to the combined stimulus. Changes in ventricular systolic pressure resulted in responses averaging only about 30% of those to the combined stimulus. 4. Setting mean aortic root or ventricular systolic pressures at different levels did not affect the responses to changes in pressures in the other region. 5. These results show that physiological increases in pressure in the aortic root and coronary arteries, in the absence of changes in pressure in the left ventricle, cause reflex vasodilatation. The relatively small response occurring when ventricular pressure was changed could be due either to a contribution from ventricular receptors or to

  20. Left atrial myxoma, ruptured chordae tendinae causing mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Raj, Ravi; Jayant, Aveek; Kuthe, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation is uncommon with left atrial myxoma. The echocardiographic assessment of presence of mitral regurgitation and its severity are impaired by the presence of left atrial myxoma. We describe an uncommon association of left atrial myxoma with coronary artery disease and mitral regurgitation. MR was reported as mild on pre-operative transthoracic echocardiography but found to be severe due to ruptured chordae tendinae during intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography, which lead to change in the surgical plan to mitral valve replacement in addition to excision of myxoma.

  1. Congenital Giant Right Coronary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula and Congenital Left Main Coronary Artery Atresia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ya-Hui; Zou, Hai

    2016-02-01

    Both of congenital giant RCA, RCA to PA fistula, and CLMCA-A are one of exceedingly rare vascular abnormalities. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with multiple congenital coronary anomalies above, and a successful surgical intervention was proceeded for our patient.This is a case of a 34-year-old man presented with apical systolic murmur and exertional chest pain. Furthermore, a dilated left heart and abnormal pulmonary blood flow was observed in this patient. Coronary CTA and selective CAG showed a 15-mm diameter RCA with a fistula to pulmonary trunk and CLMCA-A. During cardiac surgery, the coronary abnormalities were confirmed and the outlet of the fistula was closed. After surgery, less chest pain, respiratory infection, and left heart failure were observed in this patient.This case illustrates that the surgery of closing the fistula between the giant RCA and pulmonary trunk could improve the symptoms and signs for this patient. It could be predicted that simplified operation could be a promising therapy for patient with giant RCA to PA fistula and CLMCA-A. Moreover, CABG should be taken full account of when myocardial ischemia was found in the blood-supply area of LAD.

  2. Strenuous Exercise Induced Syncope Due to Coronary Artery Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Veysel; Cetin, Nurulah; Tuncer, Esref; Dalgic, Onur; Taskin, Ugur; Bilge, Ali Riza; Tikiz, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are among the neglected topics in cardiology. Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right sinus of valsalva is a rare coronary anomaly observed in 0.15% of patients. During exercise, the distended aorta and pulmonary artery with increased blood flow may squeeze the Left Main Coronary Artery (LMCA) between them. Even though arrhythmias are common causes of syncope, one should also think about aberrant coronary artery in the patients with syncope of unexplained origin. Patients experiencing exercise induced syncope accompanied by symptoms of coronary ischemia (typically: chest pain, ischemic findings on ECG, and raised cardiac markers) should be referred to diagnostic coronary angiography. PMID:25177677

  3. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp.

  4. 010. Coronary artery bypass in prior left pneumonectomy postoperative use of iloprost

    PubMed Central

    Ignatiadis, Agisilaos; Ampatzidou, Fotini; Kechagioglou, George; Antoniou, Konstantinos; Michail, Nikolaos; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Sileli, Maria; Drossos, George

    2015-01-01

    Background The rare procedure of coronary artery bypass in a prior left pneumonectomy patient characterized by postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. Acute right heart failure due to anatomic and physiologic changes because of pneumonectomy is the most serious complication. It is very helpful to prevent this condition by reducing pulmonary vascular resistance index which represents the right heart afterload. In our case we have recorded the favorable hemodynamic effects of inhaled Iloprost. Methods A 60-year-old man presented to our department with acute coronary syndrome. He had undergone a left pneumonectomy nine years ago because of bronchial carcinoma. Coronary angiography, which was performed during acute coronary syndrome, revealed left main disease (70% stenosis) and 50% stenosis in right coronary artery. Pulmonary function tests revealed severe restrictive disease: forced vital capacity (FVC): 1.47 L (30% of predicted) and forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1: 1.41 L (25% of predicted). Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) procedure was successfully completed with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and patient was transferred in ICU. Patient’s inotropic support was 0.1 μg/kg/min Epinephrine and 0.06 μg/kg/min Noradrenaline. In the ICU, in order to avoid RV dysfunction the patient was ventilated with low tidal volume, Vt 6 mL/kg and with low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). He was under careful fluid balance. Hemodynamic profile revealed high values of PVRI. This undesirable high RV afterload was managed with inhaled Iloprost (prostacyclin analogue) because of its elective pulmonary vessels dilator properties. Results The patient was extubated 5 hours postoperatively. Postoperative vigorous chest physiotherapy and bronchodilation due to transient brochospasm contributed to the uncomplicated respiratory function. The patient discharged on 7th postop day. Conclusions CABG in postpneumonectomy patients is a challenging procedure. The use of selective

  5. Remodeling of left circumflex coronary arterial tree in pacing-induced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a very serious heart disease that manifests an imbalance between left ventricle supply and demand. Although the mechanical demand of the failing heart has been well characterized, the systematic remodeling of the entire coronary arterial tree that constitutes the supply of the myocardium is lacking. We hypothesize that the well-known increase in ventricle wall stress during CHF causes coronary vascular rarefaction to increase the vascular flow resistance, which in turn compromises the perfusion of the heart. Morphometric (diameters, length, and numbers) data of the swine left circumflex (LCx) arterial tree were measured in both CHF (n = 6) and control (n = 6) groups, from which a computer reconstruction of the entire LCx tree was implemented down to the capillary level to enable a hemodynamic analysis of coronary circulation. The vascular flow resistance was increased by ∼75% due to a significant decrease of vessel numbers (∼45%) and diameters in the first capillary segments (∼10%) of the LCx arterial tree after 3-4 wk of pacing. The structural remodeling significantly changed the wall shear stress in vessel segments of the entire LCx arterial tree of CHF animals. This study enhances our knowledge of coronary arterial tree remodeling in heart failure, which provides a deeper understanding of the deterioration of supply-demand relation in left ventricle. PMID:26159756

  6. Catheter-based anatomic and functional assessment of coronary arteries in anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery, myocardial bridges and Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Athar M; Agrawal, Hitesh

    2017-06-13

    Most diagnostic testing in patients with anomalous aortic origins of coronary arteries, myocardial bridges, and coronary artery changes after Kawasaki disease are performed with the use of noninvasive techniques. In some cases, however, further diagnostic information is needed to guide the clinician in treating these patients. In such instances, cardiac catheterization with invasive anatomic and functional testing is an invaluable tool. Moreover, interventional treatment in the cardiac catheterization laboratory may be performed in a small subset of these patients. As the diagnosis of these conditions is now becoming more common, it is important for pediatric interventional cardiologists to be familiar with these techniques. In this article, the role of angiography, intravascular ultrasound, fractional flow reserve, and optical coherence tomography in these patients is reviewed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Intrathoracic fire during preparation of the left internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A surgical fire is a serious complication not previously described in the literature with regard to the thoracic cavity. We report a case in which an intrathoracic fire developed following an air leak combined with high pressure oxygen ventilation in a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The patient presented to our institution with diffuse coronary artery disease and angina pectoris. He was treated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery, including left internal thoracic artery harvesting. Additionally to this rare presentation of an intrathoracic fire, a brief review of surgical fires is included to this paper. PMID:20219127

  8. [Treatment of compression of the left main coronary artery in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Talavera, María L; Diez, Mirta; Cáneva, Jorge O; Boughen, Roberto P; Valdivieso, León; Mendiz, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Chest pain is a frequent symptom in patients with pulmonary hypertension of any etiology. Its pathophysiology has not been clearly established, the proposed causes are ischemia due to increased right ventricle wall stress, transient increased pulmonary hypertension resulting in acute pulmonary artery dilatation and external compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) by a dilated pulmonary artery. We report and discuss here three cases where the association between chest pain and compression of the LMCA by a dilated pulmonary artery could be shown, and they were treated with coronary stenting.

  9. Traumatic coronary arteriovenous fistula communicating the left main coronary artery to pulmonary artery, associated with pulmonary valvular insufficiency and endocarditis: case report.

    PubMed

    Rangel, A; Badui, E; Verduzco, C; Valdespino, A; Enciso, R

    1990-02-01

    The authors present a case of a seventeen-year-old white male who suffered from a knife chest wound and secondarily developed a traumatic coronary arteriovenous fistula communicating the left main coronary artery to the pulmonary artery, associated with pulmonary valvular insufficiency and endocarditis.

  10. [Prognostic effect of diverse surgical parameters in significant stenoses of the left coronary trunk. Retrospective study of 185 cases].

    PubMed

    Rolle, F; Cornu, E; Lacroix, P; Bensaid, J; Christides, C; Laskar, M

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of 185 cases of left main coronary artery stenosis operated between 1980-01-01 and 1991-06-15 at the Limoges University Hospital Center was performed. The influence of operative procedures: cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping times, type and number of coronary grafts, time between coronary surgery and coronary angiography, on early (before the 30th days after surgery) and late postoperative vital prognosis was studied. This study confirms in our study the poor early postoperative prognosis of: 1) cardiopulmonary bypass time over 140 min; 2) coronary bypasses in an emergency context (surgery less than 24 h after coronary angiography); 3) incomplete coronary revascularization. The nature of grafts and the aortic cross clamping time have no influence. The actuarial survival studies confirm the poor long-term postoperative prognosis of incomplete coronary revascularization; the other surgical procedures have no influence.

  11. Hybrid Coronary Artery Revascularization for Takayasu Arteritis with Major Visceral Collateral Circulation from the Left Internal Thoracic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jeong-Won; Yoo, Jae Suk; Cho, Kwang Ree

    2017-01-01

    Coronary arterial involvement in Takayasu arteritis (TA) is not uncommon. Herein, we describe a case of TA with celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery occlusion combined with coronary artery disease. Bilateral huge internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) and the inferior mesenteric artery provided the major visceral collateral circulation. After percutaneous intervention to the right coronary artery, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for the left coronary territory was done using a right ITA graft and its large side branch because of its relatively minor contribution to the visceral collateral circulation. PMID:28382269

  12. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE MULTIVESSEL CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING VIA SMALL LEFT THORACOTOMY].

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Taichi

    2016-03-01

    Although a minithoracotomy approach has several advantages over a sternotomy approach in terms of superior cosmesis and faster recovery, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) via sternotomy has been the gold standard for revascularization in multivessel coronary artery disease. Recently, nonsternotomy approaches, including the minimally invasive cardiac surgery CABG (MICS-CABG) via small left thoracotomy, have emerged as safe, effective alternatives. Excellent clinical results have been reported including equivalent mid-term graft patency as compared with a sternotomy approach. Successful use of bilateral internal thoracic arteries in MICS-CABG has also been reported. Although the durability of this approach and its impact on long-term survival have yet to be confirmed, and there is a certain technical learning curve, MICS-CABG will be one important option to treat multivessel coronary artery disease.

  13. Coronary-Cameral Fistula Connecting the Left Anterior Descending Artery and the First Obtuse Marginal Artery to the Left Ventricle: A Rare Finding

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arshad Ameer; Qureshi, Ghazanfar; Balakrishna, Pragathi

    2017-01-01

    Coronary-cameral fistulas are rare congenital malformations, often incidentally found during cardiac catheterizations. The majority of these fistulas are congenital in nature but can be acquired secondary to trauma or invasive cardiac procedures. These fistulas most commonly originate in the right coronary artery and terminate into the right ventricle and least frequently drain into the left ventricle. Depending upon their size and location, coronary-cameral fistulas can lead to congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and bacterial endocarditis. We describe a case of 49-year-old woman who presented with worsening exertional dyspnea and leg swelling. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed an ejection fraction of 35%. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a fistula connecting the left anterior descending artery and the first obtuse marginal artery to the left ventricle. In this report, the authors provide a concise review on coronary fistulas, complications, and management options. PMID:28194284

  14. Successful recanalization of a left circumflex artery jailed with a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent after coronary perforation during stent implantation in the left main bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Norimasa; Takahashi, Akihiko; Mizuguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Takeshi; Hata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    An 88-year-old woman underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat circulatory collapse with severe stenosis in the distal left main coronary artery (LMCA). After 3.5/18-mm stent deployment from the LMCA to the left anterior descending artery (LAD), coronary perforation occurred in the LAD ostium. Therefore, we implanted a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent crossing over the left circumflex artery (LCX), and achieved successful hemostasis. Additional PCI was undertaken to recanalize the LCX. A Confienza 8-20 guidewire was able to penetrate the wall of the PTFE-covered stent, and coronary flow was successfully recovered after deployment of a 2.5/8-mm stent in the proximal LCX.

  15. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the left subclavian artery to prevent or treat the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marques, K M; Ernst, S M; Mast, E G; Bal, E T; Suttorp, M J; Plokker, H W

    1996-09-15

    A hemodynamic significant left subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion proximal to the origin of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) can result in an impaired or reversed flow through the LIMA and the coronary artery to which it has been anastomosed. In this study, we report on our immediate and long-term follow-up results in 31 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of the left subclavian artery shortly before or after coronary artery bypass grafting with use of the LIMA.

  16. Left ventricular lead placement in the latest activated region guided by coronary venous electroanatomic mapping.

    PubMed

    Rad, Masih Mafi; Blaauw, Yuri; Dinh, Trang; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) lead placement in the latest activated region is an important determinant of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We investigated the feasibility of coronary venous electroanatomic mapping (EAM) to guide LV lead placement to the latest activated region. Twenty-five consecutive CRT candidates with left bundle-branch block underwent intra-procedural coronary venous EAM using EnSite NavX. A guidewire was used to map the coronary veins during intrinsic activation, and to test for phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS). The latest activated region, defined as the region with an electrical delay >75% of total QRS duration, was located anterolaterally in 18 (basal, n = 10; mid, n = 8) and inferolaterally in 6 (basal, n = 3; mid, n = 3). In one patient, identification of the latest activated region was impeded by limited coronary venous anatomy. In patients with >1 target vein (n = 12), the anatomically targeted inferolateral vein was rarely the vein with maximal electrical delay (n = 3). A concordant LV lead position was achieved in 18 of 25 patients. In six patients, this was hampered by PNS (n = 4), lead instability (n = 1), and coronary vein stenosis (n = 1). Coronary venous EAM can be used intraprocedurally to guide LV lead placement to the latest activated region free of PNS. This approach especially contributes to optimization of LV lead electrical delay in patients with multiple target veins. Conventional anatomical LV lead placement strategy does not target the vein with maximal electrical delay in many of these patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Left ventricular dysfunction causing ischemia in patients with patent coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thach; Do, Hoang; Pham, Tri; Vu, Loc T; Zuin, Marco; Rigatelli, Gianluca

    2017-08-01

    New onset of heart failure (HF) is an indication for the assessment of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanistic causes of new onset HF associated with ischemic electrocardiograph (EKG) changes and chest pain in patients with patent or minimally diseased coronary arteries. Twenty consecutive patients (Group A) were retrospectively reviewed if they had an history of new onset of HF, chest pain, electrocardiographic changes indicating ischemia (ST depression or T wave inversion in at least two consecutive leads and a negative coronary angiogram [CA]) and did not require percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. A 1:1 matched cohort (Group B) was adopted to validate the results. All patients had a negative CA. The majority of subjects in Group A had a higher left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) when compared to the control group (p<0.05). Similarly, the aortic diastolic (AOD) pressure was lower in Group A than in Group B (p<0.05). In patients with elevated LVEDP and low AOD, with a coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) <20 mmHg, deep T wave inversion in two consecutive leads were more frequently observed. When the CPP was between 20-30 mmHg, a mild ST depression were more frequently recorded (p<0.05). Conversely, when the CPP was >30 mmHg, only mild non-specific ST-T changes or normal EKG were observed. In patients with HF and EKG changes suggestive of ischemia in at least two consecutive leads, a lower AOD could aggravate ischemia in patients with elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure.

  18. [Ligation of the left coronary artery ostium in its origin from the pulmonary trunk].

    PubMed

    Fal'kovskiĭ, G E; Aleksi-Meskhishvili, V V; Berishvili, I I

    1980-02-01

    Operation was performed on 8 patients whose left coronary artery arose from the pulmonary artery; one of the patients was operated on twice. Three patients had been operated on twice before 1972, the operation in all of them consisted in talcum suspension insufflation into the pericardium. The results of these operations were poor. Operation for ligation of the orifice of the left coronary artery was conducted on 6 patients (including one with the ineffective talcum suspension insufflation into the pericardium). All patients who were operated on at the age of over one year survived. In children of the first year of life with a low ejection fraction and absence of expulsion on the level of the pulmonary artery the results of surgery were poor.

  19. Coronary flow reserve in the remote myocardium predicts left ventricular remodeling following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rongchao; Wei, Guoqian; Yu, Longhao; Su, Zhendong; Wei, Li; Bai, Xiuping; Tian, Jiawei; Li, Xueqi

    2014-07-01

    Coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the non-infarcted myocardium is often impaired following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the clinical significance of CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to assess whether a relationship exists between CFR and left ventricular remodeling following AMI. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients undergoing coronary intervention. Heart function was analyzed using real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography at one week and six months after coronary angioplasty. Ten subjects were enrolled as the control group and were examined using the same method at the same time to assess CFR. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels were routinely analyzed to estimate peak concentration. CFR was 1.55±0.11 in the infarcted zone and 2.05±0.31 in the remote zone (p<0.01) at one week following AMI. According to CFR values in the remote zone, all patients were divided into two groups: Group I (CFR <2.05) and Group II (CFR >2.05). The levels of cTnI were higher in Group I compared to Group II on admission (36.40 vs. 21.38, p<0.05). Furthermore, left ventricular end diastolic volume was higher in Group I compared to Group II at six months following coronary angioplasty. Microvascular dysfunction is commonly observed in the remote myocardium. The CFR value accurately predicts adverse ventricular remodeling following AMI.

  20. [Clinical profile and treatment of left main coronary artery disease in a real-world practice].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V A; Bessonov, I S; Zyrianov, I P; Samoĭlova, E P; Gorbatenko, E A; Ignatov, D I

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to assess clinical profile, treatment and long-term results in patients with left main coronary artery disease in a real-world practice. 225 cases were analyzed. Long-term results were evaluated from 213 (97.7%) patients. Median follow-up period was 49 months. Fifty two (23.9%) patients received nonsurgical treatment, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed in 106 (48.6%) patients, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in 60 (27.5%) patients. Patients of nonsurgical group had more severe clinical profile compared with PCI group. There was no differences between nonsurgical and CABG groups as well as between CABG and PCI groups in clinical profile. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event rate was higher in nonsurgical group. There was no difference between CABG and PCI groups. Survival in CABG and PCI groups was higher compared with nonsurgical group. Survival effect of revascularization was observed immediately (before 6 months) and continued long-term (more than 60 months). Revascularization was independent predictor of improved long-term survival. After diagnosis of left main coronary artery stenosis PCI was performed more quickly than CABG.

  1. Left subclavian artery stenting: an option for the treatment of the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Bruno Lorenção; Kambara, Antonio Massamitsu; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; de Oliveira, Eduardo Silva Jordao; Linhares Filho, Frederico Augusto de Carvalho; Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Passalacqua, Aldo Zampieri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The subclavian steal syndrome is characterized by the vertebral artery flow inversion, due to a stenotic lesion in the origin of the subclavian artery. The Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome is a variation of the Subclavian Steal Syndrome and is characterized by inversion of flow in the Internal Thracic artery that has been used as conduct in a myocardial revascularization. Its diagnosis must be suspected in patients with difference in pulse and arterial pressure in the upper limbs, that present with angina pectoris and that have done a myocardial revascularization. Its treatment must be a surgical bypass or a transluminal angioplasty. Objective The objective is to show the left subclavian artery stenting as a safe and effective method to treat the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Methods Historical prospective, non-randomized trial, through revision of the hospital records of the patients treated with the stenting of the left subclavian artery, from January 2006 to September 2012. Results In the mentioned period, 4.291 miocardial revascularizations were performed with the use of the left mammary artery, and 16 patients were identified to have the Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. All of them were submitted to endovascular treatment. The success rate was 100%; two patients experienced minor complications; none of them presented with major complications. Eleven of the 16 patients had ultrassonographic documentation of patent stent for at least one year; two patients lost follow up and other two died. Conclusion The stenting of the left subclavian artery is a good option for the treatment of the Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome, with high level of technical and clinical success. PMID:25140474

  2. Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Through the Left Radial Artery is Associated with Less Vascular Complications than Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Through the Femoral Artery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guoqing; Sun, Qi; Xia, Yue; Wei, Liye

    2017-01-01

    To compare the advantages and disadvantages of emergency percutaneous coronary intervention through the left radial artery with those of emergency percutaneous coronary intervention through the femoral artery. A total of 206 patients with acute myocardial infarction who required emergency percutaneous coronary intervention and were admitted to our hospital between January 2011 and August 2013 were divided into the following two groups: a group that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention through the left radial artery and a group that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention through the femoral artery. The times required for angiographic catheter and guiding catheter placement, the success rate of the procedure and the incidence of vascular complications in the two groups were observed. There was no significant difference in catheter placement time or the ultimate success rate of the procedure between the two groups. However, the left radial artery group showed a significantly lower incidence of vascular complications than the femoral artery group (p<0.05). Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention through the left radial artery is associated with less vascular complications than emergency percutaneous coronary intervention through the femoral artery and is thus potentially advantageous for patients.

  3. Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Through the Left Radial Artery is Associated with Less Vascular Complications than Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Through the Femoral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Guoqing; Sun, Qi; Xia, Yue; Wei, Liye

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the advantages and disadvantages of emergency percutaneous coronary intervention through the left radial artery with those of emergency percutaneous coronary intervention through the femoral artery. METHODS: A total of 206 patients with acute myocardial infarction who required emergency percutaneous coronary intervention and were admitted to our hospital between January 2011 and August 2013 were divided into the following two groups: a group that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention through the left radial artery and a group that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention through the femoral artery. The times required for angiographic catheter and guiding catheter placement, the success rate of the procedure and the incidence of vascular complications in the two groups were observed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in catheter placement time or the ultimate success rate of the procedure between the two groups. However, the left radial artery group showed a significantly lower incidence of vascular complications than the femoral artery group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention through the left radial artery is associated with less vascular complications than emergency percutaneous coronary intervention through the femoral artery and is thus potentially advantageous for patients. PMID:28226025

  4. Myocardial Ischemia Caused by a Coronary Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mustafa; Ozeren, Ali; Peksoy, Irfan; Cabuk, Mehmet; Bilge, Mehmet; Dursun, Aydin; Elbey, Mehmet Ali

    2004-01-01

    We present the case of a patient in whom a previously undetected anomalous origin of the circumflex coronary artery caused myocardial ischemia and led to positive myocardial scintigraphic results. Subsequent coronary angiography showed that the left circumflex coronary artery arose from the right coronary ostium—an anomaly that has been associated with chest discomfort—without atherosclerotic lesions. The peripheral distribution of the left circumflex artery was normal. We describe the clinical and angiographic findings in our patient and discuss the relationship between coronary artery anomalies and ischemia. PMID:15562848

  5. Gigantic coronary sinus associated with concurrent persistent left superior vena cava and right ventricular volume overload.

    PubMed

    Krim, Selim R; Jiang, Aibo F; Vivo, Rey P; Little, Stephen H; Chang, Su Min

    A 76-year-old women with known atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure presented with increasing shortness of breath. A 2-dimensional (2-D) transthoracic echocardiogram was performed to assess left ventricular function. An incidental finding of a very large coronary sinus with a diameter of 4.8 cm was seen, raising a suspicion for the possibility of a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) (Figure 1). Additional pertinent positive findings included a massively dilated right atrium (estimated volume: 538 mL), dilated tricuspid annulus with poor leaflet coaptation, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) of 50 mmHg with an estimated mean right atrial pressure (RAP) of 25 mmHg. After agitated saline administration into the left brachial vein, there was immediate and sequential opacification of the dilated coronary sinus, right atrium, and right ventricle, confirming the presence of a PLSVC (Figure 2). CT angiography provided detailed anatomical and morphological characterization demonstrating drainage of the PLSVC into the gigantic coronary sinus and right-sided cardiac chambers and absence of other vascular or congenital anomaly (Figures 3 and 4).

  6. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting versus stenting for patients with proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kazuyuki; Lansky, Alexandra J; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George D; Costantini, Costantino O; Fahy, Martin; Slack, Steven; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W; Leon, Martin B

    2004-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of stenting and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) in patients with proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery disease. The Patency, Outcome, Economics of Minimally invasive direct coronary bypass (POEM) study demonstrated that MIDCAB had similar safety and long-term efficacy for LAD revascularization compared with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting. Although LAD stenting is superior to conventional balloon angioplasty, whether it is comparable to MIDCAB is not known. We identified a matched population of 429 consecutive patients with 1-vessel disease who underwent elective proximal LAD stenting and compared their clinical outcomes with those of the 152 patients in the MIDCAB group of the POEM study. The in-hospital event rate was similar in both groups, except for a shorter length of hospital stay with LAD stenting compared with MIDCAB (2.68 vs 4.07 days, p <0.0001). At 6-month follow-up, the incidence of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction or that of cerebrovascular accident was not significantly different between these 2 groups. However, target vessel revascularization was significantly higher with LAD stenting than MIDCAB (13.3% vs 6.6%, p = 0.045). In the subgroup of patients without diabetes, all clinical events were similar in both groups, and the benefit of a shorter hospital stay associated with stenting was maintained. Compared with MIDCAB, LAD stenting is associated with higher repeat revascularization rates but offers the advantage of shorter hospitalization. For nondiabetics with proximal LAD disease, stenting may be the revascularization strategy of choice.

  7. Highland mountain hiking and coronary artery disease: exercise tolerance and effects on left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Huonker, M; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Sorichter, S; Irmer, M; Dürr, H; Lehmann, M; Keul, J

    1997-12-01

    Physical exercise has become a well-established concept in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. We investigated the exercise requirements of extensive highland mountain hiking (8.7 km, 470 m to 1220 m over sea level, average incline 8.5%, mean walking velocity < 3 km x h-1) in 11 regularly exercising male patients with history of MI and stable coronary artery disease (CAD; mean age +/- SD:61.0 +/- 3.9 yr) and 9 age-matched male healthy controls (CO; mean age +/- SD:61.2 +/- 5.0 yr). All subjects underwent continuous ECG monitoring; arterial blood pressure and blood lactate concentrations were measured several times during mountain hiking. Before and after exercise, cardiac dimensions and functions were assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler echocardiography. The mean exercise levels for heart rate and blood lactate were compared with the corresponding data of a multistage upright cycle ergometry. Clinical manifestations of coronary insufficiency, left ventricular myocardial dysfunction, or cardiac arrhythmias > Lown IIIb were not observed in any case. No significant differences in left atrial and left ventricular dimensions and no changes in systolic left ventricular function compared with the preexercise values were found after the mountain hike tour. Doppler echocardiography demonstrated significant changes in diastolic left ventricular function in CAD, but not in CO. The peak exercise intensity during mountain hiking was equivalent to a workload of 100-125 W (1.25-1.5 W x kg-1 body weight) in a multistage upright cycle ergometry. Extensive highland mountain hiking may be a low risk alternative within the outpatient rehabilitation program for secondary prevention of CAD for MI patients with a cycle ergometric exercise tolerance > 1.5 W x kg-1 body weight.

  8. Fatal delayed cardiac tamponade due to rupture of micropseudoaneurysm of left anterior descending coronary artery following stab to the chest.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jingjun; Li, Shangxun; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Duan, Yijie; Li, Wenhe; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic coronary pseudoaneurysm has been described to be mainly associated to iatrogenic lesion of the coronary arteries. However, chest-stab-wound-related coronary pseudoaneurysm caused by isolated partial incision of a coronary artery giving rise to fatal delayed cardiac tamponade is very rare. We describe an autopsy case in which this potentially fatal complication developed 8 days later after a thoracic stab wound. Unfortunately, the imaging examination failed to detect this defect during hospitalization. Postmortem examination revealed that the posterior wall of the left anterior descending coronary artery was intact but that the anterior wall was incised, forming a micropseudoaneurysm which had ruptured. This case highlights that isolated coronary artery injuries must be considered in any patient with a penetrating wound to the thorax, and coronary pseudoaneurysms should not be missed in these patients.

  9. Tetralogy of fallot with left heart hypoplasia, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and right lung hypoplasia: role of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Festa, P; Lamia, A-A; Murzi, B; Bini, M R

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of tetralogy of Fallot with total anomalous pulmonary venous return, left heart hypoplasia, right lung hypoplasia, and left ocular-mandibular synchinesia (Marcus-Gunn phenomenon), correctly diagnosed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and successfully operated by modified Glenn anastomosis.

  10. Transcatheter Coil Embolization of a Coronary Artery-Left Ventricular Fistula Associated with Single Coronary Artery Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ozlem Ozcan; Canbay, Alper; Diker, Erdem; Çil, Barbaros; Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Single coronary artery anomaly associated with coronary fistula is a rare entity. Transcatheter coil embolization is the treatment of choice for coronary artery fistulas. In this case report, we describe a patient with both single coronary artery anomaly and coronary fistula who was successfully treated with coil embolization. PMID:24744954

  11. Transmural differences in myocardial function and metabolism during direct left ventricular to coronary artery sourcing.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Sandra; Borst, Cornelius; Verlaan, Cees W J; Gründeman, Paul F

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that in the absence of collateral circulation, a left ventricle-coronary artery (LV-CA) bypass will maintain normal LV wall function and metabolism transmurally, both at rest and during stress, when the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is acutely occluded proximally. In 18 anesthetized pigs (74 +/- 7 kg, mean +/- standard deviation), a covered stent was placed transmurally in the lateral wall of the beating LV and connected to the proximal LAD via an arterial graft. Subepicardial and subendocardial segmental shortening as well as interstitial lactate and glucose concentrations were measured regionally by sonomicrometry and microdialysis, respectively. When the LAD was occluded proximally, direct left ventricular sourcing decreased the net LAD flow to 64 +/- 25% of the native flow (n = 18, all animals). In the subepicardium, systolic shortening (SS) decreased to 87 +/- 18% of baseline (p = 0.124), with the appearance of minor postsystolic shortening (PSS), and minor changes in interstitial lactate and glucose levels. In the subendocardium, in contrast, SS decreased to 54 +/- 20% (p = 0.001). Marked PSS concurred with a sixfold increase in lactate (p = 0.008), and a 65 +/- 31% decrease in glucose (p = 0.003), indicating subendocardial anaerobic metabolism. Stress induced by infusion of dobutamine increased lactate and decreased glucose concentration in the subepicardium to subendocardial levels, indicating transmural anaerobic metabolism. In the anesthetized pig, direct sourcing by a LV-CA bypass distal to an acute coronary occlusion resulted in a 36% decrease in net forward coronary flow, subendocardial anaerobic metabolism, and loss of subendocardial contractile function at rest. These adverse effects extended into the subepicardium when the heart was stressed.

  12. Everolimus-Eluting Stents or Bypass Surgery for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Sabik, Joseph F; Serruys, Patrick W; Simonton, Charles A; Généreux, Philippe; Puskas, John; Kandzari, David E; Morice, Marie-Claude; Lembo, Nicholas; Brown, W Morris; Taggart, David P; Banning, Adrian; Merkely, Béla; Horkay, Ferenc; Boonstra, Piet W; van Boven, Ad J; Ungi, Imre; Bogáts, Gabor; Mansour, Samer; Noiseux, Nicolas; Sabaté, Manel; Pomar, José; Hickey, Mark; Gershlick, Anthony; Buszman, Pawel; Bochenek, Andrzej; Schampaert, Erick; Pagé, Pierre; Dressler, Ovidiu; Kosmidou, Ioanna; Mehran, Roxana; Pocock, Stuart J; Kappetein, A Pieter

    2016-12-08

    Patients with obstructive left main coronary artery disease are usually treated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomized trials have suggested that drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to CABG in selected patients with left main coronary disease. We randomly assigned 1905 eligible patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity to undergo either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). Anatomic complexity was assessed at the sites and defined by a Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of 32 or lower (the SYNTAX score reflects a comprehensive angiographic assessment of the coronary vasculature, with 0 as the lowest score and higher scores [no upper limit] indicating more complex coronary anatomy). The primary end point was the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years, and the trial was powered for noninferiority testing of the primary end point (noninferiority margin, 4.2 percentage points). Major secondary end points included the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days and the rate of a composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years. Event rates were based on Kaplan-Meier estimates in time-to-first-event analyses. At 3 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 15.4% of the patients in the PCI group and in 14.7% of the patients in the CABG group (difference, 0.7 percentage points; upper 97.5% confidence limit, 4.0 percentage points; P=0.02 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.26; P=0.98 for superiority). The secondary end-point event of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days occurred in 4.9% of the

  13. Acute changes of left ventricular hemodynamics and function during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Mi; Ahn, Chul-Min; Hong, Soon-Jun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Shim, Wan-Joo; Lim, Do-Sun

    2015-07-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) are increasingly being used to treat unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) lesions. However, research is sparse on the acute changes of left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and function during PCI in patients with ULMCA stenosis. We aimed to assess the acute changes of LV function using speckle-tracking imaging during PCI in these patients. Fifteen consecutive patients who underwent elective PCI for ULMCA stenosis were enrolled. Echocardiographic studies and pressure measurement were performed at baseline, during PCI and after PCI. LMCA occlusion with a first balloon inflation induced a marked reduction in the peak positive derivative of LV pressure (dP/dt max), LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), and systolic and diastolic strain rates, and a marked increase in LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) (all P < 0.01). During the second inflation, the degrees of LV hemodynamic and functional changes were similar to those of the first inflation, even with a higher inflation pressure. During the third inflation, the values of GLS and dP/dt max were higher than those of the second inflation (P = 0.03 and P = 0.05, respectively). After optimal PCI, dP/dt max, LVEDP, and strain parameters were improved to baseline values. LV hemodynamics and function were considerably impaired with the first ballooning during PCI for ULMCA stenosis. However, the degrees of LV hemodynamic and functional changes decreased with each successive balloon inflation, which can be explained by ischemic preconditioning. After all procedures were safely completed, LV systolic function was improved without LV diastolic stunning.

  14. Coronary artery disease detection - limitations of stress testing in left ventricular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bomb, Ritin; Kumar, Senthil; Chockalingam, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Incidental diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVD) is common in clinical practice. The prevalence of asymptomatic LVD (Ejection Fraction, EF < 50%) is 6.0% in men and 0.8% in women and is twice as common as symptomatic LVD. The timely and definitive exclusion of an ischemic etiology is central to optimizing care and reducing mortality in LVD. Advances in cardiovascular imaging provide many options for imaging of patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Clinician experience, patient endurance, imaging modality characteristics, cost and safety determine the choice of testing. In this review, we have compared the diagnostic utility of established tests - nuclear and echocardiographic stress testing with newer techniques like coronary computerized tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and highlight their inherent limitations in patients with underlying left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:28515848

  15. Coronary artery disease detection - limitations of stress testing in left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bomb, Ritin; Kumar, Senthil; Chockalingam, Anand

    2017-04-26

    Incidental diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVD) is common in clinical practice. The prevalence of asymptomatic LVD (Ejection Fraction, EF < 50%) is 6.0% in men and 0.8% in women and is twice as common as symptomatic LVD. The timely and definitive exclusion of an ischemic etiology is central to optimizing care and reducing mortality in LVD. Advances in cardiovascular imaging provide many options for imaging of patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Clinician experience, patient endurance, imaging modality characteristics, cost and safety determine the choice of testing. In this review, we have compared the diagnostic utility of established tests - nuclear and echocardiographic stress testing with newer techniques like coronary computerized tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and highlight their inherent limitations in patients with underlying left ventricular dysfunction.

  16. Anomalous origin of the left subclavian artery from the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Ugurlucan, Murat; Arslan, Ahmet Hulisi; Besikci, Resmiye Tore; Karadeniz, Oktay; Ay, Sibel; Yildiz, Yahya; Cicek, Sertac

    2014-02-01

    Isolated left subclavian artery from the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital cardiovascular malformation. In this report, we present the images of ascending aortic aneurysm and left subclavian artery originating from the pulmonary artery in a 4-year-old girl in addition to her congenital cardiac pathology.

  17. Extracardiac to coronary anastomoses support regional left ventricular function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Unger, E F; Shou, M; Sheffield, C D; Hodge, E; Jaye, M; Epstein, S E

    1993-05-01

    Intramyocardial implantation of a systemic artery [the internal mammary artery (IMA)] causes angiogenesis, with formation of systemic to coronary anastomoses. In dogs, we assessed the magnitude of IMA-derived nutritive flow and determined its influence on regional contraction. We also sought to determine whether acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), an angiogenic peptide, could enhance myocardial neovascularization. Ameroid constrictors and hydraulic balloon occluders were placed on the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of 23 dogs, and the left IMA was implanted in the LAD territory. Dogs were randomized to receive continuous infusions of acidic FGF with heparin, heparin alone, or placebo directly into the IMA for 8 wk. Regional myocardial blood flow was assessed in the conscious state 3 days and 8 wk after operation. Left ventricular function was determined in the anesthetized state at the 8-wk conclusion of treatment. In all dogs, IMA occlusion reduced mean maximal LAD zone perfusion by 28% (P < 0.001), without influencing regional contraction. When IMA occlusion was superimposed on left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) occlusion, LAD zone perfusion declined by 34% (relative to LCX occlusion alone), significantly impairing regional contraction. Treatment with either acidic FGF plus heparin or heparin alone improved IMA-derived collateral flow; however, addition of acidic FGF to heparin afforded no additional advantage over heparin by itself. We conclude that acidic FGF did not enhance myocardial angiogenesis in this model. IMA-derived collateral flow has significant functional importance; however, it is evident in the dog only when other sources of collateral flow are compromised.

  18. Transcatheter Embolization of Bronchial Artery Arising from Left Circumflex Coronary Artery in a Patient with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jaemin; Shin, Taebeom Jun, Kyeongneo; Ryoo, Jaeuk; Choi, Hocheol; Choi, Bongryeong; Hwang, Jinyong

    2010-02-15

    It has been reported that anastomoses between the bronchial and the coronary arteries can become dilated and functional in certain diseases, provoking angina pectoris through coronary steal syndrome. The condition can be treated with endovascular or surgical management. It is possible that this abnormality may be associated with hemoptysis in patients with parenchymal or vascular disease of the lung but this condition is very rare. We present the coronary CT angiographic findings of bronchial arteries arising from the left coronary artery and their treatment with transcatheter embolization for the control of massive hemoptysis.

  19. Time-dependent coronary blood flow distribution in left ventricular wall.

    PubMed

    Beyar, R; Sideman, S

    1987-02-01

    A mathematical model of the coronary circulation in the left ventricular (LV) wall, which describes the time-dependent local blood perfusion throughout the myocardium and the coronary flow in the epicardial vessels, is presented. The myocardial perfusion is essentially controlled by the intramyocardial resistance and the coronary pressure driving force, whereas the epicardial arterial flow is dominated by the epicardial and intramyocardial arterial capacitance and the local transmural pressure on the vessels. The temporal and spatial intramural pressure [P im(y,t)], calculated based on a nested-shell spheroidal model of the LV, is used to evaluate the local intramural resistance to flow and the corresponding zero flow pressure. The calculation of the instantaneous flow in each layer is based on a local, time-dependent modification of the back-pressure concept. A function representing the local tonus of the small blood vessels [T wf(y)] is used to adjust the average coronary flow rate to the metabolic demand of each layer. The calculated results are compared with experimental data, and the assumptions of the model are examined against a variety of experimental conditions. The model provides a qualitative tool for comprehending the distributed flow phenomenon within the myocardium and its relation to cardiac mechanics and autoregulation.

