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Sample records for anomaly grass valley

  1. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  2. Detection of chiral anomaly and valley transport in Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Enze; Liu, Yanwen; Chen, Zhigang; Liang, Sihang; Cao, Junzhi; Yuan, Xiang; Tang, Lei; Li, Qian; Gu, Teng; Wu, Yizheng; Zou, Jin; Xiu, Faxian

    Chiral anomaly is a non-conservation of chiral charge pumped by the topological nontrivial gauge field, which has been predicted to exist in the emergent quasiparticle excitations in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. However, so far, such pumping process hasn't been clearly demonstrated and lacks a convincing experimental identification. Here, we report the detection of the charge pumping effect and the related valley transport in Cd3As2 driven by external electric and magnetic fields (EB). We find that the chiral imbalance leads to a non-zero gyrotropic coefficient, which can be confirmed by the EB-generated Kerr effect. By applying B along the current direction, we observe a negative magnetoresistance despite the giant positive one at other directions, a clear indication of the chiral anomaly. Remarkably, a robust nonlocal response in valley diffusion originated from the chiral anomaly is persistent up to room temperature when B is parallel to E. The ability to manipulate the valley polarization in Dirac semimetal opens up a brand-new route to understand its fundamental properties through external fields and utilize the chiral fermions in valleytronic applications.

  3. Integrated GRASS GIS based techniques to identify thermal anomalies on water surface. Taranto case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarelli, Carmine; Matarrese, Raffaella; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, thermal images collected by airborne systems have made the detection of thermal anomalies possible. These images are an important tool to monitor natural inflows and legal or illegal dumping in coastal waters. By the way, the potential of these kinds of data is not well exploited by the Authorities who supervises the territory. The main reason is the processing of remote sensing data that requires very specialized operators and softwares which are usually expensive and complex. In this study, we adopt a simple methodology that uses GRASS, a free open-source GIS software, which has allowed us to map surface water thermal anomalies and, consequently, to identify and locate coastal inflows, as well as manmade or natural watershed drains or submarine springs (in italian citri) in the Taranto Sea (South of Italy). Taranto sea represents a coastal marine ecosystem that has been gradually modified by mankind. One of its inlet, the Mar Piccolo, is a part of the National Priority List site identified by the National Program of Environmental Remediation and Restoration because of the size and high presence of industrial activities, past and present, that have had and continue to seriously compromise the health status of the population and the environment. In order to detect thermal anomalies, two flights have been performed respectively on March 3rd and on April 7th, 2013. A total of 13 TABI images have been acquired to map the whole Mar Piccolo with 1m of spatial resolution. TABI-320 is an airborne thermal camera by ITRES, with a continuous spectral range between 8 and 12 microns. On July 15th, 2013, an in-situ survey was carried out along the banks to retrieve clear visible points of natural or artificial inflows, detecting up to 72 of discharges. GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), is a free and open source Geographic Information System (GIS) software suite used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing

  4. Evapotranspiration from forage grass replacing native vegetation in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration from an area of forage grass, which had been planted to replace native vegetation of little economic value, were made daily for a 363-day period in 1969 and 1970. The measurement site was located in the Gila River valley in east-central Arizona. The forage, panigrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), grew from seed during the early summer of 1969 and after winterkill, regrew in 1970. Daily evapotranspiration estimates, which were based on energy budget measurements, ranged from a maximum of 9.2 millimeters to small amounts of condensation. Two daily values of substantial condensation (0.9 and 0.4 millimeter) were of dubious quality, but were retained in the record. The annual evapotranspiration was 989 millimeters, of which about 332 millimeters came from precipitation at the site. The water table fluctuated between 210 and 280 centimeters below land surface. However, the measurement site was near a wash, so that undocumented, shallower subterranean flows may have occurred. (USGS)

  5. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging at Grass Valley Creek bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N. K.; Durbin, P.F.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schich, P.C.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrated dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging at the Grass Valley Creek Bridges near Redding CA. DBIR thermal imaging is an enabling technology for rapid, reliable, bridge deck inspections while minimizing lane closures. bridge-deck inspections were conducted from a mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory during November 2-3, 1995. We drove this self-contained unit at limited highway speeds over 0.4 lane miles of bridge deck. Using two thermal IR bands, we distinguished delaminations from clutter. Clutter, or unwanted thermal detail, occurs from foreign materials or uneven shade on the bridge deck surface. By mapping the DBIR spectral- response differences at 3-5 {mu}m and 8-12 {mu}m, we removed foreign material clutter. By mapping the deck diurnal thermal inertia variations, we removed clutter from uneven shade. Thermal inertia is a bulk deck property, the square root of thermal conductivity x density x heat capacity. Delaminated decks have below-average thermal inertias, or above-average day-night temperature excursions. Compared to normal decks areas, delaminated deck areas were typically 2 or 3 {degrees}C warmer at noon, and 0.5{degrees}C cooler at night. The mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory is currently undergoing extensive testing to examine bridges by the Federal Highway Administration.

  6. Controls on Martian Hydrothermal Systems: Application to Valley Network and Magnetic Anomaly Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Keith P.; Grimm, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Models of hydrothermal groundwater circulation can quantify limits to the role of hydrothermal activity in Martian crustal processes. We present here the results of numerical simulations of convection in a porous medium due to the presence of a hot intruded magma chamber. The parameter space includes magma chamber depth, volume, aspect ratio, and host rock permeability and porosity. A primary goal of the models is the computation of surface discharge. Discharge increases approximately linearly with chamber volume, decreases weakly with depth (at low geothermal gradients), and is maximized for equant-shaped chambers. Discharge increases linearly with permeability until limited by the energy available from the intrusion. Changes in the average porosity are balanced by changes in flow velocity and therefore have little effect. Water/rock ratios of approximately 0.1, obtained by other workers from models based on the mineralogy of the Shergotty meteorite, imply minimum permeabilities of 10(exp -16) sq m2 during hydrothermal alteration. If substantial vapor volumes are required for soil alteration, the permeability must exceed 10(exp -15) sq m. The principal application of our model is to test the viability of hydrothermal circulation as the primary process responsible for the broad spatial correlation of Martian valley networks with magnetic anomalies. For host rock permeabilities as low as 10(exp -17) sq m and intrusion volumes as low as 50 cu km, the total discharge due to intrusions building that part of the southern highlands crust associated with magnetic anomalies spans a comparable range as the inferred discharge from the overlying valley networks.

  7. Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  8. Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Nivedita

    1988-12-01

    This thesis studies the structure of local and global anomalies in certain systems and examines the conditions for their cancellation. Gauge anomalies-abelian and non -albelian-antisymmetric tensor, and gravitational anomalies in simple spinor theories with background fields have been analyzed by perturbative methods and local counterterms have been constructed to cancel the anomalies wherever possible. Anomalies occurring in supersymmetric theories in (2 + 1)-dimensions have also been calculated using both perturbative and heat kernel techniques, here again counterterms have been constructed to cancel these parity violating anomalies for certain gauge field configurations. (i) For gauge theories in four dimensions which contain couplings of fermions to a non-abelian antisymmetric tensor field, the contribution of the later to anomalies in the non-abelian chiral Ward identity is computed. It is shown by explicit construction of suitable counterterms that these anomalies can all be cancelled. (ii) The gauge anomalies associated with the gravitational fields in abelian gauge theories can be completely removed provided torsion is nonzero. This is shown by constructing a counterterm associated with the gravitational Goldstone-Wilczek current which cancels the anomalous gravitational contribution to the chiral Ward identity without introducing anomalies in the Lorentz or Einstein Ward identities. (iii) Using perturbative BPHZ renormalization techniques the parity odd part of the effective action has been extracted and explicitly determined for abitrary non-abelian gauge superfields in odd dimensions and shown to be the supersymmetric Chern -Simons secondary topological invariant. (iv) Schwinger's proper time technique is generalized to supersymmetric theories in odd dimensions. The effective action for supersymmetric QED is exactly found for space-time constant superfield. The parity violating anomaly induced in the effective action can be cancelled by adding a local

  9. Antimony and other metal anomalies south of Stibnite, Valley County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Gary C.; King, Harley D.; Leonard, B.F.

    1974-01-01

    Results of geochemical investigations south of Stibnite, Valley County, Idaho, show that the distribution of Sb, As, Au, Zn, Ag, and Mo in mull ash and of Hg, in soil forms a highly anomalous area which is more than 1.5 km long and 1 km wide along the trace of the Meadow Creek fault, a major northstriking fault zone. In the report area the Meadow Creek fault is covered by deposits of Quaternary glacial debris ranging in thickness from several meters to more than 30 meters. Two other highly anomalous areas--one of Au, Zn, and Hg, and one of Zn, Ag, Hg, and Mo--correlate with silicified granodiorite along the trace of the Meadow Creek fault. These anomalies are not related to hnown Ore deponits and merit further investigation. The enrichment of metals in mull ash in the area of thick glacial debris suggests that the metals migrate from bedrock upward through the glacial debris, are taken up by the forest vegetation, and are concentrated in the mull as the litter from the vegetation-decays. The findings indicate that mull is the most useful geochemical sampling medium in the stibnite area because the bedrock is deeply buried beneath deposits of transported material such as colluvium or glacial debris.

  10. Application of U-Th-Pb phosphate geochronology to young orogenic gold deposits: New age constraints on the formation of the Grass Valley gold district, Sierra Foothills province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Monecke, Thomas; Fletcher, Ian R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Kelly, Nigel M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grass Valley orogenic gold district in the Sierra Nevada foothills province, central California, the largest historic gold producer of the North American Cordillera, comprises both steeply dipping east-west (E-W) veins located along lithologic contacts in accreted ca. 300 and 200 Ma oceanic rocks and shallowly dipping north-south (N-S) veins hosted by the Grass Valley granodiorite; the latter have yielded about 70 percent of the 13 million ounces of historic lode gold production in the district. The oceanic host rocks were accreted to the western margin of North America between 200 and 170 Ma, metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies, and uplifted between 175 and 160 Ma. Large-scale magmatism in the Sierra Nevada occurred between 170-140 Ma and 120-80 Ma, with the Grass Valley granodiorite being emplaced during the older episode of magmatism. Uranium-lead isotopic dating of hydrothermal xenotime yielded the first absolute age of 162±5 Ma for the economically more significant N-S veins. The vein-hosted xenotime, as well as associated monazite, are unequivocally of hydrothermal origin as indicated by textural and chemical characteristics, including grain shape, lack of truncated growth banding, lack of a Eu anomaly, and low U and Th concentrations. Furthermore, the crack-seal texture of the veins, with abundant wallrock slivers, suggests their formation as a result of episodic fluid flow possibly related to reoccurring seismic events, rather than a period of fluid exsolution from an evolving magma. The N-S veins are temporally distinct from a younger 153-151 Ma gold event that was previously reported for the E-W veins. Overlapping U-Pb zircon (159.9±2.2 Ma) and 40Ar/39Ar biotite and hornblende (159.7±0.6 to 161.9±1.4 Ma) ages and geothermobarometric calculations indicate that the Grass Valley granodiorite was emplaced at ca. 160 Ma at elevated temperatures (~800°C) within approximately 3 km of the paleosurface and rapidly cooled to the ambient

  11. Earthquake-induced barium anomalies in the Lisan Formation, Dead Sea Rift valley, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Amitai; Agnon, Amotz; Marco, Shmuel

    2009-08-01

    Prominent barium concentration anomalies that appear within earthquake brecciated layers (seismites) in the late Pleistocene lacustrine Lisan Formation in the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) are described and discussed here for the first time. Chemical analyses of samples from vertical profiles through the seismites display asymmetric Ba concentration peaks. The peaks start a few centimeters above the seismite's base and gradually rise to maxima reaching some 1000 ppm Ba, before falling off to background values (around 100 ppm), or abutting against the upper boundary of the breccia layer. High resolution SEM and electron microprobe analyses disclose that the Ba in the anomalies resides within prismatic crystallites (mostly < 2 µm in length) composed of a Ba(Sr)SO 4 mineral (designated "BM" henceforth). These are lacking altogether in the normal (non-seismic) underlying and overlying sediments. The crystallites are much smaller than the adjacent, supporting matrix grains of the gradually-bedded seismite, and show no size-sorting relationship with the latter. The peaks of the anomalies reflect higher population density, rather than larger crystal sizes, of the BM crystallites therein. Mass balance calculations show that the mass of Ba 2+ dissolved in the lake above a unit area of the seismites was mostly several times larger than that found in the seismite. The concentration of Ba 2+ in DSB Ca-chloride brines is mostly lesser than that in the DSB Lake, ruling out the former as a source of Ba to the anomalies. We propose that, during earthquakes, the uppermost bottom sediment layers in the DSB Lake were shaken and re-suspended into the overlying brine. The larger, faster-settling fragments and grains remained almost intact or were rapidly removed, unaffected, from the slurry. However, the finer grains remained in suspension for longer periods, allowing nucleation and growth of BM crystallites on their surfaces from the surrounding brine before reaching the bottom. The lag of Ba

  12. Analysis of aeromagnetic anomalies; mapping of Curie isothermal surface at Long Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the nature and extent of the Long Valley geothermal system at depth. Airborne magnetic data was used to calculate the Curie isotherm depth for mapping the underground temperature distribution using a spectral analysis and Marquardt non-linear least squares method. Other geophysical and topographic data, such as gravity, Landsat and Digital Terrain Model combined with aeromagnetic data were also used to understand the tectonic structure at depth. These data were geometrically corrected and registered to the basic UTM map, and displayed with a technique of computer color-graphics. In spectral analysis, the Maximum Entropy power spectrum was used to estimate the Curie isotherm depth rather than FET spectrum because this can produce high resolution with accurate frequency and power estimates even for short data samples. The result of magnetic analysis showed that the east-half of Long Valley caldera is cool with curie depth of about 8 km, while the west-half is very hot with Curie depth of about 4.5 km. These estimates are reasonable depths from the surface heat flow data, and are also consistent with the temperature distribution obtained by deep hole data. This fact suggests that the Curie depth analysis is a very encouraging technique and tool for the geothermal exploration. The superimposed image data of geophysical and topographic data suggested that Hilton Creek fault extends northward all the way to Bridgeport Valley. The preliminary result showed that east of the Hilton Creek fault it is cool while to the west it is hot. This may be explained by the flow of cool ground-water through the deep fracture zones of the Hilton Creek fault.

