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Sample records for anomalous temperature dependence

  1. Anomalous temperature dependence of the IR spectrum of polyalanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helenius, V.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Kotila, S.; Nieminen, J.; Lohikoski, R.; Timonen, J.

    1997-12-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the infrared spectra of acetanilide (ACN), tryptophan-(alanine) 15, and tyrosine-(alanine) 15. No sidebands of the amide-I vibration were observed in the polypeptides, but two anomalous sidebands of the NH stretch with a similar temperature dependence as that of the anomalous amide-I vibrational mode at 1650 cm -1 of crystalline ACN were detected. Fermi resonance combined with the appearance of a red-shifted sideband of NH stretch through coupling to lattice modes seems to explain this band structure. Observations are indicative of excitons that may occur in polypeptides as well as in single crystals of ACN.

  2. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Band Gap in Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Cesar E P; Rocha, A R; Marini, Andrea

    2016-08-10

    Black phosphorus (BP) has gained renewed attention due to its singular anisotropic electronic and optical properties that might be exploited for a wide range of technological applications. In this respect, the thermal properties are particularly important both to predict its room temperature operation and to determine its thermoelectric potential. From this point of view, one of the most spectacular and poorly understood phenomena is indeed the BP temperature-induced band gap opening; when temperature is increased, the fundamental band gap increases instead of decreases. This anomalous thermal dependence has also been observed recently in its monolayer counterpart. In this work, based on ab initio calculations, we present an explanation for this long known and yet not fully explained effect. We show that it arises from a combination of harmonic and lattice thermal expansion contributions, which are in fact highly interwined. We clearly narrow down the mechanisms that cause this gap opening by identifying the peculiar atomic vibrations that drive the anomaly. The final picture we give explains both the BP anomalous band gap opening and the frequency increase with increasing volume (tension effect). PMID:27428304

  3. Anomalous temperature dependence of the fluorescence lifetime of phycobiliproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, E. G.; Schmitt, F.-J.; Hätti, P.; Klementiev, K. E.; Paschenko, V. Z.; Renger, G.; Rubin, A. B.

    2013-05-01

    Using a single photon counting technique we have investigated fluorescence decay spectra of phycobiliproteins with picosecond time resolution. The studies were performed in a wide range of temperatures—from 4 to 300 K. Comparing the fluorescence decay kinetics of samples rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen with samples that were frozen slowly revealed that the temperature-dependent changes of phycobiliproteins fluorescence lifetime reflect the presence of three different stages, with a phase transition between 273 and 263 K that strongly depends on the rate of freezing. When the temperature decreases from 300 to 273 K, the fluorescence lifetime increases from 1.6 to 1.8 ns. In the region from 273 to 263 K we observed a decrease of the fluorescence lifetime, which strongly depends on the freezing rate: a slight decrease at high freezing rate and a drop down to 200 ps lifetime at slow freezing rate. In the low-temperature regime from 263 to 4 K a linear increase in the fluorescence lifetime was observed for all samples. It was found that the strong temperature dependence of the phycobiliprotein fluorescence, especially in the range between 263 and 273 K, is due to the interaction of the solvent with the chromophore bound to the protein. This feature is explained by a photoisomerization of the phycobiliproteins into a quenching form which is naturally prevented by the protein environment. The formation of ice microcrystals at low freezing rate eliminates this ‘protective’ effect of the protein environment.

  4. Origin of the anomalous temperature dependence of coercivity in soft ferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Moubah, R.; Ahlberg, M.; Zamani, A.; Olsson, A.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Jönsson, P. E.; Shi, S.; Sun, Z.; Carlson, S.; Hallén, A.

    2014-08-07

    We report on the origin of the anomalous temperature dependence of coercivity observed in some soft ferromagnets by studying the magnetic and electronic properties of FeZr films doped using ion implantation by H, He, B, C, and N. The anomalous increase of the coercivity with temperature was observed only in the C- and B-doped samples. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the anomalous behavior of the coercivity coincides with the occurrence of an electron charge transfer for those implanted samples. The origin of the anomaly is discussed in terms of (i) magnetic softness, (ii) nature of the Fe-C and -B covalent bonds, and (iii) large charge transfer.

  5. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong

    2015-07-13

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %–50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  6. Spin-Fluctuation Mechanism of Anomalous Temperature Dependence of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Itinerant Magnets.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, I A; Antropov, V P; Belashchenko, K D

    2015-11-20

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe_{1-x}Co_{x})_{2}B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit "hot spots" by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization due to these peculiar electronic mechanisms, which contrast starkly with those assumed in existing models. PMID:26636868

  7. Spin-fluctuation mechanism of anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in itinerant magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhuravlev, I. A.; Antropov, V. P.; Belashchenko, K. D.

    2015-11-16

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe1–xCox)2B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit “hot spots” by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization. These peculiar electronic mechanisms are in stark contrast to the assumptions of the existing models.

  8. Spin-Fluctuation Mechanism of Anomalous Temperature Dependence of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Itinerant Magnets.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, I A; Antropov, V P; Belashchenko, K D

    2015-11-20

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe_{1-x}Co_{x})_{2}B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit "hot spots" by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization due to these peculiar electronic mechanisms, which contrast starkly with those assumed in existing models.

  9. Spin-fluctuation mechanism of anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in itinerant magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, I. A.; Antropov, V. P.; Belashchenko, K. D.

    2015-11-16

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe1–xCox)2B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit “hot spots” by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization. These peculiar electronic mechanisms are in stark contrast to the assumptions of the existing models.

  10. Anomalous temperature dependence of layer spacing of de Vries liquid crystals: Compensation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, K.; Kocot, A.; Vij, J. K.; Stevenson, P. J.; Panov, A.; Rodriguez, D.

    2016-06-01

    Smectic liquid crystals that exhibit temperature independent layer thickness offer technological advantages for their use in displays and photonic devices. The dependence of the layer spacing in SmA and SmC phases of de Vries liquid crystals is found to exhibit distinct features. On entering the SmC phase, the layer thickness initially decreases below SmA to SmC (TA-C) transition temperature but increases anomalously with reducing temperature despite the molecular tilt increasing. This anomalous observation is being explained quantitatively. Results of IR spectroscopy show that layer shrinkage is caused by tilt of the mesogen's rigid core, whereas the expansion is caused by the chains getting more ordered with reducing temperature. This mutual compensation arising from molecular fragments contributing to the layer thickness differs from the previous models. The orientational order parameter of the rigid core of the mesogen provides direct evidence for de Vries cone model in the SmA phase for the two compounds investigated.

  11. Anomalous temperature-isotope dependence in proton-coupled electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Presse, Steve; Silbey, Robert

    2006-04-28

    Motivated by the experiments of Hodgkiss et al. [J. Phys. Chem. (submitted)] on electron transfer (ET) through a H-bonding interface, we present a new theoretical model for proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) in the condensed phase, that does not involve real proton transfer. These experiments, which directly probe the joint T-isotope effects in coupled charge transfer reactions, show anomalous T dependence in k{sub H}/k{sub D}, where k{sub H} and k{sub D} are the ET rates through the H-bonding interface with H-bonded protons and deuterons, respectively. We address the anomalous T dependence of the k{sub H}/k{sub D} in our model by attributing the modulation of the electron tunneling dynamics to bath-induced fluctuations in the proton coordinate, so that the mechanism for coupled charge transfer might be better termed vibrationally assisted ET rather than PCET. We argue that such a mechanism may be relevant to understanding traditional PCET processes, i.e., those in which protons undergo a transfer from donor to acceptor during the course of ET, provided there is an appropriate time scale separating both coupled charge transfers. Likewise, it may also be useful in understanding long-range ET in proteins, where tunneling pathways between redox cofactors often pass through H-bonded amino acid residues, or other systems with sufficiently decoupled proton and electron donating functionalities.

  12. Anomalous temperature dependence of gas chromatographic retention indices of polar compounds on nonpolar phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkevich, I. G.; Pavlovskii, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The character of the temperature dependences of the retention indices RI( T) of polar sorbates on nonpolar stationary phases was found to depend on the dosed amounts of sorbates, but not on column overloading. A physicochemical model was suggested to explain the observed anomalies in RI( T).

  13. Anomalous temperature-dependent Young's modulus of a cast LAST (Pb-Sb-Ag-Te) thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Case, Eldon D; Timm, Edward J; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Trejo, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    Thermomechanical characterization is important to material evaluation and device design in the development of thermoelectric technology. In this study, we utilize the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) technique to examine the elastic behavior of a cast LAST (Pb Sb Ag Te) material with a composition of Ag0.86Pb19Sb1.0Te20 between room temperature and 823 K. The temperature-dependent Young s modulus exhibits a monotonically decreasing trend with increasing temperature. However, an abnormal slope change in the Young s modulus temperature curve around 500 K is observed. In addition, hysteresis between heating and cooling data in the temperature range of 450 550 K is observed, which appears to be dependent on the heating/cooling rate during the RUS experiments such that the hysteresis disappears when the heating/cooling rate was decreased from 5 to 2 K min 1. In this study we propose an order disorder transition model for the anomalous temperature-dependent Young s modulus behavior observed in this study.

  14. Temperature dependence anomalous dielectric relaxation in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Nisar, Ambreen; Fatma, Bushara; Khan, Wasi; Chaman, M.; Azam, Ameer; Naqvi, A.H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We prepared Co doped ZnO by facile gel-combustion method. ► Studied temperature dependent dielectric properties in detail. ► Relaxation time shifts toward the higher temperature as increase in Co content. ► SEM analysis shows formation and agglomeration of nanoparticles. ► Dielectric constants, loss and ac conductivity increases with rise in temperature. ► The dielectric constant, loss and ac conductivity decreases as Co ion increases. -- Abstract: We have reported temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric behavior of nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1) samples prepared by gel-combustion method. The synthesized samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and LCR-meter, respectively. The XRD analysis reveals that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The morphology and size of the nanoparticles (∼10–25 nm) were observed by SEM for 5% Co doped ZnO sample. In dielectric properties, complex permittivity (ε{sup *} = ε′ − jε″), loss tangent (tan δ) and ac conductivity (σ{sub ac}) in the frequency range 75 kHz to 5 MHz were analyzed with temperature range 150–400 °C. The experimental results indicate that ε′, ε″, tan δ and σ{sub ac} decreases with increase in frequency and temperature. The transition temperature as obtained in dispersion curve of dielectric constant shifts toward higher temperature with increase Co content.

  15. Anomalous temperature-dependent spin-valley polarization in monolayer WS2

    PubMed Central

    Hanbicki, A.T.; Kioseoglou, G.; Currie, M.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; McCreary, K.M.; Friedman, A.L.; Jonker, B.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are direct gap semiconductors with nondegenerate valley indices. An intriguing possibility for these materials is the use of their valley index as an alternate state variable. Several limitations to such a utility include strong intervalley scattering, as well as multiparticle interactions leading to multiple emission channels. We prepare single-layer WS2 films such that the photoluminescence is from either the neutral or charged exciton (trion). After excitation with circularly polarized light, the neutral exciton emission has zero polarization. However, the trion emission has a large polarization (28%) at room temperature. The trion emission also has a unique, non-monotonic temperature dependence that is a consequence of the multiparticle nature of the trion. This temperature dependence enables us to determine that intervalley scattering, electron-hole radiative recombination, and Auger processes are the dominant mechanisms at work in this system. Because this dependence involves trion systems, one can use gate voltages to modulate the polarization (or intensity) emitted from TMD structures. PMID:26728976

  16. Anomalous temperature-dependent spin-valley polarization in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanbicki, A. T.; Kioseoglou, G.; Currie, M.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; McCreary, K. M.; Friedman, A. L.; Jonker, B. T.

    2016-01-01

    Single layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are direct gap semiconductors with nondegenerate valley indices. An intriguing possibility for these materials is the use of their valley index as an alternate state variable. Several limitations to such a utility include strong intervalley scattering, as well as multiparticle interactions leading to multiple emission channels. We prepare single-layer WS2 films such that the photoluminescence is from either the neutral or charged exciton (trion). After excitation with circularly polarized light, the neutral exciton emission has zero polarization. However, the trion emission has a large polarization (28%) at room temperature. The trion emission also has a unique, non-monotonic temperature dependence that is a consequence of the multiparticle nature of the trion. This temperature dependence enables us to determine that intervalley scattering, electron-hole radiative recombination, and Auger processes are the dominant mechanisms at work in this system. Because this dependence involves trion systems, one can use gate voltages to modulate the polarization (or intensity) emitted from TMD structures.

  17. Influence of anomalous temperature dependence of water density on convection at lateral heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreev, V. I.; Gusev, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The article provides results of experimental investigation of a fresh water motion in a flume with limited dimensions at lateral heating. The initial water temperature in the flume ranged from 0 to 22 °C. It is shown that there are qualitative changes of the motion picture in the vicinity of initial temperature in the flume equal to the one at which water has maximal density (approximately 4 °C). At an initial temperature in the flume exceeding or equal to 4 °C, the heated water propagates in the form of a relatively thin surface jet, and at jet reflection from the flume end walls the heated water is accumulated only in the upper layer. When the initial temperature in the flume is below 4 °C the convective instability develops. A part of the heated water sinks to the bottom. The paper provides respective illustrations and quantitative data on the distribution of temperature and velocity.

  18. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together with the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.

  19. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together withmore » the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.« less

  20. Strong localization induced anomalous temperature dependence exciton emission above 300 K from SnO{sub 2} quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, S. S. E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn; Li, F. D.; Liu, Q. W.; Xu, S. C.; Luo, Y. Y.; Li, G. H. E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn

    2015-05-07

    SnO{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) are potential materials for deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting devices. In this study, we report the temperature and excitation power-dependent exciton luminescence from SnO{sub 2} QDs. The exciton emission exhibits anomalous blue shift, accompanied with band width reduction with increasing temperature and excitation power above 300 K. The anomalous temperature dependences of the peak energy and band width are well interpreted by the strongly localized carrier thermal hopping process and Gaussian shape of band tails states, respectively. The localized wells and band tails at conduction minimum are considered to be induced by the surface oxygen defects and local potential fluctuation in SnO{sub 2} QDs.

  1. Linear magnetization dependence of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changgan; Yao, Yugui; Niu, Qian; Weitering, Hanno H

    2006-01-27

    The anomalous Hall effect is investigated experimentally and theoretically for ferromagnetic thin films of Mn5Ge3. We have separated the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the experimental anomalous Hall effect and calculated the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity from the Berry curvature of the Bloch states using first-principles methods. The intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity depends linearly on the magnetization, which can be understood from the long-wavelength fluctuations of the spin orientation at finite temperatures. The quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good, not only near 0 K but also at finite temperatures, up to about approximately 240 K (0.8TC).

  2. Momentum and energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion in the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors.

    PubMed

    Inosov, D S; Fink, J; Kordyuk, A A; Borisenko, S V; Zabolotnyy, V B; Schuster, R; Knupfer, M; Büchner, B; Follath, R; Dürr, H A; Eberhardt, W; Hinkov, V; Keimer, B; Berger, H

    2007-12-01

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-T_{c} superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong dependence on the photon energy around 75 eV, which we associate with the resonant photoemission at the Cu3p-->3d_{x;{2}-y;{2}} edge. We conclude that the high-energy "waterfall" dispersion results from a strong suppression of the photoemission intensity at the center of the Brillouin zone due to matrix element effects and is, therefore, not an intrinsic feature of the spectral function. This indicates that the new high-energy scale in the electronic structure of cuprates derived from the waterfall-like dispersion may be incorrect. PMID:18233401

  3. Momentum and energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion in the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors.

    PubMed

    Inosov, D S; Fink, J; Kordyuk, A A; Borisenko, S V; Zabolotnyy, V B; Schuster, R; Knupfer, M; Büchner, B; Follath, R; Dürr, H A; Eberhardt, W; Hinkov, V; Keimer, B; Berger, H

    2007-12-01

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-T_{c} superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong dependence on the photon energy around 75 eV, which we associate with the resonant photoemission at the Cu3p-->3d_{x;{2}-y;{2}} edge. We conclude that the high-energy "waterfall" dispersion results from a strong suppression of the photoemission intensity at the center of the Brillouin zone due to matrix element effects and is, therefore, not an intrinsic feature of the spectral function. This indicates that the new high-energy scale in the electronic structure of cuprates derived from the waterfall-like dispersion may be incorrect.

  4. Temperature dependence of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta/Co2FeAl/MgO structures probed by Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, M. S.; Petrisor, T.; Pop, O.; Colis, S.; Tiusan, C.

    2015-10-01

    We report a detailed study of the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy in Ta/Co2FeAl/MgO structures by means of Anomalous Hall Effect measurements. The volume magnetic anisotropy, although negligible at room temperature, shows a non-negligible value at low temperatures and favors an in-plane easy magnetization axis. The surface magnetic anisotropy, which promotes the perpendicular magnetic easy axis, shows an increase from 0.76 ± 0.05 erg /cm2 at 300 K, up to 1.08 ± 0.04 erg /cm2 at 5 K, attributed to the evolution of the Co2FeAl layer saturation magnetization with temperature.

  5. Anomalous temperature dependence in valence band spectra: A resonant photoemission study of layered perovskite Sr{sub 2}CoO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Pankaj K.; Choudhary, R. J. Phase, D. M.

    2014-05-05

    Valence band spectra (VBS) and its modification across Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of Sr{sub 2}CoO{sub 4} thin film are studied using resonant photoemission spectroscopy. It is found that VBS mainly consists of hybridized states of Co-3d t{sub 2g}e{sub g} and O-2p; however, Co-3d e{sub g} states show its prominence only in the ferromagnetic temperature regime. Below T{sub C}, spectral weight transfer takes place anomalously from high binding energy (B.E.) region to low B.E. region, signifying the enhanced intermediate or low spin state Co{sup 4+} ions. It is suggested that spin-lattice coupling and many-body effects in Sr{sub 2}CoO{sub 4} derived from the strong electron correlations lead to such temperature dependence of VBS.

  6. Anomalous Temperature-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence of α-NaYF₄:Yb³⁺/Er³⁺ Nanocrystals Synthesized by a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lili; Li, Xiangping; Hua, Ruinian; Tianxiang Peng; Wang, Yizhuo; Zhang, Xizhen; Chen, Baojiu

    2016-01-01

    Yb³⁺/Er³⁺co-doped cubic-(α-) phase NaYF₄ nanocrystals were prepared through a microwave- assisted hydrothermal method. Temperature-dependent upconversion luminescence (UCL) and sensing properties were systematically studied. It is interesting that anomalous temperature- dependent UCL behavior is observed. With increasing temperature (303-573 K), the UCL intensity of Er³⁺ does not quench monotonously but reaches a minimum around 483 K and then increases. However, it was found that the UCL spectra change in a different way with decreasing temperature (573-303 K) from the one measured with increasing temperature. The fluorescence intensity ratio of ²H₁₁/₂ --> ⁴I₁₅/₂ to ⁴S₃/₂ --> ⁴I₁₅/₂ at any measured temperature point remains almost constant in all measurement processes, indicating the consistency of temperature in each spectrum measurement at all temperature points regardless of the heating or the cooling process in our experiments. The results demonstrate that NaYF₄:Yb³⁺/Er³⁺ UC nanocrystal has good sensing stability and may have potential application in the nanoscale thermal sensor. PMID:27398529

  7. Anomalous Temperature-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence of α-NaYF₄:Yb³⁺/Er³⁺ Nanocrystals Synthesized by a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lili; Li, Xiangping; Hua, Ruinian; Tianxiang Peng; Wang, Yizhuo; Zhang, Xizhen; Chen, Baojiu

    2016-01-01

    Yb³⁺/Er³⁺co-doped cubic-(α-) phase NaYF₄ nanocrystals were prepared through a microwave- assisted hydrothermal method. Temperature-dependent upconversion luminescence (UCL) and sensing properties were systematically studied. It is interesting that anomalous temperature- dependent UCL behavior is observed. With increasing temperature (303-573 K), the UCL intensity of Er³⁺ does not quench monotonously but reaches a minimum around 483 K and then increases. However, it was found that the UCL spectra change in a different way with decreasing temperature (573-303 K) from the one measured with increasing temperature. The fluorescence intensity ratio of ²H₁₁/₂ --> ⁴I₁₅/₂ to ⁴S₃/₂ --> ⁴I₁₅/₂ at any measured temperature point remains almost constant in all measurement processes, indicating the consistency of temperature in each spectrum measurement at all temperature points regardless of the heating or the cooling process in our experiments. The results demonstrate that NaYF₄:Yb³⁺/Er³⁺ UC nanocrystal has good sensing stability and may have potential application in the nanoscale thermal sensor.

  8. Linear Magnetization Dependence of the Intrinsic Anomalous Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, C.; Yao, Y.; Niu, Q.; Weitering, Harm H

    2006-01-01

    The anomalous Hall effect is investigated experimentally and theoretically for ferromagnetic thin films of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}. We have separated the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the experimental anomalous Hall effect and calculated the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity from the Berry curvature of the Bloch states using first-principles methods. The intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity depends linearly on the magnetization, which can be understood from the long-wavelength fluctuations of the spin orientation at finite temperatures. The quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good, not only near 0 K but also at finite temperatures, up to about -240 K (0.8T{sub c}).

  9. Anomalous frequency dependent diamagnetism in metal silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Ashutosh; Gunasekera, Jagat; Harriger, Leland; Singh, David J.; Singh, Deepak K.; Leland Harriger Collaboration

    Discovery of superconductivity in PbO-type FeSe has generated a lot of interest. Among the samples we synthesize with similar structure, NiSi has showed anomalous but very interesting results. Nickel silicides are important electronic materials that have been used as contacts for field effect transistors, as interconnects and in nanoelectronic devices. The magnetic properties of NiSi are not well known, however. In this presentation, we report a highly unusual magnetic phenomenon in NiSi. The ac susceptibility measurements on NiSi reveal strong frequency dependence of static and dynamic susceptibilities that are primarily diamagnetic at room temperature. The static susceptibility is found to exhibit a strong frequency dependence of the diamagnetic response below 100K, while dynamic susceptibility showed peak type feature at 10KHz frequency around 50K. Detailed neutron scattering measurements on high quality powder sample of NiSi on SPINS cold spectrometer further revealed an inelastic peak around 1.5meV, even though no magnetic order is detected. The inelastic peak dissipates above 100K, which is where the static susceptibility starts to diverge with frequency. Research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-SC0014461.

  10. Deep-level-driven anomalous temperature dependence of lattice constants and energy gaps in MgxZn1-xSe and MgxZn1-xSe:Co2+ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wha-Tek

    1999-02-01

    Pure MgxZn1-xSe (type C) single crystals were grown by the closed-tube sublimation method. MgxZn1-xSe (type D) and MgxZn1-xSe:Co2+ single crystals in which deep levels exist were grown by the chemical transport reaction method. The temperature dependence of the optical energy gaps of the MgxZn1-xSe (type C) single crystals fitted well with the Manoogian-Leclerc equation. However, the temperature dependence of the optical energy gaps of the MgxZn1-xSe (type D) and MgxZn1-xSe:Co2+ single crystals was anomalous in the temperature range of 10-70 K. This anomalous temperature dependence was analyzed as originating from a volume dilation effect due to deep-level defects.

  11. Unidirectional bulk conduction and the anomalous temperature dependence of drift current under a trap-density gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yukio

    2010-05-01

    Nonlinear drift conduction under a trap-density gradient is mathematically formulated. Semianalytical and numerical solutions demonstrate bulk-induced unidirectional current flow, i.e., rectification. The present theory is in excellent agreement with various experimental J-V characteristics ( J : current density and V : applied voltage). At low V , the J-V characteristics are ohmic and bidirectional. As the injection increases, the J-V characteristics become nonlinear and exhibit unidirectionality under proper conditions. The major requirements for a large unidirectionality are the trap-density gradient G≫1 , an intermediate V , and not too large trap-filling factor Θ , which requires the presence of acceptorlike traps. The unidirectional J-V characteristics due to the difference in trap-filled-to-trap-free-limit voltage VTFL for forward and reverse bias markedly resemble the standard rectification. In addition, the trap-density gradient yields a positive T dependence of resistance for a proper set of parameters, evident J∝V1.5 characteristics, and a photovoltaic effect. The present results suggest that bulk conduction under trap-density gradient explains fractions of resistance switching and rectification phenomena. The semianalytical solutions are verified by numerical solutions and comparison with experiments. In particular, semianalytical solutions for shallow-trap case excellently fit the experimental data by three parameters in practice: two scaling factors and G .

  12. Structural Origin of the Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Local Magnetic Moments in the CaFe2As2 Family of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortenzi, L.; Gretarsson, H.; Kasahara, S.; Matsuda, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Wu, W.; Julian, S. R.; Kim, Young-June; Mazin, I. I.; Boeri, L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a combination of Fe K β x-ray emission spectroscopy and density functional reduced Stoner theory calculations to investigate the correlation between structural and magnetic degrees of freedom in CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 . The puzzling temperature behavior of the local moment found in rare earth-doped CaFe2As2 [H. Gretarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 047003 (2013)] is also observed in CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 . We explain this phenomenon based on first-principles calculations with scaled magnetic interaction. One scaling parameter is sufficient to describe quantitatively the magnetic moments in both CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 (x =0.055 ) and Ca0.78La0.22Fe2As2 at all temperatures. The anomalous growth of the local moments with increasing temperature can be understood from the observed large thermal expansion of the c -axis lattice parameter combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. These effects originate from the strong tendency to form As-As dimers across the Ca layer in the CaFe2As2 family of materials. Our results emphasize the dual local-itinerant character of magnetism in Fe pnictides.

  13. Structural origin of the anomalous temperature dependence of the local magnetic moments in the CaFe2As2 family of materials.

    PubMed

    Ortenzi, L; Gretarsson, H; Kasahara, S; Matsuda, Y; Shibauchi, T; Finkelstein, K D; Wu, W; Julian, S R; Kim, Young-June; Mazin, I I; Boeri, L

    2015-01-30

    We report a combination of Fe Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy and density functional reduced Stoner theory calculations to investigate the correlation between structural and magnetic degrees of freedom in CaFe2(As1-xPx)2. The puzzling temperature behavior of the local moment found in rare earth-doped CaFe2As2 [H. Gretarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 047003 (2013)] is also observed in CaFe2(As1-xPx)2. We explain this phenomenon based on first-principles calculations with scaled magnetic interaction. One scaling parameter is sufficient to describe quantitatively the magnetic moments in both CaFe2(As1-xPx)2 (x=0.055) and Ca0.78La0.22Fe2As2 at all temperatures. The anomalous growth of the local moments with increasing temperature can be understood from the observed large thermal expansion of the c-axis lattice parameter combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. These effects originate from the strong tendency to form As-As dimers across the Ca layer in the CaFe2As2 family of materials. Our results emphasize the dual local-itinerant character of magnetism in Fe pnictides. PMID:25679903

  14. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    PubMed

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  15. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    PubMed

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point. PMID:25768548

  16. Anomalous size dependence of the thermal conductivity of graphene ribbons.

    PubMed

    Nika, Denis L; Askerov, Artur S; Balandin, Alexander A

    2012-06-13

    We investigated the thermal conductivity K of graphene ribbons and graphite slabs as the function of their lateral dimensions. Our theoretical model considered the anharmonic three-phonon processes to the second-order and included the angle-dependent phonon scattering from the ribbon edges. It was found that the long mean free path of the long-wavelength acoustic phonons in graphene can lead to an unusual nonmonotonic dependence of the thermal conductivity on the length L of a ribbon. The effect is pronounced for the ribbons with the smooth edges (specularity parameter p > 0.5). Our results also suggest that, contrary to what was previously thought, the bulk-like three-dimensional phonons in graphite make a rather substantial contribution to its in-plane thermal conductivity. The Umklapp-limited thermal conductivity of graphite slabs scales, for L below ∼30 μm, as log(L), while for larger L, the thermal conductivity approaches a finite value following the dependence K(0) - A × L(-1/2), where K(0) and A are parameters independent of the length. Our theoretical results clarify the scaling of the phonon thermal conductivity with the lateral sizes in graphene and graphite. The revealed anomalous dependence K(L) for the micrometer-size graphene ribbons can account for some of the discrepancy in reported experimental data for graphene.

  17. Effect of entropy on anomalous transport in electron-temperature-gradient-modes

    SciTech Connect

    Yaqub Khan, M.; Iqbal, J.; Ul Haq, A.

    2014-05-15

    Due to the interconnection of entropy with temperature and density of plasma, it would be interesting to investigate plasma related phenomena with respect to entropy. By employing Braginskii transport equations, it is proved that entropy is proportional to a function of potential and distribution function of entropy is re-defined, ∇S–drift in obtained. New dispersion relation is derived; it is found that the anomalous transport depends on the gradient of the entropy.

  18. Anomalous collisional absorption of laser pulses in underdense plasma at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, M.

    2015-04-01

    In a previous paper [M. Kundu, Phys. Plasmas 21, 013302 (2014), 10.1063/1.4862038], fractional collisional absorption (α ) of laser light in underdense plasma was studied by using a classical scattering model of electron-ion collision frequency νei, where total velocity v =√{vth2+v02 } (with vth and v0 as the thermal and the ponderomotive velocity of an electron) dependent Coulomb logarithm lnΛ (v ) was shown to be responsible for the anomalous (unconventional) increase of νei and α (∝νei ) with the laser intensity I0 up to a maximum value about an intensity Ic in the low temperature (Te<15 eV ) regime and a conventional ≈I0-3 /2 decrease when I0≫Ic . One may object that the anomalous increase in νei and α were partly due to the artifact introduced in lnΛ through the maximum cutoff distance bmax∝v . In this work, we show similar anomalous increase in νei and α versus I0 (in the low temperature and underdense density regime) with more accurate quantum and classical kinetic models of νei without using lnΛ , but with a proper choice of the total velocity dependent inverse cutoff length kmax∝v2 (classical) or kmax∝v (quantum). For a given I0<5 ×1014Wcm -2 , νei versus Te also exhibits so far unnoticed identical anomalous increase as νei versus I0, even if the conventional kmax∝vth2 or kmax∝vth (without v0) is chosen. The total velocity dependent kmax in the kinetic models, as proposed here, is found to explain the anomalous increase of α with I0 measured in some earlier laser-plasma experiments.

  19. The temperature dependent amide I band of crystalline acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor; Freedman, Holly

    2013-10-01

    The temperature dependent anomalous peak in the amide I band of crystalline acetanilide is thought to be due to self-trapped states. On the contrary, according to the present model, the anomalous peak comes from the fraction of ACN molecules strongly hydrogen-bonded to a neighboring ACN molecule, and its intensity decreases because, on average, this fraction decreases as temperature increases. This model provides, for the first time, an integrated and theoretically consistent view of the temperature dependence of the full amide I band and a qualitative explanation of some of the features of nonlinear pump-probe experiments.

  20. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal

  1. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB

  2. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  3. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  4. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  5. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code

  6. Temperature dependence of heterogeneous nucleation: Extension of the Fletcher model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Robert; Winkler, Paul; Wagner, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Recently there have been several cases reported where the critical saturation ratio for onset of heterogeneous nucleation increases with nucleation temperature (positive slope dependence). This behavior contrasts with the behavior observed in homogeneous nucleation, where a decreasing critical saturation ratio with increasing nucleation temperature (negative slope dependence) seems universal. For this reason the positive slope dependence is referred to as anomalous. Negative slope dependence is found in heterogeneous nucleation as well, but because so few temperature-dependent measurements have been reported, it is not presently clear which slope condition (positive or negative) will become more frequent. Especially interesting is the case of water vapor condensation on silver nanoparticles [Kupc et al., AS&T 47: i-iv, 2013] where the critical saturation ratio for heterogeneous nucleation onset passes through a maximum, at about 278K, with higher (lower) temperatures showing the usual (anomalous) temperature dependence. In the present study we develop an extension of Fletcher's classical, capillarity-based, model of heterogeneous nucleation that explicitly resolves the roles of surface energy and surface entropy in determining temperature dependence. Application of the second nucleation theorem, which relates temperature dependence of nucleation rate to cluster energy, yields both necessary and sufficient conditions for anomalous temperature behavior in the extended Fletcher model. In particular it is found that an increasing contact angle with temperature is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for anomalous temperature dependence to occur. Methods for inferring microscopic contact angle and its temperature dependence from heterogeneous nucleation probability measurements are discussed in light of the new theory.

  7. Magnetization, anomalous Barkhausen effect, and core loss of Supermendur under high temperature cycling.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, J. M.; Schwarze, G. E.

    1971-01-01

    The magnetization and core loss of Supermendur were measured up to 900 C under conditions of slow temperature cycling in vacuum. As a consequence of this heating, the coercivity at 25 C increased from 21 A/m to about 110 A/m. This increase is less than previously reported. A prominent anomalous Barkhausen effect, pinched-in hysteresis loops, and a magnetic viscosity field in excess of 20 A/m were observed in the range of 600 to 700 C. At 850 C, Supermendur had a coercivity of 23 A/m, a saturation induction exceeding 1.5 T, a core loss of 26 W/kg at 400 Hz, and a maximum induction of 1.5 T. Supermendur may be useful for high temperature soft magnetic material applications where some history dependence of properties and instability of minor loops at lower temperatures is acceptable.

  8. [Effects of anomalous rise of air temperature on population mortality].

    PubMed

    Chazov, E I; Boĭtsov, S A

    2012-01-01

    Global climate warming for the last 10 years actualized the problem of mortality rise in some European countries in anomalous summer heat. Russia faced this problem in July-August 2010 when extreme heat entailed a significant elevation of mortality in 31 regions of the country primarily due to coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of foreign researches has shown that old age and living in cities are leading risk factors of deat in anomalous heat. Experience of the European countries and USA evidences that stay in conditioned apartments and early referral for medical assistance are most effective death preventive measures in heat.

  9. Temperature dependent BRDF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airola, Marc B.; Brown, Andrea M.; Hahn, Daniel V.; Thomas, Michael E.; Congdon, Elizabeth A.; Mehoke, Douglas S.

    2014-09-01

    Applications involving space based instrumentation and aerodynamically heated surfaces often require knowledge of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of an exposed surface at high temperature. Addressing this need, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) developed a BRDF facility that features a multiple-port vacuum chamber, multiple laser sources covering the spectral range from the longwave infrared to the ultraviolet, imaging pyrometry and laser heated samples. Laser heating eliminates stray light that would otherwise be seen from a furnace and requires minimal sample support structure, allowing low thermal conduction loss to be obtained, which is especially important at high temperatures. The goal is to measure the BRDF of ceramic-coated surfaces at temperatures in excess of 1000°C in a low background environment. Most ceramic samples are near blackbody in the longwave infrared, thus pyrometry using a LWIR camera can be very effective and accurate.

  10. Theoretical basis for an anomalous temperature coefficient in swelling pressure of rabbit corneal stroma.

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, L S; Klyce, S D

    1990-01-01

    In the rabbit corneal stroma, the swelling pressure, P, has been reported to have an anomalous (negative) temperature coefficient, alpha P, contradicting traditional Donnan swelling theory. A parallel-plate, diffuse double layer Gouy-Chapman model was used to resolve this discrepancy. The present model incorporates the possibility that surface charge, sigma, is temperature dependent. It is shown that negative, zero, or positive coefficients of swelling pressure change with temperature are not mutually exclusive conditions, but can be attributed to the same underlying mechanism. For likely values of alpha P(range -7 x 10(-3) K-1 to +3.2 x 10(-3)K-1), the effective stromal charge has a negative temperature dependency, or dln sigma/dT less than 0. The present formalism is robust against variation in assumed alpha P, and is able to simultaneously satisfy the known values of swelling pressure, its thermal dependency, and stromal charge. These results implicate significant coulombic forces behind P. Predicted stromal surface charge is approximately 0.01 Cm-2. The predictions were confirmed with macrocontinuum Donnan swelling theory, suggesting that Donnan osmotic swelling is the principal macroscopic component of P. PMID:2306510

  11. Cancellation of mass dependence in anomalous dimensions in the momentum subtraction scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Sumio

    1980-05-01

    In the momentum subtraction scheme the anomalous dimensions γn have quark mass dependence, which is gauge dependent and prescription dependent even at the one-loop level. We argue that these ambiguities together with all the mass dependence cancel with those in the coefficient functions, up to the second order at least. The essential point is that the coefficient functions at the one-loop level are of the same order as the anomalous dimensions at the one-loop level when there is mass dependence. The author would like to thank T. Kubota for the collaboration in the early stage of this work. Calculation of eq. (4) was done with him. The author is indebted to Dr. B.R. Webber for helpful conversations and careful reading of the manuscript. Discussions with Drs. D.W. Duke and T. Muta were also quite helpful. This work was supported by the Science Research Council.

  12. The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Ran; Du, Jiulin

    2015-08-15

    We study the time behavior of the Fokker–Planck equation in Zwanzig’s rule (the backward-Ito’s rule) based on the Langevin equation of Brownian motion with an anomalous diffusion in a complex medium. The diffusion coefficient is a function in momentum space and follows a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. We obtain the precise time-dependent analytical solution of the Fokker–Planck equation and at long time the solution approaches to a stationary power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. As a test, numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution. - Highlights: • The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion is found. • The anomalous diffusion satisfies a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. • At long time the time-dependent solution approaches to a power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. • Numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution.

  13. Mechanism of Anomalous Ellipticity Dependence of Near-threshold Harmonics in H 2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri Avanaki, Kobra; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied the mechanism of anomalous dependence of near-threshold harmonics in H2+on ellipticity of driving field with the carrier wavelength 780 nm. The numerical procedure is based on accurate solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates with the help of generalized pseudospectral method. Our analysis reveals that the origin of this phenomenon is mainly in the near-resonant excitation of πu molecular orbitals in H2+.For the lowest affected harmonic, the maximum in the ellipticity dependence of the radiation energy is exclusively due to excitation of the 1πu state; however, for higher near-threshold harmonics, higher-lying excited πu states are playing significant role as well. The closer the harmonic to the threshold, the larger number of excited states make considerable contributions. All these contributions interfere, resulting in the anomalous ellipticity dependence with a maximum at some non-zero value of the ellipticity parameter. In the vicinity of this value, the harmonics with the anomalous dependence are linearly polarized along the minor axis of the polarization ellipse of the driving field and may show strong elliptical polarization as well. This work is partially supported by DOE.

  14. Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Satoru; Kiyohara, Naoki; Higo, Tomoya

    2015-11-12

    In ferromagnetic conductors, an electric current may induce a transverse voltage drop in zero applied magnetic field: this anomalous Hall effect is observed to be proportional to magnetization, and thus is not usually seen in antiferromagnets in zero field. Recent developments in theory and experiment have provided a framework for understanding the anomalous Hall effect using Berry-phase concepts, and this perspective has led to predictions that, under certain conditions, a large anomalous Hall effect may appear in spin liquids and antiferromagnets without net spin magnetization. Although such a spontaneous Hall effect has now been observed in a spin liquid state, a zero-field anomalous Hall effect has hitherto not been reported for antiferromagnets. Here we report empirical evidence for a large anomalous Hall effect in an antiferromagnet that has vanishingly small magnetization. In particular, we find that Mn3Sn, an antiferromagnet that has a non-collinear 120-degree spin order, exhibits a large anomalous Hall conductivity of around 20 per ohm per centimetre at room temperature and more than 100 per ohm per centimetre at low temperatures, reaching the same order of magnitude as in ferromagnetic metals. Notably, the chiral antiferromagnetic state has a very weak and soft ferromagnetic moment of about 0.002 Bohr magnetons per Mn atom (refs 10, 12), allowing us to switch the sign of the Hall effect with a small magnetic field of around a few hundred oersted. This soft response of the large anomalous Hall effect could be useful for various applications including spintronics--for example, to develop a memory device that produces almost no perturbing stray fields.

  15. Anomalously temperature-independent birefringence in biaxial optical crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Grechin, Sergei G; Dmitriev, Valentin G; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Pryalkin, Vladimir I

    2000-01-31

    Temperature-independent birefringence in a biaxial crystal was predicted theoretically and observed experimentally for the first time. The width of the plot against temperature (the range corresponding to the temperature independence of the birefringence) at a fundamental radiation wavelength of 632.8 nm in a KTP crystal 5.9 mm long was more than 160{sup 0}C. (letters to the editor)

  16. Temperature, pressure, and compositional effects on anomalous or "self" preservation of gas hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, L. A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Durham, W. B.

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported on a thermal regime where pure, polycrystalline methane hydrate is preserved metastably in bulk at up to 75 K above its nominal temperature stability limit of 193 K at 0.1 MPa, following rapid release of the sample pore pressure. Large fractions (>50 vol.% ) of methane hydrate can be preserved for 2-3 weeks by this method, reflecting the greatly suppressed rates of dissociation that characterize this "anomalous preservation" regime. This behavior contrasts that exhibited by methane hydrate at both colder (193-240 K) and warmer (272-290 K) isothermal test conditions, where dissociation rates increase monotonically with increasing temperature. Here, we report on recent experiments that further investigate the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on anomalous preservation behavior. All tests conducted on sI methane hydrate yielded self-consistent results that confirm the highly temperature-sensitive but reproducible nature of anomalous preservation behavior. Temperature-stepping experiments conducted between 250 and 268 K corroborate the relative rates measured previously in isothermal preservation tests, and elevated pore-pressure tests showed that, as expected, dissociation rates are further reduced with increasing pressure. Surprisingly, sII methane-ethane hydrate was found to exhibit no comparable preservation effect when rapidly depressurized at 268 K, even though it is thermodynamically stable at higher temperatures and lower pressures than sI methane hydrate. These results, coupled with SEM imaging of quenched sample material from a variety of dissociation tests, strongly support our earlier arguments that ice-"shielding" effects provided by partial dissociation along hydrate grain surfaces do not serve as the primary mechanism for anomalous preservation. The underlying physical-chemistry mechanism(s) of anomalous preservation remains elusive, but appears to be based more on textural or morphological changes within the

  17. Temperature, pressure, and compositional effects on anomalous or "self" preservation of gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported on a thermal regime where pure, polycrystalline methane hydrate is preserved metastably in bulk at up to 75 K above its nominal temperature stability limit of 193 K at 0.1 MPa, following rapid release of the sample pore pressure. Large fractions (>50 vol.%) of methane hydrate can be preserved for 2-3 weeks by this method, reflecting the greatly suppressed rates of dissociation that characterize this "anomalous preservation" regime. This behavior contrasts that exhibited by methane hydrate at both colder (193-240 K) and warmer (272-290 K) isothermal test conditions, where dissociation rates increase monotonically with increasing temperature. Here, we report on recent experiments that further investigate the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on anomalous preservation behavior. All tests conducted on sI methane hydrate yielded self-consistent results that confirm the highly temperature-sensitive but reproducible nature of anomalous preservation behavior. Temperature-stepping experiments conducted between 250 and 268 K corroborate the relative rates measured previously in isothermal preservation tests, and elevated pore-pressure tests showed that, as expected, dissociation rates are further reduced with increasing pressure. Surprisingly, sII methane-ethane hydrate was found to exhibit no comparable preservation effect when rapidly depressurized at 268 K, even though it is thermodynamically stable at higher temperatures and lower pressures than sI methane hydrate. These results, coupled with SEM imaging of quenched sample material from a variety of dissociation tests, strongly support our earlier arguments that ice-"shielding" effects provided by partial dissociation along hydrate grain surfaces do not serve as the primary mechanism for anomalous preservation. The underlying physical-chemistry mechanism(s) of anomalous preservation remains elusive, but appears to be based more on textural or morphological changes within the hydrate

  18. Analysis of printed organic MOSFET characteristics with a focus on the temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenitani, Hiroshi; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Hayashi, Takuro; Tanimoto, Yuta; Sato, Kenshiro; Chen, Lei; Kikuchihara, Hideyuki; Miura-Mattausch, Mitiko; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans

    2016-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of the device characteristics of printed organic MOSFETs with a focus on the temperature dependence is reported. In particular, an anomalous behavior of the temperature dependence of the I ds-V gs characteristic is observed, which is found to be increased at higher temperature in MOSFETs fabricated with the printing technology. Our analysis suggests that the temperature dependence of the trap density and the carrier transport mechanism are the causes for this anomalous increase at higher temperature. The results obtained with the compact model HiSIM-Organic, developed based on the physics of carrier dynamics in organic materials, confirm these conclusions. Improving stable characteristics in circuit applications are demonstrated to be achievable at higher temperatures, due to these anomalous properties of organic MOSFETs fabricated by applying the printing technology.

  19. Spreading-rate-dependent anomalous skewness and the estimate of the chron 32 palaeomagnetic pole for the Pacific plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivisto, E.; Gordon, R.; Dyment, J.; Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2006-12-01

    Palaeomagnetic poles can be determined from asymmetry (skewness) of marine magnetic anomalies. Early works applying the skewness method were limited by the discovery of an apparently systematic error known as anomalous skewness (Cande 1976). Anomalous skewness can be thought of as the systematic difference between the observed skewness and the skewness predicted by a simple magnetization model with rectangular 2-D layer 2A prisms of alternating polarity separated by vertical boundaries. In the early works, anomalous skewness could be isolated for anomalies with counterparts across a mid-ocean ridge, but was much harder to estimate for anomalies with subducted counterparts, as is mostly the case in the Pacific plate. Petronotis et al. (1992) presented a solution to this problem by simultaneously estimating anomalous skewness and a best-fitting palaeomagnetic pole from skewness data from a single plate. In their approach, anomalous skewness is assumed to be identical for different crossings of the same plate and any spreading-rate dependence of anomalous skewness is neglected. Nonetheless, anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies is observed to decrease with increasing spreading rate and become negligible above spreading rates of about 50 mm yr-1 (e.g. Roest et al. 1992; Dyment et al. 1994). Dyment &Arkani-Hamed (1995) proposed a model in which the magnetic structure of the oceanic lithosphere is dependent on spreading rate with parameters adjusted to fit the observed spreading- rate dependence of anomalous skewness for some key anomalies. Here we apply their model to determine a new Maastrichtian palaeomagnetic pole for the Pacific plate from skewness estimates of magnetic anomaly 32. Previously Petronotis &Gordon (1999) obtained a palaeopole assuming spreading-rate independent anomalous skewness for the same data used here. They also investigated the possible dependence of anomalous skewness on spreading rate and found it to have negligible effect on their

  20. A velocity-dependent anomalous radial transport model for (2-D, 2-V) kinetic transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodi, Kowsik; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Cohen, Ron; Rognlien, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Plasma turbulence constitutes a significant part of radial plasma transport in magnetically confined plasmas. This turbulent transport is modeled in the form of anomalous convection and diffusion coefficients in fluid transport codes. There is a need to model the same in continuum kinetic edge codes [such as the (2-D, 2-V) transport version of TEMPEST, NEO, and the code being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory] with non-Maxwellian distributions. We present an anomalous transport model with velocity-dependent convection and diffusion coefficients leading to a diagonal transport matrix similar to that used in contemporary fluid transport models (e.g., UEDGE). Also presented are results of simulations corresponding to radial transport due to long-wavelength ExB turbulence using a velocity-independent diffusion coefficient. A BGK collision model is used to enable comparison with fluid transport codes.

  1. Anomalous scaling of temperature structure functions in turbulent thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Penger; He, Xiaozhou; Shang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    The scaling properties of the temperature structure function (SF) are investigated in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. The measured SFs are found to exhibit good scaling in space and time and the resulting SF exponent is obtained both at the center of the convection cell and near the sidewall. It is found that the difference in the functional form of the measured SF exponents at the two locations in the cell is caused by the change of the geometry of the most dissipative structures in the (inhomogeneous) temperature field from being sheet-like at the cell center to filament-like near the sidewall. The experiment thus provides direct evidence showing that the universality features of turbulent cascade are linked to the degree of anisotropy and inhomogeneity of turbulent statistics. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR.

  2. Matter Dependence of the Three-Loop Soft Anomalous Dimension Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC

    2009-01-23

    The resummation of soft gluon exchange for QCD hard scattering requires a matrix of anomalous dimensions, which has been computed through two loops. The two-loop matrix is proportional to the one-loop matrix. Recently there have been proposals that this proportionality extends to higher loops. One can test such proposals by computing the dependence of this matrix on the matter content in a generic gauge theory. It is shown that for the matter-dependent part the proportionality extends to three loops for arbitrary massless processes.

  3. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  5. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  6. Prediction of Near-Room-Temperature Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect on Honeycomb Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Binghai; Wu, Shu-Chun; Shan, Guangcun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, this long-sought quantum anomalous Hall effect was realized in the magnetic topological insulator. However, the requirement of an extremely low temperature (~ 30 mK) hinders realistic applications. Based on honeycomb lattices comprised of Sn and Ge, which are found to be 2D topological insulators, we propose a quantum anomalous Hall platform with large energy gap of 0.34 and 0.06 eV, respectively. The ferromagnetic order forms in one sublattice of the honeycomb structure by controlling the surface functionalization rather than dilute magnetic doping, which is expected to be visualized by spin polarized STM in experiment. Strong coupling between the inherent quantum spin Hall state and ferromagnetism results in considerable exchange splitting and consequently an ferromagnetic insulator with large energy gap. The estimated mean-field Curie temperature is 243 and 509 K for Sn and Ge lattices, respectively. The large energy gap and high Curie temperature indicate the feasibility of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the near-room-temperature and even room-temperature regions. We thank the helpful discussions with C. Felser, S. Kanugo, C.-X. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Wu, and Y. Zhou.

  7. Large temperature renormalization of anomalous Luttinger exponent in Li0.9Mo6O17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Mo, S.-K.; Allen, J. W.; Alvarez, J. V.; Gweon, G.-H.; He, J.; Jin, R.; Mandrus, R.; Höchst, H.

    2006-03-01

    Li0.9Mo6O17 is unique as a quasi-1 dimensional metal for which both photoemission spectroscopy (PES) [1] and tunneling [2] find Luttinger liquid (LL) power law behaviors in spectra near the Fermi energy EF, albeit with differing values of the anomalous exponent α, 0.9 at temperature 300K and 0.6 below 50K, respectively. New T-dependent PES spectra from T = 300K down to 15K can be well fit by finite-T LL theory, with α varying continuously from 0.9 to 0.6, showing consistency of PES and tunneling. We find that its incommensurate Fermi wavevector would preclude such a large renormalization of α with T for Li0.9Mo6O17 were it not for interband dynamics and residual interaction scattering that can occur only because there are two (nearly degenerate) bands crossing EF. We also discuss implications of the theory for further experiments. [1] G.-H. Gweon et al, Phys. Rev. B 68, 195117 (2003). [2] J. Hager et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 186402 (2005).

  8. Temperature Dependence of Cesium Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John David

    The gamma-ray excited, temperature dependent scintillation characteristics of CsI(T1) are reported over the temperature range of -100 to +50^circ C. The modified Bollinger-Thomas and shaped square wave methods were used to measure the rise and decay times. Emission spectra were measured using a monochromator and corrected for monochromator and photocathode spectral efficiencies. The shaped square wave method was also used to determine the scintillation yield as was a current mode method. The thermoluminescence emission of CsI(T1) were measured using the same current mode method. At room temperature, CsI(T1) was found to have two primary decay components with decay time constants of tau_1 = 679 +/- 9 ns (63.7%) and tau_2 = 3.34 +/- 0.10 mus (36.1%), an absolute scintillation yield of 65,500 +/- 4,100 photons/MeV, and emission bands at about 400 and 560 nm. The tau_1 luminescent state was observed to be populated by an exponential process with a resulting rise time constant of 19.6 +/- 1.9 ns at room temperature. An ultra-fast decay component with a <0.5 ns decay time was found to emit about 0.2% of the total scintillation light (about 100 photons/MeV). Except for the ultra-fast decay time, the rise and decay time constants were observed to increase exponentially with inverse temperature. At -80 ^circC, tau_1 and tau_2 were determined to be 2.22 +/- 0.31 mu s and 18.0 +/- 1.44 mus, respectively, while the 400 nm emission band was not observed below -50 ^circC. At +50^circ C, the decay constants were found to be 628 +/- 3 ns (70.5%) and 2.63 +/- 0.03 mus (29.3%) and both emission bands are present. The scintillation yield of CsI(T1) was observed to be only slightly temperature dependent between -40 and +50^circ C, peaking at about -30 ^circC (about 6% above the room temperature yield). Four different commercially-available CsI(T1) crystals were used. Minimal variations in the measured scintillation characteristics were observed among these four crystals

  9. Temperature dependence of basalt weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojun; Hartmann, Jens; Derry, Louis A.; West, A. Joshua; You, Chen-Feng; Long, Xiaoyong; Zhan, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Li, Gen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Tao; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Ji, Junfeng; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The homeostatic balance of Earth's long-term carbon cycle and the equable state of Earth's climate are maintained by negative feedbacks between the levels of atmospheric CO2 and the chemical weathering rate of silicate rocks. Though clearly demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory dissolution experiments, the temperature dependence of silicate weathering rates, hypothesized to play a central role in these weathering feedbacks, has been difficult to quantify clearly in natural settings at landscape scale. By compiling data from basaltic catchments worldwide and considering only inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), here we show that the rate of CO2 consumption associated with the weathering of basaltic rocks is strongly correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) as predicted by chemical kinetics. Relations between temperature and CO2 consumption rate for active volcanic fields (AVFs) are complicated by other factors such as eruption age, hydrothermal activity, and hydrological complexities. On the basis of this updated data compilation we are not able to distinguish whether or not there is a significant runoff control on basalt weathering rates. Nonetheless, the simple temperature control as observed in this global dataset implies that basalt weathering could be an effective mechanism for Earth to modulate long-term carbon cycle perturbations.