  20. Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery

    SciTech Connect

    Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-08-01

    Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%.

  1. Left distal transradial access in the anatomical snuffbox for coronary angiography (ldTRA) and interventions (ldTRI).

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2017-09-20

    The aim of this technical report is to demonstrate the feasibility of the left distal transradial approach for patients in whom left radial access is preferred over right radial access for coronary angiography and interventions. This procedure is more convenient for the operator. For the right-handed patient, the left radial access is more convenient because of the free use of the right hand after the procedure. In addition, this technique reduces the chance of radial artery occlusion at the site of the distal forearm. Coronary access via the left distal radial artery at the anatomical snuffbox allows comfortable positioning of the dorsal side of the patient's left hand near the right groin. The operator can puncture the artery and perform the coronary cannulation at a safe distance from the radiation source and without the need to bend over the patient. This technique will be described in detail. Procedural and clinical results in the first 70 patients are described. Out of 118 consecutive patients assigned to the author's operation programme, 70 patients were considered suitable for left distal radial access. There were eight procedural failures, requiring crossover to traditional right radial or left radial approach. All other procedures were successful, without major discomfort for the patient and operator. No radial artery occlusions at the site of the forearm were encountered. Left distal transradial coronary access via the anatomical snuffbox, as default technique for patients who need or prefer left radial access over right radial access, deserves further exploration.

  2. Total revascularization for an epsilon right coronary artery and severe left main disease combined with profound cardiogenic shock

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hsiu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Chieh; Wu, Chiung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Severe left main disease combined with right coronary artery occlusion was rarely encountered in our daily practice. Percutaneous coronary intervention in these patients was most challenging due to high probability of hemodynamic changes. Patient Concerns: Here, we report a 67-year-old man with Non–ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) and profound cardiogenic shock and we attempted coronary intervention with total revisualization for severe left main (LM) disease and angulated epsilon right coronary artery total occlusion. He was treated successfully under intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Diagnoses: NSTEMI and profound cardiogenic shock. Interventions: Coronary intervention with total revisualization was performed for severe LM disease and angulated epsilon right coronary artery total occlusion under IABP and ECMO support. Outcomes: IABP and ECMO were removed until cardiac contractile function improved to left ventricular ejection fraction over 40 percentage 1 week later. The patient was discharged after 2 months and had survival for 5 years. Lessons: Coronary intervention could be performed safely in this cardiogenic shock patient with severe LM and triple vessel disease who was supported by IABP and ECMO. Stent deployment for extremely angulated coronary artery was required multiple combination techniques to facilitate the final success. PMID:27977615

  3. Correlation of coronary artery stenosis evaluation with left heart structure and function by multi-slice computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Song, L N; Cao, A D; Niu, Y J; Liu, N

    2014-08-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) evaluation of coronary artery stenosis on left heart structure and systolic function. Coronary artery CT angiography was performed in 200 patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and then according to the AHA coronary artery 17-segment fractionation method, the Gensini score (GS) was determined for every narrow segment, and one-stop assessment of the correlation between left heart structure and function was performed. After the grouping of GS quartiles from low to high, there were differences between different patients with regard to LVDD, LADD, LVEDV, LVESV, MM, LVEF, and FS, while no difference in SV and CO. GS showed linear negative correlation with LVEF and FS, and linear positive correlation with LVDD, LADD, LVEDV, LVESV, and MM, while no correlation with SV and CO. That is, GS of coronary artery stenosis was negatively correlated with left ventricular systolic function and positively correlated with myocardial mass. The narrower the coronary artery, the worse the cardiac function and the higher the myocardial hypertrophy. Coronary artery stenosis was one of the important causes of the decrease in left ventricular systolic function and cardiac remodeling.

  4. Anomalous Origin of the Left Vertebral Artery from the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Evan H.; Song, Linda H.; Villela, Natalia L. A.; Fasani-Feldberg, Gregory B.; Jacobs, Jonathan L.; Kim, Dolly O.; Nathawat, Akshay; Patel, Devika; Bender, Roger B.; Peters, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomic anomalies of the aortic arch have implications for clinical practice if their significance is understood. Our case study involves a cadaveric finding of the left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch. Although this anatomical variation has been documented, the prevalence of this anomaly may be generally underestimated. After noting this anomaly, we analyzed 27 cases and found that four female cadavers had the left vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch rather than the left subclavian artery. With a prevalence rate of 14.8%, it would seem that this anomaly is more significant than previously thought, which could have implications for surgical practice. PMID:27757404

  5. Chronic altitude plus carbon monoxide exposure causes left ventricular hypertrophy but an attenuation of coronary capillarity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonagh, P.F.; Reynolds, J.M.; McGrath, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the nature of the cardiomegaly and coronary capillarity changes that occur with chronic hypoxia plus carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, F-344 rats (64-69 days old) were exposed to simulated altitude (18,000 ft) and four doses of CO (0, 50, 100, and 500 ppm) for six weeks. Left (LVT) and right (RVT) ventricular thickness and total coronary capillary density (LV Caps) were measured from sections of KCl-arrested hearts. Heart weight: Body weight ratios (HW:BW) were also calculated. Thus, altitude alone caused RV hypertrophy and an increase in LV Caps. Altitude plus CO attenuated the capillarity increase and caused further thickening of the LV but not the RV, suggesting concentric LV hypertrophy due to CO.

  6. Stenting of "unprotected" left main coronary artery stenoses: early and late results.

    PubMed

    Laruelle, C J; Brueren, G B; Ernst, S M; Bal, E T; Mast, G E; Suttorp, M J; Brutel de la Rivière, A; Plokker, T H

    1998-02-01

    To assess short and long term efficacy of coronary stent implantation for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis. Retrospective follow up study. Tertiary referral centre for interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery. Eighteen consecutive patients (12 men; age 70.8 years) between May 1993 and July 1996. Ten patients presented with stable angina and underwent the procedure electively, eight patients presented either with unstable angina or myocardial infarction and underwent the procedure in emergency. Johnson and Johnson Palmaz-Schatz stents were used in 16 patients, and a Microstent and a Gianturco-Roubin in one patient each. An intra-aortic balloon pump was prophylactively used for two patients in the elective group. In the acute group, six required an intra-aortic balloon pump. Procedural success rate and major adverse cardiac events. Successful stent implantation was achieved in all patients. In the elective group, no major adverse cardiac event occurred during the procedure, but one patient had to undergo repeated angioplasty before discharge. All patients of the elective group were discharged alive and there has been one non-cardiac death during a follow up of (mean (SD)) 10 (4) months. In the emergency group, one patient died during the procedure, one patient developed a non Q-wave myocardial infarction, one patient underwent emergency coronary bypass surgery, while another patient died suddenly before hospital discharge. Six patients of the emergency group were discharged alive and there has been one non-cardiac death during a follow up of 7 (4) months. Elective stent implantation for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis is safe and effective in selected stable patients. Urgent stent implantation, however, cannot be considered as a definitive procedure in emergency situation.

  7. Coronary Flow Reserve in the Remote Myocardium Predicts Left Ventricular Remodeling Following Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rongchao; Wei, Guoqian; Yu, Longhao; Su, Zhendong; Wei, Li; Bai, Xiuping; Tian, Jiawei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the non-infarcted myocardium is often impaired following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the clinical significance of CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to assess whether a relationship exists between CFR and left ventricular remodeling following AMI. Materials and Methods We enrolled 18 consecutive patients undergoing coronary intervention. Heart function was analyzed using real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography at one week and six months after coronary angioplasty. Ten subjects were enrolled as the control group and were examined using the same method at the same time to assess CFR. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels were routinely analyzed to estimate peak concentration. Results CFR was 1.55±0.11 in the infarcted zone and 2.05±0.31 in the remote zone (p<0.01) at one week following AMI. According to CFR values in the remote zone, all patients were divided into two groups: Group I (CFR <2.05) and Group II (CFR >2.05). The levels of cTnI were higher in Group I compared to Group II on admission (36.40 vs. 21.38, p<0.05). Furthermore, left ventricular end diastolic volume was higher in Group I compared to Group II at six months following coronary angioplasty. Conclusion Microvascular dysfunction is commonly observed in the remote myocardium. The CFR value accurately predicts adverse ventricular remodeling following AMI. PMID:24954317

  8. Relations among impaired coronary flow reserve, left ventricular hypertrophy and thallium perfusion defects in hypertensive patients without obstructive coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.L.; Frank, M.J.; Carr, A.A.; von Dohlen, T.W.; Prisant, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Invasive Doppler catheter-derived coronary flow reserve, echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular hypertrophy and intravenous dipyridamole-limited stress thallium-201 scintigraphy were compared in 48 patients (40 were hypertensive or diabetic) with clinical ischemic heart disease and no or minor coronary artery disease. Abnormal vasodilator reserve (ratio less than 3:1) occurred in 50% of the study group and markedly abnormal reserve (less than or equal to 2:1) occurred in 27%. Coronary vasodilator reserve was significantly lower (2.2 +/- 0.8 versus 3.5 +/- 1.3, p = 0.003) and indexed left ventricular mass significantly higher (152.6 +/- 42.2 versus 113.6 +/- 24.0 g, p = 0.0007) in patients with a positive (n = 11) versus a negative (n = 32) thallium perfusion scan. Coronary flow reserve was linearly related in coronary basal flow velocity as follows: y = -0.17x + 4.59; r = -0.57; p = 0.00002. The decrement in flow reserve was not linearly related to the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. Abnormal vasodilator reserve subsets found in hypertensive patients were defined on the basis of basal flow velocity, indexed left ventricular mass and clinical factors. In this series, diabetes did not cause a detectable additional decrement in flow reserve above that found with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that thallium perfusion defects are associated with depressed coronary vasodilator reserve in hypertensive patients without obstructive coronary artery disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy by indexed mass criteria is predictive of which hypertensive patients are likely to have thallium defects.

  9. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, Ilknur Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-06-15

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported.

  10. Stenting of "unprotected" left main coronary artery stenoses: early and late results

    PubMed Central

    Laruelle, C; Brueren, G; Ernst, S; Bal, E; Mast, G; Suttorp, M; de la Riviere, A B.; Plokker, T

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess short and long term efficacy of coronary stent implantation for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis.
Design—Retrospective follow up study.
Setting—Tertiary referral centre for interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery.
Patients—Eighteen consecutive patients (12 men; age 70.8 years) between May 1993 and July 1996. Ten patients presented with stable angina and underwent the procedure electively, eight patients presented either with unstable angina or myocardial infarction and underwent the procedure in emergency.
Intervention—Johnson and Johnson Palmaz-Schatz stents were used in 16 patients, and a Microstent and a Gianturco-Roubin in one patient each. An intra-aortic balloon pump was prophylactively used for two patients in the elective group. In the acute group, six required an intra-aortic balloon pump.
Main outcome measures—Procedural success rate and major adverse cardiac events.
Results—Successful stent implantation was achieved in all patients. In the elective group, no major adverse cardiac event occurred during the procedure, but one patient had to undergo repeated angioplasty before discharge. All patients of the elective group were discharged alive and there has been one non-cardiac death during a follow up of (mean (SD)) 10 (4) months. In the emergency group, one patient died during the procedure, one patient developed a non Q-wave myocardial infarction, one patient underwent emergency coronary bypass surgery, while another patient died suddenly before hospital discharge. Six patients of the emergency group were discharged alive and there has been one non-cardiac death during a follow up of 7 (4) months.
Conclusions—Elective stent implantation for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis is safe and effective in selected stable patients. Urgent stent implantation, however, cannot be considered as a definitive procedure in emergency situation.

 Keywords: stent;  left main

  11. Coronary artery anomalies in Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Viuff, Mette H; Trolle, Christian; Wen, Jan; Jensen, Jesper M; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Gutmark, Ephraim J; Gutmark-Little, Iris; Mortensen, Kristian H; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Andersen, Niels H

    Congenital heart disease, primarily involving the left-sided structures, is often seen in patients with Turner Syndrome. Moreover, a few case reports have indicated that coronary anomalies may be more prevalent in Turner Syndrome than in the normal population. We therefore set out to systematically investigate coronary arterial anatomy by computed tomographic coronary angiography (coronary CTA) in Turner Syndrome patients. Fifty consecutive women with Turner Syndrome (mean age 47 years [17-71]) underwent coronary CTA. Patients were compared with 25 gender-matched controls. Coronary anomaly was more frequent in patients with Turner Syndrome than in healthy controls [20% vs. 4% (p = 0.043)]. Nine out of ten abnormal cases had an anomalous left coronary artery anatomy (absent left main trunk, n = 7; circumflex artery originating from the right aortic sinus, n = 2). One case had a tubular origin of the right coronary artery above the aortic sinus. There was no correlation between the presence of coronary arterial anomalies and karyotype, bicuspid aortic valve, or other congenital heart defects. Coronary anomalies are highly prevalent in Turner Syndrome. The left coronary artery is predominantly affected, with an absent left main coronary artery being the most common anomaly. No hemodynamically relevant coronary anomalies were found. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.

  12. Real World Application of Stenting of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Stenosis: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Calvin C.; Ball, Timothy C.; Sidhu, Mandeep S.; DeVries, James T.; Jayne, John E.; Robb, John F.; Kaplan, Aaron V.; Brown, Jeremiah R.; Malenka, David J.; Thompson, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to summarize our single-center real-world experience with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) stenting of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA). PCI-stenting of the ULMCA, while controversial, is emerging as an alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in select patients and clinical situations. Methods Between January 2005 and December 2008, PCI-stenting was performed on 125 patients with ULMCA lesions at our institution. Clinical and procedural data were recorded at the time of procedure, and patients were followed prospectively (mean 1.7 years; range 1 day-4.1 years) for outcomes, including death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Results The majority of cases were urgent or emergent (82.5%), 50.4% of patients were non-surgical candidates, and 63.2% had 3 vessel disease. Many emergent patients presented in shock (62.1%), were not surgical candidates (89.7%), and had high mortality (20.7% in-hospital, 44.8% long-term). Mortality in the elective group was 6.3%. Cumulative death and TVR rates were 28.8% and 13.6%, respectively. Independent predictors of mortality were ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 35% (HR 2.4, CI 1.1 - 5.4) and left main bifurcation (HR 2.7, CI 1.2 - 5.7). Conclusions PCI-stenting is a viable option in patients with LMCA disease and extends options to patients who are poor candidates for CABG. Elective PCI in low-risk CABG patients results in good long-term survival. Cumulative TVR is 13.6%. EF ≤ 35% and left main bifurcation are independently associated with increased mortality.

  13. Reduced coronary flow reserve in the coronary sinus is a predictor of hemodynamically significant stenoses of the left coronary artery territory.

    PubMed

    Vrublevsky, Alexander V; Boshchenko, Alla A; Karpov, Rostislav S

    2004-08-01

    The role of transesophageal Doppler assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the coronary sinus (CS) in the diagnostics of significant left coronary artery (LCA) stenoses was studied in 65 CAD patients with angiographically proven >50% stenotic atherosclerosis of the LCA territory (38--with isolated left anterior descending artery (LAD) or left circumflex artery (Cx) stenosis; 27--with both LAD and Cx stenoses) and 31 healthy volunteers (all men). Dipyridamole was used as a stress agent. The antegrade phase of coronary flow in the CS moving into the right atrium was analysed. CFR in the CS was calculated in two ways: (1) as ratio of hyperemic to baseline peak antegrade flow velocity (CFRp); (2) as ratio of hyperemic to baseline volumetric blood flow velocity (CFRv). The level of CFR <2.0 in both ways of calculation was diagnosed as reduced. CAD patients compared with healthy volunteers had significantly lower CFRp (1.51+/-0.44 and 2.57+/-0.79; p<0.001) and CFRv (2.21+/-1.18 and 5.43+/-2.83; p < 0.001) in the CS. CFRp <2.0 in the CS was a predictor of significant stenoses of the LCA with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 76%, while CFRv <2.0 was a predictor of significant stenoses of the LCA with sensitivity of 49% and specificity of 97%. CFRp <2.0 in the CS was registered in 96% of CAD patients with two-vessel lesion and in 84% of CAD patients with one-vessel lesion, while CFRv <2.0 in the CS was revealed in 85% of CAD patients with two-vessel lesion and only in 26% of CAD patients with one-vessel lesion. Sensitivity and specificity of CFRv <2.0 in the CS in the diagnostics of significant two-vessel lesion of the LCA were 85% and 84%, respectively. Thus, the reduced CFR in the CS is a sensitive and specific predictor of LCA stenoses. A decrease of both CFRp <2 and CFRv <2.0 in the CS is a predictor of significant two-vessel lesion of the LCA, while a decrease of only CFRp <2.0 in the CS is a predictor of significant one-vessel lesion of the LCA.

  14. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention vs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Stenosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Daniele; Colleran, Roisin; Cassese, Salvatore; Frangieh, Antonio H; Wiebe, Jens; Joner, Michael; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan; Byrne, Robert A

    2017-09-13

    In patients with left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the standard therapy for several decades. However, some studies suggest that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative. To compare the long-term safety of PCI with drug-eluting stent vs CABG in patients with LMCA stenosis. PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from December 18, 2001, to February 1, 2017. Inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trial, patients with LMCA stenosis, PCI vs CABG, exclusive use of drug-eluting stents, and clinical follow-up of 3 or more years. Trial-level hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were pooled by fixed-effect and random-effects models with inverse variance weighting. Time-to-event individual patient data for the primary end point were reconstructed. Sensitivity analyses according to drug-eluting stent generation and coronary artery disease complexity were performed. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at long-term follow-up. Secondary end points included repeat revascularization and a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization at long-term follow-up. A total of 4 randomized clinical trials were pooled; 4394 patients were included in the analysis. Of these, 3371 (76.7%) were men; pooled mean age was 65.4 years. According to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation, evidence quality with respect to the primary composite end point was high. Percutaneous coronary intervention and CABG were associated with a comparable risk of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke both by fixed-effect (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.90-1.24; P = .48) and random-effects (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.85-1.32; P = .60) analysis. Sensitivity analyses according to low to intermediate Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and

  15. [Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the opposite breast. Pathological case].

    PubMed

    Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Moreno-Vázquez, Alejandra; González-Díaz, Belinda; Valencia-Palacios, Beatriz Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el origen anómalo de la arteria coronaria izquierda del seno coronario derecho (ACAOS) se caracteriza porque la arteria coronaria principal izquierda se origina anómalamente del seno de valsalva aórtico coronario derecho y cuyo trayecto puede seguir cuatro diferentes caminos hacia el lado izquierdo del corazón. Caso clínico: masculino de 73 años de edad, que ingresó al hospital por dolor precordial de tipo opresivo, intensidad 10/10 con irradiación a brazo izquierdo y cuello, acompañado de diaforesis y nausea. El diagnóstico fue de un síndrome isquémico coronario agudo sometido a terapia trombolítica Su evolución posterior fue no satisfactoria debido a diferentes complicaciones que lo llevaron a la muerte. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico del origen anómalo de la arteria coronaria izquierda del seno opuesto (ACAOS), se establece únicamente a través de métodos de diagnósticos como la angiotomografía computada cardiaca o un cateterismo cardiaco como parte del abordaje de un síndrome isquémico coronario agudo que permiten establecer las características morfológicas de las arterias coronarias como las diferentes variantes anatómicas y sus características particulares respecto a las estructuras adyacentes.

  16. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents for patients with multivessel and unprotected left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Kyriacos; Lekakis, Ioannis; Nicolaides, Evagoras

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents with those of coronary artery bypass grafting among patients with multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease in terms of mortality, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and angina. Background: Although coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world and in many developing countries, its optimal treatment is still a matter of controversy. Several studies have examined the clinical safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention using first-generation drug-eluting stents over coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease. However, this study compared the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents to that of coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Methods: This was a prospective single-center cohort study conducted from September 2012 to November 2014 at the Nicosia General Hospital. In total, 140 patients (94% men and 6% women) with chronic coronary artery disease undergoing revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents or coronary artery bypass grafting were evaluated. We examined the differences in clinical outcomes between coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention at 1-year follow-up. Results: Percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents as opposed to coronary artery bypass grafting resulted in similar rates of mortality (5.7% vs 11.4%, respectively; p = 0.135), myocardial infarction (0% vs 4.3%, respectively), repeat revascularization (4.3% vs 8.6%, respectively; p = 0.115) and angina (10% vs 18.6%, respectively; p = 0.153). Conclusion

  17. [Abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: a retrospective study of 36 cases].

    PubMed

    Richard, A; Godart, F; Brevière, G-M; Francart, C; Foucher, C; Rey, C

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to show the evolution of diagnostic techniques revealing an abnormal origin of the left coronary artery and present the follow-up results of patients operated for this malformation at different ages. This retrospective study includes 36 children or adults, with a mean age at the moment of of 28 months old, ranging from 7 days to 39 years. In 9% of cases, patients were asymptomatic. Before 1990, 81% of children had a cardiac catheterization, versus 25% after. Indeed, echocardiography with color Doppler enabled the diagnosis of abnormal origin of the left coronary artery in 70% of cases. The pre-operative mortality is at 21% (12.5% after 1990). Twenty-three patients had surgery: left coronary artery reimplantation (n=16), bypass (n=5), at mean of 44 months old for the entire series, but 21 months old after 1990. The follow-up was clinical, ECG and radiographic and echocardiographic after 1975; when possible an exercise test, cardiac nuclear imaging and more recently coronary CT scan and MRI have been performed. In conclusion, children are operated earlier and the follow-up should focus on the detection of occlusion of the re-implanted left coronary artery by echocardiography, with or without stress, exercise test, cardiac nuclear imaging, MRI and sometimes, coronary angiography.

  18. Predictors of Long-Term Survival in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doo Hwan; Rhee, Jung Ae; Choi, Jin Su; Lee, Ki Hong; Lee, Min Goo; Sim, Doo Sun; Park, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Nam Sik; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Predictive factors of mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with left ventricular dysfunction were analyzed during 5-year clinical follow-up after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Subjects and Methods A total of 329 ACS consecutive patients (64.6±11.3 years, 227 males) who underwent PCI from January 2001 to March 2006 were followed for 5 years. All patients had lower than 40% of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Patients were divided into Group I (survived longer than 5-years: n=130, 101 males) and Group II (survived shorter than 5 years: n=199, 126 males). Results The cumulative survival rate was 88.0% at 1 month, 78.0% at 6 months, 75.0% at 1 year, 67.0% at 2 years, 62.0% at 3 years, 57.0% at 4 years and 40% at 5-years. Group II was older (61.6±11.2 years vs. 66.4±11.4 years, p<0.001), and showed higher prevalence of female gender (28.4% vs. 36.7%, p=0.006) and lower LVEF (35.3±5.2 vs. 33.6±5.6) than Group I. The independent predictors for mortality were LVEF <30% {odds ratio (OR)=1.793, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.234-2.452, p=0.002}, serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dL (OR=2.455, 95% CI: 1.306-4.614, p=0.005), older than 65 years (OR=1.594, 95% CI: 1.152-2.206, p=0.005), and female gender (OR=1.524, 95% CI: 1.090-2.130, p=0.014). Conclusion Five-year survival rate was 40% in ACS patients with left ventricular dysfunction, and the predictors for mortality were low LVEF, high serum creatinine, old age, and female gender. PMID:23170097

  19. Operative treatment of tetralogy of Fallot with concomitant correction of anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from Kommerell's diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Juscinski, Jacek; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Chojnicki, Maciej; Steffens, Mariusz; Szofer-Sendrowska, Aneta; Kwasniak, Ewelina; Żelechowski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies in development of the pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk and peripheral pulmonary arteries are typical accompanying pathologies in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). Demanding for diagnostics and borderline for treatment is a condition colloquially called “discontinuous pulmonary arteries”, while the main branches are supplied with systemic blood from the ascending aorta, aortic arch or descending thoracic aorta. We present a case of a one-year-old girl with ToF and anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) from Kommerell's diverticulum who underwent two-stage surgical therapy with the support of interventional cardiology. We conclude that early diagnosis of discontinuous pulmonary artery is crucial for choosing the optimal operative strategy. In our opinion, simultaneous anatomic intracardiac correction with direct pulmonary reconstruction seems reasonable and effective, particularly when the result is achieved after joint efforts of cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology. PMID:26336445

  20. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with AIDS, acute myocardial infarction, and severe left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bittner, H B; Fogelson, B G

    2003-02-01

    A 48-year-old male patient with AIDS presented with postinfarct unstable angina, decreased left ventricular function (EF 35%), significant left main coronary artery disease, and total occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. In order to avoid the potential immunosuppressive effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an already compromised host with an already low CD4+ helper/inducer T cell count (180/microL) and high retroviral load (165,000 copies/mL), the application of beating-heart technology and off-pump coronary bypass grafting was an ideal indication. The patient underwent successfully off-pump/CPB coronary revascularization. The triple drug combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was resumed postoperatively. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 7(th) postoperative day. The CD4+ count was 142/microL and the viral load decreased to 450 copies/mL. Seven months post-operatively the patient was free of angina and without shortness of breath. The CD4+ count was 160/(m)L and the viral load undetectable. Improved survival of HIV positive patients has resulted in a shift from caring for terminally ill patients to caring for patients with chronic illness. While protease inhibitors have positively affected survival, they may also cause plasma lipid abnormalities, which can lead to severe premature coronary artery disease. Therefore, an increasing population of AIDS and HIV positive patients with coronary artery disease may require cardiac interventions in the near future. Coronary revascularization without CPB and its potential immunocompromising effect may play an important role in patients with severe coronary artery disease and AIDS.

  1. Dynamic Viscoelasticity and Surface Properties of Porcine Left Anterior Descending Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Burton, Hanna E; Freij, Jenny M; Espino, Daniel M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was, for the first time, to measure and compare quantitatively the viscoelastic properties and surface roughness of coronary arteries. Porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected ex vivo. Viscoelastic properties were measured longitudinally using dynamic mechanical analysis, for a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 10 Hz. Surface roughness was calculated following three-dimensional reconstructed of surface images obtained using an optical microscope. Storage modulus ranged from 14.47 to 25.82 MPa, and was found to be frequency-dependent, decreasing as the frequency increased. Storage was greater than the loss modulus, with the latter found to be frequency-independent with a mean value of 2.10 ± 0.33 MPa. The circumferential surface roughness was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the longitudinal surface roughness, ranging from 0.73 to 2.83 and 0.35 to 0.92 µm, respectively. However, if surface roughness values were corrected for shrinkage during processing, circumferential and longitudinal surface roughness were not significantly different (1.04 ± 0.47, 0.89 ± 0.27 µm, respectively; p > 0.05). No correlation was found between the viscoelastic properties and surface roughness. It is feasible to quantitatively measure the viscoelastic properties of coronary arteries and the roughness of their endothelial surface.

  2. "Sawfish" systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery: an angiographic sign of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Brugada, P; Bär, F W; de Zwaan, C; Roy, D; Green, M; Wellens, H J

    1982-10-01

    The morphologic characteristics at coronary arteriography of systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) were evaluated in 14 patients. Six patients had systolic narrowing of the LAD not associated with other cardiac abnormalities (group A) and eight patients had systolic narrowing of the LAD associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group B). Patients in group A showed a smooth and progressive constriction of the vessel up to the point of maximal stenosis, giving it a "rat-tail" appearance. There was no systolic narrowing of septal branches or of other epicardial vessels in this group. In patients of group B, systolic narrowing of the LAD had a "saw-fish" appearance. Seven patients had systolic narrowing of the septal branches, and five had systolic narrowing of other epicardial vessels. These data indicate that systolic narrowing of the LAD in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy differs angiographically from systolic narrowing due to an intramural course of a part of the vessel (as in group A patients). We postulate that in patients with hypertropic cardiomyopathy, fiber hypertrophy and disarray in the vicinity of the coronary vessels is responsible for the morphology and the widespread distribution of systolic narrowing.

  3. Coronary left main and non-left main bifurcation angles: how are the angles modified by different bifurcation stenting techniques?

    PubMed

    Godino, Cosmo; Al-Lamee, Rasha; La Rosa, Claudio; Morici, Nuccia; Latib, Azeem; Ielasi, Alfonso; Di Mario, Carlo; Sangiorgi, Giuseppe M; Colombo, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Investigation of the correlation between bifurcation angles and outcomes is limited with discordant results. The aim of this study is to investigate left main (LM) and non-left main (N-LM) bifurcation angles and their modification after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Measurement of all three angles adds to our understanding of bifurcation anatomy and the resultant effect of different stenting techniques. All three bifurcation angles were described according to the European Bifurcation Club definition: the A (proximal bifurcation angle), the B (distal bifurcation angle) and the C (main branch angle). Measurements were performed in 75 LM and 140 N-LM bifurcations. In LM bifurcations baseline mean values of C, A, and B were 151 degrees +/- 28 degrees, 131 degrees +/- 32 degrees, and 78 +/- 28 degrees, respectively. In bifurcations with 2 stents the B significantly decreased by a mean of 10 degrees (P = 0.003) and A increased by 10 degrees (P = 0.006). Crush stenting significantly decreased B (A - 14 degrees ; P = 0.020) and increased A (A + 21 degrees; P = 0.005), particularly non-true bifurcations. In N-LM bifurcations mean values for C, A, and B were 156 degrees +/- 19 degrees , 144 degrees +/- 22 degrees, and 60 degrees +/- 20 degrees, respectively. Similar to LM bifurcations, the B became narrower mainly at the expense of the A, which became wider. In both types of bifurcations the greatest variation in A and B was found following 2-stent techniques performed in T-shaped (> or =70 degrees) bifurcations. In both LM and N-LM bifurcations we found a significant difference in A and B pre- and post-PCI. This difference was driven by the 2-stent technique and was most evident with a baseline bifurcation angle > or =70 degrees. The Crush technique caused the largest angle variation post-procedure, particularly in non-true LM bifurcations.

  4. Changes in left ventricular performance related to perioperative myocardial infarction in coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, A.J.; Spies, S.M.; Lichtenthal, P.R.; Moran, J.M.; Sanders, J.H.; Michaelis, L.L.

    1983-05-01

    Strict electrocardiographic, enzymatic, scintigraphic, and hemodynamic criteria for perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) were defined and related to serial assessments of left ventricular performance during rest and exercise in patients seen early and late after coronary artery bypass graft operation. Global left ventricular performance was determined by radionuclide ventriculography from which changes in the pattern of serial postoperative ejection fractions (EF) were obtained. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of perioperative MI, and were matched in pairs on the basis of preoperative EF and extent as well as location of coronary artery obstructions. The results indicate that neither short- nor long-term depression in resting EF occurred subsequent to perioperative MI. However, an exercise-related increase in EF eight months postoperatively was depressed in patients who had perioperative MI compared with those who did not. Patients with new Q waves and abnormal postoperative elevation in serum levels of the myocardial isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) had a greater early decrease in EF compared with patients without evidence of perioperative MI. However, seven days after operation, the EF in both groups returned to preoperative levels. Patients with abnormal technetium 99m-pyrophosphate scintigrams had changes in perioperative EF similar to those in patients without MI. The presence of low cardiac output syndrome immediately after operation was associated with immediate and short-term decreases in EF, which were not seen in any of the other patient subgroups.

  5. Left ventricular volumes and function during atrial pacing in coronary artery disease: a radionuclide angiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenman, Y.; Weiss, A.T.; Atlan, H.; Gotsman, M.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study set out to determine the pathophysiologic changes in the left ventricle during atrial pacing in 22 patients with coronary artery disease. Graduated right atrial pacing to a rate of 160 beats/min, or the induction of angina pectoris or significant ST depression was undertaken. Ventricular volumes were measured at rest and at rates of 100, 120, 140 and 160 beats/min using radionuclide angiography. The volumes at a pacing rate of 100 beats/min were used as a reference standard (100%). In the 22 patients with coronary artery disease, left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased from 118 +/- 3% at rest to 80 +/- 5% at a rate of 160 beats/min; stroke volume from 121 +/- 3% to 54 +/- 5%; and ejection fraction (EF) from 49 +/- 3% to 37 +/- 5%. End-systolic volume decreased from 118 +/- 4% at rest, reached its minimal value of 94 +/- 5% at a rate of 120 beats/min and then increased slightly to 106 +/- 9% at 160 beats/min. Cardiac output and blood pressure did not change significantly. Compared to the control group of 10 normal subjects, the patients had a significantly smaller decrease in end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume than in normal control subjects. EF in the normal subjects did not change. Blood pressure, cardiac output and stroke volume were similar in both groups. Atrial pacing tachycardia induced reversible ventricular dysfunction with a decrease in EF. Stroke volume was maintained because of relative ventricular dilatation.

  6. Clinical, angiographic, hemodynamic, perfusional and functional changes after one-vessel left anterior descending coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, R.D.; Lim, Y.L.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.; Chesler, D.A.; Block, P.C.

    1985-02-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was successfully performed in 20 patients with 1-vessel left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery disease. Exercise capacity in terms of peak workload, heart rate and systolic blood pressure all increased significantly 1 week after PTCA. All patients had some decrease in stenosis size and gradient. All patients except 1 had an improvement in functional class. Eight of 12 patients with abnormal exercise electrocardiograms before PTCA had normal electrocardiograms after the procedure. Exercise thallium-201 (TI-201) myocardial perfusion images obtained in all 20 patients before and 1 week after PTCA were analyzed using a new computer method designed to quantitate regional myocardial TI-201 distribution, redistribution and clearance rate. Significant improvement in TI-201 activity was present in the anterior and septal segments of the left ventricle 1 week after PTCA. This increase in TI-201 uptake was associated with a significant reduction in the amount of TI-201 redistribution between initial and delayed postexercise images in the same regions. TI-201 clearance rate in the segments supplied by the dilated vessel also improved significantly. Abnormal TI-201 lung uptake was seen in 17 patients before and in 4 patients after PTCA. Exercise ejection fraction response and septal wall motion also improved after PTCA of the LAD stenosis in all 17 patients who had exercise radionuclide ventriculography.

  7. Myocardial strain may be useful in differentiating Takotsubo cardiomyopathy from left anterior descending coronary artery ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cai, LiYing; Addetia, Karima; Medvedofsky, Diego; Spencer, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCM) is characterized by transient apical wall motion abnormalities of the left ventricle (LV) in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Although the echocardiographic findings of SCM mimic those of left anterior descending coronary artery ischemia or infarction (LAD), the regional LV wall motion pattern and degree of RV involvement may differ. We sought to systematically assess regional LV and RV function with myocardial strain imaging to assess if ventricular involvement may differ between SCM and LAD. This was a retrospective cohort study, with 3 groups: patients with SCM (n=55), patients with LAD (n=36), and 37 normal subjects. All the patients had a comprehensive transthoracic echocardiographic examination, including assessment of longitudinal strain (LS). Global LV longitudinal strain was markedly decreased in both the SCM and LAD groups. However, SCM patients differed by more severe involvement the mid-inferolateral, mid-inferior, apical-lateral, and apical-inferior segments. When compared to the LAD patients, SCM patients had significantly more RV involvement both visually and quantitatively (27-42% versus 0-25%). Predictors of SCM included visually reduced RV systolic function, abnormal TAPSE, RVS' and RV LS in the apical segment. Of the LV variables, regional LS in the mid-inferior and apical-inferior segments could differentiate the groups. Our results suggest that RV involvement and the pattern of LV regional LS abnormalities may help differentiate SCM from LAD disease during echocardiographic imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Radiofrequency catheter ablation for ventricular premature beats of left coronary cusp under the guidance of 3-dimensional mapping system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Lang; Zhou, Yuan-feng; Lai, Heng-li; Chen, Zai-hua; Qiu, Yun

    2012-04-10

    To explore the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RCA) for ventricular premature beats originating from left coronary sinus under the guidance of 3-dimensional mapping system (CARTO). A total of 15 patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originating from left coronary sinus underwent CARTO-guided RCA. Anatomical structures were constructed and three-dimension (3D) electrical activation sequence was plotted for left ventricle and aortic sinus. The distance of earliest activation point of PVCs and origin of left coronary artery were surveyed after left coronary arteriography. The electrocardiogram (ECG) results showed that R-wave was upward in leads II, III and avF, QRS waves in lead I was mainly of rS, rs and rsr types, QS type in lead avL, RS, Rs and rS type in lead V(1), RS type in lead V(3) and absence of S wave in lead V(5)/V(6). Intraoperative mapping detected the earliest activation point on the posterior-inferior origin of left coronary artery (LMCA) ostium (n = 7), on the anterio-inferior of LMCA ostium (n = 3) and on the inferior of LMCA ostium (n = 5). The earliest activation point (local activation time) was shorter 86 - 120 ms than surface electrocardiogram QRS wave, discharge melting on the earliest activation point and nearby succeeded. PVCs disappeared, PVCs failed to be induced under similar preoperative conditions (aleudrin intravenous) and no complication occurred intraoperatively and postoperatively. The CARTO-guided RCA is a safe and effective in the treatment of PVCs originating from left coronary sinus.

  9. The effects of propranolol and acebutolol on left ventricular function and coronary haemodynamics in the conscious dog with myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, W. S.; Hutton, I.; Lawrie, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    1 The cardiovascular effects of the beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs, propranolol and acebutolol, on regional coronary blood flow and left ventricular function have been investigated in the conscious dog with developing myocardial infarction. 2 Propranolol (1 to 1.5 mg/kg) or acebutolol (4 to 5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously 2 to 3 h after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. 3 Propranolol or acebutolol administration resulted in a relative increase in flow to the ischaemic area of the myocardium, particularly to the subendocardium. 4 Propranolol produced a greater reduction in heart rate and myocardial contractility than acebutolol. 5 These results demonstrate that beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and increase coronary flow to the ischaemic area of the myocardium after coronary artery occlusion in the conscious dog. PMID:7052333

  10. Left main coronary disease: improved early outcomes after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Kiziltepe, Ugursay; Kurtoglu, Murat; Ozerdem, Gokhan; Sahinalp, Sahin; Temizturk, Zeki; Bozguney, Muhammed

    2013-01-01

    Left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis is a risk factor in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although improved outcomes of off-pump CABG have been well documented, LMCA stenosis is often perceived as a contraindicationfor off-pump CABG. In this study, we compared on-pump and off-pump techniques in high-risk patients with LMCA disease. Documentation of safety and feasibility of off-pump CABG in patients with LMCA disease. One hundred ninty nine patients with LMCA disease and a EuroScore ≥ 5 were operated upon between 2007 and 2010. One hundred patients (Group I) were operated upon using off-pump techniques, while 99 (Group II) were operated upon using conventional on-pump techniques. Perioperative variables and outcomes at first six months were compared. Despite higher mean age and EuroScore (70.9 ± 4.8 vs. 65.6 ± 7.9, p < 0.001, and 6.09 ± 0.8 vs. 5.31 ± 0.68,p < 0.001, respectively), and lower ejection fraction (41.4 ± 7.3 vs. 49.0 ± 6.2, p < 0.001), hospital mortality (1% vs. 6.1%,p = 0.065), postoperative inotropic support (9% vs. 48.4%, p < 0.001), blood loss (680.6 ± 265.0 vs. 847.2 ± 382, p < 0.001) and transfusions of blood (0.57 ± 0.79 U vs. 1.49 ± 0.82 U, p < 0.001), and hospital stay (6.57 ± 2.04 vs. 7.68 ± 3.44,p = 0.006) were lower in Group I. In both groups, mean number of distal anastomoses and completeness of revascularisation were similar. Using the off-pump technique is safe and improves postoperative early outcomes in high-risk patients with LMCA disease.