  13. The effect of rising atmospheric oxygen on carbon and sulfur isotope anomalies recorded in the Neoproterozoic Johnnie Formation, Death Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2004-12-01

    Carbonates within the Rainstorm Member in the terminal Neoproterozoic Johnnie Formation of Death Valley, California record a remarkable negative δ 13C anomaly to a nadir of near -11‰ , accompanied by a dramatic rise in trace sulfate abundance (>500 ppm) and drop in carbonate associated sulfate δ 34S values from 26.6‰ to 15.8‰ . The carbonates, including the laterally extensive Johnnie Oolite, were deposited during marine flooding atop a sequence boundary best observed in cratonward sections. A similarly dramatic carbon isotope anomaly is recorded in broadly equivalent successions that post-date known Marinoan glacial deposits and pre-date the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in Oman, India, China, Australia, and Namibia. The cause of the carbon and sulfur isotopic excursions was likely associated with a rise in atmospheric O2, which resulted in 1) the oxidation of exposed continental shelf sediments rich in fossil organic matter and sulfides, providing a source of 12C, 32S, and sulfate; and 2) the ventilation of the oceans. Large metazoan fossils (Ediacaran animals) first appear directly above this anomaly, suggesting that a critical threshold with respect to atmospheric O2 had been crossed at this time. A negative δ 13C excursion of similar magnitude occurs in overlying strata at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, which may reflect similar processes.

  14. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  15. Grass allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Although the grass itself may not be harmful, fertilizers, insecticides , and herbicides applied to the grass can ... with a chemical of any sort such as fertilizer, insecticide, or herbicide, find out the product name ...

  16. Mechanisms for concurrent low-latitude circulation anomalies responsible for persistent extreme precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhai, Panmao

    2016-08-01

    Concurrent position shifts of the mid-level western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and the upper-level South Asia high (SAH) are regarded as significant precursors for persistent extreme precipitation events (PEPEs) in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). By performing composite analyses, accountable vorticity genesis and dissipation are diagnosed based on a potential vorticity-diabatic heating theory. The results indicate that about 1 week preceding precipitation onset, a wave-like pattern of anomalous diabatic heating (Q) initiates its northwestward propagation from equatorial central Pacific. Subsequently, this wave-like pattern induces substantial changes in both horizontal and vertical structure of local Q along the propagating route. Forced negative vorticities in key areas result in the zonal approach between the SAH and the WPSH. During PEPEs, two thermal-induced vertical circulation cells take shape, with common strong ascent centered in the YRV. These anomalous cells are capable of self-maintaining for a few days via positive feedback processes. The WPSH and the SAH are therefore anchored in respective favorable positions for PEPEs. Simultaneously, descending motion of these two cells increases local solar radiation and decreases upward latent heat flux from surface, facilitating warmer underlying surface and swift accumulation of lower-level moisture. Correspondingly, enhanced heating to the north and rapid developing cyclone over warmer sea surface to the south combine to terminate above positive feedback processes. Finally, both the WPSH and the SAH retreat to their normal positions, accompanied by a quick decay of PEPEs.

  17. Allergy to grass juice.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, A

    1977-06-01

    Crushed, fresh grass did not produce positive skin reactions in 149 patients with grass pollen allergy, six of whom suffered from rhinitis and conjunctival discharge while cutting grass. An additional patient without an allergy to grass pollens but with clear-cut symptoms from newly cut grass showed a negative result in the scratch-chamber test and in the scrubbing test.

  18. Grass Lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  19. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  20. The California Valley grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  1. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  2. Uhl's anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    Vecht, R J; Carmichael, D J; Gopal, R; Philip, G

    1979-01-01

    Uhl's anomaly of the heart is a rare condition. Another well-documented case is presented with a review of the published reports outlining the main clinical features and the bad overall prognosis. Right atriotomy should be avoided if closure of the atrial septal defect is attempted. Images PMID:465242

  3. Aeromagnetic survey map of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Three aeromagnetic surveys were flown to improve understanding of the geology and structure in the Sacramento Valley. The resulting data serve as a basis for geophysical interpretations, and support geological mapping, water and mineral resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on aeromagnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals commonly mark lithologic or structural boundaries. Bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense positive magnetic anomalies (for example, in the northwest part of the map). These rock types are the inferred sources, concealed beneath weakly magnetic, valley-fill deposits, of the most prominent magnetic features in the map area, the magnetic highs that extend along the valley axis. Cenozoic volcanic rocks are also an important source of magnetic anomalies and coincide with short-wavelength anomalies that can be either positive (strong central positive anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude negative anomalies) or negative (strong central negative anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude positive anomalies), reflecting the contribution of remanent magnetization. Rocks with more felsic compositions or even some sedimentary units also can cause measurable magnetic anomalies. For example, the long, linear, narrow north-trending anomalies (with amplitudes of <50 nanoteslas [nT]) along the western margin of the valley coincide with exposures of the Mesozoic Great Valley sequence. Note that isolated, short-wavelength anomalies, such as those in the city of Sacramento and along some of the major roads, are caused by manmade features.

  4. Pests in ornamental grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  5. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  6. Orally administered grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, E; Weeke, B

    1983-11-01

    In 1900 it was claimed that oral administration of ragweed could be used for the hyposensitization of hay fever patients. Several uncontrolled trials have been published, all showing an effect of oral hyposensitization. Only one study was controlled and showed no effect of oral hyposensitization. It was decided to undertake controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of orally administered enteric-coated grass pollen tablets in patients with hay fever. The actual grass pollen dose in the first trial was 30 times the dose that is normally recommended for preseasonal oral pollen hyposensitization using pollen aqueous solution or pollen powder. The safety study will be described here. Twelve young adults with a history of grass pollen hay fever positive skin prick test and positive nasal provocation test with extracts of timothy grass pollen were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups with four patients in each group taking enteric-coated Conjuvac Timothy tablets or enteric-coated Whole Timothy pollen tablets or enteric-coated placebo tablets. The study was double blind. Preseasonally, the patients received 342,500 PNU and in total they received 4,500,000 PNU during 6 months. The patients receiving active treatment did not have any side effects. No significant changes were shown in the skin and nasal reactivity to grass pollen during the study. Neither were there any changes in timothy-specific IgE, IgG, total IgE nor histamine liberation from basophils.

  7. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  8. ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2009-06-10

    We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

  9. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  10. Valley Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    24 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the walls and floor of a valley in the western Memnonia region of Mars. The finely-textured ridges and pits found on the valley walls and upland outside of the valley were formed by wind erosion.

    Location near: 487.5oS, 155.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-529, 30 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the floor of an ancient valley located near the Pyrrhae Chaos region of Mars. This valley might have been carved by liquid water, but today no evidence remains that a fluid ever flowed through it. Long after the valley formed, its floor was covered by large, windblown, ripple-like dunes. This picture is located near 13.0oS, 31.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  12. Principal facts for gravity stations in Paradise and Stagecoach valleys, Humboldt and Lyon counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, D.H.; Duffrin, B.G.; Plume, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Principal facts for 178 gravity stations in Paradise Valley and 117 stations in Stagecoach Valley, are tabulated; they consists of latitude, longitude, altitude, observed gravity, free-air anomaly, terrain correction, and Bouguer gravity anomaly values at a bedrock density of 2.67 grams per cubic centimeter. (USGS)

  13. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  14. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  15. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  16. Magnetic Anomalies over Iceland.

    PubMed

    Serson, P H; Hannaford, W; Haines, G V

    1968-10-18

    An aeromagnetic survey of Iceland reveals broad anomalies of large amplitude over zones of recent volcanic activity. The source of the anomalies is ascribed to large masses of basalt that have been coherently remagnetized by intrusive heating. A simple correlation of the Icelandic anomalies with those of the ocean floor therefore appears unjustified.

  17. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  18. Lifshitz scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2015-02-01

    We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

  19. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  20. Coronary artery anomalies.

    PubMed

    Earls, James P

    2006-12-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are uncommon findings but can be of significant clinical importance in a small number of individuals. Clinical presentation depends on the specific anomaly. Most coronary artery anomalies are benign and clinically insignificant, however, some anomalies are potentially significant and can lead to heart failure and even death. Noninvasive imaging has emerged as the preferred way to image coronary anomalies. Both electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are useful for the diagnosis of anomalous coronary arteries. Recently, MDCT has also proven to be very useful in the detection and characterization of anomalous coronary arteries. This chapter will review the appearance of the most commonly encountered coronary anomalies on MDCT. PMID:17709086

  1. Familial Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenmann, A; Arad, I; Simcha, A; Schaap, T

    1976-01-01

    A family is described in which both a father and son are affected with Ebstein's anomaly, while several other family members manifest different cardiac malformations. Five additional instances of familial Ebstein's anomaly were found in the literature and compared with our family. Inspection of possible modes of inheritance in this group of families suggests that Ebstein's anomaly is probably inherited as a polygenic character with a threshold phenomenon. PMID:1018315

  2. Taussig-Bing Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

  3. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  4. On the causes of variability in amounts of airborne grass pollen in Melbourne, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morton, Julian; Bye, John; Pezza, Alexandre; Newbigin, Edward

    2011-07-01

    In Melbourne, Australia, airborne grass pollen is the predominant cause of hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) during late spring and early summer, with levels of airborne grass pollen also influencing hospital admissions for asthma. In order to improve predictions of conditions that are potentially hazardous to susceptible individuals, we have sought to better understand the causes of diurnal, intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability of atmospheric grass pollen concentrations (APC) by analysing grass pollen count data for Melbourne for 16 grass pollen seasons from 1991 to 2008 (except 1994 and 1995). Some of notable features identified in this analysis were that on days when either extreme (>100 pollen grains m-3) or high (50-100 pollen grains m-3) levels of grass pollen were recorded the winds were of continental origin. In contrast, on days with a low (<20 pollen grains m-3) concentration of grass pollen, winds were of maritime origin. On extreme and high grass pollen days, a peak in APC occurred on average around 1730 hours, probably due to a reduction in surface boundary layer turbulence. The sum of daily APC for each grass pollen season was highly correlated ( r = 0.79) with spring rainfall in Melbourne for that year, with about 60% of a declining linear trend across the study period being attributable to a reduction of meat cattle and sheep (and hence grazing land) in rural areas around Melbourne. Finally, all of the ten extreme pollen events (3 days or more with APC > 100 pollen grains m-3) during the study period were characterised by an average downward vertical wind anomaly in the surface boundary layer over Melbourne. Together these findings form a basis for a fine resolution atmospheric general circulation model for grass pollen in Melbourne's air that can be used to predict daily (and hourly) APC. This information will be useful to those sectors of Melbourne's population that suffer from allergic problems.

  5. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  6. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  7. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  8. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  9. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-12-31

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley.

  10. Behavioral economics without anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral economics is often conceived as the study of anomalies superimposed on a rational system. As research has progressed, anomalies have multiplied until little is left of rationality. Another conception of behavioral economics is based on the axiom that value is always maximized. It incorporates so-called anomalies either as conflicts between temporal patterns of behavior and the individual acts comprising those patterns or as outcomes of nonexponential time discounting. This second conception of behavioral economics is both empirically based and internally consistent. PMID:8551195

  11. Imaging of facial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Mukherji, S K

    1995-01-01

    Anomalies of the face may occur in its lower or middle segments. Anomalies of the lower face generally involve the derivatives of the branchial apparatus and therefore manifest as defects in the mandible, pinnae, external auditory canals, and portions of the middle ears. These anomalies are occasionally isolated, but most of them occur in combination with systemic syndromes. These anomalies generally do not occur with respiratory compromise. Anomalies of the midface may extend from the upper lip to the forehead, reflecting the complex embryology of this region. Most of these deformities are isolated, but some patients with facial clefts, notably the midline cleft syndrome and holoprosencephaly, have anomalies in other sites. This is important because these patients will require detailed imaging of the face and brain. Anomalies of the midface tend to involve the nose and its air-conducting passages. We prefer to divide these anomalies into those with and without respiratory obstruction. The most common anomalies that result in airway compromise include posterior choanal stenoses and atresias, bilateral cysts (mucoceles) of the distal lacrimal ducts, and stenosis of the pyriform (anterior) nasal aperture. These may be optimally evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and generally require immediate treatment to ensure adequate ventilation. Rare nasal anomalies that also result in airway obstruction are agenesis of the pharynx, agenesis of the nose, and hypoplasia of the nasal alae. Agenesis of the nasopharynx and nose are complex anomalies that require both CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The diagnosis of hypoplasia of the nasal alae is a clinical one; these anomalies do not require imaging studies. Besides facial clefts, anomalies of the nose without respiratory obstruction tend to be centered around the nasofrontal region. This is the site of the most common sincipital encephaloceles. Patients with frontonasal and nasoethmoidal encephaloceles require both

  12. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Elko, Steptoe Valley, Coyote Spring Valley, and Sheep Range areas, eastern and southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.; Schaefer, D.H.; Frick, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Principal facts for 537 gravity stations in the carbonate-rock province of eastern and southern Nevada are tabulated and presented. The gravity data were collected in support of groundwater studies in several valleys. The study areas include the Elko area, northern Steptoe Valley, Coyote Spring Valley, and the western Sheep Range area. The data for each site include values for latitude, longitude, altitude, observed gravity, free- air anomaly, terrain correction, and Bouguer anomaly (calculated at a bedrock density of 2.67 g/cu cm. (USGS)

  13. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  14. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well.

  15. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  16. SADM potentiometer anomaly investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian; Mussett, David; Cattaldo, Olivier; Rohr, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    During the last 3 years Contraves Space have been developing a Low Power (1-2kW) Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) aimed at small series production. The mechanism was subjected to two test programmes in order to qualify the SADM to acceptable levels. During the two test programmes, anomalies were experienced with the Potentiometers provided by Eurofarad SA and joint investigations were undertaken to resolve why these anomalies had occurred. This paper deals with the lessons learnt from the failure investigation on the two Eurofarad (rotary) Potentiometer anomaly. The Rotary Potentiometers that were used were fully redundant; using two back to back mounted "plastic tracks". It is a pancake configuration mounted directly to the shaft of the Slip Ring Assembly at the extreme in-board end of the SADM. It has no internal bearings. The anomaly initially manifested itself as a loss of performance in terms of linearity, which was first detected during Thermal Vacuum testing. A subsequent anomaly manifested itself by the complete failure of the redundant potentiometer again during thermal vacuum testing. This paper will follow and detail the chain of events following this anomaly and identifies corrective measures to be applied to the potentiometer design and assembly process.