  10. Effects of Anomalous Electron Cross-Field Transport in a Low Temperature Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny

    2014-10-01

    The application of the magnetic field in a low pressure plasma can cause a spatial separation of low and high energy electrons. This so-called magnetic filter effect is used for many plasma applications, including ion and neutral beam sources, plasma processing of semiconductors and nanomaterials, and plasma thrusters. In spite of successful practical applications, the magnetic filter effect is not well understood. In this work, we explore this effect by characterizing the electron and ion energy distribution functions in a plasma column with crossed electric and magnetic fields. Experimental results revealed a strong dependence of spatial variations of plasma properties on the gas pressure. For xenon and argon gases, below ~ 1 mtorr, the increase of the magnetic field leads to a more uniform profile of the electron temperature. This surprising result is due to anomalously high electron cross-field transport that causes mixing of hot and cold electrons. High-speed imaging and probe measurements revealed a coherent structure rotating in E cross B direction with frequency of a few kHz. Theory and simulations describing this rotating structure has been developed and points to ionization and electrostatic instabilities as their possible cause. Similar to spoke oscillations reported for Hall thrusters, this rotating structure conducts the large fraction of the cross-field current. The use of segmented electrodes with an electrical feedback control is shown to mitigate these oscillations. Finally, a new feature of the spoke phenomenon that has been discovered, namely a sensitive dependence of the rotating oscillations on the gas pressure, can be important for many applications. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Anomalous voltage dependence of channel blockade at a crustacean glutamate-mediated synapse.

    PubMed Central

    Lingle, C J

    1989-01-01

    1. The voltage dependence and concentration dependence of blockade of glutamate-activated currents by the diquaternary amine, chlorisondamine, were examined in a marine crustacean muscle. 2. Chlorisondamine results in the splitting of focally recorded synaptic current decays into two exponential components. The fast component becomes faster with increases in drug concentration and with hyperpolarization. The slow decay rate is unchanged or faster with hyperpolarization and the relative amplitude of the slow component is increased with hyperpolarization. 3. The alteration of synaptic current decay rates by chlorisondamine over the range of 5 to 100 microM and -80 to -140 mV is quantitatively consistent with a simple channel blockade model with a zero-voltage blocking rate of 6 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 at 12 degrees C with a voltage dependence of about 40 mV per e-fold change. The unblocking rate is about 5 s-1 at 0 mV and increases with hyperpolarization with a voltage dependence of about 30 mV per e-fold change. 4. The dose dependence and voltage dependence of blockade of ionophoretically activated glutamate currents by chlorisondamine are qualitatively consistent with the kinetic estimates. 5. The anomalous voltage dependence of the unblocking process is considered in terms of the possibility that the relief from blockade by chlorisondamine occurs by transit of chlorisondamine through the ion channel opened by glutamate. PMID:2479739

  12. The Metastable Persistence of Vapor-Deposited Amorphous Ice at Anomalously High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; Jenniskens, Peter; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the gas release, vaporization behavior and infrared (IR) spectral properties of amorphous and crystalline water ice have direct application to cometary and planetary outgassing phenomena and contribute to an understanding of the physical properties of astrophysical ices. Several investigators report anomalous phenomena related to the warming of vapor-deposited astrophysical ice analogs. However gas release, ice volatilization and IR spectral features are secondary or tertiary manifestations of ice structure or morphology. These observations are useful in mimicking the bulk physical and chemical phenomena taking place in cometary and other extraterrestrial ices but do not directly reveal the structural changes which are their root cause. The phenomenological interpretation of spectral and gas release data is probably the cause of somewhat contradictory explanations invoked to account for differences in water ice behavior in similar temperature regimes. It is the microstructure, micromorphology and microchemical heterogeneity of astrophysical ices which must be characterized if the mechanisms underlying the observed phenomena are to be understood. We have been using a modified Transmission Electron Microscope to characterize the structure of vapor-deposited astrophysical ice analogs as a function of their deposition, temperature history and composition. For the present experiments, pure water vapor is deposited at high vacuum onto a 15 K amorphous carbon film inside an Hitachi H-500H TEM. The resulting ice film (approx. 0.05 micrometers thick) is warmed at the rate of 1 K per minute and diffraction patterns are collected at 1 K intervals. These patterns are converted into radial intensity distributions which are calibrated using patterns of crystalline gold deposited on a small part of the carbon substrate. The small intensity contributed by the amorphous substrate is removed by background subtraction. The proportions of amorphous and crystalline material

  13. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984

  14. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  15. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  16. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984

  17. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  18. Anomalous phonon behavior in the high-temperature shape-memory alloy Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50-x}Cr{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S. M.; Xu Guangyong; Winn, B. L.; Schlagel, D. L.; Lograsso, T.; Erwin, R.

    2007-08-01

    Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50-x}Cr{sub x} is a high-temperature shape-memory alloy with a martensitic transformation temperature strongly dependent on the Cr composition. Prior to the transformation, a premartensitic phase is present with an incommensurate modulated cubic lattice with wave vector of q{sub 0}=(0.22,0.22,0). The temperature dependence of the diffuse scattering in the cubic phase is measured as a function temperature for x=6.5, 8.5, and 10 at. %. The lattice dynamics has been studied and reveals anomalous temperature and q dependences of the [110]-TA{sub 2} transverse phonon branch. The phonon linewidth is broad over the entire Brillouin zone and increases with decreasing temperature, contrary to the behavior expected for anharmonicity. No anomaly is observed at q{sub 0}. The results are compared with first principles calculation of the phonon structure.

  19. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David A.; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom L.

    2015-03-27

    The lattice thermal conductivities (k) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure P using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in k with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of k. This anomalous P dependence of k arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with smallmore » mass ratios. We find this work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.« less

  20. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David A.; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom L.

    2015-03-27

    The lattice thermal conductivities (k) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure P using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in k with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of k. This anomalous P dependence of k arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. We find this work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.

  1. Water ingress in Y-type zeolite: anomalous moisture-dependent transport diffusivity.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Eduardo N; da Silva, D Vitoreti; de Souza, R E; Engelsberg, M

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging measurements of liquid water ingress in a large number of nonactivated Y-type (Na) zeolite samples prepared under different conditions are reported on. Using an experimental arrangement that permits the application of Boltzmann's transformation of the 1D (one-dimensional) diffusion equation, the spatiotemporal scaling variables required for a collapse of the measured profiles into universal curves revealed subdiffusive behavior in all cases. It is shown that the one-dimensional fractal time diffusion equation constitutes a powerful tool to analyze the data and provides a connection between the moisture dependence of the effective transport diffusivities and the shapes of the universal curves. Thus, even for anomalous diffusion, the relationship between the universal curves and structural characteristics of the system; such as porosity, tortuosity of the pore space and, in some cases, the interplay between mesopores and nanopores can be addressed. PMID:17155023

  2. Stacking order dependence of inverse spin Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in spin pumping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Il; Kim, Dong-Jun; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Seung-Young

    2015-05-01

    The dependence of the measured DC voltage on the non-magnetic material (NM) in NM/CoFeB and CoFeB/NM bilayers is studied under ferromagnetic resonance conditions in a TE011 resonant cavity. The directional change of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltage VISHE for the stacking order of the bilayer can separate the pure VISHE and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) voltage VAHE utilizing the method of addition and subtraction. The Ta and Ti NMs show a broad deviation of the spin Hall angle θISH, which originates from the AHE in accordance with the high resistivity of NMs. However, the Pt and Pd NMs show that the kinds of NMs with low resistivity are consistent with the previously reported θISH values. Therefore, the characteristics that NM should simultaneously satisfy to obtain a reasonable VISHE value in bilayer systems are large θISH and low resistivity.

  3. An active role of extratropical sea surface temperature anomalies in determining anomalous turbulent heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Youichi; Nakamura, Hisashi; Kagimoto, Takashi; Yamane, Shozo

    2003-10-01

    Temporal and spatial structures of turbulent latent and sensible heat flux anomalies are examined in relation to dominant patterns of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) observed over the North Pacific. Relative importance among observed anomalies in SST, surface air temperature, and wind speed in determining the anomalous turbulent heat fluxes is assessed through linearizing the observed flux anomalies. Over the central basin of the North Pacific, changes in the atmospheric variables, including air temperature and wind speed, are primarily responsible for the generation of local SST variations by changing turbulent heat flux, which supports a conventional view of extratropical air-sea interaction. In the region where ocean dynamics is very important in forming SSTAs, in contrast, SSTAs that have been formed in early winter play the primary role in determining mid- and late-winter turbulent heat flux anomalies, indicative of the SST forcing upon the overlying atmosphere. Specifically, both decadal scale SSTAs in the western Pacific subarctic frontal zone and El Niño related SSTAs south of Japan are found to be engaged actively in such forcing on the atmosphere. The atmospheric response to this forcing appears to include the anomalous storm track activity. The observed atmospheric anomalies, which may be, in part, forced by the preexisting SSTAs in those two regions, act to force SSTAs in other portions of the basin, leading to the time evolution of SSTAs as observed in the course of the winter season.

  4. Toward Quantifying the Spreading-Rate Dependence of Anomalous Skewness of Marine Magnetic Anomalies due to Seafloor Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, S. M.; Zheng, L.; Gordon, R. G.; Dyment, J.

    2010-12-01

    In past work, reliable paleomagnetic poles have been determined from skewness data by solving for a single additional adjustable parameter, anomalous skewness, assumed to be independent of spreading rate [Petronotis et al. 1992, 1994; Petronotis & Gordon 1999]. Nonetheless, analysis of anomalies in several ocean basins indicate that anomalous skewness depends on spreading rate for spreading half rates less than ≈50 mm/yr [Roest et al., 1992; Dyment et al. 1994]. To facilitate investigation of the influence of spreading-rate dependent anomalous skewness on the determination of paleomagnetic poles determined from skewness, we build on the model for marine magnetic anomalies due to seafloor spreading of Dyment and Arkani-Hamed [1995]. We use this model to estimate anomalous skewness as a function of spreading rate for many anomalies. Synthetic magnetic anomaly profiles for oceanic lithosphere with sloping curving reversal boundaries were produced by forward modeling. Anomalous skewness values for chrons 25n to 33r were visually determined at various spreading rates using two approaches: balancing the shoulders of an anomaly corresponding to a single chron and best matching an anomaly corresponding to a single chron to a synthetic anomaly determined assuming vertical reversal boundaries. The new results may facilitate the determination of paleomagnetic poles from less widely distributed crossings of a magnetic anomaly than were used before. Further implications for determination of paleomagnetic poles for the Pacific plate will be discussed.

  5. Dependence of the Anomalous Resistivity on the Induced Electric Field in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guiping; Huang, Guangli; Ji, Haisheng

    2010-09-01

    Anomalous resistivity is a critical parameter for triggering the fast magnetic reconnection and interpreting the eruption of solar flares in the nearly collisionless coronal plasma. However, the mechanism for the production of anomalous resistivity and its evolution are weakly understood. In this paper, the one-dimensional Vlasov equation was numerically solved with the typical solar coronal parameters and realistic mass ratio in the presence of strong inductive electric field, and the relationship between the anomalous resistivity and the reconnecting electric field was inferred for the area near the center of reconnecting current sheets. Our principal findings are summarized as follows. (1) The relationship between the anomalous resistivity and the reconnecting electric field E 0 may be represented by ηeff = [10.82-10.99 exp (-0.36 E 0)]Ω m. (2) If E 0 is small enough, it may be described by ηeff = [4.02 E 0 - 0.18]Ω m, which is basically consistent with the early experimental results on the plasma response to the applied electric field. (3) In comparison with theoretical formulas for the current-driven ion-acoustic and Buneman anomalous resistivities, if E 0 is small, the anomalous resistivity may be due to the ion-acoustic instability; if E 0 is large, the anomalous resistivity may be due to the Buneman instability. These results are also basically consistent with early experiments.

  6. Stacking order dependence of inverse spin Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in spin pumping experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-Young; Kim, Dong-Jun; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-05-07

    The dependence of the measured DC voltage on the non-magnetic material (NM) in NM/CoFeB and CoFeB/NM bilayers is studied under ferromagnetic resonance conditions in a TE{sub 011} resonant cavity. The directional change of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltage V{sub ISHE} for the stacking order of the bilayer can separate the pure V{sub ISHE} and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) voltage V{sub AHE} utilizing the method of addition and subtraction. The Ta and Ti NMs show a broad deviation of the spin Hall angle θ{sub ISH}, which originates from the AHE in accordance with the high resistivity of NMs. However, the Pt and Pd NMs show that the kinds of NMs with low resistivity are consistent with the previously reported θ{sub ISH} values. Therefore, the characteristics that NM should simultaneously satisfy to obtain a reasonable V{sub ISHE} value in bilayer systems are large θ{sub ISH} and low resistivity.

  7. Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Di Sante, D.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Okuda, T.; Bruyer, E.; Gyenis, A.; Feldman, B. E.; Tao, J.; Ciancio, R.; Rossi, G.; Ali, M. N.; Picozzi, S.; Yadzani, A.; Panaccione, G.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. Here we report angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of WTe2 single crystals, through which we disentangle the role of W and Te atoms in the formation of the band structure and identify the interplay of charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Supported by first-principles calculations and high-resolution surface topography, we reveal the existence of a layer-dependent behaviour. The balance of electron and hole states is found only when considering at least three Te–W–Te layers, showing that the behaviour of WTe2 is not strictly two dimensional. PMID:26924386

  8. Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Di Sante, D.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Okuda, T.; Bruyer, E.; Gyenis, A.; Feldman, B. E.; Tao, J.; Ciancio, R.; et al

    2016-02-29

    The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. We report angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of WTe2 single crystals, through which we disentangle the role of W and Te atoms in the formation of the band structure and identify the interplay of charge, spin and orbitalmore » degrees of freedom. Supported by first-principles calculations and high-resolution surface topography, we also reveal the existence of a layer-dependent behaviour. The balance of electron and hole states is found only when considering at least three Te–W–Te layers, showing that the behaviour of WTe2 is not strictly two dimensional.« less

  9. Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Pranab Kumar; di Sante, D.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Okuda, T.; Bruyer, E.; Gyenis, A.; Feldman, B. E.; Tao, J.; Ciancio, R.; Rossi, G.; Ali, M. N.; Picozzi, S.; Yadzani, A.; Panaccione, G.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. Here we report angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of WTe2 single crystals, through which we disentangle the role of W and Te atoms in the formation of the band structure and identify the interplay of charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Supported by first-principles calculations and high-resolution surface topography, we reveal the existence of a layer-dependent behaviour. The balance of electron and hole states is found only when considering at least three Te-W-Te layers, showing that the behaviour of WTe2 is not strictly two dimensional.

  10. Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2.

    PubMed

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Di Sante, D; Vobornik, I; Fujii, J; Okuda, T; Bruyer, E; Gyenis, A; Feldman, B E; Tao, J; Ciancio, R; Rossi, G; Ali, M N; Picozzi, S; Yadzani, A; Panaccione, G; Cava, R J

    2016-02-29

    The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. Here we report angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of WTe2 single crystals, through which we disentangle the role of W and Te atoms in the formation of the band structure and identify the interplay of charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Supported by first-principles calculations and high-resolution surface topography, we reveal the existence of a layer-dependent behaviour. The balance of electron and hole states is found only when considering at least three Te-W-Te layers, showing that the behaviour of WTe2 is not strictly two dimensional.

  11. Observation of an anomalous decoherence effect in a quantum bath at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pu; Kong, Xi; Zhao, Nan; Shi, Fazhan; Wang, Pengfei; Rong, Xing; Liu, Ren-Bao; Du, Jiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    The decoherence of quantum objects is a critical issue in quantum science and technology. It is generally believed that stronger noise causes faster decoherence. Strikingly, recent theoretical work suggests that under certain conditions, the opposite is true for spins in quantum baths. Here we report an experimental observation of an anomalous decoherence effect for the electron spin-1 of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in high-purity diamond at room temperature. We demonstrate that, under dynamical decoupling, the double-transition can have longer coherence time than the single-transition even though the former couples to the nuclear spin bath as twice strongly as the latter does. The excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results confirms the controllability of the weakly coupled nuclear spins in the bath, which is useful in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. PMID:22146389

  12. High-Temperature Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in n-p Codoped Topological Insulators.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shifei; Qiao, Zhenhua; Deng, Xinzhou; Cubuk, Ekin D; Chen, Hua; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Zhang, S B; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-07-29

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is a fundamental quantum transport phenomenon that manifests as a quantized transverse conductance in response to a longitudinally applied electric field in the absence of an external magnetic field, and it promises to have immense application potential in future dissipationless quantum electronics. Here, we present a novel kinetic pathway to realize the QAHE at high temperatures by n-p codoping of three-dimensional topological insulators. We provide a proof-of-principle numerical demonstration of this approach using vanadium-iodine (V-I) codoped Sb_{2}Te_{3} and demonstrate that, strikingly, even at low concentrations of ∼2%  V and ∼1% I, the system exhibits a quantized Hall conductance, the telltale hallmark of QAHE, at temperatures of at least ∼50  K, which is 3 orders of magnitude higher than the typical temperatures at which it has been realized to date. The underlying physical factor enabling this dramatic improvement is tied to the largely preserved intrinsic band gap of the host system upon compensated n-p codoping. The proposed approach is conceptually general and may shed new light in experimental realization of high-temperature QAHE.

  13. Magnetic modulation doping in topological insulators toward higher-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, M. Yoshimi, R.; Yasuda, K.; Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; Takahashi, K. S.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-11-02

    Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which generates dissipation-less edge current without external magnetic field, is observed in magnetic-ion doped topological insulators (TIs) such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The QAHE emerges when the Fermi level is inside the magnetically induced gap around the original Dirac point of the TI surface state. Although the size of gap is reported to be about 50 meV, the observable temperature of QAHE has been limited below 300 mK. We attempt magnetic-Cr modulation doping into topological insulator (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films to increase the observable temperature of QAHE. By introducing the rich-Cr-doped thin (1 nm) layers at the vicinity of both the surfaces based on non-Cr-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films, we have succeeded in observing the QAHE up to 2 K. The improvement in the observable temperature achieved by this modulation-doping appears to be originating from the suppression of the disorder in the surface state interacting with the rich magnetic moments. Such a superlattice designing of the stabilized QAHE may pave a way to dissipation-less electronics based on the higher-temperature and zero magnetic-field quantum conduction.

  14. High-Temperature Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in n-p Codoped Topological Insulators.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shifei; Qiao, Zhenhua; Deng, Xinzhou; Cubuk, Ekin D; Chen, Hua; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Zhang, S B; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-07-29

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is a fundamental quantum transport phenomenon that manifests as a quantized transverse conductance in response to a longitudinally applied electric field in the absence of an external magnetic field, and it promises to have immense application potential in future dissipationless quantum electronics. Here, we present a novel kinetic pathway to realize the QAHE at high temperatures by n-p codoping of three-dimensional topological insulators. We provide a proof-of-principle numerical demonstration of this approach using vanadium-iodine (V-I) codoped Sb_{2}Te_{3} and demonstrate that, strikingly, even at low concentrations of ∼2%  V and ∼1% I, the system exhibits a quantized Hall conductance, the telltale hallmark of QAHE, at temperatures of at least ∼50  K, which is 3 orders of magnitude higher than the typical temperatures at which it has been realized to date. The underlying physical factor enabling this dramatic improvement is tied to the largely preserved intrinsic band gap of the host system upon compensated n-p codoping. The proposed approach is conceptually general and may shed new light in experimental realization of high-temperature QAHE. PMID:27517787

  15. High-Temperature Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in n -p Codoped Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shifei; Qiao, Zhenhua; Deng, Xinzhou; Cubuk, Ekin D.; Chen, Hua; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Zhang, S. B.; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-07-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is a fundamental quantum transport phenomenon that manifests as a quantized transverse conductance in response to a longitudinally applied electric field in the absence of an external magnetic field, and it promises to have immense application potential in future dissipationless quantum electronics. Here, we present a novel kinetic pathway to realize the QAHE at high temperatures by n -p codoping of three-dimensional topological insulators. We provide a proof-of-principle numerical demonstration of this approach using vanadium-iodine (V-I) codoped Sb2 Te3 and demonstrate that, strikingly, even at low concentrations of ˜2 % V and ˜1 % I, the system exhibits a quantized Hall conductance, the telltale hallmark of QAHE, at temperatures of at least ˜50 K , which is 3 orders of magnitude higher than the typical temperatures at which it has been realized to date. The underlying physical factor enabling this dramatic improvement is tied to the largely preserved intrinsic band gap of the host system upon compensated n -p codoping. The proposed approach is conceptually general and may shed new light in experimental realization of high-temperature QAHE.

  16. Self-propagating reactions in Al/Zr multilayers: Anomalous dependence of reaction velocity on bilayer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, S. C.; Kelly, S. T.; Kirchhoff, J.; Knepper, R.; Fisher, K.; Hufnagel, T. C.; Weihs, T. P.; Livi, K. J. T.; Dufresne, E. M.; Fezzaa, K.; Barbee, T. W.

    2013-12-14

    High temperature, self-propagating reactions are observed in vapor-deposited Al/Zr multilayered foils of overall atomic ratios 3 Al:1 Zr and 2 Al:1 Zr and nanoscale layer thicknesses; however, the reaction velocities do not exhibit the inverse dependence on bilayer thickness that is expected based on changes in the average diffusion distance. Instead, for bilayer thicknesses of 20-30 nm, the velocity is essentially constant at ∼7.7 m/s. We explore several possible explanations for this anomalous behavior, including microstructural factors, changes in the phase evolution, and phase transformations in the reactant layers, but find no conclusive explanations. We determine that the phase evolution during self-propagating reactions in foils with a 3 Al:1 Zr stoichiometry is a rapid transformation from Al/Zr multilayers to the equilibrium intermetallic Al{sub 3}Zr compound with no intermediate crystalline phases. This phase evolution is the same for foils of 90 nm bilayer thicknesses and foils of bilayer thicknesses in the range of 27 nm to 35 nm. Further, for foils with a bilayer thickness of 90 nm and a 3 Al:1 Zr overall chemistry, the propagation front is planar and steady, in contrast to unsteady reaction fronts in foils with 1 Al:1 Zr overall chemistry and similar bilayer thicknesses.

  17. Effect of Electron Temperature Fluctuations on the Anomalous Particle Flux inferred by Electrostatic Triple Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso

    2010-11-01

    Plasma anomalous transport severely reduces the economical attractiveness of any possible fusion energy reactor based on magnetically confined thermonuclear plasma. Understanding the major mechanisms of this transport, mainly due to the anomalous particles losses, is vital to ameliorate the potential of such reactor, and plasma edge is a key area for this research. We reported here data of a 4-pin triple probe at TCABR tokamak [R=0.615m, a=0.18m, BT=1.15T, Ip<=120kA, ne(bar)<=4x10^19m-3, Te(0)<=600eV, Ti(0)<=400eV, 100ms, circular limiter]. Plasma density (ne), potential (Vp), electron temperature (Te), and respectively fluctuations, all were simultaneously measured or inferred with high spatial(˜3mm) and temporal (1μs) resolution. Corrections in the fluctuation driven particle flux(γ) via the poloidal electrical field (Eθ) and ne are used: real geometry of the tips; Vp (instead of floating potential) between the two tips for inferring Eθ; a correction on ne due to the finite electrical sheath formed at the probe ion collecting area via an analytical formula based on the Hutchinson model for collisionless plasma. The role of Te fluctuations in γ is analyzed and the results are correlated with the dynamic of the global plasma parameters on discharges under auxiliary heating via RF injection (4MHz, 30kW, Alfvén Wave scheme) in which confinement improvement has been observed.

  18. Are recent global mean temperature trends anomalous relative to the CMIP5 ensemble?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have described a slow-down in the rise in global mean temperature over the past 15 years, noting that these trends are anomalous with respect to the trends predicted by the CMIP5 ensemble. This result has been shown to be sensitive to the choice of starting year when assessing the hiatus with a simple linear regression. It is also sensitive to assumptions about the independence of CMIP5 ensemble members when estimating distributions of the CMIP5 ensemble. We address these interdependences of ensemble members by exploring two end-member scenarios of the CMIP5 ensemble: one in which each ensemble member is assumed independent and a second in which modeling centers are assumed independent. A more stable metric of trend, the δ-slope, is employed to measure the recent divergence of a temperature time-series from the average CMIP5 projection. When treating each CMIP5 ensemble member as independent, we find that observed recent trends are anomalous for all hiatus periods starting after 1997 at the 95% confidence level. However, for the scenario assuming modeling centers to be independent, we find that observed recent trends are consistent with the CMIP5 ensemble at the 95% confidence level. This result holds across all plausible hiatus starting years tested (1990-2005). Using the Ansari-Bradley rank-sum test, seven modeling centers comprising 58 ensemble members are each shown to have lower spread in δ-slope values than the distribution of δ slope values of CMIP5 ensemble members outside each modeling center at the 95% confidence level. This supports the end-member scenario that treats each modeling center as independent. In addition, examination of spatial patterns of δ-slope in each CMIP5 ensemble member reveals that the simulation that is closest to observations in global mean temperature δ-slope value also has one of the highest δ-slope spatial pattern correlations with observations. This pattern reflects a strong negative phase of the Pacific

  19. High-temperature large-gap quantum anomalous Hall insulating state in ultrathin double perovskite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidya, Santu; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Paramekanti, Arun; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri

    2016-10-01

    Towards the goal of realizing topological phases in thin films of correlated oxide and heterostructures, we propose here a quantum anomalous Hall insulator (QAHI) in ultrathin films of double perovskites based on mixed 3 d -5 d or 3 d -4 d transition-metal ions, grown along the [111] direction. Considering the specific case of ultrathin Ba2FeReO6 , we present a theoretical analysis of an effective Hamiltonian derived from first principles. We establish that a strong spin-orbit coupling at the Re site, t2 g symmetry of the low-energy d bands, polarity of its [111] orientation of perovskite structure, and mixed 3 d -5 d chemistry results in room temperature magnetism with a robust QAHI state of Chern number C =1 and a large band gap. We uncover and highlight a nonrelativistic orbital Rashba-type effect in addition to the spin-orbit coupling, that governs this QAHI state. With a band gap of ˜100 meV in electronic structure and magnetic transition temperature Tc˜300 K estimated by Monte Carlo simulations, our finding of the QAHI state in ultrathin Ba2FeReO6 is expected to stimulate experimental verification along with possible practical applications of its dissipationless edge currents.

  20. Numerical investigations of the spreading-rate dependence of anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies due to seafloor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, S. M.; Zheng, L.; Gordon, R. G.; Dyment, J.

    2011-12-01

    An improved understanding of the spreading-rate dependence of anomalous skewness from magnetic anomalies due to seafloor spreading will allow for better constraints on apparent polar wander paths, plate reconstructions, and the magnetic and thermal structure of oceanic lithosphere. Anomalous skewness, which is the difference between experimentally determined skewness and skewness expected from simple magnetization models with vertical reversal boundaries, has been observed to vary as a function of spreading rate, decreasing with increasing spreading rate and becoming negligible at spreading half-rates exceeding about 55 mm/a [Roest et al. 1992; Dyment et al. 1994]. In our analysis, we determine model-based estimates of anomalous skewness as a function of spreading rate for each anomaly. We do so by creating many synthetic profiles using the model of Dyment and Arkani-Hamed (1995), which was specifically constructed to produce anomalies with anomalous skewness consistent with observed anomalies. We experimentally determine the phase shift that causes the resulting synthetic magnetic anomaly to best match a profile produced from a "standard" model for anomalies due to seafloor spreading that assumes simple vertical reversal boundaries. We present results for those anomalies between 12r and 33r from which reliable paleomagnetic poles may potentially be determined. Differences in anomalous skewness for different anomalies determined at the same spreading rate can be attributed to the sequence effect, that is, the effect on the shape of a magnetic anomaly above seafloor of a single polarity chron of the magnetization of neighboring blocks of lithosphere magnetized during other chrons. We find that the sequence effect is smaller than we expected with the largest difference being between the results for anomaly 25r and those for anomaly 33r, for which the difference is 14 degrees at a 10 mm/a half-rate. Results for other anomalies lie between these two. We also infer a

  1. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  2. Stability and anomalous compressibility of Bose gases near resonance: The scale-dependent interactions and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shao-Jian; Zhou, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The stability of Bose gases near resonance has been a puzzling problem in recent years. In this article, we demonstrate that in addition to generating thermal pressure, thermal atoms enhance the repulsiveness of the scale-dependent interactions between condensed atoms due to a renormalization effect and further stabilize the Bose gases. Consequently, we find that, as a precursor of instability, the compressibility develops an anomalous structure as a function of scattering length and is drastically reduced compared with the mean-field value. Furthermore, the density profile of a Bose gas in a harmonic trap is found to develop a flat top near the center. This is due to the anomalous behavior of compressibility and can be a potential smoking gun for probing such an effect.

  3. Anomalous results observed in magnetization of bulk high temperature superconductors—A windfall for applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Carpenter, Keith; Davey, Kent

    2016-04-01

    Recent experiments on pulsed-zero field cool magnetization of bulk high Jc YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-δ) have shown unexpected results. For example, reproducible, non-destructive, rapid, giant field leaps (GFLs) to higher penetrated field are observed. The observations are inconsistent with the critical state model (CSM), in several aspects. Additional experiments have been pursued in an attempt to clarify the physics involved in the observed anomalies. Here, we present experimental results for the Jc dependence of the anomalous features. It is found that the sudden field increase in the GFL is a monotonically increasing function of Jc. The ratio of required pulsed field amplitude, BA,max, to obtain maximum trappable field, BT,max, which CSM predicts to be ≥2.0, gradually approaches 1.0 at high Jc. Tests using values of pulsed, applied field BA,max just below the GFL exhibit two additional anomalies: (i) At high Jc, the highest trapped field is up to ˜6 times lower than predicted by CSM, and (ii) the measured Lorentz force as a function of Jc deviates sharply from CSM predictions. The data rule out heating effects and pinning center geometry as possible physical causes of these anomalies. A speculative cause is considered.

  4. Anomalous power dependence in the zero-field resonance for the molecular nanomagnet Cr7Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, C. A.; Timco, G. A.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Friedman, J. R.

    We report electron-spin resonance studies of the paramagnetic ring [(CH3)2NH2][Cr7MnF8((CH3)3CCOO)16] (''Cr7Mn''), a spin S=1 molecular nanomagnet with a large zero-field ground-state tunnel splitting of ~4 GHz. We perform parallel-mode electron-spin-resonance (ESR) spectroscopy with loop-gap resonators (LGRs) with resonance frequencies of 4-6 GHz. A crystal of Cr7Mn is placed on the loop of the LGR with the sample's easy axis parallel to the field. We observe an ESR peak at zero dc field. With increasing radiation power, a pronounced dip develops in the center of the resonance peak, indicating a decoupling of the sample from the resonator with increased power. The onset of this decoupling depends on both the temperature and the applied power, with greater power required to observe the dip at higher temperatures. By pulsing the radiation, we can rule out that the dip is related to sample heating or saturation of the resonance. Power, temperature, and frequency dependence of the decoupling will be presented, and possible explanations will be discussed.

  5. Temperature dependence of sapphire fiber Raman scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Tian, Zhipeng; Homa, Daniel; Hill, Cary; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-04-27

    Anti-Stokes Raman scattering in sapphire fiber has been observed for the first time. Temperature dependence of Raman peaks’ intensity, frequency shift, and linewidth were also measured. Three anti-Stokes Raman peaks were observed at temperatures higher than 300°C in a 0.72-m-long sapphire fiber excited by a second-harmonic Nd YAG laser. The intensity of anti-Stokes peaks are comparable to that of Stokes peaks when the temperature increases to 1033°C. We foresee the combination of sapphire fiber Stokes and anti-Stokes measurement in use as a mechanism for ultrahigh temperature sensing.

  6. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  7. Temperature dependence of polymer photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Yuko

    One of many steps to develop a sustainable society is to reduce the use of fossil fuels by replacing them with renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. This dissertation concerns one of the most contemporary methods to harvest solar radiation and covert it to electricity, using thin polymer films. The photovoltaic devices in this study consisted of a thin layer of p-phenylenevinylene (PPV) based semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two metals (semi-transparent ITO and evaporated metal electrode). Two modified device structures were studied, an interfacial heterojunction device, which includes an additional layer of inorganic n-type semiconductor (Ti-oxides) and a bulk heterojunction device, which is formed by blending electron-attracting materials. Both modifications resulted in higher device performances under ambient conditions due to an increased number of dissociation sites. From studies of inorganic solar cells, it is well known that temperature has a large effect on device performance. However, there are only a few studies on organic Solar cells, concerning the temperature dependence. This thesis focuses on understanding the temperature dependent behaviors of polymer photovoltaic devices. Temperature dependence study allows us to examine how the device parameters such as short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are affected by the material properties and the device architectures. The current-voltage relationships were measured in a temperature controlled OXFORD cryostat operating between 150K and 404K. From the dark current-voltage measurements, the field-independent hole mobility (mu0) was extracted, using a space charge limited current analysis. From the photocurrent-voltage measurements, the temperature dependence on Isc, Voc, and fill factor were studied. The temperature characteristics of Isc (T) were compared to that of mu0(T), and two different dependencies were obtained for different device architectures. The temperature

  8. Temperature dependence of optically induced cell deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Kiessling, Tobias R.; Stange, Roland; Kaes, Josef A.

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical properties of any material change with temperature, hence this must be true for cellular material. In biology many functions are known to undergo modulations with temperature, like myosin motor activity, mechanical properties of actin filament solutions, CO2 uptake of cultured cells or sex determination of several species. As mechanical properties of living cells are considered to play an important role in many cell functions it is surprising that only little is known on how the rheology of single cells is affected by temperature. We report the systematic temperature dependence of single cell deformations in Optical Stretcher (OS) measurements. The temperature is changed on a scale of about 20 minutes up to hours and compared to defined temperature shocks in the range of milliseconds. Thereby, a strong temperature dependence of the mechanics of single suspended cells is revealed. We conclude that the observable differences arise rather from viscosity changes of the cytosol than from structural changes of the cytoskeleton. These findings have implications for the interpretation of many rheological measurements, especially for laser based approaches in biological studies.

  9. Temperature dependence of BCF plastic scintillation detectors

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    We examined temperature dependence in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) made of BCF-60 or BCF-12 scintillating fiber coupled to optical fiber with cyanoacrylate. PSDs were subjected to a range of temperatures using a temperature-controlled water bath and irradiated at each temperature while either the dose was measured using a CCD camera or the spectral output was measured using a spectrometer. The spectrometer was used to examine the intensity and spectral distribution of scintillation light emitted by the PSDs, Cerenkov light generated within the PSD, and light transmitted through an isolated optical coupling. BCF-60 PSDs exhibited a 0.50% decrease and BCF-12 PSDs a 0.09% decrease in measured dose per °C increase, relative to dose measured at 22°C. Spectrometry revealed that the total intensity of the light generated by BCF-60 and BCF-12 PSDs decreased by 0.32% and 0.13%, respectively, per °C increase. The spectral distribution of the light changed slightly with temperature for both PSDs, accounting for the disparity between the change in measured dose and total light output. The generation of Cerenkov light was temperature independent. However, light transmitted through optical coupling between the scintillator and the optical fiber also exhibited temperature dependence. PMID:23574889

  10. Anomalous equivalent potential temperature: an atmospheric feature predicting days with higher risk for fatal outcome in acute ischemic stroke-a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Folyovich, András; Biczó, Dávid; Al-Muhanna, Nadim; Béres-Molnár, Anna K; Fejős, Ádám; Pintér, Ádám; Bereczki, Dániel; Fischer, Antal; Vadasdi, Károly; Pintér, Ferenc

    2015-09-01

    Acute stroke is a life-threatening condition. Fatal outcome is related to risk factors, some of these affected by climatic changes. Forecasting potentially harmful atmospheric processes may therefore be of practical importance in the acute care of stroke patients. We analyzed the history of all patients with acute ischemic stroke (N = 184) confirmed by neuroimaging including those who died (N = 35, 15 males) at our hospital department in the winter months of 2009. Patient data were anonymized, and the human meteorologists were only aware of patients' age, gender, and exact time of death. Of the meteorological parameters, equivalent potential temperature (EPT) has been chosen for analysis. EPT is generally used for forecasting thunderstorms, but in the case of synoptic scale airflow (10(6) m), it is suitable for characterizing the air mass inflowing from different regions. The behavior of measured EPT values was compared to the climatic (30 years) averages. We developed meteorological criteria for anomalous periods of EPT and tested if such periods are associated with higher rate of fatal outcome. The duration of anomalous and non-anomalous periods was nearly equal during the studied 3 months. Stroke onset distributed similarly between anomalous and non-anomalous days; however, of the 35 deaths, 27 occurred during anomalous periods: on average, 0.56 deaths occurred on anomalous days and 0.19 on non-anomalous days. Winter periods meeting the criteria of anomalous EPT may have a significant adverse human-meteorological impact on the outcome in acute ischemic stroke.

  11. The activity and radial dependence of anomalous diffusion by pitch angle scattering on split magnetic drift shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. P.

    2015-01-01

    in the magnetospheric magnetic field produce drift shell splitting, which causes the radial (drift shell) invariant to sometimes depend on pitch angle. Where drift shell splitting is significant, pitch angle scattering leads to diffusion in all three invariants of the particle's motion, including cross diffusion. We examine the magnitude of drift shell splitting-related anomalous diffusion for outer zone electrons compared to conventional diffusion in the absence of drift shell splitting. We assume that the primary local scattering process is wave-particle interactions with chorus. We find that anomalous radial diffusion can exceed that of conventional drift-resonant radial diffusion for particles with energies near 0.1 MeV at all radial distances outside the plasmasphere during quiet to moderate geomagnetic activity, and it is significant at 0.5 MeV. Cross diffusion involving the radial invariant can exceed the geometric mean of the corresponding pure diffusion coefficients at 0.1 MeV, and that such cross diffusion is significant even at 0.5-1 MeV. At 1 MeV, cross diffusion is often significant. The highest radial distances and magnetic activity levels in our study do not always exhibit as much significant anomalous diffusion as moderate radial distances and activity levels. This can be explained by (a) stronger dependence of conventional diffusion on magnetic activity and radius, and (b) strongest drift shell splitting at moderate magnetic activity. Simulation codes that neglect the possibility for cross terms will likely systematically underperform, especially for 0.1-0.5 MeV electrons, for much of the outer zone for quiet to moderate levels of magnetic activity.

  12. Temperature dependence of the hyperfine interaction at

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Garcia, Alberto; de la Presa, Patricia; Ayala, Alejandro

    2001-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the quadrupole hyperfine parameters covering the temperature range from 293 to 1173 K was measured at {sup 181}Ta probes in SrHfO{sub 3} by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. A fluctuating distribution of quadrupole interactions model was applied to interpret the data. At low temperatures above {approximately}300 K a static, asymmetric, and distributed electric quadrupole interaction was detected. At intermediate temperatures ({approx}600 K) a different quadrupole interaction appears, characterized by a fluctuating distribution of axially symmetric electric field gradient tensors. Above 873 K, the unique presence of a nuclear spin relaxation mechanism shows a second change in the perturbation acting on probes. These changes in the hyperfine interaction are consistent with the structural phase transitions detected by diffraction techniques. The probe effects were also analyzed, comparing {sup 181}Ta with {sup 111}Cd experiments.

  13. Coupled temperature dependences of volume and compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, A. C.; Ledbetter, H.

    2011-04-01

    We present a new method for understanding the changes with temperature of the volume and compressibility of solids. These changes depend on five parameters: V 0, B 0, Θ, γ G and δ T. V 0 and B 0 are the atomic volume and bulk modulus at T = 0 K, Θ is the Debye temperature, γ G is the Grüneisen parameter, and δ T is the Anderson-Grüneisen parameter. Equations for the temperature-dependent volume, bulk modulus and thermal expansion are given, and examples of the use of these equations are provided, with particular emphasis on the light actinides. For the elements, we examine the relationship between experimental values of γ G and δ T, and find no clear correlation. In particular, Swenson's rule, which states that the bulk modulus does not change with temperature if the volume is held constant, is a poor approximation to the data. We reveal a new useful approximate relationship between dB/dP and γ G. We find that the thermodynamic quantity q, which describes the variation in γ G with volume, distributes around 2, not around 1, as often assumed. We show that the thermal- expansion behavior of Si and Ge (including negative thermal expansion at low temperatures) are well described with the use of a two-level invar model.

  14. Entropic changes in liquid gallium clusters: understanding the anomalous melting temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Nicola; Steenbergen, Krista

    Melting in finite-sized materials differs in two ways from the solid-liquid phase transition in bulk systems. First, there is an inherent scaling of the melting temperature below that of the bulk, known as melting point depression. Secondly, at small sizes, changes in melting temperature become non-monotonic, and show a size-dependence that is sensitive to the structure of the particle. Melting temperatures that exceed those of the bulk material have been shown to occur in vacuum, but have still never been ascribed a convincing physical explanation. Here we find answers in the structure of the aggregate liquid phase in small gallium clusters, based on molecular dynamics simulations that reproduce the greater-than-bulk melting behavior observed in experiments, and demonstrate the critical role of a lowered entropy in destabilising the liquid state.

  15. Anomalous organic magnetoresistance from competing carrier-spin-dependent interactions with localized electronic and nuclear spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatté, Michael E.

    Transport of carriers through disordered electronic energy landscapes occurs via hopping or tunneling through various sites, and can enhance the effects of carrier spin dynamics on the transport. When incoherent hopping preserves the spin orientation of carriers, the magnetic-field-dependent correlations between pairs of spins influence the charge conductivity of the material. Examples of these phenomena have been identified in hopping transport in organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots, as well as tunneling through oxide barriers in complex oxide devices, among other materials. The resulting room-temperature magnetic field effects on the conductivity or electroluminescence require external fields of only a few milliTesla. These magnetic field effects can be dramatically modified by changes in the local spin environment. Recent theoretical and experimental work has identified a regime for low-field magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors in which the spin-relaxing effects of localized nuclear spins and electronic spins interfere1. The regime is studied experimentally by the controlled addition of localized electronic spins, through the addition of a stable free radical (galvinoxyl) to a material (MEH-PPV) that exhibits substantial room-temperature magnetoresistance (20 initially suppressed by the doping, as the localized electronic spin mixes one of the two spins whose correlation controls the transport. At intermediate doping, when one spin is fully decohered but the other is not, there is a regime where the magnetoresistance is insensitive to the doping level. For much greater doping concentrations the magnetoresistance is fully suppressed as both spins that control the charge conductivity of the material are mixed. The behavior is described within a theoretical model describing the effect of carrier spin dynamics on the current. Generalizations to amorphous and other disordered crystalline semiconductors will also be described. This work was

  16. Anomalous Ba/Ca signals associated with low temperature stresses in Porites corals from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianran; Yu, Kefu; Li, Shu; Chen, Tegu; Shi, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) ratio in corals has been considered as a useful geochemical proxy for upwelling, river flood and other oceanic processes. However, recent studies indicated that additional environmental or biological factors can influence the incorporation of Ba into coral skeletons. In this study, Ba/Ca ratios of two Porites corals collected from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea were analyzed. Ba/Ca signals in the two corals were 'anomalous' in comparison with Ba behaviors seen in other near-shore corals influenced by upwelling or riverine runoff. Our Ba/Ca profiles displayed similar and remarkable patterns characterized by low and randomly fluctuating background signals periodically interrupted by sharp and large synchronous peaks, clearly indicating an environmental forcing. Further analysis indicated that the Ba/Ca profiles were not correlated with previously claimed environmental factors such as precipitation, coastal upwelling, anthropogenic activities or phytoplankton blooms in other areas. The maxima of Ba/Ca appeared to occur in the period of Sr/Ca maxima, coinciding with the winter minimum temperatures, which suggests that the anomalous high Ba/Ca signals were related to winter-time low sea surface temperature. We speculated that the Ba/Ca peaks in corals of the Daya Bay were most likely the results of enrichment of Ba-rich particles in their skeletons when coral polyps retracted under the stresses of anomalous winter low temperatures. In this case, Ba/Ca ratio in relatively high-latitude corals can be a potential proxy for tracing the low temperature stress.

  17. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World

  18. The anomalous Mesopause region temperatures of the 2003-2004 winter season measured from Svalbard (78N 16E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrland, M. E.; Sigernes, F.; Mulligan, F.; Deehr, C. S.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on the temperature and dynamics of the hydroxyl layer at approx. 87km measured over Longyearbyen (78N 16E) during the 2003-2004 winter. Optical spectra obtained by a Ebert-Fastie spectrometer were used for the temperature derivation. The high number of spectra available enabled spectral analysis of both the hourly and daily averaged temperatures. We were able to identify both the presence of a 16 day wave and a quasi 27 day oscillation in the mesopause region (approx. 87 km) temperatures from this season. The average daily temperature was 228K with a standard deviation of 17K. This is exceptionally high compared to previous and later years reported in the 23 year old time series from Svalbard. The observed temperatures have been compared to temperature data from other height regions above the Arctic (troposphere and stratosphere) and to satellite data from the satellite instrument SABER. In early January 2004 a major stratospheric warming event led to a nearly 2 month long vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere and correspondingly high temperatures. The upper stratospheric temperatures of the same period were unusually low, while mesopause temperatures were high. The regions of alternating low and high temperatures throughout the atmosphere and the dynamics of these, are clearly coupled through gravity wave activity and general atmospheric circulation. We try to put our data into context with other authors' reports on the anomalous state of the atmosphere during the 2003-2004 boreal winter.

  19. Temperature dependent light transmission in ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Mahendran, V.; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the influence of temperature on the magnetic field induced light transmission in a kerosene based ferrofluid containing oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. At a fixed temperature the transmitted light intensity is found to monotonically increase with incident wavelength due to reduced extinction efficiency at higher wavelength. The transmitted intensity decreases with external magnetic field due to enhanced scattering from the field induced linear chain like structures along the direction of the external magnetic field and due to the build-up of standing waves inside the scattering medium. The extinction of the field induced transmitted light intensity is found to occur at a lower external field as the sample temperature is lowered. The rate of extinction of normalized transmitted light intensity decreased linearly with increasing sample temperature due to slower field induced aggregation kinetics because of an increased Brownian motion of the suspended nanoparticles and a reduced coupling constant. The observed temperature dependent magneto-optical properties of magnetic nanofluids can be exploited for applications in optical devices.

  20. Anomalously High Isotope Ratio 3He/4He and Tritium in Deuterium-Loaded Metal: Evidence for Nuclear Reaction in Metal Hydrides at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Song-Sheng; He, Ming; Wu, Shao-Yong; Qi, Bu-Jia

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4 × 10-1, much greater than the values (<=10-4) in natural objects. Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out, but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed. In addition, anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed. To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples, it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.

  1. Resonant cavity mode dependence of anomalous and inverse spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-young

    2014-05-07

    The direct current electric voltage induced by the Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) and Anomalous Hall Effect (AHE) was investigated in the TE{sub 011} and TE{sub 102} cavities. The ISHE and AHE components were distinguishable through the fitting of the voltage spectrum. The unwanted AHE was minimized by placing the DUT (Device Under Test) at the center of both the TE{sub 011} and TE{sub 102} cavities. The voltage of ISHE in the TE{sub 011} cavity was larger than that in the TE{sub 102} cavity due to the higher quality factor of the former. Despite optimized centering, AHE voltage from TE{sub 011} cavity was also higher. The reason was attributed to the E-field distribution inside the cavity. In the case of the TE{sub 011} cavity, the DUT was easily exposed to the E-field in all directions. Therefore, the parasitic AHE voltage in the TE{sub 102} cavity was less sensitive than that in the TE{sub 011} cavity to decentering problem.

  2. Temperature-dependent ion beam mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Alexander, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Recent work on enhanced interdiffusion rates during ion-beam mixing at elevated temperatures is reviewed. As discussed previously, expected increase in ion-beam mixing rates due to `radiation-enhanced diffusion` (RED), i.e. the free migration of isolated vacancy and interstitial defects, is well documented in single-crystal specimens in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 of absolute melting temperature. In contrast, the increase often observed at somewhat lower temperatures during ion-beam mixing of polycrystalline specimens is not well understood. However, sufficient evidence is available to show that this increase reflects intracascade enhancement of a thermally-activated process that also occurs without irradiation. Recent evidence is presented which suggests that this process is Diffusion-induced Grain-Boundary Migration (DIGM). An important complementary conclusion is that because ion-beam mixing in single-crystal specimens exhibits no significant temperature dependence below that of RED, models that invoke only irradiation-specific phenomena, e.g., cascade-overlap, thermal-spikes, or liquid-diffusion, and hence which predict no difference in mixing behavior between single- or poly-crystalline specimens, cannot account for the existing results.

  3. Anomalous electrical transport properties of polyvinyl alcohol-multiwall carbon nanotubes composites below room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, G.; Gupta, K.; Meikap, A. K.; Babu, R.; Blau, W. J.

    2011-02-01

    The dc and ac electrical transport property of polyvinyl alcohol-multiwall carbon nanotubes composites has been investigated within a temperature range 77≤T≤300 K and in the frequency range 20 Hz-1 MHz in presence as well as in absence of a transverse magnetic field up to 1 T. The dc conductivity follows variable range hopping model. The magnetoconductivity of the samples changes a sign from positive to negative with an increase in temperature which can be interpreted by the dominancy of the quantum interference effect over the wave function shrinkage effect. The ac conductivity follows a power law whereas the temperature dependence of frequency exponent s can be explained by correlated barrier hopping model. The dielectric behavior of the samples has been governed by the grain and grain boundary resistance and capacitance. The ac conductivity reduces with the application of magnetic field. Although the theoretical model to explain it, is still lacking, we may conclude that this is due to the increase in grain and grain boundary resistance by the application of magnetic field.

  4. Temperature dependence of Young's modulus of titanium dioxide (TIO2) nanotubes: Molecular mechanics modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, S. I.; Bandura, A. V.; Evarestov, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature dependence of the Young's modulus of cylindrical single-wall nanotubes with zigzag and armchair chiralities and consolidated-wall nanotubes has been studied by the molecular mechanics method with the use of the atom-atom potential. The nanotubes have been obtained by rolling up of crystal layers (111) of TiO2 with fluorite structure. Calculations have been performed for isothermal conditions on the basis of calculating the Helmholtz free energy of the system. The dependence of the Helmholtz free energy of nanotubes on the period has been calculated in the quasi-harmonic approximation as a result of calculation of phonon frequencies. It has been shown that the temperature dependence of the stiffness of nanotubes is determined by their chirality, and some nanotubes exibit anomalous behavior of both the Young's modulus and the period of unit cell with variation in temperature.

  5. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  6. Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungcheol; Lee, Jae-Ung; Lee, Jinhwan; Park, Hyo Ju; Lee, Zonghoon; Lee, Changgu; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2015-11-28

    We investigated polarization dependence of the Raman modes in black phosphorus (BP) using five different excitation wavelengths. The crystallographic orientation was determined by comparing polarized optical microscopy with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. In polarized Raman spectroscopy, the B2g mode shows the same polarization dependence regardless of the excitation wavelength or the sample thickness. On the other hand, the Ag(1) and Ag(2) modes show a peculiar polarization behavior that depends on the excitation wavelength and the sample thickness. The thickness dependence can be explained by considering the anisotropic interference effect due to the birefringence and dichroism of the BP crystal, but the wavelength dependence cannot be explained. We propose a simple and fail-proof procedure to determine the orientation of a BP crystal by combining polarized Raman scattering with polarized optical microscopy. PMID:26503032

  7. Anomalous diffusion, localization, aging, and subaging effects in trap models at very low temperature.

    PubMed

    Monthus, Cécile

    2003-09-01

    We study in detail the dynamics of the one-dimensional symmetric trap model via a real-space renormalization procedure which becomes exact in the limit of zero temperature. In this limit, the diffusion front in each sample consists of two delta peaks, which are completely out of equilibrium with each other. The statistics of the positions and weights of these delta peaks over the samples allows to obtain explicit results for all observables in the limit T-->0. We first compute disorder averages of one-time observables, such as the diffusion front, the thermal width, the localization parameters, the two-particle correlation function, and the generating function of thermal cumulants of the position. We then study aging and subaging effects: our approach reproduces very simply the two different aging exponents and yields explicit forms for scaling functions of the various two-time correlations. We also extend the real-space renormalization group method to include systematic corrections to the previous zero temperature procedure via a series expansion in T. We then consider the generalized trap model with parameter alpha in [0,1] and obtain that the large scale effective model at low temperature does not depend on alpha in any dimension, so that the only observables sensitive to alpha are those that measure the "local persistence," such as the probability to remain exactly in the same trap during a time interval. Finally, we extend our approach at a scaling level for the trap model in d=2 and obtain the two relevant time scales for aging properties.