  11. [Clinical functional assessment of electric cardiac instability in diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Tatarchenko, I P; Pozdniakova, N V; Morozova, O I; Petrushin, I A; Solov'eva, K V

    2011-01-01

    To study parameters characterizing electric myocardial unstability in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with different variants of diastolic dysfunction (DD) of the left ventricle (LV). The study included 86 outpatients (26 females, 60 males, mean age 57.3 +/- 5.6 years) who had myocardial infarction (MI) more than 1 year before the trial with stable course of CHD during a previous month, LV ejection fraction more than 45% and with a stable sinus rhythm. Group 1 consisted of 36 patients with abnormal LV relaxation, group 2--of 28 patients with pseudo-normal LV DD, group 3--22 patients with a restrictive type of LV DD. The following examinations were made: Holter ECG monitoring, echocardiography, signal-average ECG with isolation of late ventricular potentials (LVP), estimation of heart rate variability, ventricular repolarization (Q-T interval dispersion, corrected interval Q-T). The following variants of LV DD were detected: type 1--42%, type 2--32.5%, type 3--25.5%. LV DD progression was accompanied with enhancing vegetative imbalance and sympathetic activity: in the group with abnormal relaxation--in 52.5% patients, in the group with a restrictive type--in 93.3%. CHD patients with restrictive DD had more frequent LVP (chi-square = 4.1; p < 0.05) and visualization of anomalous contractility zones (60%), ventricular extrasystole (VE) was registered in 100% cases (VE of grade IV-V in 43.3%), QT(c) and QT(d) were higher than threshold--450.2 +/- 5.4 and 71.2 +/- 6.5 ms. Because of multifactorial genesis of electric unstability, perfection of diagnosis and prognosis of risk in CHD patients with aggravation of LV DD demands a complex analysis of parameters respecting functional condition of the myocardium, relations between electric and structural-geometric remodeling of the heart.

  12. Echocardiographic detection of free-floating thrombus in left ventricle during coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Vaggar, Jagadeesh N.; Gadhinglajkar, Shrinivas; Pillai, Vivek; Sreedhar, Rupa; Cahndran, Roshith; Roy, Suddhadeb

    2015-01-01

    We report an incident of detection of a free-floating thrombus in the left ventricle (LV) using intraoperative two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during proximal coronary artery bypass graft anastomosis. A 58-year-old man presented to us with a 6-month history of chest pain without any history suggestive of myocardial infarction or transient ischemic attacks. His preoperative echocardiography revealed the systolic dysfunction of LV, mild hypokinesia of basal and mid-anterior wall, and the absence of an aneurysm. He was scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. On intraoperative TEE before establishing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a small immobile mass was found attached to LV apical area. After completion of distal coronary artery grafting, when the aortic cross-clamp was removed, the heart was filled partially and beating spontaneously. TEE examination using 2D mode revealed a free-floating mass in the LV, which was suspected to be a thrombus. Additional navigation using biplane and 3D modes confirmed the presence of the thrombus and distinguished it from papillary muscles and artifact. The surgeon opened the left atrium after re-establishing electromechanical quiescence and removed a thrombus measuring 1.5 cm × 1 cm from the LV. The LV mass in the apical region was no longer seen after discontinuation of CPB. Accurate TEE-detection and timely removal of the thrombus averted disastrous embolic complications. Intraoperative 2D and recent biplane and 3D echocardiography modes are useful monitoring tools during the conduct of CPB. PMID:26440248

  13. Absence of left ventricular concentric hypertrophy: a prerequisite for zero coronary calcium score.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Shoichi; Shirai, Nobuyuki; Okuyama, Takuhiro; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2011-09-01

    The identification and intervention of factors associated with a coronary artery calcification (CAC) score of zero, suggesting the absence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) with high probability, would be meaningful in the clinical setting. Thus far, the relationship between CAC and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy has not been documented. We identified factors associated with a CAC score of zero and evaluated the relationship between this score and LV concentric hypertrophy in 309 consecutive patients with suspected CAD who were clinically indicated to undergo multislice computed tomography angiography for coronary artery evaluation. The quantitative CAC score was calculated according to Agatston's method. The total coronary calcium score (TCS) was defined as the sum of the scores for each lesion. Four absolute TCS categories were considered: zero, mild (0-100), moderate (100-400), and severe (>400). LV hypertrophy was classified into concentric (LV mass index >104 g/m(2) in women or >116 g/m(2) in men; LV end-diastolic volume index ≤109.2 mL/m(2)) and eccentric (LV end-diastolic volume index >109.2 mL/m(2)) patterns. In the zero-TCS group, the frequency of LV concentric hypertrophy was extremely low (zero 6%, mild 17%, moderate 26%, severe 19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, LV concentric hypertrophy, and LV mass index, but not hypertension, were the independent factors associated with a CAC score of zero. The present study demonstrated that the absence of LV concentric hypertrophy was a prerequisite for a CAC score of zero. That is, the presence of LV concentric hypertrophy, which indicated more severe underlying hypertension, long duration, or poor control of blood pressure, implicates the presence of CAC.

  14. Sudden Cardiac Death in a Case of Non-Dominant Coronary Artery Obstruction Without Depressed Left Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung Yi

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction complicated with lethal cardiac arrhythmia remains the major cause of sudden death. The possible clinical presentation leading to lethal ventricular arrhythmia has been demonstrated but the data are limited. The previous study revealed no significant correlation between sudden cardiac death and the location of coronary obstruction site. And the possible mechanism of sudden cardiac death in non-dominant coronary artery obstruction is unclear. We presented a case of acute myocardial infarction with mid left circumflex artery occlusion complicated with new onset atrial fibrillation initially. The rhythm degenerated into ventricular fibrillation immediately and sudden cardiac death occurred. After resuscitation, he received coronary angioplasty, and the rhythm recovered to sinus after the occluded coronary artery reopened. We thick new onset atrial fibrillation could be a potential risk factor leading to sudden death in acute myocardial infarction with obstruction of non-dominant coronary artery. Control of ventricular rate and early restoration of sinus rhythm may be potential benefit.

  15. Successful surgical treatment of a giant right coronary artery aneurysm with a patent left internal thoracic artery graft.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Shigehiko; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Uemura, Hisashi; Yamagishi, Shunsuke; Furuhata, Ken; Hanzawa, Yoshikatu; Kanemura, Takeyuki; Osaka, Shinichi

    2017-05-01

    We report a rare case of a giant right coronary artery aneurysm 13 years after coronary artery bypass grafting. Coronary angiography at the time of primary surgery demonstrated irregular aneurysmal dilatation in the mid-right coronary artery that expanded greatly over a 13-year period to a maximum diameter of 80 mm. The patient underwent aneurysmectomy and interposition using a saphenous vein graft through a right lateral thoracotomy. The patient did not undergo dissection or clamping of the left internal thoracic artery graft, and myocardial protection was obtained using systemic hypothermia and hyperkalaemia in addition to continuous antegrade cardioplegia. Postoperatively, coronary computed tomography showed a lack of residual aneurysm and good flow in the saphenous vein graft. The patient made an uneventful recovery.

  16. Technical strategy in a patient with symptomatic thoracic aneurysm near the origin of the left subclavian artery and left internal thoracic artery coronary graft.

    PubMed

    Babic, Srdjan D; Radak, Djordje J; Sotirovic, Vuk A; Unic-Stojanovic, Dragana R; Babic, Dusan S; Popov, Petar Z; Sagic, Dragan Z

    2012-11-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a safe and reliable technique utilized in the treatment for aortic aneurysms. However, in up to 40% of patients, devices are typically placed over the left subclavian artery (LSA) origin. In this report, we present a case of a successful TEVAR procedure following the transposition of the LSA with protective carotico-axillary/carotid bypass in a patient with a patent left internal thoracic artery (LITA)-left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery bypass graft and right internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Two cases of Bezold-Jarisch reflex induced by intra-arterial nitroglycerin in critical left main coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachin P; Waxman, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The Bezold-Jarisch reflex, a well-described phenomenon, occurs upon the stimulation of intracardiac mechanoreceptors and is mediated by vagal afferent nerve fibers. Several factors can sensitize the cardiovascular system to develop this reflex, including acute myocardial ischemia, natriuretic peptides, and, rarely, nitroglycerin administration in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. The development of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex in the presence of severe coronary artery stenosis, specifically left main coronary artery stenosis, has not been described. We report 2 cases of patients who underwent elective coronary angiography and were given intra-arterial nitroglycerin during radial sheath insertion to reduce radial artery spasm. In both patients, bradycardia and hypotension developed along with diaphoresis, consistent with the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Coronary angiography revealed critical (>90%) left main coronary artery stenosis in both patients. Critical left main coronary artery stenosis might sensitize mechanoreceptors or vagal afferents to the development of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex after intra-arterial nitroglycerin use; however, the mechanism of this possible relationship is unclear. In addition to discussing our patients' cases, we review the medical literature relevant to the Bezold-Jarisch reflex.

  18. Telescoping Technique to Engage Left Main Coronary Artery in a Case of Giant Aortic Aneurysm in a Geriatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Vasudev, Rahul; Bikkina, Mahesh; Virk, Hartaj

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a geriatric male with giant ascending aortic aneurysm (AAA) who underwent successful coronary angiography using telescoping technique for evaluation his coronary arteries before surgery for AAA. Since the ascending aorta and root were extremely dilated, we knew it would not have been possible to engage the coronaries using regular catheters and standard technique. Hence, telescopic technique was used. Amplatz left 3 (AL3) 7F (French) guide catheter (90 cm) was initially used, and nonselective injection of contrast was done to see the coronary ostium. After that, a 5F multipurpose catheter (110 cm) was telescoped through 7F AL3 guide catheter to engage the ostium of the left main coronary artery. Using this technique, images of coronaries were obtained, and it showed minimal luminal irregularities in major epicardial coronary arteries. The patient underwent successful surgery with aortic valve replacement and excision of aneurysm with graft placement. Although this technique has been described previously in enlarged aortas, this is the first to our knowledge use of telescoping technique in giant aortic aneurysm in a geriatric patient. PMID:27833782

  19. Two-year clinical outcomes in stable angina and acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention of left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dae Young; Jeong, Myung Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Yun Ah; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Jeong, Hae Chang; Park, Keun Ho; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Jun Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study appraised the long term clinical outcomes of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. There are limited data regarding long-term clinical outcomes after PCI for ULMCA disease. Methods From 2001 to 2011, a total of 448 patients who underwent PCI for ULMCA disease and had 2-year clinical follow-up, were analyzed. The study patients were divided into two groups: group I (stable angina pectoris [SAP], n = 60, 48 men, 62 ± 10 years) and group II (acute coronary syndrome [ACS], n = 388, 291 men, 64 ± 10 years). We evaluated clinical and angiographic characteristics and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 2-year clinical follow-up. Results Mean age of studied patients was 64 ± 10 years with 339 male patients. Average stent diameter was 3.6 ± 0.4 mm and stent length was 19.7 ± 6.3 mm. Stent implantation techniques and use of intravascular ultrasound guidance were not different between two groups. In-hospital mortality was 0% in group I and 7% in group II (p = 0.035). One-month mortality was 0% in group I and 7.7% in group II (p = 0.968). Two-year survival rate was 93% in the group I and 88.4% in the group II (p = 0.921). Predictive factors for 2-year MACE were hypertension, Killip class ≥ 3, and use of intra-aortic balloon pump by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Although in-hospital mortality rate was higher in ACS than in SAP, clinical outcomes during 2-year clinical follow-up were similar between SAP and ACS after PCI of ULMCA. PMID:27756119

  20. Early and late outcome of skeletonised bilateral internal mammary arteries anastomosed to the left coronary system

    PubMed Central

    Bonacchi, M; Battaglia, F; Prifti, E; Leacche, M; Nathan, N S; Sani, G; Popoff, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate in a retrospective study the technical aspects of using the in situ bilateral internal mammary arteries (IMAs), with the right IMA (RIMA) used for revascularisation of the circumflex system, and to evaluate early and late outcome. Materials and methods: Between January 1997 and July 2003, 552 consecutive patients underwent grafting of the circumflex artery system with an in situ skeletonised RIMA routed through the transverse sinus (eventually retrocaval). Mean (SD) age was 63.8 (11) years. 331 (60%) patients underwent total arterial myocardial revascularisation. Mean follow up was 26 (9) months. Results: The success rate of skeletonised RIMA grafting to the circumflex branch was 100%. There were 19 (3.4%) in-hospital deaths. Perioperative myocardial infarction occurred in 12 (2.2%) patients. In 155 patients undergoing postoperative angiography, two had an occluded RIMA and a string-like phenomenon was seen in three RIMA and one left IMA (LIMA). Three RIMA and three LIMA had stenotic lesions. The patency rates of RIMA and LIMA were 94% and 97.4%, respectively. Strong predictors of non-functional IMA grafts were a recipient coronary artery diameter of < 1.5 mm (p  =  0.022), < 60% stenosis of the recipient coronary artery (p  =  0.015), diffuse stenotic lesions of the recipient coronary artery (p  =  0.018), and a small IMA calibre (p  =  0.0001). Cumulative actuarial survival at three years was 96.4% and event-free cumulative survival was 93.8%. Conclusions: Use of the bilateral IMAs offers the possibility of constructing various configurations, making total arterial myocardial revascularisation possible with a minimum number of arterial conduits. Use of the skeletonised RIMA through the transverse sinus and eventually retrocavally can reach most branches of the circumflex system and is associated with an excellent patency rate. Patients who received bilateral IMA grafts for left coronary system revascularisation had

  1. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in association with congenital aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva: angiographic diagnosis of a rare association

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, A Shyam; Fox, Keith A A

    1992-01-01

    A 37 year old man presenting with acute heart failure, hypotension, and acute renal failure was diagnosed by cardiac catheterisation and angiography to have the rare combination of congenital aneurysm of the non-coronary sinus of Valsalva rupturing into the right ventricle, and an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the main pulmonary artery. The diagnosis could not be confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography in this patient. This combination of defects, confirmed at cardiac surgery, has not been reported before, and this case report highlights the importance of preoperative definition of congenital defects associated with an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva. PMID:1389769

  2. Physiologic Functional Evaluation of Left Internal Mammary Artery Graft to Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Steal due to Unligated First Thoracic Branch in a Case of Refractory Angina

    PubMed Central

    Sawaya, Fadi J.; Liberman, Henry; Devireddy, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Unligated side branches of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) have been described in the literature as a cause of coronary steal resulting in angina. Despite a number of studies reporting successful side branch embolization to relieve symptoms, this phenomenon remains controversial. Hemodynamic evidence of coronary steal using angiographic and intravascular Doppler techniques has been supported by some and rejected by others. In this case study using an intracoronary Doppler wire with adenosine, we demonstrate that a trial occlusion of the LIMA thoracic side branch with selective balloon inflation can confirm physiologic significant steal and whether coil embolization of the side branch is indicated. PMID:26981289

  3. Effect of Coronary Slow Flow on the Longitudinal Left Ventricular Function Assessed by 2-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Narimani, Sima; Hosseinsabet, Ali; Pourhosseini, Hamidreza

    2016-04-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon is defined as the slow progression of an angiographic contrast agent to the distal part of the coronary arteries on selective coronary angiography in the absence of stenosis. There are some studies with different results about the effect of this phenomenon on left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of our study was to evaluate the longitudinal LV function in the coronary slow flow phenomenon using 2-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking echocardiography. In a study with a patient-to-patient matched design, 36 patients with the coronary slow flow phenomenon and 36 individuals with normal coronary flow matched for age (±5 years), sex, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were compared in terms of the longitudinal LV systolic and diastolic functions by pulsed wave tissue Doppler echocardiography and 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived indices. Lateral s' and e' waves were lower in the patients with the coronary slow flow phenomenon, but there were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding the other tissue Doppler echocardiographic indices and longitudinal systolic strain and systolic and diastolic strain rates derived by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography. Our results showed that the coronary slow flow phenomenon could not impair the longitudinal LV systolic and diastolic functions. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. [Right versus left radial artery approach for coronary angiography. Differences observed and the learning curve].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Portales, Javier; Valdesuso, Raúl; Carreras, Raúl; Jiménez-Candil, Javier; Serrador, Ana; Romaní, Sebastián

    2006-10-01

    There are anatomical differences between right and left radial artery approaches for coronary catheterization that could influence application of the technique. We present the results of a randomized study that compared the effectiveness of the two approaches and identified factors associated with failure of the procedure. The study involved 351 consecutive patients: a left radial approach was used in 180, and a right radial approach, in 171. The procedure could not be completed using the initial approach selected in 15 patients (11 right radial vs. 4 left radial; P=.007). Use of a right radial approach, lack of catheterization experience, patient age >70 years, and the absence of hypertension were found to be independently associated with prolonged fluoroscopy duration and failure using the initial approach. Use of the right radial approach in patients aged over 70 years was associated with a 6-fold increase in the risk of an adverse event. Consequently, use of the right radial approach should be avoided in patients aged over 70 years when trainee practitioners are on the learning curve.

  5. A Variant in COX-2 Gene Is Associated with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease and Clinical Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanning; Sun, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    As a particular severe phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD), left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is heritable. Genetic variants related to prostaglandin metabolism are associated with LMCAD. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key synthase in prostaglandin pathways, displays high density in atherosclerotic lesions and promotes early atherosclerosis in CAD progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants in COX-2 gene contribute to LMCAD phenotype susceptibility compared to more peripheral coronary artery disease (MPCAD). In this study, we genotyped COX-2 rs5275, rs5277, and rs689466 of 1544 CAD patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and found that rs5277 C allele carriage was associated with LMCAD (adjusted OR: 1.590; 95% CI: 1.103~2.291; p = 0.013). Furtherly, long-term follow-up data suggested that rs5277 C allele carriage increased risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in the whole cohort (adjusted HR: 1.561; 95% CI: 1.025~2.377; p = 0.038) and LMCAD subgroup (adjusted HR: 2.014; 95% CI: 1.036~3.913; p = 0.039) but not in MPCAD subgroup (adjusted HR: 1.375; 95% CI: 0.791~2.392; p = 0.259). In conclusion, we demonstrate that COX-2 rs5277 C allele increases the risk of left main coronary artery lesion and is also correlated with poor prognosis of LMCAD patients with CABG therapy. PMID:28194409

  6. Anomalous Origin of the Left Common Carotid Artery from the Main Pulmonary Artery: A Rare Association in an Infant with CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Blaise; Hirsch, Russel

    2016-01-01

    Case Report. Isolated carotid artery originating from the pulmonary trunk is an exceedingly rare anomalous origin of head and neck vessels. We present this finding, along with a persistent embryonic trigeminal artery, in a male infant with multiple cardiac defects and other congenital anomalies associated with CHARGE syndrome. After extensive investigations, cardiac catheterization revealed the anomalous left common carotid artery arising from the cranial aspect of the main pulmonary artery. There was retrograde flow in this vessel, resulting from the lower pulmonary pressure, essentially stealing arterial supply from the left anterior cerebral circulation. The persistent left-sided trigeminal artery provided collateral flow from the posterior circulation to the left internal carotid artery territory, allowing for safe ligation of the anomalous origin of the left common carotid artery, thereby reversing the steal of arterial blood flow into the pulmonary circulation and resulting in a net improvement of cerebral perfusion. Conclusion. The possibility of this vascular anomaly should be considered in all infants with CHARGE syndrome. Surgical repair or ligation should be tailored to the specific patient circumstances, following a careful delineation of all sources of cerebral perfusion. PMID:27974985

  7. [Clinical aspects of arteriosclerotic stenosis of the left coronary artery main stem].

    PubMed

    Volth, L; Csapó, K; Mihóczy, L

    1991-06-23

    Authors have found 37 significant (greater than 50%) or severe (greater than 75%) cases of left main stem stenosis (LMS) (3.4%, 35 male and 2 female) during 1097 consecutive selective coronarography. Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of the 35 male pts. showed severe effort or resting anginal complaints in the 2/3 of the pts., however this was not in tight connection with the degree of the LMS stenosis or the number of associated peripheral coronary stenoses respectively, similar to the ischaemic disorders of the resting ECG. In the bycicle ergometry ECG data lone the double index showed statistically significant difference between the groups of less than or equal to 2 and 3 vessel diseases connected to the severe LMS. Myocardium scintigraphy was performed out in 6 pts., all of them has given positive result. They emphasise the necessarity of urgent revascularisation against the higher risk of the intervention because of the pour results of the medical treatment.

  8. Effect of electron radiation on vasomotor function of the left anterior descending coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Billings, Paul C.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Laughlin, Maurice H.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    The left anterior descending (LAD, interventricular) coronary artery provides the blood supply to the mid-region of the heart and is a major site of vessel stenosis. Changes in LAD function can have major effects on heart function. In this report, we examined the effect of electron simulated solar particle event (eSPE) radiation on LAD function in a porcine animal model. Vasodilatory responses to adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 10-9-10-4 M), bradykinin (BK; 10-11-10-6 M), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10-10-10-4 M) were assessed. The LAD arteries from Control (non-irradiated) and the eSPE (irradiated) animals were isolated and exhibited a similar relaxation response following treatment with either ADP or SNP. In contrast, a significantly reduced relaxation response to BK treatment was observed in the eSPE irradiated group, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that simulated SPE radiation exposure alters LAD function.

  9. Stenting of the left main coronary artery. Local experience in Liège.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, A; Boland, J; Legrand, V; Materne, P

    2000-06-01

    We examined the immediate and long-term outcome after stenting of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) in 41 consecutive patients who had been considered unsuitable for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The procedure was elective in thirty-two patients (78%) with a protected LMCA in 24 patients and non-protected LMCA in 8 patients; the procedure was acute in the setting of myocardial infarction or complication of a diagnostic angiography in 9 patients (22%). The mean follow-up duration was 19 +/- 13 months. There were 5 in-hospital and 3 late deaths; repeat angioplasty was performed in 5 cases, but only one for LMCA restenosis. Results varied considerably depending on the clinical presentation. For acute patients, technical success was achieved in 89%, survival at hospital discharge was 44% and there was no cardiac event at the late follow-up. For elective patients, technical success was achieved in 100%, survival at hospital discharge was 96% and 90% at follow-up. The results of our study suggest that when patients have surgical risks, elective LMCA stenting either protected or unprotected may be undertaken with a high procedural success rate and a favourable clinical late follow-up.

  10. Aneurysm of an Anomalous Systemic Artery Supplying the Normal Basal Segments of the Left Lower Lobe: Endovascular Treatment with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II and Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat Gumus, Mehmet; Kilic, Evrim; Erol, Bekir; Cetin, Huseyin; Hasanoglu, Hatice Canan; Arslan, Halil

    2011-02-15

    An anomalous systemic artery originating from the descending thoracic aorta supplying the normal basal segments of the lower lobe of the left lung without sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly. The published surgical treatments include lobectomy, segmentectomy, anastomosis, and ligation. In addition, endovascular treatment with coils has been reported. A second-generation occluder, the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II (AVP II), has a central plug and two occlusion disks and a finer, more densely woven nitinol wire, thus enabling faster embolization. This published case is the first successful occlusion of an aneurysm of an anomalous systemic artery with the AVP II and fibered coils, with 10 months of follow-up.

  11. Endothelin-1 and ET receptors impair left ventricular function by mediated coronary arteries dysfunction in chronic intermittent hypoxia rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Wei; Li, Ai-Ying; Guo, Qiu-Hong; Guo, Ya-Jing; Weiss, James W; Ji, En-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results in cardiac dysfunction and vascular endothelium injury. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main characteristic of OSAS, is considered to be mainly responsible for cardiovascular system impairment. This study is aimed to evaluate the role of endothelin-1(ET-1) system in coronary injury and cardiac dysfunction in CIH rats. In our study, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (FiO2 9% for 1.5 min, repeated every 3 min for 8 h/d, 7 days/week for 3 weeks). After 3 weeks, the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and coronary resistance (CR) were measured with the langendorff mode in isolated hearts. Meanwhile, expressions of ET-1 and ET receptors were detected by immunohistochemical and western blot, histological changes were also observed to determine effects of CIH on coronary endothelial cells. Results suggested that decreased LVDP level combined with augmented coronary resistance was exist in CIH rats. CIH could induce endothelial injury and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation dysfunction in the coronary arteries. Furthermore, ET-1 and ETA receptor expressions in coronary vessels were increased after CIH exposure, whereas ETB receptors expression was decreased. Coronary contractile response to ET-1 in both normoxia and CIH rats was inhibited by ETA receptor antagonist BQ123. However, ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 enhanced ET-1-induced contractile in normoxia group, but had no significant effects on CIH group. These results indicate that CIH-induced cardiac dysfunction may be associated with coronary injury. ET-1 plays an important role in coronary pathogenesis of CIH through ETA receptor by mediating a potent vasoconstrictor response. Moreover, decreased ETB receptor expression that leads to endothelium-dependent vasodilatation decline, might be also participated in coronary and cardiac dysfunction.

  12. Systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions and left ventricular functional effects of levosimendan in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Harkin, C P; Pagel, P S; Tessmer, J P; Warltier, D C

    1995-08-01

    We examined the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibiting properties, on systemic and coronary hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with intact and blocked autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes. Twenty experiments were conducted in 10 dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and LV pressure, the peak rate of increase and decrease in LV pressure (+dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin), subendocardial segment length, diastolic coronary blood flow (CBF) velocity, and cardiac output (CO). The slope (Mw) of the regional preload recruitable stroke work relation was used to assess myocardial contractility. Diastolic function was evaluated by -dP/dtmin, a time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), maximum segment lengthening velocity during rapid ventricular filling (dL/dtmax), and a regional chamber stiffness constant (Kp). Dogs were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) with or without ANS blockade. On separate experimental days, systemic and coronary hemodynamics and LV pressure-segment length diagrams and waveforms were recorded after 10-min equilibration at each dose in the conscious ANS-intact or ANS-blocked state. Levosimendan increased heart rate (HR), CO, mean and diastolic CBF velocity, and pressure-work index (PWI, an estimate of myocardial oxygen consumption) and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), end-systolic and end-diastolic segment length, and mean and diastolic coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in dogs with intact ANS function. Levosimendan-induced increases in HR and PWI and decreases in SVR were attenuated by ANS blockade. Levosimendan caused equivalent dose-dependent increases in Mw in ANS-intact and ANS-blocked dogs, consistent with a positive inotropic effect independent of ANS activity. Levosimendan decreased tau (e.g., 35 +/- 1 ms during

  13. Ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery in a young woman 10 years after radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Orzan, F; Bellis, D; Mollo, F; Brusca, A

    1995-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman developed critical stenosis of the left main coronary artery 10 years after radiation treatment for Hodgkins disease. She was operated on but died in the immediate postoperative period. At autopsy the pathological findings were indistinguishable from those described in "typical" atherosclerotic plaques.

  14. Left-sided high-flow arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula combined with a persistent left superior vena cava causing coronary sinus dilatation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Scott, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    We present an interesting case illustrating the possible hemodynamic consequences when a left-sided arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula is combined with the congenital anomaly of a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Our case illustrates the importance of an echocardiographic examination with attention to the coronary sinus (CS) caliber-raising suspicion of a PLSVC-in the assessment for the hemodialysis access in end-stage renal disease patients. The causes and symptoms of CS dilatation, as well as the literature on PLSVC, are also discussed in detail.

  15. Evolution of myocardial ischemia and left ventricular function in patients with angina pectoris without myocardial infarction and total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and collaterals from other coronary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Juilliere, Y.; Marie, P.Y.; Danchin, N.; Karcher, G.; Bertrand, A.; Cherrier, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Repeated episodes of myocardial ischemia might lead to progressive impairment of left ventricular (LV) function. This radionuclide study assessed myocardial ischemia and LV function several years after documented coronary occlusion without myocardial infarction. Over 5 years, 24 consecutive patients, who underwent cardiac catheterization for angina pectoris without myocardial infarction, had isolated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery with well-developed collateral vessels. Five patients were successfully treated by coronary bypass grafting and 3 by coronary angioplasty. Among the 16 medically treated patients, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 died (extracardiac death). The mean (+/- standard deviation) follow-up (14 patients) was 48 +/- 15 months. At follow-up, 8 patients still had clinical chest pain, 11 received antianginal therapy, 4 patients had no stress ischemia and the other 10 had greater than or equal to 1 sign of stress ischemia. All patients had a normal LV ejection fraction at rest (mean 60 +/- 3%; range 55 to 65%). Collateral circulation preserves LV function at the time of occlusion and, in some cases, prevents the development of myocardial ischemia; in patients with persisting myocardial ischemia after well-collateralized coronary occlusion, LV function is not impaired at long-term follow-up.

  16. Polymorphisms of the tumor suppressor gene LSAMP are associated with left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Hauser, E R; Shah, S H; Seo, D; Sivashanmugam, P; Exum, S T; Gregory, S G; Granger, C B; Haines, J L; Jones, C J H; Crossman, D; Haynes, C; Kraus, W E; Freedman, N J; Pericak-Vance, M A; Goldschmidt-Clermont, P J; Vance, J M

    2008-07-01

    Previous association mapping on chromosome 3q13-21 detected evidence for association at the limbic system-associated membrane protein (LSAMP) gene in individuals with late-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). LSAMP has never been implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. We sought to thoroughly characterize the association and the gene. Non-redundant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the gene were examined in an initial dataset (168 cases with late-onset CAD, 149 controls). Stratification analysis on left main CAD (N = 102) revealed stronger association, which was further validated in a validation dataset (141 cases with left main CAD, 215 controls), a third control dataset (N = 255), and a family-based dataset (N = 2954). A haplotype residing in a novel alternative transcript of the LSAMP gene was significant in all independent case-control datasets (p = 0.0001 to 0.0205) and highly significant in the joint analysis (p = 0.00004). Lower expression of the novel alternative transcript was associated with the risk haplotype (p = 0.0002) and atherosclerosis burden in human aortas (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, silencing LSAMP expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) substantially augmented SMC proliferation (p<0.01). Therefore, the risk conferred by the LSAMP haplotype appears to be mediated by LSAMP down-regulation, which may promote SMC proliferation in the arterial wall and progression of atherosclerosis.

  17. Left ventricular volume during supine exercise: importance of myocardial scar in patients with coronary heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.L.; Scharf, J.; Ahnve, S.; Gilpin, E.

    1987-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that exercise-induced ischemia produces an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume; however, all of these studies have included patients with previous myocardial infarction. To test whether the end-diastolic volume response to exercise is related to the extent of myocardial scar, the results of gated radionuclide supine exercise tests performed on 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 men aged 35 to 65 years (mean +/- SD 52 +/- 5) with documented coronary heart disease. The extent of myocardial ischemia and scar formation was assessed by stress electrocardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Patients were classified into three groups on the basis of left ventricular end-diastolic volume response at peak exercise: group 1 (n = 72) had an increase of end-diastolic volume greater than 10%, group 2 (n = 41) had a change in end-diastolic volume less than 10% and group 3 (n = 17) had a decrease in end-diastolic volume greater than 10% (n = 17). At rest there was no significant difference among groups in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, end-diastolic (EDVrest) or end-systolic volumes or ejection fraction (p greater than 0.05); however, at peak exercise the end-systolic volume response was significantly greater for group 1 (p less than 0.002).

  18. Prognostic value of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Prada-Delgado, Oscar; Barge-Caballero, Eduardo; Peteiro, Jesús; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Barge-Caballero, Gonzalo; López-Pérez, Manuel; Vázquez-González, Nicolás; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2015-02-01

    We sought to assess the prognostic value of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with normal resting echocardiography and absence of coronary artery disease. From our database of patients referred for treadmill exercise echocardiography, we identified 93 hypertensive patients with preserved resting left ventricular ejection fraction (≥ 50%), no evidence of structural heart disease, and absence of coronary artery disease on angiography. Overall, 39 patients developed exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction (defined as a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction below 50% at peak exercise) and 54 exhibited a normal left ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise. The mean follow-up was 6.1 (3.7) years. End points were all-cause mortality, cardiac death, heart failure, and the composite event of cardiac death or heart failure. Patients who developed exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction were at higher risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio=3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-10.3), cardiac death (hazard ratio=5.6; 95%CI, 1.1-29.4), heart failure (hazard ratio=8.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-44.2), and the composite end point (hazard ratio=5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.0). In the multivariate analysis, exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction remained an independent predictor of both heart failure (hazard ratio=6.9; 95% CI, 1.3-37.4) and the composite event of cardiac death or heart failure (hazard ratio=4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-16.0). In hypertensive patients with preserved resting left ventricular ejection fraction and absence of coronary artery disease, exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction is a strong predictor of cardiac events and may represent early hypertensive heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass grafting in treatment of unprotected left main stenosis (NOBLE): a prospective, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Mäkikallio, Timo; Holm, Niels R; Lindsay, Mitchell; Spence, Mark S; Erglis, Andrejs; Menown, Ian B A; Trovik, Thor; Eskola, Markku; Romppanen, Hannu; Kellerth, Thomas; Ravkilde, Jan; Jensen, Lisette O; Kalinauskas, Gintaras; Linder, Rikard B A; Pentikainen, Markku; Hervold, Anders; Banning, Adrian; Zaman, Azfar; Cotton, Jamen; Eriksen, Erlend; Margus, Sulev; Sørensen, Henrik T; Nielsen, Per H; Niemelä, Matti; Kervinen, Kari; Lassen, Jens F; Maeng, Michael; Oldroyd, Keith; Berg, Geoff; Walsh, Simon J; Hanratty, Colm G; Kumsars, Indulis; Stradins, Peteris; Steigen, Terje K; Fröbert, Ole; Graham, Alastair N J; Endresen, Petter C; Corbascio, Matthias; Kajander, Olli; Trivedi, Uday; Hartikainen, Juha; Anttila, Vesa; Hildick-Smith, David; Thuesen, Leif; Christiansen, Evald H

    2016-12-03

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the standard treatment for revascularisation in patients with left main coronary artery disease, but use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for this indication is increasing. We aimed to compare PCI and CABG for treatment of left main coronary artery disease. In this prospective, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial, patients with left main coronary artery disease were enrolled in 36 centres in northern Europe and randomised 1:1 to treatment with PCI or CABG. Eligible patients had stable angina pectoris, unstable angina pectoris, or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Exclusion criteria were ST-elevation myocardial infarction within 24 h, being considered too high risk for CABG or PCI, or expected survival of less than 1 year. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), a composite of all-cause mortality, non-procedural myocardial infarction, any repeat coronary revascularisation, and stroke. Non-inferiority of PCI to CABG required the lower end of the 95% CI not to exceed a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·35 after up to 5 years of follow-up. The intention-to-treat principle was used in the analysis if not specified otherwise. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, number NCT01496651. Between Dec 9, 2008, and Jan 21, 2015, 1201 patients were randomly assigned, 598 to PCI and 603 to CABG, and 592 in each group entered analysis by intention to treat. Kaplan-Meier 5 year estimates of MACCE were 29% for PCI (121 events) and 19% for CABG (81 events), HR 1·48 (95% CI 1·11-1·96), exceeding the limit for non-inferiority, and CABG was significantly better than PCI (p=0·0066). As-treated estimates were 28% versus 19% (1·55, 1·18-2·04, p=0·0015). Comparing PCI with CABG, 5 year estimates were 12% versus 9% (1·07, 0·67-1·72, p=0·77) for all-cause mortality, 7% versus 2% (2·88, 1·40-5·90, p=0·0040) for non-procedural myocardial infarction, 16

  20. [Hemodynamic effects of intracardiac diatritoic acid and their dependance on left ventricular function and severity of coronary sclerosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kober, G; Schröder, W; Kaltenbach, M

    1978-07-01

    In 16 patients with coronary heart disease (n = 13) and cardiomyopathy (n = 3) heart rate, left ventricular pressure and contractility (max dp/dt, min dp/dt and Vpm) were measured prior during and after three consecutive left ventricular angiograms. Heart rate decreased during angiography and increased slightly but significantly after angiography. Systolic and diastolic left ventricular pressure, max dp/dt and min dp/dt increased after angiography, whereas Vpm remained unchanged. Any hemodynamic changes occuring were moderate and only of short duration. No significant differences were found a) between patients with angiographically proven normal and reduced left ventricular function, b) between patients with normal or increased left ventricular filling pressure or c) between those with slight or severe coronary heart disease. The investigations point to a good tolerance for the sodium methyl glucamine salt of diatrizoic acid (Urografin 76) even in patients with progressed coronary heart disease. Severe side-effects described in animal experiments indicate a poor comparibility between animal models and human studies. Moreover animal experiments are mostly done with high doses not used clinically.

  1. Left phrenic nerve anatomy relative to the coronary venous system: Implications for phrenic nerve stimulation during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Julianne H; Goff, Ryan P; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize anatomy of the human phrenic nerve in relation to the coronary venous system, to reduce undesired phrenic nerve stimulation during left-sided lead implantations. We obtained CT scans while injecting contrast into coronary veins of 15 perfusion-fixed human heart-lung blocs. A radiopaque wire was glued to the phrenic nerve under CT, then we created three-dimensional models of anatomy and measured anatomical parameters. The left phrenic nerve typically coursed over the basal region of the anterior interventricular vein, mid region of left marginal veins, and apical region of inferior and middle cardiac veins. There was large variation associated with the average angle between nerve and veins. Average angle across all coronary sinus tributaries was fairly consistent (101.3°-111.1°). The phrenic nerve coursed closest to the middle cardiac vein and left marginal veins. The phrenic nerve overlapped a left marginal vein in >50% of specimens.

  2. Progressively heterogeneous mismatch of regional oxygen delivery to consumption during graded coronary stenosis in pig left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Alders, David J C; Groeneveld, A B Johan; Binsl, Thomas W; van Beek, Johannes H G M

    2015-11-15

    In normal hearts, myocardial perfusion is fairly well matched to regional metabolic demand, although both are distributed heterogeneously. Nonuniform regional metabolic vulnerability during coronary stenosis would help to explain nonuniform necrosis during myocardial infarction. In the present study, we investigated whether metabolism-perfusion correlation diminishes during coronary stenosis, indicating increasing mismatch of regional oxygen supply to demand. Thirty anesthetized male pigs were studied: controls without coronary stenosis (n = 11); group I, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary stenosis leading to coronary perfusion pressure reduction to 70 mmHg (n = 6); group II, stenosis with perfusion pressure of about 35 mmHg (n = 6); and group III, stenosis with perfusion pressure of 45 mmHg combined with adenosine infusion (n = 7). [2-(13)C]- and [1,2-(13)C]acetate infusion was used to calculate regional O2 consumption from glutamate NMR spectra measured for multiple tissue samples of about 100 mg dry mass in the LAD region. Blood flow was measured with microspheres in the same regions. In control hearts without stenosis, regional oxygen extraction did not correlate with basal blood flow. Average myocardial O2 delivery and consumption decreased during coronary stenosis, but vasodilation with adenosine counteracted this. Regional oxygen extraction was on average decreased during stenosis, suggesting adaptation of metabolism to lower oxygen supply after half an hour of ischemia. Whereas regional O2 delivery correlated with O2 consumption in controls, this relation was progressively lost with graded coronary hypotension but partially reestablished by adenosine infusion. Therefore, coronary stenosis leads to heterogeneous metabolic stress indicated by decreasing regional O2 supply to demand matching in myocardium during partial coronary obstruction. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Compensatory remodeling of coronary microvasculature maintains shear stress in porcine left-ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yunlong; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-03-01

    Hypertension-induced left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is generally accompanied with coronary neovascularization. The extent of vascular growth or rarefaction depends on many factors (e.g. age, duration of hypertension, degree of hypertrophy). Here, we hypothesize that there is a compensatory vascular growth that maintains uniform wall shear stress (WSS) in perfusion arterioles (diameters of 8-60 μm) in LVH of young porcine. To test this hypothesis, we investigated LVH in young porcine after 5 weeks of supravalvular aortic stenosis (3 months of age). The morphometry (diameters, lengths, number and connectivity of vessels) of the entire left circumflex (LCx) arterial tree was determined and a hemodynamic network analysis was used to calculate the distribution of pressure, flow and WSS throughout the tree in the control and LVH groups. It was found that the number of vessels and the weight of left ventricle (LV) in hypertrophy increased 1.5 and 1.2 times, respectively, and the length of the LCx main trunk increased by 3 cm (36% increase), as compared with those in control group. There were similar myocardial blood flows of 0.87 ± 0.24 and 0.94 ± 0.38 ml/min per g in control and LVH hearts, respectively. The compensatory remodeling in early LVH restores WSS in the smaller perfusion arterioles, but not in the larger epicardial branches. The present findings quantify the structural and functional remodeling in the entire LCx arterial tree in response to LVH, which reflect heterogeneity in vascular morphometry and hemodynamics from small to large vessels. These conclusions enhance our understanding of compensatory vascular remodeling in LVH of pediatric heart.