  17. Valley Divide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03664 Valley Divide

    These small channels join to become Sabis Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.3N, Longitude 159.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Contrasts of atmospheric circulation and associated tropical convection between Huaihe River valley and Yangtze River valley mei-yu flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jieli; Liu, Yimin

    2012-07-01

    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e., the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated. During the both flooding cases, although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere, the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent. During flooding in the Huaihe River valley, only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake. In contrast, during flooding in the Yangtze River valley, there are two blocking anticyclones. One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia. In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases, but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding. Furthermore, abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula. However, the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation. While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south, along with abundant rainfall.

  20. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  1. Congenital Vascular Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gravereaux, Edwin C.; Nguyen, Louis L.; Cunningham, Leslie D.

    2004-04-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies are rare. The cardiovascular specialist should nevertheless be aware of the more common types of vascular anomalies and understand the implications for patient treatment and the likelihood of associated morbidity. The presentation of congenital arteriovenous malformations can range from asymptomatic or cosmetic lesions, to those causing ischemia, ulceration, hemorrhage, or high-output congestive heart failure. Treatment of large, symptomatic arteriovenous malformations often requires catheter-directed embolization prior to the attempt at complete surgical excision. Later recurrence, due to collateral recruitment, is frequent. Graded compression stockings and leg elevation are the mainstays of treatment for the predominantly venous congenital vascular anomalies. Most congenital central venous disorders are clinically silent. An exception is the retrocaval ureter. Retroaortic left renal vein, circumaortic venous ring, and absent, left-sided or duplicated inferior vena cava are relevant when aortic or inferior vena cava procedures are planned. The treatment of the venous disorders is directed at prevention or management of symptoms. Persistent sciatic artery, popliteal entrapment syndrome, and aberrant right subclavian artery origin are congenital anomalies that are typically symptomatic at presentation. Because they mimic more common diseases, diagnosis is frequently delayed. Delay can result in significant morbidity for the patient. Failure to make the diagnosis of persistent sciatic artery and popliteal entrapment can result in critical limb ischemia and subsequent amputation. Unrecognized aberrant right subclavian artery origin associated with aneurysmal degeneration can rupture and result in death. The treatment options for large-vessel arterial anomalies are surgical, sometimes in combination with endovascular techniques.

  2. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  3. Magnetic anomalies. [Magsat studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.

    1983-01-01

    The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

  4. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  5. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  6. QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Leganger, Lars E.; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

    2011-10-15

    In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T{sup 2} in two cases: N{sub f}=0 and N{sub f}=3. When using the canonical value of {mu}=2{pi}T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N{sub f}=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8T{sub c}, while treating the subtracted piece as an interaction term when including quarks (N{sub f}=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2T{sub c}. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

  7. Vascular Anomalies and Airway Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Caroline; Lee, Edward I.; Edmonds, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies, both tumors and malformations, can occur anywhere in the body, including the airway, often without any external manifestations. However, vascular anomalies involving the airway deserve special consideration as proper recognition and management can be lifesaving. In this article, the authors discuss vascular anomalies as they pertains to the airway, focusing on proper diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:25045336

  8. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

  9. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  10. Interpretation of magnetic surveys in intermontane valleys of Nevada and southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bath, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the magnetic method of geophysical exploration in intermontane valleys is made through examples of magnetic properties, magnetic surveys, reduction of data, and analysis of magnetic anomalies from some valley areas. Measurements of magnetic properties of samples collected along valley margins or from drill holes indicate that the anomaly-producing rocks are mostly Tertiary volcanic flows in Nevada and mostly Cretaceous-Tertiary intrusives in southern New Mexico. Aeromagnetic data were compiled as both observed and residual anomalies from surveys at various flight-line spacings and intervals from ground surface. Theoretical anomalies from known models were analyzed to recover data on depth, width, and magnetization of models and thereby establish reliability of methods used by certain investigators. These methods were then applied to measured anomalies to obtain information about the igneous rock structures that are buried beneath nonmagnetic valley alluvium. Recommendations made for future valley studies include aeromagnetic surveys flown 150 m above ground surface and at 800 m spacing; measurement of magnetic properties from outcrop samples, drill-core samples, and magnetometer logging of uncased drill holes; and use of the interpretation from gravity surveys in the same area.

  11. Estimating dry grass residues using landscape integration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Quinn J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Duan, Lian; Scheer, George

    1993-01-01

    The acreage of grassland and grassland-savannah is extensive in California, making direct measurement and assessment logistically impossible. Grasslands cover the entire Central Valley up to about 1200 m elevation in the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada Range. Kuchler's map shows 5.35 M ha grassland with an additional 3.87 M ha in Oak savannah. The goal of this study was to examine the use of high spectral resolution sensors to distinguish between dry grass and soil in remotely sensed images. Spectral features that distinguish soils and dry plant material in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) region are thought to be primarily caused by cellulose and lignin, biochemicals which are absent from soils or occur as breakdown products in humid substances that lack the narrow-band features. We have used spectral mixing analysis (SMA) combined with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis to characterize plant communities and dry grass biomass. The GIS was used to overlay elevation maps, and vegetation maps, with the SMA results. The advantage of non-image data is that it provides an independent source of information for the community classification.

  12. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  13. Simplified dynamic models of grass field ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qingcun; Zeng, Xiaodong; Lu, Peisheng

    1994-12-01

    Some simplified dynamic models of grass field ecosystem are developed and investigated. The maximum simplified one consists of two variables, living grass biomass and soil wetness. The analyses of such models show that there exists only desert regime without grasses if the precipitation p is less than a critical value p c ; the grass biomass continuously depends on p if the interaction between grass biomass and the soil wetness is weak, but the strong interaction results in the bifurcation of grass biomass in the vicinity of p c : the grass biomass is rich as p > p c , but it becomes desertification as p

    grass biomass x, the nonliving grass biomass accumulated on the ground surface y and the soil wetness z. The behaviours of such three variables model are more complicated. The initial values of y and z play a very important role.

  14. Multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grasses for allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R

    2013-11-01

    Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies.

  15. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  16. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  17. Long Valley Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The ~300-year-old lava on Paoha Island in Mono Lake was produced by the most recent eruption in the Long Valley Caldera area in east-central California. The Long Valley Caldera was formed by a massive volcanic eruption 760,000 years ago. The region is monitored by the Long Valley Observatory (LVO), one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about the Long Valley Caldera region and LVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/lvo.

  18. Physicochemical isotope anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, T.M.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

  19. [First branchial cleft anomalies].

    PubMed

    Nikoghosyan, Gohar; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

    2008-05-12

    First branchial cleft anomalies are congenital rare lesions that can sometimes be difficult to diagnose. During the normal embryonic development the outer ear canal derives from the first branchial cleft. Abnormal development can result in production of a cyst, sinus or fistula with recurring infections. Early and correct diagnosis is necessary for the correct choice of surgical set-up in which identification and preservation of the facial nerve is an important step. A case of first branchial cleft sinus is presented with further discussion of classification, diagnostics and treatment. PMID:18489895

  20. When do anomalies begin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightman, Alan; Gingerich, Owen

    1992-02-01

    The present historical and methodological consideration of scientific anomalies notes that some of these are recognized as such, after long neglect, only after the emergence of compelling explanations for their presence in the given theory in view of an alternative conceptual framework. These cases of 'retrorecognition' are indicative not merely of a significant characteristic of the process of conceptual development and scientific discovery, but of the bases for such process in human psychology. Attention is given to the illustrative cases of the 'flatness problem' in big bang theory, the perigee-opposition problem in Ptolemaic astronomy, the continental-fit problem in geology, and the equality of inertial and gravitational mass.

  1. Shallow drilling in the Salton Sea region: The thermal anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R.L.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.

    1988-11-10

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The central thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 /sup 0/C/m) to extreme (0.83 /sup 0/C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is greater than 600 mW/m/sup 2/ and in the two local anomalies exceeds 1200 mW/m/sup 2/. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes.

  2. Shallow Drilling In The Salton Sea Region, The Thermal Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R. L.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Younker, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 C/m) to extreme (0.83 C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is >600 mW/m{sup 2} and in some areas exceeds 1200 mW/m{sup 2}. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes. These observations of the thermal anomaly provide important constraints for models of the circulation of the hydrothermal system. Thermal budgets based on a simple model for this hydrothermal system indicate that the heat influx rate for local ''hot spots'' in the region may be large enough to account for the rate of heat flux from the entire Salton Trough.

  3. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  4. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  5. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.; Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D.

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  6. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G. ); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  7. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  8. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  9. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  10. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Native Grass Riparian Buffer Strips to Reduce Pesticide Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, K.; Brown, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    Organophosphate pesticides such as diazinon have been a major source of non-point source water pollution in the Sacramento Valley watershed of central California. Diazinon is commonly listed as a pollutant for many tributaries of the Sacramento River on the US Clean Water Act section 303(d) list of impaired waterways. This pesticide is applied either aerially or as a foliar spray to nut and stone-fruit orchards during dormancy, which coincides with the rainy season in northern California. A study was conducted to determine if planting native grasses in the riparian zone was effective in reducing the amount of diazinon entering the surface water in streams flowing through these orchards. Native grasses have deeper root systems and were hypothesized to be more effective in sorbing diazinon and preventing its runoff than non-native grasses. In 2004, nine 20 foot by 20 foot riparian buffer plots were constructed along the banks of the South Fork of Walker Creek, west of the town of Orland in the Sacramento Valley. Three of the nine plots were maintained as bare ground, three were left with resident weeds including dense non-native grasses, and three were planted with native grasses, which included purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra), creeping wildrye (Elymus triticoides), and deergrass (Muhlenbergia rigens). The experimental design simulated orchard runoff by applying mixtures of water and diazinon at observed field concentrations. The pesticide load was evenly applied across the top of each buffer plot at a rate consistent with local runoff rates in an average storm. Rainfall on the buffer plots was simulated with overhead sprinklers at a rate of 0.75 inches per hour, also an average storm for this area. Runoff was monitored at the downslope side of the plots with flumes funneled to large holding tanks. From these tanks, composite water samples were collected after runoff had ceased. The samples were analyzed for diazinon concentration, nitrates, and total suspended

  12. WF4 Anomaly Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biretta, John

    2005-07-01

    A serious anomaly has been found in images from the WF4 CCD in WFPC2. The WF4 CCD bias level appears to have become unstable, resulting in sporadic images with either low or zero bias level. The severity and frequency of the problem is rapidly increasing, and it is possible that WF4 will soon become unusable if no work-around is found. The other three CCDs {PC1, WF2, and WF3} appear to be unaffected and continue to operate properly. The impacts from "low" and "zero" bias are somewhat different, but in both cases the effects are immediately obvious. Images with low bias will tend to have horizontal {x-direction} streaks and stripes with an amplitude of ? about 0.5 DN in WF4. We believe these data should be mostly recoverable with some effort, though at a loss in the detectability of faint targets. "Zero bias" is a much more serious problem and is evidenced by images which are blank in WF4, except for showing occasional cosmic rays, bright targets, and negative pixels from dark subtraction. These images with zero bias are probably unusable for most purposes. Both the CCD gain settings of 7 and 14 are affected. The frequency of the anomaly is rapidly increasing. The first significant instances of low bias appear to have been in late 2004 when a few images were impacted. However, within the last few weeks over half the images are beginning to show the low bias problem. The more serious "zero bias" problem appears to have first occurred in Feb. 2005, but it is also increasing and now impacts 10% to 20% of WFPC2 images. At present there are still many images which appear fine and unaffected, but the situation is quickly evolving. We believe the science impact for most observers will be minimal. Targets are by default placed on either PC1 or WF3 which continue to operate properly. However, observers requiring the full field of view {survey projects, large targets, etc.} will potentially lose one-third of their imaging area. Our understanding of this anomaly is still

  13. Principal facts for gravity stations in Dixie; Fairview, and Stingaree valleys, Churchill and Pershing counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.; Duffrin, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    During March through July 1979, gravity measurements were made at 300 stations in Dixie Valley, Nevada. In December 1981, 45 additional stations were added--7 in Dixie Valley, 23 in Fairview Valley, and 15 in Stingaree Valley. Most altitudes were determined by using altimeters or topographic maps. The gravity observations were made with a Worden temperature-controlled gravimeter with an initial scale factor of 0.0965 milliGal/scale division. Principal facts for each of the 345 stations are tabulated; they consist of latitude, longitude, altitude, observed gravity, free-air anomaly, terrain correction, and Bouguer anomaly values at a bedrock density of 2.67 grams/cu cm. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. An aeromagnetic survey in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anma, K.

    1971-01-01

    Geologic and magnetic studies of the Katmai area have further demonstrated the close relationship between the Katmai Caldera, Novarupta plug, and the pyroclastic flows in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. The magnetic fields observed appear to be associated with the thickness of the pyroclastic flow and the different rock units within it for lower flight levels, and also the contrast between the valley fill and the rock units at the Valley margins. Consistent magnetic anomalies are associated with the larger fumarole lines, which were presumably sites of large scale activity, while the smaller fumaroles are not usually seen in the aeromagnetic map. A possible correlation between low positive anomalies and nuee ardente deposits was revealed by the aeromagnetic survey, but was not strong. A ground survey was also carried out in several parts of the Valley with a view to detailed delineation of the magnetic signatures of the pyroclastic flow, as an aid to interpreting the aeromagnetic date.

  15. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Argonne v{sub 18} potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the {sup 15}O-{sup 15}N and {sup 17}F-{sup 17}O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our {sup 16}O wave function does not reproduce accurately the {sup 16}O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 {plus_minus} .001, 3.544 {plus_minus} .018 and 3.458 {plus_minus} .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential.

  16. Ebstein's anomaly in neonates.

    PubMed

    Moura, C; Guimarães, H; Areias, J C; Moreira, J

    2001-09-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital heart disease abnormality in which the tricuspid valve leaflets do not attach normally to the tricuspid valve annulus. The effective tricuspid valve orifice is displaced apically into the right ventricle (RV), near the junction of the inlet and the trabecular parts of the RV. The authors present a retrospective study of the patients with Ebstein's anomaly admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, in the period between January 1993 and March 2000. There were ten patients, representing 0.24% of total neonates and 1.99% of total congenital heart disease admitted to the institution in the same period. Fifty per cent were male and only one case had prenatal diagnosis. Holosystolic murmur (100%) from tricuspid regurgitation and cyanosis (80%) were the most frequent clinical findings. Chest X-ray was abnormal in 90% of the neonates, with a "balloon-shaped" enlarged heart. The main electrocardiographic findings were right atrial enlargement (70%) and arrhythmias (40%). Apical displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve, to a maximum of 20 mm, and leaflets tethering to underlying RV myocardium were found in all patients. Tricuspid valve regurgitation was found in 90% (severe form in four cases). An atrial intracardiac shunt, mostly right-to-left, was also found in 50%. Digoxin was used (40%) to restore sinus rhythm. Fifty per cent of the neonates received intravenous prostaglandins. Two patients required a surgical procedure. Two patients died in the neonatal period. During the follow-up period (range 0.3-74.6 months), only one episode of supraventricular tachycardia was recorded. At present seven patients are clinically stable, three of them on medication.