  8. Anomalous equivalent potential temperature: an atmospheric feature predicting days with higher risk for fatal outcome in acute ischemic stroke-a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Folyovich, András; Biczó, Dávid; Al-Muhanna, Nadim; Béres-Molnár, Anna K; Fejős, Ádám; Pintér, Ádám; Bereczki, Dániel; Fischer, Antal; Vadasdi, Károly; Pintér, Ferenc

    2015-09-01

    Acute stroke is a life-threatening condition. Fatal outcome is related to risk factors, some of these affected by climatic changes. Forecasting potentially harmful atmospheric processes may therefore be of practical importance in the acute care of stroke patients. We analyzed the history of all patients with acute ischemic stroke (N = 184) confirmed by neuroimaging including those who died (N = 35, 15 males) at our hospital department in the winter months of 2009. Patient data were anonymized, and the human meteorologists were only aware of patients' age, gender, and exact time of death. Of the meteorological parameters, equivalent potential temperature (EPT) has been chosen for analysis. EPT is generally used for forecasting thunderstorms, but in the case of synoptic scale airflow (10(6) m), it is suitable for characterizing the air mass inflowing from different regions. The behavior of measured EPT values was compared to the climatic (30 years) averages. We developed meteorological criteria for anomalous periods of EPT and tested if such periods are associated with higher rate of fatal outcome. The duration of anomalous and non-anomalous periods was nearly equal during the studied 3 months. Stroke onset distributed similarly between anomalous and non-anomalous days; however, of the 35 deaths, 27 occurred during anomalous periods: on average, 0.56 deaths occurred on anomalous days and 0.19 on non-anomalous days. Winter periods meeting the criteria of anomalous EPT may have a significant adverse human-meteorological impact on the outcome in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:26233665

  9. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  10. Raman scattering of rare earth sesquioxide Ho₂O₃: A pressure and temperature dependent study

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Sugandha Dogra; Samanta, K.; Singh, Jasveer; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.

    2014-10-07

    Pressure and temperature dependent Raman scattering studies on Ho₂O₃ have been carried out to investigate the structural transition and the anharmonic behavior of the phonons. Ho₂O₃ undergoes a transition from cubic to monoclinic phase above 15.5 GPa, which is partially reversible on decompression. The anharmonic behavior of the phonon modes of Ho₂O₃ from 80 K to 440 K has been investigated. We find an anomalous line-width change with temperature. The mode Grüneisen parameter of bulk Ho₂O₃ was estimated from high pressure Raman investigation up to 29 GPa. Furthermore, the anharmonic components were calculated from the temperature dependent Raman scattering.

  11. Anomalous magnetic reordering in magnetodielectric terbium iron garnet at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahoubi, Mahieddine; Ouladdiaf, Bachir

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with five topics: i) the single three-dimensional irreductible representation (D4g=T1g) of the paramagnetic space group Ia 3 bar d No. 230 is chosen according to the representation analysis of Bertaut for the interpretation of the neutron powder diffraction experiments performed on terbium iron garnet (Tb3Fe5O12); ii) the use of the method of the "symmetry lowering device" of Bertaut in order to select the appropriate rhombohedral subgroup of Ia 3 bar d which allows to deal with the case where the cubic description provides an incomplete answer to the changes observed below 160 K in the ferrimagnetic structure around the [1 1 1] axis from the Néel model toward the "double umbrella" observed at 13 K; iii) the magnetic modes belonging to the one-dimensional irreductible representation A2g of the highest rhombohedral subgroup R 3 bar c No. 167 are able to describe the occurrence of its anisotropic character which steeply increases below 160 K due to the concomitant anisotropic effects; iv) the broad anomaly observed near 54 K in the temperature dependences of the components of both sublattices of the Tb3+ ions in the Wyckoff positions (6e) and (6e‧) is explained partially on the basis of the concept of Belov of the strong paraprocess which has been termed "exchange-enhanced paramagnetism" at the so-called "low-temperature point" (TB); v) the results are related to the magnetodielectric effect in low magnetic field and to the significant coupling between exchange magnons and ligand-field excitations reported recently in this compound.

  12. Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.

    2014-06-01

    The influence of a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a set of simulations with different GrIS realizations performed with a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS topography on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation, which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse-rate-corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than dynamically caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the Northern Hemisphere (NH) flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's topography in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS topography and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the topography is the sensible heat flux (SHF). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHF. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHF, and anomalous low winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS topography. For the Eemian ice found in the NEEM core, our model suggests that up to 3.1 °C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these topography-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate

  13. A singular thermodynamically consistent temperature at the origin of the anomalous behavior of liquid water

    PubMed Central

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The density maximum of water dominates the thermodynamics of the system under ambient conditions, is strongly P-dependent, and disappears at a crossover pressure Pcross ~ 1.8 kbar. We study this variable across a wide area of the T–P phase diagram. We consider old and new data of both the isothermal compressibility KT(T, P) and the coefficient of thermal expansion αP(T, P). We observe that KT(T) shows a minimum at T* ~ 315±5 K for all the studied pressures. We find the behavior of αP to also be surprising: all the αP(T) curves measured at different P cross at T*. The experimental data show a “singular and universal expansivity point” at T* ~ 315 K and αP(T*) ≃ 0.44 10−3 K−1. Unlike other water singularities, we find this temperature to be thermodynamically consistent in the relationship connecting the two response functions. PMID:23251779

  14. Investigation of temperature-dependent photoluminescence in multi-quantum wells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yutao; Wang, Lu; Sun, Qingling; Lu, Taiping; Deng, Zhen; Ma, Ziguang; Jiang, Yang; Jia, Haiqiang; Wang, Wenxin; Zhou, Junming; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) is a nondestructive and powerful method to investigate carrier recombination and transport characteristics in semiconductor materials. In this study, the temperature dependences of photoluminescence of GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs multi-quantum wells samples with and without p-n junction were measured under both resonant and non-resonant excitation modes. An obvious increase of photoluminescence(PL) intensity as the rising of temperature in low temperature range (T < 50 K), is observed only for GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells sample with p-n junction under non-resonant excitation. The origin of the anomalous increase of integrated PL intensity proved to be associated with the enhancement of carrier drifting because of the increase of carrier mobility in the temperature range from 15 K to 100 K. For non-resonant excitation, carriers supplied from the barriers will influence the temperature dependence of integrated PL intensity of quantum wells, which makes the traditional methods to acquire photoluminescence characters from the temperature dependence of integrated PL intensity unavailable. For resonant excitation, carriers are generated only in the wells and the temperature dependence of integrated PL intensity is very suitable to analysis the photoluminescence characters of quantum wells. PMID:26228734

  15. Anomalous stress diffusion in earthquake triggering: Correlation length, time dependence, and directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huc, Mireille; Main, Ian G.

    2003-07-01

    It has been recently suggested that moderate and large earthquakes can be triggered by similarly sized events at very long range. Here we study the main characteristics of earthquake triggering by determining its correlation length, time dependence, and directionality. The problem is examined at a global level, by using the Harvard centroid moment tensor catalogue. Our results show that the correlation lengths depend only weakly on the magnitude thresholds involved. No significant systematic triggering is observed for distances greater than the lithospheric thickness (100-150 km), and the correlation length magnitude is similar to the seismogenic thickness (10-20 km). The mean triggering distance and correlation length both increase with time very slowly compared with what would be expected from a normal diffusion process. This is consistent with a clock advance on the failure time based on the constitutive rules for subcritical crack growth following a transient change in the loading stress. The power law scaling disappears after a few months. A functional form for the probability of triggering as a function of time and distance is proposed on the basis of the properties of near critical point systems. The model fits the data well and could be used to calculate conditional probabilities for time-dependent seismic hazard due to earthquake triggering. An apparent directionality effect that was observed in the data set can be attributed to an artefact of poor depth determination. These results do not preclude individual long-range triggering with a potential directionality effect, but they do rule out a statistical correlation at distances much greater than the thickness of the lithosphere.

  16. Metallic transport and large anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xi; Shigematsu, Kei; Chikamatsu, Akira Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-18

    We report the electrical transport properties of ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N (001) epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The Mn{sub 4}N thin films were tetragonally distorted with a ratio of out-of-plane to in-plane lattice constants of 0.987 and showed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with an effective magnetic anisotropy constant of 0.16 MJ/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with that of a recently reported molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown film. The thin films exhibited metallic transport with a room temperature resistivity of 125 μΩ cm in addition to a large anomalous Hall effect with a Hall angle tangent of 0.023.

  17. High-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect in honeycomb bilayer consisting of Au atoms and single-vacancy graphene

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yan; Wan, Jian-Guo; Ge, Gui-Xian; Song, Feng-Qi; Wang, Guang-Hou

    2015-01-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is predicted to be realized at high temperature in a honeycomb bilayer consisting of Au atoms and single-vacancy graphene (Au2-SVG) based on the first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that the ferromagnetic state in the Au2-SVG can be maintained up to 380 K. The combination of spatial inversion symmetry and the strong SOC introduced by the Au atoms causes a topologically nontrivial band gap as large as 36 meV and a QAHE state with Chern number C = −2. The analysis of the binding energy proved that the honeycomb bilayer is stable and feasible to be fabricated in experiment. The QAHEs in Ta2-SVG and other TM2-SVGs are also discussed. PMID:26574924

  18. Anomalous dimensionality dependence of diffusion in a rugged energy landscape: How pathological is one dimension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (˜5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker.

  19. Anomalous dimensionality dependence of diffusion in a rugged energy landscape: How pathological is one dimension?

    PubMed

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-05-21

    Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (∼5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker. PMID:27208935

  20. Abnormal temperature dependent behaviors of intersystem crossing and triplet-triplet annihilation in organic planar heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Yingbing; Yuan, De; Jia, Weiyao; Zhang, Qiaoming; Xiong, Zuhong

    2016-09-01

    Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-electroluminescence was observed at low and high magnetic field strength from organic planar heterojunction devices incorporated common phosphorescent host materials of N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) or 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) as an emissive layer. We found that intersystem crossing became stronger with decreasing temperature and that triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) occurred at room temperature but ceased at low temperature. Analyses of the electroluminescence spectra of these devices and their temperature dependences indicated that the population of exciplex states increased at low temperature, which caused the abnormal behavior of intersystem crossing. Additionally, long lifetime of the excitons within mCP or CBP layer may allow TTA to occur at room temperature, while the reduced population of excitons at low temperature may account for the disappearance of TTA even though the excitons had increased lifetime.

  1. Positive and negative temperature dependences of electron-impact ionization in In0.53Ga0.47As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, K. Y.; Ong, D. S.

    2005-07-01

    The electron-impact ionization coefficient (α) in In0.53Ga0.47As increases with temperature at electric fields below 200kV/cm, in contrast to most crystalline semiconductors. It exhibits conventional negative temperature dependence at higher fields. A four-valley analytical band Monte Carlo model is used to study this anomalous behavior. The simulations show that both alloy scattering and the temperature dependence of the impact ionization threshold energy contribute to the temperature dependence of α. At low fields, we find that most ionization events occur in the first conduction band causing an increase of α with temperature in In0.53Ga0.47As. At high fields, α decreases with temperature again because of the reduced hot-electron population in the second conduction band.

  2. Anomalous magnetic field dependence of the thermodynamic transition line in the isotropic superconductor (K,Ba)BiO3.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, S; Klein, T; Marcus, J; Joumard, I; Sulpice, A; Szabo, P; Samuely, P; Jansen, A G M; Marcenat, C

    2002-04-29

    Thermodynamic (specific heat, reversible magnetization, tunneling spectroscopy) and transport measurements have been performed on high quality (K,Ba)BiO3 single crystals. The temperature dependence of the magnetic field H(C(p)) corresponding to the onset of the specific heat anomaly presents a clear positive curvature. H(C(p)) is significantly smaller than the field H(Delta) for which the superconducting gap vanishes but is closely related to the irreversibility line deduced from transport data. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the reversible magnetization presents a strong deviation from the Ginzburg-Landau theory emphasizing the peculiar nature of the superconducting transition in this material.

  3. Temperature-dependent spectral mismatch corrections

    DOE PAGES

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Campanelli, Mark; Moriarty, Tom; Emery, Keith A.; Williams, Rafell

    2015-11-01

    This study develops the mathematical foundation for a translation of solar cell short-circuit current from one thermal and spectral irradiance operating condition to another without the use of ill-defined and error-prone temperature coefficients typically employed in solar cell metrology. Using the partial derivative of quantum efficiency with respect to temperature, the conventional isothermal expression for spectral mismatch corrections is modified to account for changes of current due to temperature; this modification completely eliminates the need for short-circuit-current temperature coefficients. An example calculation is provided to demonstrate use of the new translation.

  4. Water temperature dependence of single bubble sonoluminescence threshold.

    PubMed

    Germano, M; Alippi, A; Bettucci, A; Brizi, F; Passeri, D

    2010-01-01

    Water temperature dependence of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) threshold has been experimentally measured to perform measurements at different temperatures on the very same bubble. Results show lower thresholds, i.e. an easier prime of mechanism, of sonoluminescence at lower water temperatures. Dependence is almost linear at lower temperatures while between 14 degrees C and about 20 degrees C the curve changes its slope reaching soon a virtual independence from water temperature above about 20 degrees C.

  5. Modeling temperature dependence of trace element concentrations in groundwater using temperature dependent distribution coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, H.; Saito, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2015-12-01

    In our previous study, we have observed trace element concentrations in groundwater increased when groundwater temperature was increased with constant thermal loading using a 50-m long vertical heat exchanger installed at Saitama University, Japan. During the field experiment, 38 degree C fluid was circulated in the heat exchanger resulting 2.8 kW thermal loading over 295 days. Groundwater samples were collected regularly from 17-m and 40-m deep aquifers at four observation wells located 1, 2, 5, and 10 m, respectively, from the heat exchange well and were analyzed with ICP-MS. As a result, concentrations of some trace elements such as boron increased with temperature especially at the 17-m deep aquifer that is known as marine sediment. It has been also observed that the increased concentrations have decreased after the thermal loading was terminated indicating that this phenomenon may be reversible. Although the mechanism is not fully understood, changes in the liquid phase concentration should be associated with dissolution and/or desorption from the solid phase. We therefore attempt to model this phenomenon by introducing temperature dependence in equilibrium linear adsorption isotherms. We assumed that distribution coefficients decrease with temperature so that the liquid phase concentration of a given element becomes higher as the temperature increases under the condition that the total mass stays constant. A shape function was developed to model the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficient. By solving the mass balance equation between the liquid phase and the solid phase for a given element, a new term describing changes in the concentration was implemented in a source/sink term of a standard convection dispersion equation (CDE). The CDE was then solved under a constant ground water flow using FlexPDE. By calibrating parameters in the newly developed shape function, the changes in element concentrations observed were quite well predicted. The

  6. Anomalous thickness-dependent strain states and strain-tunable magnetization in Zn-doped ferrite epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. J.; Yang, M. M.; Luo, Z. L.; Hu, C. S.; Bao, J.; Huang, H. L.; Zhang, S.; Wang, J. W.; Li, P. S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. G.; Chen, X. C.; Pan, G. Q.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y. K.; Li, X. G.; Gao, C.

    2014-05-01

    A series of ZnxFe3-xO4 (ZFO, x = 0.4) thin films were epitaxially deposited on single-crystal (001)-SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The anomalous thickness-dependent strain states of ZFO films were found, i.e., a tensile in-plane strain exists in the thinner ZFO film and which monotonously turns into compressive in the thicker films. Considering the lattice constant of bulk ZFO is bigger than that of STO, this strain state cannot be explained in the conventional framework of lattice-mismatch-induced strain in the hetero-epitaxial system. This unusual phenomenon is proposed to be closely related to the Volmer-Weber film growth mode in the thinner films and incorporation of the interstitial atoms into the island's boundaries during subsequent epitaxial growth of the thicker films. The ZFO/STO epitaxial film is found in the nature of magnetic semiconductor by transport measurements. The in-plane magnetization of the ZFO/STO films is found to increase as the in-plane compressive strain develops, which is further proved in the (001)-ZFO/PMN-PT film where the film strain state can be in situ controlled with applied electric field. This compressive-strain-enhanced magnetization can be attributed to the strain-mediated electric-field-induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy field enhancement. The above results indicate that strain engineering on magnetic oxide semiconductor ZFO films is promising for novel oxide-electronic devices.

  7. Anomalous thickness-dependent strain states and strain-tunable magnetization in Zn-doped ferrite epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y. J.; Bao, J.; Gao, C. E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, M. M.; Luo, Z. L. E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn; Hu, C. S.; Chen, X. C.; Pan, G. Q.; Huang, H. L.; Zhang, S.; Wang, J. W.; Li, P. S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. G.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y. K.; Li, X. G.

    2014-05-07

    A series of Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} (ZFO, x = 0.4) thin films were epitaxially deposited on single-crystal (001)-SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The anomalous thickness-dependent strain states of ZFO films were found, i.e., a tensile in-plane strain exists in the thinner ZFO film and which monotonously turns into compressive in the thicker films. Considering the lattice constant of bulk ZFO is bigger than that of STO, this strain state cannot be explained in the conventional framework of lattice-mismatch-induced strain in the hetero-epitaxial system. This unusual phenomenon is proposed to be closely related to the Volmer-Weber film growth mode in the thinner films and incorporation of the interstitial atoms into the island's boundaries during subsequent epitaxial growth of the thicker films. The ZFO/STO epitaxial film is found in the nature of magnetic semiconductor by transport measurements. The in-plane magnetization of the ZFO/STO films is found to increase as the in-plane compressive strain develops, which is further proved in the (001)-ZFO/PMN-PT film where the film strain state can be in situ controlled with applied electric field. This compressive-strain-enhanced magnetization can be attributed to the strain-mediated electric-field-induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy field enhancement. The above results indicate that strain engineering on magnetic oxide semiconductor ZFO films is promising for novel oxide-electronic devices.

  8. Anomalous Increase in Nematic-Isotropic Transition Temperature in Dimer Molecules Induced by a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salili, S. M.; Tamba, M. G.; Sprunt, S. N.; Welch, C.; Mehl, G. H.; Jákli, A.; Gleeson, J. T.

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the nematic-isotropic transition temperature as a function of an applied magnetic field in three different thermotropic liquid crystalline dimers. These molecules are comprised of two rigid calamitic moieties joined end to end by flexible spacers with odd numbers of methylene groups. They show an unprecedented magnetic field enhancement of nematic order in that the transition temperature is increased by up to 15 K when subjected to a 22 T magnetic field. The increase is conjectured to be caused by a magnetic-field-induced decrease of the average bend angle in the aliphatic spacers connecting the rigid mesogenic units of the dimers.

  9. Temperature Dependence of Phonons in Pyrolitic Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, B. N.; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Dispersion curves for longitudinal and transverse phonons propagating along and near the c-axis in pyrolitic graphite at temperatures between 4°K and 1500°C have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The observed frequencies decrease markedly with increasing temperature (except for the transverse optical ''rippling'' modes in the hexagonal planes). The neutron groups show interesting asymmetrical broadening ascribed to interference between one phonon and many phonon processes.

  10. Temperature dependence of interaction-induced entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Khasin, Michael; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2005-11-15

    Both direct and indirect weak nonresonant interactions are shown to produce entanglement between two initially disentangled systems prepared as a tensor product of thermal states, provided the initial temperature is sufficiently low. Entanglement is determined by the Peres-Horodecki criterion, which establishes that a composite state is entangled if its partial transpose is not positive. If the initial temperature of the thermal states is higher than an upper critical value T{sub uc} the minimal eigenvalue of the partially transposed density matrix of the composite state remains positive in the course of the evolution. If the initial temperature of the thermal states is lower than a lower critical value T{sub lc}{<=}T{sub uc} the minimal eigenvalue of the partially transposed density matrix of the composite state becomes negative, which means that entanglement develops. We calculate the lower bound T{sub lb} for T{sub lc} and show that the negativity of the composite state is negligibly small in the interval T{sub lb}temperature T{sub lb} can be considered as the critical temperature for the generation of entanglement. It is conjectured that above this critical temperature a composite quantum system could be simulated using classical computers.

  11. Temperature dependence of electrical conductivity and lunar temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olhoeft, G. R.; Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H.; Frisillo, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic conduction mechanicsms are probably not important in lunar materials because of the small amounts of free metal and metallic oxides present. This is confirmed by the extremely low conductivities measured to date and the fact that the conductivity increases with temperature. The major conduction mechanicsm appears to be ionic. This conduction mechanism is very strongly controlled by temperature, by deviations from stoichiometry, by electric field strengths, and by oxygen fugacity.

  12. Temperature dependence of the vibrational spectra of acetanilide: Davydov solitons or Fermi coupling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Clifford T.; Swanson, Basil I.

    1985-03-01

    The unusual temperature dependence of the amide-I region in the IR spectrum of acetanilide (C 6H 5NHCOCH 3) has recently been attributed to a self-trapped Davydov-like soliton. The temperature dependence of the single-crystal Raman scattering, from acetanilide and its ND and 13CO substituted analogs in the phonon and internal mode regions has now been studied. The behavior of the amide-I region in the Raman spectra of the normal isotopic species is similar to that observed earlier in infrared studies. However, on the basis of results obtained from the ND and 13CO substituted species the unusual temperature dependence in the 1650 cm -1 region has been attributed to Fermi coupling of the amide-I fundamental and a combination band involving the in-plane NH deformation and a low-frequency torsional mode. As temperature is lowered, the strong blue-shift of the torsional mode results in a commensurate blue-shift in the combination level thereby increasing the Fermi coupling. Temperature tuning of the Fermi coupling results in the anomalous intensity changes observed in the IR and Raman spectra of the amide-I region for the normal isotopic species.

  13. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity of liquid Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Patel, H. P.; Thakor, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    The present paper deals with the effect of temperature variation on the electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Sn(Tin). We have used a new parameter free pseudopotential along with screening Taylor et al and Farid et al local field correction functions. The Percus-Yevick Hard Sphere (PYHS) reference system is used to describe structural information. Zeeman formula has been used for finding resistivity with the variation of temperature. The balanced harmonies between present data and experimental data have been achieved with a minimal deviation. So, we concluded that our newly constructed model potential is an effective one to produce the data of electrical resistivity of liquid Sn(Tin) as a function of temperature.

  14. Temperature Dependent Electrical Properties of PZT Wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, T.; Sen, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, A.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) values obtained were 560 pc/N and 234 pc/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k p) values were 0.68 and 0.49 for bulk and wafer, respectively. The reduction in polarization after fatigue was only ~3% in case of PZT bulk and ~7% for PZT wafer.

  15. Temperature dependence of soil water potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.M.O.; Yong, R.N. ); Cheung, S.C.H. )

    1992-12-01

    To understand the process of coupled heat and water transport, the relationship between temperature and soil water potential must be known. Two clays, Avonlea bentonite and Lake Agassiz clay, are being considered as the clay-based sealing materials for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. Avonlea bentonite is distinguished from Lake Agassiz clay by its high sealing potential in water. A series of experiments was performed in which the two clays were mixed with equal amounts of sand and were compacted to a dry density of 1.67 Mg/m[sup 3] under various moisture contents and temperatures. A psychrometer was placed within the compacted clay-sand to measure the soil water potential based on the electromotive force measured by the psychrometer. The results indicate that the soil water potential at a particular temperature is higher for both clay-sand mixtures than predicted by the change in the surface tension of water; this effect is much more prominent in the Avonlea bentonite and at low moisture contents. The paper presents empirical equations relating the soil water potential with the moisture content and temperature of the two clay-sand mixtures. 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Temperature dependence of gramicidin channel conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyundeok; Beck, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    The gramicidin channel is the smallest known biological ion channel, and it exhibits cation selectivity. Recently, Dr. John Cuppoletti's group at the University of Cincinnati has shown that the gramicidin channel can function at high temperatures with significant currents. This finding may have implications for fuel cell technologies. In order to explore the effect of temperature on channel conductance, we examined the gramicidin system at 300K, 330K, and 360K by computer simulation. Two forms of gramicidin, the head-to-head helical dimer and the intertwined double helix, were examined. Both the decrease of the free energy barrier and the increase of the diffusion of potassium ions inside the gramicidin channel at high temperatures imply an increase of current. We found that higher temperatures also affect the lifetime of hydrogen bonds, the distribution of the bending angle, the distribution of the distance between dimers, and the size of the pore radius for the helical dimer structure. These finding may be related to the gating of the gramicidin channel.

  17. Quasipermanent magnets of high temperature superconductor - Temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, In-Gann; Liu, Jianxiong; Ren, Yanru; Weinstein, Roy; Kozlowski, Gregory; Oberly, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    We report on persistent field in quasi-permanent magnets of high temperature superconductors. Magnets composed of irradiated Y(1+)Ba2Cu3O7 trapped field Bt = 1.52 T at 77 K and 1.9 T at lower temperature. However, the activation magnet limited Bt at lower temperature. We present data on Jc(H,T) for unirradiated materials, and calculate Bt at various T. Based upon data at 65 K, we calculate Bt in unirradiated single grains at 20 K and find that 5.2 T will be trapped for grain diameter d about 1.2 cm, and 7.9 T for d = 2.3 cm. Irradiated grains will trap four times these values.

  18. The universality of enzymatic rate-temperature dependency.

    PubMed

    Elias, Mikael; Wieczorek, Grzegorz; Rosenne, Shaked; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-01-01

    Organismal adaptation to extreme temperatures yields enzymes with distinct configurational stabilities, including thermophilic and psychrophilic enzymes, which are adapted to high and low temperatures, respectively. These enzymes are widely assumed to also have unique rate-temperature dependencies. Thermophilic enzymes, for example, are considered optimal at high temperatures and effectively inactive at low temperatures due to excess rigidity. Surveying published data, we find that thermophilic, mesophilic, and psychrophilic enzymes exhibit indistinguishable rate-temperature dependencies. Furthermore, given the nonenzymatic rate-temperature dependency, all enzymes, regardless of their operation temperatures, become >10-fold less powerful catalysts per 25 °C temperature increase. Among other factors, this loss of rate acceleration may be ascribed to thermally induced vibrations compromising the active-site catalytic configuration, suggesting that many enzymes are in fact insufficiently rigid.

  19. Temperature dependence of the internal friction of polycrystalline indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, K. V.; Golyandin, S. N.; Kustov, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    The temperature dependences of the internal friction and the elastic modulus of polycrystalline indium have been investigated in the temperature range 7-320 K at oscillatory loading frequencies of approximately 100 kHz. The effect of temperature on the amplitude dependence and the effect of high-amplitude loading at 7 K on the temperature and amplitude dependences of the internal friction of indium have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the thermocycling leads to microplastic deformation of indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and the appearance of a "recrystallization" maximum in the spectrum of the amplitude-dependent internal friction. The conclusion has been drawn that the bulk diffusion of vacancies and impurities begins at temperatures of approximately 90 K and that, at lower temperatures, the diffusion occurs in the vicinity of dislocations. It has been revealed that the high-temperature internal friction background becomes noticeable after the dissolution of Cottrell atmospheres.

  20. Temperature dependence of electrical characteristics of Pt/GaN Schottky diode fabricated by UHV e-beam evaporation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-dependent electrical characterization of Pt/n-GaN Schottky barrier diodes prepared by ultra high vacuum evaporation has been done. Analysis has been made to determine the origin of the anomalous temperature dependence of the Schottky barrier height, the ideality factor, and the Richardson constant calculated from the I-V-T characteristics. Variable-temperature Hall effect measurements have been carried out to understand charge transport at low temperature. The modified activation energy plot from the barrier inhomogeneity model has given the value of 32.2 A/(cm2 K2) for the Richardson constant A** in the temperature range 200 to 380 K which is close to the known value of 26.4A/(cm2 K2) for n-type GaN. PMID:24229424

  1. Anomalous Dynamical Line Shapes in a Quantum Magnet at Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant D. A.; James A.; Lake, B.; Essler, F.H.L.; Notbohm, S.; Mikeska, H.-J.; Fielden, J.; Kogerler,, P.; Canfield, P.C.; Telling, M.T.F.

    2012-01-04

    The effect of thermal fluctuations on the dynamics of a gapped quantum magnet is studied using inelastic neutron scattering on copper nitrate, a model material for the spin-1/2, one-dimensional (1D) bond alternating Heisenberg chain. A large, highly deuterated, single-crystal sample of copper nitrate is produced using a solution growth method and measurements are made using the high-resolution backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS at the ISIS Facility. Theoretical calculations and numerical analysis are combined to interpret the physical origin of the thermal effects observed in the magnetic spectra. The primary observations are (1) a thermally induced central peak due to intraband scattering, which is similar to Villain scattering familiar from soliton systems in 1D, and (2) the one-magnon quasiparticle pole is seen to develop with temperature into an asymmetric continuum of scattering. We relate this asymmetric line broadening to a thermal strongly correlated state caused by hard-core constraints and quasiparticle interactions. These findings are a counter example to recent assertions of the universality of line broadening in 1D systems and are applicable to a broad range of quantum systems.

  2. Crossing regimes of temperature dependence in animal movement.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Jean P; Chelini, Marie-Claire; Rosenthal, Malcolm F; DeLong, John P

    2016-05-01

    A pressing challenge in ecology is to understand the effects of changing global temperatures on food web structure and dynamics. The stability of these complex ecological networks largely depends on how predator-prey interactions may respond to temperature changes. Because predators and prey rely on their velocities to catch food or avoid being eaten, understanding how temperatures may affect animal movement is central to this quest. Despite our efforts, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of how the effect of temperature on metabolic processes scales up to animal movement and beyond. Here, we merge a biomechanical approach, the Metabolic Theory of Ecology and empirical data to show that animal movement displays multiple regimes of temperature dependence. We also show that crossing these regimes has important consequences for population dynamics and stability, which depend on the parameters controlling predator-prey interactions. We argue that this dependence upon interaction parameters may help explain why experimental work on the temperature dependence of interaction strengths has so far yielded conflicting results. More importantly, these changes in the temperature dependence of animal movement can have consequences that go well beyond ecological interactions and affect, for example, animal communication, mating, sensory detection, and any behavioral modality dependent on the movement of limbs. Finally, by not taking into account the changes in temperature dependence reported here we might not be able to properly forecast the impact of global warming on ecological processes and propose appropriate mitigation action when needed. PMID:26854767

  3. DNAzyme catalytic beacon sensors that resist temperature-dependent variations.

    PubMed

    Nagraj, Nandini; Liu, Juewen; Sterling, Stephanie; Wu, Jenny; Lu, Yi

    2009-07-21

    The temperature-dependent variability of a Pb2+-specific 8-17E DNAzyme catalytic beacon sensor has been addressed through the introduction of mismatches in the DNAzyme, and the resulting sensors resist temperature-dependent variations from 4 to 30 degrees C.

  4. Temperature dependence of the excited state absorption of alexandrite

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.; Jenssen, H.P.

    1983-03-01

    The temperature dependence from 28 to 290/sup 0/C of the excited-state absorption cross section sigma /SUB 2a/ (E) in the gain wavelength region of alexandrite has been determined from the temperature dependence of the single pass gain (SPG) and of the fluorescence. sigma /SUB 2a/ (E) and the emission cross section increase with temperature at approximately the same rate.

  5. Temperature dependence of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of two soils.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the soil water matric potential, surface tension, and diffuse double-layer thickness are discussed in terms of their possible interaction with the unsaturated conductivity values obtained. A case is presented for further study to isolate these temperature-sensitive parameters as well as additional parameters related to fluid flow path changes with temperature.-from Author

  6. Temperature dependence of conductivity measurement for conducting polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Leandro; Duran, Jesus; Isah, Anne; Albers, Patrick; McDougall, Michael; Wang, Weining

    2014-03-01

    Conducting polymer-based solar cells are the newest generation solar cells. While research on this area has been progressing, the efficiency is still low because certain important parameters of the solar cell are still not well understood. It is of interest to study the temperature dependence of the solar cell parameters, such as conductivity of the polymer, open circuit voltage, and reverse saturation current to gain a better understanding on the solar cells. In this work, we report our temperature dependence of conductivity measurement using our in-house temperature-varying apparatus. In this project, we designed and built a temperature varying apparatus using a thermoelectric cooler module which gives enough temperature range as we need and costs much less than a cryostat. The set-up of the apparatus will be discussed. Temperature dependence of conductivity measurements for PEDOT:PSS films with different room-temperature conductivity will be compared and discussed. NJSGC-NASA Fellowship grant

  7. Temperature dependence of DNA condensation at high ionic concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Gao, Qingqing; Liu, Yanhui; Fan, Yangtao; Hu, Lin; Xu, Houqiang

    2016-08-01

    A series of experiments pointed out that compact states of DNA condensed by multivalent cation prefer higher temperature. The condensed DNA takes elongated coil or compact globule states and the population of the compact globule states increases with an increase in temperature. At the same time, a recent experimental work carried out in buffer solution without multivalent cation points out that DNA persistence length strongly depends on the temperature. DNA persistence length is a key parameter for quantitative interpretation of the conformational properties of DNA and related to the bending rigidity of DNA. It is necessary to revolve the effects of temperature dependence of persistence length on DNA condensation, and a model including the temperature dependence of persistence length and strong correlation of multivalent cation on DNA is provided. The autocorrelation function of the tangent vectors is found as an effective way to detect the temperature dependence of toroid conformations. With an increase in temperature, the first periodic oscillation in the autocorrelation function shifts left and the number of segments containing the first periodic oscillation decreases gradually. According to the experiments mentioned above, the long-axis length is defined to estimate the temperature dependence of condensation process further. At the temperatures defined in experiments mentioned above, the relation between long-axis length and temperature matches the experimental results.

  8. Effect of growth temperature on the electronic transport and anomalous Hall effect response in co-sputtered Co2FeSi thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anjali; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2015-11-01

    Co-sputtered Co2FeSi thin films are studied by varying the growth temperature (Ts) as a control parameter in terms of the appreciable change in the disorder. The effect of Ts on structural, magnetic, electrical, and magneto-transport properties was investigated. As Ts is increased from room temperature to 400 °C, an improvement in the crystallinity and atomic ordering are observed. These are found to be correlated with the associated reduction in residual resistivity ( ρ x x 0 ) from 410 to 88 μΩ cm, an increment in residual resistivity ratio (r) from 0.8 to 1.23, and an increase in saturation magnetization from 1074 to 1196 emu/cc. The spin wave stiffness constant in these films is found to increase with Ts, with a reasonably high value of 358 meVÅ2 at the optimum value of Ts of 400 °C. Further, the obtained high carrier concentration and mobility values (at 10 K) of ˜30 e-s/f.u. and ˜0.11 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the films deposited at Ts = 400 °C shows the presence of compensated Fermi surface. The transport properties are investigated qualitatively from the scaling of anomalous Hall resistivity ρx y s (T) with the longitudinal resistivity ρ x x ( T ) data, employing the extrinsic (skew- and side-jump scatterings) and intrinsic scattering contributions. The variation in the intrinsic scattering contributions observed via the variation in linear dependence of ρx y s on ρx x 2 with the change in Ts is found to be associated with the improvement in the crystallinity of these films.

  9. Temperature dependence of indigo light emission from mesoporous ZnO/porous silicon nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Kim, Do Yeob; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Sung-O; Leem, Jae-Young

    2012-07-01

    Nanocomposites of mesoporous zinc oxide (ZnO) and porous silicon (PS) were prepared through a hydrothermal method. Room-temperature (RT) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) were performed to investigate the optical properties and temperature dependence of the indigo emission peak from the ZnO/PS nanocomposites. An indigo emission peak from the nanocomposites and a red emission peak from the PS were observed in the case of the mesoporous ZnO/PS nanocomposites. At 10 K, the nanocomposites exhibited four emission peaks at 3.108, 2.929, 2.730, and 2.248 eV, which correspond to the DX, AX, DX-1LO, and DX-2LO phonon replicas, respectively. With an increase in temperature from 10 to 275 K, the curves in the intensities of the emission peaks formed an inverted "S" shape while their energies remained nearly constant. At 300 K, however, only the AX emission peak was observed; the DX and LO phonon replicas disappeared. The intensities of the DX and AX emission peaks exhibited anomalous behaviors.

  10. Temperature- and energy-dependent phase shifts of resonant multiple-beam X-ray diffraction in germanium crystals.

    PubMed

    Liao, Po-Yu; Liu, Wen-Chung; Cheng, Chih-Hao; Chiu, Yi-Hua; Kung, Ying-Yu; Chang, Shih-Lin

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports temperature- and energy-dependent phase shifts of resonant multiple-beam X-ray diffraction in germanium crystals, involving forbidden (002) and weak (222) reflections. Phase determination based on multiple-beam diffraction is employed to estimate phase shifts from (002)-based {(002)(375)(373̅)} four-beam cases and (222)-based { (222)(5̅33̅)} three-beam cases in the vicinity of the Ge K edge for temperatures from 20 K up to 300 K. The forbidden/weak reflections enhance the sensitivity of measuring phases at resonance. At room temperature, the resonance triplet phases reach a maximum of 8° for the four-beam cases and -19° for the three-beam cases. It is found that the peak intensities and triplet phases obtained from the (002) four-beam diffraction are related to thermal motion induced anisotropy and anomalous dispersion, while the (222) three-beam diffraction depends on the aspherical covalent electron distribution and anomalous dispersion. However, the electron-phonon interaction usually affects the forbidden reflections with increasing temperatures and seems to have less effect on the resonance triplet phase shifts measured from the (002) four-beam diffraction. The resonance triplet phase shifts of the (222) three-beam diffraction versus temperature are also small. PMID:26131901

  11. Temperature dependent vibrational modes of glycosidic bond in disaccharide sugars.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2008-03-17

    We studied the temperature dependent vibrational modes of the glycosidic bond in trehalose, sucrose, and maltose at wavenumbers ranging from 1000 to 1200 cm(-1). We found that the slope of temperature dependent Raman shifts of the glycosidic bond in trehalose and sucrose changed at temperatures around 120 degrees C, indicating a bond length or a bond angle (dihedral and torsional angles) change. However, we did not observe any slope change in maltose because the melting temperature of maltose is very close to 120 degrees C. We also found, at temperatures below 120 degrees C, that Raman shifts of the vibrational modes of the glycosidic bond in trehalose showed the strongest temperature dependence among the three disaccharides.

  12. Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles.

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, F J

    1994-01-01

    Despite increasing concern over the possible impact of global temperature change, there is little empirical evidence of direct temperature effects on biotic interactions in natural systems. Clear assessment of the ecological and evolutionary impact of changing climatic temperature requires a natural system in which populations exhibit a direct unambiguous fitness response to thermal fluctuation. I monitored nests of a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination to investigate the causal relationship between local climatic variation in temperature and offspring sex ratio. Consistent with theoretical predictions, annual offspring sex ratio was highly correlated with mean July air temperature, validating concerns about the effect of climate change on population demography. This correlation implies that even modest increases in mean temperature (< 2 degrees C) may drastically skew the sex ratio. Statistical evaluation of the variance in climate change indicates that an increase in mean temperature of 4 degrees C would effectively eliminate production of male offspring. Quantitative genetic analyses and behavioral data suggest that populations with temperature-dependent sex determination may be unable to evolve rapidly enough to counteract the negative fitness consequences of rapid global temperature change. Populations of species with temperature-dependent sex determination may serve as ideal indicators of the biological impact of global temperature change. PMID:8052608

  13. Anomalous is ubiquitous

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2011-09-15

    Brownian motion is widely considered the quintessential model of diffusion processes-the most elemental random transport processes in Science and Engineering. Yet so, examples of diffusion processes displaying highly non-Brownian statistics-commonly termed 'Anomalous Diffusion' processes-are omnipresent both in the natural sciences and in engineered systems. The scientific interest in Anomalous Diffusion and its applications is growing exponentially in the recent years. In this Paper we review the key statistics of Anomalous Diffusion processes: sub-diffusion and super-diffusion, long-range dependence and the Joseph effect, Levy statistics and the Noah effect, and 1/f noise. We further present a theoretical model-generalizing the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model-which provides a unified explanation for the prevalence of Anomalous Diffusion statistics. Our model shows that what is commonly perceived as 'anomalous' is in effect ubiquitous. - Highlights: > The article provides an overview of Anomalous Diffusion (AD) statistics. > The Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model is extended and generalized. > The generalized model universally generates AD statistics. > A unified 'universal macroscopic explanation' for AD statistics is established. > AD statistics are shown to be fundamentally connected to robustness.

  14. Thermal fission rates with temperature dependent fission barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Pei, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: The fission processes of thermal excited nuclei are conventionally studied by statistical models which rely on inputs of phenomenological level densities and potential barriers. Therefore the microscopic descriptions of spontaneous fission and induced fission are very desirable for a unified understanding of various fission processes. Purpose: We propose to study the fission rates, at both low and high temperatures, with microscopically calculated temperature-dependent fission barriers and collective mass parameters. Methods: The fission barriers are calculated by the finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS method. The mass parameters are calculated by the temperature-dependent cranking approximation. The thermal fission rates can be obtained by the imaginary free energy approach at all temperatures, in which fission barriers are naturally temperature dependent. The fission at low temperatures can be described mainly as a barrier-tunneling process. While the fission at high temperatures has to incorporate the reflection above barriers. Results: Our results of spontaneous fission rates reasonably agree with other studies and experiments. The temperature dependencies of fission barrier heights and curvatures have been discussed. The temperature dependent behaviors of mass parameters have also been discussed. The thermal fission rates from low to high temperatures with a smooth connection have been given by different approaches. Conclusions: Since the temperature dependencies of fission barrier heights and curvatures, and the mass parameters can vary rapidly for different nuclei, the microscopic descriptions of thermal fission rates are very valuable. Our studies without free parameters provide a consistent picture to study various fissions such as that in fast-neutron reactors, astrophysical environments, and fusion reactions for superheavy nuclei.

  15. Temperature dependent electrical transport of disordered reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Narayanan, T. N.; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-06-01

    We report on the simple route for the synthesis of chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using ascorbic acid (a green chemical) as a reducing agent. Temperature-dependent electrical transport properties of rGO thin films have been studied in a wide range (50 K T 400 K) of temperature. Electrical conduction in rGO thin films was displayed in two different temperature regimes. At higher temperatures, Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of resistance was observed indicating a band gap dominating transport behavior. At lower temperatures, the rGO sample showed a conduction mechanism consistent with Mott's two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH). An unsaturated negative magnetoresistance (MR) was observed up to 3 T field. A decrease in negative MR at high temperatures is attributed to the phonon scattering of charge carriers.

  16. 40Ar/39Ar impact ages and time-temperature argon diffusion history of the Bunburra Rockhole anomalous basaltic achondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, Fred; Benedix, Gretchen; Eroglu, Ela.; Bland, Phil. A.; Bouvier, Audrey.

    2014-09-01

    The Bunburra Rockhole meteorite is a brecciated anomalous basaltic achondrite containing coarse-, medium- and fine-grained lithologies. Petrographic observations constrain the limited shock pressure to between ca. 10 GPa and 20 GPa. In this study, we carried out nine 40Ar/39Ar step-heating experiments on distinct single-grain fragments extracted from the coarse and fine lithologies. We obtained six plateau ages and three mini-plateau ages. These ages fall into two internally concordant populations with mean ages of 3640 ± 21 Ma (n = 7; P = 0.53) and 3544 ± 26 Ma (n = 2; P = 0.54), respectively. Based on these results, additional 40Ar/39Ar data of fusion crust fragments, argon diffusion modelling, and petrographic observations, we conclude that the principal components of the Bunburra Rockhole basaltic achondrite are from a melt rock formed at ∼3.64 Ga by a medium to large impact event. The data imply that this impact generated high enough energy to completely melt the basaltic target rock and reset the Ar systematics, but only partially reset the Pb-Pb age. We also conclude that a complete 40Ar∗ resetting of pyroxene and plagioclase at this time could not have been achieved at solid-state conditions. Comparison with a terrestrial analog (Lonar crater) shows that the time-temperature conditions required to melt basaltic target rocks upon impact are relatively easy to achieve. Ar data also suggest that a second medium-size impact event occurred on a neighbouring part of the same target rock at ∼3.54 Ga. Concordant low-temperature step ages of the nine aliquots suggest that, at ∼3.42 Ga, a third smaller impact excavated parts of the ∼3.64 Ga and ∼3.54 Ga melt rocks and brought the fragments together. The lack of significant impact activity after 3.5 Ga, as recorded by the Bunburra Rockhole suggests that (1) either the meteorite was ejected in a small secondary parent body where it resided untouched by large impacts, or (2) it was covered by a porous heat

  17. Identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weizhen; Yi, Fajun; Zhu, Yanwei; Meng, Songhe

    2016-07-01

    A modified Levenberg-Marquardt method (LMM) for the identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is proposed; the experiment and structure of the specimen for identification are also designed. The temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of copper C10200 and brass C28000 are identified to verify the effectiveness of the proposed identification method. The comparison between identified results and the measured data of laser flash diffusivity apparatus indicates the fine consistency and potential usage of the proposed method.

  18. Temperature Dependence of Thermopower in Strongly Correlated Multiorbital Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekino, M; Okamoto, Satoshi; Koshibae, W; Mori, Michiyasu; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Temperature dependence of thermopower in the multiorbital Hubbard model is studied by using the dynamical mean-field theory with the non-crossing approximation impurity solver. It is found that the Coulomb interaction, the Hund coupling, and the crystal filed splitting bring about nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the hermopower, including its sign reversal. The implication of our theoretical results to some materials is discussed.

  19. Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, K.; Pinchuk, P.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Radiative and Nonradiative Rates from Time-Dependent Correlation Function Methods.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shiladitya; Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants in radiative and nonradiative decays from excited electronic states has been studied using a time-dependent correlation function approach in the framework of the adiabatic representation and the harmonic oscillator approximation. The present work analyzes the vibrational aspect of the processes, which gives rise to the temperature dependence, with the inclusion of mode-mixing, as well as of frequency change effects. The temperature dependence of the rate constants shows a contrasting nature, depending on whether the process has been addressed within the Franck-Condon approximation or beyond it. The calculation of the Duschinsky matrix and the shift vector between the normal modes of the two states can be done in Cartesian and/or internal coordinates, depending on the flexibility of the investigated molecule. A new computational code has been developed to calculate the rates of intersystem crossing, internal conversion, and fluorescence for selected molecules as functions of temperature. PMID:26683207

  1. The temperature dependence of electrical excitability in fish hearts.

    PubMed

    Vornanen, Matti

    2016-07-01

    Environmental temperature has pervasive effects on the rate of life processes in ectothermic animals. Animal performance is affected by temperature, but there are finite thermal limits for vital body functions, including contraction of the heart. This Review discusses the electrical excitation that initiates and controls the rate and rhythm of fish cardiac contraction and is therefore a central factor in the temperature-dependent modulation of fish cardiac function. The control of cardiac electrical excitability should be sensitive enough to respond to temperature changes but simultaneously robust enough to protect against cardiac arrhythmia; therefore, the thermal resilience and plasticity of electrical excitation are physiological qualities that may affect the ability of fishes to adjust to climate change. Acute changes in temperature alter the frequency of the heartbeat and the duration of atrial and ventricular action potentials (APs). Prolonged exposure to new thermal conditions induces compensatory changes in ion channel expression and function, which usually partially alleviate the direct effects of temperature on cardiac APs and heart rate. The most heat-sensitive molecular components contributing to the electrical excitation of the fish heart seem to be Na(+) channels, which may set the upper thermal limit for the cardiac excitability by compromising the initiation of the cardiac AP at high temperatures. In cardiac and other excitable cells, the different temperature dependencies of the outward K(+) current and inward Na(+) current may compromise electrical excitability at temperature extremes, a hypothesis termed the temperature-dependent depression of electrical excitation. PMID:27385752

  2. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y.

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  3. Temperature dependence of helium diffusion through common epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovinger, D. J.; Hallock, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    Helium gas at room temperature is known to diffuse through the epoxies commonly used in various low temperature applications, which can complicate leak detection. The helium flux typically decreases with decreasing temperature. We have measured the flux of helium that passes though thin sections of as-cast clear Stycast 1266, Stycast 2850FT (black) and TRA-BOND 2151 (blue) epoxies as a function of temperature in the range 130K < T < 300K. We analyze the data to create normalized (to constant sample thickness and pressure differential) data for comparison. We report the preliminary temperature-dependent fluxes we have measured, which show significant differences among the epoxies studied.

  4. Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Azar Alizadeh; Vaibhav Bahadur; Sheng Zhong; Wen Shang; Ri Li; James Ruud; Masako Yamada; Liehi Ge; Ali Dhinojwala; Manohar S Sohal

    2012-03-01

    Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially for hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-structure interaction at various temperatures.

  5. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The power MOSFET SPICE Macro-Model has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range {minus}55 to 125 {degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE .TEMP card. SPICE parameter extraction techniques for the model and model predictive accuracy are discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric properties of chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from -20 degree C to +25 degree C. At a given temperature, the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant reveals two relaxations while those of th...

  7. Anomalous grain growth in the surface region of a nanocrystalline CeO2 film under low-temperature heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Philip D.; Zhang, Yanwen; Moll, Sandra J.; Varga, Tamas; Namavar, Fereydoon; Weber, William J.

    2012-06-15

    Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline ceria are investigated under ion irradiation at different temperatures. Irradiations at temperatures of 300 and 400 K result in uniform grain growth throughout the film. Anomalous grain growth is observed in thin films of nanocrystalline ceria under 3 MeV Au+ irradiation at 160 K. At this low temperature, significant grain growth is observed within 100 nm from the surface, no obvious growth is detected in the rest of the films. While the grain growth is attributed to a defect-stimulated mechanism at room temperature and above, a defect diffusion-limited mechanism is significant at low temperature with the primary defect responsible being the oxygen vacancy. The nanocrystalline grains remain in the cubic phase regardless of defect kinetics.

  8. Anomalous grain growth in the surface region of a nanocrystalline CeO2 film under low-temperature heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Dr. Philip; Zhang, Yanwen; Moll, Sandra; Varga, Tamas; Namavar, Fereydoon; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline ceria are investigated under ion irradiation at different temperatures. Irradiations at temperatures of 300 and 400 K result in uniform grain growth throughout the film. Anomalous grain growth is observed in thin films of nanocrystalline ceria under 3 MeV Au+ irradiation at 160 K. At this low temperature, significant grain growth is observed within 100 nm from the surface, no obvious growth is detected in the rest of the films. While the grain growth is attributed to a defect-stimulated mechanism at room temperature and above, a defect diffusion-limited mechanism is significant at low temperature with the primary defect responsible being the oxygen vacancy.

  9. Temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Dubtsov, S. N.; Baklanov, A. M.

    2008-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles in gases has been experimentally studied. It is established that this dependence significantly differs from that predicted by various correlations, in particular, by the Cunningham-Millikan-Davies correlation that is used as an instrumental basis for virtually all methods of measurement of the diffusion coefficient in aerosols.

  10. Temperature Dependence of Viscosities of Common Carrier Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Trent S.; Nahir, Tal M.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidence for the dependence of viscosities of the real gases on temperature is described, suggesting that this dependence is greater than that predicted by the kinetic theory of gases. The experimental results were obtained using common modern instrumentation and could be reproduced by students in analytical or…

  11. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THERMAL NEUTRONS FROM THE MOON

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. LITTLE; W. FELDMAN; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    Planetary thermal neutron fluxes provide a sensitive proxy for mafic and feldspathic terranes, and are also necessary for translating measured gamma-ray line strengths to elemental abundances. Both functions require a model for near surface temperatures and a knowledge of the dependence of thermal neutron flux on temperature. We have explored this dependence for a representative sample of lunar soil compositions and surface temperatures using MCNP{trademark}. For all soil samples, the neutron density is found to be independent of temperature, in accord with neutron moderation theory. The thermal neutron flux, however, does vary with temperature in a way that depends on {Delta}, the ratio of macroscopic absorption to energy-loss cross sections of soil compositions. The weakest dependence is for the largest {Delta} (which corresponds to the Apollo 17 high Ti basalt in our soil selection), and the largest dependence is for the lowest {Delta} (which corresponds to ferroan anorthosite, [FAN] in our selection). For the lunar model simulated, the depth at which the thermal neutron population is most sensitive to temperature is {approx}30 g/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jon N; Hall, Christopher S; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2002-12-01

    Recent studies by our group have demonstrated the efficacy of perfluorocarbon liquid nanoparticles for enhancing the reflectivity of tissuelike surfaces to which they are bound. The magnitude of this enhancement depends in large part on the difference in impedances of the perfluorocarbon, the bound substrate, and the propagating medium. The impedance varies directly with temperature because both the speed of sound and the mass density of perfluorocarbon liquids are highly temperature dependent. However, there are relatively little data in the literature pertaining to the temperature dependence of the acoustic impedance of these compounds. In this study, the speed of sound and density of seven different fluorocarbon liquids were measured at specific temperatures between 20 degrees C and 45 degrees C. All of the samples demonstrated negative, linear dependencies on temperature for both speed of sound and density and, consequently, for the acoustic impedance. The slope of sound speed was greatest for perfluorohexane (-278 +/- 1.5 cm/s-degrees C) and lowest for perfluorodichlorooctane (-222 +/- 0.9 cm/s-degrees C). Of the compounds measured, perfluorohexane exhibited the lowest acoustic impedance at all temperatures, and perfluorodecalin the highest at all temperatures. Computations from a simple transmission-line model used to predict reflectivity enhancement from surface-bound nanoparticles are discussed in light of these results.