  4. The contrast media iohexol causes vasoconstriction of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery: implications for appropriate stent sizing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert V; Gillespie, Michael J; Cohen, Mauricio G; McLaughlin, David P; Magnus Ohman, E; Stouffer, George A

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the contrast agent iohexol on reference vessel size in patients with proximal left anterior descending disease is unknown. Quantitative coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound were performed in 15 patients with atherosclerotic disease of the proximal left anterior descending. Mean proximal reference vessel diameter was 2.95 +/- 0.59 mm with quantitative coronary angiography and 4.65 +/- 0.66 mm with intravascular ultrasound (P < .05). Intracoronary injection of iohexol resulted in a significant decrease in intravascular ultrasound-measured proximal reference vessel diameter from 4.65 +/- 0.66 mm to 4.47 +/- 0.68 mm (P = .002). Vasoconstrictive response to iohexol in the proximal reference vessel ranged from -0.04 mm to 0.5 mm with a mean of 0.18 +/- 0.16 mm. This study shows that iohexol can cause significant vasoconstriction of the proximal reference vessel in patients with severe disease involving the proximal left anterior descending.

  5. Effects of propranolol on resting and postextrasystolic potentiated left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M J; Temkin, L P; Goldman, S; Ovitt, T W

    1983-01-01

    The effect of propranolol on global and segmental left ventricular function at rest and after postextrasystolic potentiation was studied in 12 patients with chest pain. Heart rate was controlled with atrial pacing, and left ventricular cineangiograms were performed before and after 0.15 mg/kg of propranolol. During each ventriculogram a premature ventricular stimulus was introduced by means of a programmed stimulator. Propranolol decreased global left ventricular ejection fraction from 64 +/- 4.5 to 58 +/- 4.6 (p less than 0.03). Postextrasystolic potentiated global ejection fraction was not affected by propranolol (78 +/- 3.5 vs 73.6 +/- 3.4; p = NS). The area ejection fraction of the anteroapical region was decreased after propranolol (64 +/- 4.8 vs 52 +/- 6.5; p less than 0.01); however, the postextrasystolic potentiated area ejection fraction was not affected by propranolol (78 +/- 2.6 vs 71 +/- 4.6; p = NS). Frame by frame analysis of the ventriculograms demonstrated that propranolol depressed global and segmental left ventricular function by affecting the second one-third ejection fraction without influencing the first or third one-third ejection fraction. Propranolol has a small depressant effect on global and segmental left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Postextrasystolic potentiated global and segmental left ventricular function and early systolic ejection phase indices are not altered by propranolol and therefore may be useful in assessing left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease who are taking propranolol.

  6. Systematic comparison of the effectiveness of radial artery and saphenous vein or right internal thoracic artery coronary bypass grafts in non-left anterior descending coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Zhao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is increasingly being carried out on patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease, but the best grafting candidate for non-left anterior descending coronary arteries is unclear. This research sought to systematically compare the efficacies and safeties of coronary bypass with radial artery and other available grafts. A systematic literature retrieval was performed for all clinical trials comparing the outcomes of coronary artery bypass surgery with radial artery and other grafts in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Seven eligible clinical studies, comparing radial artery and great saphenous vein grafts, were found between 1966 and 2010: one prospective non-randomized and six prospective randomized trials. The pooling analysis obtained a relative risk of 0.507 (P<0.05) of graft occlusion in radial arteries compared with great saphenous veins. There was a significantly lower infection rate in arms (i.e., harvest sites for radial arteries) relative to legs (harvest sites for veins), with a pooled relative risk of 0.140 (P<0.05). From the reports on mortality after follow-up ranging from one year to six years, there was no significant difference in mortality between the two graft types (P=0.927). In addition, four cohort controlled trials for radial and right internal thoracic artery grafts were included. The radial graft was associated with less cardiac related events relative to the right internal thoracic artery graft (P=0.014), but with comparable mortality and comparable rates of repeat percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Subjects with radial arteries seemed to have a lower occlusion rate and a lower graft harvest site infection rate than those with great saphenous veins. Moreover there were fewer cardiac related events with radial arteries relative to the right internal thoracic artery grafts. More studies are needed to confirm these findings concerning the favorable outcomes of coronary artery

  7. Risk of brain injury during diagnostic coronary angiography: comparison between right and left radial approach.

    PubMed

    Pacchioni, Andrea; Versaci, Francesco; Mugnolo, Antonio; Penzo, Carlo; Nikas, Dimitrios; Saccà, Salvatore; Favero, Luca; Agostoni, Pier Francesco; Garami, Zsolt; Prati, Francesco; Reimers, Bernhard

    2013-09-10

    To assess the incidence of silent cerebral embolization when using the transradial approach for diagnostic coronary angiography (DCA). Compared to other vascular access sites, the right transradial approach (RTA) could reduce the amount of brain emboli by avoiding mechanical trauma to the aortic wall caused by catheters and wire, whereas it increases manipulation of catheters in the ascending aorta and has a higher risk of direct embolization into the right common carotid artery. A recent study showed an increased incidence of microembolic signals (MES) in RTA compared to femoral. However, left transradial approach (LTA) has never been assessed. 40 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were randomized to DCA via RTA (n=20) or LTA (n=20) with contemporaneous bilateral transcranial Doppler monitoring. MES were detected in all patients, with a significantly higher rate in the RTA group (median 61, interquartile range (IQR) 47-105, vs 48, IQR 31-60, p=0.035). MES generated during procedures needing >2 catheters (n=8), are higher than those detected during procedures performed with 2 catheters (n=32, 102, IQR 70-108, vs 48, IQR 33-60, p=0.001). At multivariate analysis increasing number of catheters was the only independent predictor of high incidence of MES (OR 16.4, 95% CI 1.23-219.9, p=0.034, -2LL=26.7). LTA has a lower risk of brain embolization because of the lower number of catheter exchange maneuvers. Since the degree of brain embolism depends on the magnitude of mechanical manipulation, catheter changes should be minimized to reduce the risk of cerebral embolization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inducible Myocardial Ischemia and Outcomes in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Panza, Julio A.; Holly, Thomas A.; Asch, Federico M.; She, Lilin; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Borges-Neto, Salvador; Farsky, Pedro S.; Jones, Robert H.; Berman, Daniel S.; Bonow, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypotheses that ischemia during stress testing has prognostic value and that it identifies those coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction who derive the greatest benefit from coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) compared to medical therapy. Background The clinical significance of stress-induced ischemia in patients with CAD and moderately to severely reduced LV ejection fraction (EF) is largely unknown. Methods The Surgical Treatment of IsChemic Heart failure (STICH) trial randomized patients with CAD and EF ≤35% to CABG or medical therapy. In this study, we assessed the outcomes of those STICH patients who underwent either a radionuclide (RN) stress test or a dobutamine stress echocardiogram (DSE). A test was considered positive for ischemia by RN if the summed difference score (difference in tracer activity between stress and rest) was ≥4 or if ≥2 of 16 segments were ischemic during DSE. Clinical endpoints were assessed by intention-to-treat during a median follow-up of 56 months. Results Of the 399 study patients (51 women, mean EF 26±8%), 197 were randomized to CABG and 202 to medical therapy. Myocardial ischemia was induced during stress testing in 256 patients (64% of the study population). Patients with and without ischemia were similar in age, multi-vessel CAD, previous myocardial infarction, LV EF, LV volumes, and treatment allocation (all p=NS). There was no difference between patients with vs. those without ischemia in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.77–1.50; p=0.66), cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause mortality plus cardiovascular hospitalization. There was no interaction between ischemia and treatment for any clinical endpoint. Conclusions In CAD with severe LV dysfunction, inducible myocardial ischemia does not identify patients with worse prognosis or those with greater benefit from CABG over optimal medical therapy. Clinical Trial ID: Clinical

  9. Nonpharmacological Correction of Hypersympatheticotonia in Patients with Chronic Coronary Insufficiency and Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Afanasiev, Sergey A; Pavliukova, Elena N; Kuzmichkina, Maria A; Rebrova, Tatiana Yu; Anfinogenova, Yana; Likhomanov, Konstantin S; Karpov, Rostislav S

    2016-11-01

    Control of sympathetic hyperactivity is pivotal for treatment of heart failure (HF) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Our earlier studies demonstrated that the auricular pulsed electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) beneficially affected condition of CAD patients with HF. The aim of our study was to evaluate changes in heart rate (HR) and the levels of heat shock proteins in peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with CAD in the course of VNS. The study comprised 70 individuals aged 50-68 years with chronic coronary insufficiency, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and NYHA functional class (FC) III-IV HF. Main group included 63 patients who received VNS course (group 1). Control patients (n = 7) received sham therapy (group 2). According to the results of 6-minute walk test and 24-hour ECG monitoring, administration of VNS improved clinical condition of 58 of 63 patients, decreased HF FC, and attenuated HR. Clinical condition in sham therapy group did not change. Immunoenzyme method demonstrated that hsp70 and hsp60 contents in peripheral blood lymphocyte lysate increased by 58% and 48% (P < 0.05), respectively, in patients who initially had HR < 80 bpm. The hsp70 level significantly increased and hsp60 level remained unchanged in patients with initial HR > 80 bpm. Correction of autonomous nervous status by VNS attenuated HR and improved functional state of the heart in CAD patients. Cardiotropic effect of VNS was the most pronounced in patients with preserved endogenous stress-limiting systems associated with hsp60 and/or hsp70. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Iatrogenic left main-stem dissection extending to the circumflex artery and retrogradely involving the left and non-coronary sinuses of Valsalva: iatrogenic aortocoronary dissection.

    PubMed

    Zwoliński, Radosław; Marcinkiewicz, Anna; Szymczyk, Konrad; Pietruszyński, Robert; Jaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-11-23

    We present the case of a 57-year-old female who experienced iatrogenic left main-stem (LMS) dissection during elective coronary angiography. The dissection immediately affected the circumflex artery (Cx), causing its total distal occlusion, and the left anterior descending artery (LAD), in which a metal stent, implanted six months earlier, provided blood flow. The dissection spread retrogradely to the left and non-coronary sinuses of Valsalva (SV). Ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurred but the patient was successfully defibrillated. The subsequent introduction of a catheter resulted in recurrent VF, again successfully defibrillated. Total arterial myocardial revascularisation with double skeletonised internal thoracic arteries was performed without complications and SV repair was avoided. At the one-year follow up, a control multi-slice CT (MSCT) angiography was conducted, revealing complete healing of the SV and LMS dissections. It also showed native blood flow, the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) graft to the Cx occlusion, and a patent right internal thoracic artery (RITA) graft implanted to the LAD.

  11. Novel anaesthetic approach for surgical access and haemodynamic management during off-pump coronary artery bypass through a left thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Maddali, Madan Mohan; Al-Jadidi, Abdullah M; Zacharias, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    For myocardial revascularization on a beating heart through a thoracotomy, a properly deployed endobronchial blocker (EBB) provides ideal conditions for surgical access. In addition, adequate volume replacement to achieve optimal cardiac performance is a primary goal of haemodynamic management in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. To achieve both these ends, this case report describes the combined use of a left-sided EBB along with a volumetric pulmonary artery catheter in a patient who underwent a successful off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery through an anterolateral thoracotomy.

  12. Left main coronary artery stenosis treatment with two paclitaxel-eluting stents in a patient with cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ríos, Marco A; Méndez-Ortíz, Arturo; Gaspar, Jorge; Barragán-García, Rodolfo; Fernández-de-la-Reguera, Guillermo; González-Quesada, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation is a well defined therapy for end stage heart failure. After the first year of transplantation, allograft coronary artery disease (ACAD) is the second main cause of death. The ACAD is defined as a diffuse process affecting the entire length of epicardial vessels. Once ACAD has been established, treatments such as coronary angioplasty, coronary stenting, and coronary bypass are performed. We present a case of successful stenting of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) in a patient with ACAD. The patient's medical history was significant for heart transplantation due to ischemic heart failure. Four years after transplantation the patient was admitted again due to sudden worsening of New York Heart Association functional class and extreme fatigue. Coronary angiogram showed a severe stenosis in the proximal segment of the LMCA; we performed stenting with a paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES). Six months after the procedure, the patient had an elective angiogram, where we discovered a new severe occlusion distally to the former stent; a second PES was implanted. Fourteen months after the second stenting, a new elective angiogram was performed without evidence of in-stent restenosis. After a 8-year follow-up since transplantation, the patient is free from dyspnea, angina, and adverse cardiovascular events. Our report suggests the efficacy of PES as ACAD treatment of the unprotected LMCA.

  13. ST elevation in the lead aVR during exercise treadmill testing may indicate left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Namik; Yiginer, Omer; Uz, Omer; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki; Kocum, Halil Tolga

    2010-10-01

    exercise treadmill testing (ETT) is the most widely used method for evaluating patients with coronary artery disease. Predicting the left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease before invasive procedures is very important in risk assessment because of its severe clinical outcome. To examine whether ST elevation in lead aVR during ETT may suggest LMCA disease since the lead aVR is the reciprocal lead of LMCA. in this study, 61 patients with positive ETT were included. The study group consisted of 21 patients with ST elevation in lead aVR. Forty patients, also having positive ETT, but without ST elevation in lead aVR comprised the control group. All patients underwent coronary angiography. coronary angiography in the study group revealed significant LMCA stenosis in 16 (76%) patients, whereas LMCA disease was present in only 3 (8%) patients from the control group. There was no significant coronary artery stenosis in 5 patients in the study group and 12 patients in the control group. Of the 16 patients who had LMCA stenosis, 9 had isolated LMCA disease and 7 had additional stenotic lesions in LAD or circumflex coronary arteries. The sensitivity and specificity of ST segment elevation in lead aVR during ETT was 84% and 88%, respectively. The values of positive and negative predictive value of this finding in diagnosing the presence of LMCA were 76% and 93%, respectively. ST segment elevation in lead aVR during ETT may point to a high probability of the presence of LMCA disease.

  14. Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery with an interarterial course: understanding current management strategies in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Julie; Gaynor, J William; Paridon, Stephen; Lorber, Richard; Jacobs, Marshall

    2009-10-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus of Valsalva with an interarterial course (AAOCA) is a rare congenital anomaly that is the second leading cardiovascular cause of sudden death in children and adolescents. Management practices with respect to this lesion vary among clinicians. We surveyed practitioners' opinions on treatment and management strategies for patients with AAOCA. A 17-question "Patient Management Questionnaire" was sent to all Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society (CHSS) members (n = 90), who were asked to respond and to distribute the questionnaire to pediatric cardiologists and nurse practitioners at their institutions. Questions addressed patient presentation, diagnostic modalities, therapeutic intervention, complications to therapy, follow-up visits, and type and frequency of follow-up testing. Descriptive statistics were used for analyses. We received 113 responses. Almost all respondents agree that ischemia at presentation or with provocative testing warrants surgical repair, whereas the majority believes that any patient with symptoms but no evidence of ischemia should have surgery. Approximately one-half and one-third of the respondents manage patients who are awaiting surgery or not having surgery by completely restricting exercise or not allowing competitive athletics, respectively. In asymptomatic patients, patient age determines timing of surgical repair but almost one-quarter did not believe that an asymptomatic child should undergo surgery. Among patients managed medically, there were six sudden deaths; there were two deaths in those who had surgical repair. There is marked heterogeneity in physician opinions regarding AAOCA treatment and management. A multicenter registry would facilitate the development of evidence-based treatment and management guidelines for children and young adults with AAOCA.

  15. The value of ST-segment elevation in lead aVR for predicting left main coronary artery lesion in patients suspected of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nough, H; Jorat, M V; Varasteravan, H R; Ahmadieh, M H; Tavakkolian, N; Sheikhvatan, M

    2012-01-01

    The use of lead aVR for predicting appearance of left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesion has been recently a subject of great interest. This study evaluates the predictive value of ST-segment elevation in lead aVR on electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of significant LMCA lesions. The study population consisted of 400 consecutive patients admitted within 6 hours from the onset of typical chest pain to coronary care unit (CCU). Electrocardiogram was recorded after the admission to emergency ward. ST segment elevation in aVR lead was measured and coronary angiography was performed within 48 hours admission to CCU. Overall, 31% of suspected patients had ST segment elevation in aVR lead that elevation more than 0.1 mv was observed in 34.7% of all subjects. High incidence of ST segment elevation > 0.1 mv was seen in the group with left main lesion so that 40.7% of men and 43.8% of women with (LMCA) lesion had ST segment elevation > 0.1 mv. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of ST segment elevation > 0.1 mv and the number of diseased coronary vessels in men. However, this relation was not observed in women. Different risk profile of ACS did not influence the incidence of the ST-segment elevation in aVR lead. Compared with coronary angiography, ST-segment elevation in lead aVR in ECG had a sensitivity of 62.7%, a specificity of 73.6%, a positive predictive value of 25.8%, and a negative predictive value of 93.1% in predicting LMCA disease. ST-elevation of lead aVR is a valuable indicator for predicting LMCA lesion with acceptable accuracy and predictive value.

  16. Effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery on left ventricular systolic function

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Ryan J.; Kealhofer, Jessica V.; Adabag, Selcuk; Vakil, Kairav

    2017-01-01

    Background Changes in left ventricular (LV) systolic function in response to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have not been fully assessed. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2014, 2,838 consecutive patients underwent isolated CABG at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Of these, 375 had echocardiographic assessment of LV function before (within 6 months) and after (3 to 24 months) CABG and were included in this analysis. Results While the mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) did not change following CABG [(49±13)% vs. (49±12)%, P=0.51], LVEF decreased in the subgroup with normal (≥50%) pre-operative LVEF [from (59±5)% to (56±9)%, P<0.001] and improved in those with decreased (<50%) pre-operative LVEF [from (36±9)% to (41±12)%, P<0.001]. There was a significant reduction in LV internal diameter during end-diastole (LVIDd) (5.4±0.8 vs. 5.3±0.9, P=0.002) and an increase in left atrial diameter (LAD) (4.4±0.7 vs. 4.6±0.7, P<0.001). There were no perioperative changes in LV internal diameter during end-systole, LV mass, posterior wall thickness, or septal wall thickness. LVEF improved by >5% in 24% of the study population, did not change (+/− 5%) in 55%, and worsened by >5% in 21%. Patients with improved EF were less often diabetic and had lower pre-operative LVEF, and greater LV dimensions at baseline. Conclusions After CABG, there was a decrease in LVIDd and an increase in LAD. Also, a decrease in LV systolic function with CABG was observed in patients with normal pre-operative LVEF and an improvement in LV systolic function was observed in patients with decreased pre-operative LVEF. PMID:28275473

  17. Alterations in echocardiographic left ventricular function after percutaneous coronary stenting in diabetic patients with isolated severe proximal left anterior descending artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Nabati, Maryam; Taghavi, Morteza; Saffar, Naser; Yazdani, Jamshid; Bagheri, Babak

    There are conflicting theories regarding the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of isolated severe proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery stenosis in place of left internal mammary artery grafting in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCI on left ventricular function and determine difference between diabetics and non-diabetics. A prospective study was conducted on 50 patients with isolated severe proximal LAD stenosis: 23 diabetic and 27 non-diabetic patients. Successful PCI with everolimus-eluting stents was performed for all of the patients. These patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 24h before and 1 month after PCI, and alterations in the left ventricular parameters were compared between the two groups. There was a significant 12% increment in the mitral annular peak systolic velocity (s') (p=0.02), 21% decrement in the trans mitral early filling deceleration time (DT) (p<0.001), 10% decrement in the systolic left ventricular internal dimension (LVIDs) (p=0.002), significant increment in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p=0.004), and significant decrement in the left atrial diameter (p=0.006) in the diabetic patients after performing PCI. Conversely, the non-diabetic patients showed a statistically significant 14% increase in the DT, 6.3% decrease in the s' velocity, 8% increase in the LVIDs, significant increment in the left atrial diameter and no change in LVEF after PCI. Our study demonstrated that everolimus-eluting stents favorably improved the markers of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in diabetic patients with isolated severe proximal LAD stenosis compared with those of non-diabetic patients with the same condition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Numerical study of wall shear stress-based descriptors in the human left coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Pinto, S I S; Campos, J B L M

    2016-10-01

    The present work is about the application of wall shear stress descriptors - time averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillating shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) - to the study of blood flow in the left coronary artery (LCA). These descriptors aid the prediction of disturbed flow conditions in the vessels and play a significant role in the detection of potential zones of atherosclerosis development. Hemodynamic descriptors data were obtained, numerically, through ANSYS® software, for the LCA of a patient-specific geometry and for a 3D idealized model. Comparing both cases, the results are coherent, in terms of location and magnitude. Low TAWSS, high OSI and high RRT values are observed in the bifurcation - potential zone of atherosclerosis appearance. The dissimilarities observed in the TAWSS values, considering blood as a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid, releases the importance of the correct blood rheologic caracterization. Moreover, for a higher Reynolds number, the TAWSS values decrease in the bifurcation and along the LAD branch, increasing the probability of plaques deposition. Furthermore, for a stenotic LCA model, very low TAWSS and high RRT values in front and behind the stenosis are observed, indicating the probable extension, in the flow direction, of the lesion.

  19. Effect of electron radiation on vasomotor function of the left anterior descending coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Billings, Paul C.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Laughlin, M. H.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    The left anterior descending (LAD, interventricular) coronary artery provides the blood supply to the mid-region of the heart and is a major site of vessel stenosis. Changes in LAD function can have major effects on heart function. In this report, we examined the effect of electron simulated solar particle event (eSPE) radiation on LAD function in a porcine animal model. Vasodilatory responses to adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 10−9 – 10−4 M), bradykinin (BK; 10−11 – 10−6 M), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10−10 – 10−4 M) were assessed. The LAD arteries from Control (non-irradiated) and the eSPE (irradiated) animals were isolated and exhibited a similar relaxation response following treatment with either ADP or SNP. In contrast, a significantly reduced relaxation response to BK treatment was observed in the eSPE irradiated group, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that simulated SPE radiation exposure alters LAD function. PMID:26072960

  20. Sequential changes of left ventricular function after cineangiography in normal heart and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K; Hirota, Y; Shimizu, G; Furubayashi, K; Kawamura, K

    1984-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of contrast material on left ventricular (LV) function, LV pressure and its first derivative were continuously monitored during and after LV cineangiography with Mikro-tip angiocatheters in 15 normal subjects (Group 1) and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) without LV asynergy (Group 2, n = 10), with mild asynergy (Group 3, n = 12) and severe asynergy (Group 4, n = 13). In all 4 groups, systolic hypotension, decrease of negative dP/dt, and prolonged time constant of LV pressure fall (T) were observed in 30 seconds after dye injection, and all these parameters returned to the control value in 2 minutes. LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) began to elevate at one minute, reached its peak at 2 minutes, and stayed elevated for 7 minutes. Although significant decrease in LV systolic pressure was seen, indexes of LV contractility, peak positive dP/dt and (dP/dt)/DP40, showed increase in all groups. No different directional changes of these parameters were observed among 4 groups. The degree of LVEDP elevation was parallel to the diastolic elastic stiffness constant (K) in Group 1 (r = 0.64, (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that systolic hypotension and prolonged relaxation are only transient, and elevation of LVEDP after the contrast material injection seems to be the effect of only acute volume overload.

  1. Automatic identification of origins of left and right coronary arteries in CT angiography for coronary arterial tree tracking and plaque detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chightai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2013-03-01

    Automatic tracking and segmentation of the coronary arterial tree is the basic step for computer-aided analysis of coronary disease. The goal of this study is to develop an automated method to identify the origins of the left coronary artery (LCA) and right coronary artery (RCA) as the seed points for the tracking of the coronary arterial trees. The heart region and the contrast-filled structures in the heart region are first extracted using morphological operations and EM estimation. To identify the ascending aorta, we developed a new multiscale aorta search method (MAS) method in which the aorta is identified based on a-priori knowledge of its circular shape. Because the shape of the ascending aorta in the cCTA axial view is roughly a circle but its size can vary over a wide range for different patients, multiscale circularshape priors are used to search for the best matching circular object in each CT slice, guided by the Hausdorff distance (HD) as the matching indicator. The location of the aorta is identified by finding the minimum HD in the heart region over the set of multiscale circular priors. An adaptive region growing method is then used to extend the above initially identified aorta down to the aortic valves. The origins at the aortic sinus are finally identified by a morphological gray level top-hat operation applied to the region-grown aorta with morphological structuring element designed for coronary arteries. For the 40 test cases, the aorta was correctly identified in 38 cases (95%). The aorta can be grown to the aortic root in 36 cases, and 36 LCA origins and 34 RCA origins can be identified within 10 mm of the locations marked by radiologists.

  2. Comparative analysis of the patency of the internal thoracic artery in the CABG of left anterior descending artery: 6-month postoperative coronary CT angiography evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Deininger, Maurilio Onofre; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho; Dallan, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; de Oliveira, Orlando Gomes; Magalhães, Daniel Marcelo Silva; Coelho, José Reinaldo de Moura; Deininger, Eugênia di Giuseppe; Lopes, Norland de Souza; Queiroga, Ricardo Wanderley; Belmont, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the patency of the pedicled right internal thoracic artery with an anteroaortic course and compare it to the patency of the left internal thoracic artery , in anastomosis to the left anterior descending artery in coronary artery bypass grafting by using coronary CT angiography at 6 months postoperatively. Methods Between December 2008 and December 2011, 100 patients were selected to undergo a prospective coronary artery bypass grafting procedure without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided by a computer-generated list into Group-1 (G-1) and Group-2 (G-2), comprising 50 patients each, the technique used was known at the beginning of the surgery. In G-1, coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using the left internal thoracic artery for the left anterior descending and the free right internal thoracic artery for the circumflex, and in G-2, coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using the right internal thoracic artery pedicled to the left anterior descending and the left internal thoracic artery pedicled to the circumflex territory. Results The groups were similar with regard to the preoperative clinical data. A male predominance of 75.6% and 88% was observed in G-1 and G-2, respectively. Five patients migrated from G-1 to G-2 because of atheromatous disease in the ascending aorta. The average number of distal anastomoses was 3.48 (SD=0.72) in G-1 and 3.20 (SD=0.76) in G-2. Coronary CT angiography in 96 re-evaluated patients showed that all ITAs, right or left, used in situ for the left anterior descending were patent. There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery involving anastomosis of the anteroaortic right internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery has an outcome similar to that obtained using the left internal thoracic artery for the same coronary site. PMID:25140469

  3. Significance of dipyridamole-induced transient dilation of the left ventricle during thallium-201 scintigraphy in suspected coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chouraqui, P.; Rodrigues, E.A.; Berman, D.S.; Maddahi, J. )

    1990-09-15

    The occurrence and significance of transient dilation of the left ventricle during dipyridamole stress-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy was studied in 73 patients who underwent both dipyridamole thallium-201 study and coronary angiography. Transient dilation ratio was calculated from planar anterior images by dividing the computer-derived left ventricular area on the initial image by that of the 4-hour image. In 11 patients with normal coronary arteriograms or less than 50% coronary stenosis, the transient dilation ratio was 0.98 +/- 0.046. An abnormal transient dilation ratio was defined as greater than or equal to 1.12, representing greater than or equal to 3 standard deviations above the mean normal value. When the 15 patients with an abnormal ratio were compared with the 58 with a normal ratio, the former group had a significantly higher frequency of 3 critical (greater than or equal to 90%) coronary stenoses (33 vs 5%), higher prevalence of collaterals (67 vs 24%), more extensive myocardial reversible defects by planar (71 vs 10%) or by single-photon emission computed tomography (87.5 vs 35%) imaging and a higher incidence of dipyridamole-induced anginal chest pain (53 vs 22%). No significant difference between the 2 groups was noted with respect to age, gender, prior myocardial infarction, single or double critical coronary stenosis, dipyridamole-induced ischemic electrocardiographic response and increased lung uptake. An abnormal transient dilation ratio of greater than or equal to 1.12 was a specific marker of multivessel (87%) or 3-vessel (85%) critical coronary artery disease.

  4. One-Year Outcomes After Everolimus-Eluting Stents Implantation in Ostial Lesions of Left Anterior Descending Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Golmohamadi, Zahra; Sokhanvar, Sepideh; Aslanabadi, Naser; Ghaffari, Samad; Sohrabi, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, stents are increasingly used in variety of coronary lesions. Ostial lesion of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) however remains a challenge area because of the invariable involvement of distal left main coronary artery (LMCA). This study was designed to evaluate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation for ostial LAD. Methods EESs were implanted in 45 consecutive patients with ostial LAD stenoses. For complete lesion coverage, stent positing was extended into the distal LMCA in 6 patients (13.3%) with intermediated LMCA narrowing. We assess MACE during one-year follow-up. Results In-hospital success rate was 100%; neither cardiac death nor stent thrombosis in our patients, but two patients had myocardial infarction in non-related coronary artery during follow-up. Two patients had angiographic restenosis and underwent TLR. The cumulative MACE-free survival rate was 95.6% at one year. Conclusion EES was in ostial LAD lesions with complete lesion coverage achieving high procedural success rate and acceptable clinical outcomes during one-year follow-up period.

  5. Transient left ventricular cavitary dilation during dipyridamole-thallium imaging as an indicator of severe coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lette, J.; Lapointe, J.; Waters, D.; Cerino, M.; Picard, M.; Gagnon, A. )

    1990-11-15

    Transient left ventricular (LV) cavitary dilation during dipyridamole-thallium imaging was reported in 45 of 510 (9%) consecutive patients referred for dipyridamole-thallium imaging. Clinical and hemodynamic effects observed during dipyridamole infusion were not predictive of transient cavitary dilation on the thallium images. Coronary angiography was performed in 32 of the 45 patients: 75% had either left main, 3-vessel or high-risk 2-vessel coronary artery disease. Although 25 of 45 patients (56%) with transient cavitary dilation were either asymptomatic or had only grade 1/4 effort angina, 16 of 25 patients (64%) not referred for coronary revascularization sustained a cardiac event during a mean follow-up of 12 months. Most events were cardiac deaths (75%) and 87% of events occurred within 4 months of the test. Noncardiac surgery was performed in 187 of the 510 patients. The postoperative cardiac event rate was 2% in the 101 patients with normal scans or fixed defects, 19% in 75 patients with reversible perfusion defects and 58% in 12 patients with reversible cavitary dilation (p less than 0.0001). Thus, transient LV dilation during dipyridamole-thallium imaging is a marker of severe underlying coronary artery disease, denotes a poor prognosis and predicts a high risk of postoperative cardiac complications in patients who undergo noncardiac surgery.

  6. Ten-year follow-up of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis in 351 patients.

    PubMed

    Ten Berg, J M; Gin, M T; Ernst, S M; Kelder, J C; Suttorp, M J; Mast, E G; Bal, E; Plokker, H W

    1996-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the short- and long-term results of balloon angioplasty for stenoses in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Both the supposedly high rate of acute complications and relatively poor long-term results of balloon angioplasty for stenoses in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery have led to a search for alternative interventional techniques. We analyzed the success rates and long-term follow-up results in 351 consecutive patients who underwent balloon angioplasty for stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery proximal to its first side branch. The power of the study was >80% in detecting a difference of 9% in the proportion of patients who survived at 10 years, assuming an 80% survival rate in the control group. There were 60 ostial and 291 nonostial stenoses. Follow-up lasted a median of 85 months (range 0 to 137) and was 100% complete. The angiographic success rate was 90.9%. The clinical success rate was 86.3%. Nine patients (2.6%) died, 17 (4.8%) needed emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 10 (2.8%) developed a myocardial infarction. Several patients had subsequent complications. The success and complication rates were not significantly different for patients with ostial and nonostial stenoses. Ten years after balloon angioplasty, freedom from mortality was 80%, freedom from cardiac death was 87%, freedom from myocardial infarction was 84%, freedom from vessel-related reinterventions was 66%, and freedom from angina pectoris was 33%. There were more reinterventions for ostial stenoses, with a 1-year relative risk of ostial versus nonostial stenoses for related reinterventions of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1 to 2.8, p = 0.049). More than 10 years ago, balloon angioplasty for stenoses in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, either ostial or nonostial, had a high success rate. Although the long-term results are satisfactory, ostial stenoses are associated with a

  7. Usefulness of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Balloon Angioplasty for the Left Coronary Artery Stenosis 10 Years More Than After Arterial Switch Operation.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Nobuyuki; Tsuda, Etsuko; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Yamada, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Proximal stenosis adjacent to the orifice of one or both coronary arteries may occur after the arterial switch operation (ASO) for d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). Coronary artery stenosis (CAS) often progresses within the first 6 months postoperatively and may result in myocardial ischemia and infarction. Although percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty (PCBA) for CAS within 15 months after ASO for d-TGA has been reported, there is no report of PCBA for CAS in the late period after ASO. We present the results of PCBA for CAS of the left coronary artery performed more than 10 years after ASO in an 11-year-old boy and a 14-year-old boy without complication. The stenosis degree improved in both patients from 81 to 45 and 80 to 54 %, respectively. Restenosis did not occur, and the stenosis degree improved to about 25 % late after PCBA. Although the initial effect of PCBA may not be dramatic, it can improve late after PCBA. It was considered that the optimal balloon-reference vessel ratio was about 1.0, to obtain the minimal effective lumen diameter. PCBA for CAS even if performed many years after ASO is feasible without complication. PCBA can also provide delayed improvement late after the procedure.

  8. RELATION OF LEFT VENTRICULAR MASS AND CONCENTRIC REMODELING TO EXTENT OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE BY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITHOUT LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY: ROMICAT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Quynh A.; Toepker, Michael; Mahabadi, Amir A.; Bamberg, Fabian; Rogers, Ian S.; Blankstein, Ron; Brady, Thomas J.; Nagurney, John T.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cardiac computed tomography (CT) allows for simultaneous assessment of left ventricular mass (LVM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to determine whether LVM, LVM index (LVMi), and the left ventricular (LV) geometric pattern of concentric remodeling are associated with the extent of CAD in patients without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Methods In 348 patients from the ROMICAT trial, 64-slice CT was performed and LVM measured at end-diastole. We used 3 LVM indexation criteria to obtain 3 cohorts: LVM indexed to body surface area by echocardiography (n=337) and CT criteria (n=325), and by height2.7 (n=326). The cohorts were subdivided into concentric remodeling and normal geometry. Extent of coronary plaque was classified based on a 17-segment model, treated as a continuous variable, and stratified into 3 groups: 0 segments, 1–4 segments, >4 segments. Results Patients with >4 segments of coronary plaque had higher LVM (Δ12.8–15.1g) and LVMi (Δ4.0–5.5g/m2 and Δ2.2g/m2.7) than those without CAD (all p≤0.03). After multivariable adjustment, LVM and LVMi remained independent predictors of extent of coronary plaque, with 0.27–0.29 segments more plaque per 20 g increase of LVM (all p=0.02), 0.32–0.34 segments more plaque per 10 g/m2 increase of LVMi (both p=0.02), and 0.80 segments more plaque per 10 g/m2.7 increase of LVMi (p=0.008). Concentric remodeling patients had 1.1–1.3 segments more plaque than those with normal geometry (all p≤0.05). Patients with >4 segments of plaque had 2-fold increase odds (all p≤0.05) of having concentric remodeling as compared to those without CAD. Conclusion Increased LVM, LVMi, and concentric remodeling are associated with a greater degree of coronary plaque burden in patients without LVH. These findings could provide an indication to intensify medical therapy in patients with subclinical CAD and hypertension. PMID:19696685

  9. Ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm from left coronary sinus into right atrium: a rare anomaly with an odd presentation

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Ramalingam; Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 42-year-old man presenting with shortness of breath and palpitation on exertion, who was evaluated to have left sinus of Valsalva aneurysm rupturing into right atrium. This is a very rare congenital cardiac anomaly with variable clinical presentation ranging from asymptomatic detection on imaging to acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Rupture is the most dreaded complication and usually manifests as an acute event. Aneurysmal dilation less commonly affects the left sinus and rupture into the right atrium is still rarer and a chronic insidious presentation as in this case is odd. PMID:23531926

  10. Coronary bypass surgery for patients with chronic poor preoperative left ventricular function (EF<30%): 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeremy; Kejriwal, Nand; Vasudevan, Arvind; Maria, Peter L Santa; Alvarez, John M

    2006-04-01

    Optimal therapy for patients with coronary artery disease and chronic poor left ventricular function, given the absence of randomized trials, is unclear. Although coronary surgery has been performed in such patients for 25 years, it is perceived as high risk and unproven long-term benefit, especially if thallium scanning fails to demonstrate large areas of viability. We report the results of coronary surgery in these patients. Retrospective analysis by a standardized patient questionnaire, of 107 such consecutive patients offered coronary surgery. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 0.5-5.5); average patient age was 64.4+/-1 years. Preoperative thallium scans were performed solely on 31 patients with none or mild angina, of which 10 (32%) demonstrated large areas of viable myocardium. Perioperative mortality was 1.9%. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of increased perioperative death were recent myocardial infarction (p<0.001) and nonelective surgery (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier 5-year survival and freedom from major adverse cardiac events were 72.3 and 82.3%, respectively. In 21 patients, with preoperative nil-to-mild angina and nil-to-small areas of myocardial viability, thallium scanning failed to predict a successful outcome. Offering coronary surgery to these patients irrespective of thallium testing is safe and effective in the medium term. Early surgery is recommended.

  11. Effects of freezing, fixation and dehydration on surface roughness properties of porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Burton, Hanna E; Williams, Richard L; Espino, Daniel M

    2017-10-01

    To allow measurements of surface roughness to be made of coronary arteries using various imaging techniques, chemical processing, such as fixation and dehydration, is commonly used. Standard protocols suggest storing fresh biological tissue at -40°C. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes caused by freezing and chemical processing to the surface roughness measurements of coronary arteries, and to determine whether correction factors are needed for surface roughness measurements of coronary arteries following chemical processes typically used before imaging these arteries. Porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected ex vivo. Surface roughness was then calculated following three-dimensional reconstruction of surface images obtained using an optical microscope. Surface roughness was measured before and after a freeze cycle to assess changes during freezing, after chemical fixation, and again after dehydration, to determine changes during these steps of chemical processing. No significant difference was caused due to the freeze cycle (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in the longitudinally measured surface roughness (RaL=0.99±0.39μm; p>0.05) of coronary arteries following fixation and dehydration either. However, the circumferentially measured surface roughness increased significantly following a combined method of processing (RaC=1.36±0.40, compared 1.98±0.27μm, respectively; p<0.05). A correction factor can compensate for the change RaCβ=RaC1+0.46in RaC due to processing of tissue, Where RaCβ, the corrected RaC, had a mean of 1.31±0.21μm. Independently, freezing, fixation and dehydration do not alter the surface roughness of coronary arteries. Combined, however, fixation and dehydration significantly increase the circumferential, but not longitudinal, surface roughness of coronary arteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitral regurgitation in patients with coronary artery disease and low left ventricular ejection fractions. How should it be treated?