  17. Overview of Reclamation's geothermal program in Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulcher, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is presently involved in a unique Geothermal Resource Development Program in Imperial Valley, California. The main purpose of the investigations is to determine the feasibility of providing a source of fresh water through desalting geothermal fluids stored in the aquifers underlying the valley. Significant progress in this research and development stage to date includes extensive geophysical investigations and the drilling of five geothermal wells on the Mesa anomaly. Four of the wells are for production and monitoring the anomaly, and one will be used for reinjection of waste brines from the desalting units. Two desalting units, a multistage flash unit and a vertical tube evaporator unit, have been erected at the East Mesa test site. The units have been operated on shakedown and continuous runs and have produced substantial quantities of high-quality water.

  18. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  19. Intervalley gap anomaly of two-dimensional electrons in silicon.

    PubMed

    Lai, K; Pan, W; Tsui, D C; Lyon, S; Mühlberger, M; Schäffler, F

    2006-02-24

    We report here a systematic study of the energy gaps at the odd-integer quantum Hall states nu = 3 and 5 under tilted magnetic (B) fields in a high quality Si two-dimensional electron system. Out of the coincidence region, the valley splitting is independent of the in-plane fields. However, the nu = 3 valley gap differs by about a factor of 3 (Deltav approximately 0.4 vs 1.2 K) on different sides of the coincidence. More surprisingly, instead of reducing to zero, the energy gaps at nu = 3 and 5 rise rapidly when approaching the coincidence angles. We believe that such an anomaly is related to strong couplings of the nearly degenerate Landau levels.

  20. Congenital joint laxity and dwarfism: A feed-associated congenital anomaly of beef calves in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ribble, Carl S.; Janzen, Eugene D.; Proulx, Julien G.

    1989-01-01

    Five feeding trials were performed on three ranches to determine if a distinctive, recurring, congenital anomaly in beef calves was associated with feeding clover or grass silage without supplementation to pregnant cows overwinter. The anomaly, termed congenital joint laxity and dwarfism, was characterized at birth by generalized joint laxity, disproportionate dwarfism, and occasionally, superior brachygnathia. The anomaly had been documented for several consecutive years on these ranches and affected 2-46% of the calf crop. Pregnant cows were divided randomly into feeding groups, and the number of abnormal calves in each group was tabulated. Supplementation of the overwinter grass/clover silage diet with hay (2.5-4.5 kg/head/day) and rolled barley (0.75-1.5 kg/head/day) eliminated the problem. Supplementation of grain, without hay, was not as effective. Varying the proportions of grass and clover in the silage, and the age of the silage, did not alter the teratogenic potency of silage. Vitamin D3 supplementation did not reduce the risk of the condition. The definitive cause of congenital joint laxity and dwarfism was not determined. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423291

  1. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  2. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  3. Medical management of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Cameron C

    2016-03-01

    We have entered an exciting era in the care of patients with vascular anomalies. These disorders require multidisciplinary care and coordination and dedicated centers have emerged to address this need. Vascular tumors have been treated with medical therapies for many years, while malformations have been historically treated with endovascular and operative procedures. The recent serendipitous discoveries of propranolol and sirolimus for vascular anomalies have revolutionized this field. In particular, sirolimus responses are challenging the dogma that vascular malformations are not biologically active. While initially explored for lymphatic anomalies, sirolimus is now being used broadly throughout the spectrum of vascular anomalies. Whether medical therapies are reserved for refractory patients or used first line is currently dependent on the experience and availability of alternative therapies at each institution. On the horizon, we anticipate new drugs targeting genes and pathways involved in vascular anomalies to be developed. Also, combinations of medications and protocols combining medical and procedural approaches are in development for refractory patients. PMID:27607327

  4. Reanalysis of S-to-P amplitude ratios for gross attenuation structure, Long Valley caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.O.

    1993-12-01

    Because of the strong interest in the magmatism and volcanism at Long Valley caldera, eastern California, and because of recent sifnigicant improvements in our knowledge of the caldera velocity structure and earthquake locations, I have reanalyzed the local-earthquake S-to-P amplitude-ratio data of Sanders (1984) for the gross three-dimensional attenuation structure of the upper 10 km of Long Valley caldera. The primary goals of the analysis are to provide more accurate constraints on the depths of the attenuation anomalies using improved knowledge of the ray locations and an objective inversion procedure. The new image of the high S wave attenuation anomaly in the west-central cadlera suggests that the top of the principal anomaly is at 7-km depth, which is 2 km deeper than previously determined. Because of poor resolution in much of the region, some of the data remain unsatisfied by the final attenuation model. This unmodeled data may imply unresolved attenuation anomalies, perhaps small anomalies in the kilometer or two just above the central-caldera anomaly and perhaps a larger anomaly at about 7-km depth in the northwest caldera or somewhere beneath the Mono Craters. The central-caldera S wave attenuation anomaly has a location similar to mapped regions of low teleseismic P wave velocity, crustal inflation, reduced density, and aseismicity, strongly suggesting magmatic association.

  5. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  6. Is there continental crust underneath the northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Coastal Plains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinweber, Volker Thor; Jokat, W.

    2011-07-01

    To draw conclusions about the crustal nature and history of the Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge, systematic potential field data were obtained during the AISTEK III cruise with R/V Pelagia in 2009. This paper presents and interprets the results of that expedition. The new magnetic data reveal a pattern of linear magnetic spreading anomalies, NW-SE trending in the southwestern part of the Mozambique Ridge and E-W trending on its central part. The Ariel Graben, which separates the Mozambique Ridge from the Northern Natal Valley, is represented by a pronounced negative anomaly in the magnetic- as well as the free-air gravity field. The Northern Natal Valley bears a complicated pattern of anomalies with mainly SW-NE trends. In the Northern Natal Valley, no indications for a continent-ocean-boundary between continental crust in the north and oceanic crust in the south exist, either in the free-air gravity or in the magnetic field. The magnetic wavelengths of the Mozambique Coastal Plains are similar to those of the Northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge. Particularly in the gravity data, the Mozambique coastal plains, the Northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge appear as one continuous geological province. We interpret the region from the Mateke-Sabi monocline in the north to the southwestern tip of the Mozambique Ridge as mainly being floored by thickened oceanic crust.

  7. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  8. On the possible impact of natural sources of reactive ozone precursors in the valley of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Suarez, L.G.; Martinez, R.; Hernandez, F.

    1996-12-31

    LANDSAT TM images were used to classify land use in the Valley of Mexico. Forest, grass and farming land areas were used to obtain emission inventories of non-methane biogenic hydrocarbons (NMBHC). These may be equivalent to as much as 10% of total reactive organic compounds (ROC) emissions. However these may be on a one to one ratio with the olefinic fraction of anthropogenic ROCs. Grass and farming areas were used to estimate the possible impact of episodic NO emissions from soil after early rains just prior to the onset of rain season.

  9. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outbreak resources, VHF information for specific groups, virus ecology, references... RVF Distribution Map Rift Valley Fever Transmission ... Outbreaks Outbreak Summaries RVF Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  10. Ariel's transecting valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This highest-resolution Voyager 2 view of Ariel's terminator shows a complex array of transecting valleys with super-imposed impact craters. Voyager obtained this clear-filter, narrow-angle view from a distance of 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles) and with a resolution of about 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Particularly striking to Voyager scientists is the fact that the faults that bound the linear valleys are not visible where they transect one another across the valleys. Apparently these valleys were filled with deposits sometime after they were formed by tectonic processes, leaving them flat and smooth. Sinuous rilles (trenches) later formed, probably by some flow process. Some type of fluid flow may well have been involved in their evolution. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  11. California: Diamond Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S. history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million ... water storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against ...

  12. Lily of the valley

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the valley poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant swallowed, if known Time it was swallowed Amount ...

  13. NV PFA - Steptoe Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Faulds

    2015-10-29

    All datasets and products specific to the Steptoe Valley model area. Includes a packed ArcMap project (.mpk), individually zipped shapefiles, and a file geodatabase for the northern Steptoe Valley area; a GeoSoft Oasis montaj project containing GM-SYS 2D gravity profiles along the trace of our seismic reflection lines; a 3D model in EarthVision; spreadsheet of links to published maps; and spreadsheets of well data.

  14. The First Prediction of a Rift Valley Fever Outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Small, Jennifer; Tucker, Compton J.; Formenty, Pierre; Richardson, Jason H.; Britch, Seth C.; Schnabel, David C.; Erickson, Ralph L.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related anomalies were analyzed using a combination of satellite measurements of elevated sea surface temperatures, and subsequent elevated rainfall and satellite derived normalized difference vegetation index data. A Rift Valley fever risk mapping model using these climate data predicted areas where outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in humans and animals were expected and occurred in the Horn of Africa from December 2006 to May 2007. The predictions were subsequently confirmed by entomological and epidemiological field investigations of virus activity in the areas identified as at risk. Accurate spatial and temporal predictions of disease activity, as it occurred first in southern Somalia and then through much of Kenya before affecting northern Tanzania, provided a 2 to 6 week period of warning for the Horn of Africa that facilitated disease outbreak response and mitigation activities. This is the first prospective prediction of a Rift Valley fever outbreak.

  15. Geophysical surveys in Parvati valley geothermal field, Kullu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakesh Kumar, S. B.; Singh, Mohan; Gupta, L.; Rao, G. V.

    1982-08-01

    Direct current resistivity surveys and shallow temperature measurements were carried out for geothermal exploration in a part of Parvati valley, goethermal field, Himachal Pradesh, India. At a few places, the Schlumberger soundings pointed to the presence of a relatively low-resistivity shallow layer, which probably represents fractured and jointed quartzite, saturated with hot/cold water. Wenner resistivity profiles indicate the presence of some possible shallow subsurface lateral hot water channels across the valley at Manikaran. Shallow temperature measurements show a good subsurface thermal anomaly near the confluence of the rivers Brahmaganga and Parvati. The results of the survey, together with other available geodata, suggest that an anomalous heat source does not lie beneath the study area. It is postulated that the meteoric water, originating at high elevations after heating as a result of circulation at depth, emerges at the surface in the Parvati valley as hot springs, after mixing in various proportions with near surface cold waters.

  16. Seismic and geodetic studies of the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Imperial Valley exhibits perhaps the most active current tectonism in the United States; patterns of gravitational and thermal anomalies, along with geodetic measurements, strike-slip faulting, and recent volcanism suggest that the continental crust may still be spreading (Elders et al., 1972). In recent years, the United States Geological Survey and Caltech have added new seismic stations into a dense network in the Imperial Valley to study in detail the relationship between geothermal areas and earthquakes, and to understand the tectonic processes taking place there. The purposes of this study are to: (1) examine crustal structure using recently available data on P-wave arrival times of local earthquakes; (2) examine the leveling data for evidence of tectonic subsidence or uplift; and (3) study correlations between seismicity, seismic velocity, geodetic motion, geothermal activity, and local geology to provide a more consistent picture of the tectonics of the Imperial Valley.

  17. Watching Grass Grow: Biology Explorations Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puttick, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Describes an online biology course for science teachers in a master's degree program that focuses on the adaptation and natural selection of grass under environmental challenges. Provides experience with how biologists use questioning and investigation in their research. (YDS)

  18. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  19. Claycap anomaly detection using hyperspectral remote sensing and lidargrammetric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Quijano, Maria Jose

    Clay capped waste sites are a common method to dispose of the more than 40 million tons of hazardous waste produced in the United States every year (EPA, 2003). Due to the potential threat that hazardous waste poses, it is essential to monitor closely the performance of these facilities. Development of a monitoring system that exploits spectral and topographic changes over hazardous waste sites is presented. Spectral anomaly detection is based upon the observed changes in absolute reflectance and spectral derivatives in centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) under different irrigation levels. The spectral features that provide the best separability among irrigation levels were identified using Stepwise Discriminant Analyses. The Red Edge Position was selected as a suitable discriminant variable to compare the performance of a global and a local anomaly detection algorithm using a DAIS 3715 hyperspectral image. Topographical anomaly detection is assessed by evaluating the vertical accuracy of two LIDAR datasets acquired from two different altitudes (700 m and 1,200 m AGL) over a clay-capped hazardous site at the Savannah River National Laboratory, SC using the same Optech ALTM 2050 and Cessna 337 platform. Additionally, a quantitative comparison is performed to determine the effect that decreasing platform altitude and increasing posting density have on the vertical accuracy of the LIDAR data collected.

  20. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  1. Grizzly Valley fault system, Sierra Valley, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Ryan; Stephenson, William; Odum, Jack; Briggs, Rich; Crone, Anthony; Angster, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Grizzly Valley fault system (GVFS) strikes northwestward across Sierra Valley, California and is part of a network of active, dextral strike-slip faults in the northern Walker Lane (Figure 1). To investigate Quaternary motion across the GVFS, we analyzed high-resolution (0.25 m) airborne LiDAR data (Figure 2) in combination with six, high-resolution, P-wave, seismic-reflection profiles [Gold and others, 2012]. The 0.5- to 2.0-km-long seismic-reflection profiles were sited orthogonal to suspected tectonic lineaments identified from previous mapping and our analysis of airborne LiDAR data. To image the upper 400–700 m of subsurface stratigraphy of Sierra Valley (Figure 3), we used a 230-kg accelerated weight drop source. Geophone spacing ranged from 2 to 5 m and shots were co-located with the geophones. The profiles reveal a highly reflective, deformed basal marker that we interpret to be the top of Tertiary volcanic rocks, overlain by a 120- to 300-m-thick suite of subhorizontal reflectors we interpret as Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine deposits. Three profiles image the principle active trace of the GVFS, which is a steeply dipping fault zone that offsets the volcanic rocks and the basin fill (Figures 4 & 5).

  2. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  3. Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  5. Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development.

  6. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics.