  13. AlN bandgap temperature dependence from its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, E.; Freitas, J. A.; Schujman, S. B.; Schowalter, L. J.

    2008-08-01

    In the present work we report on the AlN gap energy temperature dependence studied through the optical properties of high-quality large bulk AlN single crystals grown by a sublimation-recondensation technique. The cathodoluminescence, transmission/absorption as well as optical reflectance measurements at low temperature show a clear feature at about 6.03 eV, which could be attributed to the free exciton A. Even using a rather thick sample it was possible to observe the absorption due to the free exciton A in this energy range due to its large binding energy. We followed the temperature evolution of these features up to room temperature and inferred the gap energy temperature dependence using the exciton binding energy obtained by our group in the past.

  14. Temperature-dependent μ-Raman investigation of struvite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Kasprowicz, D.; Runka, T.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the vibrational properties of struvite crystals grown from silica gels was systematically studied by μ-Raman spectroscopy. The time-dependent Raman spectra recorded in the process of long time annealing of struvite crystal at 353 K do not indicate structural changes in the struvite crystal with the time of annealing. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra recorded in the range 298-423 K reveal a phase transition in struvite at about 368 K. Above this characteristic temperature, some of bands assigned to vibrations of the PO4 and NH4 tetrahedra and water molecules observed in the Raman spectra in low temperatures (orthorhombic phase) change their spectral parameters or disappear, which indicates a transition to a higher symmetry structure of struvite in the range of high temperatures.

  15. Temperature Dependence of Surface Layering in a Dielectric Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Mo,H.; Kewalramani, S.; Evmenenko, G.; Kim, K.; Ehrlich, S.; Dutta, P.

    2007-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the density oscillations (layers) at the free surface of tetrakis(2-ethylhexoxy)silane, a nonmetallic molecular liquid, was investigated using x-ray reflectivity. Below {approx}215K , the layer parameters weakly vary with temperature, if at all. Above this temperature, the layer spacings and intrinsic layer widths increase continuously, until there is no identifiable layering above 230K . This transition occurs at T/{Tc}{approx}0.23 , a temperature region that is usually accessible in metallic liquids but is preempted by freezing in many dielectric liquids.

  16. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  17. Temperature dependence of the water retention curve for dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M.; Goss, K.-U.

    2011-03-01

    Water retention curves (WRCs) are equivalent to water adsorption isotherms that display the soil water content as a function of water activity in the pore space. The use of water activity implies that pure (unbound) water at the given temperature is considered to be a reference state. In this study we measured the temperature dependence of WRCs for nine European soils under dry conditions (i.e., water activity < 90% relative humidity (RH), matrix tension <-1.5 MPa). The results show a significant temperature dependence of the WRCs. The absolute value of the adsorption enthalpy of water, ?, which reflects this temperature dependence, increased with decreasing water content and thus deviated from the condensation enthalpy of a pure (unbound) water phase, ?. These results are explained by the following facts: under increasingly drier conditions the interactions between water molecules and the mineral surfaces become more and more dominant because the sorbed water film becomes very thin. These interactions between water and minerals are stronger than those between pure water molecules. The observed temperature dependence of WRCs varied only a little between the studied soils. Therefore, the average equation, ?, derived from our experimental data may serve as a good approximation of ? for soils in general and thus allow the temperature extrapolation of WRCs (in the dry region down to 30% RH) between 5°C and 40°C without the need for additional experimental information.

  18. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, George J.; Dhamija, Ashima; Bavani, Nazli; Wagner, Kenneth R.; Holland, Christy K.

    2007-06-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T <= 35 °C) and ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Such interest may lead to combining these therapies with tPA to treat stroke, however little is known about the effects of temperature on the thrombolytic efficacy of tPA. In this work, we measure the temperature dependence of the fractional clot mass loss Δm(T) resulting from tPA exposure in an in vitro human clot model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy Eeff of 42.0 ± 0.9 kJ mole-1. Eeff approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole-1. A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies.

  19. Temperature dependence of proton relaxation times in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T R; Tung, S M

    1987-01-01

    Accurate measurement of tissue relaxation characteristics is dependent on many factors, including field strength and temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sample temperature, viscosity and proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and spin-spin relaxation time (T2). A review of two basic models of relaxation the simple molecular motion model and the fast exchange two state model is given with reference to their thermal dependencies. The temperature dependence for both T1 and T2 was studied on a 0.15 Tesla whole body magnetic resonance imager. Thirteen samples comprising both simple and complex materials were investigated by using a standard spin-echo (SE) technique and a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) multi-echo sequence. A simple linear relationship between T1 and temperature was observed for all samples over the range of 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C. There is an inverse relationship between viscosity and T1 and T2. A quantity called the temperature dependence coefficient (TDC) is introduced and defined as the percent rate of change of the proton relaxation time referenced to a specific temperature. The large TDC found for T1 values, e.g. 2.37%/degrees C for CuSO4 solutions and 3.59%/degrees C for light vegetable oils at 22 degrees C, indicates that a temperature correction should be made when comparing in-vivo and in-vitro T1 times. The T2 temperature dependence is relatively small. PMID:3041151

  20. Temperature-dependent studies of the geometrically frustrated pyrochlores Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mączka, M.; Sanjuán, M. L.; Fuentes, A. F.; Macalik, L.; Hanuza, J.; Matsuhira, K.; Hiroi, Z.

    2009-06-01

    A temperature-dependent Raman study of Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 single crystals was performed in the 5-873 K temperature range. Polarized spectra allowed us to establish the symmetries of the observed bands and revise the mode assignment made in previous works. Our studies revealed also two additional bands near 287 and 300cm-1 for Dy2Ti2O7 , which can be assigned to crystal field transitions in Dy3+ ions. Temperature dependent Raman studies showed large increase of linewidths. These changes have been analyzed in terms of strong third-order phonon-phonon anharmonic interactions. The Raman spectra also showed anomalous softening of the majority of phonon modes upon cooling in the whole temperature range studied. In contrast to this behavior, the F2g ˜310cm-1 and Eg ˜330cm-1 phonon modes showed hardening upon cooling down to about (100-120 K) and then anomalous softening below this temperature. This anomalous behavior of phonon wave numbers has been attributed to the increase in octahedral distortion upon cooling.

  1. Substrate-dependent temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myachina, Olga; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Activity of extracellular enzymes responsible for decomposition of organics is substrate dependent. Quantity of the substrate is the main limiting factor for enzymatic or microbial heterotrophic activity in soils. Different mechanisms of enzymes response to temperature suggested for low and high substrate availability were never proved for real soil conditions. We compared the temperature responses of enzymes-catalyzed reactions in soils. Basing on Michaelis-Menten kinetics we determined the enzymes affinity to substrate (Km) and mineralization potential of heterotrophic microorganisms (Vmax) 1) for three hydrolytic enzymes: β-1,4-glucosidase, N-acetyl- β -D-glucosaminidase and phosphatase by the application of fluorogenically labeled substrates and 2) for mineralization of 14C-labeled glucose by substrate-dependent respiratory response. Here we show that the amount of available substrate is responsible for temperature sensitivity of hydrolysis of polymers in soil, whereas monomers oxidation to CO2 does not depend on substrate amount and is mainly temperature governed. We also found that substrate affinity of enzymes (which is usually decreases with the temperature) differently responded to warming for the process of depolymerisation versus monomers oxidation. We suggest the mechanism to temperature acclimation based on different temperature sensitivity of enzymes kinetics for hydrolysis of polymers and for monomers oxidation.

  2. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250 deg. C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  3. Temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient of ionic colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehnem, A. L.; Figueiredo Neto, A. M.; Aquino, R.; Campos, A. F. C.; Tourinho, F. A.; Depeyrot, J.

    2015-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient ST(T ) in electrostatically charged magnetic colloids is investigated. Two different ferrofluids, with different particles' mean dimensions, are studied. In both cases we obtain a thermophilic behavior of the Soret effect. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient is described assuming that the nanoparticles migrate along the ionic thermoelectric field created by the thermal gradient. A model based on the contributions from the thermoelectrophoresis and variation of the double-layer energy, without fitting parameters, is used to describe the experimental results of the colloid with the bigger particles. To do so, independent measurements of the ζ potential, mass diffusion coefficient, and Seebeck coefficient are performed. The agreement of the theory and the experimental results is rather good. In the case of the ferrofluid with smaller particles, it is not possible to get experimentally reliable values of the ζ potential and the model described is used to evaluate this parameter and its temperature dependence.

  4. On the detection of precipitation dependence on temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Luo, Ming; Leung, Yee

    2016-05-01

    Employing their newly proposed interannual difference method (IADM), Liu et al. (2009) and Shiu et al. (2012) reported a shocking increase of around 100% K-1 in heavy precipitation with warming global temperature in 1979-2007. Such increase is alarming and prompts us to probe into the IADM. In this study, both analytical derivations and numerical analyses demonstrate that IADM provides no additional information to that of the conventional linear regression, and also, it may give a false indication of dependence. For clarity and simplicity, we therefore recommend linear regression analysis over the IADM for the detection of dependence. We also find that heavy precipitation decreased during the global warming hiatus, and the precipitation dependence on temperature drops by almost 50% when the study period is extended to 1979-2014 and it may keep dropping in the near future. The risk of having heavy precipitation under warming global temperature may have been overestimated.

  5. Temperature dependent elasticity and damping in dehydrated sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, T. W.; Struble, W.

    2013-12-01

    Work reported previously at this conference, outlining our observation of anomalously large elastic softening and damping in dehydrated Berea sandstone at elevated temperatures, has been analysed to study shear and compressional effects separately. Modeling of the sample using COMSOL software was necessary to identify modes, as the vibration spectrum of the sample is poorly approximated by a uniform isotropic solid. The first torsional mode of our evacuated, dry, core softens at nearly twice the rate of Young's modulus modes (bending and compressional) and is also damped nearly twice as strongly as temperature increases. We consider two possible models for explaining this behavior, based on the assumption that the mechanical properties of the sandstone are dominated by the framework of quartz grains and polycrystalline cementation, neglecting initially the effects of clay and feldspar inclusions. The 20cm x 2.54cm diameter core is dry such that the pressure of water vapor in the experiment chamber is below 1e-6 Torr at 70C, suggesting that surface water beyond a small number of monolayers is negligible. Our models consider (1) enhanced sliding of grain boundaries in the cementation at elevated temperature and reduced internal water content, and (2) strain microcracking of the cementatioin at low water content due to anisotropic expansion in the quartz grains. In model (1) interfaces parallel to polyhedral grain surfaces were placed in the cement bonds and assigned frictional properties. Model (2) has not yet been implemented. The overall elasticity of a 3-D several-grain model network was determined by modeling quasistatic loading and measuring displacements. Initial results with a small number of grains/bonds suggests that only the first model provides softening and damping for all the modes, however the details of the effects of defect motioin at individual interfaces as the source for the frictional properties is still being evaluated. Nonlinear effects are

  6. Temperature dependence of protein hydration hydrodynamics by molecular dynamics simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Krishnan, V V

    2007-07-18

    The dynamics of water molecules near the protein surface are different from those of bulk water and influence the structure and dynamics of the protein itself. To elucidate the temperature dependence hydration dynamics of water molecules, we present results from the molecular dynamic simulation of the water molecules surrounding two proteins (Carboxypeptidase inhibitor and Ovomucoid) at seven different temperatures (T=273 to 303 K, in increments of 5 K). Translational diffusion coefficients of the surface water and bulk water molecules were estimated from 2 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Temperature dependence of the estimated bulk water diffusion closely reflects the experimental values, while hydration water diffusion is retarded significantly due to the protein. Protein surface induced scaling of translational dynamics of the hydration waters is uniform over the temperature range studied, suggesting the importance protein-water interactions.

  7. Origins of the temperature dependence of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Peracchi, A

    1999-01-01

    The difficulties in interpreting the temperature dependence of protein enzyme reactions are well recognized. Here, the hammerhead ribozyme cleavage was investigated under single-turnover conditions between 0 and 60 degrees C as a model for RNA-catalyzed reactions. Under the adopted conditions, the chemical step appears to be rate-limiting. However, the observed rate of cleavage is affected by pre-catalytic equilibria involving deprotonation of an essential group and binding of at least one low-affinity Mg2+ion. Thus, the apparent entropy and enthalpy of activation include contributions from the temperature dependence of these equilibria, precluding a simple physical interpretation of the observed activation parameters. Similar pre-catalytic equilibria likely contribute to the observed activation parameters for ribozyme reactions in general. The Arrhenius plot for the hammerhead reaction is substantially curved over the temperature range considered, which suggests the occurrence of a conformational change of the ribozyme ground state around physiological temperatures. PMID:10390528

  8. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  9. Temperature dependence of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, Daniel V; Jonsson, Magnus P; Dekker, Cees

    2015-06-12

    In order to gain a better physical understanding of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores, we study the temperature dependence of λ-DNA translocations through 10 nm diameter silicon nitride nanopores, both experimentally and theoretically. The measured ionic conductance G, the DNA-induced ionic-conductance blockades [Formula: see text] and the event frequency Γ all increase with increasing temperature while the DNA translocation time τ decreases. G and [Formula: see text] are accurately described when bulk and surface conductances of the nanopore are considered and access resistance is incorporated appropriately. Viscous drag on the untranslocated part of the DNA coil is found to dominate the temperature dependence of the translocation times and the event rate is well described by a balance between diffusion and electrophoretic motion. The good fit between modeled and measured properties of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores in this first comprehensive temperature study, suggest that our model captures the relevant physics of the process.

  10. Temperature and Depth Dependence of Order in Liquid Crystal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Miranda,L.; Hu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the depth dependence and temperature behavior of the ordering of smectic-A films close to the smectic A-nematic transition, deposited on grated glass. X-ray grazing incidence geometry in reflection mode through the glass substrate was used to characterize the samples. Our results indicate the presence of a structure similar to the helical twist grain boundary phase. The structure has two maxima, one close to the glass-liquid crystal interface and another about 8 {mu}m above the surface. The structure at 8 {mu}m is the one that dominates at higher temperatures. In addition, we find that order is preserved to temperatures close to the nematic-isotropic transition temperature for the deeper gratings. We find also a dependence of the orientation of the structure with the depth of the grating and the elastic constant of the liquid crystal.

  11. Dielectric relaxation of a ferroelectric liquid crystal showing anomalous behaviour due to polarization inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Abhishek Kumar; Pandey, Kamal Kr; Tripathi, Pankaj Kr; Manohar, Rajiv

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the dielectric study of a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) material Felix 016/030 showing anomalous dielectric behaviour. This anomalous behaviour is explained on the basis of a model of dynamically fluctuating mixture of two interconvertible conformers, whose relative density changes with temperature. We have observed Goldstone mode of dielectric relaxation in the frequency range covered. The experimental results have been corrected for low and high frequency range and used to determine dielectric permittivity. The anomalous behaviour of dielectric permittivity has also been verified by discussing the temperature dependence behaviour of PS/Sin θ term where Ps is spontaneous polarization of the sample.

  12. Temperature dependent sensor response caused by polymer-solvent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M A

    1992-01-01

    Absorption of organic solvents by a range of polymers has been used as the chemical transduction mechanism for a variety of sensors. This paper examines the effect of the polymer-solvent interaction on the temperature dependence of the sensor response. Optical interferometric cavities are formed on the end of an optical fiber by plasma-deposition of a fluorocarbon polymer. Swelling of the polymer when exposed to various solvent vapors produces changes in the reflectivity of the fiber tip. The temperature dependence of the sensor response is related to the strength of the polymer-solvent interaction and the heat of vaporization of the solvent.

  13. Temperature dependence of VUV transmission of synthetic fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, St.; Lange, H.; Schoepp, H.; Witzke, H.-D.

    2006-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the VUV transmission of synthetic fused silica is of interest for commercial applications as well as for fundamental research. In this work the transmission properties of Suprasil 2 from Heraeus with an absorption edge at very low wavelengths is investigated. The absorption edge of this quartz glass shifts from 170 to 180 nm between 789 and 1129 K. The Urbach rule is discussed for the characterization of the temperature dependent transmission curves. The results are applied to the diagnostics of the Hg 185 nm line from a high pressure mercury discharge lamp.

  14. Electron temperature profile invariance on OH, L- and H-mode plasmas and consequences for the anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1992-01-01

    The shapes of the electron temperature and electron density profiles in the OH, L- and H-mode confinement regimes of ASDEX are explored by statistical analysis. It is shown that the shape of Te(r) is conserved in the outer half of the plasma in these regimes and that it is invariant with respect to heating power, heating profile, density, density scale length, q value and ion mass. These results suggest that microturbulence constrains the shape of the temperature profile by adjusting the electron heat diffusivity χe(r). No such invariance is found for the temperature profile in the inner half of the plasma and for the density profile over the whole cross-section. Properties of the empirical electron heat diffusivity and the diffusion coefficient in different regimes can be described by Te profile invariance. The improved confinement with peaked density profiles, the reduction of χe in the bulk of H-mode plasmas and the power dependence of χe in the L-regime are discussed

  15. Origin of the low critical observing temperature of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 film.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Claassen, M; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moritz, B; Jia, T; Zhang, C; Rebec, S; Lee, J J; Hashimoto, M; Lu, D-H; Moore, R G; Moodera, J S; Devereaux, T P; Shen, Z-X

    2016-09-07

    The experimental realization of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetically-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 films stands out as a landmark of modern condensed matter physics. However, ultra-low temperatures down to few tens of mK are needed to reach the quantization of Hall resistance, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the ferromagnetic phase transition temperature of the films. Here, we systematically study the band structure of V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and show unambiguously that the bulk valence band (BVB) maximum lies higher in energy than the surface state Dirac point. Our results demonstrate clear evidence that localization of BVB carriers plays an active role and can account for the temperature discrepancy.

  16. Origin of the low critical observing temperature of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 film.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Claassen, M; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moritz, B; Jia, T; Zhang, C; Rebec, S; Lee, J J; Hashimoto, M; Lu, D-H; Moore, R G; Moodera, J S; Devereaux, T P; Shen, Z-X

    2016-01-01

    The experimental realization of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetically-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 films stands out as a landmark of modern condensed matter physics. However, ultra-low temperatures down to few tens of mK are needed to reach the quantization of Hall resistance, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the ferromagnetic phase transition temperature of the films. Here, we systematically study the band structure of V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and show unambiguously that the bulk valence band (BVB) maximum lies higher in energy than the surface state Dirac point. Our results demonstrate clear evidence that localization of BVB carriers plays an active role and can account for the temperature discrepancy. PMID:27599406

  17. Origin of the low critical observing temperature of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 film

    PubMed Central

    Li, W.; Claassen, M.; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moritz, B.; Jia, T.; Zhang, C.; Rebec, S.; Lee, J. J.; Hashimoto, M.; Lu, D.-H.; Moore, R. G.; Moodera, J. S.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z.-X.

    2016-01-01

    The experimental realization of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetically-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 films stands out as a landmark of modern condensed matter physics. However, ultra-low temperatures down to few tens of mK are needed to reach the quantization of Hall resistance, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the ferromagnetic phase transition temperature of the films. Here, we systematically study the band structure of V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and show unambiguously that the bulk valence band (BVB) maximum lies higher in energy than the surface state Dirac point. Our results demonstrate clear evidence that localization of BVB carriers plays an active role and can account for the temperature discrepancy. PMID:27599406

  18. Temperature Dependence of Photosynthesis in Agropyron smithii Rydb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Russell K.; Stidham, Mark A.; Williams, George J.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Uribe, Ernest G.

    1982-01-01

    As part of an extensive analysis of the factors regulating photosynthesis in Agropyron smithii Rydb., a C3 grass, we have examined the response of leaf gas exchange and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase activity to temperature. Emphasis was placed on elucidating the specific processes which regulate the temperature response pattern. The inhibitory effects of above-optimal temperatures on net CO2 uptake were fully reversible up to 40°C. Below 40°C, temperature inhibition was primarily due to O2 inhibition of photosynthesis, which reached a maximum of 65% at 45°C. The response of stomatal conductance to temperature did not appear to have a significant role in determining the overall temperature response of photosynthesis. The intracellular conductance to CO2 increased over the entire experimental temperature range, having a Q10 of 1.2 to 1.4. Increases in the apparent Michaelis constant (Kc) for RuBP carboxylase were observed in both in vitro and in vivo assays. The Q10 values for the maximum velocity (Vmax) of CO2 fixation by RuBP carboxylase in vivo was lower (1.3-1.6) than those calculated from in vitro assays (1.8-2.2). The results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in enzyme capacity may have a role in above-optimum temperature limitations below 40°C. At leaf temperatures above 40°C, decreases in photosynthetic capacity were partially dependent on temperature-induced irreversible reductions in the quantum yield for CO2 uptake. PMID:16662320

  19. The temperature dependence of ponded infiltration under isothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Murphy, F.

    1991-01-01

    A simple temperature-sensitive modification to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is described; this assumes that the temperature dependence of the hydraulic conductivity is reciprocally equal to the temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid water, and that both the transmission zone saturation and the wetting front matric potential gradient are independent of temperature. This modified Green and Ampt equation is compared with ponded, isothermal infiltration experiments run on repacked columns of Olympic Sand and Aiken Loam at 5, 25, and 60??C. Experimental results showed increases in infiltration rates of at least 300% between 5 and 60??C for both soil materials, with subsequent increases in cumulative infiltration of even greater magnitudes for the loam. There is good agreement between measured and predicted initial infiltration rates at 25??C for both soil materials, yet at 60??C, the predicted results overestimate initial infiltration rates for the sand and underestimate initial rates for the loam. Measurements of the wetting depth vs. cumulative infiltration indicate that the transmission zone saturation increased with increasing temperature for both soil materials. In spite of this increased saturation with temperature, the final infiltration rates at both 25 and 60??C were predicted accurately using the modified Green and Ampt equation. This suggests that increased saturation occurred primarily in dead-end pore spaces, so that transmission zone hydraulic conductivities were unaffected by these temperature-induced changes in saturation. In conclusion, except for initial infiltration rates at 60??C, the measured influence of temperature on infiltration rates was fully accounted for by the temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid water. ?? 1991.

  20. On the Anomalous Microwave Power Dependency of both Non-Resonant and Cu2+ Resonant Microwave Absorption in a YBa2Cu3O7-δ Type Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velter-Stefanescu, M.; Duliu, O. G.

    2007-04-01

    A ceramic high temperature superconductor [HTS] of Y-Ba-Cu-O type has been investigated at 77 K by using a standard X-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) configuration. At very low microwave power (< 1 mW) the non-resonant or zero field signal (ZFS) was in phase with DPPH signal, pleading for an unambiguous absorption process, but it commutes to a typical superconductor signal (i.e. opposite to DPPH signal phase) with increasing the microwave power. At the same time, Cu2+ signal appreciably changes its shape with increasing microwave power. These anomalous behaviors could be in part explained by a conventional SQUID response at microwave frequency by taking into account that the sample itself could be described by a collection of both Josephson and proximity junctions.

  1. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J. E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu; Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C. E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  2. Temperature dependence of nucleation rate in a binary solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. Y.; Philippe, T.; Duguay, S.; Blavette, D.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of regression (partial dissolution) effects on the temperature dependence of nucleation rate in a binary solid solution has been studied theoretically. The results of the analysis are compared with the predictions of the simplest Volmer-Weber theory. Regression effects are shown to have a strong influence on the shape of the curve of nucleation rate versus temperature. The temperature TM at which the maximum rate of nucleation occurs is found to be lowered, particularly for low interfacial energy (coherent precipitation) and high-mobility species (e.g. interstitial atoms).

  3. Measurement of Temperature Dependent Apparent Specific Heat Capacity in Electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Karaki, Wafaa; Akyildiz, Ali; Borca Tasciuc, Diana-Andra; De, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of temperature dependent apparent specific heat of ex-vivo porcine liver tissue during radiofrequency alternating current heating for a large temperature range. The difference between spatial and temporal evolution of experimental temperature, obtained during electrosurgical heating by infrared thermometry, and predictions based on finite element modeling was minimized to obtain the apparent specific heat. The model was based on transient heat transfer with internal heat generation considering heat storage along with conduction. Such measurements are important to develop computational models for real time simulation of electrosurgical procedures. PMID:27046573

  4. NICMOS Flats and temperature dependence of the DQE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeker, Torsten

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to obtain initial estimates of the detective quantum efficiency {DQE} of the NICMOS detectors and its temperature dependence in the previously uncharted temperature regime expected for operation under the NICMOS Cooling System {NCS}. The observations will measure the relative {via flat field morphology} and absolute DQE variation at three temperature setpoints. In addition, they will provide a monitor for particulate contamination {"Grot"} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. When stars are present in the field of view, they will enable a preliminary focus determination.

  5. Measurement of Temperature Dependent Apparent Specific Heat Capacity in Electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Karaki, Wafaa; Akyildiz, Ali; Borca Tasciuc, Diana-Andra; De, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of temperature dependent apparent specific heat of ex-vivo porcine liver tissue during radiofrequency alternating current heating for a large temperature range. The difference between spatial and temporal evolution of experimental temperature, obtained during electrosurgical heating by infrared thermometry, and predictions based on finite element modeling was minimized to obtain the apparent specific heat. The model was based on transient heat transfer with internal heat generation considering heat storage along with conduction. Such measurements are important to develop computational models for real time simulation of electrosurgical procedures.

  6. The Temperature Dependence of Biological Rates from Enzymes to Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcus, V. L.; Schipper, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Can enzymology and thermodynamics shed light on the response of the biosphere to a changing climate? We have recently developed a theory describing the temperature dependence of biological rates. We have called this MacroMolecular Rate Theory (MMRT) to reflect some fundamental thermodynamic properties peculiar to biological macromolecules. This theory scales well from enzymes to ecosystems and explains the curved temperature dependence of ecosystem processes such as respiration, as described by Lloyd and Taylor 20 years ago. MMRT also accounts for temperature optima which are a feature of all biological processes including respiration, photosynthsis and net ecosystem exchange. MMRT begins with enzymes. Enzymes drive metabolism and enable life by catalysing a myraid of chemical reactions with phenomenal rate enhancements. According to the classical thermodynamics description, enzymes achieve catalysis by binding to the transition state for the reaction and thus, lowering the reaction barrier. The dissociation constant, Kd, for the enzyme-transition state complex, commensurate with the observed rate enhancements, is extreme (Kd ~ 10-22 M). Such tight binding of the transition state influences the thermodynamic parameter, Cp, the heat capacity of the molecule. The difference in heat capacity, ∆C‡P, between the enzyme-substrate complex (Kd ~ 10-5 M) and the enzyme-transition state complex (Kd ~ 10-22 M) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme catalyzed rates. ∆C‡P is close to zero for reactions that involve small molecules, but is generally large and negative for reactions that involve macromolecules such as enzymes. The result is a curved temperature dependence of enzyme catalyzed rates and a temperature optimum above which, the rate decreases. This ∆C‡P signature is pervasive and scales from enzymes, to microbial growth rates, to microbial metabolism and ecosystem fluxes. It also has important implications for the temperature

  7. Anomalous spectral dependence of optical polarization and its impact on spin detection in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Puttisong, Y.; Huang, Y. Q.; Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.; Yang, X. J.; Subagyo, A.; Sueoka, K.; Murayama, A.

    2014-09-29

    We show that circularly polarized emission light from InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) ensembles under optical spin injection from an adjacent GaAs layer can switch its helicity depending on emission wavelengths and optical excitation density. We attribute this anomalous behavior to simultaneous contributions from both positive and negative trions and a lower number of photo-excited holes than electrons being injected into the QDs due to trapping of holes at ionized acceptors and a lower hole mobility. Our results call for caution in reading out electron spin polarization by optical polarization of the QD ensembles and also provide a guideline in improving efficiency of spin light emitting devices that utilize QDs.

  8. High temperature dependence of thermal transport in graphene foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Man; Sun, Yi; Xiao, Huying; Hu, Xuejiao; Yue, Yanan

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the decreased thermal property of carbon materials with temperature according to the Umklapp phonon scattering theory, highly porous free-standing graphene foam (GF) exhibits an abnormal characteristic that its thermal property increases with temperature above room temperature. In this work, the temperature dependence of thermal properties of free-standing GF is investigated by using the transient electro-thermal technique. Significant increase for thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity from ˜0.3 to 1.5 W m-1 K-1 and ˜4 × 10-5 to ˜2 × 10-4 m2 s-1 respectively is observed with temperature from 310 K to 440 K for three GF samples. The quantitative analysis based on a physical model for porous media of Schuetz confirms that the thermal conductance across graphene contacts rather than the heat conductance inside graphene dominates thermal transport of our GFs. The thermal expansion effect at an elevated temperature makes the highly porous structure much tighter is responsible for the reduction in thermal contact resistance. Besides, the radiation heat exchange inside the pores of GFs improves the thermal transport at high temperatures. Since free-standing GF has great potential for being used as supercapacitor and battery electrode where the working temperature is always above room temperature, this finding is beneficial for thermal design of GF-based energy applications.

  9. High temperature dependence of thermal transport in graphene foam.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Sun, Yi; Xiao, Huying; Hu, Xuejiao; Yue, Yanan

    2015-03-13

    In contrast to the decreased thermal property of carbon materials with temperature according to the Umklapp phonon scattering theory, highly porous free-standing graphene foam (GF) exhibits an abnormal characteristic that its thermal property increases with temperature above room temperature. In this work, the temperature dependence of thermal properties of free-standing GF is investigated by using the transient electro-thermal technique. Significant increase for thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity from ∼0.3 to 1.5 W m(-1) K(-1) and ∼4 × 10(-5) to ∼2 × 10(-4) m(2) s(-1) respectively is observed with temperature from 310 K to 440 K for three GF samples. The quantitative analysis based on a physical model for porous media of Schuetz confirms that the thermal conductance across graphene contacts rather than the heat conductance inside graphene dominates thermal transport of our GFs. The thermal expansion effect at an elevated temperature makes the highly porous structure much tighter is responsible for the reduction in thermal contact resistance. Besides, the radiation heat exchange inside the pores of GFs improves the thermal transport at high temperatures. Since free-standing GF has great potential for being used as supercapacitor and battery electrode where the working temperature is always above room temperature, this finding is beneficial for thermal design of GF-based energy applications.

  10. Anomalous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this composite image of spiral galaxy M106 (NGC 4258), optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey is shown as yellow, radio data from the Very Large Array appears as purple, X-ray data from Chandra is coded blue, and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope appears red. Two anomalous arms, which aren't visible at optical wavelengths, appear as purple and blue emission.

  11. Efficiencies of thermodynamics when temperature-dependent energy levels exist.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Takuya

    2016-03-14

    Based on a generalized form of the second law of thermodynamics, in which the temperature-dependent energy levels of a system are appropriately included in entropy generation, we show that the effect reasonably appears in efficiencies of thermodynamic processes. PMID:26890276

  12. Investigation of temperature dependence of development and aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacher, G. A.

    1969-01-01

    Temperature dependence of maturation and metabolic rates in insects, and the failure of vital processes during development were investigated. The paper presented advances the general hypothesis that aging in biological systems is a consequence of the production of entropy concomitant with metabolic activity.

  13. Temperature dependence of soliton diffusion in trans-polyacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Isoya, J.

    1997-07-01

    The temperature dependence of 1-D diffusion rate of solitons in transpolyacetylene is determined by time-domain analysis of ESR measurements. The diffusion rate appears to obey a simple power law. Monte Carlo simulation of 1-D diffusion process in impure chains indicates that overall diffusion can be much slower than that without traps.

  14. Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint

    SciTech Connect

    Sihn, Sangwook; Miyano, Yasushi; Tsai, S.W.

    1997-07-01

    Time and temperature dependent properties of a tubular lap bonded joint are reported. The joint bonds a cast iron rod and a composite pipe together with an epoxy type of an adhesive material containing chopped glass fiber. A new fabrication method is proposed.

  15. Temperature dependence of liquid crystals electrical response by impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. C.; Gaona, N.; Pérez, I.; Urruchi, V.; Pena, J. M. S.

    2007-05-01

    Liquid crystals are a growing technology bringing solutions for a number of applications in high performance displays featuring video-rate, color and high resolution images, and in prototypes of photonic devices. Electrooptic response of antiferroelectric liquid crystals (AFLC) might be superior to nematic liquid crystals that are been customarily employed nowadays. AFLC show reduced time response being promising candidates for portable multimedia devices, optical routing applications, among others. In this work, temperature and frequency dependence of impedance measurements, in passive devices of commercial antiferroelectric liquid crystals, has been studied. Measurements of the temperature dependence of optical transmission have been obtained. 1Hz triangular waveforms with different amplitude have been applied to the devices to carry out such characterization. Simultaneous measurements of optical transmission and electrical impedance have been performed. Specific addressing schemes have been tested in order to obtain the optimum electrooptical performance. Display blanking takes place when a saturation pulse is applied. Results achieved show that increasing temperature shifts the dynamic range of the analogue grayscale towards lower voltages. Impedance analysis of these devices upon switching has been performed as well. Temperature and frequency dependence of the impedance measurements have been characterized. Negative phase responses show there is a combined capacitive and resistive behavior. As the frequency increases the capacitive effect grows. Magnitude shows a linear decrease on a log-log frequency scale. As temperature increases, phase profile becomes slight more complex. New capacitive effects are suggested in a model of the electric response of AFLC cells at low frequencies.

  16. Temperature dependent phonon shifts in few-layer black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Late, Dattatray J

    2015-03-18

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets of black phosphorus have attracted much attention due to their potential for future nanoelectronic and photonics device applications. Present investigations deal with the temperature dependent phonon shifts in a few-layer black phosphorus nanosheet sample prepared using micromechanical exfoliation on a 300 nm SiO2/Si substrate. The temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy experiments were carried out on a few-layer black phosphorus sample, which depicts softening of Ag(1), B2g, and Ag(2) modes as temperature increases from 77 to 673 K. The calculated temperature coefficients for Ag(1), B2g, and Ag(2) modes of the few-layer black phosphorus nanosheet sample were observed to be -0.01, -0.013, and -0.014 cm(-1) K(-1), respectively. The temperature dependent softening modes of black phosphorus results were explained on the basis of a double resonance process which is more active in an atomically thin sample. This process can also be fundamentally pertinent in other promising and emerging 2D ultrathin layer and heterostructured materials.

  17. Study of the PTW microLion chamber temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Gómez, F; González-Castaño, D; Díaz-Botana, P; Pardo-Montero, J

    2014-06-01

    The use of liquid ionization chambers in radiotherapy has grown during the past few years. While for air ionization chambers the k(TP) correction for air mass density due to pressure and temperature variations is well known, less work has been done on the case of liquid ionization chambers, where there is still the need to take into account the influence of temperature in the free ion yield. We have measured the PTW microLion isooctane-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence in a ~ ±10 °C interval around the standard 20 °C room temperature for three operation voltages, including the manufacturer recommended voltage, and two beam qualities, (60)Co and 50 kV x-rays. Within the measured temperature range, the microLion signal exhibits a positive linear dependence, which is around 0.24% K(-1) at 800 V with (60)Co irradiation. This effect is of the same order of magnitude as the T dependence found in air ionization chambers, but its nature is completely different and its sign opposite to that of an air chamber. Onsager theory has been used to model the results and is consistent with this linear behaviour. However, some inconsistencies in the modelling of the 50 kV x-ray results have been found that are attributed to the failure of Onsager's isolated pair assumption for such radiation quality.

  18. Surface Induced Anomalous Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Herman J.; Haley, Stephen B.

    The Ginzburg Landau (GL) theory is recast using a Hamiltonian involving the complete kinetic energy density which requires that the surface energy must contain a term ∇∣ψ∣2 to support superconducting (SC) states. The GL equations contain two temperature t dependent parameters α(t) and β(t), which are respectively the coefficients of the SC pair density ∝∣ψ∣2, and the pair interaction term ∝∣ψ∣4 in the free energy density. The sign of these parameters, which defines distinct solution classes, and the ratio s(t)=√ {|α |/|β |} are governed by the characteristics of the surface energy density. In addition to the conventional bulk superconducting states with (α < 0, β > 0), anomalous superconducting states exist for all other sign combinations, including cases with β < 0 which may exist only when surface pair interactions are significant. All possible solutions of our generalized nonlinear, one-dimensional GL equations are found analytically and applied to a thin superconducting slab which manifests the possibility of states exhibiting enhanced, diminished, and pre-wetting superconductivity. Critical currents are determined as functions of s(t) and surface parameters. The results are applied to critical current experiments on SNS systems.

  19. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  20. Unconventional temperature dependence of the cuprate excitation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, William; Mauger, Alain; Noat, Yves

    2016-08-01

    Key properties of the cuprates, such as the pseudogap observed above the critical temperature Tc, remain highly debated. Given their importance, we recently proposed a novel mechanism based on the Bose-like condensation of mutually interacting Cooper pairs [W. Sacks, A. Mauger, Y. Noat, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28, 105014 (2015)]. In this work, we calculate the temperature dependent DOS using this model for different doping levels from underdoped to overdoped. In all situations, due to the presence of excited pairs, a pseudogap is found above Tc while the normal DOS is recovered at T∗, the pair formation temperature. A similar behavior is found as a function of magnetic field, crossing a vortex, where a pseudogap exists in the vortex core. We show that the precise DOS shape depends on combined pair (boson) and quasiparticle (fermion) excitations, allowing for a deeper understanding of the SC to the PG transition.

  1. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  2. Temperature dependence of penetration depth in thin film niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, N.; Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique is presented which should allow precise determination of the temperature dependence of the inductance, and hence of the penetration depth, of superconducting niobium thin-film structures. Four niobium thin-film stripline inductors are arranged in a bridge configuration, and inductance differences are measured using a potentiometric technique with a SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) as the null detector. Numerical simulations of the stripline inductances are presented which allow the performance of the measurement technique to be evaluated. The prediction of the two-fluid model for the penetration-depth temperature dependence is given for reduced temperatures of 0.3 to 0.9. The experimental apparatus and its resolution and accuracy are discussed.

  3. Temperature dependence of angular momentum transport across interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Lin, Weiwei; Chien, C. L.; Zhang, Shufeng

    2016-08-01

    Angular momentum transport in magnetic multilayered structures plays a central role in spintronic physics and devices. The angular momentum currents or spin currents are carried by either quasiparticles such as electrons and magnons, or by macroscopic order parameters such as local magnetization of ferromagnets. Based on the generic interface exchange interaction, we develop a microscopic theory that describes interfacial spin conductance for various interfaces among nonmagnetic metals, ferromagnetic insulators, and antiferromagnetic insulators. Spin conductance and its temperature dependence are obtained for different spin batteries including spin pumping, temperature gradient, and spin Hall effect. As an application of our theory, we calculate the spin current in a trilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator, an antiferromagnetic insulator, and a nonmagnetic heavy metal. The calculated results on the temperature dependence of spin conductance quantitatively agree with the existing experiments.

  4. Sensitive Dependence of Gibbs Measures at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronel, Daniel; Rivera-Letelier, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The Gibbs measures of an interaction can behave chaotically as the temperature drops to zero. We observe that for some classical lattice systems there are interactions exhibiting a related phenomenon of sensitive dependence of Gibbs measures: An arbitrarily small perturbation of the interaction can produce significant changes in the low-temperature behavior of its Gibbs measures. For some one-dimensional XY models we exhibit sensitive dependence of Gibbs measures for a (nearest-neighbor) interaction given by a smooth function, and for perturbations that are small in the smooth category. We also exhibit sensitive dependence of Gibbs measures for an interaction on a classical lattice system with finite-state space. This interaction decreases exponentially as a function of the distance between sites; it is given by a Lipschitz continuous potential in the configuration space. The perturbations are small in the Lipschitz topology. As a by-product we solve some problems stated by Chazottes and Hochman.

  5. Temperature Dependence of Carbon Isotope Fractionation in CAM Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Deleens, Eliane; Treichel, Isabel; O'Leary, Marion H.

    1985-01-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17°C nights, 23°C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is −4‰ (that is, malate is enriched in 13C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0‰ at 27°C/33°C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. PMID:16664371

  6. Temperature dependence of denitrification in phototrophic river biofilms.

    PubMed

    Boulêtreau, S; Salvo, E; Lyautey, E; Mastrorillo, S; Garabetian, F

    2012-02-01

    Denitrification is an ecosystem service of nitrogen load regulation along the terrestrial-freshwater-marine continuum. The present study documents the short-term temperature sensitivity of denitrification enzyme activity in phototrophic river biofilms as a typical microbial assemblage of this continuum. Denitrification measurements were performed using the acetylene inhibition method at four incubation temperatures: 1.1, 12.1, 21.2 and 30.9°C. For this range of temperature, N(2)O production could be fitted to an exponential function of incubation temperature, yielding mean (±standard error) activation energy of 1.42 (±0.24) eV and Q(10) of 7.0 (±1.4). This first quantification of denitrification enzyme activity temperature dependence in phototrophic river biofilms compares with previous studies performed in soils and sediments. This demonstrates the high temperature dependence of denitrification as compared to other community-level metabolisms such as respiration or photosynthesis. This result suggests that global warming can unbalance natural community metabolisms in phototrophic river biofilms and affect their biogeochemical budget.

  7. TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT INFRARED OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF OLIVINE AND ENSTATITE

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidler, S.; Mutschke, H.; Posch, Th. E-mail: harald.mutschke@uni-jena.de

    2015-01-10

    Since the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) mission, it has become clear that dust in circumstellar disks and outflows consists partly of crystalline silicates of pyroxene and olivine type. An exact mineralogical analysis of the dust infrared emission spectra relies on laboratory spectra, which, however, have been mostly measured at room temperature so far. Given that infrared spectral features depend on the thermal excitation of the crystal's vibrational modes, laboratory spectra measured at various (low and high) temperatures, corresponding to the thermal conditions at different distances from the star, can improve the accuracy of such analyses considerably. We have measured the complex refractive index in a temperature range of 10-973 K for one mineral of each of those types of silicate, i.e., for an olivine and an enstatite of typical (terrestrial) composition. Thus, our data extend the temperature range of previous data to higher values and the compositional range to higher iron contents. We analyze the temperature dependence of oscillator frequencies and damping parameters governing the spectral characteristics of the bands and calculate absorption cross-sectional spectra that can be compared with astronomical emission spectra. We demonstrate the usefulness of our new data by comparing spectra calculated for a 100 K dust temperature with the ISO SWS spectrum of IRAS 09425-6040.

  8. Temperature dependence of single-axis acoustic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2003-03-01

    The temperature-dependent physical conditions for single-axis acoustic levitation are theoretically analyzed with consideration of the deviation of the actual acoustic field from the plane standing wave approximation. The effects of temperature variation on the resonant conditions, levitation force and threshold pressures pm (the minimum entrapping pressure) and pM (the maximum pressure to keep the integration of a liquid drop) are discussed by assuming a quasi-static heating and cooling process. The first resonant spacing H1 between the reflector and emitter is larger than that predicted for plane standing waves, and its temperature dependence comes mainly from the variation of wavelength, which is proportional to T1/2. The maximum levitation force FM has a drastic decreasing tendency with temperature rise due to its sensitivity to the ratios of the geometric parameters to wavelength. For the containerless processing of water and the Pb-Sn eutectic alloy, pm decreases whereas pM increases with the enhancement of temperature, which narrows the allowed pressure range for the safe and stable levitation of the processed drops at higher temperatures. As an experimental application of these analyses, the acoustically levitated water and the Pb-Sn eutectic alloy melt are highly undercooled by up to 24 and 38 K, respectively.

  9. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems. PMID:26881922

  10. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems.

  11. Temperature dependent local atomic displacements in ammonia intercalated iron selenide superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Paris, E.; Simonelli, L.; Wakita, T.; Marini, C.; Lee, J.-H.; Olszewski, W.; Terashima, K.; Kakuto, T.; Nishimoto, N.; Kimura, T.; Kudo, K.; Kambe, T.; Nohara, M.; Yokoya, T.; Saini, N. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ammonia-thermal reaction has been used for molecular intercalation in layered FeSe, resulting a new Lix(NH3)yFe2Se2 superconductor with Tc ~ 45 K. Here, we have used temperature dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to investigate local atomic displacements in single crystals of this new superconductor. Using polarized EXAFS at Fe K-edge we have obtained direct information on the local Fe-Se and Fe-Fe bondlengths and corresponding mean square relative displacements (MSRD). We find that the Se-height in the intercalated system is lower than the one in the binary FeSe, suggesting compressed FeSe4 tetrahedron in the title system. Incidentally, there is hardly any effect of the intercalation on the bondlengths characteristics, revealed by the Einstein temperatures, that are similar to those found in the binary FeSe. Therefore, the molecular intercalation induces an effective compression and decouples the FeSe slabs. Furthermore, the results reveal an anomalous change in the atomic correlations across Tc, appearing as a clear decrease in the MSRD, indicating hardening of the local lattice mode. Similar response of the local lattice has been found in other families of superconductors, e.g., A15-type and cuprates superconductors. This observation suggests that local atomic correlations should have some direct correlation with the superconductivity. PMID:27276997

  12. Temperature dependent local atomic displacements in ammonia intercalated iron selenide superconductor.

    PubMed

    Paris, E; Simonelli, L; Wakita, T; Marini, C; Lee, J-H; Olszewski, W; Terashima, K; Kakuto, T; Nishimoto, N; Kimura, T; Kudo, K; Kambe, T; Nohara, M; Yokoya, T; Saini, N L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ammonia-thermal reaction has been used for molecular intercalation in layered FeSe, resulting a new Lix(NH3)yFe2Se2 superconductor with Tc ~ 45 K. Here, we have used temperature dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to investigate local atomic displacements in single crystals of this new superconductor. Using polarized EXAFS at Fe K-edge we have obtained direct information on the local Fe-Se and Fe-Fe bondlengths and corresponding mean square relative displacements (MSRD). We find that the Se-height in the intercalated system is lower than the one in the binary FeSe, suggesting compressed FeSe4 tetrahedron in the title system. Incidentally, there is hardly any effect of the intercalation on the bondlengths characteristics, revealed by the Einstein temperatures, that are similar to those found in the binary FeSe. Therefore, the molecular intercalation induces an effective compression and decouples the FeSe slabs. Furthermore, the results reveal an anomalous change in the atomic correlations across Tc, appearing as a clear decrease in the MSRD, indicating hardening of the local lattice mode. Similar response of the local lattice has been found in other families of superconductors, e.g., A15-type and cuprates superconductors. This observation suggests that local atomic correlations should have some direct correlation with the superconductivity. PMID:27276997

  13. Temperature dependent local atomic displacements in ammonia intercalated iron selenide superconductor.

    PubMed

    Paris, E; Simonelli, L; Wakita, T; Marini, C; Lee, J-H; Olszewski, W; Terashima, K; Kakuto, T; Nishimoto, N; Kimura, T; Kudo, K; Kambe, T; Nohara, M; Yokoya, T; Saini, N L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ammonia-thermal reaction has been used for molecular intercalation in layered FeSe, resulting a new Lix(NH3)yFe2Se2 superconductor with Tc ~ 45 K. Here, we have used temperature dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to investigate local atomic displacements in single crystals of this new superconductor. Using polarized EXAFS at Fe K-edge we have obtained direct information on the local Fe-Se and Fe-Fe bondlengths and corresponding mean square relative displacements (MSRD). We find that the Se-height in the intercalated system is lower than the one in the binary FeSe, suggesting compressed FeSe4 tetrahedron in the title system. Incidentally, there is hardly any effect of the intercalation on the bondlengths characteristics, revealed by the Einstein temperatures, that are similar to those found in the binary FeSe. Therefore, the molecular intercalation induces an effective compression and decouples the FeSe slabs. Furthermore, the results reveal an anomalous change in the atomic correlations across Tc, appearing as a clear decrease in the MSRD, indicating hardening of the local lattice mode. Similar response of the local lattice has been found in other families of superconductors, e.g., A15-type and cuprates superconductors. This observation suggests that local atomic correlations should have some direct correlation with the superconductivity.

  14. Temperature dependent Raman and DFT study of creatine.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Ranjan K

    2015-01-01

    Temperature dependent Raman spectra of creatine powder have been recorded in the temperature range 420-100K at regular intervals and different clusters of creatine have been optimized using density functional theory (DFT) in order to determine the effect of temperature on the hydrogen bonded network in the crystal structure of creatine. Vibrational assignments of all the 48 normal modes of the zwitterionic form of creatine have been done in terms of potential energy distribution obtained from DFT calculations. Precise analysis gives information about thermal motion and intermolecular interactions with respect to temperature in the crystal lattice. Formation of higher hydrogen bonded aggregates on cooling can be visualized from the spectra through clear signature of phase transition between 200K and 180K. PMID:26010702

  15. Temperature dependence of contact resistance at metal/MWNT interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Eui; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Sohn, Yoonchul

    2016-07-01

    Although contact resistance of carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most important factors for practical application of electronic devices, a study regarding temperature dependence on contact resistance of CNTs with metal electrodes has not been found. Here, we report an investigation of contact resistance at multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)/Ag interface as a function of temperature, using MWNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite. Electrical resistance of MWNT/PDMS composite revealed negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Excluding the contact resistance with Ag electrode, the NTC effect became less pronounced, showing lower intrinsic resistivity with the activation energy of 0.019 eV. Activation energy of the contact resistance of MWNT/Ag interface was determined to be 0.04 eV, two times larger than that of MWNT-MWNT network. The increase in the thermal fluctuation assisted electron tunneling is attributed to conductivity enhancement at both MWNT/MWNT and MWNT/Ag interfaces with increasing temperature.

  16. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced.

  17. Temperature dependent relativistic mean field for highly excited hot nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambhir, Y. K.; Maharana, J. P.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Panos, C. P.; Ring, P.

    2000-11-01

    The temperature dependent relativistic mean field (RMF-T) results obtained by using nonlinear Lagrangian parameter set NL3 are presented for a few selected representative spherical and deformed nuclei. The calculated total binding energy (entropy) decrease (increase) as temperature (T) increases. The depths of the potentials and the single particle (sp) energies change very little with temperature. The density slightly spreads out; as a result the radius increases as temperature rises. For well deformed nuclei the shell effects disappear at around T~3 MeV. This value of T is relatively higher as compared to the corresponding value of T (~1.8 MeV) obtained in the Strutinsky-type calculations. This difference in the value of T is shown to be due to the use of the effective nucleon mass (< the bare mass) appearing in the Skyrme III interaction or emerging from the RMF Lagrangian.

  18. Multiaxial Temperature- and Time-Dependent Failure Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, David; McLennan, Michael; Anderson, Gregory; Macon, David; Batista-Rodriquez, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    A temperature- and time-dependent mathematical model predicts the conditions for failure of a material subjected to multiaxial stress. The model was initially applied to a filled epoxy below its glass-transition temperature, and is expected to be applicable to other materials, at least below their glass-transition temperatures. The model is justified simply by the fact that it closely approximates the experimentally observed failure behavior of this material: The multiaxiality of the model has been confirmed (see figure) and the model has been shown to be applicable at temperatures from -20 to 115 F (-29 to 46 C) and to predict tensile failures of constant-load and constant-load-rate specimens with failure times ranging from minutes to months..

  19. Influence of growth temperature on interdiffusion in uncapped SiGe-islands on Si(001) determined by anomalous x-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Schuelli, T.U.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Hesse, A.; Stangl, J.; Lechner, R.T.; Wintersberger, E.; Bauer, G.; Sztucki, M.; Metzger, T.H.