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, J T; Simonet, F; Maurice, J; Bloch, A; Velebit, V; Schmuziger, M

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, coronary artery bypass grafting has been extended to include patients with very low left ventricular ejection fractions. Should concomitant mitral valve regurgitation be corrected simultaneously? Between January 1990 and July 1994, 43 patients with preoperative left ventricular ejection fractions < or = 25% and echocardiographic evidence of concomitant mitral valve regurgitation (grade I, 18 patients; II, 19 patients; and III, 6 patients) underwent primary coronary artery bypass grafting. None of these patients underwent simultaneous mitral valve surgery. Twenty-four patients (56%) had pulmonary artery pressures > or = 40 mmHg (pulmonary hypertension). The mean preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was 18.7% +/- 4.4% (range, 10% to 25%), and the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 45.6 +/- 15.8 mmHg. The average of number of grafts per patient was 4.5 +/- 1.5. Five patients underwent simultaneous repair of a left ventricular aneurysm. The hospital mortality rate was 4.7% (2/43). Transient low cardiac output occurred postoperatively in 13 patients (30%). Sixteen patients (37%) had no postoperative complications. The average follow-up of the 41 hospital survivors was 6 months (range, 1 to 32 months). One patient died 8 months after surgery for an overall mortality rate of 7%. Another 2 patients had graft occlusions that did not require reoperation. In the 40 surviving patients, follow-up echocardiography revealed that 37 patients (93%) had either no mitral valve regurgitation or only very mild mitral valve regurgitation (grade I). Three patients had grade II mitral valve regurgitation, but none required mitral valve surgery. The New York Heart Association functional class improved significantly in all hospital survivors (from 3.4 +/- 0.6 to 1.7 +/- 0.7; p > 0.001), and left ventricular ejection fractions rose from 19.0% +/- 4.6% to 42.0% +/- 8.3%. Coronary artery bypass grafting is possible in patients with very low left ventricular ejection

  13. Aspirate from human stented saphenous vein grafts induces epicardial coronary vasoconstriction and impairs perfusion and left ventricular function in rat bioassay hearts with pharmacologically induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Helmut R; Baars, Theodor; Kahlert, Philipp; Kleinbongard, Petra

    2016-08-01

    Stent implantation into aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts (SVG) releases particulate debris and soluble vasoactive mediators, for example, serotonin. We now analyzed effects of the soluble mediators released into the coronary arterial blood during stent implantation on vasomotion of isolated rat epicardial coronary artery segments and on coronary flow and left ventricular developed pressure in isolated perfused rat hearts. Coronary blood was retrieved during percutaneous SVG intervention using a distal occlusion/aspiration protection device in nine symptomatic patients with stable angina pectoris and a flow-limiting SVG stenosis. The blood was separated into particulate debris and plasma. Responses to coronary plasma were determined in isolated rat epicardial coronary arteries and in isolated, constant pressure-perfused rat hearts (±nitric oxide synthase [NOS] inhibition and ±serotonin receptor blockade, respectively). Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation induced a stronger vasoconstriction of rat epicardial coronary arteries (52 ± 8% of maximal potassium chloride induced vasoconstriction [% KClmax = 100%]) than plasma taken before stent implantation (12 ± 8% of KClmax); NOS inhibition augmented this vasoconstrictor response (to 110 ± 15% and 24 ± 9% of KClmax). Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation reduced in isolated perfused rat hearts only under NOS inhibition coronary flow by 17 ± 3% and left ventricular developed pressure by 25 ± 4%. Blockade of serotonin receptors abrogated these effects. Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation induces vasoconstriction in isolated rat epicardial coronary arteries and reduces coronary flow and left ventricular developed pressure in isolated perfused rat hearts with pharmacologically induced endothelial dysfunction. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The

  14. [VIABILITY OF MYOCAROIUM AS RISK FACTOR FOR MORTALITY IN EARLY AND LATE PERIOD AFTER BYPASS SURGERY OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND SEVERE LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION].

    PubMed

    Todurov, B M; Zelenchuk, V; Kuzmich, I M; Ivanyuk, N B; Nikolaichuk, M V

    2015-06-01

    In coronary heart disease and low ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LV) in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery tend mortality and complication rate higher than preserved LV systolic function. Significant preoperative predictors of early mortality and remote in these patients, and the incidence of complications in the early postoperative period were reveald.

  15. Left Atrial Volume Index and Prediction of Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Solar Registry

    PubMed Central

    Secundo Junior, Jose Alves; Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; Soares, Camile Bittencourt; Silva, Allyson Matos Porto; Secundo, Paulo Fernando Carvalho; Teixeira, Clarissa Karine Cardoso; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; Barreto Filho, Jose Augusto Soares; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral

    2014-01-01

    Background According to some international studies, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increased left atrial volume index (LAVI) have worse long-term prognosis. However, national Brazilian studies confirming this prediction are still lacking. Objective To evaluate LAVI as a predictor of major cardiovascular events (MCE) in patients with ACS during a 365-day follow-up. Methods Prospective cohort of 171 patients diagnosed with ACS whose LAVI was calculated within 48 hours after hospital admission. According to LAVI, two groups were categorized: normal LAVI (≤ 32 mL/m2) and increased LAVI (> 32 mL/m2). Both groups were compared regarding clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, in- and out-of-hospital outcomes, and occurrence of ECM in up to 365 days. Results Increased LAVI was observed in 78 patients (45%), and was associated with older age, higher body mass index, hypertension, history of myocardial infarction and previous angioplasty, and lower creatinine clearance and ejection fraction. During hospitalization, acute pulmonary edema was more frequent in patients with increased LAVI (14.1% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.024). After discharge, the occurrence of combined outcome for MCE was higher (p = 0.001) in the group with increased LAVI (26%) as compared to the normal LAVI group (7%) [RR (95% CI) = 3.46 (1.54-7.73) vs. 0.80 (0.69-0.92)]. After Cox regression, increased LAVI increased the probability of MCE (HR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.28-7.40, p = 0.012). Conclusion Increased LAVI is an important predictor of MCE in a one-year follow-up. PMID:25119895

  16. Prognosis after acute coronary syndrome in relation with ventricular-arterial coupling and left ventricular strain.

    PubMed

    Milewska, Agata; Minczykowski, Andrzej; Krauze, Tomasz; Piskorski, Jarosław; Heathers, James; Szczepanik, Adam; Banaszak, Agnieszka; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Wykretowicz, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    The value of modern non-invasive indices of the left ventricle (LV) and arterial system function, and their interaction for determining prognosis in contemporarily treated patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not well established. The study aimed to determine the association of ventricular-arterial (VA) coupling, LV global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLPSS), global strain rate (GSR) and end-diastolic volume at end-diastolic pressure 30mmHg (V30) with long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ACS. Echocardiography was applied in 569 ACS patients followed up for >12months after hospitalization. Univariate Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted to various clinical factors, including reduced LV ejection fraction <40%, were used to compare patients between the first and third tertiles of various indices of LV and arterial systems function and their interaction for the prediction of a combined end-point (defined as either stroke, myocardial infarction or death). Results are presented as hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). There were 57 clinical outcomes during a median follow-up of 625days. Increased VA coupling >1.68 (HR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.04-5.6); V30>107mL (HR 4.5; 95% CI: 1.9-10.6), GLPSS > -12.8% (HR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.02-5.7), GSR > -0.96 1/s (HR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.6-9.1) were robustly associated with increased hazard. With a sample of contemporarily treated ACS patients, abnormal values of non-invasive indices of LV function and their interaction with arterial system, predict adverse clinical outcomes, independently of LV ejection fraction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Noninvasive identification of significant narrowing of the left main coronary artery by dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Chikamori, T.; Doi, Y.L.; Yonezawa, Y.; Yamada, M.; Seo, H.; Ozawa, T. )

    1991-08-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy with low-level exercise for the identification of left main (LM) coronary artery disease (CAD), 466 consecutive patients with CAD were studied. Thirty-eight patients (8%) had LM stenosis (diameter narrowing greater than or equal to 50%). The LM scintigraphic pattern was present in 9 of 38 patients with LMCAD and 38 of 428 CAD patients without LMCAD (24 vs 9%; p less than 0.005). This pattern was present in 6 of 9 patients with LMCAD without right CAD and in only 3 of 29 patients with LM and right CAD (67 vs 10%; p = 0.0005). Patients with LMCAD had a higher incidence of premature cessation of low-level exercise (53 vs 21%; p less than 0.0001), chest pain (68 vs 48%; p less than 0.02), blood pressure decrease of greater than or equal to 20 mm Hg (44 vs 16%; p less than 0.002) and greater ST depression (0.17 {plus minus} 0.13 vs 0.06 {plus minus} 0.10 mV; p less than 0.001) during dipyridamole loading than patients without LMCAD. Stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that the LM scintigraphic pattern and markers of ischemia during dipyridamole loading best identified (p less than 0.0001) patients with LMCAD without right CAD (sensitivity 67%, specificity 91%), but this predictability is no better than the LM scintigraphic pattern alone. The combination of clinical markers of ischemia during dipyridamole loading and scintigraphic findings of diffuse slow washout, extensive fixed defects and the LM pattern best identified (p less than 0.0001) patients with LM and right CAD (sensitivity 72%, specificity 80%).

  18. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for a left main lesion due to cardiac allograft vasculopathy in Japan: first report of a case.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Hata, Hiroki; Murata, Yoshihiro; Seguchi, Osamu; Yanase, Masanobu; Shimahara, Yusuke; Sato, Shunsuke; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major cause of mortality after transplantation. We treated a 44-year-old female with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) 4 years after heart transplantation. Annual examinations, including coronary angiography and intravenous ultrasound (IVUS), revealed a severe lesion in the left main trunk. The left internal mammary artery was successfully anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery in an off-pump manner. To ensure that patients have a good long-term outcome after heart transplantation, routine examinations, including IVUS, are crucial, because of the nature of CAV. OPCAB is a good option for a left main trunk lesion due to CAV.

  19. The circumflex branch of the left coronary artery in the human infant.

    PubMed Central

    Reig, J; Loncán, M P; Martin, S; Doménech, J M

    1987-01-01

    Coronary arterial vascularisation in the human infant in the first five weeks of life, was studied by radiological and injection-corrosion techniques. The main differences lay in the characteristics of the circumflex artery and its distribution over the myocardial wall. These differences were age-related. Coronary arterial anastomoses were detected in 61% of the hearts. PMID:3503054

  20. Influence of stenosis on hemodynamic parameters in the realistic left coronary artery under hyperemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Badarudin, A; Nik-Ghazali, N; Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Salman Ahmed, N J; Yunus Khan, T M

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the hyperemic flow effects on heamodynamics parameters such as velocity, wall shear stress in 3D coronary artery models with and without stenosis. The hyperemic flow is used to evaluate the functional significance of stenosis in the current era. Patients CT scan data of having healthy and coronary artery disease was chosen for the reconstruction of 3D coronary artery models. The diseased 3D models of coronary artery shows a narrowing of >50% lumen area. Computational fluid dynamics was performed to simulate the hyperemic flow condition. The results showed that the recirculation zone was observed immediate to the stenosis and highest wall shear stress was observed across the stenosis. The decrease in pressure was found downstream to the stenosis as compared to the coronary artery without stenosis. Our analysis provides an insight into the distribution of wall shear stress and pressure drop, thus improving our understanding of hyperemic flow effect under both conditions.

  1. Transthoracic measurement of left coronary artery flow reserve improves the diagnostic value of routine dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Nouri, Aria; Szymczyk, Ewa; Krzemińska-Pakuła, Maria; Lipiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be effectively measured during an accelerated dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) protocol to improve the diagnostic performance of the test. Material and methods In 64 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography DASE with concomitant CFR measurement in LAD was performed. Results Coronary flow reserve measurement and calculation were feasible in 83% of patients. The positive predictive value of undetectable LAD flow was 81% for severe LAD disease. Measured values of CFR were in the range 1.3–4.1 (mean: 2.2 ±0.7). Significantly lower CFR was found in patients with LAD disease (1.97 ±0.62 vs. 2.55 ±0.57, p = 0.0015). The optimal cutoff for detecting ≥ 50% stenosis was CFR ≤ 2.1 (ROC AUC 0.776), corresponding with 68% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In patients with negative DASE results 67% of patients with LAD disease had abnormal CFR, whereas in patients with a positive DASE result 92% of patients with normal LAD had normal CFR. The DASE diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) increased from 75% to 85% when CFR measurement was added to wall motion abnormality (WMA) analysis. No test with both abnormalities was false positive for the detection of coronary disease. Conclusions Incorporation of CFR measurement into WMA-based stress echocardiography is feasible even in an accelerated DASE protocol and can be translated into an approximate gain of 10% in overall test accuracy. PMID:24273560

  2. Coronary artery bypass for isolated disease of the left anterior descending artery. Late survival of 648 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Killen, D A; Wathanacharoen, S; Reed, W A; Piehler, J M; Borkon, A M; Gorton, M E; Meuhlebach, G F

    1998-01-01

    We studied a series of 648 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting for isolated primary disease of the anterior descending coronary artery. We evaluated the patients periodically during a long-term follow-up period of up to 17 years. We studied factors such as survival, survival without acute event (i.e., acute myocardial infarction, repeat coronary artery bypass, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty), and asymptomatic survival (i.e., survival without acute event or angina). We further analyzed these factors as they occurred in patients who received only saphenous vein grafts versus their occurrence in patients who received internal mammary artery grafts. There was 1 death in the early postoperative period (defined as 30 days or earlier after the operation). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates were 94.8%, 86.6%, and 72.2%, respectively. These survival rates are slightly better than those of an age- and sex-matched United States census population. In our series, the rates of survival, event-free survival, and asymptomatic survival were better, although not significantly so, in the group of 108 patients in whom the internal mammary artery was used as the bypass conduit. We conclude that patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting for isolated disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery enjoy normal survival rates, in comparison with the survival rates of an age- and sex-matched United States census population, through at least the 1st 16 postoperative years. Additionally, patients who receive an internal mammary artery bypass graft have slightly better rates of survival, event-free survival, and asymptomatic survival than do those who receive only saphenous vein grafts. PMID:9782557

  3. [Ectopic connection of the left coronary artery with the contralateral sinus with or without intramural pathway: how and why differentiating them?].

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Honton, B; Leurent, G; Halna du Fretay, X; Dupouy, P; Ou, P; Juliard, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Among the wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities of coronary arteries, a left coronary artery connected with the contralateral sinus is considered as an anatomical high-risk while associated with a proximal preaortic course. The ectopic connection may be associated with or without intramural pathway regarding the aortic wall. An intramural pathway is a characteristic to be considered because it is able to be involved in myocardial ischemia-related adverse events of which the sudden death. Therefore, making an identification of an intramural pathway is essential for the ectopic connections of the left coronary artery associated with a preaortic course.

  4. Assessment of left anterior descending artery stenosis of intermediate severity by fractional flow reserve, instantaneous wave-free ratio and non-invasive coronary flow reserve.

    PubMed

    Meimoun, P; Clerc, J; Ardourel, D; Martis, S; Djou, U; Botoro, T; Boulanger, J; Elmkies, F; Zemir, H

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of the functional significance of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) stenosis of intermediate severity is challenging and often based on fractional flow reserve (FFR). The instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR), a new vasodilator-free index of coronary stenosis severity, and non-invasive coronary flow reserve (CFR) by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography are also potentially useful. A direct comparison of FFR, IFR, and non-invasive CFR has never been performed. Our objective was to test the usefulness of non-invasive CFR by comparison to invasive FFR and IFR in patients with LAD stenosis of angiographic intermediate severity and stable coronary artery disease.

  5. Detection of prominent left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis for patients with stable angina using Doppler tissue echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Veyrat, Colette; Larrazet, Fabrice; Cohen, Laurent; Laborde, François; Pellerin, Denis

    2005-08-01

    The midseptum has an elective left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) supply. Septal peak velocity (PkV) and myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) were studied at rest with M-mode Doppler tissue echocardiography during the cardiac cycle including the septal active relaxation (SAR) outward wall motion preceding isovolumic relaxation. In all, 33 patients had significant multivessel coronary artery disease. Group A (15 patients) had prominent LAD stenosis. Group B (18 patients) had prominent circumflex (15) or right (3) coronary artery stenoses. The goal was to detect a prominent LAD stenosis. During SAR, sensitivity to detect a prominent LAD stenosis was 86% for PkV < 20 mm/s and 80% for MVG < 1.1 s(-1); specificity was 83% for both variables. During systole, sensitivity was 86% with a 55% specificity for MVG < 2.0 s(-1), whereas sensitivity was 73% and specificity 66% for PkV < 30 mm/s. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were over 0.90 during SAR and only 0.70 for PkV and 0.80 for MVG during systole. In multivessel coronary artery disease, SAR variables better identified a prominent LAD stenosis than systolic variables. Moreover, SAR PkVs were informative per se, whereas systole required MVG calculation.

  6. Effects of nicardipine on coronary blood flow, left ventricular inotropic state and myocardial metabolism in patients with angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, M F; Vincent, M F; Cheron, P; van den Berghe, G; Charlier, A A; Pouleur, H

    1985-01-01

    The effects of intravenous nicardipine (2.5 mg) on the left ventricular (LV) inotropic state, LV metabolism, and coronary haemodynamics were analysed in 22 patients with angina pectoris. Measurements were made at fixed heart rate (atrial pacing), under basal state, and during a cold pressor test. After nicardipine, coronary blood flow and oxygen content in the coronary sinus increased significantly. The indices of inotropic state increased slightly, and the rate of isovolumic LV pressure fall improved. Myocardial oxygen consumption was unchanged despite the significant reduction in pressure-rate product, but LV lactate uptake increased, particularly during the cold pressor test. When nicardipine was administered after propranolol, the indices of inotropic state were unaffected. The lack of direct effect of nicardipine on LV inotropic state was further confirmed by intracoronary injection of 0.1 and 0.2 mg in a separate group of 10 patients. It is concluded that the nicardipine-induced coronary dilatation seems to improve perfusion and aerobic metabolism in areas with chronic ischaemia, resulting in reduced lactate production and augmented oxygen consumption.

  7. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction secondary to acute left main coronary occlusion in an institution without on-site cardiothoracic surgical support.

    PubMed

    Chia, Pow-Li; Khoo, Brian-Chung-Hoe; Ng, Chee-Keong; Lim, Jimmy-Tien-Wei

    2009-03-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal management of acute myocardial infarction due to acute left main coronary occlusion (LMCO). We evaluated the feasibility of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute LMCO in an institution without on-site cardiothoracic surgical (CTS) support. We retrospectively identified 20 patients, median age 67 years (range 38 to 81). Sixteen patients presented with cardiogenic shock. All patients required intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation and inotropic support. Sixteen patients underwent stenting and four had balloon angioplasty only. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow was restored in 13 patients. Post-PCI, six patients were transferred to a tertiary institution for further care: three underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), one underwent both ECMO and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), one died before ECMO initiation and one stabilised without further intervention. Thirteen patients died in-hospital. There was one subsequent death out of the seven hospital survivors, with median follow-up 390 days (range 60 to 660 days). There was a trend towards survival with a shorter door-to-balloon time (p = 0.07). Primary PCI may be a feasible initial revascularisation strategy for acute LMCO in centres without on-site CTS support.

  8. The relationship between ischemia-induced left ventricular dysfunction, coronary flow reserve, and coronary steal on regadenoson stress-gated 82Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Van Tosh, Andrew; Votaw, John R.; Reichek, Nathaniel; Palestro, Christopher J.; Nichols, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gated rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies are acquired both at rest and during pharmacologic stress. Stress-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) can produce a significant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from rest to stress. We determined the prevalence on PET of stress LVD with reduced ejection fraction (EF) and its association with absolute global and regional coronary flow reserve (CFR), and with relative perfusion defect summed difference score (SDS). Methods and Results We studied 205 patients with known or suspected coronary disease (120 M, 75 F, age 69 ± 13 years) who had clinically indicated rest/regadenoson stress 82Rb PET/CT studies. Data were acquired in dynamic gated list mode. Global and 17-segment regional CFR values were computed from first-pass flow data using a 2-compartment model and factor analysis applied to auto-generated time-activity curves. Rest and stress LVEF and SDS were quantified from gated equilibrium myocardial perfusion tomograms using Emory Cardiac Toolbox software. LVD was defined as a change in LVEF of ≤−5% from rest to stress. A subgroup of 109 patients also had coronary angiography. Stress LVD developed in 32 patients (16%), with mean EF change of −10 ± 5%, vs +6 ± 7% for patients without LVD (P < .0001). EF was similar at rest in patients with and without stress LVD (57 ± 18% vs 56 ± 16%, P = .63), but lower during stress for patients with LVD (47 ± 20% vs 61 ± 16%, P = .0001). CFR was significantly lower in patients with LVD (1.61 ± 0.67 vs 2.21 ± 1.03, Wilcoxon P = .002), and correlated significantly with change in EF (r = 0.35, P < .0001), but not with SDS (r = −0.13, P = .07). The single variable most strongly associated with high risk of CAD (i.e., left main stenosis ≥50%, LAD % stenosis ≥70%, and/or 3-vessel disease) was stress EF (χ2 = 17.3, P < .0001). There was a higher prevalence of patients with territorial CFR

  9. Impact of thermodilution-derived coronary blood flow patterns after percutaneous coronary intervention on mid-term left ventricular remodeling in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Akinori; Fujii, Kenichi; Fukunaga, Masashi; Shibuya, Masahiko; Imanaka, Takahiro; Kawai, Kenji; Miki, Kojiro; Tamaru, Hiroto; Horimatsu, Tetsuo; Saita, Ten; Nishimura, Machiko; Masuyama, Tohru; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported the coronary thermodilution curve can be evaluated by analyzing the thermodilution curve obtained from a pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire, and presence of a bimodal-shaped thermodilution curve following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients was associated with worse outcomes. This study evaluated whether the bimodal-shaped thermodilution curve predicts left ventricular (LV) remodeling after STEMI. The coronary thermodilution curve patterns were evaluated for 75 patients treated by pPCI for their first STEMI using a pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire, and classified into the three groups according to the thermodilution curve shape: narrow unimodal (n = 39), wide unimodal (n = 26), and bimodal pattern (n = 10). Echocardiography was performed at baseline and 6 months after STEMI. LV remodeling was defined as a >20 % increase in LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV). LVEDV at 6-month follow-up was greater in the bimodal group than in the other groups (p < 0.001). The prevalence of LV remodeling was highest in the bimodal group than in the narrow and wide unimodal groups (60, 12, and 15 %, respectively; p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis revealed a bimodal-shaped thermodilution curve as an independent predictor of the prevalence of LV remodeling. A bimodal-shaped thermodilution curve is associated with LV remodeling after STEMI. This easily assessable coronary thermodilution curve pattern is useful to predict mid-term LV remodeling for STEMI patients at the catheterization laboratory.

  10. Comparison between three-dimensional angiographic reconstruction and intravascular ultrasound: imaging of the left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Spoon, Daniel B; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Psaltis, Peter J; Sandhu, Gupreet S; Lennon, Ryan; Rihal, Charanjit S; Lerman, Amir

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the left main (LM) coronary artery anatomy using three-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) software as compared to intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Percutaneous intervention of the LM coronary artery is becoming more common in selected patients with LM coronary artery disease (CAD). Quantification of LM CAD by conventional angiography can be difficult. IVUS is considered the gold standard to evaluate LM anatomy and severity of CAD but entails additional steps, catheters, and expertise. Our objective was to compare a novel quantitative angiographic analysis system with IVUS for LM anatomy. Fifty five patients underwent both coronary angiography and IVUS of the LM. LM measurements were analyzed with 3D QCA (IC-PRO, Paieon, Israel) software using IVUS as the reference standard. The measurements included proximal, middle, distal minimal luminal diameter (MLD) and area. Additionally, lesion MLD, minimal luminal area were recorded by both systems. Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate agreement between the two imaging systems. Of the 55 patients in our cohort, average age was 66 ± 11 years (25% female). By Bland-Altman analysis there was very good agreement between 3D QCA and IVUS for measures of MLD and minimal lumen area (MLA). However, there was poor concordance in the estimation of plaque burden between the two methods. Our data demonstrate that 3D QCA software has fair agreement when compared with IVUS for imaging of LM MLD and MLA. These results suggest that 3D QCA could potentially be helpful to guide intervention of the LM. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Left ventricular filling and early diastolic function at rest and during angina in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, J R; Gibson, D G

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic function was studied in 11 patients with coronary artery disease. Single plane ventriculography (30 degrees right anterior oblique projection) was performed at rest and during an episode of angina immediately after a period of rapid atrial pacing. Left ventricular pressure was recorded simultaneously by a micromanometer tipped catheter. The ventriculograms were digitised frame by frame to derive continuous plots of left ventricular shape, volume, and rate of change of volume. The time constant (tau) of the fall in left ventricular pressure was determined from the exponential portion of pressure decay during isovolumic relaxation. Ventricular pressure-volume loops were constructed to study the left ventricular diastolic pressure-volume relation. The time of minimum left ventricular pressure was used to divide diastole into an early phase and a late phase. Angina was associated with an increase in end systolic volume and a fall in ejection fraction with no significant change in end diastolic volume. Peak left ventricular pressure was unchanged but left ventricular minimum and end diastolic pressures were both increased and the diastolic pressure-volume relation was moved upwards. The time constant of left ventricular pressure fall was prolonged. At rest more than 50% of the stroke volume entered the left ventricle during the period of early diastole. This proportion was significantly reduced during angina and as a consequence a significantly greater proportion of the stroke volume entered the ventricle during late diastole. Despite this, and although the left ventricular diastolic pressure-volume relation was moved upwards with angina, the mean slope of the relation during late diastole--that is, chamber stiffness--was not significantly altered. The upward shift of the left ventricular diastolic pressure-volume relation seen during angina is thus already apparent in early diastole, and its extent does not change during the later phase of

  12. Angioplasty of unprotected left main coronary stenosis: Real world experience of a single-operator group from eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Shuvanan; Mazumder, Alok; Kumar, Soumitra; Bhattacharjee, Prithwiraj; Rozario, David; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Sanjeev S.; Deb, P.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is the standard treatment of unprotected left main coronary stenosis (ULMCA). However, in the real world scenario, many of these patients are unfit for CABG or prefer angioplasty as an alternative when offered the choice. Methods A total of 86 clinically stable patients with ULMCA stenosis who were unfit or unwilling for CABG underwent PCI with DES at two tertiary care centers in Kolkata. Patients were followed up prospectively for a median of 34.6 months for major adverse cardiovascular events. Angiographic follow-up was done after 1 year of index procedure or earlier, if indicated. Results Fifty-five patients (64%) had distal left main stenosis. Two-stent technique was used in 19 patients (22%) and single-stent technique in 36 patients (42%) with distal left main lesion. Thirteen patients (15.1%) had left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≤45%. There was no in-hospital death, MI, or stent thrombosis. During follow-up, major adverse cardiac event (MACE) occurred in 9 patients (10.5%). Our study revealed significantly greater MACE in patients with distal left main lesion with LVEF ≤45% (50% vs 6.38%, p = 0.0002), high SYNTAX score (36.36% vs 6.82%, p = 0.008), and diabetes (17.95% vs 0.00%, p = 0.07). Overall, also patients with Diabetes, LVEF ≤ 45%, and SYNTAX score >32 had significantly higher MACE. Use of IC Stent, IVUS, or procedural strategy in distal lesion did not affect MACE. Conclusion In selective patients with low-intermediate SYNTAX score and without diabetes and LV dysfunction, ULMCA PCI with DES is feasible. PMID:26896263

  13. Adult left-ventricular diverticulum and patent ductus arteriosus misdiagnosed as coronary artery disease with infarct aneurysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hong; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Dong; Li, Quan

    2015-11-14

    Left-ventricular diverticulum (LD) associated with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is extremely rare. We have not found any previous reports of the coexistence of these two malformations. Such an association presenting with chest pain mimicking an infarct aneurysm with angina or a takotsubo cardiomyopathy with chest pain is difficult to differentiate clinically. Here, we discuss several diseases characterized by left-ventricular apical protrusion with chest pain to familiarize clinicians with the differential diagnosis of these diseases. A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of complaints of chest pain and dyspnoea, mainly on exertion. An electrocardiograph on admission showed a q-wave in lead I, a Q-wave in lead aVL, and an abnormal T-wave in the limb leads and leads V4 to V6. A transthoracic echocardiograph revealed a PDA and a protrusion arising from the apex of the left ventricle. The diagnosis on admission was PDA and coronary artery disease with infarct aneurysm. To evaluate the source of the chest pain, further evaluations were performed. Coronary angiography showed no abnormal findings. Left ventriculography confirmed the presence of an apical contractile out-pouching. Based on these findings, we revised the diagnosis as LD associated with PDA. The patient underwent transcatheter occlusion of the PDA and was discharged 3 days later. Unexpectedly, transcatheter occlusion resolved the paroxysmal chest pain in this case. This is the first case report of LD combined with PDA. PDA should be considered in the list of differential diagnosis of chest pain. Several diseases characterized by left-ventricular apical protrusion with chest pain, such as LD, infarct aneurysm and takotsubo cardiomyopathy, can be misdiagnosed as one another. Therefore, it is important to familiarize clinicians with the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  14. Association between left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and coronary artery disease as well as its extent and severity

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lai-Jing; Dong, Ping-Shuan; Jia, Jing-Jing; Fan, Xi-Mei; Yang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Shao-Xin; Yang, Xi-Shan; Li, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Hong-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Patients with myocardial ischemia exhibit increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). The study was to evaluate the relationship between LVEDP measured by left cardiac catheterization and coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as its extent and severity evaluated by coronary angiography (CAG). 912 patients who underwent CAG and left cardiac catheterization were enrolled. There were 313 patients without CAD and 599 with CAD according to CAG. The extent and severity of coronary artery was evaluated by number of vessels and Gensini score. Analyze the correlation of LVEDP and CAD as well as its extent and severity. LVEDP was significantly higher in CAD patients than non-CAD (9.58±5.78 mmHg vs 10.9±5.46 mmHg, P<0.001), and was correlated independently with the presence of CAD (OR = 0.11, per 5 mmHg increase, 95% CI 1.02-1.29, P = 0.02). LVEDP was increased with an increase of number of vessels. By linear regression analysis, LVEDP was significantly associated with Gensini score (standardized β = 0.034, P = 0.001). In non-CAD group, LVEDP was only correlated with age (r = 0.123, P = 0.030). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated LVEDP was significantly associated with CAD as well as its extent and severity. LVEDP was only correlated with age in non-CAD patients. LVEDP measurement provides incremental clinical value for CAD and non-CAD patients. PMID:26770481

  15. Doppler echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular filling dynamics in patients with coronary heart disease and normal systolic function.

    PubMed

    Kuecherer, H F; Ruffmann, K; Schaefer, E; Kuebler, W

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess altered left ventricular diastolic filling by noninvasive means in patients with coronary artery disease and normal systolic pump function. Mitral inflow velocity was measured by pulsed Doppler, and left ventricular volumes were obtained from cross-sectional echocardiography at rest and during upright bicycle exercise. Peak and integrated early and late diastolic filling velocities were calculated from Doppler-derived time-velocity curves. Studies were performed in normal subjects (group I, n = 8) and in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (Group II, n = 18). The ejection fraction was not significantly different in group II as compared to group I (group I, 60 +/- 7%; group II, 55 +/- 11%). During exercise, ejection fraction increased significantly in group I by 7.6%, but did not increase in group II. In all cases, diastolic filling showed a biphasic pattern. At rest, the major part of diastolic filling occurred during early diastole: the ratio of early filling velocity integral (E) to the late filling velocity integral (L) was significantly greater in group I than in group II (group I, 1.74 +/- 37; group II, 1.19 +/- 3, P less than 0.001). During exercise, early diastolic filling was unchanged in normal subjects but decreased in patients, with a significant decrease in E/L index of 34% (P less than 0.001). Thus, pulsed Doppler echocardiography provides a useful method for assessing noninvasively exercise-induced changes in left ventricular diastolic filling dynamics in patients with coronary artery disease.

  16. Left circumflex to right atrial coronary arterio-venous fistula – Role of multimodality imaging for diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Kaul, Upendra; Shrivastava, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We report an interesting case presenting with progressive dyspnea and palpitations. The patient underwent multimodal imaging procedures consisting of two dimensional echocardiography, MRI, cardiac catheterization and also a three dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic reconstruction. All the investigations taken together helped us in finally arriving at accurate anatomical diagnosis of a coronary AV fistula from the left circumflex artery to the right atrium. The patient finally underwent a successful non-surgical closure using an Amplatzer device. The role of three-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation in defining the anatomy for planning the treatment is emphasized. PMID:24814124

  17. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Peng, Long; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Li-Xue; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yi; Rao, Li

    2017-07-28

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnosis value of four-dimensional echocardiography area strain (AS) combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis. Based on treadmill exercise load status, two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and four-dimensional echocardiography area strain were performed on patients suspected coronary artery disease before coronary angiogram. Thirty patients (case group) with mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (stenosis <50%) and thirty gender- and age-matched patients (control group) without coronary artery stenosis according to the coronary angiogram results were prospectively enrolled. All the patients had no left ventricular regional wall motion abnormality in two-dimensional echocardiography at rest and exercise stress. There was no significant difference in the 16 segmental systolic peak AS at rest between two groups. After exercise stress, the peak systolic ASrest-stress at mid anterior wall (-7.00%±10.90% vs 2.80%±23.69%) and mid anterolateral wall (-4.40%±18.81% vs 8.80%±19.16%) were decreased, while increased at basal inferolateral wall (14.00%±19.27% vs -5.60%±15.94%) in case group compared with control group (P<.05). In patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, the area strain was decreased at involved segments, while compensatory increased at noninvolved segments after exercise stress. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography could sensitively find left ventricular regional systolic function abnormality in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, and locate stenosis coronary artery accordingly. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An unusual constellation of congenital malformations in a single patient including partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, persistent left superior vena cava, aberrant pulmonary fissure, anomalous aortic arch, tracheal diverticulum and annular pancreas.

    PubMed

    Lapa, T; Vedelago, J; Kim, H; Patrick, E

    2014-10-31

    We report a case of a male patient with a constellation of rare congenital anomalies consisting of: partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), persistent left superior vena cava, 'bovine arch' aortic branching, tracheal diverticulum, aberrant lung fissure anatomy and an annular pancreas. He had presented with a history of worsening dyspnoea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a single patient with such a vast constellation of anomalies. The radiological evaluations, epidemiology, embryology and clinical features of the anomalies are discussed. It is important for radiologists to be aware of each of these anomalies as distinct entities; detection of a single anomaly should alert to the possibility that further anatomic aberrancies may be present.

  19. Outcomes following repair of anomalous coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in infants: results from a procedure-based national database

    PubMed Central

    Fudulu, Daniel Paul; Dorobantu, Dan Mihai; Sharabiani, Mansour Taghavi Azar; Angelini, Gianni Davide; Caputo, Massimo; Parry, Andrew John; Stoica, Serban Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Background Anomalous coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ACAPA) is a very rare congenital anomaly that often occurs during infancy. Patients can present in a critical condition. Methods We analysed procedure-related data from a national audit database for the period 2000–2013. Results A total of 120 patients <1 year had repair of isolated ACAPA using a coronary transfer or the tunnel (Takeuchi) operation. Seven patients (6.8%) required a mitral valve procedure at index and eight patients (7.8%) had a mitral valve repair/replacement during follow-up, including mitral reoperations. Follow-up data (>30 days) were available in 102 patients and the mean follow-up time was 4.7 years. The 30-day overall mortality was 1.9%, higher for neonates (16.7% vs 1%, p=0.1) and after postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (20% vs 1%, p=0.09). At 10 years the survival estimate is 95.1%, freedom from coronary and mitral reintervention being 95.9% and 91.2%, respectively. Use of postoperative ECMO was a risk factor for long-term mortality (p<0.001). Risk factors for coronary reintervention were age under 30 days (p=0.06) and the need for postoperative ECMO (p=0.02). Age under 30 days (p=0.002) was a risk factor for mitral reintervention. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the largest series to date. These preliminary national results show that early outcomes are good and medium-term attrition acceptable. Poor outcomes are correlated with early presentation, also with the need for postoperative circulatory support. PMID:26357546

  20. Prediction of Left Ventricular Filling Pressure by 3-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong; Xie, Rong-Ai; Gao, Li-Jian; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Wu, Wei-Chun; Wang, Hao

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of 3-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography for estimating left ventricular filling pressure in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Altogether, 84 patients with CAD and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants in sinus rhythm were recruited prospectively. All participants underwent conventional and 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography. Global strain values were automatically calculated by 3D speckle-tracking analysis. The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was determined invasively by left heart catheterization. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization were performed within 24 hours. Compared with the controls, patients with CAD showed lower global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, global area strain, and global radial strain. Patients with CAD who had an elevated LVEDP had much lower levels of all 4 3D-speckle-tracking echocardiographic variables. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the LVEDP correlated positively with the early transmitral flow velocity/early diastolic myocardial velocity (E/E') ratio, global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, and global area strain. It correlated negatively with global radial strain. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that these 3D speckle-tracking echocardiographic indices could effectively predict elevated left ventricular filling pressure (LVEDP >15 mm Hg) in patients with CAD (areas under the curve: global longitudinal strain, 0.78; global radial strain, 0.77; global circumferential strain, 0.75; and global area strain, 0.74). These parameters, however, showed no advantages over the commonly used E/E' ratio (area under the curve, 0.84). Three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was a practical technique for predicting elevated left ventricular filling pressure, but it might not be

  1. Rudimentary coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Rodríguez, C; Sans-Coma, V

    2009-08-01

    Congenital underdevelopment of one or more main branches of the coronary arteries has been reported in man, but not in non-human mammals. In man, this defective coronary artery arrangement may cause myocardial ischaemia and even sudden death. The main goal of this study was to describe the coronary artery distribution patterns associated with the presence of a markedly underdeveloped (rudimentary) coronary artery in Syrian hamsters. Moreover, an attempt was made to explain the morphogenesis of these patterns, according to current knowledge on coronary artery development. Eleven affected hamsters belonging to a laboratory inbred family were examined by means of internal casts of the heart, great arterial trunks and coronary arteries. The aortic valve was tricuspid (normal) in seven hamsters and bicuspid in the other four. A rudimentary coronary artery arose from the right side of the aortic valve in four specimens, from the left side of the aortic valve in a further three, and from the dorsal aortic sinus in the remaining four. In all cases, a second, well-developed coronary artery provided for all the coronary blood flow. Except for the existence of a rudimentary coronary artery, the present anomalous coronary artery distribution patterns are similar to coronary artery patterns reported in Syrian hamsters, dogs and humans in association with a solitary coronary ostium in aorta. We suggest that an unusual prolonged time interval in the development of the embryonic coronary stems might be a key factor in the formation of coronary arteries displaying significantly dissimilar developmental degrees.