  7. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  8. Congenital uterine anomalies affecting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reichman, David E; Laufer, Marc R

    2010-04-01

    The following review seeks to summarise the current data regarding reproductive outcomes associated with congenital uterine anomalies. Such malformations originate from adverse embryologic events ranging from agenesis to lateral and vertical fusion defects. Associated renal anomalies are common both for the symmetric and asymmetric malformations. While fertility is minimally impacted upon by müllerian anomalies in most cases, such malformations have historically been associated with poor obstetric outcomes such as recurrent miscarriage, second trimester loss, preterm delivery, malpresentation and intrauterine foetal demise (IUFD). The following review delineates the existing literature regarding such outcomes and indicates therapies, where applicable, to optimise the care of such patients.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anterior segment is abnormal, leading to incomplete separation of the cornea from the iris or the ... anomaly type I is characterized by an incomplete separation of the cornea and iris and mild to ...

  10. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Congenital Anomalies of the Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, G.; Mongeau, M.; Moreault, P.; Dupuis, M.; Hebert, B.; Corriveau, C.

    1964-01-01

    As a preparatory step towards the development of a complete habilitation program for children with congenital limb anomalies associated with maternal ingestion of thalidomide, the medical records of all patients with congenital limb anomalies referred to the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal in the past decade were studied, and an examination and a thorough reassessment were made of 41 patients (21 males and 20 females). In this paper, Part I, the medical and prosthetic aspects are dealt with and a form of management is described for each type of anomaly. The conclusions are reached that prosthetic fitting and training should be initiated very early in life and that co-operation of the parent is essential to successful habilitation of a child with congenital limb anomalies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14154297

  12. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. PMID:25937473

  13. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  14. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations.

  15. Fretted Terrain Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows shallow tributary valleys in the Ismenius Lacus fretted terrain region of northern Arabia Terra. These valleys exhibit a variety of typical fretted terrain valley wall and floor textures, including a lineated, pitted material somewhat reminiscent of the surface of a brain. Origins for these features are still being debated within the Mars science community; there are no clear analogs to these landforms on Earth. This image is located near 39.9oN, 332.1oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  16. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  17. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring a randomized controlled trial to learn more about the best ... recently called attention to Valley fever and this randomized controlled trial . How is Valley fever treated? For ...

  18. Rippled Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a ripple-covered valley floor in the Hyblaeus Fossae region. Winds blowing up and down the length of the valley have helped to concentrate windblown grains to form these large, megaripples.

    Location near: 26.3oN, 225.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  19. Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

  20. Evolution of centromeric retrotransposons in grasses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anupma; Presting, Gernot G

    2014-06-01

    Centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) constitute a family of plant retroelements, some of which have the ability to target their insertion almost exclusively to the functional centromeres. Our exhaustive analysis of CR family members in four grass genomes revealed not only horizontal transfer (HT) of CR elements between the oryzoid and panicoid grass lineages but also their subsequent recombination with endogenous elements that in some cases created prolific recombinants in foxtail millet and sorghum. HT events are easily identifiable only in cases where host genome divergence significantly predates HT, thus documented HT events likely represent only a fraction of the total. If the more difficult to detect ancient HT events occurred at frequencies similar to those observable in present day grasses, the extant long terminal repeat retrotransposons represent the mosaic products of HT and recombination that are optimized for retrotransposition in their host genomes. This complicates not only phylogenetic analysis but also the establishment of a meaningful retrotransposon nomenclature, which we have nevertheless attempted to implement here. In contrast to the plant-centric naming convention used currently for CR elements, we classify elements primarily based on their phylogenetic relationships regardless of host plant, using the exhaustively studied maize elements assigned to six different subfamilies as a standard. The CR2 subfamily is the most widely distributed of the six CR subfamilies discovered in grass genomes to date and thus the most likely to play a functional role at grass centromeres. PMID:24814286

  1. Evolution of Centromeric Retrotransposons in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anupma; Presting, Gernot G.

    2014-01-01

    Centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) constitute a family of plant retroelements, some of which have the ability to target their insertion almost exclusively to the functional centromeres. Our exhaustive analysis of CR family members in four grass genomes revealed not only horizontal transfer (HT) of CR elements between the oryzoid and panicoid grass lineages but also their subsequent recombination with endogenous elements that in some cases created prolific recombinants in foxtail millet and sorghum. HT events are easily identifiable only in cases where host genome divergence significantly predates HT, thus documented HT events likely represent only a fraction of the total. If the more difficult to detect ancient HT events occurred at frequencies similar to those observable in present day grasses, the extant long terminal repeat retrotransposons represent the mosaic products of HT and recombination that are optimized for retrotransposition in their host genomes. This complicates not only phylogenetic analysis but also the establishment of a meaningful retrotransposon nomenclature, which we have nevertheless attempted to implement here. In contrast to the plant-centric naming convention used currently for CR elements, we classify elements primarily based on their phylogenetic relationships regardless of host plant, using the exhaustively studied maize elements assigned to six different subfamilies as a standard. The CR2 subfamily is the most widely distributed of the six CR subfamilies discovered in grass genomes to date and thus the most likely to play a functional role at grass centromeres. PMID:24814286

  2. Thunderstorm asthma due to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C

    1998-08-01

    It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the 1987/1989 Melbourne and 1994 London thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics. However, grass pollen is too large to gain access into the lower airways to trigger the asthmatic response and micronic particles <5 micro m are required to trigger the response. We have successfully shown that ryegrass pollen ruptures upon contact with water, releasing about 700 starch granules which not only contain the major allergen Lol p 5, but have been shown to trigger both in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. Furthermore, starch granules have been isolated from the Melbourne atmosphere with 50-fold increase following rainfall. Free grass pollen allergen molecules have been recently shown to interact with other particles including diesel exhaust carbon particles, providing a further transport mechanism for allergens to gain access into lower airways. In this review, implication and evidence for grass pollen as a trigger of thunderstorm-associated asthma is presented. Such information is critical and mandatory for patient education and training in their allergen avoidance programs. More importantly, patients with serum IgE to group 5 allergens are at high risk of allergic asthma, especially those not protected by medication. Therefore, a system to determine the total atmospheric allergen load and devising of an effective asthma risk forecast is urgently needed and is subject to current investigation.

  3. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.

    On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.

    The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore

  4. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  5. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  6. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  7. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-03-26

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines.

  8. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  9. Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R B; Thunem, N Y; Anderson-Redick, S

    1989-01-01

    The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System was started in 1966 in response to the thalidomide tragedy earlier in the decade. It was one of four provincial surveillance systems on which the federal government relied for baseline statistics of congenital anomalies. The government now collects data from six provinces and one territory. The Alberta Congenital Anomaly Surveillance System originally depended on three types of notification to the Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Health, Government of Alberta: birth notice and certificates of death and stillbirth; increased sources of ascertainment have greatly improved data quality. We present the data for 1980-86 and compare the prevalence rates of selected anomalies with the rates from three other surveillance systems. Surveillance systems do not guarantee that a new teratogen will be detected, but they are extremely valuable for testing hypotheses regarding causation. At the very least they provide baseline data with which to compare any deviation or trend. For many, if not most, congenital anomalies total prevention is not possible; however, surveillance systems can be used to measure progress in prevention. PMID:2819634

  10. Non-relativistic scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2016-06-01

    We extend the cohomological analysis in arXiv:1410.5831 of anisotropic Lifshitz scale anomalies. We consider non-relativistic theories with a dynamical critical exponent z = 2 with or without non-relativistic boosts and a particle number symmetry. We distinguish between cases depending on whether the time direction does or does not induce a foliation structure. We analyse both 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions. In 1 + 1 dimensions we find no scale anomalies with Galilean boost symmetries. The anomalies in 2 + 1 dimensions with Galilean boosts and a foliation structure are all B-type and are identical to the Lifshitz case in the purely spatial sector. With Galilean boosts and without a foliation structure we find also an A-type scale anomaly. There is an infinite ladder of B-type anomalies in the absence of a foliation structure with or without Galilean boosts. We discuss the relation between the existence of a foliation structure and the causality of the field theory.

  11. Astrometric solar-system anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is reportedly increasing by about 15 cm yr-1. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists, including us, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  12. Interpretation of Local Gravity Anomalies in Northern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revetta, F. A.

    2004-05-01

    About 10,000 new gravity measurements at a station spacing of 1 to 2 Km were made in the Adirondack Mountains, Lake Champlain Valley, St. Lawrence River Valley and Tug Hill Plateau. These closely spaced gravity measurements were compiled to construct computer contoured gravity maps of the survey areas. The gravity measurements reveal local anomalies related to seismicity, faults, mineral resources and gas fields that are not seen in the regional gravity mapping. In northern New York gravity and seismicity maps indicate epicenters are concentrated in areas of the most pronounced gravity anomalies along steep gravity gradients. Zones of weakness along the contacts of these lithologies of different density could possibly account for the earthquakes in this high stress area. Also, a computer contoured gravity map of the 5.3 magnitude Au Sable Forks earthquake of April 20, 2002 indicates the epicenter lies along a north-south trending gravity gradient produced by a high angle fault structure separating a gravity low in the west from high gravity in the east. In the St. Lawrence Valley, the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone, a major northeast trending structural boundary between the Adirondack Highlands and Northwest Lowlands, is represented as a steep gravity gradient extending into the eastern shore of Lake Ontario. At Russell, New York near the CCMZ, a small circular shaped gravity high coincides with a cluster of earthquakes. The coincidence of the epicenters over the high may indicate stress amplification at the boundary of a gabbro pluton. The Morristown fault located in the Morristown Quadrangle in St. Lawrence County produces both gravity and magnetic anomalies due to Precambrian Basement faulting. This faulting indicates control of the Morristown fault in the overlying Paleozoics by the Precambrian faults. Gravity and magnetic anomalies also occur over proposed extensions of the Gloucester and Winchester Springs faults into northern New York. Gravity and magnetic

  13. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region.

  14. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  15. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  16. Paradise Valley Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Paradise Valley Community College (PVCC), located in Phoenix, Arizona, is part of the Maricopa County Community College District (MCCCD). PVCC was founded in 1987 and in the fall of 2007 served 8,739 students in credit courses. Since 1997, PVCC has been on a quest to become a "more learning centered" college. As a result of placing student…

  17. Rift Valley Fever Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  18. GRASSIUS: a platform for comparative regulatory genomics across the grasses.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Alper; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Fuentes, Bernardo Garcia; Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Janies, Daniel; Gray, John; Grotewold, Erich

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in gene regulatory networks and interactions between TFs and their target genes furnish spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression. Establishing the architecture of regulatory networks requires gathering information on TFs, their targets in the genome, and the corresponding binding sites. We have developed GRASSIUS (Grass Regulatory Information Services) as a knowledge-based Web resource that integrates information on TFs and gene promoters across the grasses. In its initial implementation, GRASSIUS consists of two separate, yet linked, databases. GrassTFDB holds information on TFs from maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), and rice (Oryza sativa). TFs are classified into families and phylogenetic relationships begin to uncover orthologous relationships among the participating species. This database also provides a centralized clearinghouse for TF synonyms in the grasses. GrassTFDB is linked to the grass TFome collection, which provides clones in recombination-based vectors corresponding to full-length open reading frames for a growing number of grass TFs. GrassPROMDB contains promoter and cis-regulatory element information for those grass species and genes for which enough data are available. The integration of GrassTFDB and GrassPROMDB will be accomplished through GrassRegNet as a first step in representing the architecture of grass regulatory networks. GRASSIUS can be accessed from www.grassius.org.

  19. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A; Storlie, Curtis B; Sandine, Gary; Hagberg, Aric A; Fisk, Michael

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  20. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    PubMed

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  1. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  2. Mapping the Extent of the Lovejoy Basalt Beneath the Sacramento Valley, CA, Using Aeromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Springhorn, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Lovejoy Basalt is a distinctive Miocene (~16 Ma) unit that erupted from Thompson Peak in the northeast Sierra Nevada, flowed southwest across the Sierra Nevada into the Sacramento Valley. It crops out in a few places in Sacramento Valley: (1) near Chico and Oroville on the east side of the valley, (2) Orland Buttes on the west side, and (3) Putnam Peak, some 250 km southwest of Thompson Peak. The basalt is also encountered in drill holes, but its extent is not entirely known. The Lovejoy Basalt is strongly magnetic and, in general, reversely magnetized, making it an excellent target for aeromagnetic mapping. Recently acquired aeromagnetic data (flight line spacing 800 m at an altitude of 240 m) indicate a characteristic, sinuous, short-wavelength magnetic pattern associated with outcrops and known subcrops of Lovejoy Basalt. Filtering of these data to enhance negative, short-wavelength anomalies defines two large bands of negative anomalies that trend southwest of Chico and Oroville and appear to coalesce about 25 km north of Sutter Buttes. Another band of negative anomalies extends north of the junction roughly along the Sacramento River 40 km to Deer Creek. The anomalies become more subdued to the north, suggesting that the Lovejoy thins to the north. Aeromagnetic data also indicate a large subcrop of Lovejoy Basalt that extends 25 km north-northeast from exposures at Orland Buttes. Driller logs from gas and water wells confirm our mapping of Lovejoy within these areas. The sinuous magnetic lows are not continuous south of Sutter Buttes, but form isolated patches that are aligned in a north-south direction south of the concealed Colusa Dome to Putnam Peak and an east-west, 20-km-long band about 15 km south of Sutter Buttes. Other reversed anomalies in the Sacramento Valley coincide with volcanic necks in the Sutter Buttes and Colusa Dome; these produce semicircular anomalies that are distinct from those caused by the Lovejoy Basalt.

  3. Boundary anomalies and correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-08-01

    It was shown recently that boundary terms of conformal anomalies recover the universal contribution to the entanglement entropy and also play an important role in the boundary monotonicity theorem of odd-dimensional quantum field theories. Motivated by these results, we investigate relationships between boundary anomalies and the stress tensor correlation functions in conformal field theories. In particular, we focus on how the conformal Ward identity and the renormalization group equation are modified by boundary central charges. Renormalized stress tensors induced by boundary Weyl invariants are also discussed, with examples in spherical and cylindrical geometries.

  4. Genetic basis for vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kirkorian, A Yasmine; Grossberg, Anna L; Püttgen, Katherine B

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental genetics of many isolated vascular anomalies and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies have been elucidated. The rate of discovery continues to increase, expanding our understanding of the underlying interconnected molecular pathways. This review summarizes genetic and clinical information on the following diagnoses: capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, arteriovenous malformation, PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), Proteus syndrome, SOLAMEN syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, congenital hemangioma, verrucous venous malformation, cutaneomucosal venous malformation, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, Parkes-Weber syndrome, and Maffucci syndrome. PMID:27607321

  5. Analysis of DSN software anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galorath, D. D.; Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Reifer, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    A categorized data base of software errors which were discovered during the various stages of development and operational use of the Deep Space Network DSN/Mark 3 System was developed. A study team identified several existing error classification schemes (taxonomies), prepared a detailed annotated bibliography of the error taxonomy literature, and produced a new classification scheme which was tuned to the DSN anomaly reporting system and encapsulated the work of others. Based upon the DSN/RCI error taxonomy, error data on approximately 1000 reported DSN/Mark 3 anomalies were analyzed, interpreted and classified. Next, error data are summarized and histograms were produced highlighting key tendencies.