    2005-01-15

    The influence of growth temperature in the regime of dome formation in Stranski-Krastanow growth is studied systematically on a series of Ge on Si(001) samples. A combination of complementary x-ray scattering methods is applied, in order to resolve the island size, their strain state, and the composition distribution. The composition is determined using anomalous x-ray diffraction at high momentum transfer in combination with atomic force microscopy and from x-ray reciprocal space mapping. For growth temperatures between 620 and 840 deg. C, the maximum Ge content of the as-grown islands decreases from about 70 to about 22%. The results are corroborated by a selective etching study of the Ge islands.

  20. Multi-Relaxation Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Model of the Arctic Soil at Positive Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, I. V.; Mironov, V. L.

    2014-11-01

    Frequency spectra of the dielectric permittivity of the Arctic soil of Alaska are investigated with allowance for the dipole and ionic relaxation of molecules of the soil moisture at frequencies from 40 MHz to 16 GHz and temperatures from -5 to +25°С. A generalized temperature-dependent multi-relaxation refraction dielectric model of the humid Arctic soil is suggested.

  1. A nanoscale temperature-dependent heterogeneous nucleation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y. Y.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-06-14

    Classical nucleation theory relies on the hypothetical equilibrium of the whole nucleation system, and neglects the thermal fluctuations of the surface; this is because the high entropic gains of the (thermodynamically extensive) surface would lead to multiple stable states. In fact, at the nanometer scale, the entropic gains of the surface are high enough to destroy the stability of the thermal equilibrium during nucleation, comparing with the whole system. We developed a temperature-dependent nucleation theory to elucidate the heterogeneous nucleation process, by considering the thermal fluctuations based on classical nucleation theory. It was found that the temperature not only affected the phase transformation, but also influenced the surface energy of the nuclei. With changes in the Gibbs free energy barrier, nucleation behaviors, such as the nucleation rate and the critical radius of the nuclei, showed temperature-dependent characteristics that were different from those predicted by classical nucleation theory. The temperature-dependent surface energy density of a nucleus was deduced based on our theoretical model. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental results suggested that the developed nucleation theory has the potential to contribute to the understanding and design of heterogeneous nucleation at the nanoscale.

  2. Temperature-dependent internal photoemission probe for band parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Yan-Feng; Perera, A. G. Unil

    2012-11-01

    The temperature-dependent characteristic of band offsets at the heterojunction interface was studied by an internal photoemission (IPE) method. In contrast to the traditional Fowler method independent of the temperature (T), this method takes into account carrier thermalization and carrier/dopant-induced band-renormalization and band-tailing effects, and thus measures the band-offset parameter at different temperatures. Despite intensive studies in the past few decades, the T dependence of this key band parameter is still not well understood. Re-examining a p-type doped GaAs emitter/undoped AlxGa1-xAs barrier heterojunction system disclosed its previously ignored T dependency in the valence-band offset, with a variation up to ˜-10-4 eV/K in order to accommodate the difference in the T-dependent band gaps between GaAs and AlGaAs. Through determining the Fermi energy level (Ef), IPE is able to distinguish the impurity (IB) and valence bands (VB) of extrinsic semiconductors. One important example is to determine Ef of dilute magnetic semiconductors such as GaMnAs, and to understand whether it is in the IB or VB.

  3. Anomalous Hall effect in YIG|Pt bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Sibylle Schlitz, Richard; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2015-03-30

    We measure the ordinary and the anomalous Hall effect in a set of yttrium iron garnet|platinum (YIG|Pt) bilayers via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance experiments. Our data show that the presence of the ferrimagnetic insulator YIG leads to an anomalous Hall effect like voltage in Pt, which is sensitive to both Pt thickness and temperature. Interpretation of the experimental findings in terms of the spin Hall anomalous Hall effect indicates that the imaginary part of the spin mixing conductance G{sub i} plays a crucial role in YIG|Pt bilayers. In particular, our data suggest a sign change in G{sub i} between 10 K and 300 K. Additionally, we report a higher order Hall effect contribution, which appears in thin Pt films on YIG at low temperatures.

  4. Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihn, Sangwook

    This dissertation summarizes my study of time- and temperature-dependent behavior of a tubular lap bonded joint to provide a design methodology for windmill blade structures. The bonded joint is between a cast-iron rod and a GFRP composite pipe. The adhesive material is an epoxy containing chopped glass fibers. We proposed a new fabrication method to make concentric and void-less specimens of the tubular joint with a thick adhesive bondline to stimulate the root bond of a blade. The thick bondline facilitates the joint assembly of actual blades. For a better understanding of the behavior of the bonded joint, we studied viscoelastic behavior of the adhesive materials by measuring creep compliance at several temperatures during loading period. We observed that the creep compliance depends highly on the period of loading and the temperature. We applied time-temperature equivalence to the creep compliance of the adhesive material to obtain time-temperature shift factors. We also performed constant-rate of monotonically increased uniaxial tensile tests to measure static strength of the tubular lap joint at several temperatures and different strain-rates. We observed two failure modes from load-deflection curves and failed specimens. One is the brittle mode, which was caused by weakness of the interfacial strength occurring at low temperature and short period of loading. The other is the ductile mode, which was caused by weakness of the adhesive material at high temperature and long period of loading. Transition from the brittle to the ductile mode appeared as the temperature or the loading period increased. We also performed tests under uniaxial tensile-tensile cyclic loadings to measure fatigue strength of the bonded joint at several temperatures, frequencies and stress ratios. The fatigue data are analyzed statistically by applying the residual strength degradation model to calculate statistical distribution of the fatigue life. Combining the time-temperature

  5. Temperature-Dependent Giant Magnetoimpedance Effect in Amorphous Soft Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, M.; Roy, R. K.; Panda, A. K.; Greve, D. W.; Ohodnicki, P.; McHenry, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI)-based devices offer potential as next-generation low-cost, flexible, ultrasensitive sensors. They can be used in applications that include current sensors, field sensors, stress sensors, and others. Challenging applications involve operation at high temperatures, and therefore studies of GMI temperature dependence and performance of soft magnetic materials are needed. We present a high-temperature GMI study on an amorphous soft magnetic microwire from room temperature to 560°C. The GMI ratio was observed to be nearly constant at ˜86% at low temperatures and to decrease rapidly at ˜290°C, finally reaching a near-zero value at 500°C. The rapid drop in GMI ratio at 290°C is associated with a reduction in the long-range ferromagnetic order as measured by the spontaneous magnetization ( M) at the Curie temperature ( T c). We also correlated the impedance with the magnetic properties of the material. From room temperature to 290°C, the impedance was found to be proportional to the square root of the magnetization to magnetic anisotropy ratio. Lastly, M( T) has been fit using a Handrich-Kobe model, which describes the system with a modified Brillouin function and an asymmetrical distribution of exchange interactions. We infer that the structural fluctuations of the amorphous phase result in a relatively small asymmetry in the fluctuation parameters.

  6. Temperature-dependent solvation modulates the dimensions of disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wuttke, René; Hofmann, Hagen; Nettels, Daniel; Borgia, Madeleine B.; Mittal, Jeetain; Best, Robert B.; Schuler, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    For disordered proteins, the dimensions of the chain are an important property that is sensitive to environmental conditions. We have used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to probe the temperature-induced chain collapse of five unfolded or intrinsically disordered proteins. Because this behavior is sensitive to the details of intrachain and chain–solvent interactions, the collapse allows us to probe the physical interactions governing the dimensions of disordered proteins. We find that each of the proteins undergoes a collapse with increasing temperature, with the most hydrophobic one, λ-repressor, undergoing a reexpansion at the highest temperatures. Although such a collapse might be expected due to the temperature dependence of the classical “hydrophobic effect,” remarkably we find that the largest collapse occurs for the most hydrophilic, charged sequences. Using a combination of theory and simulation, we show that this result can be rationalized in terms of the temperature-dependent solvation free energies of the constituent amino acids, with the solvation properties of the most hydrophilic residues playing a large part in determining the collapse. PMID:24706910

  7. Temperature-dependent solvation modulates the dimensions of disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, René; Hofmann, Hagen; Nettels, Daniel; Borgia, Madeleine B; Mittal, Jeetain; Best, Robert B; Schuler, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    For disordered proteins, the dimensions of the chain are an important property that is sensitive to environmental conditions. We have used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to probe the temperature-induced chain collapse of five unfolded or intrinsically disordered proteins. Because this behavior is sensitive to the details of intrachain and chain-solvent interactions, the collapse allows us to probe the physical interactions governing the dimensions of disordered proteins. We find that each of the proteins undergoes a collapse with increasing temperature, with the most hydrophobic one, λ-repressor, undergoing a reexpansion at the highest temperatures. Although such a collapse might be expected due to the temperature dependence of the classical "hydrophobic effect," remarkably we find that the largest collapse occurs for the most hydrophilic, charged sequences. Using a combination of theory and simulation, we show that this result can be rationalized in terms of the temperature-dependent solvation free energies of the constituent amino acids, with the solvation properties of the most hydrophilic residues playing a large part in determining the collapse.

  8. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  9. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  10. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1992-05-01

    A power MOSFET macro-model for use with the circuit simulator SPICE has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range of {minus}55 to 125{degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with the temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE TEMP card. This report describes in detail the development of the model and the extraction algorithms used to obtain model parameters. The extraction algorithms are described in sufficient detail to allow for automated measurements which in turn allows for rapid and cost effective development of an accurate SPICE model for any power MOSFET. 22 refs.

  11. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of a thermoplastic gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Giovanni; Neitzert, Heinz C.; Sorrentino, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The frequency and the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of a thermoplastic gelatin based bio-material have been investigated. At lower frequencies the dielectric response is strongly affected by charge carrier accumulation at the electrodes which modifies the dominating hopping conduction mechanism. The variation of the ac conductivity with frequency obeys a Jonscher type power law except for a small deviation in the low frequency range due to the electrode polarization effect. The master curve of the ac conductivity data shows that the conductivity relaxation of the gelatin is temperature independent.

  12. Temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of thin silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Davide; Galli, Giulia

    2010-03-10

    We compute the lattice thermal conductivity (kappa) of silicon nanowires as a function of temperature by molecular dynamics simulations. In wires with amorphous surfaces kappa may reach values close to that of amorphous silicon and is nearly constant between 200 and 600 K; this behavior is determined by the presence of a majority of nonpropagating vibrational modes. We develop a parameter-free model that accounts for the temperature dependence observed in our simulations and provides a qualitative explanation of recent experiments. PMID:20163124

  13. Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Leys, Jan; Wübbenhorst, Michael; Preethy Menon, Chirukandath; Rajesh, Ravindran; Thoen, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Binnemans, Koen; Longuemart, Stéphane

    2008-02-14

    The electrical conductivities of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids and of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anions were determined in the temperature range between 123 and 393 K on the basis of dielectric measurements in the frequency range from 1 to 10(7) Hz. Most of the ionic liquids form a glass and the conductivity values obey the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The glass transition temperatures are increasing with increasing length of the alkyl chain. The fragility is weakly dependent on the alkyl chain length but is highly sensitive to the structure of the anion.

  14. Temperature-dependent dielectric function of bulk SrTiO3: Urbach tail, band edges, and excitonic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Pranjal Kumar; Schmidt, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We report the temperature-dependent complex dielectric function of pristine bulk SrTiO3 between 4.2 and 300 K within the energy range of 0.6-6.5 eV determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Fundamental indirect and direct band-gap energies have been extracted and are discussed with regard to existing state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the dielectric function around the fundamental direct gap is analyzed by considering excitonic states. The excitonic effects, including the Coulomb enhancement of the continuum, are characterized using an extension of the Elliott's formula considering both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function. The Urbach tail below the indirect edge shows an unconventional temperature-dependent behavior correlated to the microstructural changes near the structural phase transition around 105 K from the low-temperature tetragonal phase to the cubic phase. The temperature-dependent characterization reveals that the fundamental indirect edge as well as the Urbach tail are affected conspicuously by the structural phase transition while the fundamental direct edge is not. Moreover, the indirect edge follows Varshni's rule only in the cubic phase and the direct edge exhibits an anomalous linear increase with increasing temperature.

  15. Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-22

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming.

  16. The importance of temperature dependent energy gap in the understanding of high temperature thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Saurabh; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we show the importance of temperature dependent energy band gap, E g (T), in understanding the high temperature thermoelectric (TE) properties of material by considering LaCoO3 (LCO) and ZnV2O4 (ZVO) compounds as a case study. For the fix value of band gap, E g , deviation in the values of α has been observed above 360 K and 400 K for LCO and ZVO compounds, respectively. These deviation can be overcomed by consideration of temperature dependent band gap. The change in used value of E g with respect to temperature is ∼4 times larger than that of In As. This large temperature dependence variation in E g can be attributed to decrement in the effective on-site Coulomb interaction due to lattice expansion. At 600 K, the value of ZT for n and p-doped, LCO is ∼0.35 which suggest that it can be used as a potential material for TE device. This work clearly suggest that one should consider the temperature dependent band gap in predicting the high temperature TE properties of insulating materials.

  17. Validation of MMM7.1 and TGLF anomalous transport models for predicting the evolution of Alcator C-Mod temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.; Pankin, A. Y.; Hughes, J.; Greenwald, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Multi-Mode MMM7.1 [T. Rafiq, et al. Phys. Plasmas, 20, 032506, 2013] and the Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF)[G.M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 055909, 2007] anomalous transport models are validated employing experimental data for Alcator C-Mod discharges that represent a plasma density scan. The MMM7.1 and the TGLF models compute the anomalous transport driven by the ITG, TEM, ETG, KBM and collisional drift modes. The validation study is carried out with simulations that employ the new numerical solver PT-SOLVER in the PTRANSP code and that utilize Alcator C-Mod experimental boundary and initial conditions. The predicted evolving temperature profiles are compared with corresponding Alcator C-Mod experimental data. The comparison is quantified by calculating the RMS deviations and Offsets. Supported by USDoE FES grants DE-FG02-92ER54141, DE-SC0012174 and C-Mod award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  18. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, William R.; Modine, Normand A.

    2015-08-01

    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  19. Temperature Dependence of Internal Deformation Field in Zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Wonsuk; Song, Sanghoon; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Pham, Tung; Harder, Ross; Xiong, Gang; Yoon, Kyung Byung; Robinson, Ian K.; Kim, Hyunjung

    2011-03-01

    We studied temperature dependent internal deformation field distributions in zeolite microcrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction. We measured the coherent x-ray diffraction patterns around (200) and (020) Bragg peaks of the crystals. The three-dimensional real space images were obtained by phasing and inverting the oversampled diffraction patterns using the phase retrieval algorithm combined with error reduction and hybrid input-output method. The internal deformation fields show unusual temperature dependent behaviors which might be originated from the synthesis and calcination process. This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (Nos. 2010-0000112 and R15-2008-006-01001-0), Seoul Research and Business Development Program (10816), and Sogang University Research Grant (2010).

  20. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; van Wees, B. J.; Banerjee, T.

    2014-12-01

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and chemically stable in all environments, unlike standard metal/semiconductor interfaces. We fabricate such interfaces with n-type Si at ambient conditions and find their electrical characteristics to be highly rectifying, with minimal reverse leakage current (<10-10 A) and rectification of more than 106. We extract Schottky barrier height of 0.69 eV for the exfoliated graphene and 0.83 eV for the CVD graphene devices at room temperature. The temperature dependent electrical characteristics suggest the influence of inhomogeneities at the graphene/n-Si interface. A quantitative analysis of the inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier heights is presented using the potential fluctuation model proposed by Werner and Güttler.

  1. Time temperature-stress dependence of boron fiber deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Flexural stress relaxation (FSR) and flexural internal friction (FIF) techniques were employed to measure the time-dependent deformation of boron fibers from -190 to 800 C. The principal specimens were 203 micrometers diameter fibers commercially produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a 13 micrometer tungsten substrate. The observation of complete creep strain recovery with time and temperature indicated that CVD boron fibers deform flexurally as anelastic solids with no plastic component.

  2. Temperature-Dependent Conformations of Model Viscosity Index Improvers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Uma Shantini; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-05-01

    Lubricants are comprised of base oils and additives where additives are chemicals that are deliberately added to the oil to enhance properties and inhibit degradation of the base oils. Viscosity index (VI) improvers are an important class of additives that reduce the decline of fluid viscosity with temperature [1], enabling optimum lubricant performance over a wider range of operating temperatures. These additives are typically high molecular weight polymers, such as, but not limited to, polyisobutylenes, olefin copolymer, and polyalkylmethacrylates, that are added in concentrations of 2-5% (w/w). Appropriate polymers, when dissolved in base oil, expand from a coiled to an uncoiled state with increasing temperature [2]. The ability of VI additives to increase their molar volume and improve the temperature-viscosity dependence of lubricants suggests there is a strong relationship between molecular structure and additive functionality [3]. In this work, we aim to quantify the changes in polymer size with temperature for four polyisobutylene (PIB) based molecular structures at the nano-scale using molecular simulation tools. As expected, the results show that the polymers adopt more conformations at higher temperatures, and there is a clear indication that the expandability of a polymer is strongly influenced by molecular structure.

  3. Temperature dependent bacteriophages of a tropical bacterial pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jinyu; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Withatanung, Patoo; Adler, Natalie Lazar; Clokie, Martha R. J.; Galyov, Edouard E.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the multiple ways that bacteriophages (phages) influence bacterial evolution, population dynamics, physiology, and pathogenicity. By studying a novel group of phages infecting a soil borne pathogen, we revealed a paradigm shifting observation that the phages switch their lifestyle according to temperature. We sampled soil from an endemic area of the serious tropical pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, and established that podoviruses infecting the pathogen are frequently present in soil, and many of them are naturally occurring variants of a common virus type. Experiments on one phage in the related model B. thailandensis demonstrated that temperature defines the outcome of phage-bacteria interactions. At higher temperatures (37°C), the phage predominantly goes through a lytic cycle, but at lower temperatures (25°C), the phage remains temperate. This is the first report of a naturally occurring phage that follows a lytic or temperate lifestyle according to temperature. These observations fundamentally alter the accepted views on the abundance, population biology and virulence of B. pseudomallei. Furthermore, when taken together with previous studies, our findings suggest that the phenomenon of temperature dependency in phages is widespread. Such phages are likely to have a profound effect on bacterial biology, and on our ability to culture and correctly enumerate viable bacteria. PMID:25452746

  4. Temperature dependence of the reconstruction of zigzag edges in graphene.

    PubMed

    He, Kuang; Robertson, Alex W; Fan, Ye; Allen, Christopher S; Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazu; Kirkland, Angus I; Warner, Jamie H

    2015-05-26

    We examine the temperature dependence of graphene edge terminations at the atomic scale using an in situ heating holder within an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The relative ratios of armchair, zigzag, and reconstructed zigzag edges from over 350 frames at each temperature are measured. Below 400 °C, the edges are dominated by zigzag terminations, but above 600 °C, this changes dramatically, with edges dominated by armchair and reconstructed zigzag edges. We show that at low temperature chemical etching effects dominate and cause deviation to the thermodynamics of the system. At high temperatures (600 and 800 °C), adsorbates are evaporated from the surface of graphene and chemical etching effects are significantly reduced, enabling the thermodynamic distribution of edge types to be observed. The growth rate of holes at high temperature is also shown to be slower than at room temperature, indicative of the reduced chemical etching process. These results provide important insights into the role of chemical etching effects in the hole formation, edge sputtering, and edge reconstruction in graphene.

  5. Temperature dependence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesen, Y.; Stuckelberger, M.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C.; Wyrsch, N.

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar (a-Si:H) cells are known to have better temperature coefficients than crystalline silicon cells. To investigate whether a-Si:H cells that are optimized for standard conditions (STC) also have the highest energy yield, we measured the temperature and irradiance dependence of the maximum power output (Pmpp), the fill factor (FF), the short-circuit current density (Jsc), and the open-circuit voltage (Voc) for four series of cells fabricated with different deposition conditions. The parameters varied during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) were the power and frequency of the PE-CVD generator, the hydrogen-to-silane dilution during deposition of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer), and the thicknesses of the a-Si:H i-layer and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide layer. The results show that the temperature coefficient of the Voc generally varies linearly with the Voc value. The Jsc increases linearly with temperature mainly due to temperature-induced bandgap reduction and reduced recombination. The FF temperature dependence is not linear and reaches a maximum at temperatures between 15 °C and 80 °C. Numerical simulations show that this behavior is due to a more positive space-charge induced by the photogenerated holes in the p-layer and to a recombination decrease with temperature. Due to the FF(T) behavior, the Pmpp (T) curves also have a maximum, but at a lower temperature. Moreover, for most series, the cells with the highest power output at STC also have the best energy yield. However, the Pmpp (T) curves of two cells with different i-layer thicknesses cross each other in the operating cell temperature range, indicating that the cell with the highest power output could, for instance, have a lower energy yield than the other cell. A simple energy-yield simulation for the light-soaked and annealed states shows that for Neuchâtel (Switzerland) the best cell at STC also has the best energy

  6. Temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient of ionic colloids.

    PubMed

    Sehnem, A L; Figueiredo Neto, A M; Aquino, R; Campos, A F C; Tourinho, F A; Depeyrot, J

    2015-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient S(T)(T) in electrostatically charged magnetic colloids is investigated. Two different ferrofluids, with different particles' mean dimensions, are studied. In both cases we obtain a thermophilic behavior of the Soret effect. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient is described assuming that the nanoparticles migrate along the ionic thermoelectric field created by the thermal gradient. A model based on the contributions from the thermoelectrophoresis and variation of the double-layer energy, without fitting parameters, is used to describe the experimental results of the colloid with the bigger particles. To do so, independent measurements of the ζ potential, mass diffusion coefficient, and Seebeck coefficient are performed. The agreement of the theory and the experimental results is rather good. In the case of the ferrofluid with smaller particles, it is not possible to get experimentally reliable values of the ζ potential and the model described is used to evaluate this parameter and its temperature dependence. PMID:26565244

  7. Temperature-dependent particle-number projected moment of inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2008-05-15

    Expressions of the parallel and perpendicular temperature-dependent particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia have been established by means of a discrete projection method. They generalize that of the FTBCS method and are well adapted to numerical computation. The effects of particle-number fluctuations have been numerically studied for some even-even actinide nuclei by using the single-particle energies and eigenstates of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It has been shown that the parallel moment of inertia is practically not modified by the use of the projection method. In contrast, the discrepancy between the projected and FTBCS perpendicular moment of inertia values may reach 5%. Moreover, the particle-number fluctuation effects vary not only as a function of the temperature but also as a function of the deformation for a given temperature. This is not the case for the system energy.

  8. Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data.

  9. Temperature dependence of the properties of vapor-deposited polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F. Y.; Blanton, T. N.; Harding, D. R.; Chen, S. H.

    2003-04-01

    The Young's modulus and helium gas permeability of vapor-deposited poly(4,4'-oxydiphenylenepyromellitimide) were measured at cryogenic and elevated temperatures (10-573 K). The Young's modulus decreased with increasing temperature from 5.5 GPa at 10 K to 1.8 GPa at 573 K. The temperature dependency of the permeability followed the Arrhenius' relationship, with different activation energy for permeation for samples imidized under different conditions. The effect of the imidization conditions on the permeation properties could be explained in terms of morphology/crystallinity as determined by x-ray diffraction techniques. Imidizing in air instead of nitrogen increased the permeability while lowering the activation energy for permeation and crystallinity. Imidizing at higher heating rates (in nitrogen) resulted in higher permeability, lower activation energy for permeation, and larger and fewer crystallites with better-aligned lattice planes.

  10. Temperature dependence of charge transport in conjugated single molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Eek; Kamenetska, Masha; Venkataraman, Latha

    2011-03-01

    Over the last decade, the break junction technique using a scanning tunneling microscope geometry has proven to be an important tool to understand electron transport through single molecule junctions. Here, we use this technique to probe transport through junctions at temperatures ranging from 5K to 300K. We study three amine-terminated (-NH2) conjugated molecules: a benzene, a biphenyl and a terphenyl derivative. We find that amine groups bind selectively to undercoordinate gold atoms gold all the way down to 5K, yielding single molecule junctions with well-defined conductances. Furthermore, we find that the conductance of a single molecule junction increases with temperature and we present a mechanism for this temperature dependent transport result. Funded by a Rubicon Grant from The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the NSEC program of NSF under grant # CHE-0641523.

  11. Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data. PMID:26026294

  12. Temperature dependence of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain a better physical understanding of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores, we study the temperature dependence of λ-DNA translocations through 10 nm-in-diameter silicon-nitride nanopores, both experimentally and theoretically. The measured ionic conductance G, the DNA-induced ionic-conductance blockades ΔG and the event frequency Γ all increase with increasing temperature while the DNA translocation time τ decreases. G and ΔG are accurately described when bulk and surface conductances of the nanopore are considered and access resistance is incorporated appropriately. Viscous drag on the untranslocated part of the DNA coil is found to dominate the temperature dependence of the translocation times and the event rate is well described by a balance between diffusion and electrophoretic motion. The good fit between modeled and measured properties of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores in this first comprehensive temperature study, suggest that our model captures the relevant physics of the process. PMID:25994084

  13. Temperature Dependent Cyclic Deformation Mechanisms in Haynes 188 Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Castelli, Michael G.; Allen, Gorden P.; Ellis, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188, has been investigated over a range of temperatures between 25 and 1000 C under isothermal and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions. Constant mechanical strain rates (epsilon-dot) of 10(exp -3)/s and 10(exp -4)/s were examined with a fully reversed strain range of 0.8%. Particular attention was given to the effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on the stress-strain response and low cycle fatigue life. A correlation between cyclic deformation behavior and microstructural substructure was made through detailed transmission electron microscopy. Although DSA was found to occur over a wide temperature range between approximately 300 and 750 C the microstructural characteristics and the deformation mechanisms responsible for DSA varied considerably and were dependent upon temperature. In general, the operation of DSA processes led to a maximum of the cyclic stress amplitude at 650 C and was accompanied by pronounced planar slip, relatively high dislocation density, and the generation of stacking faults. DSA was evidenced through a combination of phenomena, including serrated yielding, an inverse dependence of the maximum cyclic hardening with epsilon-dot, and an instantaneous inverse epsilon-dot sensitivity verified by specialized epsilon-dot -change tests. The TMF cyclic hardening behavior of the alloy appeared to be dictated by the substructural changes occuring at the maximum temperature in the TMF cycle.

  14. Temperature dependence of Brewer UV measurements at Rome station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna M.; Benevento, Giuseppe; Casale, Giuseppe R.

    2003-11-01

    Decreasing trends of total ozone affect mainly solar ultraviolet (UV) levels at ground level with adverse effects on the biosphere. Highly accurate measurements of solar UV irradiance have become an important issue to assess UV trends. To detect these trends stations with well calibrated instruments, with long-term stability and Quality Assurance (QA)/ Quality Control (QC) carefully followed procedures, are necessary. The Solar Radiometry Observatory of Rome, University "La Sapienza" (city center) is one of the stations regularly measuring UV irradiance in Italy. Measurements of UV spectral (290-325 nm) irradiance started in 1992, using Brewer MKIV 067. Measurements of total irradiance contained in the 280 - 320 nm waveband begun in 2000 with the YES UVB-1 broad-band radiometer. An investigation of the internal temperature dependence of the spectral responsivity to improve the quality of the Brewer UV data was carried out. The study was based on the analysis of responsivity files recorded during the years 2000-2002. Responsivities are provided by specific tests through a set of five 50 W quartz tungsten-halogen lamps, traceable to the standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The lamp tests allow to measure any changes in the instrument response over time. It was observed that a decrease in the instrument's responsivity resulted from an increase of the internal temperature. A methodology based on a family of responsivity files at different temperature intervals is proposed to allow correction of UV irradiances using the responsivity file at the corresponding temperatures. The mean percentage differnce between temperature corrected and non-corrected Brewer data varies from 0.8% to 1.5% over an internal temperature of 8°C-42°C. In addition the results of a field evaluation in Rome between Brewer 067 and two temperature stabilized instruments, a broad-band radiometer (YES UVB-1) and a moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer

  15. Calcium domains associated with individual channels can account for anomalous voltage relations of CA-dependent responses.

    PubMed Central

    Chad, J E; Eckert, R

    1984-01-01

    Computer-assisted modeling of calcium influx through voltage-activated membrane channels predicted that buffer-limited elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration occurs within microscopic hemispherical "domains" centered upon the active Ca channels. With increasing depolarization, the number of activated channels, and hence the number of Ca domains, should increase; the single-channel current should, however, decrease, thereby decreasing Ca2+ accumulation in each domain relative to the macroscopic current. Such voltage dependence of the microscopic distribution of Ca2+ may influence relations between total Ca2+ entry and Ca-dependent processes. Ca-mediated inactivation of Ca channels in Aplysia neurons exhibits behavior consistent with the calcium domain hypothesis. PMID:6329349

  16. Anomalous thickness-dependent optical energy gap of ALD-grown ultra-thin CuO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, T. S.; Terasaki, I.; Karppinen, M.

    2016-11-01

    Usually an inverse square relation between the optical energy gap and the size of crystallites is observed for semiconducting materials due to the strong quantum localization effect. Coulomb attraction that may lead to a proportional dependence is often ignored or considered less important to the optical energy gap when the crystallite size or the thickness of a thin film changes. Here we report a proportional dependence between the optical energy gap and the thickness of ALD-grown CuO thin films due to a strong Coulomb attraction. The ultrathin films deposited in the thickness range of 9-81 nm show a p-type semiconducting behavior when analyzed by Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity measurements. The indirect optical energy gap nature of the films is verified from UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements. A progressive increase in the indirect optical energy gap from 1.06 to 1.24 eV is observed with the increase in the thickness of the films. The data are analyzed in the presence of Coulomb attractions using the Brus model. The optical energy gap when plotted against the cubic root of the thickness of the films shows a linear dependence.

  17. Anomalous thickness-dependent optical energy gap of ALD-grown ultra-thin CuO films.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, T S; Terasaki, I; Karppinen, M

    2016-11-30

    Usually an inverse square relation between the optical energy gap and the size of crystallites is observed for semiconducting materials due to the strong quantum localization effect. Coulomb attraction that may lead to a proportional dependence is often ignored or considered less important to the optical energy gap when the crystallite size or the thickness of a thin film changes. Here we report a proportional dependence between the optical energy gap and the thickness of ALD-grown CuO thin films due to a strong Coulomb attraction. The ultrathin films deposited in the thickness range of 9-81 nm show a p-type semiconducting behavior when analyzed by Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity measurements. The indirect optical energy gap nature of the films is verified from UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements. A progressive increase in the indirect optical energy gap from 1.06 to 1.24 eV is observed with the increase in the thickness of the films. The data are analyzed in the presence of Coulomb attractions using the Brus model. The optical energy gap when plotted against the cubic root of the thickness of the films shows a linear dependence.

  18. Temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in pure amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran, M. S. R. N. Haberl, B.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E.

    2014-03-21

    High temperature nanoindentation has been performed on pure ion-implanted amorphous silicon (unrelaxed a-Si) and structurally relaxed a-Si to investigate the temperature dependence of mechanical deformation, including pressure-induced phase transformations. Along with the indentation load-depth curves, ex situ measurements such as Raman micro-spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis on the residual indents reveal the mode of deformation under the indenter. While unrelaxed a-Si deforms entirely via plastic flow up to 200 °C, a clear transition in the mode of deformation is observed in relaxed a-Si with increasing temperature. Up to 100 °C, pressure-induced phase transformation and the observation of either crystalline (r8/bc8) end phases or pressure-induced a-Si occurs in relaxed a-Si. However, with further increase of temperature, plastic flow rather than phase transformation is the dominant mode of deformation. It is believed that the elevated temperature and pressure together induce bond softening and “defect” formation in structurally relaxed a-Si, leading to the inhibition of phase transformation due to pressure-releasing plastic flow under the indenter.

  19. Temperature dependent vibration analysis of functionally graded rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Wann

    2005-06-01

    A theoretical method is developed to investigate vibration characteristics of initially stressed functionally graded rectangular plates made up of metal and ceramic in thermal environment. The temperature is assumed to be constant in the plane of the plate and to vary in the thickness direction only. Two types of thermal condition are considered. The first type is that one value of the temperature is imposed on the upper surface and the other (or same) value on the lower surface. The second is that the heat flows from the upper surface to the lower one held at a prescribed temperature. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and vary continuously through the thickness according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of the constituents. The third-order shear deformation plate theory to account for rotary inertia and transverse shear strains is adopted to formulate the theoretical model. The Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is applied to obtain the frequency equation. The analysis is based on an expansion of the displacements in the double Fourier series that satisfy the boundary conditions. The effect of material compositions, plate geometry, and temperature fields on the vibration characteristics is examined. The present theoretical results are verified by comparing with those in literature.

  20. Temperature dependence of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, R L

    1986-01-01

    Accurate calorimetric data for the thermodynamics of transfer of six liquid hydrocarbons to water have been combined with solubility data to provide a model for the temperature dependence of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding. The model applies at temperatures for which the change in heat capacity (delta Cp) is constant. The extrapolated value of the temperature (Ts) at which the entropy of transfer (delta S degrees) reaches zero is strikingly similar (Ts = 112.8 degrees C +/- 2.2 degrees C) for the six hydrocarbons. This finding provides an interpretation for the empirical relation discovered by Sturtevant: the ratio delta S degrees/delta Cp measured at 25 degrees C is constant for the transfer of nonpolar substances from nonaqueous media to water. Constancy of this ratio is equivalent to Ts = constant. When applied to protein folding, the hydrocarbon model gives estimates of the contributions of the hydrophobic interaction to the entropy and enthalpy changes on unfolding and, by difference, estimates of the residual contributions from other sources. The major share of the large enthalpy change observed on unfolding at high temperatures comes from the hydrophobic interaction. The hydrophobic interaction changes from being entropy-driven at 22 degrees C to being enthalpy-driven at 113 degrees C. Finally, the hydrocarbon model predicts that plots of the specific entropy change on unfolding versus temperature should nearly intersect close to 113 degrees C, as observed by Privalov. PMID:3464944

  1. Temperature-dependent Refractive Index of Silicon and Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon and germanium are perhaps the two most well-understood semiconductor materials in the context of solid state device technologies and more recently micromachining and nanotechnology. Meanwhile, these two materials are also important in the field of infrared lens design. Optical instruments designed for the wavelength range where these two materials are transmissive achieve best performance when cooled to cryogenic temperatures to enhance signal from the scene over instrument background radiation. In order to enable high quality lens designs using silicon and germanium at cryogenic temperatures, we have measured the absolute refractive index of multiple prisms of these two materials using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, as a function of both wavelength and temperature. For silicon, we report absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K at wavelengths from 1.1 to 5.6 pin, while for germanium, we cover temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K and wavelengths from 1.9 to 5.5 microns. We compare our measurements with others in the literature and provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. Citing the wide variety of values for the refractive indices of these two materials found in the literature, we reiterate the importance of measuring the refractive index of a sample from the same batch of raw material from which final optical components are cut when absolute accuracy greater than k5 x 10" is desired.

  2. Temperature dependence of the energy gap of semiconductors in the low-temperature limit.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Manuel; Meyer, T A; Thewalt, M L W

    2004-05-14

    The temperature dependence of the electronic states and energy gaps of semiconductors is an old but still important experimental and theoretical topic. Remarkably, extant results do not clarify the asymptotic T-->0 behavior. Recent breakthroughs in the spectroscopy of enriched 28Si allow us to measure changes in the band gap over the liquid 4He temperature range with an astounding precision of one part in 10(8), revealing a T4.0+/-0.2 decrease with increasing T. This is in excellent agreement with a theoretical argument predicting an exponent of 4. This power law should apply, in the low temperature limit, to the temperature dependence of the energies of all electronic states in semiconductors and insulators.

  3. Temperature dependence and shape effect in high-temperature microwave heating of nickel oxide powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, H.; Kashimura, K.; Hayashi, M.; Matsumuro, T.; Watanabe, T.; Mitani, T.; Shinohara, N.

    2015-02-01

    The temperature dependence of microwave absorption was investigated for Ni1-yO particles over the frequency range 2.0-13.5 GHz and temperature range 25-1000 °C. Using a coaxial transmission line method with a network analyzer, both the real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity (ε‧r and ε″r, respectively) and permeability (μ‧r and μ″r, respectively) were measured; finding that both are largely dependent on the temperature at all frequencies. Furthermore, permeability loss factors related to shape effects were observed at high frequencies, indicating an increase in the microwave-absorption properties. A modified form of Mie's theory was applied to discuss these effects, wherein a spherical model demonstrating a close fit to the shape effect data suggests a more complex microwave-absorption behavior at increased temperature.

  4. Anomalous superfluid density in quantum critical superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenichiro; Mizukami, Yuta; Katsumata, Ryo; Shishido, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Minoru; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Yuji; Schlueter, John A.; Fletcher, Jonathan D.; Carrington, Antony; Gnida, Daniel; Kaczorowski, Dariusz; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2013-01-01

    When a second-order magnetic phase transition is tuned to zero temperature by a nonthermal parameter, quantum fluctuations are critically enhanced, often leading to the emergence of unconventional superconductivity. In these “quantum critical” superconductors it has been widely reported that the normal-state properties above the superconducting transition temperature Tc often exhibit anomalous non-Fermi liquid behaviors and enhanced electron correlations. However, the effect of these strong critical fluctuations on the superconducting condensate below Tc is less well established. Here we report measurements of the magnetic penetration depth in heavy-fermion, iron-pnictide, and organic superconductors located close to antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, showing that the superfluid density in these nodal superconductors universally exhibits, unlike the expected T-linear dependence, an anomalous 3/2 power-law temperature dependence over a wide temperature range. We propose that this noninteger power law can be explained if a strong renormalization of effective Fermi velocity due to quantum fluctuations occurs only for momenta k close to the nodes in the superconducting energy gap Δ(k). We suggest that such “nodal criticality” may have an impact on low-energy properties of quantum critical superconductors. PMID:23404698

  5. Temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogen titanate nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Diego C. B.; Brandão, Frederico D.; Krambrock, Klaus; Ferlauto, Andre S.; Fonseca, Fabio C.

    2014-11-14

    The temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogen-rich titanate nanotubes (H-TNTs) in the 90–270 °C range was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. Three types of dominant conduction were found which depend on the previous thermal treatment of the samples. For untreated samples, at low temperatures (T < 100 °C), electrical conductivity is relatively high (>10{sup −4} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) and is dominated by protonic transport within structural water molecules. For thermal annealing in inert atmosphere up to 150 °C, water molecules are released from the nanotube structure resulting in a dehydrated H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} phase. Such phase has a low, thermally-dependent, electrical conductivity (10{sup −8} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) with activation energy of 0.68 eV. For samples annealed up to 260 °C, loss of OH groups, and consequent generation of oxygen vacancies, occurs that result in the non-stoichiometric H{sub 2(1−z)}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} phase. This phase has much higher conductivity (10{sup −5} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) and lower associated activation energy (0.40 eV). The generation of oxygen vacancies is confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at room temperature, which revealed the presence of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies. The activation energy value found is consistent with the thermal ionization energy of the oxygen vacancies. Such defect formation represents the initial stage of the phase transformation from titanate to TiO{sub 2} (B). X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements also support such interpretation.

  6. Temperature dependent photoluminescence from lead sulfide nanosheets and nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdong; Kim, Seung Gi; Oh, Eunsoon; Kim, Sang Hyuk; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-01-29

    We studied temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra in the mid-infrared range from lead sulfide (PbS) nanosheets with an average thickness of 25 nm and nanocubes grown by solvothermal and hydrothermal methods. Distinct bandedge PL emission was observed in the whole temperature range between 10 and 300 K, indicating the high optical quality of these nanostructures. The PL peak of the nanosheets was found at 0.326 eV at 10 K, about 40 meV higher than that of bulk PbS due to the quantum confinement effect, whereas no confinement effect was observed for the nanocubes. We also demonstrate that the absorption edges of the nanocubes and nanosheets in the transmission spectra agree very well with their fundamental bandgap.

  7. Simulations of the temperature dependence of amide I vibration.

    PubMed

    Kaminský, Jakub; Bouř, Petr; Kubelka, Jan

    2011-01-13

    For spectroscopic studies of peptide and protein thermal denaturation it is important to single out the contribution of the solvent to the spectral changes from those originated in the molecular structure. To obtain insights into the origin and size of the temperature solvent effects on the amide I spectra, combined molecular dynamics and density functional simulations were performed with the model N-methylacetamide molecule (NMA). The computations well reproduced frequency and intensity changes previously observed in aqueous NMA solutions. An empirical correction of vacuum frequencies in single NMA molecule based on the electrostatic potential of the water molecules provided superior results to a direct density functional average obtained for a limited number of solute-solvent clusters. The results thus confirm that the all-atom quantum and molecular mechanics approach captures the overall influence of the temperature dependent solvent properties on the amide I spectra and can improve the accuracy and reliability of molecular structural studies.

  8. Temperature-dependent potential in cluster-decay process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaei, R.; Zanganeh, V.

    2016-08-01

    Role of the thermal effects of the parent nucleus in the Coulomb barrier and the half-life of 28 cluster-decays is systematically analyzed within the framework of the proximity formalism, namely proximity potential 2010. The WKB approximation is used to determine the penetration probability of the emitted cluster. It is shown that the height and width of the Coulomb barrier in the temperature-dependent proximity potential are less than its temperature-independent version. Moreover, this investigation reveals that the calculated values of half-life for selected cluster-decays are in better agreement with the experimental data when the mentioned effects are imposed on the proximity approach. A discussion is also presented about the predictions of the present thermal approach for cluster-decay half-lives of the super-heavy-elements.

  9. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M. J.; Parker, N. G.; Povey, M. J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50°C. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  10. Localized subcritical convective cells in temperature-dependent viscosity fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomatov, V. S.

    2012-06-01

    Numerical simulations of infinite Prandtl number convection in the stagnant lid regime of temperature-dependent viscosity convection demonstrate the existence of spatially localized, stable convective cells below the critical Rayleigh number (subcritical convection). These solutions are in stark contrast to the usual, supercritical, convective planforms, where convective cells form in the entire layer. The isolated cell has a shape of an axisymmetric dome with an upwelling at the center and thus appears as a very weak plume. Formation of these structures requires subcritical conditions and a localized initial temperature perturbation but does not require any spatial heterogeneity in the material properties or the heat flux. When several localized plumes form, they tend to attract to each other and form stable clusters. This type of subcritical convection may play a role in the formation and longevity of localized features on planetary bodies, including the crustal dichotomy and Tharsis region on Mars and the asymmetric pattern of volcanism on Mercury.

  11. On the temperature dependence of oceanic export efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cael, B. B.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the fraction of primary production exported from the euphotic layer (termed the export efficiency ef) is a complicated matter. Studies have suggested empirical relationships with temperature which offer attractive potential for parameterization. Here we develop what is arguably the simplest mechanistic model relating the two, using established thermodynamic dependencies for primary production and respiration. It results in a single-parameter curve that constrains the envelope of possible efficiencies, capturing the upper bounds of several ef-T data sets. The approach provides a useful theoretical constraint on this relationship and extracts the variability in ef due to temperature but does not idealize out the remaining variability which evinces the substantial complexity of the system in question.

  12. Temperature dependencies of Henry's law constants for different plant sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-11-01

    Sesquiterpenes are plant-produced hydrocarbons with important ecological functions in plant-to-plant and plant-to-insect communication, but due to their high reactivity they can also play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. So far, there is little information of gas/liquid phase partition coefficients (Henry's law constants) and their temperature dependencies for sesquiterpenes, but this information is needed for quantitative simulation of the release of sesquiterpenes from plants and modeling atmospheric reactions in different phases. In this study, we estimated Henry's law constants (Hpc) and their temperature responses for 12 key plant sesquiterpenes with varying structure (aliphatic, mono-, bi- and tricyclic sesquiterpenes). At 25 °C, Henry's law constants varied 1.4-fold among different sesquiterpenes, and the values were within the range previously observed for monocyclic monoterpenes. Hpc of sesquiterpenes exhibited a high rate of increase, on average ca. 1.5-fold with a 10 °C increase in temperature (Q10). The values of Q10 varied 1.2-fold among different sesquiterpenes. Overall, these data demonstrate moderately high variation in Hpc values and Hpc temperature responses among different sesquiterpenes. We argue that these variations can importantly alter the emission kinetics of sesquiterpenes from plants. PMID:26291755

  13. Temperature and moisture dependence of dielectric constant for silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, L.H., LLNL

    1997-03-01

    The dielectric constants of silica aerogels are among the lowest measured for any solid material. The silica aerogels also exhibit low thermal expansion and are thermally stable to temperatures exceeding 500{degrees}C. However, due to the open porosity and large surface areas for aerogels, their dielectric constants are strongly affected by moisture and temperature. This paper presents data for the dielectric constants of silica aerogels as a function of moisture content at 25{degrees}C, and as a function of temperature, for temperatures in the range from 25{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C. Dielectric constant data are also given for silica aerogels that are heat treated in dry nitrogen at 500{degrees}C, then cooled to 25{degrees}C for measurements in dry air. All measurements are made on bulk aerogel spheres at 22GHz microwave frequency, using a cavity perturbation method. The results of the dependence found here for bulk materials can be inferred to apply also to thin films of silica aerogels having similar nano-structures and densities.

  14. Temperature Dependence of the O + HO2 Rate Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed laser photolysis technique has been employed to investigate the kinetics of the radical-radical reaction O((sup 3)P) + HO2 OH + O2 over the temperature range 266-391 K in 80 Torr of N2 diluent gas. O((sup 3)P) was produced by 248.5-nm KrF laser photolysis of O3 followed by rapid quenching of O(1D) to O((sup 3)P) while HO2 was produced by simultaneous photolysis of H2O2 to create OH radicals which, in turn, reacted with H2O2 to yield HO2. The O((sup 3)P) temporal profile was monitored by using time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy. The HO2 concentration was calculated based on experimentally measured parameters. The following Arrhenius expression describes our experimental results: k(sub 1)(T) equals (2.91 +/- 0.70) x 10(exp -11) exp[(228 +/- 75)/T] where the errors are 2 sigma and represent precision only. The absolute uncertainty in k, at any temperature within the range 266-391 K is estimated to be +/- 22 percent. Our results are in excellent agreement with a discharge flow study of the temperature dependence of k(sub 1) in 1 Torr of He diluent reported by Keyser, and significantly reduce the uncertainty in the rate of this important stratospheric reaction at subambient temperatures.

  15. Temperature dependent optical properties of pentacene films on zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Helzel, J.; Jankowski, S.; El Helou, M.; Witte, G.; Heimbrodt, W.

    2011-11-21

    The optical transitions of pentacene films deposited on ZnO have been studied by absorption spectroscopy as a function of temperature in the range of room temperature down to 10 K. The pentacene films were prepared with thicknesses of 10 nm, 20 nm, and 100 nm on the ZnO-O(000-1) surface by molecular beam deposition. A unique temperature dependence has been observed for the two Davydov components of the excitons for different film thicknesses. At room temperature, the energetic positions of the respective absorption bands are the same for all films, whereas the positions differ more than 20 meV at 10 K caused by the very different expansion coefficients of pentacene and ZnO. Although the pentacene is just bonded via van der Waals interaction to the ZnO substrate, the very first pentacene monolayer (adlayer) is forced to keep the initial position on the ZnO surface and suffering, therefore, a substantial tensile strain. For all the subsequent pentacene monolayers, the strain is reduced step by step resulting electronically in a strong potential gradient at the interface.

  16. Temperature Dependence of the Flare Fluence Scaling Exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Solar flares result in an increase of the solar irradiance at all wavelengths. While the distribution of the flare fluence observed in coronal emission has been widely studied and found to scale as f(E)˜ E^{-α}, with α slightly below 2, the distribution of the flare fluence in chromospheric lines is poorly known. We used the solar irradiance measurements observed by the SDO/EVE instrument at a 10 s cadence to investigate the dependency of the scaling exponent on the formation region of the lines (or temperature). We analyzed all flares above the C1 level since the start of the EVE observations (May 2010) to determine the flare fluence distribution in 16 lines covering a wide range of temperatures, several of which were not studied before. Our results show a weak downward trend with temperature of the scaling exponent of the PDF that reaches from above 2 at lower temperature (a few 104 K) to {˜ }1.8 for hot coronal emission (several 106 K). However, because colder lines also have fainter contrast, we cannot exclude that this behavior is caused by including more noise for smaller flares for these lines. We discuss the method and its limitations and tentatively associate this possible trend with the different mechanisms responsible for the heating of the chromosphere and corona during flares.

  17. Calibration of Gyros with Temperature Dependent Scale Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belur, Sheela V.; Harman, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The general problem of gyro calibration can be stated as the estimation of the scale factors, misalignments, and drift-rate biases of the gyro using the on-orbit sensor measurements. These gyro parameters have been traditionally treated as temperature-independent in the operational flight dynamics ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a scenario which has been successfully applied in the gyro calibration of a large number of missions. A significant departure from this is the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission where, due to the high thermal variations expected during the mission phase, it is necessary to model the scale factors as functions of temperature. This paper addresses the issue of gyro calibration for the MAP gyro model using a manufacturer-supplied model of the variation of scale factors with temperature. The problem is formulated as a least squares problem and solved using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the MATLAB(R) library function NLSQ. The algorithm was tested on simulated data with Gaussian noise for the quaternions as well as the gyro rates and was found to consistently converge close to the true values. Significant improvement in accuracy was noticed due to the estimation of the temperature-dependent scale factors as against constant scale factors.

  18. Investigating temperature degradation in THz quantum cascade lasers by examination of temperature dependence of output power

    SciTech Connect

    Albo, Asaf Hu, Qing

    2015-03-30

    In this paper, we demonstrate a method to investigate the temperature degradation of THz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on analyzing the dependence of lasing output power on temperature. The output power is suggested to decrease exponentially with some characteristic activation energy indicative of the degradation mechanism. As a proof of concept, Arrhenius plots of power versus temperature are used to extract the activation energy in vertical transition THz QCLs. The extracted energies are consistent with thermally activated longitudinal optical-phonon scattering being the dominant degradation mechanism, as is generally accepted. The extracted activation energy values are shown to be in good agreement with the values predicted from laser spectra.

  19. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of surface-engineered silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Somak; Švrček, Vladimir; Macias-Montero, Manual; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements (15-300 K), which have allowed probing radiative transitions and understanding of the appearance of various transitions. We further demonstrate that transitions associated with oxide in SiNCs show characteristic vibronic peaks that vary with surface characteristics. In particular we study differences and similarities between silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) derived from porous silicon and SiNCs that were surface-treated using a radio-frequency (RF) microplasma system. PMID:27296771

  20. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of surface-engineered silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Somak; Švrček, Vladimir; Macias-Montero, Manual; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements (15–300 K), which have allowed probing radiative transitions and understanding of the appearance of various transitions. We further demonstrate that transitions associated with oxide in SiNCs show characteristic vibronic peaks that vary with surface characteristics. In particular we study differences and similarities between silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) derived from porous silicon and SiNCs that were surface-treated using a radio-frequency (RF) microplasma system. PMID:27296771

  1. Phenomenological Spin Transport Theory Driven by Anomalous Nernst Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    Several experimental efforts such as material investigation and structure improvement have been made recently to find a large anomalous Nernst effect in ferromagnetic metals. Here, we develop a theory of spin transport driven by the anomalous Nernst effect in a diffusive ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic multilayer. Starting from a phenomenological formula of a spin-dependent electric current, the theoretical formulas of electric voltage and spin torque generated by the anomalous Nernst effect are derived. The magnitude of the electric voltage generated from the spin current via the inverse spin Hall effect is on the order of 0.1 µV for currently available experimental parameter values. The temperature gradient necessary to switch the magnetization is quite larger than the typical experimental value. The separation of the contributions of the Seebeck and transverse spin Seebeck effects is also discussed.

  2. Prominence oscillations: Effect of a time-dependent background temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, J. L.; Carbonell, M.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Small amplitude oscillations in prominences have been known about for a long time, and from a theoretical point of view, these oscillations have been interpreted in terms of standing or propagating linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In general, these oscillations were studied by producing small perturbations in a background equilibrium with stationary physical properties. Aims: Taking into account that prominences are dynamic plasma structures, the assumption of a stationary equilibrium is not realistic. Therefore, our main aim is to study the effects produced by a non-stationary background on slow MHD waves, which could be responsible for prominence oscillations. Methods: Assuming that the radiation term is proportional to temperature and constant external heating, we have derived an expression for the temporal variation of the background temperature, which depends on the imbalance between heating and cooling processes. Furthermore, radiative losses, together with parallel thermal conduction, have also been included as damping mechanisms for the waves. Results: As temperature increases with time, the period of slow waves decreases and the amplitude of the velocity perturbations is damped. The inclusion of radiative losses enhances the damping. As temperature decreases with time, the period of slow waves increases and the amplitude of velocity perturbations grows while, as expected, the inclusion of radiative losses contributes to the damping of oscillations. Conclusions: There is observational evidence that, in different locations of the same prominence, oscillations are damped or amplified with time. This temporal damping or amplification can be obtained by a proper combination of a variable background temperature, together with radiative damping. Furthermore, decayless oscillations can also be obtained with an appropriate choice of the characteristic radiation time.