  2. The effect of regular physical activity on the left ventricle systolic function in patients with chronic coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Panovský, R; Kukla, P; Jančár, R; Meluzín, J; Jančík, J; Kincl, V; Poloková, K; Mífková, L; Havelková, A; Látalová, R; Dobšák, P; Pešl, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of aerobic training on the left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Thirty patients with stable coronary artery disease, who had participated in the conducted 3-month physical training, were retrospectively divided into 2 cohorts. While patients in the cohort I (n=14) had continued training individually for 12 months, patients in the cohort II (n=16) had stopped training after finishing the conducted program. Rest and stress dobutamine/atropine echocardiography was performed in all patients before the training program and 1 year later. The peak systolic velocities of mitral annulus (Sa) were assessed by tissue Doppler imaging for individual LV walls. In addition, to determine global LV systolic longitudinal function, the four-site mean systolic velocity was calculated (Sa glob). According to the blood supply, left ventricular walls were divided into 5 groups: A- walls supplied by nonstenotic artery; B- walls supplied by coronary artery with stenosis ≤50 %; C- walls supplied by coronary artery with stenosis 51-70 %; D- walls with stenosis of supplying artery 71-99 %; and E- walls with totally occluded supplying artery. In global systolic function, the follow-up values of Sa glob in cohort I were improved by 0.23±0.36 as compared with baseline values at rest, and by 1.26±0.65 cm/s at the maximal load, while the values of Sa glob in cohort II were diminished by 0.53±0.22 (p=NS), and by 1.25±0.45 cm/s (p<0.05), respectively. Concerning the resting regional function, the only significant difference between cohorts in follow-up changes was found in walls E: 0.37±0.60 versus -1.76±0.40 cm/s (p<0.05). At the maximal load, the significant difference was found only in walls A (0.16±0.84 versus -2.67±0.87 cm/s; p<0.05). Patients with regular 12-month physical activity improved their global left ventricle systolic function mainly due to improvement of contractility in walls supplied by a totally occluded coronary

  3. Meta-Analysis of Usefulness of Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Devices for High-Risk Percutaneous Coronary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Briasoulis, Alexandros; Telila, Tesfaye; Palla, Mohan; Mercado, Nestor; Kondur, Ashok; Grines, Cindy; Schreiber, Theodore

    2016-08-01

    High-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is often offered to patients with extensive coronary artery disease, decreased left ventricular function, and co-morbid conditions that increase surgical risk. In these settings, percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (PVADs) can be used for hemodynamic support. To assess the effects of PVAD use on mortality, myocardial infarction, and complication rates in patients undergoing high-risk PCI, we systematically searched the electronic databases, MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane for prospective controlled trials and cohort studies of patients that received hemodynamic support with PVADs for high-risk PCI. The primary outcome measures were 30-day all-cause mortality, 30-day myocardial infarction rates, periprocedural major bleeding, and vascular complications. We included 12 studies with 1,346 participants who underwent Impella 2.5 L device placement and 8 cohort studies with 205 patients that received TandemHeart device for high-risk PCI. Short-term mortality rates were 3.5% and 8% and major bleeding rates were 7.1% and 3.6% with Impella and TandemHeart, respectively. Both devices are associated with comparable periprocedural outcomes in patients undergoing high-risk PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coronary arteriography and angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.; Douglas, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book explores biomedical radiography of the heart. Topics considered include six bench marks in the history of cardiac catheterization; normal coronary anatomy; anomalies of the coronary arteries; pathoanotomy of the coronary arteries and complications; indications, limitations, and risks of coronary arteriography and left ventriculography; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Sones technique; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Judkins technique; modification of Judkins catheters; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography multipurpose technique; new views in coronary arteriography; quantitative evaluation of left ventricular function; complications of coronary arteriography: management during and following the procedure; interpretation of coronary arteriograms and left ventriculograms; prevalence and distribution of disease in patients catheterized for suspected coronary disease at Emory University Hospital; the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory; selection for surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; intracoronary thrombolysis; and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

  5. [Comparison of the results of transesophageal electrical stimulation of the left atrium, bicycle ergometry and selective coronary angiography in diagnosing ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, B A; Savchenko, A P; Liakishev, A A; Kozlov, S G; Klembovskiĭ, A A

    1985-11-01

    The clinical picture and results of bicycle ergometry and selective coronarography were compared with data obtained by esophageal electric stimulation of the left atrium in 108 patients with suspected coronary disease. It was demonstrated that esophageal left-atrial electrostimulation could be used as noninvasive load test for coronary disease. Ischemic electrocardiographic changes, induced by esophageal stimulation showed good correlation to the clinical manifestation of angina pectoris and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. The sensitivity of esophageal stimulation in the diagnosis of hemodynamically-significant coronary atherosclerosis was 82%, its specificity was 76%, the predictive value of positive results was 82%, and the predictive value of negative results, 76%, that is, essentially the same as the respective parameters of bicycle ergometry.

  6. Energy loss and coronary flow simulation following hybrid stage I palliation: a hypoplastic left heart computational fluid dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H.; Niehaus, Justin; Gottliebson, William; Abdallah, Shaaban

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The theoretical differences in energy losses as well as coronary flow with different band sizes for branch pulmonary arteries (PA) in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) remain unknown. Our objective was to develop a computational fluid dynamic model (CFD) to determine the energy losses and pulmonary-to-systemic flow rates. This study was done for three different PA band sizes. METHODS Three-dimensional computer models of the hybrid procedure were constructed using the standard commercial CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. The computer models were controlled for bilateral PA reduction to 25% (restrictive), 50% (intermediate) and 75% (loose) of the native branch pulmonary artery diameter. Velocity and pressure data were calculated throughout the heart geometry using the finite volume numerical method. Coronary flow was measured simultaneously with each model. Wall shear stress and the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic volume flow rates were calculated. Computer simulations were compared at fixed points utilizing echocardiographic and catheter-based metric dimensions. RESULTS Restricting the PA band to a 25% diameter demonstrated the greatest energy loss. The 25% banding model produced an energy loss of 16.76% systolic and 24.91% diastolic vs loose banding at 7.36% systolic and 17.90% diastolic. Also, restrictive PA bands had greater coronary flow compared with loose PA bands (50.2 vs 41.9 ml/min). Shear stress ranged from 3.75 Pascals with restrictive PA banding to 2.84 Pascals with loose banding. Intermediate PA banding at 50% diameter achieved a Qp/Qs (closest to 1) at 1.46 systolic and 0.66 diastolic compared with loose or restrictive banding without excess energy loss. CONCLUSIONS CFD provides a unique platform to simulate pressure, shear stress as well as energy losses of the hybrid procedure. PA banding at 50% provided a balanced pulmonary and systemic circulation with adequate coronary flow but without extra energy losses incurred. PMID:23660734

  7. Energy loss and coronary flow simulation following hybrid stage I palliation: a hypoplastic left heart computational fluid dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H; Niehaus, Justin; Gottliebson, William; Abdallah, Shaaban

    2013-08-01

    The theoretical differences in energy losses as well as coronary flow with different band sizes for branch pulmonary arteries (PA) in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) remain unknown. Our objective was to develop a computational fluid dynamic model (CFD) to determine the energy losses and pulmonary-to-systemic flow rates. This study was done for three different PA band sizes. Three-dimensional computer models of the hybrid procedure were constructed using the standard commercial CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. The computer models were controlled for bilateral PA reduction to 25% (restrictive), 50% (intermediate) and 75% (loose) of the native branch pulmonary artery diameter. Velocity and pressure data were calculated throughout the heart geometry using the finite volume numerical method. Coronary flow was measured simultaneously with each model. Wall shear stress and the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic volume flow rates were calculated. Computer simulations were compared at fixed points utilizing echocardiographic and catheter-based metric dimensions. Restricting the PA band to a 25% diameter demonstrated the greatest energy loss. The 25% banding model produced an energy loss of 16.76% systolic and 24.91% diastolic vs loose banding at 7.36% systolic and 17.90% diastolic. Also, restrictive PA bands had greater coronary flow compared with loose PA bands (50.2 vs 41.9 ml/min). Shear stress ranged from 3.75 Pascals with restrictive PA banding to 2.84 Pascals with loose banding. Intermediate PA banding at 50% diameter achieved a Qp/Qs (closest to 1) at 1.46 systolic and 0.66 diastolic compared with loose or restrictive banding without excess energy loss. CFD provides a unique platform to simulate pressure, shear stress as well as energy losses of the hybrid procedure. PA banding at 50% provided a balanced pulmonary and systemic circulation with adequate coronary flow but without extra energy losses incurred.

  8. Preventive Effect of Yuzu and Hesperidin on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Rat Permanent Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Occlusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hye Yon; Ahn, Ji Hun; Park, Se Won; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling, which includes ventricular dilatation and increased interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI), is the critical process underlying the progression to heart failure. Therefore, a novel approach for preventing LV remodeling after MI is highly desirable. Yuzu is a citrus plant originating in East Asia, and has a number of cardioprotective properties such as hesperidin. However, no study has proved whether yuzu can prevent LV remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of yuzu on heart failure (HF) and its potential impact on the LV remodeling process after MI. Our in vivo study using the permanent left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion model demonstrate that one week pre-treatment with yuzu or its major metabolite hesperidin before LAD occlusion significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction, myocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Not only yuzu but also hesperidin inhibited caspase-3 activity, myeloperoxidase expression, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in a permanent LAD occlusion rat model. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that yuzu and hesperidin prevent MI-induced ventricular dysfunction and structural remodeling of myocardium. PMID:25559243

  9. Preventive effect of yuzu and hesperidin on left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in rat permanent left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hye Yon; Ahn, Ji Hun; Park, Se Won; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling, which includes ventricular dilatation and increased interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI), is the critical process underlying the progression to heart failure. Therefore, a novel approach for preventing LV remodeling after MI is highly desirable. Yuzu is a citrus plant originating in East Asia, and has a number of cardioprotective properties such as hesperidin. However, no study has proved whether yuzu can prevent LV remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of yuzu on heart failure (HF) and its potential impact on the LV remodeling process after MI. Our in vivo study using the permanent left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion model demonstrate that one week pre-treatment with yuzu or its major metabolite hesperidin before LAD occlusion significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction, myocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Not only yuzu but also hesperidin inhibited caspase-3 activity, myeloperoxidase expression, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in a permanent LAD occlusion rat model. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that yuzu and hesperidin prevent MI-induced ventricular dysfunction and structural remodeling of myocardium.

  10. Exercise restriction is not associated with increasing body mass index over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Meza, James M; Elias, Matthew D; Wilder, Travis J; O'Brien, James E; Kim, Richard W; Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G; Brothers, Julie; Cohen, Meryl S; McCrindle, Brian W

    2017-10-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries is associated with exercise-induced ischaemia, leading some physicians to restrict exercise in patients with this condition. We sought to determine whether exercise restriction was associated with increasing body mass index over time. From 1998 to 2015, 440 patients ⩽30 years old were enrolled into an inception cohort. Exercise-restriction status was documented in 143 patients. Using linear mixed model repeated-measures regression, factors associated with increasing body mass index z-score over time, including exercise restriction and surgical intervention as time-varying covariates, were investigated. The 143 patients attended 558 clinic visits for which exercise-restriction status was recorded. The mean number of clinic visits per patient was 4, and the median duration of follow-up was 1.7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 0.5-4.4). The median age at first clinic visit was 10.3 years (IQR 7.1-13.9), and 71% (101/143) were males. All patients were alive at their most recent follow-up. At the first clinic visit, 54% (78/143) were exercise restricted, and restriction status changed in 34% (48/143) during follow-up. The median baseline body mass index z-score was 0.2 (IQR 0.3-0.9). In repeated-measures analysis, neither time-related exercise restriction nor its interaction with time was associated with increasing body mass index z-score. Surgical intervention and its interaction with time were associated with decreasing body mass index z-score. Although exercise restriction was not associated with increasing body mass index over time, surgical intervention was associated with decreasing body mass index z-score over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

  11. "Killer coronary artery" and aortic valve stenosis: A tricky case.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joseph; Labont, Béatris Alina; Houpe, David; Caus, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right coronary sinus is rarely diagnosed in elderly patients. We report such an anomaly in a 75-year-old lady presenting with chest pain and syncope. Preoperative screening revealed that her aortic valve was moderately stenotic. The patient underwent a successful unroofing procedure combined with aortic valve replacement. The outcome was uncomplicated and the patient remained asymptomatic at one year postoperatively. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Ultrasonic Doppler vibrometry: measurement of left ventricular wall vibrations associated with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Beach, Kirk W; Goldberg, Steven L; Lidstrom, Matthew S; Kim, Yongmin

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new method of detecting coronary artery stenoses that uses Doppler ultrasound to measure minute local vibrations in the cardiac wall associated with post-stenotic flow turbulence. In this paper, we present the results of a preliminary clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of this method for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary angiography as the gold standard. The study population consisted of 34 patients clinically-indicated for coronary angiography. Based on the catheterization reports, the patients were divided into three categories: severe (obstructive CAD, typically with >70% diameter reduction), moderate (non-obstructive CAD, typically with <50% diameter reduction or diffuse atherosclerosis), and normal (no angiographic evidence of CAD). A diastolic myocardial vibration index (DMVI) was calculated as the ratio of the normalized periodogram spectral energy in the 100~800-Hz frequency band of the instantaneous wall velocity in early diastole to a baseline value during diastasis. The DMVI was significantly higher in severe CAD patients (21.2 +/- 3.2 dB) compared to moderate CAD (17.5 +/- 3.5 dB) and normal (11.2 +/- 4.8 dB). The differences between each of the categories were statistically significant (p<0.05). Severe CAD patients could be distinguished from normal with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 83.3%. We believe that this method could potentially be developed into a low-cost and accurate test for diagnosis and screening for coronary artery stenosis.

  13. [Morphofunctional correlation in congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries. I. Coronary artery fistulas].

    PubMed

    Rangel-Abundis, A; Muñoz-Castellanos, L; Marín, G; Chávez Pérez, E; Badui, E

    1994-01-01

    In order to explain the congenital coronary arteries malformations, the authors review the recent concepts on the coronary artery morphogenesis, based in the findings that in the human embryo, these arteries evolve from three sources: 1) endothelial aortic buds, 2) cavitary cellular groups from pericardial origin and with angiogenic character, which migrate to the cardiac zones where the coronary arteries will be distributed, and 3) the intramyocardial sinusoids. The anatomic and histologic cardiac alterations will be reflected in modifications of the coronary artery pattern. The coronary artery fistulae are formed by the persistence of the sponge structure of the myocardial wall, present in the early ontogenic steps of the cardiac development; such fistulae alter the normal functions of the coronary vascular tree and are capable to cause angina pectoris to the patient through diverse mechanisms: absence of capillarization, steal phenomenon aggravated by the altered coronary arteries properties when aneurysm or vascular channels are developed. The authors suggest a classification of the congenital coronary arteries anomalies: I. Anomalous origin in the sinus of Valsalva (anomalous and ectopic origin), II. Malformations of the coronary branches (in number, distribution and wall anomalies) and III. Anomalous connection of the coronary arteries: fistulae and persistence of the intramyocardial sinusoids isolated or communicated to left and right ventricles. The latter are frequently associated with aortic or pulmonary valve atresia. They do not cause myocardial ischemia and are formed secondary to the intracavitary elevated pressure which maintained the persistence, dilatation and communication of the ventricular chambers with such sinusoids and coronary arteries in the case of pulmonary valve atresia and with coronary veins in the case of aortic valve atresia.

  14. Abnormal left ventricular contractile response to exercise in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is associated with resting left ventricular long-axis dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nasis, Arthur; Moir, Stuart; Meredith, Ian T; Barton, Timothy L; Nerlekar, Nitesh; Wong, Dennis T; Ko, Brian S; Cameron, James D; Mottram, Philip M

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction after exercise, without obstructive coronary artery disease or other established causes, is unclear. The aims of this study were to determine whether patients undergoing treadmill stress echocardiography with this abnormal LV contractile response to exercise (LVCRE) without established causes have resting LV long-axis dysfunction or microvascular dysfunction and to determine associations with this abnormal LVCRE. Of 5,275 consecutive patients undergoing treadmill stress echocardiography, 1,134 underwent cardiac computed tomography angiography or invasive angiography. Having excluded patients with obstructive coronary artery disease, hypertensive response, submaximal heart rate response, resting LV ejection fraction < 50%, and valvular disease, 110 with "abnormal LVCRE" and 212 with "normal LVCRE" were analyzed. Resting mitral annular velocities were measured to assess LV long-axis function. Myocardial blush grade and corrected Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction frame count were determined angiographically to assess microvascular function. Comparing normal LVCRE with abnormal LVCRE, age (mean, 59.7 ± 11.1 vs 61.4 ± 10.0 years), hypertension (53% vs 55%), diabetes (16% vs 20%), and body mass index (mean, 29.1 ± 5.4 vs 29.5 ± 6.4 kg/m(2)) were similar (P > .05). Abnormal LVCRE had reduced resting LV long-axis function with lower septal (mean, 6.1 ± 1.9 vs 7.7 ± 2.2 cm/sec) and lateral (mean, 8.1 ± 2.9 vs 10.4 ± 3.0 cm/sec) e' velocities (P < .001) and larger resting left atrial volumes (mean, 37.3 ± 10.1 vs 31.1 ± 7.2 mL/m(2), P < .001). On multivariate analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.99; P < .001), exaggerated chronotropic response (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09-2.05; P < .001), resting left atrial volume (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.63-3.47; P < .001), and resting lateral e' velocity (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49; P = .003) were associated with abnormal

  15. [The hypertensive heart. VII. Effect of atenolol on the function, coronary haemodynamics and oxygen uptake of the left ventricle (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Strauer, B E

    1978-11-10

    After acute beta-adrenergic blockade (5 mg atenolol intravenously) in 11 patients with essential hypertension but no heart failure arterial blood pressure and inotropic state fell slightly (-5.4% and -7.5%, respectively), but there was a definite decrease in heart rate (-13.8%), cardiac index (-11.5%) and cardiac work (-14.3%). There was a marked decrease in coronary blood flow (-14.5%) and myocardial oxygen uptake (-13.6%), while the coronary arterio-venous oxygen difference remained normal. Coronary vascular resistance increased significantly (+12.7%). Atenolol increased the coronary reserve of the left ventricle by about 21% in the five patients in whom it was measured. The results indicate that during acute beta-adrenergic blockade in essential hypertension there is an effective lowering of the left ventricular systolic load, with an equivalent decrease in myocardial energy requirement. The change in coronary vascular resistance and increase in coronary reserve of the left ventricle during this blockade is apparently the result of metabolic changes.

  16. Relation between exercise-induced left ventricular wall motion abnormalities and coronary artery disease in hypertensive patients: effects of blood pressure normalization.

    PubMed

    Pepi, M; Maltagliati, A; Berti, M; Muratori, M; Tavasci, E; Passaretti, B; Tamborini, G

    1997-03-01

    In hypertension, several factors disturb coronary circulation and the metabolic reserve of the heart. This study was undertaken to test whether in hypertensive patients global and regional left ventricular (LV) function is related during exercise to the presence of significant coronary stenosis and whether lowering of coronary perfusion pressure through rapid normalization of the diastolic pressure may modify the dynamics of the left ventricle. Thirty-five patients with mild to moderate hypertension undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain were included in the study; upright bicycle exercise echocardiography tests were performed without therapy and 1 day later 1 h after sublingual administration of nifedipine. LV ejection fraction and regional wall motion scores were evaluated and compared at baseline, peak exercise, immediate postexercise, and recovery phases in each test through digital on-line storing of echocardiographic images. Twenty-one patients had normal coronary arteries (group 1) and 14 significant coronary stenoses (group 2); age, gender, heart rate, blood pressure, left ventricular diameter and mass index, and ejection fraction were similar in the two groups. At peak exercise LV ejection fraction slightly increased in group 1, whereas it slightly decreased in group 2 (both during the test without therapy and after nifedipine administration). All patients in group 1 had normal left ventricular wall motion during exercise; 13 of 14 patients in group 2 had LV wall motion abnormalities at peak exercise. Nifedipine did not produce any effect on LV regional wall motion in group 1, but it induced significant changes in LV regional wall motion in seven patients in group 2. Changes in LV wall motion between the two test groups were related to the number of the stenotic coronary vessels: the normal exercise test before and after therapy and the two normalized tests after nifedipine administration were in fact observed in patients with one

  17. [Evaluation of association of myocardial bridge in the left anterior descending coronary with coronary atherosclerosis (stenosis > 50%) in the segment proximal to the site of bridge on coronary cta in hypertension subjects].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuping; Li, Chunping; Song, Xiang; Wu, Fang; Chen, Min; Xiao, Huafeng; Yang, Li

    2014-06-03

    To investigate whether myocardial bridging (MB) is an independent risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis (stenosis > 50%) proximal to MB in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in subjects with hypertension identified by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). From March 2011 to December 2012, Patients with suspected coronary disease underwent CCTA using dual-source CT scanner. The baseline clinical characteristics (age, gender, smoking history, presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, family history of heart attack and body mass index (BMI) ) and the results of CCTA were reviewed. Two radiologists evaluated the MB and more than 50% coronary atherosclerosis stenosis (CAS) in LAD and made a diagnosis by consensus. Significant independent risk factors for more than 50% CAS were investigated by Logistic regression analysis. All tests were two-tailed, the significance threshold was P value less than 0.05. The study included 9 862 patients, including 5 292 cases of patients with hypertension (MB in LAD 2 139 cases, more than 50% CAS proximal to MB 1 240 cases; no MB in 3 153 cases, more than 50% CAS in counterpart segment proximal to MB 898 cases); 4 570 cases of non-hypertensive patients (MB in LAD 1 043 cases, more than 50% CAS proximal to MB 418; no MB 3 527 cases, more than 50% CAS in counterpart segment proximal to MB 803 cases). After adjusted for clinical data, Logistic regression analysis showed that MB in LAD were significantly associated with CAS proximal to MB in LAD in hypertension and no hypertension subjects (OR, 3.17, 2.02, respectively, P < 0.05). MB in the LAD is an independent risk factor for more than 50% CAS in the proximal LAD in subjects with or without hypertension, and the OR of MB in subjects with hypertension is higher than that of MB in subjects without hypertension.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of myocardial infarction due to left circumflex artery occlusion: comparison with infarction due to right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, B.L.; Beller, G.A.; Kaiser, D.L.; Gibson, R.S.

    1988-11-01

    Forty consecutive patients with creatine kinase-MB confirmed myocardial infarction due to circumflex artery occlusion (Group 1) were prospectively evaluated and compared with 107 patients with infarction due to right coronary artery occlusion (Group 2) and 94 with left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group 3). All 241 patients underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography, 24 h Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring and coronary arteriography before hospital discharge and were followed up for 39 +/- 18 months. There were no significant differences among the three infarct groups in age, gender, number of risk factors, prevalence and type of prior infarction, Norris index, Killip class and frequency of in-hospital complications. Acute ST segment elevation was present in only 48% of patients in Group 1 versus 71 and 72% in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.012), and 38% of patients with a circumflex artery-related infarct had no significant ST changes (that is, elevation or depression) on admission (versus 21 and 20% for patients in Groups 2 and 3, respectively) (p = 0.001). Abnormal R waves in lead V1 were more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p less than 0.003) as was ST elevation in leads I, aVL and V4 to V6 (p less than or equal to 0.048). These differences in ECG findings between Group 1 and 2 patients correlated with a significantly higher prevalence of posterior and lateral wall asynergy in the group with a circumflex artery-related infarct. Infarct size based on peak creatine kinase levels and multiple radionuclide variables was intermediate in Group 1 compared with that in Group 2 (smallest) and Group 3 (largest). During long-term follow-up, the probability of recurrent cardiac events was similar in the three infarct groups.

  19. Prevalence of high-risk thallium-201 scintigraphic findings in left main coronary artery stenosis: comparison with patients with multiple- and single-vessel coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, T.W.; Gibson, R.S.; Ryan, J.M.; Gascho, J.A.; Watson, D.D.; Beller, G.A.

    1984-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of high-risk thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphic findings in patients with left main (LM) coronary artery disease (CAD), quantitative exercise Tl-201 scintigrams were analyzed in 295 consecutive patients with angiographic (greater than or equal to 50% stenosis) CAD, of which 43 (14%) had greater than or equal to 50% LM stenosis. A high-risk scintigram was defined as one that demonstrated (1) a LMCAD scintigraphic pattern (greater than or equal to 25% homogeneous decrease in Tl-201 activity in the middle and upper septal and posterolateral walls on the 45 degree left anterior oblique projection); (2) abnormal Tl-201 uptake or washout in multiple vascular scan segments indicative of multivessel disease; and (3) increased lung Tl-201 uptake on the initial anterior projection image. Of the 43 patients with LMCAD, 41 (95%) had an abnormal scintigram. Thirty-three (77%) had 1 or more high-risk scintigraphic findings, including 29 (67%) with a multivessel CAD scan pattern, of which 6 (14%) demonstrated a typical LMCAD pattern; and 18 (42%) with abnormal lung Tl-201 uptake. The prevalence of a high-risk scintigram in patients with LMCAD was significantly greater than that in 53 patients with 3-vessel disease (58%) (p . 0.05), 99 patients with 2-vessel disease (60%) (p . 0.04) and 100 patients with 1-vessel disease (41%) (p less than 0.0001).

  20. Racial differences in the association of coronary calcified plaque with left ventricular hypertrophy: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study and Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihong; Arnett, Donna K; Province, Michael A; Lewis, Cora E; North, Kari; Carr, J Jeffrey; Pankow, James S; Hopkins, Paul N; Devereux, Richard B; Wilk, Jemma B; Wagenknecht, Lynne

    2006-05-15

    Studies have reported a lower burden of calcified atherosclerotic plaque in coronary arteries in African-Americans than in whites. Findings from autopsy studies of sudden cardiac death have suggested a link between left ventricular hypertrophy and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiograms and cardiac computed tomograms were analyzed in 334 African-American (84% hypertensive) and 196 white (66% hypertensive) adults with no history of coronary heart disease or revascularization procedures at study entry. The relation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score to left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area was assessed by Spearman's correlations and mixed linear models. Covariates included age, gender, field center, weight, height, systolic blood pressure, number of antihypertensive medications, diabetes, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and current smoking and alcohol consumption. In African-Americans, a significant and independent association between CAC score and left ventricular mass or left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area was present with the 2 analytic strategies. Spearman's correlation coefficients for CAC score with left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area were 0.14 (p = 0.015) and 0.13 (p = 0.025), respectively, after multivariable adjustment. In whites, the associations of CAC score with measurements of left ventricular mass were weaker and only marginally significant in mixed linear models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that CAC reflects a different risk burden between African-Americans and whites, and future studies examining the prognostic implications of CAC in African-Americans should consider the potential association between CAC and left ventricular hypertrophy.

  1. Localizing intramyocardially embedded left anterior descending artery during coronary bypass surgery: literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proper detection of the deeply embedded left anterior descending artery remains a challenge. Many authors proposed different methods for artery identification, such as ultrasound Doppler, cineangiography, retrograde dissection overlying tissues, and exposure over the probe. Choice of the technique often depends on the surgeon's acquaintance and experience. The article compares and summarizes different procedures for the detection of intramyocardially located left anterior descending artery. PMID:24172140

  2. Accuracy of diagnosis of coronary artery disease by radionuclide management of left ventricular function during rest and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; McEwan, P.; Newman, G.E.; Port, S.; Rerych, S.K.; Scholz, P.M.; Upton, M.T.; Peter, C.A.; Austin, E.H.; Leong, K.H.; Gibbons, R.J.; Cobb, F.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide angiocardiographic measurements of left ventricular function were obtained in 496 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization for chest pain. Two hundred forty-eight of these patients also had an exercise treadmill test. An ejection fraction less than 50% was the abnormality of resting left ventricular function that provided the greatest diagnostic information. In patients with normal resting left ventricular function, exercise abnormalities that were optimal for diagnosis of coronary artery disease were an injection fraction at least 6% less than predicted, an increase greater than 20 ml in end-systolic volume and the appearance of an exercise-induced wall motion abnormality. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were lower in patients who were taking propranolol at the time of study and in patients who failed to achieve an adequate exercise end point. In the 387 patients with an optimal study, the test had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 58%. Radionuclide angiocardiography was more sensitive and less specific than the exercise treadmill test. The high degree of sensitivity of the radionuclide test suggests that it is most appropriately applied to patient groups with a high prevalence of disease, including those considered for cardiac catheterization.

  3. Direct left ventricular endocardial pacing: an alternative when traditional resynchronization via coronary sinus is not feasible or effective.

    PubMed

    Moriña-Vázquez, Pablo; Roa-Garrido, Jessica; Fernández-Gómez, Juan M; Venegas-Gamero, José; Pichardo, Rafael B; Carranza, Manuel H

    2013-06-01

    Biventricular pacing through the coronary sinus (CS) is effective for the treatment of patients with heart failure and left bundle-branch block. However, this approach is not always feasible. Although surgical epicardial lead implantation is an alternative, the technique may be deleterious in some patients. Thus, direct left ventricular (LV) endocardial pacing under local anesthesia may be an option. We describe our technique and analyze the results of direct LV endocardial pacing. Fourteen patients with failed resynchronization via CS (April 2006-September 2011) were selected. Using a femoral approach, we performed transseptal puncture and LV mapping, then fixed the active lead where the longest electrical delay was observed; the generator was placed in the anterior thigh. For resynchronization, eight patients with a device previously implanted through the upper veins received a single-chamber generator that was set to the VVT mode to sense the subclavian pacing spike. Six patients received a complete femoral resynchronization system with either a defibrillator or pacemaker. Patients were followed for 6-54 months. The LV lead was successfully implanted in all cases. Two patients experienced excessive bleeding and two died during follow-up. All except one improved at least one New York Heart Association class and experienced improved left ventricle ejection fraction. One patient with recurrent episodes of ventricular fibrillation was asymptomatic. Direct LV endocardial pacing is safe and may be a less risky, more efficient alternative than surgical epicardial lead implantation for resynchronization via CS. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Left ventricular pacing lead positioning in the target vein of the coronary sinus: description of a challenging case.

    PubMed

    Frattini, Folco; Rordorf, Roberto; Angoli, Luigi; Pentimalli, Francesco; Vicentini, Alessandro; Petracci, Barbara; Magrini, Giulia; Landolina, Maurizio

    2008-04-01

    The optimal left ventricular pacing location for cardiac resynchronization therapy should be individualized according to the site of maximal mechanical delay. However, the presence of vein stenosis or kinking in coronary sinus (CS) anatomy could hamper lead implantation in the target vessel. We describe the case of a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and a dual-chamber pacemaker referred for upgrading to a biventricular device owing to New York Heart Association III heart failure symptoms. Tissue Doppler analysis before implantation showed that the area of maximum activation delay was located in the posterolateral region of the left ventricle. Insertion of the lead into a posterolateral vein of the CS by means of the standard over-the-wire approach was unsuccessful due to the presence of a stenosis at the ostium of the vein. Lead placement in an anterior vein of the CS was unsatisfactory owing to a poor local delay from QRS onset. After balloon vein angioplasty, the pacing lead passed through the stenotic tract at the ostium of the target vein and was successfully positioned in the posterolateral region. Three months after pacemaker implantation, echocardiography showed an important reduction in the indexes of both inter- and intraventricular asynchrony and a significant left ventricular reverse remodeling.

  5. A randomized trial of anesthetic induction agents in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raveen; Choudhury, Minati; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Kiran, Usha

    2010-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anesthetic agents in patients suffering from coronary artery disease are well known. The risk increases when a patient has compromised ventricular function. There is a paucity of literature regarding the choice of the suitable agent to avoid deleterious effects in such patients. The use of etomidate and propofol has been considered superior to other intravenous anesthetic agents in these groups of patients. The aim of the present study is to compare the hemodynamic effects of anesthesia induction with etomidate, thiopentone, propofol, and midazolam in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. This randomized clinical trail was conducted at the All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Sixty patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 45%) scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery participated in this study. After stabilization baseline hemodynamic data stroke volume variation and systemic vascular resistance index were recorded for all patients (Flo Trac TM sensor with Vigileo cardiac output monitor used for hemodynamic monitoring). The patients were randomly alloted to one of the four groups and the intravenous induction agent was administered for over 60-90 seconds (Group E--Etomidate 0.2 mg/Kg; Group M--Midazolam 0.15 mg/Kg; Group T--Thiopentone 5 mg/Kg; Group P--Propofol 1.5 mg/Kg). Hemodynamic data were recorded at one minute intervals starting from induction till seven minutes after intubation,--the end point of the present study. There was a significant decrease in the heart rate in comparison to the baseline(-7 to -15%, P = 0.001), mean arterial pressure (-27 to -32%, P = 0.001), cardiac index (-36 to -38%, P = 0.001), and stroke volume index (-27 to -34%, P = 0.001) after induction in all four groups. The hemodynamic response was similar in all the four groups. There was no significant change in central venous pressure and

  6. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin levels with coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy and C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Se-Yeon; Kim, Byung-Jin; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Bum-Su; Kang, Jin-Ho; Oh, Ki-Won; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Ii; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Park, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Sun-Woo; Lee, Man-Ho; Park, Jung-Roe

    2005-03-01

    OPG (osteoprotegerin) is an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and recent work suggests it has a role in atherosclerosis. Therefore we measured serum OPG levels in patients with coronary artery disease, compared the serum OPG levels among the different groups according to the number of stenotic vessels and determined whether there was any correlation with aortic calcification, LV (left ventricular) mass index and serum CRP (C-reactive protein) levels. Subjects (n=100; mean age, 57 years) who underwent coronary angiograms were enrolled. Blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles and CRP levels were measured and the LV mass indices were calculated using ECGs. Serum OPG levels were measured by ELISA. The presence of calcification in the aortic notch was checked by a chest X-ray. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the number of stenotic vessels. The mean serum OPG levels increased significantly as the number of stenotic vessels increased, and the mean serum OPG levels were higher in the group with three-vessel disease compared with the groups with no- or one-vessel disease. The mean serum CRP level was significantly higher in the group with three-vessel disease compared with the groups with no-, one- and two-vessel disease. Age and LV mass index showed significant positive correlations with serum OPG levels, although significance was lost after an adjustment for age. Serum CRP levels were positively correlated with serum OPG levels even after an adjustment for age. There were no differences in serum OPG levels according to the presence of fasting hyperglycaemia or aortic calcification. In conclusion, serum OPG level was related to the severity of stenotic coronary arteries and serum CRP levels. LV mass indices showed no significant correlation with OPG levels. The precise mechanism for the role of OPG in atherosclerosis needs to be investigated further.

  7. Impaired left ventricular function has a detrimental effect on image quality in multi-detector row CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Manghat, N E; Morgan-Hughes, G J; Shaw, S R; Marshall, A J; Roobottom, C A

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between left ventricular (LV) haemodynamic parameters, circulation times, and arterial contrast opacification that might affect the image quality of computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography. Thirty-six patients were included in the study: 18 with cardiomyopathy (CM) and LV dilatation of suspected ischaemic aetiology [age 57.9+/-13.7 years, range 30-77 years; 14 male, four female; body mass index (BMI)=27.7+/-4.5, range 25.5-31.8] and 18 controls (age 62.3+/-9.4 years, range 47-89 years; 10 male, eight female; BMI 27.8+/-6.6; range 19.2-33.6). Coronary artery image quality was assessed using a three-point visual scale; contrast medium circulation times, aortic root contrast attenuation, and LV functional parameters were studied. Visually reduced contrast opacification impaired image quality more often in the CM group than the control group (27.4 versus 5.1%). A total of 55.6% CM patients had a contrast transit time ranging from 30-75 s; the number of "unassessable" segments increased with increasing transit time conforming to a fitted quadratic model (R2=0.74). The relationship between LV ejection fraction and contrast attenuation may also conform to a quadratic model (R2=0.71). LV haemodynamics influence coronary artery opacification using cardiac CT, and users imaging this subgroup must do so with the knowledge of this potential pitfall. The results indicate the need for further studies examining CT protocols in this clinical subgroup.

  8. Quantitative relationship between global left ventricular thallium uptake and blood flow: effects of propranolol, ouabain, dipyridamole, and coronary artery occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, J.A.; Becker, L.C.

    1986-05-01

    The quantitative relationship between fractional myocardial thallium uptake and radioactive microsphere-determined flow was studied in 33 open chest dogs under baseline conditions during increased coronary flow (dipyridamole), decreased coronary flow (propranolol and coronary artery stenosis), inhibition of Na-K ATPase (ouabain), and regional infarction. Myocardial contents of thallium and microspheres were compared in left ventricular (LV) biopsies taken 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min after thallium injection, expressed as fractions of injected dose. Maximal LV thallium uptake occurred 10 min after injection and the 10-min values were therefore used for subsequent comparisons. Combining all dogs, fractional LV thallium content (% injected dose) correlated well with fractional LV blood flow (% cardiac output) (r = 0.95). However, for fractional LV flows in the low, normal, or moderately elevated range (LV flow/cardiac output less than 9%), thallium content consistently exceeded flow by about 15%. This relationship was not altered by ouabain or regional ischemia or infarction. For greatly elevated fractional LV flows (greater than 9%), thallium content was not significantly different from flow. To explain these differences, myocardial and systemic extraction fractions for thallium were determined in eight dogs with a dual tracer method. At baseline, myocardial extraction fraction was significantly greater than systemic (88 +/- 0.4% compared with 75 +/- 1%, p less than 0.001). During dipyridamole, myocardial extraction fraction decreased and myocardial and systemic values were no longer significantly different (82 +/- 1% compared with 79 +/- 1%). These results show that the fraction of injected thallium dose taken up by the LV myocardium exceeds the delivered fraction of cardiac output and is not altered by ouabain-induced inhibition or regional myocardial infarction.

  9. Importance of angina in patients with coronary disease, heart failure, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction: insights from STICH.

    PubMed

    Jolicœur, E Marc; Dunning, Allison; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Dabrowski, Rafal; Waclawiw, Myron A; Petrie, Mark C; Stewart, Ralph; Jhund, Pardeep S; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Panza, Julio A; Bonow, Robert O; Sun, Benjamin; San, Tan Ru; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Rouleau, Jean L; Velazquez, Eric J; Cleland, John G F

    2015-11-10

    Patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, coronary artery disease (CAD), and angina are often thought to have a worse prognosis and a greater prognostic benefit from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery than those without angina. This study investigated: 1) whether angina was associated with a worse prognosis; 2) whether angina identified patients who had a greater survival benefit from CABG; and 3) whether CABG improved angina in patients with LV systolic dysfunction and CAD. We performed an analysis of the STICH (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) trial, in which 1,212 patients with an ejection fraction ≤35% and CAD were randomized to CABG or medical therapy. Multivariable Cox and logistic models were used to assess long-term clinical outcomes. At baseline, 770 patients (64%) reported angina. Among patients assigned to medical therapy, all-cause mortality was similar in patients with and without angina (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 1.38). The effect of CABG was similar whether the patient had angina (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.13) or not (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.94; p interaction = 0.14). Patients assigned to CABG were more likely to report improvement in angina than those assigned to medical therapy alone (odds ratio: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.90; p < 0.01). Angina does not predict all-cause mortality in medically treated patients with LV systolic dysfunction and CAD, nor does it identify patients who have a greater survival benefit from CABG. However, CABG does improve angina to a greater extent than medical therapy alone. (Comparison of Surgical and Medical Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease [STICH]; NCT00023595). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Accuracy of advanced versus strictly conventional 12-lead ECG for detection and screening of coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Resting conventional 12-lead ECG has low sensitivity for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and low positive predictive value (PPV) for prediction of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). We hypothesized that a ~5-min resting 12-lead advanced ECG test ("A-ECG") that combined results from both the advanced and conventional ECG could more accurately screen for these conditions than strictly conventional ECG. Methods Results from nearly every conventional and advanced resting ECG parameter known from the literature to have diagnostic or predictive value were first retrospectively evaluated in 418 healthy controls and 290 patients with imaging-proven CAD, LVH and/or LVSD. Each ECG parameter was examined for potential inclusion within multi-parameter A-ECG scores derived from multivariate regression models that were designed to optimally screen for disease in general or LVSD in particular. The performance of the best retrospectively-validated A-ECG scores was then compared against that of optimized pooled criteria from the strictly conventional ECG in a test set of 315 additional individuals. Results Compared to optimized pooled criteria from the strictly conventional ECG, a 7-parameter A-ECG score validated in the training set increased the sensitivity of resting ECG for identifying disease in the test set from 78% (72-84%) to 92% (88-96%) (P < 0.0001) while also increasing specificity from 85% (77-91%) to 94% (88-98%) (P < 0.05). In diseased patients, another 5-parameter A-ECG score increased the PPV of ECG for LVSD from 53% (41-65%) to 92% (78-98%) (P < 0.0001) without compromising related negative predictive value. Conclusion Resting 12-lead A-ECG scoring is more accurate than strictly conventional ECG in screening for CAD, LVH and LVSD. PMID:20565702

  11. Myocardial perfusion SPECT identifies patients with left bundle branch block patterns at high risk for future coronary events.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Tim J F; Kelder, Johannes C; Plokker, Herbert W M; Verzijlbergen, J Fred; van Hemel, Norbert M

    2010-04-01

    The value of myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) for patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) or right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing seems reduced. The prognosis of patients with only abnormal activation related perfusion defects (AARD) due to LBBB or RVA-pacing is similar to those with a normal MPS. We assessed the prognostic value of MPS in patients with LBBB or RVA pacing. Patients with LBBB or RVA pacing referred for vasodilator stress MPS between April 2002 and January 2006 were analyzed. Group 1 are patients with normal MPS and MPS with AARD. Group 2 are patients with an MPS with a perfusion defect extending outside the AARD area. Events were cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. In Group 1 (101 patients) 12 events and in Group 2 (96 patients) 45 events occurred during a mean follow-up of 2.6 +/- 1.5 years. The prognosis of Group 2 was significantly worse (49%) compared with Group 1 (91%). The annual cardiac death rate was 0.7%/year in Group 1 and 6.4%/year in Group 2 (P < .001). The prognosis of patients with LBBB was not different from those with RVA pacing. Group 2 had a significantly worse cardiac prognosis compared to Group 1. The annual cardiac death rate of <1% in Group 1 warrants a watchful waiting strategy, whereas the cardiac death rate in Group 2 warrants aggressive invasive coronary strategies.