  6. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Xavier E.

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

  7. Identification of Thermally Driven Valley Wind From Ground Based and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampanelli, G.; de Franceschi, M.; Zardi, D.

    A peculiar valley wind, the so called Ora del Garda, has been adopted as a test case of thermally driven wind. The latter occurs on fair weather days, when it starts blowing during the late morning along the northern shore of Garda Lake as a typical lake breeze and thence channels in the Sarca Valley and Lakes Valley nearby, until it finally reaches, through an elevated saddle, the River Adige Valley, where it appears as a strong gusty wind. A statistical analysis of time series recorded by a network of meteorological ground station located in the above valleys allowed detailed identifi- cation of peculiar features. Further understanding has been gained from specific field observations including both ground based and airborne measurements performed with a light airplane within and above the valley boundary layer. A geostatistical analy- sis (kriging) of data allowed evaluation of vertical profiles at various locations. Deviations from the averaged vertical profile due to horizontal temperature gradients within the valley atmosphere were also evaluated and the underlying statistical struc- ture estimated in terms of suitable variogram function of the monitored variables. Fi- nally the procedure allowed an estimate potential temperature anomalies throughout the valley volume and the identification of basic thermal structures within the convec- tive boundary layer.

  8. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  9. Science guide for the Long Valley Caldera deep hole

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, J.B.; Eichelberger, J.C.

    1989-05-01

    The Magma Energy Program of the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Technology Division, is planning to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in Long Valley Caldera, California, in September 1988. The location of the well is in the central part of the caldera, coincident with a large number of shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies identified through many independent investigations. Results from the hole will permit the following: direct investigation of the geophysical anomalies interpreted to be magma; investigation of the patterns and conditions of deep fluid circulation and heat transport below the caldera floor; determination of the amount of collapse and subsequent resurgence of the central portion of Long Valley caldera; and determination of the intrusion history of the central plutonic complex beneath the caldera, and establishment of the relationship of intrusive to eruptive events. The hole will thus provide a stringent test of the hypothesis that magma is still present within the central plutonic complex. If the interpretation of geophysical anomalies is confirmed, the hole will provide the first observations of the environment near a large silicic magma chamber. 80 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Wheatgrass and Wildrye Grasses (Triticeae) (Book Chapter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheatgrass and wildrye grasses are valued throughout the temperature regions of the world as forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife as well as for other qualities relating to aesthetics, soil stabilization, weed control, and watershed management in semiarid environments. These perennial gras...

  11. Grass Woman Stories. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground, Mary

    During her lifetime Mary Ground, whose Indian name is Grass Woman, has experienced extreme changes in the life of Blackfeet Indians. Born in 1883, she remembers the travois and teepee days as well as the change to reservation life when the reservation was a fenced compound patrolled by the U.S. military. She has seen the decline in the use of…

  12. Challenging Cancer at the Grass Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute created the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, composed of four similar projects that focus on increasing screening for cervical and breast cancer among low-income, older women. The program relies on community coalitions that develop innovative grass roots methods to spread the message about the importance of…

  13. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

  14. Grassroots e-floras in the Poaceae: growing GrassBase and GrassWorld

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, Maria S.; Clayton, Derek; Simon, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract GrassBase and GrassWorld are the largest structured descriptive datasets in plants, publishing descriptions of 11,290 species in the DELTA format. Twenty nine years of data compilation and maintenance have created a dataset which now underpins much of the Poaceae bioinformatics. GrassBase and GrassWorld can continue to grow productively if the proliferation of alternative classifications and datasets can be brought together into a consensus system. If the datasets are reconciled instead of diverging further apart a long term cumulative process can bring knowledge together for great future utility. This paper presents the Poaceae as the first and largest model system for e-taxonomy and the study of classification development in plants. The origin, development, and content of both datasets is described and key contributors are noted. The challenges of alternative classifications, data divergence, collaborative contribution mechanisms, and software are outlined. PMID:25941449

  15. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  16. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass... grasses listed in § 201.2(h). (a) Cereals: Agrotricum, barley, oat, rye, mountain rye, wheat,...

  17. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass... grasses listed in § 201.2(h). (a) Cereals: Agrotricum, barley, oat, rye, mountain rye, wheat,...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  1. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass... grasses listed in § 201.2(h). (a) Cereals: Agrotricum, barley, oat, rye, mountain rye, wheat,...

  2. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass... grasses listed in § 201.2(h). (a) Cereals: Agrotricum, barley, oat, rye, mountain rye, wheat,...

  3. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass... grasses listed in § 201.2(h). (a) Cereals: Agrotricum, barley, oat, rye, mountain rye, wheat,...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  5. Isotopic signatures of vegetation change on northern mixed grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National analyses have shown invasion of northern mixed-grass prairie by nonnative grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Invasion of native prairie by nonnative grasses may compromise ecosystem function and limit potential ecosystem services. Recent data from a long-term (100 year) ...

  6. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  7. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  8. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  9. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  10. Thunderstorm asthma due to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C

    1998-08-01

    It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the 1987/1989 Melbourne and 1994 London thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics. However, grass pollen is too large to gain access into the lower airways to trigger the asthmatic response and micronic particles <5 micro m are required to trigger the response. We have successfully shown that ryegrass pollen ruptures upon contact with water, releasing about 700 starch granules which not only contain the major allergen Lol p 5, but have been shown to trigger both in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. Furthermore, starch granules have been isolated from the Melbourne atmosphere with 50-fold increase following rainfall. Free grass pollen allergen molecules have been recently shown to interact with other particles including diesel exhaust carbon particles, providing a further transport mechanism for allergens to gain access into lower airways. In this review, implication and evidence for grass pollen as a trigger of thunderstorm-associated asthma is presented. Such information is critical and mandatory for patient education and training in their allergen avoidance programs. More importantly, patients with serum IgE to group 5 allergens are at high risk of allergic asthma, especially those not protected by medication. Therefore, a system to determine the total atmospheric allergen load and devising of an effective asthma risk forecast is urgently needed and is subject to current investigation. PMID:9693274

  11. Valley South of Cerberus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-413, 6 July 2003

    To date, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle system has only imaged about 3% of the martian surface. Thus, a new discovery can come at any time, as additional places are covered every day. This MOC image shows a portion of a shallow valley south of Cerberus that was just discovered in April 2003. The valley may have been cut but torrents of mud-laden water; alternatively, an extremely fluid lava was involved. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the left. North is toward the top/upper right. The picture is located near 4.6oN, 204.3oW.

  12. The Owens Valley LWA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallinan, Gregg

    2014-04-01

    The Owens Valley LWA is a new array of 256 dual polarization antennas at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). It hosts the LEDA correlator, which provides full cross-correlation capability and enables instantaneous snapshot imaging of most of the viewable sky, as well as a dedicated back-end for transient searching. Developed in collaboration between Caltech, JPL and the LEDA and LWA consortia, the array targets the 28-88 MHz band with primary focus on high redshift HI (Dark Ages), radio transients (particularly radio exoplanets), solar dynamic imaging spectroscopy and measurement of coronal magnetic fields, and production of a full-Stokes, low frequency, all-sky catalog. The array comprises a 230m diameter dense core and outriggers at 365m capable of imaging with a resolution of 1 degree. Over the next 12 months, 32 additional antennas will be installed, powered by solar panels and serviced by optical fiber, with the goal of delivering instantaneous all-sky images with ~10' resolution. The associated data rate for the latter array will be extremely large, at 1.5 GB per integration, corresponding to 45,000 baselines x 4 polarizations x 2000 channels (60 MHz). Our collaboration is also working towards a much larger next generation array for study of HI and transients, sited at or near the Owens Valley observatory. I will briefly discuss some of the related ongoing technical development and data processing challenges.

  13. Fretted Terrain Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 December 2003 This December 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows lineated textures on the floor of a valley in the Deuteronilus region of Mars. Deuteronilus, and neighboring Protonilus and Nilosyrtis, have been known since the Mariner 9 mission as regions of 'fretted terrain.' In this context, 'fretted' does not mean 'worried,' it means 'eroded.' The fretted terrains of Mars are regions along the boundary between cratered highlands and northern lowland plains that have been broken-down into mesas, buttes, and valleys. On the floors of some of these valleys occurs a distinctive lineated and pitted texture--like the example shown here. The cause of the textures is not known, although for decades some scientists have speculated that ice is involved. While this is possible, it is far from a demonstrated fact. This picture is located near 40.1oN, 335.1oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  14. Giant negative magnetoresistance induced by the chiral anomaly in individual Cd3As2 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Li-Xian; Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Jian; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-12-01

    Dirac electronic materials beyond graphene and topological insulators have recently attracted considerable attention. Cd3As2 is a Dirac semimetal with linear dispersion along all three momentum directions and can be viewed as a three-dimensional analogue of graphene. By breaking of either time-reversal symmetry or spatial inversion symmetry, the Dirac semimetal is believed to transform into a Weyl semimetal with an exotic chiral anomaly effect, however the experimental evidence of the chiral anomaly is still missing in Cd3As2. Here we show a large negative magnetoresistance with magnitude of -63% at 60 K and -11% at 300 K in individual Cd3As2 nanowires. The negative magnetoresistance can be modulated by gate voltage and temperature through tuning the density of chiral states at the Fermi level and the inter-valley scatterings between Weyl nodes. The results give evidence of the chiral anomaly effect and are valuable for understanding the Weyl fermions in Dirac semimetals.

  15. Geophysical setting of the Wabash Valley fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Ravat, D.

    1997-01-01

    Interpretation of existing regional magnetic and gravity data and new local high-resolution aeromagnetic data provides new insights on the tectonic history and structural development of the Wabash Valley Fault System in Illinois and Indiana. Enhancement of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies reveal numerous NW- to NNE-trending ultramafic dikes and six intrusive complexes (including those at Hicks Dome and Omaha Dome). Inversion models indicate that the interpreted dikes are narrow (???3 m), lie at shallow depths (500 km long and generally >50 km wide) and with deep basins (locally >3 km thick), the ancestral Wabash Valley faults express, in comparison, minor tectonic structures and probably do not represent a failed rift arm. There is a lack of any obvious relation between the Wabash Valley Fault System and the epicenters of historic and prehistoric earthquakes. Five prehistoric earthquakes lie conspicuously near structures associated with the Commerce geophysical lineament, a NE-trending magnetic and gravity lineament lying oblique to the Wabash Valley Fault System and possibly extending over 600 km from NE Arkansas to central Indiana.

  16. An uncommon congenital anomaly of the ribs

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Zunimol, Mohamed Puthiyaveettil

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic rib is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the ribs. Here, we present the case of a 10-year-old boy with asthma who, on routine evaluation, was found to have this anomaly. PMID:27051123

  17. MAGSAT scalar and vector anomaly data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Efforts on the analysis of MAGSAT scalar anomaly data, the application of the scalar analysis results to three component vector data, and the comparison of MAGSAT data with corresponding MAGNET aeromagnetic and free air gravity anomaly data are briefly described.

  18. Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium: Central Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Burow, Karen R.; Landon, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco2 concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential longterm effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world.

  19. Effects of groundwater development on uranium: Central Valley, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Bryant C; Fram, Miranda S; Belitz, Kenneth; Burow, Karen R; Landon, Matthew K

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco(2) concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential long-term effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world. PMID:19788559

  20. Effects of groundwater development on uranium: Central Valley, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Bryant C; Fram, Miranda S; Belitz, Kenneth; Burow, Karen R; Landon, Matthew K

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco(2) concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential long-term effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world.

  1. Ground magnetometer survey in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trible, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    A reconnaissance magnetometer survey was conducted with both total- and vertical-field magnetometers. The large, sharp, narrow total magnetic anomalies observed over a zone of relict fumaroles in Broken Mountain Valley showed spectacular agreement with the surficial geology. Such a correlation is a strong indication that accumulations of magnetic minerals have been preserved along these fissure vents at shallow depths. Since large magnetic anomalies were measured near fumarolic markings along all of the traverses, it is proposed that the retention of sublimates along fumarolic vents is common throughout the Valley. The generally concentric contours of the vertical magnetic anomaly at the head of the Valley suggest that the dome of Novarupta is merely the surficial expression of a very massive conical-shaped intrusive centered just northeast of the dome. The magnetometer survey indicates that the pyroclastics in the Valley may be over 150 meters thick. Such an estimate is compatible with the volume of eruptive material needed to compensate for the subsidence surrounding Novarupta as well as a sizable amount of other regional subsidence.

  2. Nitrate and Pesticide Transport From Tile-Drained Fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, K. L.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Dragila, M. I.; Peachey, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    Tile drainage affects the hydrology and thus the solute transport on agricultural fields by increasing the volume of water that drains from the subsurface. Previous NAWQA studies have shown elevated nitrate levels in wells and high detection frequencies for selected pesticides in Willamette Valley streams. As a substantial area of Willamette Valley agricultural land is tile-drained, it is important to determine the role of tile drains in surface water and ground water pollution. Four fields in the Willamette Valley were instrumented to monitor tile effluent for two winter seasons. On two fields, surface runoff was also monitored for the second season. Field areas ranged from 3 to 30 acres and were cropped in grass, corn, or a grass/corn rotation. Tile effluent nitrate concentrations frequently exceeded 10 ppm on some fields. Flow-weighted averages for each field were 0.87 ppm and 1.36 ppm for two established grass fields, and 8.1 ppm and 14.4 ppm for grass fields that had recently grown corn. Mass losses ranged from 1.15%-6.45% of the applied nitrate through the tile drains. Diuron, Metolachlor, and Chlorpyrifos were tested in selected surface runoff and tile effluent samples. On one field, Metolachlor concentrations were similar in the tile drains and surface runoff. Concentrations in both sources were 10 times lower than the drinking water advisory for Metolachlor. In a second field, Chlorpyrifos concentrations were two orders of magnitude lower than drinking water advisories in both sources. On the same field, Diuron concentrations were significantly higher in the surface runoff than in the tile effluent. Diuron concentrations were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher during the first precipitation events after application in the surface runoff. On a third field, Diuron was at least 10 times lower than drinking water advisories in the tile effluent, with the highest concentrations found in samples collected within 21 days of pesticide application.