  3. A Conceptual Model to Link Anomalously High Temperature Gradients in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field to Regional Flow in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingham, E. J.; Keller, S. N.; McCullough, K. R.; Watters, J.; Weitering, B.; Wilce, A. M.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.; Pellerin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature-depth well data along with electromagnetic (EM) data were collected by students of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) 2015 field season in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico. The data from this year, in addition to data acquired since 2013, were used to construct a conceptual east-west cross-section of the Espanola Basin and the adjacent highlands in order to evaluate the regional flow system. Vertical geothermal gradients from several monitoring wells were measured using a thermistor. Anomalously warm geothermal gradients were mapped in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field in the basin just east of the Rio Grande. Temperature gradients are up to 70℃/km, while the background geothermal gradients in the Rio Grande rift zone generally show 28℃-35℃/km. This anomaly extends to the Buckman well field, which supplies water to the city of Santa Fe. Overpumping of this well field has led to subsidence in the past. However, discharge temperature plots indicate that the temperature gradients of the Buckman field may be rebounding as pumping is reduced. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in the vicinity of three monitoring wells. TEM and AMT methods complement each other with the former having depths of investigation of less than ten to hundreds of meters and AMT having depths of investigation comparable to the wells deeper than 500m. These datasets were used collectively to image the subsurface stratigraphy and, more specifically, the hydrogeology related to shallow aquifers. The EM data collected at these wells showed a trend indicating a shallow aquifer with a shallower resistive layer of approximately 100 ohm-m at 70-100 meters depth. Beneath this resistive layer we resolved a more conductive, clay-rich layer of 10 ohm-m. These resistivity profiles compliment the electrical logs provided by Jet West, which indicate shallower sandstone interbedded with silt on top of more silt-dominant layers. Our

  4. Temperature dependence of the two photon absorption in indium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, K.W.; Rella, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Nonlinear optical processes in semiconductors have long been a source of interesting physics. Two photon absorption (TPA) is one such process, in which two photons provide the energy for the creation of an electron-hole pair. Researchers at other FEL centers have studied room temperature TPA in InSb, InAs, and HgCdTe. Working at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center, we have extended and refined this work by measuring the temperature dependence of the TPA coefficient in InAs over the range from 80 to 350 K at four wavelengths: 4.5, 5.06, 6.01, and 6.3 microns. The measurements validate the functional dependence of recent band structure calculations with enough precision to discriminate parabolic from non-parabolic models, and to begin to observe smaller effects, such as contributions due to the split-off band. These experiments therefore serve as a strong independent test of the Kane band theory, as well as providing a starting point for detailed observations of other nonlinear absorption mechanisms.

  5. Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy for spatially, temperature, and wavelength dependent refractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Joel D.

    A microfluidic refractometer was designed based on previous optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) chips utilized to distinguish healthy and cancerous cells. The optofluidic cavity is realized by adding high reflectivity dielectric mirrors to the top and bottom of a microfluidic channel. This creates a plane-plane Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the resonant wavelengths are highly dependent on the optical path length inside the cavity. Refractometry is a useful method to determine the nature of fluids, including the concentration of a solute in a solvent as well as the temperature of the fluid. Advantages of microfluidic systems are the easy integration with lab-on-chip devices and the need for only small volumes of fluid. The unique abilities of the microfluidic refractometer in this thesis include its spatial, temperature, and wavelength dependence. Spatial dependence of the transmission spectrum is inherent through a spatial filtering process implemented with an optical fiber and microscope objective. A sequence of experimental observations guided the change from using the OFIS chip as a cell discrimination device to a complimentary refractometer. First, it was noted the electrode structure within the microfluidic channel, designed to trap and manipulate biological cells with dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces, caused the resonant wavelengths to blue-shift when the electrodes were energized. This phenomenon is consistent with the negative dn/dT property of water and water-based solutions. Next, it was necessary to develop a method to separate the optical path length into physical path length and refractive index. Air holes were placed near the microfluidic channel to exclusively measure the cavity length with the known refractive index of air. The cavity length was then interpolated across the microfluidic channel, allowing any mechanical changes to be taken into account. After the separation of physical path length and refractive index, it was of interest

  6. Strain rate and temperature dependent mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanjgaokar, Nikhil J.

    Nanocrystalline metal films are candidate materials for microelectronics and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). The long term mechanical stability of metal films requires quantitative understanding of their thermo-mechanical behavior in the large range of operating strain rates and temperatures. This dissertation research studied (a) the role of thermally activated processes based on the strain rate and temperature dependent mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline Au thin films, and (b) deformation processes at nominally elastic loads that lead to creep strain over a moderate temperature range that is relevant to MEMS applications. The rate dependent mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline Au thin films was first investigated at room temperature ~ 25 °C and at strain rates between 10-6 to 20 s-1. The use of digital image correlation (DIC) facilitated repeatable and accurate measurements of fullfield strain from free-standing nanocrystalline Au thin films. The experimental stress-strain curves were used to calculate activation volumes for two film thicknesses (0.85 mum, and 1.75 mum), which were 4.5b3 and 8.1b3, at strain rates smaller than 10-4 s-1 and 12.5b3 and 14.6b3 at strain rates higher than 10-4 s-1. The reduced activation volume and increased strain rate sensitivity at slow strain rates were attributed to grain boundary (GB) diffusional processes that result in creep strain. The room temperature strain rate results were augmented with microscale strain rate experiments at temperatures up to 110 °C. Two methods for heating free-standing microscale thin film specimens, namely uniform heating using a custom-built microheater and resistive (Joule) heating, were evaluated using a combination of full-field strain measurements by optical microscopy and full-field temperature measurements by infrared (IR) thermal imaging. It was shown for the first time that the Joule specimen heating method results in large underestimation of the inelastic material properties

  7. Cationic vacancies and anomalous spectral-weight transfer in Ti1-xTaxO2 thin films studied via polarization-dependent near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dong-Chen; Barman, Arkajit Roy; Debbichi, Lamjed; Dhar, S.; Santoso, Iman; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Omer, Humair; Yang, Kesong; Krüger, Peter; Wee, Andrew T. S.; Venkatesan, T.; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2013-06-01

    We report the electronic structures of Ta-doped anatase TiO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with varying magnetization using a combination of first-principles calculations and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The roles of Ta doping and Ti vacancies are clarified, and the observed room-temperature ferromagnetism is attributed to the localized magnetic moments at Ti vacancy sites ferromagnetically ordered by electron charge carriers. O K-edge spectra exhibit significant polarization dependence which is discussed and supported by first-principles calculations in relation to both the crystal symmetry and the formation of defects. In particular, anomalous spectral-weight transfer across the entire O K edge for the ferromagnetic thin film is associated exclusively with the occurrence of Ti vacancies and strong correlation effects, which result in the enhancement of the direct interaction between oxygen sites and of the anisotropy of the eg-pσ hybridizations in the out-of-plane component. Our results show that O K-edge NEXAFS spectra can provide reliable experimental probes capable of revealing cationic defects that are intimately related to the ferromagnetism in transition metal oxides.

  8. Anomalous pH-dependence of the activity of human matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase-7) as revealed by nitration and amination of its tyrosine residues

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Matrilysin activity exhibits a broad bell-shaped pH-dependence profile, with pKa values of 4.0 and 9.8. A maximum of five out of eight tyrosine residues in matrilysin were nitrated with tetranitromethane. On nitration of between one and five tyrosines, pKa at the alkaline side (pKe2) was shifted from 9.8 to 10.3–10.6, while that at the acidic side (pKe1) was not altered. The pKe2 that was shifted by nitration to 10.3–10.6 was restored to 9.4–9.7 by subsequent amination, suggesting that the shift in pKe2 is induced by a negative charge introduced on the most reactive tyrosine, Tyr-150. The Michaelis constant (Km) observed at pH 10 was decreased by nitration as a result of the increase in pKe2, suggesting that the residue with pKe2 may play a role in the recognition of substrate. When four or five tyrosines were nitrated, the activity at pH <7 decreased significantly, while that at pH 7–10 was unchanged, and thus the pH-dependence was not bell-shaped, but anomalous, with a third pKa (pKe3) of 6.2–6.4 in addition to pKe1 and pKe2. This suggests the possibility that a newly introduced nitrotyrosine residue has a strong influence on the activity as an ionizable group. PMID:15487974

  9. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  10. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.

  11. Temperature-dependent transient creep and dynamics of cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birger, Boris I.

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale mantle convection forms the upper boundary layer (lithosphere) where the vertical temperature drop is about 1300 K. Theoretical rheology and laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep is described by the temperature-dependent Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. The solution of stability problem shows that the lithosphere is stable but small-scale convective oscillations are attenuated very weakly in regions of thickened lithosphere beneath continental cratons (subcratonic roots) where the thickness of the lithosphere is about 200 km. These oscillations create small-scale convective cells (the horizontal dimensions of the cells are of the order of the subcratonic lithosphere thickness). Direction of motion within the cells periodically changes (the period of convective oscillations is of the order of 3 × 108 yr). In this study, the oscillations of cratonic lithosphere caused by initial relief perturbation are considered. This relief perturbation is assumed to be created by overthrusting in orogenic belts surrounding cratons. The perturbation of the Earth's surface relief leads to a fast isothermal process of isostatic recovery. In the presence of vertical temperature gradient, vertical displacements, associated with the recovery process in the lithosphere interior, instantly produce the initial temperature perturbations exciting thermoconvective oscillations in the cratonic lithosphere. These small-amplitude convective oscillations cause oscillatory crustal movements which form sedimentary basins on cratons.

  12. The Temperature Dependence of Water's Latent Heat of Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szedlak, A.; Blanchard, A. V.; Kostinski, A. B.; Cantrell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Freezing of water in Earth's atmosphere affects cloud dynamics through the release of the latent heat. The latent heat released is a function of how deeply the cloud water is supercooled before freezing begins - the deeper the supercooling, the less heat is released to the atmosphere. We present new measurements of the temperature dependent latent heat of freezing of water, measured using a Perkin Elmer DSC 7 and a Mettler Toledo Polymer DSC. Both instruments have been calibrated against melting transitions of water, dodecane, undecane,and tetradecane, and both agree within the error of the measurements with values in the literature. However, the two measurements show dramatic differences for the latent heat of freezing of water, which we attribute to the different methods used to extract a heat flux. At higher temperatures our measurements with the Perkin Elmer, which is a power compensation type calorimeter, are comparable to those of Bertolini et al. (1985). At lower temperatures, our measurements diverge from those of Bertolini et al. (1985), which we again attribute to the different principle of operation of the calorimeters. We conclude that temperature gradients within the freezing water play a critical role in the quantity of heat eventually exchanged with the surroundings. Finally, we reconcile the measurements with Kirchhoff's relation, which can be written (∂ΔH/∂T)p = Δcp where ΔH is the enthalpy difference between product and reactant (supercooled water and ice in this case) and Δcp is the difference in their heat capacities. [Bertolini, D., M. Cassettari, and G. Salvetti, Anomalies in the latent-heat of solidification of supercooled water. Chem. Phys. Lett., 119, 553-555, 1985.

  13. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Poncé, S. Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X.; Marini, A.; Verstraete, M.

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  14. The anomalous low and high temperatures of 2012 over Greece - an explanation from a meteorological and climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, K.; Maheras, P.; Pytharoulis, I.; Anagnostopoulou, C.

    2014-03-01

    2012 was the hottest year in Greece on the basis of the available record dating back to 1958, displaying at the same time the widest annual temperature range. During the summer and autumn months, numerous regions in the domain of study experienced record-breaking maximum and minimum temperatures. Conversely, the winter period was particularly cold and January one of the coldest months over the last 55 yr. The analysis of the cold period indicates that the synoptic conditions resemble the positive phase of the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMP). The predominance of these cool conditions seems to be related primarily to an intense NNW or NNE atmospheric circulation, as a consequence of the positive EMP phase. Moreover, the reduction in the floating sea ice emerges as a key driver of the formation of a low-pressure pattern and the reinforcement of the trough south of Scandinavia, which in turn strengthened the Siberia High east of the trough. This reinforcement resulted in a blocking pattern and in favorable conditions for the EMP formation. The atmospheric circulation during the prolonged high-temperature period resembles, respectively, the negative phase of North Sea-Caspian Pattern teleconnection. The observed positive pole, in conjunction with the strong southwestern circulation, results in temperature increases and in the development of a smooth pressure field that contributes to the weakening of the Etesian winds and therefore to calm conditions over the continental areas.

  15. The anomalous low and high temperatures of 2012 over Greece: an explanation from a meteorological and climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, K.; Maheras, P.; Pytharoulis, I.; Anagnostopoulou, C.

    2013-09-01

    The year of 2012 is characterized, for Greece, as the hottest one in the available record dating back to 1958, presenting also the widest annual temperature range. During the summer and autumn months, numerous regions in the domain of study experienced record-breaking maximum and minimum temperatures. Conversely, the winter period was particularly cold and January was one of the coldest months in the last 55 yr. The analysis of the cold period indicates that the synoptic conditions resemble the positive phase of the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMP). The predominance of these cool conditions seems to be primarily related to an intense NNW or NNE atmospheric circulation, as a consequence of the positive EMP phase. Moreover, the reduction of the floating sea ice emerged as a key driver to the formation of a low pressure pattern and the reinforcement of the trough south of Scandinavia, which in turn strengthened the Siberia High east of the trough. This reinforcement resulted in a blocking pattern and in the favorable conditions for the EMP formation The atmospheric circulation during the prolonged high-temperature period resembles, respectively, the negative phase of North Sea-Caspian Pattern teleconnection. The observed positive pole, in conjunction with the strong southwestern circulation, results in temperature increases and in the development of a smooth pressure field that contributes to the weakening of the Etesian winds and therefore to calm conditions over the continental areas.

  16. Anomalous Hall effect in localization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Zhu, Kai; Yue, Di; Tian, Yuan; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous Hall effect in the ultrathin film regime is investigated in Fe(001)(1-3 nm) films epitaxial on MgO(001). The logarithmic localization correction to longitudinal resistivity and anomalous Hall resistivity are observed at low temperature. We identify that the coefficient of skew scattering has a reduction from metallic to localized regime, while the contribution of side jump has inconspicuous change except for a small drop below 10 K. Furthermore, we discover that the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity decreases with the reduction of thickness below 2 nm. Our results provide unambiguous experimental evidence to clarify the problem of localization correction to the anomalous Hall effect.

  17. Boundary formulations for shape sensitivity of temperature dependent conductivity problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, James H.; Wang, Hua

    1992-01-01

    Used in concert with the Kirchhoff transformation, implicit differentiation of the discretized boundary integral equations governing the conduction of heat in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity is shown to generate an accurate and economical approach for computation of shape sensitivities. For problems with specified temperature and heat flux boundary conditions, a linear problem results for both the analysis and sensitivity analysis. In problems with either convection or radiation boundary conditions, a nonlinear problem is generated. Several iterative strategies are presented for the solution of the resulting sets of nonlinear equations and the computational performances examined in detail. Multizone analysis and zone condensation strategies are demonstrated to provide substantive computational economies in this process for models with either localized nonlinear boundary conditions or regions of geometric insensitivity to design variables. A series of nonlinear example problems is presented that have closed form solutions. Exact analytical expressions for the shape sensitivities associated with these problems are developed and these are compared with the sensitivities computed using the boundary element formulation.

  18. Model for temperature-dependent magnetization of nanocrystalline materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.

    2015-01-07

    A magnetization model of nanocrystalline materials incorporating intragrain anisotropies, intergrain interactions, and texture effects has been extended to include the thermal fluctuations. The method relies on the stochastic Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert theory of magnetization dynamics and permits to study the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline materials at arbitrary temperature below the Currie temperature. The model has been used to determine the intergrain exchange constant and grain boundary anisotropy constant of nanocrystalline Ni at 100 K and 298 K. It is found that the thermal fluctuations suppress the strength of the intergrain exchange coupling and also reduce the grain boundary anisotropy. In comparison with its value at 2 K, the interparticle exchange constant decreases by 16% and 42% and the grain boundary anisotropy constant decreases by 28% and 40% at 100 K and 298 K, respectively. An application of the model to study the grain size-dependent magnetization indicates that when the thermal activation energy is comparable to the free energy of grains, the decrease in the grain size leads to the decrease in the magnetic permeability and saturation magnetization. The mechanism by which the grain size influences the magnetic properties of nc–Ni is discussed.

  19. Model for temperature-dependent magnetization of nanocrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.

    2015-01-01

    A magnetization model of nanocrystalline materials incorporating intragrain anisotropies, intergrain interactions, and texture effects has been extended to include the thermal fluctuations. The method relies on the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert theory of magnetization dynamics and permits to study the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline materials at arbitrary temperature below the Currie temperature. The model has been used to determine the intergrain exchange constant and grain boundary anisotropy constant of nanocrystalline Ni at 100 K and 298 K. It is found that the thermal fluctuations suppress the strength of the intergrain exchange coupling and also reduce the grain boundary anisotropy. In comparison with its value at 2 K, the interparticle exchange constant decreases by 16% and 42% and the grain boundary anisotropy constant decreases by 28% and 40% at 100 K and 298 K, respectively. An application of the model to study the grain size-dependent magnetization indicates that when the thermal activation energy is comparable to the free energy of grains, the decrease in the grain size leads to the decrease in the magnetic permeability and saturation magnetization. The mechanism by which the grain size influences the magnetic properties of nc-Ni is discussed.

  20. Time-temperature-stress dependence of boron fiber deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The time-dependent deformation of boron fibers over the temperature range from -190 to 800 C is studied by flexural stress relaxation and flexural internal friction techniques on 203-micron diam specimen fibers commercially produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a 13-micron tungsten substrate. It is shown that up to at least 800 C all nonelastic behavior observed during axial deformation of CVD boron fibers can be explained solely by anelastic mechanisms and that although creep strains are small, boron fiber anelasticity can produce significant mechanical effects which would otherwise be neglected under the elastic approximation. Relations are obtained to demonstrate the considerable effects of anelasticity on such fiber/composite properties as modulus, creep, creep recovery, stress relaxation, and damping capacity. For an elastic-core/anelastic-sheath model, boron fibers on tungsten substrates are shown to have predictable fracture stresses for time-temperature conditions ranging from impact to long-time stress rupture. Possible techniques for altering these stresses are discussed.

  1. The Temperature Dependent Enthalpy of Vaporization of Pure Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jianxiang

    Recently the universal behavior of the temperature dependent enthalpy of vaporization along with the whole liquid-vapor coexistence curve at equilibrium is described and explained by Roman et al.5 The work (called RWVM relation) succeeds in the combination of the linear relation near the triple point and the renormalization group theory result near the critical point. For the convenience of chemical designs and engineering applications, we report its b values yielding the minimum average absolute deviation (AAD) for 74 pure substances from the NIST web-book and compare the results with other correlations. We find that with an adapted b value, the RWVM relation predicts the data of 47 pure substances with an AAD less than 0.0093, with six more than 0.02 and all less than 0.03 except quantum fluid hydrogen, that is clearly better than other correlations. For most pure substances, b covers the range from 0 to 1. Only one negative value stands for the quantum fluid helium because of its enthalpy of vaporization being experimentally not a monotonic function of the temperature in the range near the triple point.

  2. Temperature dependences of rate coefficients for electron catalyzed mutual neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-07-14

    The flowing afterglow technique of variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) has recently yielded evidence for a novel plasma charge loss process, electron catalyzed mutual neutralization (ECMN), i.e., A{sup +}+ B{sup -}+ e{sup -}{yields} A + B + e{sup -}. Here, rate constants for ECMN of two polyatomic species (POCl{sub 3}{sup -} and POCl{sub 2}{sup -}) and one diatomic species (Br{sub 2}{sup -}) each with two monatomic cations (Ar{sup +}and Kr{sup +}) are measured using VENDAMS over the temperature range 300 K-500 K. All rate constants show a steep negative temperature dependence, consistent with that expected for a three body process involving two ions and an electron. No variation in rate constants as a function of the cation type is observed outside of uncertainty; however, rate constants of the polyatomic anions ({approx}1 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K) are measurably higher than that for Br{sub 2}{sup -}[(5.5 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K].

  3. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Catherine L.; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2014-01-01

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km2), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9–1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091–2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike–brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

  4. Temperature Dependence in Femtosecond Desorption at Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misewich, James

    1998-03-01

    Femtosecond laser induced desorption at metal surfaces is distinguished by two salient observations: the high yield of the reaction and the short correlation time in pump-probe measurements. This has led to the proposal of a model for desorption induced by multiple electronic transitions (DIMET). (J.A. Misewich, T.F. Heinz, and D.M. Newns, Phys. Rev. Lett. v.68 (1992) 3737.) The effect of the adsorbate temperature in DIMET has been studied using stochastic trajectory calculations with initial adsorbate vibrational quantum state occupation. We find that initial vibrational excitation substantially increases the desorption yield. These findings are related to two experimental observations. The long time-scale wings found in femtosecond time-resolved correlation measurements are thought to reflect the residual vibrational excitation left in the undesorbed adlayer following the first laser pulse. (J.A. Misewich, A. Kalamarides, T.F. Heinz, U. Hoefer, and M.M.T. Loy, J. Chem. Phys. v.100 (1994) 736.) Also, the wavelength dependence of femtosecond desorption experiments (S. Deliwala, R.J. Finlay, J.R. Goldman, T.H. Her, W.D. Mieher, and E. Mazur, Chem. Phys. Lett. v.242 (1995) 617 and D.G. Busch and W. Ho, Phys. Rev. Lett. v.77 (1996) 1338.) suggests a role for nonthermalized electrons which is interpreted in terms of the vibrational excitation left in the adlayer from unsuccessful DIET (single excitation) events as a result of the wavelength dependent nonthermalized electron distribution.

  5. Temperature dependence of polyhedral cage volumes in clathrate hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chakoumakos, B.C.; Rawn, C.J.; Rondinone, A.J.; Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Ishii, Y.; Jones, C.Y.; Toby, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    The polyhedral cage volumes of structure I (sI) (carbon dioxide, methane, trimethylene oxide) and structure II (sII) (methane-ethane, propane, tetrahydrofuran, trimethylene oxide) hydrates are computed from atomic positions determined from neutron powder-diffraction data. The ideal structural formulas for sI and sII are, respectively, S2L6 ?? 46H2O and S16L???8 ?? 136H2O, where S denotes a polyhedral cage with 20 vertices, L a 24-cage, and L??? a 28-cage. The space-filling polyhedral cages are defined by the oxygen atoms of the hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules. Collectively, the mean cage volume ratio is 1.91 : 1.43 : 1 for the 28-cage : 24-cage : 20-cage, which correspond to equivalent sphere radii of 4.18, 3.79, and 3.37 A??, respectively. At 100 K, mean polyhedral volumes are 303.8, 227.8, and 158.8 A??3 for the 28-cage, 24-cage, and 20-cage, respectively. In general, the 20-cage volume for a sII is larger than that of a sI, although trimethylene oxide is an exception. The temperature dependence of the cage volumes reveals differences between apparently similar cages with similar occupants. In the case of trimethylene oxide hydrate, which forms both sI and sII, the 20-cages common to both structures contract quite differently. From 220 K, the sII 20-cage exhibits a smooth monotonic reduction in size, whereas the sI 20-cage initially expands upon cooling to 160 K, then contracts more rapidly to 10 K, and overall the sI 20-cage is larger than the sII 20-cage. The volumes of the large cages in both structures contract monotonically with decreasing temperature. These differences reflect reoriented motion of the trimethyelene oxide molecule in the 24-cage of sI, consistent with previous spectroscopic and calorimetric studies. For the 20-cages in methane hydrate (sI) and a mixed methane-ethane hydrate (sII), both containing methane as the guest molecule, the temperature dependence of the 20-cage volume in sII is much less than that in sI, but sII is overall

  6. Anomalous Freezing of Nano-Confined Water in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Nitrate.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Saihara, Koji; Shimizu, Akio

    2016-04-18

    Non-crystal formation of ice is investigated by simultaneous X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements upon cooling to -100 °C. At room temperature, size-tunable water confinement (≈20 Å size) in a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, [C4 mim][NO3 ]) exists in a water-rich region (70-90 mol % D2 O). The confined water (water pocket) is characterized by almost monodispersive size distribution. In [C4 mim][NO3 ]-x mol % D2 O (70

  7. Stability of CdTe solar cells at elevated temperatures: Bias, temperature, and Cu dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltner, Jason F.; Sites, James R.

    1999-03-01

    A systematic study of the stability of CdTe solar cells fabricated by SCI and NREL has been made. Cells were stressed at elevated temperatures under various bias conditions, both with illumination (˜2 suns) and in the dark. An activation energy of approximately 1 eV is implied from cells stressed at various elevated temperatures. The stability of CdTe solar cells was found to be bias dependent and device-specific. Cells made with thick CdTe and no back-contact copper as well as by at least one SCI recipe were very stable. Extrapolation of effects assuming Arrhenius behavior yields estimated lifetime expectations for the cells stressed at elevated temperatures.

  8. Temperature dependence of the deformation behavior of 316 stainless steel after low temperature neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel-Robertson, J.E.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of low temperature neutron irradiation on the tensile behavior of 316 stainless steel have been investigated. A single heat of solution annealed 316 was irradiated to 7 and 18 dpa at 60, 200, 330, and 400{degrees}C. The tensile properties as a function of dose and as a function of temperature were examined. Large changes in yield strength, deformation mode, strain to necking, and strain hardening capacity were seen in this irradiation experiment. The magnitudes of the changes are dependent on both irradiation temperature and neutron dose. Irradiation can more than triple the yield strength over the unirradiated value and decrease the strain to necking (STN) to less than 0.5% under certain conditions. A maximum increase in yield strength and a minimum in the STN occur after irradiation at 330{degrees}C but the failure mode remains ductile.

  9. Anomalous magnetoresistance in NiMnGa thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, Vladimir O.; Vovk, Andriy Ya.; Malkinski, Leszek; O'Connor, Charles J.; Wang, Zhenjun; Tang, Jinke

    2004-10-01

    The origin of anomalous negative magnetoresistance and its temperature dependence in polycrystalline Ni -Mn-Ga films prepared by pulse laser deposition was studied. The investigation of structural, transports, magnetic, and ferromagnetic resonance properties of the films suggests contributions of different mechanisms in magnetotransport. At low magnetic fields the main contribution to magnetoresistance is due to the transport between the areas with different orientation of magnetic moments, while at high fields it is an electron scattering of in spin-disordered areas.

  10. Anomalous Paramagnetic State in Naturally Layered Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    The nature of the magnetic state near the ferromagnetic phase transition is studied for the layered manganites SrO(La_1-xSr_xMnO_3)2 in the composition range x = 0.32 - 0.40 by means of magnetic field and temperature dependent measurements of the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization and conductivity. In a temperature range T ~ 1.05-1.45 T_C, the paramagnetic phase exhibits a number of very unusual properties, which reflects the fact that the magnetic free energy is distorted due to the existence of a second competing order parameter. In particular, we observe that the field-dependent susceptibility exhibits an anomalous maximum at an intermediate magnetic field value. The size of this field-induced susceptibility enhancement increases dramatically with x from 100.40. The temperature dependence of the effect shows a maximum at T ~ 1.1 TC independent of x. Quantitative analysis of the experimental data reveals that the ferromagnetic exchange coupling is reduced for temperatures above the ferromagnetic phase transition, an effect that is especially pronounced for the x = 0.40 compound. For this material, we also find a strong correlation between the exchange coupling reduction and the measured conductivity, which indicates that the electronic band structure change at the metal-insulator transition also affects the exchange coupling strength in this very compound in contrast to other, mostly perovskite-type manganites. In addition, we observe the appearance of anomalous magnetic losses for temperatures just above TC and applied field values that coincide with the occurrence of the metal-insulator transition. These data suggest that the metal-insulator transition in these layered manganites is associated with a magnetically inhomogeneous state. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences - Materials Sciences under Contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  11. On unusual temperature dependence of the upper critical field in YNi 2- xFe xB 2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumary, T. Geetha; Kalavathi, S.; Valsakumar, M. C.; Hariharan, Y.; Radhakrishnan, T. S.

    1997-02-01

    Measurement of upper critica field in YNi 2- xFe xB 2C is reported for x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15. An anomalous positive curvature is observed for a range of temperatures close to Tc, for all x. As x is increased, the temperature interval over which the curvature in Hc2( T) is positive, is reduced and the system shows a tendency to go to the usual behaviour exhibited by conventional low temperature superconductors. Most of the theories based on a Fermi liquid normal state seem to be inadequate to understand this anomalous behaviour. It is speculated that this anomalous behaviour of Hc2( T) signifies the presence of strong correlations in the pristine YNi 2B 2C and that strong correlation effects become less and less important upon substitution of Ni with Fe.

  12. Hydrothermal Plume Mapping Along the Hotspot-affected Galapagos Spreading Center Finds High-Temperature Vent Sites are Anomalously Scarce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.; Lebon, G. T.; Nakamura, K.; Haymon, R. M.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    Systematic searches for hydrothermal activity along midocean ridges (MORs) demonstrate that the spatial density of hydrothermal activity is a robust linear function of spreading rate. This trend argues that the availability of mantle heat is the first order control on the distribution of seafloor vent fields. However, some crustal thermal models predict that the thicker, hotter, more ductile crust associated with hotspots substantially reduces convective hydrothermal cooling, explaining observations of axial magma chambers (AMC) at shallower depths than found on normal MORs. In Dec-Jan 2006 we tested this hypothesis by mapping hydrothermal plumes overlying the hotspot-affected Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) from 95°-89.6°W, using a dual-pass, side-scan deep tow with an array of plume sensors spanning 50- 250 m above bottom. The western GSC near 91°-92.5°W has axial-high morphology, shallow and quasi-continuous AMC, and thick (8 km) crust, changing to a transitional morphology, deeper and more discontinuous AMC, and normal (6 km) crust from 93° to 95°W. The eastern GSC, 90.5°- 89.6°W is also an axial high and presumably has crustal characteristics similar to the western GSC at 91°-92.5°W. We identified hydrothermal plumes by anomalies in light backscattering (NTU) from a vertical array of MAPR sensors along the tow line, plus redox potential (Eh) measured continuously in-situ on the tow body at a nominal elevation of 100 m. Many plumes were subsequently confirmed by CTD tows and sampling. Only three areas of extensive and intense plumes were observed: 90.52°-90.63°W, 91.78°- 91.96°W, and 94°-94.1°W. Maximum plume rise at the latter two sites exceeded 200 m, indicative of high-temperature venting that was confirmed by camera tows. Some 25 other NTU and Eh anomalies were detected along ~1000 km of trackline, but none were >5 km in length. The primary result of our survey is that hydrothermal plumes were scarce for a ridge spreading at ~60 mm

  13. Variable responses of benthic communities to anomalously warm sea temperatures on a high-latitude coral reef.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Tom C L; Ferrari, Renata; Bryson, Mitch; Hovey, Renae; Figueira, Will F; Williams, Stefan B; Pizarro, Oscar; Harborne, Alastair R; Byrne, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High-latitude reefs support unique ecological communities occurring at the biogeographic boundaries between tropical and temperate marine ecosystems. Due to their lower ambient temperatures, they are regarded as potential refugia for tropical species shifting poleward due to rising sea temperatures. However, acute warming events can cause rapid shifts in the composition of high-latitude reef communities, including range contractions of temperate macroalgae and bleaching-induced mortality in corals. While bleaching has been reported on numerous high-latitude reefs, post-bleaching trajectories of benthic communities are poorly described. Consequently, the longer-term effects of thermal anomalies on high-latitude reefs are difficult to predict. Here, we use an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct repeated surveys of three 625 m(2) plots on a coral-dominated high-latitude reef in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, over a four-year period spanning a large-magnitude thermal anomaly. Quantification of benthic communities revealed high coral cover (>70%, comprising three main morphospecies) prior to the bleaching event. Plating Montipora was most susceptible to bleaching, but in the plot where it was most abundant, coral cover did not change significantly because of post-bleaching increases in branching Acropora. In the other two plots, coral cover decreased while macroalgal cover increased markedly. Overall, coral cover declined from 73% to 59% over the course of the study, while macroalgal cover increased from 11% to 24%. The significant differences in impacts and post-bleaching trajectories among plots underline the importance of understanding the underlying causes of such variation to improve predictions of how climate change will affect reefs, especially at high-latitudes. PMID:25426718

  14. Variable responses of benthic communities to anomalously warm sea temperatures on a high-latitude coral reef.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Tom C L; Ferrari, Renata; Bryson, Mitch; Hovey, Renae; Figueira, Will F; Williams, Stefan B; Pizarro, Oscar; Harborne, Alastair R; Byrne, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High-latitude reefs support unique ecological communities occurring at the biogeographic boundaries between tropical and temperate marine ecosystems. Due to their lower ambient temperatures, they are regarded as potential refugia for tropical species shifting poleward due to rising sea temperatures. However, acute warming events can cause rapid shifts in the composition of high-latitude reef communities, including range contractions of temperate macroalgae and bleaching-induced mortality in corals. While bleaching has been reported on numerous high-latitude reefs, post-bleaching trajectories of benthic communities are poorly described. Consequently, the longer-term effects of thermal anomalies on high-latitude reefs are difficult to predict. Here, we use an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct repeated surveys of three 625 m(2) plots on a coral-dominated high-latitude reef in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, over a four-year period spanning a large-magnitude thermal anomaly. Quantification of benthic communities revealed high coral cover (>70%, comprising three main morphospecies) prior to the bleaching event. Plating Montipora was most susceptible to bleaching, but in the plot where it was most abundant, coral cover did not change significantly because of post-bleaching increases in branching Acropora. In the other two plots, coral cover decreased while macroalgal cover increased markedly. Overall, coral cover declined from 73% to 59% over the course of the study, while macroalgal cover increased from 11% to 24%. The significant differences in impacts and post-bleaching trajectories among plots underline the importance of understanding the underlying causes of such variation to improve predictions of how climate change will affect reefs, especially at high-latitudes.

  15. Variable Responses of Benthic Communities to Anomalously Warm Sea Temperatures on a High-Latitude Coral Reef

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Mitch; Hovey, Renae; Figueira, Will F.; Williams, Stefan B.; Pizarro, Oscar; Harborne, Alastair R.; Byrne, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High-latitude reefs support unique ecological communities occurring at the biogeographic boundaries between tropical and temperate marine ecosystems. Due to their lower ambient temperatures, they are regarded as potential refugia for tropical species shifting poleward due to rising sea temperatures. However, acute warming events can cause rapid shifts in the composition of high-latitude reef communities, including range contractions of temperate macroalgae and bleaching-induced mortality in corals. While bleaching has been reported on numerous high-latitude reefs, post-bleaching trajectories of benthic communities are poorly described. Consequently, the longer-term effects of thermal anomalies on high-latitude reefs are difficult to predict. Here, we use an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct repeated surveys of three 625 m2 plots on a coral-dominated high-latitude reef in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, over a four-year period spanning a large-magnitude thermal anomaly. Quantification of benthic communities revealed high coral cover (>70%, comprising three main morphospecies) prior to the bleaching event. Plating Montipora was most susceptible to bleaching, but in the plot where it was most abundant, coral cover did not change significantly because of post-bleaching increases in branching Acropora. In the other two plots, coral cover decreased while macroalgal cover increased markedly. Overall, coral cover declined from 73% to 59% over the course of the study, while macroalgal cover increased from 11% to 24%. The significant differences in impacts and post-bleaching trajectories among plots underline the importance of understanding the underlying causes of such variation to improve predictions of how climate change will affect reefs, especially at high-latitudes. PMID:25426718

  16. Temperature dependence of microwave oscillations in magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Peng; Feng, Jiafeng E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Wei, Hongxiang E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Han, Xiufeng; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming

    2015-01-05

    We experimentally study the temperature dependence of the spin-transfer-torque-induced microwave oscillations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer. We demonstrate that the oscillation frequency increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which is mainly ascribed to the temperature dependence of both the saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We also find that a strong temperature dependence of the output power while a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of spectral linewidth are maintained for a constant dc bias in measured temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different dependences of oscillation frequency, output power, and linewidth are discussed.

  17. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  18. Are reptiles predisposed to temperature-dependent sex determination?

    PubMed

    Georges, A; Ezaz, T; Quinn, A E; Sarre, S D

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrates show an astonishing array of sex determining mechanisms, including male and female heterogamety, multiple sex chromosome systems, environmental sex determination, parthenogenesis and hermaphroditism. Sex determination in mammals and birds is extraordinarily conservative compared to that of reptiles, amphibians and fish. In this paper, we explore possible explanations for the diversity of sex determining modes in reptiles, and in particular, address the prevalence of reptilian temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and its almost haphazard distribution across the reptile phylogeny. We suggest that reptiles are predisposed to evolving TSD from genotypic sex determination (GSD) by virtue of the uniquely variable thermal environment experienced by their embryos during the critical period in which sex is determined. Explicit mechanisms for canalization of sexual phenotype in the face of high thermal variation during development provide a context for thermolability in sex determination at extremes and the raw material for natural selection to move this thermolability into the developmental mainstream when there is a selective advantage to do so. Release of cryptic variation when canalization is challenged and fails at extremes may accelerate evolutionary transitions between GSD and TSD.

  19. Temperature Dependence of Lateral Charge Transport in Silicon Nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weiwei; Scott, Shelley; Jacobson, Rb; Sookchoo, Pornsatit; Savage, Donald; Eriksson, Mark; Lagally, Max

    2014-03-01

    Thin sheets of single-crystal silicon (nanomembranes), electrically isolated from a bulk substrate by a dielectric layer, are an exceptional tool for studying the electronic transport properties of surfaces in the absence of an extended bulk. Under UHV, we measure the conductivity, and a back gate allows us to look into the depletion region, where we can determine the minimum conductance. For hydrogen-terminated Si(001) NMs, for which the surface has no conductivity, the minimum conductance decreases with decreasing NM thickness (220-42nm), demonstrating the reduction in carriers for thinner NMs. For the clean Si(2 ×1)surface, mobile charge exists in the π* surface band. For thicknesses below 200nm surface conduction dominates, rendering the thickness independence of the minimum. We determine a surface charge mobility of ~50cm2V-1s-1. We have measured the temperature dependence of the conductance of a 42nm thick HF treated SiNM. The results show that the Fermi level is pinned 0.21 +/- 0 . 01 eV below the conduction band minimum, in agreement with XPS results. Supported by DOE.

  20. Temperature dependence of electronic eigenenergies in the adiabatic harmonic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncé, S.; Antonius, G.; Gillet, Y.; Boulanger, P.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Marini, A.; Côté, M.; Gonze, X.

    2014-12-01

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon interactions (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is important in many materials. We address it in the adiabatic harmonic approximation, based on first principles (e.g., density-functional theory), from different points of view: directly from atomic position fluctuations or, alternatively, from Janak's theorem generalized to the case where the Helmholtz free energy, including the vibrational entropy, is used. We prove their equivalence, based on the usual form of Janak's theorem and on the dynamical equation. We then also place the Allen-Heine-Cardona (AHC) theory of the renormalization in a first-principles context. The AHC theory relies on the rigid-ion approximation, and naturally leads to a self-energy (Fan) contribution and a Debye-Waller contribution. Such a splitting can also be done for the complete harmonic adiabatic expression, in which the rigid-ion approximation is not required. A numerical study within the density-functional perturbation theory framework allows us to compare the AHC theory with frozen-phonon calculations, with or without the rigid-ion approximation. For the two different numerical approaches without non-rigid-ion terms, the agreement is better than 7 μ eV in the case of diamond, which represent an agreement to five significant digits. The magnitude of the non-rigid-ion terms in this case is also presented, distinguishing specific phonon modes contributions to different electronic eigenenergies.

  1. Soft self-assembled nanoparticles with temperature-dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Capone, Barbara; Likos, Christos N.

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of versatile building blocks that reliably self-assemble into desired ordered and disordered phases is amongst the hottest topics in contemporary materials science. To this end, microscopic units of varying complexity, aimed at assembling the target phases, have been thought, designed, investigated and built. Such a path usually requires laborious fabrication techniques, especially when specific functionalisation of the building blocks is required. Telechelic star polymers, i.e., star polymers made of a number of f di-block copolymers consisting of solvophobic and solvophilic monomers grafted on a central anchoring point, spontaneously self-assemble into soft patchy particles featuring attractive spots (patches) on the surface. Here we show that the tunability of such a system can be widely extended by controlling the physical and chemical parameters of the solution. Indeed, under fixed external conditions the self-assembly behaviour depends only on the number of arms and on the ratio of solvophobic to solvophilic monomers. However, changes in temperature and/or solvent quality make it possible to reliably change the number and size of the attractive patches. This allows the steering of the mesoscopic self-assembly behaviour without modifying the microscopic constituents. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that diverse combinations of the parameters can generate stars with the same number of patches but different radial and angular stiffness. This mechanism could provide a neat way of further fine-tuning the elastic properties of the supramolecular network without changing its topology.

  2. Linear mean free path and quadratic temperature dependence of electron-phonon scattering rate in V{sub 82}Al{sub 18-x}Fe{sub x} alloys at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, R. N.; Sinha, S.; Meikap, A. K.

    2015-05-15

    We have reported a comprehensive study on temperature and disorder dependence of inelastic electron dephasing scattering rate in disordered V{sub 82}Al{sub 18-x}Fe{sub x} alloys. The dephasing scattering time has been measured by analysis of low field magnetoresistance using the weak localization theory. In absence of magnetic field the variation of low temperature resistivity rise follows the relation Δρ(T)∝−ρ{sub 0}{sup 5/2}√(T), which is well described by three-dimensional electron-electron interactions. The temperature-independent dephasing rate strongly depends on disorder and follows the relation τ{sub 0}{sup −1}∝l{sub e}, where l{sub e} is the electron elastic mean free path. The inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate obeying the anomalous relation τ{sub e−ph}{sup −1}∝T{sup 2}l{sub e}. This anomalous behavior of τ{sub e−ph}{sup −1} cannot be explained in terms of current theories for electron-phonon scattering in impure dirty conductors.

  3. Anomalous hysteresis properties of iron films deposited on liquid surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Quanlin; Feng Chunmu; Xu Xiaojun; Jin Jinsheng; Xia Agen; Ye Gaoxiang

    2005-07-01

    A nearly free sustained iron film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by vapor-phase deposition method, has been fabricated and its crystal structure as well as magnetic properties has been studied. Both the temperature-dependent coercivity H{sub c}(T) and exchange anisotropy field H{sub E}(T) of the iron films possess a maximum peak around the critical temperature T{sub crit}=10-15 and 4 K, respectively. Our experimental results show that the anomalous hysteresis properties mainly result from the oxide surfaces of the films with spin-glass-like phase below freezing temperature T{sub f}=30-50 K.

  4. Anomalous hysteresis properties of iron films deposited on liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Quan-Lin; Feng, Chun-Mu; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Jin, Jin-Sheng; Xia, A.-Gen; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2005-07-01

    A nearly free sustained iron film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by vapor-phase deposition method, has been fabricated and its crystal structure as well as magnetic properties has been studied. Both the temperature-dependent coercivity Hc(T) and exchange anisotropy field HE(T) of the iron films possess a maximum peak around the critical temperature Tcrit=10-15 and 4K, respectively. Our experimental results show that the anomalous hysteresis properties mainly result from the oxide surfaces of the films with spin-glass-like phase below freezing temperature Tf=30-50K.

  5. [Temperature dependence of the structurized state of water].

    PubMed

    Savostikova, O N; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V; Kochetkova, M G

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides the results of studies of the impact of temperature on the structural and energetic state of drinking water and shows that the altered temperature conditions of water causes a change in its supramolecular structure and biological value.

  6. Effects of anomalous high temperatures on carbon dioxide, methane, dissolved organic carbon and trace element concentrations in thaw lakes in Western Siberia in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Kulizhsky, S. P.; Vorobiev, S. N.

    2013-04-01

    During the anomalous hot summer in 2012, surface air temperatures in Western Siberia were 5 to 10 °C higher than those observed during the previous period of > 30 yr. This unusual climate phenomenon provided an opportunity to examine the effects of short-term natural heating of water in thermokarst ponds and lakes in discontinuous permafrost zones and compare these observations to previous field results obtained when the temperature was normal during the summer of 2010 in the same region. Thermokarst bodies of water shrank significantly, water levels dropped approximately 50 cm in large lakes and small (< 10-100 m2) ponds, and shallow soil depressions disappeared. Based on samples from ~ 40 bodies of water collected previously and in 2012, first-order features of changes in chemical composition in response to increased water temperatures (from 14.1 ± 2.2 to 23.8 ± 2.3 °C in 2010 and 2012, respectively) were established. In these thermokarst bodies of water that covered a full range of surface areas, the average conductivity and pH were almost unchanged, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Cl- and SO42- concentrations were higher by a factor of ~ 2 during summer 2012 compared to periods with normal temperatures. Similarly, most divalent metals and insoluble trivalent and tetravalent elements were more concentrated by a factor of 1.7-2.4 in the summer of 2012 than normal periods. The average concentrations of dissolved CO2 and CH4 during the hot summer of 2012 increased by factors of 1.4 and 4.9, respectively. For most of the trace elements bound to colloids, the degree of colloidal binding decreased by a factor of 1.44 ± 0.33 (for an average of 40 elements) during the hot summer of 2012 compared to normal periods. Increases in CO2 and CH4 concentrations with the decreasing size of the body of water were well-pronounced during the hot summer of 2012. The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 significantly increased by factors of 5 and 150, respectively, in small (

  7. Temperature dependence of small polaron population decays in iron-doped lithium niobate by Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhaouech, I.; Guilbert, L.

    2016-10-01

    The population decay of light-induced small polarons in iron-doped lithium niobate is simulated by a Monte-Carlo method on the basis of Holstein's theory. The model considers random walks of both bound polarons (NbLi4+) and free polarons (NbNb4+) ending to deep traps (FeLi3+). The thermokinetic interplay between polaron species is introduced by trapping and de-trapping rates at niobium antisites (NbLi). The decay of the NbLi4+ population proceeds by three possible channels: direct trapping at FeLi3+ sites, hopping on niobium antisites and hopping on Nb regular sites after conversion to the free state. Up to three regimes, each one reflecting the predominance of one of these processes, appear with different activation energies in the Arrhenius plots of the decay time. The influence of FeLi and NbLi concentrations on the transition temperatures is evidenced. For both polaron species, the length of the final hop (trapping length) is found much larger than the usual hopping length and decreases at rising temperature. This trap size effect is a natural consequence of Holstein's theory and may explain some unclear features of polaron-related light-induced phenomena, such as the temperature-dependent stretching exponent of light-induced absorption decays and the anomalous increase of the photoconductivity at high doping levels.

  8. Temperature dependence of the Cl atom reaction with deuterated methanes.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Frank; Portmann, Robert W; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2015-05-14

    Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) and reaction rate coefficients, k1-k4, for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with (12)CH3D (k1), (12)CH2D2 (k2), (12)CHD3 (k3), and (12)CD4 (k4) over the temperature range 223-343 K in 630 Torr of synthetic air are reported. Rate coefficients were measured using a relative rate technique with (12)CH4 as the primary reference compound. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the methane isotopologue loss. The obtained KIE values were (12)CH3D: KIE1(T) = (1.227 ± 0.004) exp((43 ± 5)/T); (12)CH2D2: KIE2(T) = (1.14 ± 0.20) exp((191 ± 60)/T); (12)CHD3: KIE3(T) = (1.73 ± 0.34) exp((229 ± 60)/T); and (12)CD4: KIE4(T) = (1.01 ± 0.3) exp((724 ± 19)/T), where KIEx(T) = kCl+(12)CH4(T)/kx(T). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and represent the precision of our data. The following Arrhenius expressions and 295 K rate coefficient values (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) were derived from the above KIE using a rate coefficient of 7.3 × 10(-12) exp(-1280/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of Cl with (12)CH4: k1(T) = (5.95 ± 0.70) × 10(-12) exp(-(1323 ± 50)/T), k1(295 K) = (6.7 ± 0.8) × 10(-14); k2(T) = (6.4 ± 1.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(1471 ± 60)/T), k2(295 K) = (4.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-14); k3(T) = (4.2 ± 1.0) × 10(-12) exp(-(1509 ± 60)/T), k3(295 K) = (2.53 ± 0.6) × 10(-14); and k4(T) = (7.13 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(2000 ± 120)/T), k4(295 K) = (0.81 ± 0.26) × 10(-14). The reported uncertainties in the pre-exponential factors are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors in our measurements and the uncertainty in the reference reaction rate coefficient. The results from this study are compared with previously reported room-temperature rate coefficients for each of the deuterated methanes as well as the available temperature dependent data for the Cl atom reactions with CH3D and CD4. A two-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model was used to examine the implications of the

  9. Temperature dependence of the Cl atom reaction with deuterated methanes.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Frank; Portmann, Robert W; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2015-05-14

    Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) and reaction rate coefficients, k1-k4, for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with (12)CH3D (k1), (12)CH2D2 (k2), (12)CHD3 (k3), and (12)CD4 (k4) over the temperature range 223-343 K in 630 Torr of synthetic air are reported. Rate coefficients were measured using a relative rate technique with (12)CH4 as the primary reference compound. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the methane isotopologue loss. The obtained KIE values were (12)CH3D: KIE1(T) = (1.227 ± 0.004) exp((43 ± 5)/T); (12)CH2D2: KIE2(T) = (1.14 ± 0.20) exp((191 ± 60)/T); (12)CHD3: KIE3(T) = (1.73 ± 0.34) exp((229 ± 60)/T); and (12)CD4: KIE4(T) = (1.01 ± 0.3) exp((724 ± 19)/T), where KIEx(T) = kCl+(12)CH4(T)/kx(T). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and represent the precision of our data. The following Arrhenius expressions and 295 K rate coefficient values (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) were derived from the above KIE using a rate coefficient of 7.3 × 10(-12) exp(-1280/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of Cl with (12)CH4: k1(T) = (5.95 ± 0.70) × 10(-12) exp(-(1323 ± 50)/T), k1(295 K) = (6.7 ± 0.8) × 10(-14); k2(T) = (6.4 ± 1.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(1471 ± 60)/T), k2(295 K) = (4.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-14); k3(T) = (4.2 ± 1.0) × 10(-12) exp(-(1509 ± 60)/T), k3(295 K) = (2.53 ± 0.6) × 10(-14); and k4(T) = (7.13 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(2000 ± 120)/T), k4(295 K) = (0.81 ± 0.26) × 10(-14). The reported uncertainties in the pre-exponential factors are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors in our measurements and the uncertainty in the reference reaction rate coefficient. The results from this study are compared with previously reported room-temperature rate coefficients for each of the deuterated methanes as well as the available temperature dependent data for the Cl atom reactions with CH3D and CD4. A two-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model was used to examine the implications of the

  10. Observation of an intermediate phase in tungsten doped Sb2Te phase change thin films by temperature dependent measurements of structural, optical, and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Huang, T.; Xu, L. P.; Shi, K.; Zhang, J. Z.; Ji, X. L.; Hu, Z. G.; Wu, L. C.; Song, Z. T.; Chu, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties, electronic structure, and microstructure of Sb2Te (ST) phase change films as functions of temperature and tungsten (W) concentration have been investigated by means of temperature dependent x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Based on the variations of the diffraction peaks, phonon modes, and dielectric functions during the temperature elevation process, the intermediate (INT) crystalline state of W doped Sb2Te (WST) films between amorphous (AM) and hexagonal (HEX) phases can be readily proposed, which is a mixture of crystalline Sb and Te. The anomalous behaviors of dielectric functions and partial spectral weight integral for crystalline films elucidate the existence of INT state. Furthermore, the good agreement between experimental and calculated dielectric functions reveals that the first-principles calculation method can be used to make qualitative analysis in the materials with similar multilayered structures.

  11. Temperature-dependent macromolecular X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Weik, Martin Colletier, Jacques-Philippe

    2010-04-01

    The dynamical behaviour of crystalline macromolecules and their surrounding solvent as a function of cryo-temperature is reviewed. X-ray crystallography provides structural details of biological macromolecules. Whereas routine data are collected close to 100 K in order to mitigate radiation damage, more exotic temperature-controlled experiments in a broader temperature range from 15 K to room temperature can provide both dynamical and structural insights. Here, the dynamical behaviour of crystalline macromolecules and their surrounding solvent as a function of cryo-temperature is reviewed. Experimental strategies of kinetic crystallography are discussed that have allowed the generation and trapping of macromolecular intermediate states by combining reaction initiation in the crystalline state with appropriate temperature profiles. A particular focus is on recruiting X-ray-induced changes for reaction initiation, thus unveiling useful aspects of radiation damage, which otherwise has to be minimized in macromolecular crystallography.