  12. Rest and redistribution thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy to predict improvement in left ventricular function after coronary arterial bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Hakki, A.H.; Segal, B.L.

    1983-05-01

    To examine the value of rest and redistribution thallium-201 imaging in predicting improvement in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 26 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and abnormal LV function were studied. Nineteen patients had pathologic Q waves preoperatively. Rest and redistribution thallium-201 images and radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained before and after CABG, and the thallium scintigrams were evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. The patients were divided according to the preoperative thallium scintigrams into 2 groups: Group I (16 patients) had either normal resting thallium-201 images or reversible resting perfusion defects, and Group II (10 patients) had fixed resting perfusion defects. The resting EF was less than 50% preoperatively in all patients. Fourteen patients (54%) showed improvement in EF postoperatively. Three patients (2 in Group I and 1 in Group II) showed new postoperative perfusion defects, and none of the 3 showed improvement in LV function. Of the remaining 14 patients in Group I, 12 (86%) showed improvement in LV function, compared with 2 of 9 patients in Group II (p less than 0.01). Improvement in LV function was observed in 8 of the 19 patients (42%) with abnormal Q waves. Nitroglycerin intervention radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained in 20 patients before CABG. Of the 6 patients who showed improvement in LV function with nitroglycerin, 4 also showed improvement postoperatively. Postoperative improvement in LV function was also observed in 6 of the 14 patients who did not improve with nitroglycerin.

  13. Comparison of coronary sinus diameter Z-scores in normal fetuses and fetuses with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC).

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Tan, Yan; Chen, Ran; Mao, Yankai; Wang, Bei; Zhao, Bowen

    2017-08-14

    To establish Z-score reference ranges for coronary sinus (CS) diameter in normal fetuses and explore the diagnostic value of CS Z-score in fetuses with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Study of 235 normal fetuses and 30 fetuses with PLSVC was involved. Noncardiac biometrical parameters included biparietal diameter (BPD), femoral length (FL), heart area (HA), gestation age (GA). The coronary sinus systolic and diastolic diameter (CSDs and CSDd ) were measured at the end of systole and diastole. CSDs and CSDd Z-score models were constructed by using linear regression analysis with Non-cardiac biometrical parameters as independent variables. Z-scores between normal fetuses and fetuses with PLSVC were compared. A simple, linear regression model was the best description and correlations between fetal CSDs and CSDd and four independent variables were excellent. Reference ranges for predicting means and SDs of the fetal CS were established. Equations for Z-score calculation were provided, CSDs and CSDd Z-scores were statistically different between normal fetuses and those with PLSVC. Development of CSDs and CSDd Z-score reference ranges in normal fetuses was realized. The CSDs and CSDd Z-scores can provide quantitative evidence in prenatal diagnosis of PLSVC.

  14. Does mean heart dose sufficiently reflect coronary artery exposure in left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy? : Influence of respiratory gating.

    PubMed

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina; Stockhammer, Maxi; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Fabian; Franz, Heiko

    2016-09-01

    With extensive use of systemic treatment, the issue of cardiac mortality after breast cancer radiation (RT) is still important. The aim of our analysis was to clarify whether the dose to one surrogate parameter (e. g., mean heart dose, as used in most studies) reflects the dose to the other cardiovascular structures especially the left anterior descending artery depending on breathing-adapted RT. A total of 130 patients who underwent adjuvant RT (50.4 Gy plus boost 9-16 Gy) were evaluated. In all, 71 patients were treated with free-breathing and 59 patients using respiratory monitoring (gated RT). Dosimetric associations were calculated. The mean dose to the heart (Dmean heart) was reduced from 2.7 (0.8-5.2) Gy to 2.4 (1.1-4.6) Gy, the Dmean LAD (left anterior descending artery) decreased from 11.1 (1.3-28.6) Gy to 9.3 (2.2-19.9) Gy with gated RT (p = 0.04). A significant relationship was shown for Dmean heart-Dmean LAD, V25heart-Dmean LAD and Dmax heart-Dmax LAD for gated patients only (p < 0.01). For every 1 Gy increase in Dmean heart, mean LAD doses rose by 3.6 Gy, without gating V25 ≤5 % did not assure a benefit and resulted in Dmean LAD between 1.3 and 28.6 Gy. A significant reduction and association of heart and coronary artery (LAD) doses using inspiratory gating was shown. However, in free-breathing plans commonly measured dose constraints do not allow precise estimation of the dose to the coronary arteries.

  15. Severe left main coronary artery stenosis with abnormal branching pattern in a patient with mild supravalvar aortic stenosis and Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pieles, Guido E; Ofoe, Victor; Morgan, Gareth J

    2014-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multisystem genetic disorder comprising of craniofacial, developmental, and cardiac malformations. The most common cardiac defects found are supravalvar aortic stenosis and peripheral pulmonary stenosis. However, WBS should be regarded as a general arteriopathy consisting of stenoses of medium- and large-sized arteries including the coronary arteries. Cardiac manifestations are often the initial reason for referral and careful cardiovascular assessment is important as coronary artery involvement confers a significant anesthetic risk and may be associated with ischemia and resultant ventricular dysfunction. Here we review the literature and describe a 2-year-old boy with evolving clinical features of WBS. He presented to our pediatric cardiology department for a routine assessment of peripheral pulmonary branch stenosis. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed changes consistent with left ventricular ischemia and a two-dimensional echocardiogram showed reduced left ventricular function and mild supravalvar aortic stenosis. Subsequent cardiac catheterization diagnosed severe left main coronary artery stenosis. Deteriorating ventricular function secondary to acute ischemia postcatheterization required intensive care treatment from which the patient did not recover. This case report highlights the necessity of careful cardiology assessment without delay in patients with a suspicion of WBS. Isolated coronary stenosis though rare in WBS should be considered in the presence of ischemia or reduced ventricular function. Larger case series are needed to further characterize the correlation between WBS and acute coronary events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Automated classification of patients with coronary artery disease using grayscale features from left ventricle echocardiographic images.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Krishnananda, N; Ranjan, Shetty; Umesh, Pai; Suri, Jasjit S

    2013-12-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), caused by the buildup of plaque on the inside of the coronary arteries, has a high mortality rate. To efficiently detect this condition from echocardiography images, with lesser inter-observer variability and visual interpretation errors, computer based data mining techniques may be exploited. We have developed and presented one such technique in this paper for the classification of normal and CAD affected cases. A multitude of grayscale features (fractal dimension, entropies based on the higher order spectra, features based on image texture and local binary patterns, and wavelet based features) were extracted from echocardiography images belonging to a huge database of 400 normal cases and 400 CAD patients. Only the features that had good discriminating capability were selected using t-test. Several combinations of the resultant significant features were used to evaluate many supervised classifiers to find the combination that presents a good accuracy. We observed that the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) classifier trained with a feature subset made up of nine significant features presented the highest accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 100%. We have also developed a novel, highly discriminative HeartIndex, which is a single number that is calculated from the combination of the features, in order to objectively classify the images from either of the two classes. Such an index allows for an easier implementation of the technique for automated CAD detection in the computers in hospitals and clinics.

  17. Prognostic value of left atrial volume in patients who underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography for known or suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Jeane Mike; Dourado, Paulo M M; Elhendy, Abdou; Falcão, Sandra N R S; Goes, Renise M; Chagas, Antônio C P; da Luz, Protásio L; Ramires, José A F; Mathias, Wilson

    2008-12-01

    Left atrial volume indexed (LAVI) has been reported as a predictor of cardiovascular events. We sought to determine the prognostic value of LAVI for predicting the outcome of patients who underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) for known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). From January 2000 to July 2005, we studied 981 patients who underwent DSE and off-line measurements of LAVI. The value of DSE over clinical and LAVI data was examined using a stepwise log-rank test. During a median follow-up of 24 months, 56 (6%) events occurred. By univariate analysis, predictors of events were male sex, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial diameter indexed, LAVI, and abnormal DSE. By multivariate analysis, independent predictors were LVEF (relative risk [RR] = 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00), LAVI (RR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05), and abnormal DSE (RR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.28-5.69). In an incremental multivariate model, LAVI was additional to clinical data for predicting events (chi(2) 36.8, P < .001). The addition of DSE to clinical and LAVI yielded incremental information (chi(2) 55.3, P < .001). The 3-year event-free survival in patients with normal DSE and LAVI < or =33 mL/m(2) was 96%; with abnormal DSE and LAVI < or =33 mL/m(2), 91%; with normal DSE and LAVI >34 mL/m(2), 83%; and with abnormal DSE and LAVI >34 mL/m(2), 51%. Left atrial volume indexed provides independent prognostic information in patients who underwent DSE for known or suspected CAD. Among patients with normal DSE, those with larger LAVI had worse outcome, and among patients with abnormal DSE, LAVI was still predictive.

  18. Comparison of long-term outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Hayano, Mamoru; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Imai, Masao; Yamaji, Kyohei; Tada, Tomohisa; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Saijo, Sayaka; Funakoshi, Shunsuke; Nagao, Kazuya; Hanazawa, Koji; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Kadota, Kazushige; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Shizuta, Satoshi; Abe, Mitsuru; Sakata, Ryuzo; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanyu, Michiya; Yamazaki, Fumio; Shimamoto, Mitsuomi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Imoto, Yutaka; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Horie, Minoru; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2012-10-01

    The long-term outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) remains to be investigated. We identified 1,005 patients with ULMCAD of 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2. Cumulative 3-year incidence of a composite of death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke was significantly higher in the PCI group than in the CABG group (22.7% vs 14.8%, p = 0.0006, log-rank test). However, the adjusted outcome was not different between the PCI and CABG groups (hazard ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79 to 2.15, p = 0.30). Stratified analysis using the SYNTAX score demonstrated that risk for a composite of death/MI/stroke was not different between the 2 treatment groups in patients with low (<23) and intermediate (23 to 33) SYNTAX scores (adjusted HR 1.70, 95% CI 0.77 to 3.76, p = 0.19; adjusted HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.99, p = 0.72, respectively), whereas in patients with a high SYNTAX score (≥33), it was significantly higher after PCI than after CABG (adjusted HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.32 to 5.16, p = 0.006). In conclusion, risk of PCI for serious adverse events seemed to be comparable to that after CABG in patients with ULMCAD with a low or intermediate SYNTAX score, whereas PCI compared with CABG was associated with a higher risk for serious adverse events in patients with a high SYNTAX score.

  19. [Morphofunctional correlation in congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries. II. The ectopic origin of the coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Rangel-Abundis, A; Muñoz-Castellanos, L; Chávez-Pérez, E; Sánchez-Moreira, L M; Marín, G; Badui, E; Solorio, S

    1994-01-01

    The authors describe the morphogenesis and functional alterations of the coronary arterial net in the ectopic coronary arteries: a) with origin in the aorta or its branches and b) with origin in the pulmonary artery. The coronary arteries are developed from: 1) endothelial sprouts localized in the great arteries walls at the level of the sigmoidal values, 2) right and left subepicardial vascular network and 3) the intramyocardial sinusoids. Most of the ectopic coronary arteries result from alterations in the connection between these three embryonic elements. The deviation of one of the subepicardial vascular network in a wrong way (in direction of pulmonary artery or the opposite Valsalva sinus) will stimulate the development of endothelial sprouts which will connect such network originating abnormal connections and anomalous origin of the coronary arteries. The origin of both coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery is in compatible with life. Myocardial ischemia is absent in patients with type I (infant) or type II (adult) anomalous origin of one coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, only in the transitional phase between both types (I and II) there is myocardial ischemia previous to the formation of the collateral coronary circulation. The ectopic origin of the coronary artery from the aortic Valsalva sinus have very little hemodynamic repercussion in the patient. Although there are cases with postexercise sudden dead. These anomalies associated to atherosclerotic coronary stenosis have an impact on the evolution and prognosis of ischemic heart disease.

  20. Prediction of the true fractional flow reserve of left main coronary artery stenosis with concomitant downstream stenoses: in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Erika; Saito, Naritatsu; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Shin; Bao, Bingyuan; Watanabe, Hiroki; Higami, Hirooki; Nakatsuma, Kenji; Kimura, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    The functional impact of downstream coronary stenoses on left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis has not been fully elucidated. This study therefore aimed to use in vitro and in vivo experiments to assess two novel equations that predict the true fractional flow reserve (FFR) of a left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis with concomitant downstream stenoses. Two novel equations were derived. One equation predicts the true fractional flow reserve (FFR) of an LMCA stenosis with a downstream stenosis (Equation A), and the other predicts the true FFR of an LMCA stenosis with downstream stenoses in both the left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries (Equation B). The equations were validated in both in vitro and in vivo models of the coronary circulation. The agreements between the apparent FFR (FFRapp), the predicted FFR (FFRpred) and the true FFR (FFRtrue) were assessed by Passing-Bablok regression analysis. Passing-Bablok regression analysis revealed that there were fixed proportional errors between FFRapp-m and FFRtrue-m, though a very small fixed error and no proportional errors between FFRpred-m and FFRtrue-m. The absolute differences between FFRpred and FFRtrue were significantly lower as compared to those between FFRapp and FFRtrue in all experiments. Two novel equations which predict the true FFR of LMCA stenosis were demonstrated to be correct. The study also revealed that the functional impact of downstream stenoses on the LMCA stenosis became stronger when the downstream stenoses became more severe.

  1. Usefulness of two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of proximal left coronary system compression by a paraprosthetic aortic valve abscess.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Amier; McElwee, Samuel K; Jiang, Amy Z; Barssoum, Kirolos N; Elkaryoni, Ahmed E; Arisha, Mohammed J; Srialluri, Swetha; Seghatol, Frank; Nanda, Navin C

    2017-02-01

    Paraprosthetic aortic valve abscess represents a rare, but lethal complication of infective endocarditis. We report a case of proximal left coronary system compression by a paraprosthetic aortic valve abscess whose detection was augmented using live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. Our case illustrates the usefulness of combined two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in detecting this finding.

  2. ST segment/heart rate hysteresis improves the diagnostic accuracy of ECG stress test for coronary artery disease in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Zimarino, Marco; Montebello, Elena; Radico, Francesco; Gallina, Sabina; Perfetti, Matteo; Iachini Bellisarii, Francesco; Severi, Silva; Limbruno, Ugo; Emdin, Michele; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2016-10-01

    The exercise electrocardiographic stress test (ExET) is the most widely used non-invasive diagnostic method to detect coronary artery disease. However, the sole ST depression criteria (ST-max) have poor specificity for coronary artery disease in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. We hypothesised that ST-segment depression/heart rate hysteresis, depicting the relative behaviour of ST segment depression during the exercise and recovery phase of the test might increase the diagnostic accuracy of ExET for coronary artery disease detection in such patients. In three cardiology centres, we studied 113 consecutive patients (mean age 66 ± 2 years; 88% men) with hypertension-related left ventricular hypertrophy at echocardiography, referred to coronary angiography after an ExET. The following ExET criteria were analysed: ST-max, chronotropic index, heart rate recovery, Duke treadmill score, ST-segment depression/heart rate hysteresis. We detected significant coronary artery disease at coronary angiography in 61 patients (53%). At receiver-operating characteristic analysis, ST-segment depression/heart rate hysteresis had the highest area under the curve value (0.75, P < 0.001 when compared with the 'neutral' receiver-operating characteristic curve value of 0.5). Area under the curve values were 0.68 (P < 0.01) for the chronotropic index, 0.58 (P = NS) for heart rate recovery, 0.57 (P = NS) for ST-max and 0.52 (P = NS) for the Duke treadmill score. Among currently available ExET diagnostic variables, ST-segment depression/heart rate hysteresis offers a substantially better diagnostic accuracy for coronary artery disease than conventional criteria in patients with hypertension-related left ventricular hypertrophy. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  3. Coronary-artery bypass surgery in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Eric J; Lee, Kerry L; Deja, Marek A; Jain, Anil; Sopko, George; Marchenko, Andrey; Ali, Imtiaz S; Pohost, Gerald; Gradinac, Sinisa; Abraham, William T; Yii, Michael; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Szwed, Hanna; Ferrazzi, Paolo; Petrie, Mark C; O'Connor, Christopher M; Panchavinnin, Pradit; She, Lilin; Bonow, Robert O; Rankin, Gena Roush; Jones, Robert H; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien

    2011-04-28

    The role of coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure has not been clearly established. Between July 2002 and May 2007, a total of 1212 patients with an ejection fraction of 35% or less and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomly assigned to medical therapy alone (602 patients) or medical therapy plus CABG (610 patients). The primary outcome was the rate of death from any cause. Major secondary outcomes included the rates of death from cardiovascular causes and of death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. The primary outcome occurred in 244 patients (41%) in the medical-therapy group and 218 (36%) in the CABG group (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.04; P=0.12). A total of 201 patients (33%) in the medical-therapy group and 168 (28%) in the CABG group died from an adjudicated cardiovascular cause (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.00; P=0.05). Death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes occurred in 411 patients (68%) in the medical-therapy group and 351 (58%) in the CABG group (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.85; P<0.001). By the end of the follow-up period (median, 56 months), 100 patients in the medical-therapy group (17%) underwent CABG, and 555 patients in the CABG group (91%) underwent CABG. In this randomized trial, there was no significant difference between medical therapy alone and medical therapy plus CABG with respect to the primary end point of death from any cause. Patients assigned to CABG, as compared with those assigned to medical therapy alone, had lower rates of death from cardiovascular causes and of death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Abbott Laboratories; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.).

  4. Coronary-Artery Bypass Surgery in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, Eric J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Deja, Marek A.; Jain, Anil; Sopko, George; Marchenko, Andrey; Ali, Imtiaz S.; Pohost, Gerald; Gradinac, Sinisa; Abraham, William T.; Yii, Michael; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Szwed, Hanna; Ferrazzi, Paolo; Petrie, Mark C.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Panchavinnin, Pradit; She, Lilin; Bonow, Robert O.; Rankin, Gena Roush; Jones, Robert H.; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure has not been clearly established. METHODS Between July 2002 and May 2007, a total of 1212 patients with an ejection fraction of 35% or less and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomly assigned to medical therapy alone (602 patients) or medical therapy plus CABG (610 patients). The primary outcome was the rate of death from any cause. Major secondary outcomes included the rates of death from cardiovascular causes and of death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. RESULTS The primary outcome occurred in 244 patients (41%) in the medical-therapy group and 218 (36%) in the CABG group (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.04; P = 0.12). A total of 201 patients (33%) in the medical-therapy group and 168 (28%) in the CABG group died from an adjudicated cardiovascular cause (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.00; P = 0.05). Death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes occurred in 411 patients (68%) in the medical-therapy group and 351 (58%) in the CABG group (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.85; P<0.001). By the end of the follow-up period (median, 56 months), 100 patients in the medical-therapy group (17%) underwent CABG, and 555 patients in the CABG group (91%) underwent CABG. CONCLUSIONS In this randomized trial, there was no significant difference between medical therapy alone and medical therapy plus CABG with respect to the primary end point of death from any cause. Patients assigned to CABG, as compared with those assigned to medical therapy alone, had lower rates of death from cardiovascular causes and of death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Abbott Laboratories; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.) PMID:21463150

  5. Epidemiology of congenital coronary artery anomalies: a coronary arteriography study on a central European population.

    PubMed

    Kardos, A; Babai, L; Rudas, L; Gaál, T; Horváth, T; Tálosi, L; Tóth, K; Sárváry, L; Szász, K

    1997-11-01

    The anatomical patterns and frequency of occurrence of congenital coronary anomalies (CCA) in a Central European cohort has not yet been studied. The angiographic data of 7,694 consecutive patients undergoing coronary arteriography at the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University, Szeged, Hungary, from 1984 to 1994 were analyzed. CCA were found in 103 patients (1.34% incidence). Ninety-eight of them (95.2%) had anomalies of origin and distribution, and five (4.8%) had coronary artery fistulae. The incidence was the highest for the separate origin of left descending artery and left circumflex from the left sinus of Valsalva (52.42%). Anomalous origin of the left circumflex coronary artery from the right coronary was 8.7% while from the right sinus of Valsalva 18.4%. CCA, which may be associated with potentially serious events, such as ectopic coronary origin from the opposite aortic sinus (1.9%) and single coronary arteries (3.88%), were not frequent. The incidence of CCA in the Central European cohort under study was similar to that of the largest North American study. The anatomic classification presented can be useful from both clinical and surgical standpoints.

  6. Permanent Ligation of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Mice: A Model of Post-myocardial Infarction Remodelling and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Lox, Marleen; Jacobs, Frank; De Geest, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a syndrome in which the heart fails to pump blood at a rate commensurate with cellular oxygen requirements at rest or during stress. It is characterized by fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue, in particular on exertion. Heart failure is a growing public health problem, the leading cause of hospitalization, and a major cause of mortality. Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of heart failure. Ventricular remodelling refers to changes in structure, size, and shape of the left ventricle. This architectural remodelling of the left ventricle is induced by injury (e.g., myocardial infarction), by pressure overload (e.g., systemic arterial hypertension or aortic stenosis), or by volume overload. Since ventricular remodelling affects wall stress, it has a profound impact on cardiac function and on the development of heart failure. A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is used to investigate ventricular remodelling and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction. This model is fundamentally different in terms of objectives and pathophysiological relevance compared to the model of transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In this latter model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the initial extent of the infarct may be modulated by factors that affect myocardial salvage following reperfusion. In contrast, the infarct area at 24 hr after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is fixed. Cardiac function in this model will be affected by 1) the process of infarct expansion, infarct healing, and scar formation; and 2) the concomitant development of left ventricular dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy, and ventricular remodelling. Besides the model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the technique of invasive hemodynamic measurements in mice is presented in detail. PMID:25489995

  7. Single coronary artery--a rarity in the catheterization laboratory: case report and current review.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Ropers, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    A single coronary artery is a rare anomaly but has been associated with sudden cardiac death. A 73-year-old man with atypical chest pain and exercise-induced ischemia arising from a single coronary artery with the left main coronary stem originating from the proximal right coronary artery and passing posterior and inferior to the aortic root is described. The exact three-dimensional course was not reliably established by coronary angiography but was clearly demonstrated by contrast-enhanced electron beam tomography. The most reasonable hypotheses for myocardial ischemia and sudden death emphasize the accentuation of the angle at the origin of specific distribution patterns of an anomalous coronary artery that may compromise coronary blood flow. Other mechanisms such as coronary spasm and hypoplasia are also discussed. The literature review provides a historic overview and insights into the developmental history of the anomaly, classification of the various morphological patterns, clinical significance and therapeutic approaches.

  8. Unusual presentation of total anomalous systemic venous connection.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Kothandam, Sivakumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Pradhan, Priya M; Agarwal, Ravi

    2017-07-01

    A 9-year-old girl who presented with dyspnea on exertion was diagnosed with total anomalous systemic venous connection to the left atrium (both venae cavae), no left superior vena cava, and a moderate-sized atrial septal defect with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and ectopic atrial rhythm. She underwent septation of the common atrium using autologous pericardium, thereby rerouting the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus to the right atrium. Her postoperative course was uneventful. This case is reported for its rarity of presentation with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and ectopic atrial rhythm.

  9. Trastuzumab (Herceptin)-associated cardiomyopathy presented as new onset of complete left bundle-branch block mimicking acute coronary syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chung-Ming; Chu, Kai-Ming; Yang, Shin-Ping; Cheng, Shu-Mung; Wang, Wen-Been

    2009-09-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is well documented in reducing suffering and mortality from breast cancer. The clinically most important side effect of Herceptin is cardiotoxicity, which is reported in 2.6% to 4.5% of patients receiving trastuzumab alone and in as many as 27% of patients when trastuzumab is combined with an anthracycline in metastatic disease. We reported the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department (ED) because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical examination, holosystolic murmur over apex could be heard. Pulmonary and abdominal examinations were unremarkable. Twelve-lead electrocardiography showed sinus tachycardia and new onset of complete left bundle-branch block. Emergent transthoracic echocardiography revealed generalized hypokinesia of left ventricle and akinesia over interventricular septum and apex. She subsequently underwent immediate coronary angiography that revealed normal coronary angiography, and left ventriculogram revealed generalized hypokinesia with severe left ventricle dysfunction with ejection fraction of 33%. During right heart catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy, cardiac tamponade developed and was successfully relieved by pericardial window. She was discharged event-free 3 weeks later with conservative treatment. Although new onset of complete left bundle-branch block in a patient with chest pain may be acute coronary syndrome, careful review of medicine history is mandatory to avoid unnecessary procedure and complications.

  10. Diagnostic value of the left atrial electrical potentials detected by body surface potential mapping in the prediction of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, Tamás; Préda, István; Szakolczai, Krisztina; Szucs, Endre; Kiss, Róbert Gábor; Simonyi, Gábor; Kerecsen, Gábor; Duray, Gábor; Medvegy, Mihály

    2011-08-04

    The electrocardiographic diagnosis of significant coronary artery stenosis (CAD) is often based on the investigation of the left ventricular repolarization changes during exercise ECG stress test (EST). Our aim was to prove that the electric activity of the left atrium can indicate the ischemic damage of the left ventricle, and furthermore, it is able to indicate CAD without exercise. Patients with chest complaints but without evidence of acute coronary syndrome were investigated by EST and body surface potential mapping (BSPM, 63 leads). CAD was proven in 45 cases (32 men, years 40-76) and excluded in 50 cases (35 men, years 38-72) with coronary angiography. Left atrial electric potentials (EP-LA) before and after 0.08 mg sublingual nitroglycerine administration differed significantly (p<0.001) in the two groups. According to Fischer linear discriminant analysis, this difference in % (EP-LA(d%)) was the best separating parameter: below limit of -14.17% (CAD prevalence was considered) this parameter predicted CAD with 93% sensitivity, 100% specificity, >10 positive and 0.05 negative likelihood ratio (weighted for prevalence). The EST predicted CAD with 71% sensitivity, 78% specificity, 2.43 positive and 0.28 negative likelihood ratios. The electrical activity changes of the left atrium seemed to be suitable to predict CAD as an EST-alternative resting method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging: current state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Evan; Botnar, René M; Yeon, Susan B; Manning, Warren J

    2005-09-01

    Over the past decade, coronary magnetic resonance imaging has been transformed from a scientific curiosity to a clinically useful imaging tool for patients with known or suspected anomalous coronary arteries or coronary artery aneurysms and for assessment of coronary artery bypass graft patency. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging also appears to be of clinical value for assessment of native vessel integrity in selected patients, especially those patients with suspected left main/multivessel disease. Among patients referred for X-ray angiography, a normal coronary magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests the absence of severe multivessel disease. Technical and methodological advances in motion suppression, along with increasing clinical experience will no doubt facilitate improved visualization of the distal and branch vessel.

  12. [Circumflex angioplasty in a patient with type IV dual left anterior descending coronary artery. Proposal for updating the classification of Spindola-Franco].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martínez, Francisco L; Aladro-Miranda, Iguer F; Ibargollín-Hernández, Rosendo S; Vega-Fleites, Luis F; Nodarse-Valdivia, José R; Lara-Pérez, Norge R; Agüero-Sánchez, Alejandro; González-Chinea, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    The normal anatomy of coronary arteries includes a kind of variants with regard to its origin, distribution and route, which makes that 2 patients do not have coronary arteries exactly alike. Left anterior descending artery could have anatomical variations that do not affect the normal supply of blood to the corresponding myocardial territory. In our 25 years of experience, and more than 11,000 coronary angiographies, we have found only one patient with a type IV dual left anterior descending coronary artery. In this article we show the case of a patient with the described coronary anomaly, presenting a severe stenosis of the circumflex artery which was successfully treated percutaneously. Besides, a proposal for updating the classification of Spindola-Franco is made, where the 4 types previously described were kept invariable, and 7 anatomical variants or subtypes were added. Copyright © 2011 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative efficacy and safety of the left versus right radial approach for percutaneous coronary procedures: a meta-analysis including 6870 patients.

    PubMed

    Xia, S L; Zhang, X B; Zhou, J S; Gao, X

    2015-08-01

    The radial approach is widely used in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of published results on the efficacy and safety of the left and right radial approaches in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures. A systematic search of reference databases was conducted, and data from 14 randomized controlled trials involving 6870 participants were analyzed. The left radial approach was associated with significant reductions in fluoroscopy time [standardized mean difference (SMD)=-0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.19 to -0.09; P<0.00001] and contrast volume (SMD=-0.07, 95%CI=-0.12 to -0.02; P=0.009). There were no significant differences in rate of procedural failure of the left and the right radial approaches [risk ratios (RR)=0.98; 95%CI=0.77-1.25; P=0.88] or procedural time (SMD=-0.05, 95%CI=0.17-0.06; P=0.38). Tortuosity of the subclavian artery (RR=0.27, 95%CI=0.14-0.50; P<0.0001) was reported more frequently with the right radial approach. A greater number of catheters were used with the left than with the right radial approach (SMD=0.25, 95%CI=0.04-0.46; P=0.02). We conclude that the left radial approach is as safe as the right radial approach, and that the left radial approach should be recommended for use in percutaneous coronary procedures, especially in percutaneous coronary angiograms.

  14. Diastolic flow velocity pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery in hypertrophied heart, with special reference to the difference between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Nobuo; Fukuda, Yamato; Morishita, Satofumi; Sakabe, Koichi; Shinohara, Hisanori; Tamura, Yoshiyuki

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of diastolic flow velocity pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and the difference in diastolic LAD flow velocity pattern between hypertensive LVH and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The flow velocity pattern was recorded at the mid-portion of the LAD by high-frequency transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in 22 patients with HCM, 10 hypertensive patients with LVH [LVH(+)HT], and 9 hypertensive patients without LVH [LVH(-)HT]. The diastolic flow pattern was analyzed. Standard two-dimensional echocardiogram and apexcardiogram (ACG) were also recorded. The interventricular septal thickness (IVST) and the sum of the IVST and LV posterior wall thickness (PWT) (IVST + PWT) were greater in HCM than in HT (p < 0.01) patients. Early diastolic upstroke time (D-UT) of the LAD flow velocity wave was longest in HCM, and was longer in LVH(+)HT than in LVH(-)HT (p < 0.01) patients. Direct correlation was found between D-UT and IVST, IVST + PWT in patients with LVH(+)HT and LVH(-)HT (r = 0.80, 0.79, respectively; p < 0.01), but no correlation was found between these parameters in HCM. Late-diastolic step (LDS) formation of the LAD flow velocity wave was observed in 68% of HCM, 20% of LVH(+)HT, but none of the LVH(-)HT patients. The A wave ratio of ACG was higher in patients with LDS than in those without (p < 0.01). The LDS occurred coincidently with the A wave of ACG. The diastolic LAD flow velocity pattern in hypertrophied heart is characterized by slow acceleration and LDS formation, reflecting impaired relaxation and increased stiffness of the LV, respectively. These abnormalities correlate with the degree of hypertrophy in hypertensive heart, but do not correlate with that in HCM.

  15. Emergency coronary bypass grafting for evolving myocardial infarction. Effects on infarct size and left ventricular function

    SciTech Connect

    Flameng, W.; Sergeant, P.; Vanhaecke, J.; Suy, R.

    1987-07-01

    Emergency aorta-coronary bypass grafting was performed early in the course of evolving myocardial infarction in 48 patients. The time interval between the onset of symptoms and reperfusion was 169 +/- 80 minutes. Quantitative assessment of postoperative thallium 201 myocardial scans in 19 patients revealed a significant salvage of myocardium after surgical reperfusion: The size of the residual infarction was less than 50% of that in a matched, medically treated, prospective control group (n = 39) (p less than 0.05). Postoperative equilibrium-gated radionuclide blood pool studies (technetium 99m) showed an enhanced recovery of regional and global ejection fraction after operation as compared to after medical treatment (p less than 0.05). Ultrastructural evaluation of biopsy specimens obtained during the operation delineated subendocardial necrosis in the majority of cases (72%), but subepicardial necrosis was found in only 6% of instances. Q-wave abnormalities were observed on the postoperative electrocardiogram in 50% of cases. Operative mortality was 0% in low-risk patients (i.e., hemodynamically stable condition, n = 26) and 18% in high-risk patients (i.e., cardiogenic shock including total electromechanical dysfunction, n = 22). Survival rate at 18 months was 92% +/- 4%, and 95% +/- 4% of the survivors were event free. It is concluded that early surgical reperfusion of evolving myocardial infarction limits infarct size significantly, enhances functional recovery, and may be a lifesaving operation in patients having cardiogenic shock associated with unsuccessful resuscitation.

  16. Sirolimus-Versus Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents in Acute Coronary Syndromes With C Type Left Anterior Descending Artery Lesions: A Three-Year Clinical Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Seher; Cicek, Davran; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents have improved the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention and made it the preferred therapy in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases including acute coronary syndromes. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stent with that of zotarolimus-eluting stent following percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome patients with C-type left anterior descending stenosis. Methods A total of 154 acute coronary syndrome patients with C-type lesions in the left anterior descending artery, requiring a stent > 28 mm in length, were randomized into two groups to receive either sirolimus- (n = 74) or zotarolimus-eluting stent (n = 80). The follow-up period after stent implantation was approximately 36 months. The primary endpoint was a major cardiac event (a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-related target vessel revascularization), and the secondary endpoint included these individual end points plus stent thrombosis. Results After 3 years follow-up, the rate of the primary end point (major cardiac event: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-related target vessel revascularization) was 16% in the sirolimus group (n = 12) versus 11.2% in the zotarolimus group (n = 9) (P = 0.2). Although there were four cases of stent thrombosis with sirolimus-eluting stent and one with zotarolimus-eluting stent (4.0% sirolimus vs. 1.25% zotarolimus; P = 0.2), neither non-Q myocardial infarction (4.0%sirolimus vs. 1.25% zotarolimus; P = 0.2) nor stent thrombosis, differed significantly. Conclusions Although zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation showed more favorable results with respect to stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiac event rates compared to sirolimus-eluting stent implantation, statistically, both stent groups have nearly similar clinical safety and efficacy in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes with C-type lesions in the left

  17. Assessment of early ventricular systole by first pass radionuclide angiography: useful method for detection of left ventricular dysfunction at rest in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, R; Gordon, D; Karliner, J; Battler, A; Walaski, S; Verba, J; Pfisterer, M; Peterson, K; Ashburn, W

    1979-09-01

    To identify abnormal left ventricular function without exercise stress in patients with coronary artery disease first-pass radionuclide angiograms were analyzed in 32 normal subjects (Group I); 31 patients with coronary disease and normal contrast ventriculograms (Group II); and 17 patients with coronary disease and depressed left ventricular function (Group III). Total ejection fraction (EF) was computed with standard angiographic methods and from each time-activity curve. During the first third of systole, ejection fraction was determined manually by averaging three to five beats and the value compared with that obtained with contrast ventriculography: (Formula: see text). Both total radionuclide ejection fraction (r = 0.95) and first-third ejection fraction (r = 0.91) correlated well with angiography. Intraobserver and interobserver variation was small, averaging 0.02 +/- 0.02 (range 0 to 0.05). The radionuclide first-third ejection fraction was 0.25 or greater in normal subjects and less than 0.25 in 29 of 31 patients (94 percent) in Group II and in all patients in Group III. It is concluded that the first-third ejection fraction obtained with first pass angiography identifies subtle abnormalities of left ventricular function at rest in more than 90 percent of patients with coronary disease that may not be recognized by total ejection fraction alone.

  18. Comparison of Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using Internal Mammary Graft Versus Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Isolated Proximal Left Anterior Descending Narrowing.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Bilal; Ilsley, Charles; De Robertis, Fabio; Lane, Rebecca; Kabir, Tito; Bahrami, Toufan; Simon, Andre; Popov, Aron; Amrani, Mohamed; Dalby, Miles C; Mason, Mark; Grocott-Mason, Richard; Smith, Robert D; Raja, Shahzad G

    2017-03-01

    There are limited contemporary studies comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for isolated proximal left anterior descending (LAD) disease. Increasing stent length and decreasing stent diameters are associated with increased risk of restenosis and adverse outcomes after PCI. Whether these parameters influence outcomes when comparing CABG and PCI is unclear. We compared CABG and PCI in 3,473 patients who underwent revascularization for isolated proximal LAD disease from 2004 to 2015 at Harefield Hospital, UK; 3,078 patients (89%) had PCI and 384 patients had CABG (11%). We analyzed all-cause mortality at 3 years. The unadjusted mortality rates were similar (PCI vs CABG: 9.5% vs 7.0%, p = 0.109). PCI was associated with comparable mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70 to 1.89, p = 0.593), even when stratified to bare-metal stents (HR 1.58, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.80, p = 0.121); first-generation drug-eluting stents (FDES; HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.02, p = 0.597); and second-generation DES (SDES; HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.82, p = 0.946). Stent diameters did not influence outcomes, but PCI was associated with higher mortality when stent length ≥30 mm (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.03, p = 0.022). There was a linear association between stent length and mortality, and for every 1-mm increase in stent length, the 3-year mortality increased by 0.32%. In conclusion, for patients with isolated proximal LAD disease, PCI and CABG were associated with similar mortality. Increasing stent length was progressively associated with worse outcomes with PCI. For longer segments of disease requiring stent lengths ≥30 mm, CABG may be associated with better outcomes.