  3. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  4. Prevalence of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Thongudomporn, U; Freer, T J

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of dental anomalies including agenesis, crown shape, tooth position, root shape, and invagination were examined in 111 orthodontic patients; 74.77 per cent of the patients exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Invagination was found to be the most prevalent anomaly, whereas supernumerary teeth and root dilaceration were the least frequent anomalies. Dental invagination and short or blunt roots were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Implications for orthodontic treatment planning are discussed. PMID:9973708

  5. Loop anomalies in the causal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Dan-Radu

    2015-01-01

    We consider gauge models in the causal approach and study one-loop contributions to the chronological products and the anomalies they produce. We prove that in order greater than 4 there are no one-loop anomalies. Next we analyze one-loop anomalies in the second- and third-order of the perturbation theory. We prove that the even parity contributions (with respect to parity) do not produce anomalies; for the odd parity contributions we reobtain the well-known result.

  6. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  7. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  8. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID

  9. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars.

  10. Axial anomaly at arbitrary virtualities

    SciTech Connect

    Veretin, O.L.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1995-12-01

    The one-loop analytic expression for the axial-vector triangle diagram involving an anomaly is obtained for arbitrary virtualities of external momenta. The `t Hooft consistency principle is applied to the QCD sum rules for the first moment of the photon spin structure function g{sub l}{sup {gamma}}. It is shown that the contribution of the singlet axial current to the sum rules for g{sub l}{sup {gamma}} vanishes. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  12. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  13. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  14. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space {M} is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail {N}=(2,2) and {N}=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and {N}=2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For {N}=(2,2) theories in d = 2 and {N}=2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of {M} follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  15. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space $M$ is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail $N$ = (2; 2) and $N$ = (0; 2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and $N$ = 2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads tomore » new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is K ahler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing K ahler class. For $N$ = (2; 2) theories in d = 2 and N = 2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the K ahler potential of $M$ follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Ultimately, along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.« less

  16. Entanglement entropy and anomaly inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.

    2016-03-01

    We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on R1 ,2 in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1 +1 -dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with nontrivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entanglement spectrum. These results can be generally applied to 2 +1 -d topological phases of matter that have edge theories with gravitational anomalies, and provide a precise connection between the gravitational anomaly of the physical edge theory and the low-lying spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian.

  17. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  18. Flow Along Valley Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 May 2003

    Lines indicative of flow in a valley floor (east to west) cut across similar lines in a slightly smaller valley (southeast to northwest), indicating both that material flowed along the valley floor (as opposed to across it) and that relative flow ages may be determined from crosscutting relationships.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 39.6, Longitude 31.1East (328.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Association of azospirillum with grass roots.

    PubMed

    Umali-Garcia, M; Hubbell, D H; Gaskins, M H; Dazzo, F B

    1980-01-01

    The association between grass roots and Azospirillum brasilense Sp 7 was investigated by the Fahraeus slide technique, using nitrogen-free medium. Young inoculated roots of pearl millet and guinea grass produced more mucilaginous sheath (mucigel), root hairs, and lateral roots than did uninoculated sterile controls. The bacteria were found within the mucigel that accumulated on the root cap and along the root axes. Adherent bacteria were associated with granular material on root hairs and fibrillar material on undifferentiated epidermal cells. Significantly fewer numbers of azospirilla attached to millet root hairs when the roots were grown in culture medium supplemented with 5 mM potassium nitrate. Under these growth conditions, bacterial attachment to undifferentiated epidermal cells was unaffected. Aseptically collected root exudate from pearl millet contained substances which bound to azospirilla and promoted their adsorption to the root hairs. This activity was associated with nondialyzable and proteasesensitive substances in root exudate. Millet root hairs adsorbed azospirilla in significantly higher numbers than cells of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Azotobacter, Klebsiella, or Escherichia. Pectolytic activities, including pectin transeliminase and endopolygalacturonase, were detected in pure cultures of A. brasilense when this species was grown in a medium containing pectin. These studies describe colonization of grass root surfaces by A. brasilense and provide a possible explanation for the limited colonization of intercellular spaces of the outer root cortex.

  20. Regularization schemes and the multiplicative anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. S.

    1999-06-01

    Elizalde, Vanzo, and Zerbini have shown that the effective action of two free Euclidean scalar fields in flat space contains a `multiplicative anomaly' when ζ-function regularization is used. This is related to the Wodzicki residue. I show that there is no anomaly when using a wide range of other regularization schemes and that the anomaly can be removed by an unusual choice of renormalization scales. I define new types of anomalies and show that they have similar properties. Thus multiplicative anomalies encode no novel physics. They merely illustrate some dangerous aspects of ζ-function and Schwinger proper time regularization schemes.

  1. Library Cooperation at the Grass Roots: A Regional Intertype Library Network in the San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, R. Dean

    1979-01-01

    A small academic library's experience in a regional intertype library network had positive effects on interlibrary loan procedures and improved and promoted cooperation at the local level. The regional network relieves the burden on large research libraries and enables libraries with inadequate resources to provide better service to patrons.…

  2. Geology and thermal regime, geothermal test USA No. 11-36, Grass Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Walter R.; Koenig, James B.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of drilling of an 8,565 foot geothermal test near Leach Hot Springs, Pershing County, Nevada, by Sunoco Energy Development Company. USA No.11-36 is located 500 feet south and 500 feet east of the northwest corner of Section 36, T. 32 N., R. 38 E (Mount Diablo Meridian), elevation 4,573 feet. It was drilled between May 15 and July 2, 1980. USA No.11-36 was deemed unsuccessful, having encountered no temperature higher than 270 F and no significant permeability, and was plugged and abandoned without testing prior to releasing the rig.

  3. Congenital anomalies in the baboon (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Benjamin; Owston, Michael A.; Kumar, Shyamesh; Dick, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Background A comprehensive survey of the prevalence of congenital anomalies in baboons has not been previously reported. We report the congenital anomalies observed over a 26-year period in a large captive baboon colony. Methods A computer search was performed for all baboon congenital anomalies identified at necropsy and recorded on necropsy submissions. Results We identified 198 congenital anomalies in 166 baboons from 9,972 necropsies (1.66% of total necropsies). The nervous, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular systems were most commonly affected. The most common organs affected were the brain, bone, heart, testicle, kidney, penis, aorta, and skeletal muscle. The most frequent congenital anomalies were blindness, seizures, and hydrocephalus. Conclusions The baboon has an overall frequency of congenital anomalies similar to humans and other nonhuman primates. Although the most frequently affected systems are similar, congenital anomalies involving the digestive system appear to be less common in the baboon. PMID:21332757

  4. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  5. Transfer of Cs-137 from grass and wilted grass silage to milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vreman, K; van der Struijs, T D; van den Hoek, J; Berende, P L; Goedhart, P W

    1989-09-01

    Deposition of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Netherlands made it possible to collect contaminated fresh grass and first cut wilted grass silage. These contaminated roughages were used in transfer experiments with lactating dairy cows to determine transfer coefficients and half-lives for Cs-137 in milk. The experimental design was based on three consecutive periods: a preliminary period to determine the background concentration of the isotope in milk, a contamination period to determine the magnitude of accumulation and finally a depletion period to measure the rate at which the activity concentration of Cs-137 in milk declined after continuous feeding. The average transfer coefficient (Fmilk) for cows fed on contaminated dried grass under steady-state conditions was 0.002 d/kg and for cows fed on slightly contaminated second cut fresh grass 0.006 d/kg. The highest transfer coefficients were obtained for cows fed on contaminated grass silage for 119 days, which also included the dry period of about two months. For the first five days after calving the Fmilk values varied from 0.0066 to 0.0091 d/kg. There were no significant differences in transfer coefficients between cows in early lactation (third month of lactation), cows in late lactation (the last month of the lactation period) and cows fed on both contaminated grass silage and uncontaminated maize silage simultaneously. Half-life values for the rate of decline of the isotope in milk during the depletion period were estimated on the basis of a mathematical model with two exponential components. These components were characterized by half-lives of 0.5 to 3.5 days and 10 to 46 days. PMID:2814441

  6. Transfer of Cs-137 from grass and wilted grass silage to milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vreman, K; van der Struijs, T D; van den Hoek, J; Berende, P L; Goedhart, P W

    1989-09-01

    Deposition of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Netherlands made it possible to collect contaminated fresh grass and first cut wilted grass silage. These contaminated roughages were used in transfer experiments with lactating dairy cows to determine transfer coefficients and half-lives for Cs-137 in milk. The experimental design was based on three consecutive periods: a preliminary period to determine the background concentration of the isotope in milk, a contamination period to determine the magnitude of accumulation and finally a depletion period to measure the rate at which the activity concentration of Cs-137 in milk declined after continuous feeding. The average transfer coefficient (Fmilk) for cows fed on contaminated dried grass under steady-state conditions was 0.002 d/kg and for cows fed on slightly contaminated second cut fresh grass 0.006 d/kg. The highest transfer coefficients were obtained for cows fed on contaminated grass silage for 119 days, which also included the dry period of about two months. For the first five days after calving the Fmilk values varied from 0.0066 to 0.0091 d/kg. There were no significant differences in transfer coefficients between cows in early lactation (third month of lactation), cows in late lactation (the last month of the lactation period) and cows fed on both contaminated grass silage and uncontaminated maize silage simultaneously. Half-life values for the rate of decline of the isotope in milk during the depletion period were estimated on the basis of a mathematical model with two exponential components. These components were characterized by half-lives of 0.5 to 3.5 days and 10 to 46 days.

  7. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation.

  8. The anatomy of an anomaly. [data on LANDSAT multispectral band scanning in Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Marrs, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An anomalous tonal pattern, apparently associated with the Beaver Creek oil field in central Wyoming, was identified using an MSS Band 5 to 4 ratio image made from digital LANDSAT data. This pattern was attributed to an increase in iron with rocks and/or soils which might have resulted from escaping hydrocarbons. The nature of this anomaly was investigated by producing several different combinations of band ratios and by conducting appropriate field studies. The results indicated (1) the existence of a well-defined oval feature related to exposure of iron-cemented red sandstones in a badlands topography, (2) a broader iron-influenced anomaly surrounding this feature, and (3) a spectral response of the rocks, soils, and alluvium making up this iron-colored surface that is readily distinguishable from that of iron-rich reddish Chugwater siltstones exposed in nearby anticlines. The general pattern of the broad anomaly extending beyond the Beaver Creek field is controlled by several factors including variations in vegetation (mainly sage and tall grasses), soil composition and moisture, and topography in addition to variations in iron content of the rock materials. From the available evidence, there is no provable correlation between the oval or the broad anomalies and the distribution of petroleum-producing structures or possible surface alteration effects related to uranium deposits known to occur within this region.

  9. Developmental anomalies of the skin.

    PubMed

    Bellet, Jane Sanders

    2013-02-01

    This paper focuses on the diagnosis and management of developmental anomalies of the skin that may be seen early in life. Common locations include the head, nose, preauricular area of the face, neck, and spine. Those that occur in or near the midline can be more serious because of possible intracranial connections. Radiologic imaging of the areas of involvement is often important; computed tomography (CT) scans can delineate bony defects; whereas, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) more clearly defines intracranial connections. Occult spinal dysraphism can be suspected when certain cutaneous signs are present.

  10. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

    2012-06-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

  11. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  12. ISHM Anomaly Lexicon for Rocket Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Buchanan, Aubri; Hensarling, Paula L.; Morris, Jonathan; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a comprehensive capability. An ISHM system must detect anomalies, identify causes of such anomalies, predict future anomalies, help identify consequences of anomalies for example, suggested mitigation steps. The system should also provide users with appropriate navigation tools to facilitate the flow of information into and out of the ISHM system. Central to the ability of the ISHM to detect anomalies is a clearly defined catalog of anomalies. Further, this lexicon of anomalies must be organized in ways that make it accessible to a suite of tools used to manage the data, information and knowledge (DIaK) associated with a system. In particular, it is critical to ensure that there is optimal mapping between target anomalies and the algorithms associated with their detection. During the early development of our ISHM architecture and approach, it became clear that a lexicon of anomalies would be important to the development of critical anomaly detection algorithms. In our work in the rocket engine test environment at John C. Stennis Space Center, we have access to a repository of discrepancy reports (DRs) that are generated in response to squawks identified during post-test data analysis. The DR is the tool used to document anomalies and the methods used to resolve the issue. These DRs have been generated for many different tests and for all test stands. The result is that they represent a comprehensive summary of the anomalies associated with rocket engine testing. Fig. 1 illustrates some of the data that can be extracted from a DR. Such information includes affected transducer channels, narrative description of the observed anomaly, and the steps used to correct the problem. The primary goal of the anomaly lexicon development efforts we have undertaken is to create a lexicon that could be used in support of an associated health assessment database system (HADS) co-development effort. There are a number of significant

  13. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  14. Multimodality imaging of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Vascular malformations and hemangiomas are common in children but remain a source of confusion during diagnosis, in part because of the lack of a uniform terminology. With the existing treatments for hemangiomas and vascular malformations, it is important to make the correct diagnosis initially to prevent adverse physical and emotional sequelae in not only the child but also the family. The diagnosis of vascular malformations is made primarily by the clinician and based on the physical exam. Imaging is carried out using predominantly ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are complementary modalities. In most cases of vascular anomalies, US is the first line of imaging as it is readily available, less expensive, lacks ionizing radiation and does not require sedation. MRI is also of great help for further characterizing the lesions. Conventional arteriography is reserved for cases that require therapeutic intervention, more commonly for arteriovenous malformations. Radiographs usually play no role in diagnosing vascular anomalies in children. In this article, the author describes the terminology and types of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and their clinical, histological features, as well as the imaging approach and appearance.

  15. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Long Valley Coring Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John; Finger, John; McConnel, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, the California Energy Commission (CEC) agreed to provide funding for Phase III continued drilling of the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) near Mammoth Lakes, CA, from its present depth. The CEC contribution of $1 million completes a funding package of $2 million from a variety of sources, which will allow the well to be cored continuously to a depth of between 11,500 and 12,500 feet. The core recovered from Phase III will be crucial to understanding the origin and history of the hydrothermal systems responsible for the filling of fractures in the basement rock. The borehole may penetrate the metamorphic roof of the large magmatic complex that has fed the volcanism responsible for the caldera and subsequent activity.