  12. Temperature and frequency dependence of ultrasonic attenuation in selected tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.; Croissette, D. H. L.; Heyser, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation over the frequency range of 1.5-10 MHz has been measured as a function of temperature for porcine liver, backfat, kidney and spleen as well as for a single specimen of human liver. The attenuation in these excised specimens increases nearly linearly with frequency. Over the temperature range of approximately 4-37 C the attenuation decreases with increasing temperature for most soft tissue studied.

  13. Features of the temperature dependence of pressure of solid helium at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisunov, A. A.; Maidanov, V. A.; Rubanskii, V. Y.; Rubets, S. P.; Rudavskii, E. Y.; Rybalko, A. S.; Syrkin, E. S.

    2012-06-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to investigate the conditions of formation of a disordered (glass-like) state in crystals of 3He. With the help of precise measurements of pressure at constant volume it has been established that a glass phase is formed easily in rapidly cooled crystals grown under homogeneous temperature conditions in the presence of large numbers of nucleation centers. This phase can be removed only by careful annealing. This result has been found in both 3He and 4He, and is independent of type of quantum statistics and determined mainly by crystal growth conditions. An analysis of similar measurements has been performed using a different cell where during the crystal growth a directed temperature gradient was created. In this case, additional defects created as a result of deformation of the crystal were necessary to form a glass-like phase. The degree of deformation of a crystal, achievable in the experiment, was sufficient to form a glass-like phase in solid 4He, but not in a crystal of 3He where the atoms have a large amplitude of zero-point oscillations. Analyzing a temperature dependence of pressure, a study of the features of a phonon contribution to the pressure was also carried out. It was found that in both crystals 3He and 4He at different thicknesses of samples the phonon pressure differs by several times. This effect is qualitatively explained by that that in thin samples an interaction among layers of atoms becomes stronger. This leads to decreasing the phonon contribution to the thermodynamic properties of the helium crystal at low temperatures.

  14. Temperature-dependant study of phosphorus ion implantation in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, M. A.; Smith, A. J.; Jeynes, C.; Gwilliam, R. M.

    2012-11-01

    We present experimental results on shallow junction formation in germanium by phosphorus ion implantation and standard rapid thermal processing. An attempt is made to improve phosphorus activation by implanting phosphorus at high and low temperature. The focus is on studying the germanium damage and phosphorus activation as a function of implant temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with channelling and Hall Effect measurements are employed for characterisation of germanium damage and phosphorus activation, respectively. High and low temperature implants were found to be better compared to room temperature implant.

  15. Temperature-dependent fecundity associates with latitude in Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Anisha; Croydon-Sugarman, Melanie J F; Murray, Rosalind L; Cutter, Asher D

    2011-01-01

    Populations of organisms separated by latitude provide striking examples of local adaptation, by virtue of ecological gradients that correlate with latitudinal position on the globe. Ambient temperature forms one key ecological variable that varies with latitude, and here we investigate its effects on the fecundity of self-fertilizing nematodes of the species Caenorhabditis briggsae that exhibits strong genetically based differentiation in association with latitude. We find that isogenic strains from a Tropical phylogeographic clade have greater lifetime fecundity when reared at extreme high temperatures and lower lifetime fecundity at extreme low temperatures than do strains from a Temperate phylogeographic clade, consistent with adaptation to local temperature regimes. Further, we determine experimentally that the mechanism underlying reduced fecundity at extreme temperatures differs for low versus high temperature extremes, but that the total number of sperm produced by the gonad is unaffected by rearing temperature. Low rearing temperatures result in facultatively reduced oocyte production by hermaphrodites, whereas extreme high temperatures experienced during development induce permanent defects in sperm fertility. Available and emerging genetic tools for this organism will permit the characterization of the evolutionary genetic basis to this putative example of adaptation in latitudinally separated populations. PMID:20731713

  16. Anomalous Hall effects in pseudo-single-crystal γ'-Fe4N thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabara, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Kokado, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The anomalous Hall effects (AHE) were investigated at various temperatures for the pseudo-single-crystal Fe4N films, deposited on MgO substrates with changing the degree of order (S) of the nitrogen site. Both the anomalous Hall resistivity and the longitudinal resistivity simply decrease with lowering temperature for all the specimens. The AHE of the Fe4N films is presumed to arise from an intrinsic mechanism because of the relationship between the anomalous Hall resistivity and longitudinal resistivity. The anomalous Hall conductivity, σAH, exhibits a specific behavior at low temperature. In the case of the film with S = 0.93, the σAH drastically drops below 50 K, while it simply increases with lowering temperature in the range of 50-300 K. This low-temperature anomaly decays with decreasing S of the film and nearly vanishes in the films with low S. The threshold temperature and the dependence on S of the low-temperature anomaly of the σAH well correspond to those of the anisotropic magnetoresistance effects in the Fe4N films, reported in the literatures. From these results, it is suggested that the low-temperature anomaly of the σAH originates from the crystal field effect which reflects the structural transformation from a cubic to a tetragonal symmetry below 50 K and provides a modulation of the orbital angular momentum of the 3d orbitals at the Fermi level.

  17. Unparticles and anomalous dimensions in the cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, Andreas; Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W.

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the overwhelming evidence some type of quantum criticality underlies the power-law for the optical conductivity and T-linear resistivity in the cuprates, we demonstrate here how a scale-invariant or unparticle sector can lead to a unifying description of the observed scaling forms. We adopt the continuous mass formalism or multi band (flavor) formalism of the unparticle sector by letting various microscopic parameters be mass-dependent. In particular, we show that an effective mass that varies with the flavor index as well as a running band edge and lifetime capture the AC and DC transport phenomenology of the cuprates. A key consequence of the running mass is that the effective dynamical exponent can differ from the underlying bare critical exponent, thereby providing a mechanism for realizing the fractional values of the dynamical exponent required in a previous analysis [1]. We also predict that regardless of the bare dynamical exponent, z, a non-zero anomalous dimension for the current is required. Physically, the anomalous dimension arises because the charge depends on the flavor, mass or energy. The equivalent phenomenon in a d + 1 gravitational construction is the running of the charge along the radial direction. The nature of the superconducting instability in the presence of scale invariant stuff shows that the transition temperature is not necessarily a monotonic function of the pairing interaction.

  18. Temperature dependence of looping rates in a short peptide.

    PubMed

    Roccatano, Danilo; Sahoo, Harekrushna; Zacharias, Martin; Nau, Werner M

    2007-03-15

    Knowledge of the influence of chain length and amino acid sequence on the structural and dynamic properties of small peptides in solution provides essential information on protein folding pathways. The combination of time-resolved optical spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods has become a powerful tool to investigate the kinetics of end-to-end collisions (looping rates) in short peptides, which are relevant in early protein folding events. We applied the combination of both techniques to study temperature-dependent (280-340 K) looping rates of the Dbo-AlaGlyGln-Trp-NH2 peptide, where Dbo represents a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine, which served as a fluorescent probe in the time-resolved spectroscopic experiments. The experimental looping rates increased from 4.8 x 10(7) s(-1) at 283 K to 2.0 x 10(8) s(-1) at 338 K in H2O. The corresponding Arrhenius plot provided as activation parameters Ea = 21.5 +/- 1.0 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A/s-1) = 26.8 +/- 0.2 in H2O. The results in D2O were consistent with a slight solvent viscosity effect, i.e., the looping rates were 10-20% slower. MD simulations were performed with the GROMOS96 force field in a water solvent model, which required first a parametrization of the synthetic amino acid Dbo. After corrections for solvent viscosity effects, the calculated looping rates varied from 1.5 x 10(8) s(-1) at 280 K to 8.2 x 10(8) s(-1) at 340 K in H2O, which was about four times larger than the experimental data. The calculated activation parameters were Ea = 24.7 +/- 1.5 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A/s(-1)) = 29.4 +/- 0.1 in H2O.

  19. Temperature-dependent macromolecular X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Weik, Martin; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    X-ray crystallography provides structural details of biological macromolecules. Whereas routine data are collected close to 100 K in order to mitigate radiation damage, more exotic temperature-controlled experiments in a broader temperature range from 15 K to room temperature can provide both dynamical and structural insights. Here, the dynamical behaviour of crystalline macromolecules and their surrounding solvent as a function of cryo-temperature is reviewed. Experimental strategies of kinetic crystallography are discussed that have allowed the generation and trapping of macromolecular intermediate states by combining reaction initiation in the crystalline state with appropriate temperature profiles. A particular focus is on recruiting X-ray-induced changes for reaction initiation, thus unveiling useful aspects of radiation damage, which otherwise has to be minimized in macromolecular crystallography. PMID:20382997

  20. Temperature-dependence of wetting properties of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Gholamian Moghaddam, Melika

    2016-07-01

    We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations to study the spontaneous imbibition of water into a single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) at various temperatures, ranging from 270 K to 370 K. The simulations indicate that by increasing the temperature, the rate of mass uptake improves as well. Considering the end-loss friction as the main source of energy dissipation and ignoring the inertial effect on the nano-scale transport, we derive a simple expression that relates the CNT's wettability to the fluid viscosity and the rate of imbibition over the temperature range that we study. Our results also indicate that the increase in the wettability of the CNT, and the reduction in the viscosity of water at higher temperatures cause enhancement of water uptake into the nanotube. They also enable us to estimate the wetting transition temperature for TIP3P model of water in the CNTs.

  1. [Temperature dependence of courtship in male guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters (Pisces, Cyprinidae)].

    PubMed

    Laudien, H; Fechner, W; Schumann, W

    1980-01-01

    In poikilothermal animals, modes of behaviour as well as other physiological functions are dependent on the environmental temperature. Individual adaptation can decrease or cancel out this dependency. In experiments involving abrupt and slow temperature changes, we were able to prove temperature compensations and stress effects in the courting behaviour of the male Poecilia reticulata.

  2. Size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient of thin films.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Ye; Huang, Bao-Ling; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-08-21

    Nanomaterials possess a high surface/volume ratio and surfaces play an essential role in size-dependent material properties. In the present study, nanometer-thick thin films were taken as an ideal system to investigate the surface-induced size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient. The surface eigenstress model was further developed with the consideration of thermal expansion, leading to analytic formulas of size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus, and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient of thin films. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on face-centered cubic (fcc) Ag, Cu, and Ni(001) thin films were conducted at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 600 K. The MD simulation results are perfectly consistent with the theoretical predictions, thereby verifying the theoretical approach. The newly developed surface eigenstress model will be able to attack similar problems in other types of nanomaterials. PMID:27426852

  3. Temperature dependence of structural quantum effects in liquid methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomberli, B.; Benmore, C. J.; Egelstaff, P. A.; Neuefeind, J.; Honkimäki, V.

    2001-08-01

    High-energy electromagnetic radiation scattering techniques have been used to measure the structural differences between liquids composed of four different isotopes of methanol (CH3OH,CD3OD,CH3OD and CD3OH) at temperatures of 24.5 °C and - 80 °C. We measured the magnitude of the isotopic effect, which increases with decreasing temperature and comprises of both intramolecular and intermolecular effects. Intramolecularly, the C-O, O-H, and to a lesser extent the C-H bond lengths, shorten upon deuteration. Intermolecularly, the winding hydrogen bonded chain structure is affected significantly. The results show that hydrogenated simple alcohols are more disordered liquids than deuterated alcohols at the same temperature. Substitution at the methyl site is compared to substitution at the hydroxyl site and the effect is shown to increase more rapidly as temperature is decreased.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Isotope Ratios in Tree Rings

    PubMed Central

    Libby, L. M.; Pandolfi, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stable isotope ratios of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen have been measured for a German oak in wood samples of roughly three years each, for the years 1712-1954 A.D., and correlated with the existing weather records from England, Basel, and Geneva to evaluate the empirical temperature coefficients. Isotope ratios in a second official oak, measured for the years 1530-1800 A.D., show the cold temperatures of the Little Ice Age interspersed with warm intervals. PMID:16592163

  5. Temperature-dependent phagotrophy and phototrophy in a mixotrophic chrysophyte.

    PubMed

    Princiotta, Sarah DeVaul; Smith, Brian T; Sanders, Robert W

    2016-06-01

    The roles of temperature and light on grazing and photosynthesis were examined for Dinobryon sociale, a common freshwater mixotrophic alga. Photosynthetic rate was determined for D. sociale adapted to temperatures of 8, 12, 16, and 20°C under photosynthetically active radiation light irradiances of 25, 66, and 130 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) , with concurrent measurement of bacterial ingestion at all temperatures under medium and high light (66 and 130 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ). Rates of ingestion and photosynthesis increased with temperature to a maximum at 16°C under the two higher light regimes, and declined at 20°C. Although both light and temperature had a marked effect on photosynthesis, there was no significant difference in bacterivory at medium and high irradiances at any given temperature. At the lowest light condition (25 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ), photosynthesis remained low and relatively stable at all temperatures. D. sociale acquired the majority of carbon from photosynthesis, although the low photosynthetic rate without a concurrent decline in feeding rate at 8°C suggested 20%-30% of the carbon budget could be attributed to bacterivory at low temperatures. Grazing experiments in nutrient-modified media revealed that this mixotroph had increased ingestion rates when either dissolved nitrogen or phosphorus was decreased. This work increases our understanding of environmental effects on mixotrophic nutrition. Although the influence of abiotic factors on phagotrophy and phototrophy in pure heterotrophs and phototrophs has been well studied, much less is known for mixotrophic organisms. PMID:27273535

  6. Dependence of Precipitation Extremes on Temperature over United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, V.; Singh, J.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic disturbances are commonly associated with the phenomenal occurrence of extreme events. The human kind has always been facing problem with hydrologic extremes in terms of deaths and economic loss. Hence, a complete analysis of observed extreme events will have a substantial role in planning, designing and management of the water resource systems. Over the United States, precipitation extremes, temperature and streamflow, have increased during the twentieth century and has been attributed to many natural and anthropogenic influences. The present study examines the association of precipitation extremes on temperature over US for the period of 1950-2000. The annual maxima (AM) precipitation has been extracted for hot and cold years. The spatial mean of surface temperature/ sea surface temperature from 1950 to 2000, so obtained is arranged in ascending order. The corresponding years, with lowest temperature of 25 years are defined as cold years and highest temperature of 25 years are defined as hot years respectively. The spatio-temporal variability of 50 year return level (RL) for the AM is determined considering generalized extreme value (GEV) and non-parametric kernel distributions. To identify the significant changes in the derived RL from cold to hot years, a bootstrap-based approach is implemented. The results exhibited no significant changes in the 50 year RL of AM precipitation between hot and cold years, with 70% of total grids showing no significant changes with respect to both land surface and sea surface temperature at 20% significance level. The scatter plot between the spatial mean of AM precipitation and both land surface and sea surface temperature over US showed no association. Further the comparison with the CMIP5 models revealed that the models are showed significant association between both land surface and sea surface temperature with the AM of precipitation. The major decision making and planning rely on the model predictions, which

  7. The structural origin of anomalous properties of liquid water

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Water is unique in its number of unusual, often called anomalous, properties. When hot it is a normal simple liquid; however, close to ambient temperatures properties, such as the compressibility, begin to deviate and do so increasingly on further cooling. Clearly, these emerging properties are connected to its ability to form up to four well-defined hydrogen bonds allowing for different local structural arrangements. A wealth of new data from various experiments and simulations has recently become available. When taken together they point to a heterogeneous picture with fluctuations between two classes of local structural environments developing on temperature-dependent length scales. PMID:26643439

  8. Anomalous scaling of the penetration depth in nodal superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jian-Huang; Lawler, Michael J.; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2015-07-01

    Recent findings of anomalous superlinear scaling of low-temperature (T ) penetration depth (PD) in several nodal superconductors near putative quantum critical points suggest that the low-temperature PD can be a useful probe of quantum critical fluctuations in a superconductor. On the other hand, cuprates, which are poster child nodal superconductors, have not shown any such anomalous scaling of PD, despite growing evidence of quantum critical points (QCP). Then it is natural to ask when and how can quantum critical fluctuations cause anomalous scaling of PD? Carrying out the renormalization group calculation for the problem of two-dimensional superconductors with point nodes, we show that quantum critical fluctuations associated with a point group symmetry reduction result in nonuniversal logarithmic corrections to the T dependence of the PD. The resulting apparent power law depends on the bare velocity anisotropy ratio. We then compare our results to data sets from two distinct nodal superconductors: YBa2Cu3O6.95 and CeCoIn5. Considering all symmetry-lowering possibilities of the point group of interest, C4 v, we find our results to be remarkably consistent with YBa2Cu3O6.95 being near a vertical nematic QCP and CeCoIn5 being near a diagonal nematic QCP. Our results motivate a search for diagonal nematic fluctuations in CeCoIn5.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Regulation of Vocal Pattern Generator

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W.

    2008-01-01

    Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms. PMID:18829853

  10. Temperature-dependent regulation of vocal pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W

    2008-12-01

    Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms. PMID:18829853

  11. Temperature-Dependent Current-Voltage (I-V) and Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) Characteristics of Ni/Cu/n-InP Schottky Barrier Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munikrishana Reddy, Y.; Nagaraj, M. K.; Siva Pratap Reddy, M.; Lee, Jung-Hee; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2013-04-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Ni/Cu/n-InP Schottky barrier diodes are studied over a wide temperature range, from 210 K to 420 K. The I-V characteristics display anomalous thermal behavior. The apparent barrier height decays, and the ideality factor grows at low temperatures, and the series resistances resulting from Cheung's and Norde's procedures are markedly temperature dependent. The nonlinearity of the Richardson plot and the strong temperature dependence of the Schottky-barrier parameters indicate that the interface is spatially inhomogeneous. Plots of the zero-bias barrier height as a function of 1/(2kT) points to a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights with 0.90 eV mean height and 0.014 eV standard deviation. When this distribution is accounted for, a Richardson of 6.5 A/(cm K)2 results, relatively close to the 9.4/(cm K)2 predicted by theory. We conclude that, combined with a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights, the thermionic-emission mechanism explains the temperature-dependent I-V and C-V characteristics of the studied Schottky-barrier diodes.

  12. Temperature dependence of Schottky diode characteristics prepared with photolithography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korucu, Demet; Turut, Abdulmecit

    2014-11-01

    A Richardson constant (RC) of 8.92 Acm-2K-2 from the conventional Richardson plot has been obtained because the current-voltage data of the device quite well obey the thermionic emission (TE) model in 190-320 K range. The experimental nT versus T plot of the device has given a value of T0 = 7.40 K in temperature range of 160-320 K. The deviations from the TE current mechanism at temperatures below 190 K have been ascribed to the patches introduced by lateral inhomogeneity of the barrier heights. Therefore, an experimental RC value of 7.49 A(cmK)-2 has been obtained by considering Tung's patch model in the temperature range of 80-190 K. This value is in very close agreement with the known value of 8.16 Acm-2K-2 for n-type GaAs.

  13. Parallel temperature-dependent microrheological measurements in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Lilian Lam; Galush, William J; Furst, Eric M

    2016-07-01

    Microfluidic stickers are used as a sample environment to measure the microrheology of monoclonal antibody (mAb) protein solutions. A Peltier-based microscope stage is implemented and validated, and is capable of controlling the sample temperature over the range 0.9-40 °C. The design accounts for heat transfer to and from the objective, controls the sample environment humidity to mitigate condensation, and provides adequate damping to reduce vibration from the cooling system. A concentrated sucrose solution is used as a standard sample to provide an in situ temperature measurement by the Stokes-Einstein-Sutherland relation. By combining microfluidic stickers and microrheology, 72 temperature-concentration viscosity measurements of mAb solutions can be made in 1 day, a significant increase in throughput over conventional rheometry. PMID:27375825

  14. TEMPERATURE DEPENDANT BEHAVIOUR OBSERVED IN THE AFIP-6 IRRADIATION TEST

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs; P. Medvedev; S.J. Miller; F. J. Rice; M. K. Meyer; D. M. Perez

    2012-03-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contained a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, the reduced flow resulted in a sufficiently low heat transfer coefficient that failure of the fuel plates occurred. The increased fuel temperature led to significant variations in the fission gas retention behaviour of the U-Mo fuel. These variations in performance are outlined herein.

  15. Temperature dependence of impact ionization coefficients in InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Kenko; Torikai, Toshitaka; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Makita, Kikuo; Ishihara, Hisahiro

    1986-01-01

    Impact ionization coefficients for electrons and holes in InP were measured experimentally at 25-175 °C in the 400-600 kV/cm electric field range with planar avalanche photodiodes, in which the n-InP avalanche region was separated from the light absorbing InGaAs and/or InGaAsP layers. α and β monotonically decreased with elevated temperatures; β/α slightly decreased with increasing temperature. Comparison of the experimental results with Okuto-Crowell formula on the impact ionization coefficient gave the phonon energy ERO=46 meV and the phonon scattering mean free path λ0=41.7 Å for electron impact ionization and ERO=36 meV and λ0=41.3 Å for hole impact ionization, respectively. Curves calculated by using these parameters agree with the experimental results quite satisfactorily at each temperature.

  16. Amplified temperature dependence in ecosystems developing on the lava flows of Mauna Loa, Hawai'i

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Brown, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Through its effect on individual metabolism, temperature drives biologically controlled fluxes and transformations of energy and materials in ecological systems. Because primary succession involves feedbacks among multiple biological and abiotic processes, we expected it to exhibit complex dynamics and unusual temperature dependence. We present a model based on first principles of chemical kinetics to explain how biologically mediated temperature dependence of “reactant” concentrations can inflate the effective temperature dependence of such processes. We then apply this model to test the hypothesis that the temperature dependence of early primary succession is amplified due to more rapid accumulation of reactants at higher temperatures. Using previously published data from the lava flows of Mauna Loa, HI, we show that rates of vegetation and soil accumulation as well as rates of community compositional change all display amplified temperature dependence (Q10 values of ≈7–50, compared with typical Q10 values of 1.5–3 for the constituent biological processes). Additionally, in young ecosystems, resource concentrations increase with temperature, resulting in inflated temperature responses of biogeochemical fluxes. Mauna Loa's developing ecosystems exemplify how temperature-driven, biologically mediated gradients in resource availability can alter the effective temperature dependence of ecological processes. This mechanistic theory should contribute to understanding the complex effects of temperature on the structure and dynamics of ecological systems in a world where regional and global temperatures are changing rapidly. PMID:18156366

  17. Achieving a Strongly Temperature-Dependent Casimir Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Woolf, David; Capasso, Federico; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-08-06

    We propose a method of achieving large temperature T sensitivity in the Casimir force that involves measuring the stable separation between dielectric objects immersed in a fluid. We study the Casimir force between slabs and spheres using realistic material models, and find large >2 nm/K variations in their stable separations (hundreds of nanometers) near room temperature. In addition, we analyze the effects of Brownian motion on suspended objects, and show that the average separation is also sensitive to changes in T. Finally, this approach also leads to rich qualitative phenomena, such as irreversible transitions, from suspension to stiction, as T is varied.

  18. Measurement of temperature-dependent specific heat of biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Haemmerich, Dieter; Schutt, David J; dos Santos, Icaro; Webster, John G; Mahvi, David M

    2005-02-01

    We measured specific heat directly by heating a sample uniformly between two electrodes by an electric generator. We minimized heat loss by styrofoam insulation. We measured temperature from multiple thermocouples at temperatures from 25 degrees C to 80 degrees C while heating the sample, and corrected for heat loss. We confirm method accuracy with a 2.5% agar-0.4% saline physical model and obtain specific heat of 4121+/-89 J (kg K)(-1), with an average error of 3.1%.

  19. A thermally stable, durable and temperature-dependent oleophobic surface of a polymethylsilsesquioxane film.

    PubMed

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-04-25

    Polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) films prepared by a simple sol-gel reaction of methyltriethoxysilane were found to possess thermally stable, durable, and temperature-dependent oleophobic properties under high temperature (~350 °C) conditions. PMID:23493793

  20. A thermally stable, durable and temperature-dependent oleophobic surface of a polymethylsilsesquioxane film.

    PubMed

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-04-25

    Polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) films prepared by a simple sol-gel reaction of methyltriethoxysilane were found to possess thermally stable, durable, and temperature-dependent oleophobic properties under high temperature (~350 °C) conditions.

  1. Temperature-dependent indentation behavior of transformation-toughened zirconia-based ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1991-01-01

    Indentation behavior of Ce-TZP, Y-TZP, and Mg-PSZ between room temperature and 1300 C was investigated. Hardness decreased with increasing temperature for all three materials, but indentation cracking increased with increasing temperature. The opposing temperature dependences are discussed in terms of dislocation and transformation plasticity.

  2. Temperature Dependences on Various Types of Photovoltaic (PV) Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audwinto, I. A.; Leong, C. S.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is one of the key roles in PV technology performance, since with the increases of temperature the open-circuit voltage will drop accordingly so do the electrical efficiency and power output generation. Different types of Photovoltaic (PV) panels- silicon solar panels and thin film solar panels; mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, CIS, CIGS, CdTe, back-contact, and bi-facial solar panel under 40°C to 70°C approximately with 5°C interval have been comparatively analyzed their actual performances with uniformly distribution of light illumination from tungsten halogen light source, ±500W/m2. DC-Electronic Load and Data Logger devices with “Lab View” data program interface were used to collect all the necessary parameters in this study. Time needed to achieve a certain degree of temperature was recorded. Generally, each of the panels needed 15 minutes to 20 minutes to reach 70°C. Halogen based light source is not compatible in short wave-length in response to thin-film solar cell. Within this period of times, all the panels are facing a performance loss up to 15%. Other parameters; Pmax, Vmax, Imax, Voc, Isc, Rserries, Rshunt, Fillfactor were collected as study cases. Our study is important in determining Photovoltaic type selection and system design as for study or industrial needed under different temperature condition.

  3. [Temperature dependence of parameters of plant photosynthesis models: a review].

    PubMed

    Borjigidai, Almaz; Yu, Gui-Rui

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviewed the progress on the temperature response models of plant photosynthesis. Mechanisms involved in changes in the photosynthesis-temperature curve were discussed based on four parameters, intercellular CO2 concentration, activation energy of the maximum rate of RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) carboxylation (V (c max)), activation energy of the rate of RuBP regeneration (J(max)), and the ratio of J(max) to V(c max) All species increased the activation energy of V(c max) with increasing growth temperature, while other parameters changed but differed among species, suggesting the activation energy of V(c max) might be the most important parameter for the temperature response of plant photosynthesis. In addition, research problems and prospects were proposed. It's necessary to combine the photosynthesis models at foliage and community levels, and to investigate the mechanism of plants in response to global change from aspects of leaf area, solar radiation, canopy structure, canopy microclimate and photosynthetic capacity. It would benefit the understanding and quantitative assessment of plant growth, carbon balance of communities and primary productivity of ecosystems.

  4. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Geiss, Roy H.; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-01

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  5. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-07-12

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy-entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy-entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme.

  6. Le Chatelier's Principle Applied to the Temperature Dependence of Solubility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1984-01-01

    One effect of temperature is its influence on solubility, and that effect is used as a common example when teaching Le Chatelier's principle. Attempts to clarify the question of whether the principle holds in the case of the solubility of ionic compounds in water by investigating the literature data in detail. (JN)

  7. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E. Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Geiss, Roy H.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  8. Temperature-dependent bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Muijs, Barry; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2009-06-15

    Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) play a key role in risk assessment of chemicals in sediments and soils. For hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), BAFs are, however, difficult to determine and values are mostly obtained by modeling. Apart from a lack of reliable data, the applicability of lab-derived values in the field situation is unknown, as exposure conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, salinity, test species, number of chemicals) are standardized in the lab, whereas they may vary in the field. In this study, the effect of temperature on the bioaccumulation of a series of moderate to very hydrophobic PAHs in aquatic worms was studied by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. The results indicated that bioaccumulation of nonmetabolizable HOCs is an exothermic, enthalpy-driven process, thus decreasing with increasing temperature. As such, biotic concentrations may be several times higher in winter than in summertime, which could have ecotoxicological consequences. A two-parameter linear free energy relationship was derived with which PAH bioaccumulation can be predicted from temperature and the chemicals' hydrophobicities. Comparing the determined (thermodynamics of) PAH partitioning into organisms and PDMS indicated that the latter phase cannot be used as a surrogate phase for animal lipids. Still, SPME provides an appropriate analytical tool for the measurement of aqueous concentrations, from which bioaccumulation can subsequently be estimated by using BAFs. PMID:19603671

  9. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-07-12

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy-entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy-entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme. PMID:27354533

  10. Temperature-dependent bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Muijs, Barry; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2009-06-15

    Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) play a key role in risk assessment of chemicals in sediments and soils. For hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), BAFs are, however, difficult to determine and values are mostly obtained by modeling. Apart from a lack of reliable data, the applicability of lab-derived values in the field situation is unknown, as exposure conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, salinity, test species, number of chemicals) are standardized in the lab, whereas they may vary in the field. In this study, the effect of temperature on the bioaccumulation of a series of moderate to very hydrophobic PAHs in aquatic worms was studied by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. The results indicated that bioaccumulation of nonmetabolizable HOCs is an exothermic, enthalpy-driven process, thus decreasing with increasing temperature. As such, biotic concentrations may be several times higher in winter than in summertime, which could have ecotoxicological consequences. A two-parameter linear free energy relationship was derived with which PAH bioaccumulation can be predicted from temperature and the chemicals' hydrophobicities. Comparing the determined (thermodynamics of) PAH partitioning into organisms and PDMS indicated that the latter phase cannot be used as a surrogate phase for animal lipids. Still, SPME provides an appropriate analytical tool for the measurement of aqueous concentrations, from which bioaccumulation can subsequently be estimated by using BAFs.

  11. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-01-01

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy–entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy–entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme. PMID:27354533

  12. Temperature Dependence in Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, T. F.; Misewich, J. A.

    1996-03-01

    The process of desorption induced by electronic transitions (DIET) is a subject of great theoretical and experimental interest. We have extended the classic MGR model for DIET to include initial thermal excitation of the adsorbate. In the MGR model, an electronic transition causes the adsorbate to move on excited potential energy surface. Desorption ensues whenever the adsorbate stays in the excited state long enough to acquire the necessary energy to escape from the surface. At finite temperatures, the initial transition occurs from a distribution of ground-state vibrational energies and momenta. Compared with the zero temperature desorption yield some components of the finite-temperature distribution will have enhanced yields while others will have suppressed yields. Averaging over the initial distribution, we find that the desorption yield increases substantially with temperature, particularly for short excited-state lifetimes. These findings and their extension to the multiple excitation regime are relevant to understanding the long-time scale response observed in femtosecond two-pulse correlation measurements of O_2/Pd(111). J. A. Misewich et al., J. Chem. Phys. 100, 736 (1994)

  13. Finite-element technique applied to heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre-Ramirez, G.; Oden, J. T.

    1969-01-01

    Finite element method applied to heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, using nonlinear constitutive equation for heat ABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGH

  14. Lava flow dynamics driven by temperature-dependent viscosity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniega, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, S. W.; Stofan, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    As lava viscosity can change 1-2 orders of magnitude due to small changes in temperature, several studies have predicted the formation of low-viscosity/high-temperature "fingers" (similar to a Saffman-Taylor type instability) within an initially near-uniform flow. We examine the onset and evolution of such fingers within a uniform lava sheet flow due to an influx of lava with slightly-variable temperature. We assume Hele-shaw-type geometry (depth << other dimensions), Newtonian and laminar fluid flow, a simple Nahme's exponential law relating temperature and viscosity, and radiative heat-loss through the flow's upper surface. Through the use of numerical simulation and steady-state analysis of model equations, we identify solutions that provide pahoehoe lava flows with a natural mechanism for the formation of lava channels/tubes within a sheet flow. Preliminary results indicate that flow-focusing occurs rapidly due to the thermo-viscosity relation, but zones of hotter flow commonly settle into a new steady-state and it is difficult to create perpetually-lengthening hot-fingers of lava (which seem more physically similar to developing lava tubes). This suggests that additional and/or discontinuous physical processes (such as decreasing radiative rates due to thickening of the surface crust or crystallization abruptly retarding flow within lower-temperature regions) may play important roles in the continued growth of preferred flow zones. We also derive qualitative and quantitative estimates of environmental controls on finger size, spacing, and location. This work has application to Earth and planetary volcanology studies as pahoehoe flows dominate terrestrial basaltic lavas and the eruption/emplacement mechanics that yield long lava flows on the Earth and Mars are not yet well understood.

  15. Diversity of electronic transitions and photoluminescence properties of p-type cuprous oxide films: A temperature-dependent spectral transmittance study

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W. L. E-mail: zghu@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Lin, Y. Z.; Zhu, X. W.; Cai, S. S.; Chen, L. L.; Shao, H. H.; Hu, Z. G. E-mail: zghu@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Han, M. J.

    2015-01-28

    Cuprous oxide films have been deposited on quartz substrates by a sol-gel method under various annealing temperatures. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman scattering show that all the films are of pure Cu{sub 2}O phase. From comparison of photoluminescence with 488 and 325 nm laser excitations, the electronic transition energies and intensities present the annealing-temperature dependent behavior. The electronic band structures of the Cu{sub 2}O film annealed at 800 °C, especially for the contribution of exciton series and high energy transitions, have been investigated by temperature dependent transmittance. The extracted refraction index and the high frequency dielectric constant both abruptly decrease until the temperature rises up to 100 K. Six transitions can be clearly identified and the red shift trend of E{sub o3}-E{sub o5} transition energies with increasing the temperature can be found. Moreover, the anomalous behavior takes place at about 200 K from the E{sub o6} transition. The singularities indicate that the change in the crystalline and electronic band structure occurs as the temperature near 100 K and 200 K for the film.

  16. A method to correct for temperature dependence and measure simultaneously dose and temperature using a plastic scintillation detector

    PubMed Central

    Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) work well for radiation dosimetry. However, they show some temperature dependence, and a priori knowledge of the temperature surrounding the PSD is required to correct for this dependence. We present a novel approach to correct PSD response values for temperature changes instantaneously and without the need for prior knowledge of the temperature value. In addition to rendering the detector temperature-independent, this approach allows for actual temperature measurement using solely the PSD apparatus. With a temperature-controlled water tank, the temperature was varied from room temperature to more than 40°C and the PSD was used to measure the dose delivered from a cobalt-60 photon beam unit to within an average of 0.72% from the expected value. The temperature was measured during each acquisition with the PSD and a thermocouple and values were within 1°C of each other. The depth-dose curve of a 6-MV photon beam was also measured under warm non-stable conditions and this curve agreed to within an average of −0.98% from the curve obtained at room temperature. The feasibility of rendering PSDs temperature-independent was demonstrated with our approach, which also enabled simultaneous measurement of both dose and temperature. This novel approach improves both the robustness and versatility of PSDs. PMID:26407188

  17. Temperature dependent dielectric and conductivity studies of polyvinyl alcohol-ZnO nanocomposite films by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemalatha, K. S.; Sriprakash, G.; Ambika Prasad, M. V. N.; Damle, R.; Rukmani, K.

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric and conductivity behaviors of nano ZnO doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites for various concentrations of dopant were investigated using impedance spectroscopy for a wide range of temperatures (303 K-423 K) and frequencies (5 Hz-30 MHZ). The dielectric properties of host polymer matrix have been improved by the addition of nano ZnO and are found to be highly temperature dependent. Anomalous dielectric behavior was observed in the frequency range of 2.5 MHz-5 MHz. Increase in dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss was observed with respect to temperature. The Cole-Cole plot could be modeled by low resistance regions in a high resistance matrix and the lowest resistance was observed for the 10 mol. % films. The imaginary part of the electric modulus showed asymmetric peaks with the relaxation following Debye nature below and non-Debye nature above the peaks. The ac conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's power law, whereas the variation of dc conductivity with temperature was found to follow Arrhenius behavior. Two different activation energy values were obtained from Arrhenius plot indicating that two conduction mechanisms are involved in the composite films. Fitting the ac conductivity data to Jonscher's law indicates that large polaron assisted tunneling is the most likely conduction mechanism in the composites. Maximum conductivity is observed at 423 K for all the samples and it is optimum for 10 mol. % ZnO doped PVA composite film. Significant increase in dc and ac conductivities in these composite films makes them a potential candidate for application in electronic devices.

  18. Temperature dependent dielectric and conductivity studies of polyvinyl alcohol-ZnO nanocomposite films by impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hemalatha, K. S.; Damle, R.; Rukmani, K.; Sriprakash, G.; Ambika Prasad, M. V. N.

    2015-10-21

    Dielectric and conductivity behaviors of nano ZnO doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites for various concentrations of dopant were investigated using impedance spectroscopy for a wide range of temperatures (303 K–423 K) and frequencies (5 Hz–30 MHZ). The dielectric properties of host polymer matrix have been improved by the addition of nano ZnO and are found to be highly temperature dependent. Anomalous dielectric behavior was observed in the frequency range of 2.5 MHz–5 MHz. Increase in dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss was observed with respect to temperature. The Cole-Cole plot could be modeled by low resistance regions in a high resistance matrix and the lowest resistance was observed for the 10 mol. % films. The imaginary part of the electric modulus showed asymmetric peaks with the relaxation following Debye nature below and non-Debye nature above the peaks. The ac conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's power law, whereas the variation of dc conductivity with temperature was found to follow Arrhenius behavior. Two different activation energy values were obtained from Arrhenius plot indicating that two conduction mechanisms are involved in the composite films. Fitting the ac conductivity data to Jonscher's law indicates that large polaron assisted tunneling is the most likely conduction mechanism in the composites. Maximum conductivity is observed at 423 K for all the samples and it is optimum for 10 mol. % ZnO doped PVA composite film. Significant increase in dc and ac conductivities in these composite films makes them a potential candidate for application in electronic devices.

  19. Anomalous extracellular diffusion in rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable

  20. Anomalous Extracellular Diffusion in Rat Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable

  1. Anomalous extracellular diffusion in rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable

  2. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  3. Temperature dependence of porous silica antireflective (AR) coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongxing; Le, Yueqin; Zhang, Weiqing; Jiang, Minhua; Sun, Jinren; Liu, Xiaolin

    1998-02-01

    In this paper, the antireflective coatings consisting of porous silica particles from a silica sol are applied by dip method. The relationships among composition, viscosity and temperature have been studied. The coating homogeneity is opium for the laser wavelengths of 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm. The peak transmission of coated BK-7 glass substrate is higher than 99.5%. The laser induced damage thresholds of the antireflective coatings were range of 7 - 10 J/cm2, for 1 ns pulse width and 1064 nm wavelength. These damage thresholds were suitable for our national ICF program. It is noted that the optical homogeneity of coating and the viscosity of coating sol were strongly influenced by the temperatures in the duration of sol ripening.

  4. Rate dependent of strength in metallic glasses at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y W; Bian, X L; Wu, S W; Hussain, I; Jia, Y D; Yi, J; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the strength at the macroscale and the elastic deformation as well as shear cracking behavior at the microscale of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated. The temperatures of 298 K and 77 K as well as the strain rate ranging from 10(-6) s(-1) to 10(-2) s(-1) are applied to the BMGs, in which the mechanical responses of the BMGs are profiled through the compression tests. The yield strength is associated with the activation of the elementary deformation unit, which is insensitive to the strain rate. The maximum compressive strength is linked to the crack propagation during shear fracture process, which is influenced by the strain rate. The cryogenic temperature of 77 K significantly improves the yield strength and the maximum compressive strength of the BMGs. PMID:27270688

  5. Temperature dependence of nanoscale friction for Fe on YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altfeder, Igor; Krim, Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    A magnetic probe microscopy study of levitation and atomic-scale friction is reported for Fe on YBCO (Tc = 92.5 K) in the temperature range 65-293 K. Below Tc, the friction coefficient is constant and exhibits no correlation with the strength of superconducting levitation forces. Above Tc, the friction coefficient increases progressively, and nearly doubles between Tc and room temperature. The results are discussed within the context of the underlying atomic-scale electronic and phononic mechanisms that give rise to friction, and it is concluded that contact electrification and static electricity may play a significant role in the non-superconducting phase. Given that the properties of YBCO can be finely tuned, the results point the way to a variety of interesting studies of friction and superconductors.

  6. Rate dependent of strength in metallic glasses at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. W.; Bian, X. L.; Wu, S. W.; Hussain, I.; Jia, Y. D.; Yi, J.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the strength at the macroscale and the elastic deformation as well as shear cracking behavior at the microscale of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated. The temperatures of 298 K and 77 K as well as the strain rate ranging from 10−6 s−1 to 10−2 s−1 are applied to the BMGs, in which the mechanical responses of the BMGs are profiled through the compression tests. The yield strength is associated with the activation of the elementary deformation unit, which is insensitive to the strain rate. The maximum compressive strength is linked to the crack propagation during shear fracture process, which is influenced by the strain rate. The cryogenic temperature of 77 K significantly improves the yield strength and the maximum compressive strength of the BMGs. PMID:27270688

  7. Temperature dependence of the magnetic excitations in Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.; Nicklow, R.M.; Wakabayashi, N.

    1985-08-01

    Magnetic excitation spectra were measured for Gd in the and directions over the temperature range from 9 to 320/sup 0/K (T/sub c/ = 292.7/sup 0/K). Spin-wave-like modes are observed at T greater than or equal to T/sub c/. The critical wavevector for the appearance of these modes is proportional to the inverse correlation length.

  8. Temperature dependent primary irritant dermatitis from lemon perfume.

    PubMed

    Rothenborg, H W; Menné, T; Sjolin, K E

    1977-02-01

    In a recent outbreak of hand eczema amongst cleaning personnel after the introduction of a new, lemon-scented detergent, it was noted that the patients complained of a burning, stinging sensation when their hands were submerged in hot detergent solutions. Since routine patch testing with the Standard Series and perfume components was of no help in pinpointing the responsible agent, testing with selected perfume components was repeated at higher temperatures. Identical tests were placed on both forearms for 20 min, one arm being exposed to 43 degrees C, the other to 23-25 degrees C. Little or no reaction was seen on the "cold" arm, whereas the lemon perfume component Citral proved to be a strong primary irritant at higher temperatures. Histological examination of the test sites showed the reaction to be of a toxic (primary irritant) nature. Surprisingly, the toxic character could still be recongized in biopsies taken as late as 48 h after exposure. It is suggested that: 1. Heat plays an important part in the outbreak of primary irritant (toxic) dermatitis and can be used as an accelerating factor when testing for primary irritants. 2. It is important to be sure that detergents and detergent perfumes do not contain substances which act as irritants at the temperatures at which they are habitually used (45-50 degrees C). 3. We probably ought to use lukewarm rather than hot water for manual dishwashing and cleaning whenever it is possible.

  9. Temperature dependence of histidine ionization constants in myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, S; Lecomte, J T

    1997-01-01

    The standard enthalpy of ionization of six titratable histidines in horse metaquomyoglobin was determined by repeating proton NMR titrations as a function of temperature and using the van't Hoff relationship. It was found that deltaH degrees varies between 16 and 37 kJ mol(-1) in the protein, compared with a value of 29 kJ mol(-1) in free histidine. The standard entropy change was evaluated by combining the enthalpy and free energy changes derived from the pKa values. Although the entropy change could not be precisely and accurately obtained by this method, it could be established that it spans a wide range, from -60 to 0 J K(-1) mol(-1), about the value of -23 J K(-1) mol(-1) for the free histidine. The entropy change was used within the framework of enthalpy-entropy compensation to partition the solvation component from the standard thermodynamic quantities for each of the titrating residues. It was shown that the partitioning of the values in the protein is not readily understood in terms of solvent accessibility or electrostatic interactions. The contribution of solvation effects to the temperature response appeared to be significant only in the case of His-119 and His-48. The standard quantities were also used to explore the energetics of proton binding in the native state at temperatures below the onset of thermal denaturation. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:9414235

  10. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, K. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P(WN) = -3580/T + 10.01, where P(WN) is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > or = Fc(10(3.8)/120 pi D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, Fc is the gas flow rate, in mL/ min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm2/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 degrees C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 degrees C yields a dew point of -80 degrees C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO4)2 or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed.

  11. Temperature Dependence of the Microwave Dielectric Behavior of Selected Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahiya, Jai N.

    1996-01-01

    A very sensitive thermal bath is designed to study the effect of temperature on the microwave dielectric response of a sample of nickel oxide and cobalt oxide. The sample under study is placed in a microwave resonant cavity in the TE(sub 011) mode. The perturbations of the electric field are recorded in terms of the frequency shifts and the width changes of the microwave resonant signal as seen on the oscilloscope. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant are calculated by using the values of the frequency shifts and width changes in the Slater's perturbation equations. The dielectric behavior of nickel oxide and cobalt oxide and also their mixture is studied at a microwave frequency of 9.2 GHz as a function of temperature. A computer program is written to analyze the dielectric constant values at different temperatures. The resonant cavity seems to be very sensitive in studying the dielectric relaxation mechanism in these materials. The dielectric behavior is also analyzed using Debye's equations, and relaxation times for these materials are calculated at microwave frequencies.

  12. A physical explanation of the temperature dependence of physiological processes mediated by cilia and flagella.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Stuart

    2013-09-01

    The majority of biological rates are known to exhibit temperature dependence. Here I reveal a direct link between temperature and ecologically relevant rates such as swimming speeds in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes as well as fluid-pumping and filtration rates in many metazoans, and show that this relationship is driven by movement rates of cilia and flagella. I develop models of the temperature dependence of cilial and flagellar movement rates and evaluate these with an extensive compilation of data from the literature. The model captures the temperature dependence of viscosity and provides a mechanistic and biologically interpretable explanation for the temperature dependence of a range of ecologically relevant processes; it also reveals a clear dependence on both reaction rate-like processes and the physics of the environment. The incorporation of viscosity allows further insight into the effects of environmental temperature variation and of processes, such as disease, that affect the viscosity of blood or other body fluids.

  13. Exponential temperature dependence of the resistivity, thermopower, and susceptibility of Y9Co7: Evidence for local mode (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, B. V. B.

    1985-04-01

    The magnetic superconductor Y9Co7 is unique in that its magnetism coexists with superconductivity at a temperature (˜5.5 K) before it transforms into the superconducting state at a lower temperature (˜2.7 K) [B. V. B. Sarkissian, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 8070 (1982)]. There is now ample evidence that the compound has a puzzling array of magnetic properties. The magnetism is consistent with the lack of long-range order, and shows some evidence of dominant incipient ferromagnetic ordering. Apart from these striking effects this compound shows anomalous temperature dependence in a variety of physical properties at high temperatures, in particular, the ``saturation'' of the resistivity and thermopower with increasing temperature and marked departure of the susceptibility from the usual Curie-Weiss behavior. The conventional view of these effects is that the resistivity and the thermopower anomalies are a consequence of the s-d scattering mechanism [E. Gratz et al., J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 21, 191 (1980)], whereas the magnetic susceptibility is viewed as a composite of a Curie-Weiss and a temperature independent part [A. Kolodziejczyk and J. Spalek, J. Phys. F 14, 1277 (1984)]. We have carried out measurements of the variation in resistivity, thermopower, and susceptibility with temperature in Y9Co7. All the results show a temperature dependence dominated by an exponential-type behavior with a well-defined characteristic temperature. The latter defines the crossover from the region dominated by strong T dependence to that dominated by weak T dependence. The presence of similar unusual high T properties in many intermetallic compounds—particularly the A15 compounds—has been evident for many years. Many of them show one or more of the properties of the Y9Co7; however, at lower temperatures their behavior differs considerably from that of Y9Co7. In interpreting the anomalous exponential behavior shown by Y9Co7 a mechanism, closely related to localized phonon mode formation

  14. Time and temperature dependences of the magnetization reversal in a Co /Pd multilayer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. Scott; Harrell, J. W.; Matsunuma, S.

    2006-09-01

    The time and temperature dependences of the magnetization reversal have been measured in a high-coercivity Co /Pd multilayer film characterized by nucleation and domain wall motion. The time and field dependences of magnetic relaxation curves at room temperature were interpreted in terms of an energy barrier that depends linearly on reverse field, suggesting a Sharrock-type [M. P. Sharrock and J. T. McKinney, IEEE Trans. Magn. 17, 3020 (1981)] equation for the time and temperature dependences of coercivity with unity exponent. The sweep rate and temperature dependence of the coercivity were analyzed using the Sharrock equation to obtain the temperature dependence of the intrinsic, short-time coercivity H0 and the zero-field energy barrier E0. A single power law behavior was found for H0 versus the saturation magnetization Ms.

  15. Molecular players involved in temperature-dependent sex determination and sex differentiation in Teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie sex determination and differentiation are conserved and diversified. In fish species, temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation seem to be ubiquitous and molecular players involved in these mechanisms may be conserved. Although how the ambient temperature transduces signals to the undifferentiated gonads remains to be elucidated, the genes downstream in the sex differentiation pathway are shared between sex-determining mechanisms. In this paper, we review recent advances on the molecular players that participate in the sex determination and differentiation in fish species, by putting emphasis on temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation, which include temperature-dependent sex determination and genetic sex determination plus temperature effects. Application of temperature-dependent sex differentiation in farmed fish and the consequences of temperature-induced sex reversal are discussed. PMID:24735220

  16. Anomalous Nernst effect in the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice Ce3RhSi3.

    PubMed

    Matusiak, M; Lipatov, A; Gribanov, A; Kaczorowski, D

    2013-07-01

    The ferromagnetic heavy fermion compound Ce3RhSi3 was studied by means of electrical resistivity, Hall effect, thermoelectric power and Nernst coefficient measurements. Below T ≈ 30 K, all the transport characteristics were found to behave anomalously as functions of temperature and magnetic field. In particular, the Hall and Nernst coefficients at low temperatures exhibit pronounced and strongly field-dependent maxima, likely possessing the same microscopic origin, which however cannot be captured by available theoretical models.

  17. Temperature Dependence of Diffusivities in Liquid Elements (LMD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banish, R. Michael; Rosenberger, Franz

    1998-01-01

    This research was to advance the understanding of diffusion mechanisms in liquid metals and alloys through accurate diffusivity measurements over a wide range of temperatures, including the proximity of the materials melting points. Specifically, it was driven towards developing a methodology (and subsequent flight hardware) to enable several diffusion coefficient measurements (i.e., at several different temperatures) to be performed using a single sample. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) was funded as a Flight Definition Project in February 1993 in response to NRA 91-OSSA-20 (Microgravity Science and Applications Division). The Science Concept Review for LAID was held during April 1994. In January 1995 we were informed that we had failed this review and the project was change to ground-based activities only. A new proposal was submitted for the next NRA addressing the panels concerns. As part of NASA's Risk Mitigation program, a scaled-down version of the hardware was funded in July of 1995 for a flight opportunity utilizing experiment on the Microgravity Isolation Mount. This experiment was to determine the self-diffusivity of indium at 185 C. The LMD was transferred to the Mir Space Station in STS-81 and returned on STS-84 (January - May 1997). Three, out of five, self-diffusion data sets were returned. A description of this experiment/hardware is included below. This summary is only intended to give the reader an overview of the results obtained for the tasks outlined in the original proposal. Research that was not published is explained in more detail. At the end of this report is a list of refereed publications and invited talks that were given as a result of this work. The reader is directed to these for further details. Attachment: Real-time diffusivity measurements in liquids at several temperatures with one sample, On the insensitivity of liquid diffusivity measurements to deviations from 1D transport, and Numerical simulations of the convective

  18. THE TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT NATURE OF CORONAL DIMMINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Robbrecht, Eva; Wang Yiming E-mail: Yi.Wang@nrl.navy.mi

    2010-09-01

    The opening-up of the magnetic field during solar eruptive events is often accompanied by a dimming of the local coronal emission. From observations of filament eruptions recorded with the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imager on STEREO during 2008-2009, it is evident that these dimmings are much more pronounced in 19.5 nm than in the lower-temperature line 17.1 nm, as viewed either on the disk or above the limb. We conclude that most of the cooler coronal plasma is not ejected but remains gravitationally bound when the loops open up. This result is consistent with Doppler measurements by Imada and coworkers, who found that the upflow speeds in a transient coronal hole increased dramatically above a temperature of 1 MK; it is also consistent with the quasistatic behavior of polar plumes, as compared with the hotter interplume regions that are the main source of the fast solar wind. When the open flux reconnects and closes down again, the trapped plasma is initially heated to such high temperatures that it is no longer visible at Fe IX 17.1 nm. Correspondingly, 17.1 nm images show a dark ribbon or 'heat wave' propagating away from the polarity inversion line and coinciding with the brightened Fe XV 28.4 nm and Fe XII 19.5 nm post-eruptive loops and their footpoint areas. Such dark ribbons provide a clear example of dimmings that are not caused by a density depletion. The propagation of the 'heat wave' is driven by the closing-down, not the opening-up, of the flux and can be observed both off-limb and on-disk.