  19. Relationship between R-R interval and left ventricular systolic synchrony in subjects with coronary artery disease determined using angiography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Li, Yanhong; Wu, Zhisheng; Mu, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between R-R interval and left ventricular systolic synchrony in subjects with coronary artery disease determined using angiography. A total of 277 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for suspected CAD were recruited in this study. For all subjects, the R-R interval was quantified using simultaneous ECG, and the times to peak systolic longitudinal strain (Tssl) on 17 LV segments were quantified using four-dimensional (4D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and manually measured. The independent predictors of R-R interval using multiple linear regression analyses were the time to peak systolic longitudinal strain in the apical-septal segment (Tssl-Apical-S) (β=0.325, P=0.000), smoking status (β=0.141, P=0.013), and the time to peak systolic longitudinal strain in the basal-anterolateral segment (Tssl-Basal-AL) (β=0.151, P=0.014), which were significantly independently associated with the R-R interval. In multiple regression analyses, smoking status (OR, 1.943; 95% CI, 1.119-3.375, P=0.018), Tssl-Basal-AL (OR, 1.002; 95% CI, 1.000-1.004, P=0.043), the time to peak systolic longitudinal strain in the mid-inferoseptal segment (Tssl-Mid-IS) (OR, 1.008; 95% CI, 1.003-1.013, P=0.004), and Tssl-Apical-S (OR, 1.010; 95% CI, 1.004-1.016, P=0.002) remained independently associated with the risk of a longer R-R interval (the median 849.49 ms was set as the cutoff value) in the population. Our findings may provide the basis for future investigations of LV systolic synchrony and cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  20. Multicenter study of the safety and effects of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with coronary sinus left ventricular pacing leads.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Seth H; Bunch, T Jared; Cogert, Gregory A; Acker, Nancy G; Dalzell, Connie M; Higgins, John V; Espinosa, Raul E; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Cha, Yong-Mei; Felmlee, Joel P; Watson, Robert E; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Brooks, Miriam H; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Friedman, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with left ventricular (LV) leads may cause tissue or lead heating, dislodgment, venous damage, or lead dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety of MRI in patients with LV pacing leads. Prospective data on patients with coronary sinus LV leads undergoing clinically indicated MRI at 3 institutions were collected. Patients were not pacemaker-dependent. Scans were performed under pacing nurse, technician, radiologist, and physicist supervision using continuous vital sign, pulse oximetry, and ECG monitoring and a 1.5-T scanner with specific absorption rate <1.5 W/kg. Devices were interrogated pre- and post-MRI, programmed to asynchronous or inhibition mode with tachyarrhythmia therapies off (if present), and reprogrammed to their original settings post-MRI. MRI scans (n = 42) were performed in 40 patients with non-MRI conditional LV leads between 2005 and 2013 (mean age 67 ± 9 years, n = 16 [40%] women, median lead implant duration 740 days with interquartile range 125-1173 days). MRIs were performed on the head/neck/spine (n = 35 [83%]), lower extremities (n = 4 [10%]), chest (n = 2 [5%]), and abdomen (n = 1 [2%]). There were no overall differences in pre- and post-MRI interrogation LV lead sensing (12.4 ± 6.2 mV vs 12.9 ± 6.7 mV, P = .38), impedance (724 ± 294 Ω vs 718 ± 312 Ω, P = .67), or threshold (1.4 ± 1.1 V vs 1.4 ± 1.0 V, P = .91). No individual LV lead changes required intervention. MRI scanning was performed safely in non-pacemaker-dependent patients with coronary sinus LV leads who were carefully monitored during imaging without clinically significant adverse effect on LV lead function. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Levosimendan facilitates weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with impaired left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Heidi I; Jalonen, Jouko R; Heikkinen, Leo O; Kivikko, Matti; Laine, Mika; Leino, Kari A; Kuitunen, Anne H; Kuttila, Kari T; Peräkylä, Tarja K; Sarapohja, Toni; Suojaranta-Ylinen, Raili T; Valtonen, Mika; Salmenperä, Markku T

    2009-02-01

    Levosimendan is a compound with vasodilatory and inotropic properties. Experimental data suggest effective reversal of stunning and cardioprotective properties. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study included 60 patients with 3-vessel coronary disease and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 0.50. Levosimendan administration (12 microg/kg bolus, followed by an infusion of 0.2 microg/kg/min) was started immediately after induction anesthesia. Predefined strict hemodynamic criteria were used to assess the success of weaning. If weaning was not successful, CPB was reinstituted and an epinephrine infusion was started. If the second weaning attempt failed, intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was instituted. The groups had comparable demographics. The mean (standard deviation) preoperative LVEF was 0.36 (0.8) in both groups. The baseline cardiac index was 1.8 (0.3) L/min/m(2) in the levosimendan group and 1.9 (0.4) L/min/m(2) in the placebo group. The mean duration of CPB to primary weaning attempt was 104 (25) minutes in the levosimendan and 109 (22) minutes in the placebo group. Primary weaning was successful in 22 patients (73%) in the levosimendan group and in 10 (33%) in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The odds ratio for failure in primary weaning was 0.182 (95% confidence interval, 0.060 to 0.552). Four patients in the placebo group failed the second weaning and underwent IABP compared with none in the levosimendan group (p = 0.112). Levosimendan significantly enhanced primary weaning from CPB compared with placebo in patients undergoing 3-vessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. The need for additional inotropic or mechanical therapy was decreased.

  2. Relationship between R-R interval and left ventricular systolic synchrony in subjects with coronary artery disease determined using angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Li, Yanhong; Wu, Zhisheng; Mu, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between R-R interval and left ventricular systolic synchrony in subjects with coronary artery disease determined using angiography. A total of 277 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for suspected CAD were recruited in this study. For all subjects, the R-R interval was quantified using simultaneous ECG, and the times to peak systolic longitudinal strain (Tssl) on 17 LV segments were quantified using four-dimensional (4D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and manually measured. The independent predictors of R-R interval using multiple linear regression analyses were the time to peak systolic longitudinal strain in the apical-septal segment (Tssl-Apical-S) (β=0.325, P=0.000), smoking status (β=0.141, P=0.013), and the time to peak systolic longitudinal strain in the basal-anterolateral segment (Tssl-Basal-AL) (β=0.151, P=0.014), which were significantly independently associated with the R-R interval. In multiple regression analyses, smoking status (OR, 1.943; 95% CI, 1.119-3.375, P=0.018), Tssl-Basal-AL (OR, 1.002; 95% CI, 1.000-1.004, P=0.043), the time to peak systolic longitudinal strain in the mid-inferoseptal segment (Tssl-Mid-IS) (OR, 1.008; 95% CI, 1.003-1.013, P=0.004), and Tssl-Apical-S (OR, 1.010; 95% CI, 1.004-1.016, P=0.002) remained independently associated with the risk of a longer R-R interval (the median 849.49 ms was set as the cutoff value) in the population. Our findings may provide the basis for future investigations of LV systolic synchrony and cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:28078178

  3. Acute myocardial infarction due to left main coronary artery disease in men and women: does ST-segment elevation matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowski, Wojciech; Raczyński, Grzegorz; Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka; Gierlotka, Marek; Poloński, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gender-specific issues regarding ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) due to unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease were not sufficiently studied. We assessed the value of STEMI/NSTEMI initial classification on the management of men and women with acute MI due to critical stenosis or occlusion of the ULMCA. Material and methods The study group consisted of 643 consecutive patients with acute MI with the ULMCA as the infarct-related artery. Data derive from an ongoing, nationwide, multicenter, prospective, observational registry. Results Isolated ULMCA disease was more frequent in women and multivessel disease was more frequent in men in the NSTEMI group. The incidence of cardiogenic shock or pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest was higher in the STEMI group. Totally occluded ULMCA was more frequent in the STEMI group. Although the majority of patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it was less frequently used in NSTEMI women and NSTEMI men. Although in-hospital and long-term mortality rates were higher in the STEMI group, there were no gender-related differences within groups. The initial ST-segment elevation was an independent predictor of in-hospital (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.14–4.91, p = 0.02) and 12-month (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.01–2.27, p = 0.045) mortality. Conclusions There were no gender-related differences in the management within the STEMI or NSTEMI group. Although acute myocardial infarction due to ULMCA disease is associated with high mortality in both genders, STEMI was a negative prognostic factor of in-hospital and 12-month mortality. Despite poor baseline characteristics and clinical presentation in women, female gender itself did not influence mortality. PMID:26788080

  4. Green tea extract protects rats against myocardial infarction associated with left anterior descending coronary artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Tsai, Dan-Chin; Chen, Jan-Yow; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Liou, Ying-Ming

    2009-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that green tea polyphenols can protect against myocardial damage. Recently, we showed that they bind to cardiac troponin C and alter myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in cardiac muscle. In the present study, we examined whether green tea extract (GTE) could prevent the progressive remodeling seen in ischemic myocardium and improve cardiac function by modulation of the contractile apparatus utilizing a myocardial infarction (MI) model in the rat involving ligation of the left anterior descending branch. Using this model, severe myocardial injury was found, including altered cardiac performance and the appearance of extensive fibrosis and left ventricular (LV) enlargement. Supplementation with 400 mg/kg/day of GTE for 4, 18, or 46 days had beneficial effects in preventing the hemodynamic changes. Histopathological studies showed that GTE attenuated the progressive remodeling seen after myocardial injury. Echocardiography confirmed that GTE prevented LV enlargement and improved LV performance in post-MI rats. In addition, we showed that GTE supplementation for 18 or 46 days increased the myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity of the ischemic myocardium in post-MI rats. These results validate the novel action of green tea polyphenols in protecting against myocardial damage and enhancing cardiac contractility by modulating myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in post-MI rats.

  5. Comprehensive cardiac assessment with multislice computed tomography: evaluation of left ventricular function and perfusion in addition to coronary anatomy in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, M M; Schuijf, J D; Jukema, J W; Lamb, H J; de Roos, A; Dibbets, P; Stokkel, M P; van der Wall, E E; Bax, J J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a comprehensive multislice computed tomography (MSCT) protocol in patients with previous infarction, including assessment of coronary artery stenoses, left ventricular (LV) function and perfusion. Patients and methods 16‐slice MSCT was performed in 21 patients with previous infarction; from the MSCT data, coronary artery stenoses, (regional and global) LV function and perfusion were assessed. Invasive coronary angiography and gated single‐photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) served as the reference standards for coronary artery stenoses and LV function/perfusion, respectively. Results 236 of 241 (98%) coronary artery segments were interpretable on MSCT. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of stenoses were 91% and 97%. Pearson's correlation showed excellent agreement for assessment of LV ejection fraction between MSCT and SPECT (49 (13)% v 53 (12)%, respectively, r  =  0.85). Agreement for assessment of regional wall motion was excellent (92%, κ  =  0.77). In 68 of 73 (93%) segments, MSCT correctly identified a perfusion defect as compared with SPECT, whereas the absence of perfusion defects was correctly detected in 277 of 284 (98%) segments. Conclusions MSCT permits accurate, non‐invasive assessment of coronary artery stenoses, LV function and perfusion in patients with previous infarction. All parameters can be assessed from a single dataset. PMID:16740917

  6. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease: improved accuracy using quantitative analysis of regional myocardial stress distribution and washout of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Abdulla, A.; Garcia, E.V.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of visual and quantitative analysis of stress redistribution thallium-201 scintigrams, exercise electrocardiography and exercise blood pressure response were compared for correct identification of extensive coronary disease, defined as left main or triple vessel coronary artery disease, or both (50% or more luminal diameter coronary narrowing), in 105 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Extensive disease was present in 56 patients and the remaining 49 had either less extensive coronary artery disease (n = 34) or normal coronary arteriograms (n = 15). Although exercise blood pressure response, exercise electrocardiography and visual thallium-201 analysis were highly specific (98, 88 and 96%, respectively), they were insensitive for identification of patients with extensive disease (14, 45 and 16%, respectively). Quantitative thallium-201 analysis significantly improved the sensitivity of visual thallium-201 analysis for identification of patients with extensive disease (from 16 to 63%, p less than 0.001) without a significant loss of specificity (96 versus 86%, p = NS). Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients who were misclassified by visual analysis as having less extensive disease were correctly classified as having extensive disease by virtue of quantitative analysis of regional myocardial thallium-201 washout. When the results of quantitative thallium-201 analysis were combined with those of blood pressure and electrocardiographic response to exercise, the sensitivity and specificity for identification of patients with extensive disease was 86 and 76%, respectively, and the highest overall accuracy (0.82) was obtained.

  7. [Percutaneous coronary intervention of unprotected left main coronary compared with coronary artery bypass grafting; a 3 years experience in the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología de México].

    PubMed

    López-Aguilar, Carlos; Abundes-Velasco, Arturo; Eid-Lidt, Guering; Piña-Reyna, Yigal; Gaspar-Hernández, Jorge

    2016-08-20

    The best revascularization method of the unprotected left main is a current and evolving topic. Within 3 years, 2439 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) were registered. We included all the patients with PCI of the unprotected left main, n=48 and matched with patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), n=50. Mayor adverse cerebral-cardiac events (MACCE) were assessed in-hospital and out-hospital during a 16 months follow up. PCI showed higher risk profile that CABG group; logEuroSCORE 16±21 vs. 5±6, p=0.001; clinical Syntax 77±74 vs 53±39, p=0.04. In-hospital MACCE (14% vs 18%, p= 0.64) were similar. The post-procedure ST myocardial infarction was less frequent in with PCI (0 vs 10%), p=0.03. The PCI group showed less MACCE (2.3% vs 18%, p=0.01) and a favorable trend in death (2.3% vs 12%, p=0.08) and cardiac death (2.3% vs. 8%, p=0.24) when patients presenting with cardiogenic shock were excluded. MACCE were comparable between PCI and CABG groups; (15 vs 12%, p=0.46) in the out-hospital phase. Survival without MACCE, death or cardiac death were comparable between groups (log rank, p=0.38, p=0.44 y p=0.16). Even though the clinical and peri-procedural risk profile of the PCI patients were higher, the in-hospital and out-hospital efficacy and safety were comparable with CABG. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic value of dobutamine stress myocardial perfusion echocardiography in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease and normal left ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Mattoso, Angele A. A.; Tsutsui, Jeane M.; Kowatsch, Ingrid; Cruz, Vitória Y. L.; Sbano, João C. N.; Ribeiro, Henrique B.; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Porter, Thomas R.; Mathias, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the prognostic value of qualitative and quantitative analysis obtained by real-time myocardial perfusion echocardiography (RTMPE) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Quantification of myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) in patients with CAD using RTMPE has been demonstrated to further improve accuracy over the analysis of wall motion (WM) and qualitative analysis of myocardial perfusion (QMP). Methods From March 2003 to December 2008, we prospectively studied 168 patients with normal left ventricular function (LVF) who underwent dobutamine stress RTMPE. The replenishment velocity reserve (β) and MBFR were derived from RTMPE. Acute coronary events were: cardiac death, myocardial infarction and unstable angina with need for urgent coronary revascularization. Results During a median follow-up of 34 months (5 days to 6.9 years), 17 acute coronary events occurred. Abnormal β reserve in ≥2 coronary territories was the only independent predictor of events hazard ratio (HR) = 21, 95% CI = 4.5–99; p<0.001). Both, abnormal β reserve and MBFR added significant incremental value in predicting events over qualitative analysis of WM and MP (χ2 = 6.6 and χ2 = 24.6, respectively; p = 0.001 and χ2 = 6.6 and χ2 = 15.5, respectively; p = 0.012, respectively). When coronary angiographic data was added to the multivariate analysis model, β reserve remained the only predictor of events with HR of 21.0 (95% CI = 4.5–99); p<0.001. Conclusion Quantitative dobutamine stress RTMPE provides incremental prognostic information over clinical variables, qualitative analysis of WM and MP, and coronary angiography in predicting acute coronary events. PMID:28234978

  9. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza; Appelbaum, Evan; Danias, Peter G; Hauser, Thomas H; Yeon, Susan B

    2007-02-01

    This article highlights the technical challenges and general imaging strategies for coronary MRI. This is followed by a review of the clinical results for the assessment of anomalous CAD, coronary artery aneurysms, native vessel integrity, and coronary artery bypass graft disease using the more commonly applied MRI methods. It concludes with a brief discussion of the advantages/disadvantages and clinical results comparing coronary MRI with multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography.

  10. Elective minimally invasive coronary artery bypass: Shunt or tournique occlusion? Assessment of a protective role of perioperative left anterior descending shunting on myocardial damage. A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine impact of intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt to prevent myocardial damage in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. Methods 38 patients were randomly assigned to external tournique occlusion (n = 19) or intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group (n = 19). Blood samples for cardiac troponin T were collected at 30 minutes prior to, 6 and 24 hours after surgery. Results One patient in external tournique occlusion and two patients in intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group were excluded from futher analysis due to preoperative cardiac troponin T level above the 99th-percentile. Postoperatively, each six patients in external tournique occlusion (33.3%) and intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt (35.3%) group were above the 99th-percentile. Two patients from each group (external tournique occlusion group 11.1% vs. intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group 11.8%) had peak values above 10-% coeficient of variation cutoff (p = 1). There were no significant differences in between both groups at all studied timepoints. Conclusion There was no protective effect of intraluminal shunting on myocardial damage compared to short-term tournique occlusion. It is upon the surgeon's discretion which method may preferrably be used to achieve a bloodless field in grafting of the non-occluded left anterior descending in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. PMID:22809563

  11. Management of a subclavian artery thrombosis causing acute anterior wall infarction and concurrent left arm ischemia in a patient with prior coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Akgüllü, Çağdaş; Eryılmaz, Ufuk; Zencir, Cemil; Güngör, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    We report a 57-year-old patient with acute anterior wall infarction with a history of a coronary baypass graft operation in 2007. He also had concurrent left arm cyanosis and severe pain. He had received diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma one month previously and had had his first chemotherapy in the previous week with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. After the angiography, a giant thrombus was detected in the proximal left subclavian artery, deteriorating the flows of both left internal mammarian artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery graft, as well as the left brachial artery. The proximal subclavian artery was stented and good flow was achieved. Through the LIMA, the distal part of LAD, which was totally obstructed with probable distal thrombus embolization, was reached and a percutaneous balloon angioplasty performed. However, the no-reflow phenomenon was observed in distal LAD. A Fogarty traction of thrombus was performed successfully for the revascularization of the left arm. Approximately 30 minutes after the procedure, both angina and ST segment elevation in ECG were resolved under unfractioned heparin and nitroglycerin infusion. However, the patient died due to sepsis seven days after admission to hospital. In the literature, there are only a few previous reports on this rare clinical entity. The eitology, presentation, and the possible management strategies of this clinical entity is presented in this report.

  12. Myocardial Scar Identified by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Predict Left Ventricular Functional Improvement after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Han-Song; Tang, Yue; Pan, Shi-Wei; Zhao, Shi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that viable myocardium predicts recovery of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after revascularization. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of myocardial scar assessed by late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR) on functional recovery in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods From November 2009 to September 2012, 63 patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) referred for first-time isolated CABG were prospectively enrolled, 52 were included in final analysis. LV functional parameters and scar tissue were assessed by LGE-CMR at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Patency of grafts was evaluated by computed tomography angiography (CTA) 6 months post-CABG. Predictors for global functional recovery were analyzed. Results The baseline LVEF was 32.7±9.2%, which improved to 41.6±11.0% 6 months later and 32/52 patients improved LVEF by ≥5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant negative predictor for global functional recovery was the number of scar segments (Odds ratio 2.864, 95% Confidence Interval 1.172–6.996, p = 0.021). Receiver-Operator-Characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that ≤4 scar segments predicted global functional recovery with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.0% and 87.5%, respectively (AUC = 0.91, p<0.001). Comparison of ROC curves also indicated that scar tissue was superior to viable myocardium in predicting cardiac functional recovery (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings indicated that scar tissue on LGE-CMR is an independent negative predictor of cardiac functional recovery in patients with impaired LV function undergoing CABG. These observations may be helpful for clinicians and cardiovascular surgeons to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from surgical revascularization. PMID:24358136

  13. Left atrial volume index is an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Ramsamy; Maskon, Oteh; Hassan, Hamat H Che; Safian, Nazarudin; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham

    2012-01-01

    Left atrial volume index (LAVI) is well proven to be a reliable method of determining left atrial size, which has prognostic implications in cardiovascular diseases. Studies demonstrate that increased LAVI is a predictor of mortality in myocardial infarction, but its association with other major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) among patients post acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been adequately evaluated. We calculated the baseline LAVI for all patients who were admitted with ACS between December 2010 and August 2011. The patients were stratified into 2 arms: normal LAVI and increased LAVI, with a cutoff value of 28 mL/m(2). All patients were prospectively followed up during 6 months for development of MACEs. Of the 75 patients who completed the study, 32 had increased LAVI, and 43 had normal LAVI. More than half (55%) of the patients were diagnosed with unstable angina. During the follow-up period of 6 months, 30 patients (93.8%) in the increased-LAVI arm and 23 patients (53.5%) in the normal-LAVI arm developed at least a single MACE. Patients with increased LAVI had significantly more MACEs (P = 0.021). The occurrence of MACE remained significantly higher in the increased-LAVI group even when atrial fibrillation was excluded (P = 0.016). After adjusting for confounding variables by multivariate analysis, LAVI was found to have a significant association with MACEs (P = 0.030, odds ratio = 1.229 (95% confidence interval, 1.020-1.481). LAVI is a useful tool for prognostication and an independent predictor of MACEs post ACS. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphological features of the left atrial appendage in consecutive coronary computed tomography angiography patients with and without atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Parkkonen, Johannes; Hedman, Marja; Muuronen, Antti; Onatsu, Juha; Mustonen, Pirjo; Vanninen, Ritva; Taina, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    The majority of intracardiac thrombi form in the left atrial appendage (LAA). Enlargement of this structure, together with certain morphological features, may indicate a predisposition to the formation of thrombi and subsequent cardioembolic stroke. Thus far, studies on LAA morphology have largely focused on those patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Taking a different approach, we investigated the variation in LAA morphology in a consecutive patient population with and without AF. We evaluated 808 consecutive patients (529 females; mean age 52.5±9.9 years) who underwent coronary artery computed tomography angiography (CCTA), the majority of whom (749) had no history of AF. We assessed the length, lobe number, and morphological classification of their LAAs. Demographic data and medical histories were collated from medical records and then correlated with LAA morphology. The proportions of each of the four morphological classes of LAA for the overall vs. non-AF population were: WindSock, 62.3/61.5%; Cactus, 18.6/18.8%; ChickenWing, 10.0/10.0%; and CauliFlower, 9.2/9.6%. Age (p<0.001; r = 0.156) and female gender (p<0.001) were both found to be associated with an increased body surface area (BSA)-related LAA length. Male patients were more likely to manifest multi-lobed (p = 0.003) LAAs, and overweight patients with a greater number of multi-lobed LAA morphological classes (p = 0.010). No associations with morphological LAA features could be found for patients with diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. Nor did the size of the left atrium exhibit any correlation with BSA-related LAA length. In the overall and non-AF populations, aging and female gender were associated with longer BSA-indexed LAAs. PMID:28288200

  15. Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting to Relieve Extrinsic Compression by a Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hung-Chih; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Liang, Kae-Woei

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare but lethal disease. We present a female patient with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH)-related PAA, who suffered from unstable angina pectoris. Multi-detector computed tomography and coronary angiogram revealed extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) caused by a giant PAA with severe ostial stenosis. Intravascular ultrasound showed an oval-shaped ostium of the LMCA, indicating extrinsic compression. After successful LMCA stent implantation, chest pain was greatly relieved. This case illustrates that beyond right ventricle ischaemia and coronary atherosclerotic disease, LMCA compression by PAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of angina in patients with IPAH related PAA. In addition, intravascular ultrasound can be used to confirm the diagnosis and guide the stent implantation safely. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of left ventricular function by radionuclide angiography during exercise in normal subjects and in patients with chronic coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Iskandrian, A S; Hakki, A H; DePace, N L; Manno, B; Segal, B L

    1983-06-01

    Radionuclide angiography permits evaluation of left ventricular performance during exercise. There are several factors that may affect the results in normal subjects and in patients with chronic coronary heart disease. Important among these are the selection criteria: age, sex, level of exercise, exercise end points, ejection fraction at rest and effects of pharmacologic agents. An abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise is not a specific marker for coronary heart disease but may be encountered in other cardiac diseases. In addition to the diagnostic considerations, important prognostic data can be obtained. Further studies are needed to determine the prognostic implications of anatomic findings versus the functional abnormalities induced by exercise in patients with coronary artery disease.

  17. Pulmonary artery perforation and coronary air embolism-two fatal outcomes in percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion.

    PubMed

    Zwirner, J; Bayer, R; Hädrich, C; Bollmann, A; Klein, N; Dreßler, J; Ondruschka, B

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is a routinely performed method to reduce the risk of stroke in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, when an oral anticoagulation is no longer indicated due to relevant bleeding complications. Currently, the Amplatzer Amulet and the Watchman system are two equally used systems. While there is an acute success rate of more than 95 per cent for this intervention, several minor and major complications such as pericardial effusions, air embolism, vascular lesions in proximity to the heart or even death can occur. Here, we report two cases of very rare fatal outcomes in percutaneous LAA occlusion. Eight hours after deployment of an Amplatzer Amulet a patient died, after the pulmonary trunk was perforated by a hook of the occluder device causing pericardial tamponade. In the second case during final radiological position control of the deployed Watchman occluder air was injected accidentally. The patient immediately died due to coronary air embolism. Forensic autopsies are necessary to solve the cause and manner of death, to evaluate and develop medical devices and to rule out medical malpractice. Thus, a close collaboration of legal medicine and the various cardiologic departments is proposed.

  18. Simulation of cardiac motion on non-Newtonian, pulsating flow development in the human left anterior descending coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakakos, A.; Gavaises, M.; Andriotis, A.; Zifan, A.; Liatsis, P.; Pantos, I.; Efstathopoulos, E. P.; Katritsis, D.

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of myocardial motion on pulsating blood flow distribution of the left anterior descending coronary artery in the presence of atheromatous stenosis. The moving 3D arterial tree geometry has been obtained from conventional x-ray angiograms obtained during the heart cycle and includes a number of major branches. The geometry reconstruction model has been validated against projection data from a virtual phantom arterial tree as well as with CT-based reconstruction data for the same patient investigated. Reconstructions have been obtained for a number of temporal points while linear interpolation has been used for all intermediate instances. Blood has been considered as a non-Newtonian fluid. Results have been obtained using the same pulse for the inlet blood flow rate but with fixed arterial tree geometry as well as under steady-state conditions corresponding to the mean flow rate. Predictions indicate that myocardial motion has only a minor effect on flow distribution within the arterial tree relative to the effect of the blood pressure pulse.

  19. Non-Newtonian models for molecular viscosity and wall shear stress in a 3D reconstructed human left coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Soulis, Johannes V; Giannoglou, George D; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Seralidou, Kypriani V; Parcharidis, George E; Louridas, George E

    2008-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of various molecular viscosity models, in the left coronary arterial tree, were analyzed via: molecular viscosity, local and global non-Newtonian importance factors, wall shear stress (WSS) and wall shear stress gradient (WSSG). The vessel geometry was acquired using geometrically correct 3D intravascular ultrasound (3D IVUS). Seven non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models, plus the Newtonian one, were compared. The WSS distribution yielded a consistent LCA pattern for nearly all non-Newtonian models. High molecular viscosity, low WSS and low WSSG values occurred at the outer walls of the major bifurcation in proximal LCA regions. The Newtonian blood flow was found to be a good approximation at mid- and high-strain rates. The non-Newtonian Power Law, Generalized Power Law, Carreau and Casson and Modified Cross blood viscosity models gave comparable molecular viscosity, WSS and WSSG values. The Power Law and Walburn-Schneck models over-estimated the non-Newtonian global importance factor I(G) and under-estimated the area averaged WSS and WSSG values. The non-Newtonian Power Law and the Generalized Power Law blood viscosity models were found to approximate the molecular viscosity and WSS calculations in a more satisfactory way.

  20. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in left main stem stenosis: outcomes, concerns and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Leonidas V.

    2016-01-01

    Left main stem (LMS) disease is known to be a poor prognostic factor in terms of morbidity or mortality. Traditionally, it has been treated with constitution of bypass to provide required haemodynamic stability. We searched the literature for evidence on off-pump (OFP) surgery for treating this high-risk group of patients focusing in our review on postoperative outcomes, concerns and controversies. The majority of the studies identified showed favourable or equal outcomes of OFP when compared to conventional approach. All of the studies, apart from two, which showed lower incidence of postoperative deaths, demonstrated equal mortality rates. Stroke rates were found less in three studies. Less blood transfusions, inotropic use and length of study has been also demonstrated. The main concerns of OFP surgery are: haemodynamic instability and less complete revascularization. Main controversies are: same or favourable outcomes despite lower number of grafts with OFP surgery and less stroke rates despite manipulation of aorta with side-clamping. Despite these concerns and controversies OFP surgery has been proven to be feasible and safe as demonstrated by results from numerous studies. PMID:27942396

  1. Diagnostic Performance of Intravascular Ultrasound-Derived Minimal Lumen Area to Predict Functionally Significant Non-Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Cheol; Bae, Jong Seok; Jin, Han-Young; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Park, Yong Hyun; Je, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention frequently results in unnecessary stenting due to the low positive predictive value of IVUS-derived minimal lumen area (MLA) for identification of functionally significant coronary stenosis. We appraised the diagnostic accuracy of IVUS-derived MLA compared with the fractional flow reserve (FFR) to assess intermediate coronary stenosis. Subjects and Methods We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for studies using IVUS and FFR methods to establish the best MLA cut-off values to predict significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. Results The 17 studies used in our analysis enrolled 3920 patients with 4267 lesions. The weighted overall mean MLA cut-off value was 2.58 mm2. The pooled MLA sensitivity that predicted functionally significant coronary stenosis was 0.75 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 0.77) and the specificity was 0.66 (CI: 0.64 to 0.68). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 2.33 (CI: 2.06 to 2.63) and LR (-) was 0.33 (CI: 0.26 to 0.42). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 7.53 (CI: 5.26 to 10.76) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve for all the trials was 0.782 with a Q point of 0.720. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that an FFR cut-off point of 0.75 was associated with a four times higher diagnostic accuracy compared to that of 0.80 (relative DOR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 12.34). Conclusion IVUS-derived MLA has limited diagnostic accuracy and needs careful interpretation to correlate with functionally significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. PMID:27721852

  2. BET 1: IN PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME, DOES WELLENS' SIGN ON THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH IDENTIFY CRITICAL LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING ARTERY STENOSIS?

    PubMed

    Morris, Niall; Howard, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Wellens' syndrome consists of a history suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome and biphasic or deeply inverted T waves in ECG leads V2-V3. A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether this ECG pattern identifies patients with a critical left anterior descending artery stenosis. Six relevant papers were found. The clinical bottom line is that biphasic T-wave inversion in lead V2-V3 should alert the clinician to a probable critical stenosis of the left anterior descending artery.

  3. The relationship between acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA) protein concentrations and left ventricular systolic function in acute myocardial infarction patients treated with primary coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Toshiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Honda, Yukiharu; Suzuki, Shin; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Yoshihiro; Yano, Katsusuke

    2007-01-01

    Our study was planned to investigate the relationship between plasma levels of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) concentrations and the subsequent left ventricular systolic function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with primary coronary angioplasty. Reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention was successful in 486 consecutive AMI patients who were admitted within 12 hours of onset. Plasma SAA concentrations were evaluated 24 hours after onset. Left ventricular (LV) function was serially determined by left ventriculography performed in the acute (soon after recanalization) and chronic phases (6 months after onset). (I) There was no significant correlation between SAA concentration and acute phase left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or regional wall motion (RWM). (II) The SAA concentration was significantly correlated with both highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the peak-CK value (hs-CRP: r = 0.69, P < 0.0001, peak-CK: r = 0.21, P = 0.0003). (III) SAA was significantly negatively correlated with both LVEF and RWM in the chronic phase (LVEF: r = -0.42, P = 0.001; RWM: r = -0.41, P = 0.007). (IV) The plasma level of SAA also showed a significant negative correlation with the differences in LVEF between the 2 stages (delta-LVEF) (r = -0.43, P = 0.02). In the setting of AMI, plasma SAA concentrations may be closely related to subsequent left-ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  4. Association between cardiothoracic ratio, left ventricular size and systolic function in patients undergoing computed tomography coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YINSU; XU, HAI; ZHU, XIAOMEI; WEI, YONGYUE; YANG, GUANYU; XU, YI; TANG, LIJUN

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and left ventricular (LV) systolic function parameters in patients with or without preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). A total of 203 subjects suspected with coronary artery disease underwent chest radiography and dual source computed tomography coronary angiography (DSCT-CA). The LV systolic function parameters: LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), and LVEF were measured from the DSCT-CA. The association between CTR and LV systolic function parameters was analyzed according to LVEF value (<55%, depressed LVEF group; versus ≥55%, preserved LVEF group) and CTR value (<0.5, normal range CTR group; versus ≥0.5, larger CTR group). The LVEDVI and LVESVI were higher in the depressed LVEF group compared with the preserved LVEF group (108.56±57.15 vs. 67.52±14.56 ml/m2, P<0.001; and 64.07±37.81 vs. 20.23±7.23 ml/m2, P<0.001, respectively) and lower in the normal range CTR group compared with the larger CTR group (67.10±15.00 vs. 77.30±34.32 ml/m2, P=0.009 and 21.94±8.96 vs. 28.97±26.54 ml/m2, P=0.017, respectively). Significant correlations were found between CTR and LVEDVI, and LVESVI and LVEF in the depressed LVEF group (r=0.66, P<0.001; r=0.65, P<0.001; and r=−0.46, P=0.018, respectively). However, there was no significant association detected between CTR and LV systolic function parameters in the other subgroups. The LVEDVI and LVESVI showed an inverse correlation with the LVEF in each group. Although the CTR was not a reliable indicator of LV size and systolic function in patients with preserved LVEF, it was correlated with LV size and LVEF in patients with depressed LVEF. PMID:25371728

  5. Extent of Coronary and Myocardial Disease and Benefit from Surgical Revascularization in Patients with Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Panza, Julio A.; Velazquez, Eric J.; She, Lilin; Smith, Peter K.; Nicolau, José C.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Gradinac, Sinisa; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Jasinski, Marek; Hill, James A.; Szwed, Hanna; Larbalestier, Robert; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Jones, Robert H.; Lee, Kerry L.; Rouleau, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have higher operative risk with CABG. However, those whose early risk is surpassed by subsequent survival benefit have not been identified. Objective To examine the impact of anatomic variables associated with poor prognosis on the effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods All 1,212 patients in the STICH surgical revascularization trial were included. Patients had coronary artery disease (CAD), ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%, and were randomized to CABG plus medical therapy or optimal medical therapy alone (OMT). This study focused on 3 prognostic factors: presence of 3-vessel CAD; EF below the median (27%); and end-systolic volume index (ESVI) above the median (79 ml/m2). Patients were categorized as having 0–1 or 2–3 of these factors. Results Patients with 2–3 prognostic factors (n= 636) had reduced mortality with CABG, as compared to OMT (HR=0.71, 95% CI=0.56–0.89; p=0.004); CABG had no such effect in patients with 0–1 factors (HR=1.08, 95% CI=0.81–1.44; p=0.591). There was a significant interaction between the number of factors and the effect of CABG on mortality (p=0.022). Although 30-day risk with CABG was higher, a net beneficial effect of CABG over OMT was observed at >2years in patients with 2–3 factors (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.37–0.75; p#x0003C;0.001), but not in those with 0–1 factors (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.59–1.31; p=0.535). Conclusions Patients with more advanced ischemic cardiomyopathy receive greater benefit from CABG. This supports the indication for surgical revascularization in patients with more extensive CAD and worse myocardial dysfunction and remodeling. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595) PMID:25104523

  6. Predictors of immediate and long-term outcomes of coronary bypass surgery in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giuseppe; Maschietto, Luca; Dell'Angela, Luca; Benussi, Bernardo; Forti, Gabriella; Dreas, Lorella; Soso, Petar; Russo, Marco; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Pappalardo, Aniello

    2016-07-01

    Despite encouraging improvements, outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the presence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction remain poor. In the present study, the authors' experience on this subject was reviewed to establish the predictors of immediate and long-term results of surgery. Out of 4383 consecutive patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who underwent primary isolated CABG at the authors' institution from January 1999 throughout September 2014, 300 patients (mean age 66.1 ± 9.6 years) suffered preoperatively from LV dysfunction (defined as LV ejection fraction ≤35 %). The mean expected operative risk (EuroSCORE II) was 10.3 ± 13 %. Hospital deaths and perioperative complications were analyzed retrospectively. Outcomes were evaluated during a mean follow-up of 6.2 ± 4 years. None, one or both internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) were used in 6.3, 29 and 64.7 % of cases, respectively. There were 16 (5.3 %) hospital deaths. Prolonged invasive ventilation (17.7 %), acute kidney injury (14.7 %) and multiple blood transfusion (21.3 %) were the most frequent major postoperative complications. The 10-year non-parametric estimates of freedom from all-cause death, cardiac death, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) were 47.8 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 44.1-51.5], 65.3 (95 % CI 61.4-69.2), and 42.3 % (95 % CI 38.3-46.3), respectively. Shared predictors of decreased late survival and MACCEs were old age (P < 0.04), chronic lung disease (P < 0.01), chronic dialysis (P < 0.0001) and extracardiac arteriopathy (P < 0.045). After adjustment for corresponding risk factors, freedom from cardiac death was higher when both ITAs were used but only for patients with significant increase of LV ejection fraction early after surgery (P = 0.04). In patients with LV dysfunction, CABG may be performed with acceptable hospital mortality and long-term survival. Late outcomes depend mainly on

  7. Relation between coronary anatomy and serial changes in left ventricular function on exercise: a study using first pass radionuclide angiography with gold-195m.

    PubMed Central

    Caplin, J L; Dymond, D S; O'Keefe, J C; Flatman, W D; Dyke, L; Banim, S O; Spurrell, R A

    1986-01-01

    Serial changes in left ventricular function on exercise were assessed by first pass radionuclide angiography with gold-195m (half life 30.5 s) in 25 men with known coronary anatomy. In the seven patients with three vessel disease, abnormalities of global left ventricular function and regional wall motion occurred earlier during exercise, were of greater extent at peak exercise, and persisted longer after exercise than in the 11 patients with one and two vessel disease or the seven with normal coronary arteries. Although there were significant differences between the groups in absolute change in ejection fraction and the rate of change in ejection fraction related to exercise duration and heart rate, a considerable overlap of values between groups precluded the accurate prediction of coronary anatomy in individuals. These data suggest that the amount of myocardium at risk from ischaemia in some patients with one and two vessel disease may resemble that in patients with three vessel disease. This study shows that an anatomical classification based solely on the number of diseased vessels will not predict the extent of the impairment of left ventricular function on exercise. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3942646

  8. Off pump coronary artery bypass surgery for significant left ventricular dysfunction: safety, feasibility, and trends in methodology over time—an early experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharoni, E; Song, H K; Peterson, R J; Guyton, R A; Puskas, J D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and applicability of off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) in patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction and to discuss the clinical implications for the surgical methods. Design Retrospective study. Setting Tertiary care university affiliated referral centre. Participants 353 consecutive patients with preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ⩽ 35% who underwent coronary artery bypass over a three year period. Main outcome measures Postoperative morbidity and mortality. Methods 144 patients operated by OPCAB were compared with 209 patients operated by conventional coronary artery bypass. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed on the pre‐ and postoperative variables to predict risk factors associated with hospital morbidity and mortality. Results Patients in the OPCAB group were more likely to be women and to have congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and diabetes; patients in the on pump group were more likely to have had a recent myocardial infarction and to have more severe angina pectoris and an urgent/emergent status. The groups did not differ significantly in length of stay, major postoperative complication rates, or mortality. Comparison of the impact of the procedures on surgical methods over time showed an increase in the use of OPCAB (13% to 67%), without any impact on morbidity or mortality. Conclusions OPCAB is feasible and applicable for patients with depressed left ventricular function. This high risk group can potentially benefit from the off pump approach. PMID:15994913

  9. Outcomes after emergency percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with unprotected left main stem occlusion: the BCIS national audit of percutaneous coronary intervention 6-year experience.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niket; De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Kassimis, George; Rahimi, Kazem; Bennett, Derrick; Ludman, Peter; Banning, Adrian P

    2014-09-01

    This study sought to evaluate in-hospital outcomes and 3-year mo