  19. Temperature dependent cubic and hexagonal close packing in micellar structures.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nicole; Gerth, Stefan; Gutfreund, Philipp; Wolff, Max

    2014-11-14

    The interfacial structure and phase diagram of a micellar solution formed by the three block copolymer (EO20-PO70-EO20) also known as P123 solved in deuterated water close to a solid boundary is investigated with respect to temperature. We find a hysteretic behavior of the d-spacing of the micellar crystal and a spontaneous change in the lateral correlation length going hand in hand with a structural reorganization between cubic and hexagonal. The phase transitions may be initiated by a change in the shape of the micelles from spherical to elongated together with a minimization of the polymer water interface. PMID:25212786

  20. Engineering a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon for Temperature-Dependent Product Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Basen, M; Sun, JS; Adams, MWW

    2012-02-24

    Microorganisms growing near the boiling point have enormous biotechnological potential but only recently have molecular engineering tools become available for them. We have engineered the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100 degrees C, to switch its end products of fermentation in a temperature-controlled fashion without the need for chemical inducers. The recombinant strain (LAC) expresses a gene (ldh) encoding lactate dehydrogenase from the moderately thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (optimal growth temperature [T-opt] of 78 degrees C) controlled by a "cold shock" promoter that is upregulated when cells are transferred from 98 degrees C to 72 degrees C. At 98 degrees C, the LAC strain fermented sugar to produce acetate and hydrogen as end products, and lactate was not detected. When the LAC strain was grown at 72 degrees C, up to 3 mM lactate was produced instead. Expression of a gene from a moderately thermophilic bacterium in a hyperthermophilic archaeon at temperatures at which the hyperthermophile has low metabolic activity provides a new perspective to engineering microorganisms for bioproduct and biofuel formation. IMPORTANCE Extremely thermostable enzymes from microorganisms that grow near or above the boiling point of water are already used in biotechnology. However, the use of hyperthermophilic microorganisms themselves for biotechnological applications has been limited by the lack of their genetic accessibility. Recently, a genetic system for Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally near 100 degrees C, was developed in our laboratory. In this study, we present the first heterologous protein expression system for a microorganism that grows optimally at 100 degrees C, a first step towards the potential expression of genes involved in biomass degradation or biofuel production in hyperthermophiles. Moreover, we developed the first system for specific gene induction in P. furiosus. As the cold shock promoter

  1. Binary accretion rates: dependence on temperature and mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. D.; Clarke, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    We perform a series of 2D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of gas accretion on to binaries via a circumbinary disc, for a range of gas temperatures and binary mass ratios (q). We show that increasing the gas temperature increases the accretion rate on to the primary for all values of the binary mass ratio: for example, for q = 0.1 and a fixed binary separation, an increase of normalized sound speed by a factor of 5 (from our `cold' to `hot' simulations) changes the fraction of the accreted gas that flows on to the primary from 10 to ˜40 per cent. We present a simple parametrization for the average accretion rate of each binary component accurate to within a few per cent and argue that this parametrization (rather than those in the literature based on warmer simulations) is relevant to supermassive black hole accretion and all but the widest stellar binaries. We present trajectories for the growth of q during circumbinary disc accretion and argue that the period distribution of stellar `twin' binaries is strong evidence for the importance of circumbinary accretion. We also show that our parametrization of binary accretion increases the minimum mass ratio needed for spin alignment of supermassive black holes to q ˜ 0.4, with potentially important implications for the magnitude of velocity kicks acquired during black hole mergers.

  2. Seafloor Weathering Dependence on Temperature and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.; Farahat, N. X.; Archer, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Most thinking on Earth's carbon cycle implicates silicate weathering as the dominant control of atmospheric CO2 concentration over long timescales. Recent analyses of alteration of basalt at the seafloor, however, suggest that seafloor weathering (low-temperature (<60C) chemical alteration of the upper oceanic crust due to hydrothermal seawater circulation) increases dramatically in warm, high CO2 periods of Earth's history. This raises the possibility that seafloor weathering could complement silicate weathering in maintaining Earth's long term climate stability. Moreover, seafloor weathering would be the only type of weathering available on an exoplanet entirely covered by water, so understanding how it might work is essential for understanding the habitable zones of such waterworlds. We have built a 2D numerical model of the flow of seawater through porous basalt coupled to chemical alteration reactions that can calculate alkalinity fluxes and carbonate deposition (seafloor weathering). I will present simulations in which we vary the seawater temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration, which are boundary conditions to our model, over large ranges. These results will provide a constraint on the ability of seafloor weathering to act as an effective climate buffer on Earth and other planets. I can't give you a preview of the results yet because at the time of writing this abstract we haven't completed the simulations!

  3. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  4. Temperature Dependence on The Synthesis of Jatropha Biolubricant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunam Resul, Muhammad Faiz M.; Idaty Mohd Ghazi, Tinia; Idris, Azni

    2011-02-01

    Jatropha oil has good potential as the renewable energy as well as lubricant feedstock. The synthesis of jatropha biolubricant was performed by transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with trimethyl-ol-propane (TMP) with sodium methoxide (NaOCH3) catalyst. The effects of temperature on the synthesis were studied at a range between 120°C and 200°C with pressure kept at 10mbar. The conversion of JME to jatropha biolubricant was found to be the highest (47%) at 200°C. However, it was suggested that the optimum temperature of the reaction is at 150°C due to insignificant improvement in biolubricant production. To maintain forward reaction, the excess amount of JME was maintained at 3.9:1 ratios to TMP. Kinetic study was done and compared. The synthesis was found to follow a second order reaction with overall rate constant of 1.49 × 10-1 (%wt/wt.min.°C)-1. The estimated activation energy was 3.94 kJ/mol. Pour point for jatropha biolubricant was at -3°C and Viscosity Index (VI) ranged from 178 to 183. The basic properties of jatropha biolubricant, pour point and viscosities are found comparable to other plant based biolubricant, namely palm oil and soybean based biolubricant.

  5. Temperature dependent effects during Ag deposition on Cu(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.N.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Hoffbauer, M.A.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; van der Veen, J.F.; FOM-Instituut voor Atoom-en Molecuulfysica, Amsterdam )

    1989-01-01

    The composition, structure, and morphology of ultrathin films grown by Ag deposition on Cu(110) were monitored as a function of temperature using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Aligned backscattering measurements with 150 keV He ions indicate that the Ag resides on top of the Cu and there is no significant surface compound formation. Measurements with LEED show that the Ag is initially confined to the substrate troughs. Further deposition forces the Ag out of the troughs and results in a split c(2 {times} 4) LEED pattern, which is characteristic of a distorted Ag(111) monolayer template. As verified by both AES and MEIS measurements, postmonolayer deposition of Ag on Cu(110) at 300K leads to a pronounced 3-dimensional clustering. Ion blocking analysis of the Ag clusters show that the crystallites have a (110)-like growth orientation, implying that the Ag monolayer template undergoes a rearrangement. These data are confirmed by low temperature LEED results in the absence of clusters, which indicate that Ag multilayers grow from a Ag--Cu interface where the Ag is captured in the troughs. Changes observed in the film structure and morphology are consistent with a film growth mechanism that is driven by overlayer strain response to the substrate corrugation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Microbial dynamics of commercial makgeolli depending on the storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Ae Ran; Kim, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Byung-Hak

    2012-08-01

    Market fresh makgeolli was stored at different temperatures of 4°C and 25°C to assess the change of the microbial diversity according to the storage temperature and period. Yeast counts increased until day 3 of storage and decreased thereafter. General and lactic acid bacterial counts continuously increased during storage. The data indicated that the control of growth of microorganisms, particularly general bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), is essential. Total acid levels started to decrease in the makgeolli stored at 4°C, and increased from day 6 of storage in the makgeolli stored at 25°C. The increase of total acid in the non-refrigerated condition greatly affected the quality of makgeolli. In both the fresh makgeolli samples stored at 4°C and 25°C, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and molds (Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida glaebosa, and Aspergillus niger) were noted. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns were almost constant regardless of the storage period. As for bacteria, Lactobacillus crustorum, L. brevis, and Microlaena stipoides were found in the makgeolli stored at 4°C, and L. crustorum, Lactobacillus sp., L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. rhamnosus, and L. similis were found in the makgeolli stored at 25°C. In particular, in the makgeolli stored at 25°C, L. crustorum and L. plantarum presented dark bands and were identified as the primary microorganisms that affected spoilage of fresh makgeolli. PMID:22713986

  7. Temperature Dependence of Errors in Parameters Derived from Van't Hoff Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dec, Steven F.; Gill, Stanley J.

    1985-01-01

    The method of Clarke and Glew is broadly applicable to studies of the temperature dependence of equilibrium constant measurements. The method is described and examples of its use in comparing calorimetric results and temperature dependent gas solubility studies are provided. (JN)

  8. Dependence of electric strength on the ambient temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Čaja, Alexander E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk Nemec, Patrik E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk Malcho, Milan E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk

    2014-08-06

    At present, the volume concentration of electronic components in their miniaturization to different types of microchips and increasing their performance raises the problem of cooling such elements due to the increasing density of heat flow of heat loss. Compliance with safe operating temperature of active semiconductor element is very closely related to the reliability and durability not only components, but also the entire device. Often it is also necessary to electrically isolate the unit from the side of the cooler air. Cooling demand by natural convection is typical for applications with high operating reliability. To the reliability of the system for removing heat loss increased, it is necessary to minimize need to use the mechanically or electrically powered elements, such as circulation pumps or fans. Experience to date with applications of heat pipe in specific systems appears to be the most appropriate method of cooling.

  9. Symmetry-, time-, and temperature-dependent strength of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrica, Traian; Hua, Ming; Yakobson, Boris I.

    2006-01-01

    Although the strength of carbon nanotubes has been of great interest, their ideal value has remained elusive both experimentally and theoretically. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of underlying atomic mechanisms and evaluate the yield strain for arbitrary nanotubes at realistic conditions. For this purpose, we combine detailed quantum mechanical computations of failure nucleation and transition-state barriers with the probabilistic approach of the rate theory. The numerical results are then summarized in a concise set of equations for the breaking strain. We reveal a competition between two alternative routes of brittle bond breaking and plastic relaxation, determine the domains of their dominance, and map the nanotube strength as a function of chiral symmetry, tensile test time, and temperature. PMID:16581906

  10. Radiation influence on the temperature-dependent parameters of fluids.

    PubMed

    Bulavin, L A; Cherevko, K V; Gavryushenko, D A; Sysoev, V M; Vlasenko, T S

    2016-03-01

    Based on the fundamental Bogolyubov chain of equations, a model relating the structural and thermophysical properties of the nonequilibrium liquid systems under irradiation in stationary state is introduced. The obtained results suggest that the thermophysical properties of the liquid systems under irradiation are defined by the "effective temperature" that can be calculated from the perturbed momentum distribution functions of the systems. It is shown that the structural changes in the liquid systems under irradiation are caused by the changes in the coefficients of the Maxwell distribution function due to the momentum exchange between the active particles and the particles forming the liquid. To confirm the theoretical predictions, a qualitative comparison of the model with the existing experimental data on irradiation influence on the surface tension coefficients of liquids is performed. PMID:27078318

  11. Temperature dependence of the lowest excitonic transition for an InAs ultrathin quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. D.; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Rustagi, K. C.

    2006-03-01

    Temperature dependent photoluminescence and photoreflectance techniques are used to investigate the lowest excitonic transition of InAs ultrathin quantum well. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the lowest energy transition follows the band gap variation of GaAs barrier, which is well reproduced by calculated results based on the envelope function approximation with significant corrections due to strain and temperature dependences of the confinement potential. A redshift in photoluminescence peak energy compared to photoreflectance is observed at low temperatures. This is interpreted to show that the photoluminescence signal originates from the recombination of carriers occupying the band-tail states below the lowest critical point.

  12. Temperature dependence of intensities of the 8-12 micron bands of CFCl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanes, R.; Silvaggio, P. M.; Boese, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The absolute intensities of the 8-12 micron bands from Freon 11 (CFCl3) were measured at temperatures of 294 and 216 K. Intensities of the bands centered at 798, 847, 934, and 1082 per cm are all observed to depend on temperature. The temperature dependence for the 847 and 1082 per cm fundamental regions is attributed to underlying hot bands; for the nu2 + nu5 combination band (934 per cm), the observed temperature dependence is in close agreement with theoretical prediction. The implication of these results on atmospheric IR remote-sensing is briefly discussed.

  13. Simulation of Temperature-Dependent Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors with Various Degrees of Disorder.

    PubMed

    Heck, Alexander; Kranz, Julian J; Elstner, Marcus

    2016-07-12

    Different trends in the temperature dependence of the mobility can be observed in organic semiconductors, which constitutes a serious challenge for theoretical approaches. In this work, we apply an atomistic bottom-up simulation for the calculation of temperature-dependent mobilities of a broad selection of materials, ranging from single crystal to amorphous solid. We evaluate how well the method is able to distinguish temperature dependences of different materials and how the findings relate to experimental observations. The applied method is able to cover the full range of temperature dependencies from activated transport in amorphous materials to band-like transport in crystals. In well-characterized materials, we find good agreement with the experiment and a band-like temperature dependence. In less-ordered materials, we find discrepancies from the experiment that indicated that experimentally studied materials possess a higher degree of disorder than do the simulated defect-free morphologies. PMID:27224054

  14. Anomalous enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature of electron-doped La2-xCexCuO4 and Pr2-xCexCuO4 cuprate heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, K.; Bach, P.; Zhang, X. H.; Grupel, U.; Zohar, E.; Diamant, I.; Dagan, Y.; Smadici, S.; Abbamonte, P.; Greene, R. L.

    2011-02-01

    The superconducting transition temperature Tc of multilayers of electron-doped cuprates, composed of underdoped (or undoped) and overdoped La2-xCexCuO4 (LCCO) and Pr2-xCexCuO4 (PCCO) thin films, is found to increase significantly with respect to the Tc of the corresponding single-phase films. By investigating the critical current density of superlattices with different doping levels and layer thicknesses, we find that the Tc enhancement is caused by a redistribution of charge over an anomalously large distance.

  15. Integrated optic current transducers incorporating photonic crystal fiber for reduced temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sung-Moon; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2015-08-24

    Optical current transducers (OCT) are indispensable for accurate monitoring of large electrical currents in an environment suffering from severe electromagnetic interference. Temperature dependence of OCTs caused by its components, such as wave plates and optical fibers, should be reduced to allow temperature-independent operation. A photonic crystal fiber with a structural optical birefringence was incorporated instead of a PM fiber, and a spun PM fiber was introduced to overcome the temperature-dependent linear birefringence of sensing fiber coil. Moreover, an integrated optic device that provides higher stability than fiber-optics was employed to control the polarization and detect the phase of the sensed optical signal. The proposed OCT exhibited much lower temperature dependence than that from a previous study. The OCT satisfied the 0.5 accuracy class (IIEC 60044-8) and had a temperature dependence less than ± 1% for a temperature range of 25 to 78 °C.

  16. Temperature dependence of resistance in epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Q. L.; Wang, Shouguo; Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Ward, R. C. C.; Kohn, A.; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Han, Prof. X. F.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of resistance in parallel P and antiparallel AP configurations RP,AP has been investigated in epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe junctions with varying MgO barrier thicknesses tMgO. RAP exhibits a substantial decrease with increasing temperature for samples with tMgO ranging from 3.0 to 1.5 nm. In contrast, RP is approximately temperature independent when tMgO =3.0 nm and increases with temperature when tMgO=2.1 and 1.5 nm. Possible origins of this temperature dependence of resistance, which include taking into account a spin independent term and consideration of spin-flip scattering, are discussed. We attribute the temperature dependence of RP,AP to the misalignment of magnetic moments in the electrodes due to thermal excitations and its effect on the spin dependent tunneling.

  17. Integrated optic current transducers incorporating photonic crystal fiber for reduced temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sung-Moon; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2015-08-24

    Optical current transducers (OCT) are indispensable for accurate monitoring of large electrical currents in an environment suffering from severe electromagnetic interference. Temperature dependence of OCTs caused by its components, such as wave plates and optical fibers, should be reduced to allow temperature-independent operation. A photonic crystal fiber with a structural optical birefringence was incorporated instead of a PM fiber, and a spun PM fiber was introduced to overcome the temperature-dependent linear birefringence of sensing fiber coil. Moreover, an integrated optic device that provides higher stability than fiber-optics was employed to control the polarization and detect the phase of the sensed optical signal. The proposed OCT exhibited much lower temperature dependence than that from a previous study. The OCT satisfied the 0.5 accuracy class (IIEC 60044-8) and had a temperature dependence less than ± 1% for a temperature range of 25 to 78 °C. PMID:26368249

  18. Resolving the energy and temperature dependence of C6H6 (∗) collisional relaxation via time-dependent bath temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    West, Niclas A; Winner, Joshua D; Bowersox, Rodney D W; North, Simon W

    2016-07-01

    The relaxation of highly vibrationally excited benzene, generated by 193 nm laser excitation, was studied using the transient rotational-translational temperature rise of the N2 bath, which was measured by proxy using two-line laser induced fluorescence of seeded NO. The resulting experimentally measured time-dependent N2 temperature rises were modeled with MultiWell based simulations of Collisional Energy Transfer (CET) from benzene vibration to N2 rotation-translation. We find that the average energy transferred in benzene deactivating collisions depends linearly on the internal energy of the excited benzene molecules and depends approximately linearly on the N2 bath temperature between 300 K and 600 K. The results are consistent with experimental studies and classical trajectory calculations of CET in similar systems. PMID:27394109

  19. Resolving the energy and temperature dependence of C6H6∗ collisional relaxation via time-dependent bath temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Niclas A.; Winner, Joshua D.; Bowersox, Rodney D. W.; North, Simon W.

    2016-07-01

    The relaxation of highly vibrationally excited benzene, generated by 193 nm laser excitation, was studied using the transient rotational-translational temperature rise of the N2 bath, which was measured by proxy using two-line laser induced fluorescence of seeded NO. The resulting experimentally measured time-dependent N2 temperature rises were modeled with MultiWell based simulations of Collisional Energy Transfer (CET) from benzene vibration to N2 rotation-translation. We find that the average energy transferred in benzene deactivating collisions depends linearly on the internal energy of the excited benzene molecules and depends approximately linearly on the N2 bath temperature between 300 K and 600 K. The results are consistent with experimental studies and classical trajectory calculations of CET in similar systems.

  20. Effect of interband interactions on the pressure dependence on transition temperature of MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbuu, Okechukwu A.; Abah, Obinna

    2015-12-01

    A two-band BCS model with interactions, both phonon and non-phonon induced interactions, were employed to investigate the pressure dependence on superconducting transition temperature of two-band superconductor. We derived the transition temperature and its pressure dependence within Bogoliubov--Valatin formalism for magnesium diboride superconductor. We examined the influence of interband interactions on transition temperature at varying pressure and analyzed the relevance of this calculation in magnesium diboride, MgB2.

  1. Temperature Dependence of the Piezotronic and Piezophototronic Effects in a-axis GaN Nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingfu; Yu, Ruomeng; Peng, Wenbo; Wu, Wenzhuo; Li, Shuti; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    The temperature dependence of the piezotronic and piezophototronic effects in a-axis GaN nanobelts from 77 to 300 K is investigated. The piezotronic effect is enhanced by over 440% under lower temp-eratures. Two independent processes are discovered to form a competing mechanism through the investigation of the temperature dependence of the piezophototronic effect in a-axis GaN nanobelts.

  2. Analysis of microwave heating of materials with temperature-dependent properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ayappa, K.G.; Davis, H.T. ); Davis, E.A.; Gordon, J. )

    1991-03-01

    In this paper transient temperature profiles in multilayer slabs are predicted, by simultaneously solving Maxwell's equations with the heat conduction equation, using Galerkin-finite elements. It is assumed that the medium is homogeneous and has temperature-dependent dielectric and thermal properties. The method is illustrated with applications involving the heating of food and polymers with microwaves. The temperature dependence of dielectric properties affects the heating appreciably, as is shown by comparison with a constant property model.

  3. Mechanisms of time-dependent crack growth at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Stock, S.R.

    1990-04-15

    Objective of this 3-y study was to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material (Cu-1wt%Sb), which is known to cavitate at grain boundaries under creep deformation. Results were: In presence of large scale cavitation damage and crack branching, time rate of creep crack growth da/dt does not correlate with C[sub t] or C[sup *]. When cavitation damage is constrained, da/dt is characterized by C[sub t]. Area fraction of grain boundary cavitated is the single damage parameter for the extent of cavitation damage ahead of crack tips. C[sub t] is used for the creep-fatigue crack growth behavior. In materials prone to rapid cavity nucleation, creep cracks grow faster initially and then reach a steady state whose growth rate is determined by C[sub t]. Percent creep life exhausted correlates with average cavity diameter and fraction of grain boundary area occupied by cavities. Synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy was used to image individual cavities in Cu-1wt% Sb. A methodology was developed for predicting the remaining life of elevated temperature power plant components; (C[sub t])[sub avg] was used to correlate creep-fatigue crack growth in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel and weldments.

  4. Temperature dependent surface modification of silica spheres with methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Sun; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Jo, Dong-Hyun; Lim, Sae-Han; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Do-gyun

    2014-09-01

    Surface modification of silica spheres with 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (TMSPM) has been performed at ambient condition. However, the FTIR spectra and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images show no evidence of the surface modification. The reaction temperatures were varied from 60 to 80 °C with various reaction periods. Small absorption shoulder of the C=O stretching vibration was at 1700 cm-1, and slightly increased with the increase of the reaction time at 60 °C. The clear absorption peak appeared at 1698 cm-1 for the spheres reacted for 80 min at 70 °C and shifted toward 1720 cm-1 with the increase the reaction time. Strong absorption peak showed at 1698 cm-1 and shifted toward 1725 cm-1 with the increase of the reaction time at 80 °C. The spheres were dispersed to methanol and added photoinitiator (Irgacure-184). The solution was poured to a patterned glass substrate and exposed to the 254 nm UV-light during a self-assembly process. A large area and crack-free silica sphere film was formed. To increase the mechanical stability, a cellulose acetate solution was spin-coated to the film. The film was lift-off from the glass substrate to analyze the surface nanostructures. The surface nanostructures were maintained, and the film is stable enough to use as a mold to duplicate the nanopattern and flexible.

  5. Analytical model of the temperature dependent properties of microresonators immersed in a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ilin, E. A.; Kehrbusch, J.; Radzio, B.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive theoretical model of microresonators immersed in a viscous gas of varying temperature is presented and verified by experiments. Analytical expressions for both the temperature dependent resonant frequency and quality factor of the first flexural eigenmode were derived extending Sader's theory of viscous damping to small temperature variations. The model provides useful implications for the thermal stabilization of microresonators immersed in a gas as well as for the reduction in the influence of the temperature dependent gas properties on the resonant frequency. Finally, an analytical expression is deduced for the mass detection capability of a microresonator that undergoes temperature variations.

  6. Temperature-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients from ab initio Computations: Hydrogen in Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    E Wimmer; W Wolf; J Sticht; P Saxe; C Geller; R Najafabadi; G Young

    2006-03-16

    The temperature-dependent mass diffusion coefficient is computed using transition state theory. Ab initio supercell phonon calculations of the entire system provide the attempt frequency, the activation enthalpy, and the activation entropy as a function of temperature. Effects due to thermal lattice expansion are included and found to be significant. Numerical results for the case of hydrogen in nickel demonstrate a strong temperature dependence of the migration enthalpy and entropy. Trapping in local minima along the diffusion path has a pronounced effect especially at low temperatures. The computed diffusion coefficients with and without trapping bracket the available experimental values over the entire temperature range between 0 and 1400 K.

  7. Temperature dependence of optically dumped far-infrared (FIR) laser output power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the small signal gain and saturation power are derived using temperature-dependent rates in a four-level model. An expression is developed for the output power of a far-infrared oscillator as a function of temperature for both fixed pressure and fixed density. The results are valid in the regime of homogeneous broadening of the rotational transition and Doppler broadening of the pump transition. It is shown that, for most lasers, both the small signal gain and the saturation power decrease with increasing temperature. These effects have the overall result of increasing output power with decreasing temperatures.

  8. Temperature dependant electrical properties of formyl-TIPPCu(II)/p-Si heterojunction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Dil Nawaz; Sayyad, Muhammad Hassan; Wahab, Fazal; Tahir, Muhammad; Yaseen, Muhammad; Munawar, Munawar Ali; Ali, Mukhtar

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports the temperature dependent electrical characterization of formyl-TIPPCu(II)/p-Si heterojunction diode which was fabricated by growing thin films of formyl-TIPPCu(II) on the p-type silicon substrate by thermal sublimation technique. The variation in electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices has been systematically investigated as the function of temperature by using current-voltage (I-V) measurements in the temperature range 299-339 K. The diode parameters like ideality factor, zero bias barrier height and parasitic series resistance have been found to be strongly temperature dependant. The zero bias barrier height increases while ideality factor and series resistance decreases with increasing temperature.

  9. Temperature and Humidity Dependence of a Polymer-Based Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Buehler, M. G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper quantifies the temperature and humidity dependence of a polymer-based gas sensor. The measurement and analysis of three polymers indicates that resistance changes in the polymer films, due to temperature and humidity, can be positive or negative. The temperature sensitivity ranged from +1600 to -320 ppm/nd the relative sensitivity ranged from +1100 to -260 ppm/%.

  10. Temperature dependence of single-event burnout in n-channel power MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Galloway, Kenneth F.; Koga, Rocky

    1992-12-01

    The temperature dependence of single-event burnout (SEB) in n-channel power MOSFETs is investigated experimentally and analytically. Experimental data are presented which indicate that the SEB susceptibility of the power MOSFET decreases with increasing temperature. A previously reported analytical model that describes the SEB mechanism is updated to include temperature variations. This model is shown to agree with the experimental trends.

  11. On the temperature dependence of spin pumping in ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    Topological insulators (TIs) have a large potential for spintronic devices owing to their spin-polarized, counter-propagating surface states. Recently, we have investigated spin pumping in a ferromagnet-TI-ferromagnet structure at room temperature. Here, we present the temperature-dependent measurement of spin pumping down to 10 K, which shows no variation with temperature.

  12. Hartmann flow with temperature-dependent physical properties. [magnetohydrodynamics of liquid metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, G. T.; Walker, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Attention is given to the steady, fully developed, one-dimensional flow of a liquid metal in which thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity are functions of temperature. It is found that the properties are decreasing functions of temperature and the first differences between temperature-dependent and constant properties are discussed.

  13. Temperature Dependence of Photodegradation of Dissolved Organic Matter to Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Particulate Organic Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Porcal, Petr; Dillon, Peter J.; Molot, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Photochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been studied for more than two decades. Usually, laboratory or “in-situ” experiments are used to determine photodegradation variables. A common problem with these experiments is that the photodegradation experiments are done at higher than ambient temperature. Five laboratory experiments were done to determine the effect of temperature on photochemical degradation of DOM. Experimental results showed strong dependence of photodegradation on temperature. Mathematical modeling of processes revealed that two different pathways engaged in photochemical transformation of DOM to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) strongly depend on temperature. Direct oxidation of DOM to DIC dominated at low temperatures while conversion of DOM to intermediate particulate organic carbon (POC) prior to oxidation to DIC dominated at high temperatures. It is necessary to consider this strong dependence when the results of laboratory experiments are interpreted in regard to natural processes. Photodegradation experiments done at higher than ambient temperature will necessitate correction of rate constants. PMID:26106898

  14. Temperature dependence of the frequency noise in a mid-IR DFB quantum cascade laser from cryogenic to room temperature.

    PubMed

    Tombez, Lionel; Schilt, Stéphane; Di Francesco, Joab; Thomann, Pierre; Hofstetter, Daniel

    2012-03-26

    We report on the measurement of the frequency noise power spectral density in a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser over a wide temperature range, from 128 K to 303 K. As a function of the device temperature, we show that the frequency noise behavior is characterized by two different regimes separated by a steep transition at ≈200 K. While the frequency noise is nearly unchanged above 200 K, it drastically increases at lower temperature with an exponential dependence. We also show that this increase is entirely induced by current noise intrinsic to the device. In contrast to earlier publications, a single laser is used here in a wide temperature range allowing the direct assessment of the temperature dependence of the frequency noise.

  15. Spectral and temperature-dependent infrared emissivity measurements of painted metals for improved temperature estimation during laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Sean M.; Keenan, Cameron; Marciniak, Michael A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2014-10-01

    A database of spectral and temperature-dependent emissivities was created for painted Al-alloy laser-damage-testing targets for the purpose of improving the uncertainty to which temperature on the front and back target surfaces may be estimated during laser-damage testing. Previous temperature estimates had been made by fitting an assumed gray-body radiance curve to the calibrated spectral radiance data collected from the back surface using a Telops Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS). In this work, temperature-dependent spectral emissivity measurements of the samples were made from room temperature to 500 °C using a Surface Optics Corp. SOC-100 Hemispherical Directional Reflectometer (HDR) with Nicolet FTS. Of particular interest was a high-temperature matte-black enamel paint used to coat the rear surfaces of the Al-alloy samples. The paint had been assumed to have a spectrally flat and temperatureinvariant emissivity. However, the data collected using the HDR showed both spectral variation and temperature dependence. The uncertainty in back-surface temperature estimation during laser-damage testing made using the measured emissivities was improved from greater than +10 °C to less than +5 °C for IFTS pixels away from the laser burn-through hole, where temperatures never exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR measurements. At beam center, where temperatures exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR, uncertainty in temperature estimates grew beyond those made assuming gray-body emissivity. Accurate temperature estimations during laser-damage testing are useful in informing a predictive model for future high-energy-laser weapon applications.

  16. Nuclear Quadrupole Double Resonance Investigation of the Anomalous Temperature Coefficients of the Strong Hydrogen Bonds in Sodium and Potassium Deuterium Diacetate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Eric Max

    This thesis was directed at learning more about the unusual electronic environment near hydrogen within strong hydrogen bonds. "Strong" hydrogen bonds are unique in that the hydrogen atom is symmetrically located, or nearly so, between two electronegative atoms; the bond energies are relatively large. In a "normal" hydrogen bond the hydrogen atom is bonded to, and thus physically closer to, a parent atom, and only weakly attracted to another electronegative atom; bond energies are typically small. To examine these bonds, deuterium was substituted for hydrogen and the electric quadrupole coupling constant (QCC) of deuterium was measured using field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance. The electric quadrupole moment of deuterium is sensitive to changes in the surrounding electric field gradient, and is thus a good probe of the immediate electronic structure. The results show that the temperature dependence of the QCC is opposite to, and much larger than, what one would normally expect to observe for deuterium. The QCC is found to decrease strongly with decreasing temperature. This project was the first to study in detail the temperature dependence of deuterium QCCs in strong hydrogen bonds. The magnitude of the deuterium QCCs for the diacetates was found to be strongly depressed relative to typical values for deuterium. These results parallel large shifts in the infrared vibrational frequencies observed in many molecules which contain strong hydrogen bonds. The asymmetry parameter, which is a measure of the departure from axial symmetry of the electric field gradient (EFG) at deuterium, was found to be unusually large for what are known to be linear, or nearly linear, three-center bonds. Based on ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations aimed at determining the EFG at H in the archetypal bifluoride ion, F-H-F^-, the electronic charge density is drastically depleted at H. It is believed that the large reduction in the charge density allows the deuterium EFG to be highly

  17. High temperature intensifies negative density dependence of fitness in red flour beetles

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, William D; Thomas, Alison S; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Competition for food, space, or other depletable resources has strong impacts on the fitness of organisms and can lead to a pattern known as negative density dependence, where fitness decreases as population density increases. Yet, many resources that have strong impacts on fitness are nondepletable (e.g., moisture or temperature). How do these nondepletable resources interact with depletable resources to modify negative density dependence? We tested the hypothesis that negative density dependence is modulated by temperature in red flour beetles and tested the prediction that the strength of negative density dependence should decrease as temperature decreases. We measured the number of eggs laid, offspring development time, and the number of offspring that reached maturity at three temperatures and two food treatment combinations as we simultaneously manipulated adult population density. We demonstrated that low temperatures weaken negative density dependence in the number of eggs laid; this pattern was most evident when food was abundant. Density had no effect on development time, but low temperatures increased development time. The percent of eggs that emerged as adults decreased with both density and temperature and increased with food. Temperature, an abiotic driver, can thus modulate density-dependent processes in ectotherms. Therefore, models of population growth for ectotherms should incorporate the effects of temperature. PMID:25798223

  18. Temperature dependence of amino acid side chain IR absorptions in the amide I' region.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Amide I' IR spectra are widely used for studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins as a function of temperature. Temperature dependent absorptions of amino acid side-chains that overlap the amide I' may significantly complicate the structural analyses. While the side-chain IR spectra have been investigated previously, thus far their dependence on temperature has not been reported. Here we present the study of the changes in the IR spectra with temperature for side-chain groups of aspartate, glutamate, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, and tyrosine in the amide I' region (in D2O). Band fitting analysis was employed to extract the temperature dependence of the individual spectral parameters, such as peak frequency, integrated intensity, band width, and shape. As expected, the side-chain IR bands exhibit significant changes with temperature. The majority of the spectral parameters, particularly the frequency and intensity, show linear dependence on temperature, but the direction and magnitude vary depending on the particular side-chain group. The exception is arginine, which exhibits a distinctly nonlinear frequency shift with temperature for its asymmetric CN3H5(+) bending signal, although a linear fit can account for this change to within ~1/3 cm(-1). The applicability of the determined spectral parameters for estimations of temperature-dependent side-chain absorptions in peptides and proteins are discussed.

  19. Temperature dependence of DNA condensation at high ionic concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Gao, Qingqing; Liu, Yanhui; Fan, Yangtao; Hu, Lin; Xu, Houqiang

    2016-08-01

    A series of experiments pointed out that compact states of DNA condensed by multivalent cation prefer higher temperature. The condensed DNA takes elongated coil or compact globule states and the population of the compact globule states increases with an increase in temperature. At the same time, a recent experimental work carried out in buffer solution without multivalent cation points out that DNA persistence length strongly depends on the temperature. DNA persistence length is a key parameter for quantitative interpretation of the conformational properties of DNA and related to the bending rigidity of DNA. It is necessary to revolve the effects of temperature dependence of persistence length on DNA condensation, and a model including the temperature dependence of persistence length and strong correlation of multivalent cation on DNA is provided. The autocorrelation function of the tangent vectors is found as an effective way to detect the temperature dependence of toroid conformations. With an increase in temperature, the first periodic oscillation in the autocorrelation function shifts left and the number of segments containing the first periodic oscillation decreases gradually. According to the experiments mentioned above, the long-axis length is defined to estimate the temperature dependence of condensation process further. At the temperatures defined in experiments mentioned above, the relation between long-axis length and temperature matches the experimental results.

  20. The charmonium dissociation in an ''anomalous wind''

    DOE PAGES

    Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi

    2016-01-11

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and it qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmoniummore » color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. As a result, we speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.« less

  1. Fluctuating temperatures and ectotherm growth: distinguishing non-linear and time-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Higgins, Jessica K; Augustine, Kate E

    2015-07-01

    Most terrestrial ectotherms experience diurnal and seasonal variation in temperature. Because thermal performance curves are non-linear, mean performance can differ in fluctuating and constant thermal environments. However, time-dependent effects--effects of the order and duration of exposure to temperature--can also influence mean performance. We quantified the non-linear and time-dependent effects of diurnally fluctuating temperatures for larval growth rates in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L., with four main results. First, the shape of the thermal performance curve for growth rate depended on the duration of exposure: for example, optimal temperature and thermal breadth were greater for growth rates measured over short (24 h during the last instar) compared with long (the entire period of larval growth) time periods. Second, larvae reared in diurnally fluctuating temperatures had significantly higher optimal temperatures and maximal growth rates than larvae reared in constant temperatures. Third, for larvae maintained at three mean temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) and three diurnal temperature ranges (±0, ±5 and ±10°C), diurnal fluctuations had opposite effects on mean growth rates at low versus high mean temperature. Fourth, both short- and long-term thermal performance curves yielded poor predictions of the non-linear effects of fluctuating temperature on mean growth rates (compared with our experimental results) at higher mean temperatures. Our results suggest caution in using constant temperature studies to model the consequences of variable thermal environments. PMID:25987738

  2. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajaya K.; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C.; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)−1 at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)−1 at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)−1, comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect–based data storage devices. PMID:27152355

  3. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices.

  4. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices. PMID:27152355

  5. Review of temperature dependence of thermal properties, dielectric properties, and perfusion of biological tissues at hyperthermic and ablation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rossmanna, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The application of supraphysiological temperatures (>40°C) to biological tissues causes changes at the molecular, cellular, and structural level, with corresponding changes in tissue function and in thermal, mechanical and dielectric tissue properties. This is particularly relevant for image-guided thermal treatments (e.g. hyperthermia and thermal ablation) delivering heat via focused ultrasound (FUS), radiofrequency (RF), microwave (MW), or laser energy; temperature induced changes in tissue properties are of relevance in relation to predicting tissue temperature profile, monitoring during treatment, and evaluation of treatment results. This paper presents a literature survey of temperature dependence of electrical (electrical conductivity, resistivity, permittivity) and thermal tissue properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, diffusivity). Data of soft tissues (liver, prostate, muscle, kidney, uterus, collagen, myocardium and spleen) for temperatures between 5 to 90°C, and dielectric properties in the frequency range between 460 kHz and 3 GHz are reported. Furthermore, perfusion changes in tumors including carcinomas, sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma and ependymoblastoma in response to hyperthmic temperatures up to 46°C are presented. Where appropriate, mathematical models to describe temperature dependence of properties are presented. The presented data is valuable for mathematical models that predict tissue temperature during thermal therapies (e.g. hyperthermia or thermal ablation), as well as for applications related to prediction and monitoring of temperature induced tissue changes. PMID:25955712

  6. Review of temperature dependence of thermal properties, dielectric properties, and perfusion of biological tissues at hyperthermic and ablation temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The application of supraphysiological temperatures (>40°C) to biological tissues causes changes at the molecular, cellular, and structural level, with corresponding changes in tissue function and in thermal, mechanical and dielectric tissue properties. This is particularly relevant for image-guided thermal treatments (e.g. hyperthermia and thermal ablation) delivering heat via focused ultrasound (FUS), radiofrequency (RF), microwave (MW), or laser energy; temperature induced changes in tissue properties are of relevance in relation to predicting tissue temperature profile, monitoring during treatment, and evaluation of treatment results. This paper presents a literature survey of temperature dependence of electrical (electrical conductivity, resistivity, permittivity) and thermal tissue properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, diffusivity). Data of soft tissues (liver, prostate, muscle, kidney, uterus, collagen, myocardium and spleen) for temperatures between 5 to 90°C, and dielectric properties in the frequency range between 460 kHz and 3 GHz are reported. Furthermore, perfusion changes in tumors including carcinomas, sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma and ependymoblastoma in response to hyperthmic temperatures up to 46°C are presented. Where appropriate, mathematical models to describe temperature dependence of properties are presented. The presented data is valuable for mathematical models that predict tissue temperature during thermal therapies (e.g. hyperthermia or thermal ablation), as well as for applications related to prediction and monitoring of temperature induced tissue changes. PMID:25955712

  7. Dirac-Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation for spherical and deformed hot nuclei: Temperature dependence of the pairing energy and gaps, nuclear deformation, nuclear radii, excitation energy, and entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisboa, R.; Malheiro, M.; Carlson, B. V.

    2016-02-01

    Background: Unbound single-particle states become important in determining the properties of a hot nucleus as its temperature increases. We present relativistic mean field (RMF) for hot nuclei considering not only the self-consistent temperature and density dependence of the self-consistent relativistic mean fields but also the vapor phase that takes into account the unbound nucleon states. Purpose: The temperature dependence of the pairing gaps, nuclear deformation, radii, binding energies, entropy, and caloric curves of spherical and deformed nuclei are obtained in self-consistent RMF calculations up to the limit of existence of the nucleus. Method: We perform Dirac-Hartree-Bogoliubov (DHB) calculations for hot nuclei using a zero-range approximation to the relativistic pairing interaction to calculate proton-proton and neutron-neutron pairing energies and gaps. A vapor subtraction procedure is used to account for unbound states and to remove long range Coulomb repulsion between the hot nucleus and the gas as well as the contribution of the external nucleon gas. Results: We show that p -p and n -n pairing gaps in the S10 channel vanish for low critical temperatures in the range Tcp≈0.6 -1.1 MeV for spherical nuclei such as 90Zr, 124Sn, and 140Ce and for both deformed nuclei 150Sm and 168Er. We found that superconducting phase transition occurs at Tcp=1.03 Δp p(0 ) for 90Zr, Tcp=1.16 Δp p(0 ) for 140Ce, Tcp=0.92 Δp p(0 ) for 150Sm, and Tcp=0.97 Δp p(0 ) for 168Er. The superfluidity phase transition occurs at Tcp=0.72 Δn n(0 ) for 124Sn, Tcp=1.22 Δn n(0 ) for 150Sm, and Tcp=1.13 Δn n(0 ) for 168Er. Thus, the nuclear superfluidity phase—at least for this channel—can only survive at very low nuclear temperatures and this phase transition (when the neutron gap vanishes) always occurs before the superconducting one, where the proton gap is zero. For deformed nuclei the nuclear deformation disappear at temperatures of about Tcs=2.0 -4.0 MeV , well above the

  8. Anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors in the hopping transport regime.

    PubMed

    Burkov, A A; Balents, Leon

    2003-08-01

    We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As in the regime when conduction is due to phonon-assisted hopping of holes between localized states in the impurity band. We show that the microscopic origin of the anomalous Hall conductivity in this system can be attributed to a phase that a hole gains when hopping around closed-loop paths in the presence of spin-orbit interactions and background magnetization of the localized Mn moments. Mapping the problem to a random resistor network, we derive an analytic expression for the macroscopic anomalous Hall conductivity sigma(AH)(xy). We show that sigma(AH)(xy) is proportional to the first derivative of the density of states varrho(epsilon) and thus can be expected to change sign as a function of impurity band filling. We also show that sigma(AH)(xy) depends on temperature as the longitudinal conductivity sigma(xx) within logarithmic accuracy.

  9. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature-dependent absorption coefficient and conductivity of participating media

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yatao; Qi, Hong; Zhao, Fangzhou; Ruan, Liming; Tan, Heping

    2016-01-01

    A secondary optimization technique was proposed to estimate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. In the proposed method, the stochastic particle swarm optimization was applied to solve the inverse problem. The coupled radiation and conduction problem was solved in a 1D absorbing, emitting, but non-scattering slab exposed to a pulse laser. It is found that in the coupled radiation and conduction problem, the temperature response is highly sensitive to conductivity but slightly sensitive to the optical properties. On the contrary, the radiative intensity is highly sensitive to optical properties but slightly sensitive to thermal conductivity. Therefore, the optical and thermal signals should both be considered in the inverse problem to estimate the temperature-dependent properties of the transparent media. On this basis, the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient were both estimated accurately by measuring the time-dependent temperature, and radiative response at the boundary of the slab. PMID:26912418

  10. Temperature dependent electrical transport behavior of InN/GaN heterostructure based Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Roul, Basanta; Kumar, Mahesh; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Sinha, Neeraj; Kalghatgi, A. T.

    2011-02-15

    InN/GaN heterostructure based Schottky diodes were fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The temperature dependent electrical transport properties were carried out for InN/GaN heterostructure. The barrier height and the ideality factor of the Schottky diodes were found to be temperature dependent. The temperature dependence of the barrier height indicates that the Schottky barrier height is inhomogeneous in nature at the heterostructure interface. The higher value of the ideality factor and its temperature dependence suggest that the current transport is primarily dominated by thermionic field emission (TFE) other than thermionic emission (TE). The room temperature barrier height obtained by using TE and TFE models were 1.08 and 1.43 eV, respectively.

  11. Anomalous role change of tertiary amino and ester groups as hydrogen acceptors in eudragit E based solid dispersion depending on the concentration of naproxen.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Junko; Ida, Yasuo; Kadota, Kazunori; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    Eudragit E (EGE) is a basic polymer incorporating tertiary amino and ester groups. The role of the functional groups of EGE in the formation of solid dispersion (SD) with Naproxen (NAP) was investigated. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of EGE decreased with the plasticizing effect of NAP up to 20% weight ratio. Addition of NAP at over 30% induced a rise in Tg, with the maximum value being reached at 60% NAP. Further addition of NAP led to a rapid drop of the Tg. A dramatic difference of physical stability between the SDs including 60 and 70% NAP was confirmed. The SD including 70% NAP rapidly crystallized at 40 °C with 75% relative humidity, while the amorphous state could be maintained over 6 months in the SD with 60% NAP. The infrared and (13)C solid state-NMR spectra of the SDs suggested a formation of ionic interaction between the carboxylic acid of NAP and the amino group of EGE. The SD with 20% NAP raised the (13)C spin-lattice relaxation (T1) of the amino group, but it decreased with over 30% NAP. The change in the (13)C-T1 disappeared with 70% NAP. The (13)C-T1 of the ester group rose depending on the amount of NAP. From these findings, we concluded that the role as hydrogen acceptor shifted from the amine to the ester group with an increase in amount of NAP. Furthermore, the amino group of EGE did not contribute to the interaction at over 70% NAP. These phenomena could be strongly correlated with Tg and stability.

  12. Temperature-dependent Raman study of ammonium perchlorate single crystals: The orientational dynamics of the NH + 4 ions and phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, T.; Khatri, S. S.; Verma, A. L.

    1986-06-01

    A detailed temperature-dependent study of the Raman spectra of oriented single crystals of NH4ClO4 is reported in the spectral regions of lattice modes and internal vibrations of the ClO-4 and NH+4 ions between 10 and 300 K. The internal modes of the ClO-4 ions show splitting into several components due to site and correlation field effects. The linewidth, frequency shift, and intensities of some of the internal modes of the ClO-4 and NH+4 ions and the frequency shift of a few lattice modes show anomalous temperature dependence around 180 and at 40 K. These anomalies have been explained in terms of phase transformations associated with the changes in hydrogen bonding strength and reorientational freedom of the NH+4 ions in the lattice. The low temperature transition at 40 K exhibits a sharp and discontinuous anomaly in some of the spectral parameters measured in this study which is associated with order-disorder-type transition. The measured linewidth of the ν'1 mode in the diagonal scattering configuration can be understood in terms of vibrational dephasing of the ν1 excited state due to vibrational-librational coupling. The estimated activation energies in the 50-160 K and 10-40 K temperature ranges are found to be 141 and 51 cm-1, respectively, which correspond to the observed NH+4 librational frequencies.

  13. Electrostatic control over temperature-dependent tunnelling across a single-molecule junction

    PubMed Central

    Garrigues, Alvar R.; Wang, Lejia; del Barco, Enrique; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the mechanism of charge transport through molecular tunnel junctions depends on temperature is crucial to control electronic function in molecular electronic devices. With just a few systems investigated as a function of bias and temperature so far, thermal effects in molecular tunnel junctions remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed charge transport study of an individual redox-active ferrocene-based molecule over a wide range of temperatures and applied potentials. The results show the temperature dependence of the current to vary strongly as a function of the gate voltage. Specifically, the current across the molecule exponentially increases in the Coulomb blockade regime and decreases at the charge degeneracy points, while remaining temperature-independent at resonance. Our observations can be well accounted for by a formal single-level tunnelling model where the temperature dependence relies on the thermal broadening of the Fermi distributions of the electrons in the leads. PMID:27211787

  14. Electrostatic control over temperature-dependent tunnelling across a single-molecule junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, Alvar R.; Wang, Lejia; Del Barco, Enrique; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the mechanism of charge transport through molecular tunnel junctions depends on temperature is crucial to control electronic function in molecular electronic devices. With just a few systems investigated as a function of bias and temperature so far, thermal effects in molecular tunnel junctions remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed charge transport study of an individual redox-active ferrocene-based molecule over a wide range of temperatures and applied potentials. The results show the temperature dependence of the current to vary strongly as a function of the gate voltage. Specifically, the current across the molecule exponentially increases in the Coulomb blockade regime and decreases at the charge degeneracy points, while remaining temperature-independent at resonance. Our observations can be well accounted for by a formal single-level tunnelling model where the temperature dependence relies on the thermal broadening of the Fermi distributions of the electrons in the leads.

  15. Anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  16. Topological Defects in Double Exchange Materials and Anomalous Hall Resistance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, M. J.; Brey, L.

    2000-03-01

    Recently it has been proposed that the anomalous Hall effect observed in Double Exchange materials is due to Berry phase effects caused by carrier hopping in a nontrivial spins background (J.Ye et al.) Phys.Rev.Lett. 83, 3737 1999.In order to study this possibility we have performed Monte Carlo simulations of the Double Exchange model and we have computed, as a function of the temperature, the number of topological defects in the system and the internal gauge magnetic field associated with these defects. In the simplest Double Exchange model the gauge magnetic field is random, and its average value is zero. The inclusion in the problem of spin-orbit coupling privileges the opposite direction of the magnetization and an anomalous Hall resistance (AHR) effect arises. We have computed the AHR, and we have obtained its temperature dependence. In agreement with previous experiments we obtain that AHR increases exponentially at low temperature and presents a maximum at a temperature slightly higher than the critical temperature.

  17. Anomalous inverse bremsstrahlung heating of laser-driven plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Mrityunjay

    2016-05-01

    Absorption of laser light in plasma via electron-ion collision (inverse bremsstrahlung) is known to decrease with the laser intensity as I 0 -3/2 or with the electron temperature as T e -3/2 where Coulomb logarithm ln Λ = 0.5ln(1 + k 2 min/k 2 max) in the expression of electron-ion collision frequency v ei is assumed to be independent of ponderomotive velocity v 0 = E0/ω which is unjustified. Here k -1 min = v th/max(ω, ω p), and k -1 max = Z/v 2 th are maximum and minimum cut-off distances of the colliding electron from the ion, v th = √T e is its thermal velocity, ω, ω p are laser and plasma frequency. Earlier with a total velocity v = (v 2 0 + v 2 th)1/2 dependent ln Λ(v) it was reported that v ei and corresponding fractional laser absorption (α) initially increases with increasing intensity, reaches a maximum value, and then fall according to the conventional I 0 -3/2 scaling. This anomalous increase in v ei and α may be objected due to an artifact introduced in ln Λ(v) through k-1 min ∝ v. Here we show similar anomalous increase of v ei and α versus I 0 (in the low temperature and under-dense density regime) with quantum and classical kinetic models of v ei without using ln Λ, but a proper choice of the total velocity dependent inverse cut-off length kmax -1 ∝ v 2 (in classical case) or kmax ∝ v (in quantum case). For a given I 0 < 5 × 1014Wcm-2, v ei versus T e also exhibits so far unnoticed identical anomalous increase as v ei versus Io, even if the conventional k max ∝ v2 th, or k max ∝ v th is chosen. However, for higher T e > 15 eV, anomalous growth of vei and a disappear. The total velocity dependent k max in kinetic models, as proposed here, may explain anomalous increase of a with I 0 measured in some earlier laser-plasma experiments. This work may be important to understand collisional absorption in the under-dense pre-plasma region due to low intensity pre-pulses and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) pedestal in the

  18. Exponential temperature dependence of the penetration depth in single crystal MgB2.

    PubMed

    Manzano, F; Carrington, A; Hussey, N E; Lee, S; Yamamoto, A; Tajima, S

    2002-01-28

    The temperature dependence of the London penetration depth, lambda(T), was measured in both single crystal and polycrystalline MgB2 samples by a high-resolution, radio frequency technique. A clear exponential temperature dependence of lambda(T) was observed at low temperature, indicating s-wave pairing. A BCS fit to the lowest temperature data gives an in-plane energy gap Delta of 30+/-2 K (2Delta/T(c) = 1.5+/-0.1), which is significantly smaller than the standard BCS weak coupling value of 3.5. We find that the data are best described by a two-gap model.

  19. Temperature dependence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in W/CoFeB bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, Takaya; Taniguchi, Takuya; Kim, Sanghoon; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Park, Byong-Guk; Moriyama, Takahiro; Kim, Kab-Jin; Ono, Teruo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in a W/CoFeB bilayer. The SMR is found to increase with decreasing temperature. An analysis based on the SMR theory suggests that the spin Hall angle of W and/or the spin polarization of CoFeB can be the origin of the temperature dependence of the SMR. We also find that the spin diffusion length and the resistivity of W do not significantly vary with temperature, which indicates the necessity of further study on the electron transport mechanism in W films to reveal the origin of the spin Hall effect in W.

  20. Temperature dependence of the electron Landé g-factor in cubic GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buß, J. H.; Schupp, T.; As, D. J.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the electron Landé g-factor in bulk cubic GaN is investigated over an extremely broad temperature range from 15 K up to 500 K by time-resolved Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. The g-factor is found to be approximately constant over the full investigated temperature range. Calculations by k .p -theory predict a negligible temperature dependence g(T) in complete agreement with the experiment as a consequence of the large band-gap and small spin orbit splitting in cubic GaN.