  17. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  18. Microwave Scattering Model for Grass Blade Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, James M.; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic scattering solution for a grass blade with complex cross-section geometry is considered. It is assumed that the blade cross section is electrically small, but its length is large compared to the incident wavelength. In a recent study it has been shown that the scattering solution for such problems, in the form of a polarizability tensor, can be obtained using the low-frequency approximation in conjunction with the method of moments. In addition, the study shows that the relationship between the polarizability tensor of a dielectric cylinder and its dielectric constant can be approximated by a simple algebraic expression. The results of this study are used to show that this algebraic approximation is valid also for cylinders with cross sections the shape of grass blades, providing that proper values am selected for each of three constants appearing in the expression. These constants are dependent on cylinder shape, and if the relationship between the constants and the three parameters describing a grass blade shape can be determined, an algebraic approximation relating polarizability tensor to blade shape, as well as dielectric constant, can be formed. Since the elements of the polarizability tensor are dependent on only these parameters, this algebraic approximation can replace the cumbersome method of moments model. A conjugate gradient method is then implemented to correctly determine the three constants of the algebraic approximation for each blade shape. A third-order polynomial fit to the data is then determined for each constant, thus providing a complete analytic replacement to the numerical (moment method) scattering model. Comparisons of this approximation to the numerical model show an average error of less than 3%.

  19. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Camara, Paulo E. A. S.; Rudall, Paula J.; Ladd, Philip; Malcomber, Simon T.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Doust, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear “front” and “back;” this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern. PMID:23898335

  20. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  1. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  2. Assessing Fractional Tree, Grass, and Bare Soil Cover from NDVI and Rainfall Time Series along the Kalahari Transect, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, T. M.; Albertson, J. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Williams, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    Savanna ecosystems are water-limited, a characteristic that can be exploited to estimate fractional cover of trees, grass, and bare soil over large-scale areas from synthesis of remote sensing and rainfall measurements. A method is presented to estimate fractional cover components along the Kalahari Transect (KT), an aridity gradient in southern Africa, based upon the differing ways in which grasses and trees respond to rainfall. Mean wet season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the sensitivity of the NDVI to variation in wet season rainfall are used as input into a linear unmixing model, and end-members for this analysis are extracted on the basis of best fit to the observed data. The end-members for the mixing analysis are consistent with the qualitative characteristics of trees (high NDVI, low sensitivity of NDVI to interannual variations in rainfall), bare soil (low NDVI, low sensitivity), and the transient grass/ bare soil area (moderate NDVI, high sensitivity). Sensitivity of NDVI to rainfall was based upon the relationship between NDVI and the standardized anomalies, or z-score, of the wet season precipitation, resulting in a 22% improvement in the number of significant relationships (p<0.1) compared with those found for NDVI and the raw precipitation. The unmixing model yields a decrease in tree fractional cover that corresponds to the north-south decrease in mean wet season precipitation from 1600 mm to 300 mm along the KT. Potential grass cover area is limited by the tree fractional cover on the wetter end of the transect, peaks at approximately 450 mm of mean wet season rainfall, and is limited by rainfall on the more arid portion of the transect. With NDVI for grass inferred from the data, predictions of yearly tree, grass, and bare soil fractional cover can be derived. No calibration or training sets were required for this unmixing procedure, and an additional advantage of this method over traditional unmixing approaches is that cover

  3. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  4. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  5. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  6. Vascular anomalies: differential diagnosis and mimickers.

    PubMed

    Garzon, Maria C; Weitz, Nicole; Powell, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Vascular anomalies are very common in children and encompass a wide spectrum of diseases. Many vascular anomalies can be mistaken for infantile hemangioma (IH). In addition, there is a variety of rare disorders including benign and malignant tumors that may mimic IH and other types of vascular anomalies. Understanding the clinical features, natural history, and typical clinical course of different types of vascular anomalies is essential in order to make the correct diagnosis and guide management. Radiologic imaging plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis; and when the diagnosis remains in doubt, a biopsy performed by a surgical specialist with expertise may prove to be lifesaving. PMID:27607326

  7. The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, G.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

  8. Satellite Magnetic Anomalies of Africa and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data of Africa, Europe, and adjacent marine areas were reduced to the pole assuming a constant inducing Earth's magnetic field of 60,000 nT. This process leads to a consistent anomaly data set free from marked variations in directional and intensity effects of the Earth's magnetic field over this extensive region. The resulting data are correlated with long wave length-pass filtered free-air gravity anomalies; regional heat flow, and tectonic data to investigate magatectonic elements and the region's geologic history. Magnetic anomalies are related to both ancient as well as more recent Cenozoic structural features.

  9. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  10. Galilean anomalies and their effect on hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash

    2016-03-01

    We study flavor and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to the relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the flavor and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular, the Milne boost symmetry remains nonanomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to Galilean fluids, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to the Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids, to include torsion and a conserved spin current in the vielbein formalism. Interestingly, we find that even in the absence of spin current and torsion the entropy currents in the two formalisms are different: while the usual entropy current gets a contribution from the gravitational anomaly, the entropy current in the vielbein formalism does not have any anomaly-induced part.

  11. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  12. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Greenhouse-level screening for short- and intermediate-rotation grasses included further trials with legume species as potential nitrogen sources for the tropical grasses. Yields from four indigenous legumes were appreciably higher when planted in spring (May) than when planted in autumn (November). Initial data were recorded from second generation energy cane studies established during 1980. Controlled variables include varieties, harvest interval, and nitrogen input. Yield data at 6 months indicate high but essentially equal growth rates among all varieties and N-variables. This is attributed to the use of a land rotavator during seedbed preparation - the first such application of this implement on Lajas Valley soils. Total green weights were in the order of 50 to 60 tons/acre, and millable stem weights ranged from 33 to 37 tons/acre, at the 6-months harvest. Dry matter yields ranged from 8 to 11 tons/acre. Juice quality values indicated a minimal sugar content at this stage of maturity. Fiber values ranged from 7 to 14%. Field-scale studies were continued at the Hatillo demonstration site on the humid north coast and in the semi-arid Lajas Valley. For the 6-months harvest at Hatillo, total green weights for all treatments averaged 38.4 tons/acre. Variety US 67-22-2 produced 50.2 tons/acre. Millable cane yields averaged 25.3 tons/acre for all treatments and 34.7 tons/acre for variety US 67-22.2.

  13. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  14. Classical anomalies for spinning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Jorge; Plyushchay, Mikhail

    1998-02-01

    We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D Berezin-Marinov (BM), Barducci-Casalbuoni-Lusanna (BCL) and Cortés-Plyushchay-Velázquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P, T-invariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge symmetry characterized by the opposite coupling constants of spin s = + {1}/{2} and s = - {1}/{2} states has a natural classical analog in the CPV model but can be reproduced in the BM and BCL models in an obscure and rather artificial form. We also show that the BM and BCL models quantum mechanically are equivalent in any odd-dimensional space-time, but describe different quantum systems in even space-time dimensions.

  15. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  16. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Magnetic Strata From Aeromagnetic Anomalies: The Deformed Neroly Formation South of Mt. Diablo, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachens, R. C.; Simpson, R. W.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    We apply direct inversion of aeromagnetic anomalies to analyze the subsurface 3D shape of the highly magnetic Miocene Neroly Formation, which consists largely of medium to coarse-grained andesitic sandstones containing abundant magnetite. The Neroly Formation is widespread in the eastern San Francisco Bay region, and locally is tightly folded and disrupted by faulting in the compressional regime related to the left-stepping (restraining) connection between the strike-slip Greenville and Concord Faults. The inversion technique is based on the conversion of the anomalies produced by a magnetic layer to their equivalent magnetic potential (psuedogravity) anomalies, manipulation of these anomalies to produce anomalies that would result from a half-space with a variable-depth top having the shape of the top surface of the layer, and then inverting these pseudogravity anomalies for the shape of that top surface. Assumptions include a constant layer thickness, uniform magnetization which implies a constant pseudodensity contrast, and a surface that is single-valued (no recumbent folds or strata repeated with depth). Constraints on 3D position are applied where the layer crops out or is at a depth known from well or other information. Application of this inversion technique to aeromagnetic anomalies over the Neroly Formation yields a complex top surface characterized by elongate overlapping troughs and structural highs, including the well-known Tassajara anticline and adjacent Sycamore Valley syncline. Troughs are true synclinal lows whereas the structural highs may be fold crests, steep truncated strata, and/or fault duplicated strata. The strongest deformation is confined to within ~7 km of the near-vertical overturned Neroly beds that crop out along the NE margin of the valley, and is characterized by four laterally overlapping, margin parallel structural highs and intervening troughs, each between 10 and 20 km in length. A fifth possible structural high lies farther SW

  17. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  18. Structural evolution of the east Sierra Valley system (Owens Valley and vicinity), California: a geologic and geophysical synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Blakely, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS), which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm), which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3-3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  19. Local variations of seismic velocity in the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.D.; Lee, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    The authors inverted local earthquake arrival times to estimate spatial variations of seismic velocity. Their model consisted of near-surface station corrections and local perturbations to a standard crustal velocity model. The authors found a zone of relatively high-velocity trending southeast from the Salton Sea. This zone corresponds to the region of thickest sediments. The authors compared results with those of teleseismic studies by Savino et al (1977). The agreement was excellent, suggesting that the teleseismic delays are caused primarily by crustal velocity variations. Residual delays between the teleseismic observations and predicted crustal delays imply crustal thinning of 3 or 4 km along the axis of the valley. Known geothermal resource areas at Salton Sea (or Obsidian Buttes), Brawley, and East Mesa, lie on the axis of a zone of thin crust, and they may be intimately related to the Brawley fault. Neither local earthquake nor teleseismic arrival times can discriminate between these hypotheses, but the issue might be resolved by combining both types of data. Known geothermal resource areas at Heber, Dunes, and Glamis, lie away from the projected trace of the Brawley fault. These areas are nearly aseismic, and overlie crust with apparent seismic velocities only mildly higher than the regional average. These apparent velocity anomalies could be related to crustal thinning, but because of the very mild Bouguer gravity anomalies in these areas, it seems more likely that the velocity anomalies occur entirely within the crust. 7 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Evaluation of strips of centipede grass for sediment load reduction.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Takahiro; Haraguchi, Noburo; Miyamoto, Kuniaki; Shinogi, Yoshiyuki; Miyamoto, Teruhito; Kameyama, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Reddish sediment runoff from agricultural fields results in coastal environmental problems in Okinawa, Japan. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of strips of centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.), a perennial turf grass, in reducing the sediment loads from farmlands. However, sufficient information has not been provided to determine the appropriate strip specifications in the grass strip design. This study evaluated centipede grass strips for reduction of reddish sediment runoff from farmlands in Okinawa, Japan. A numerical model simulating the reddish sediment transport in the grass strip was constructed to determine the sediment removal efficiency of the strip. The model was verified using data obtained from field plot experiments with the grass strips under natural conditions. The sensitivity analysis of the model showed that the length of the grass strip (i.e. the dimension of the strip in the direction of flow) and unit inflow discharge have a great effect on sediment removal efficiency. The sediment removal efficiency obtained from the model simulation increased with the length of the strip and the increment of the efficiency decreased with the length of the strip. Therefore, these results indicate that the effective and efficient length of a centipede grass strip is 3 m for the reduction of reddish sediment loads under typical farmland conditions in Okinawa.

  1. Two-dimensional flow patterns near contour grass hedges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass hedges are narrow strips of stiff-stemmed vegetation used to control erosion and sediment delivery. When planted on the contour, the hydraulic resistance of the vegetation slows runoff, creates ponding, and promotes sediment deposition. In addition, when tillage is performed between grass he...

  2. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following compost application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of stiff-stemmed grass hedges can be a valuable soil conservation measure. A study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge, planted on the contour along the hillslope, in reducing runoff nutrient transport from plots with a range of soil nutrient values. Composted ...

  3. Molecular understandings on 'the never thirsty' and apomictic Cenchrus grass.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Divya P; Meena, S S; Nagar, R P

    2016-03-01

    The genus Cenchrus comprises around 25 species of 'bristle clade' grasses. Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel grass) is a hardy, perennial range grass that survives in poor sandy soils and limiting soil moisture conditions and, due to the very same reasons, this grass is one of the most prevalent fodder grasses of the arid and semi-arid regions. Most of the germplasms of Cenchrus produce seeds asexually through the process of apomeiosis. Therefore, the lack of sufficient sexual lines has hindered the crop improvement efforts in Cenchrus being confined to simple selection methods. Many attempts have been initiated in buffel grass to investigate the various molecular aspects such as genomic signatures of different species and genotypes, molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance and reproductive performance. Even though it is an important fodder crop, molecular investigations in Cenchrus lack focus and the molecular information available on this grass is scanty. Cenchrus is a very good gene source for abiotic stress tolerance and apomixis studies. Biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus can help in crop improvement in Cenchrus as well as other crops through transgenic technology or marker assisted selection. To date no consolidated review on biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus grass has been published. Therefore we provide a thorough and in depth review on molecular research in Cenchrus focusing on molecular signatures of evolution, tolerance to abiotic stress and apomictic reproductive mechanism.

  4. Field drying rate differences among three cool-season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserving cool-season grasses as silage or hay remains a challenge due to the time required for curing and the unpredictability of weather. We compared the drying rates of three grasses with differing yield potential, morphology, and physical characteristics. Inflorescence-stage meadow fescue, orch...

  5. Host preference and suitability of grasses for Oebalus pugnax

    PubMed Central

    Awuni, GA; Gore, J; Cook, D; Bond, JA; Musser, FR; Adams, CA

    2014-01-01

    The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Carpocorini), though graminaceous, discriminates among its numerous host grass species. This could represent a feeding preference, it could be related to host suitability for growth and development. To clarify the role of host grass discrimination, two laboratory studies were conducted: (1) free-choice tests to evaluate preferences of O. pugnax among 11 wild host grass species found in three rice-producing counties of the central Mississippi Delta (MS, USA), and (2) no-choice tests to evaluate the impact of rice (Oryza sativa L.), junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link], and dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) (all Poaceae), on the development of O. pugnax from second instar to adult. In the free-choice test, four experiments were conducted, each with four sets of host grass species and observed 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 h after release in cages. Approximately 4 h was necessary for O. pugnax to settle on preferred host grasses. Oebalus pugnax showed a feeding preference for junglerice over all 10 other grass species. Bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum Flueggé, was the least preferred. The no-choice tests showed significant effect of host grass species on O. pugnax mean development time of nymphal survival to adults. Survival of nymphs was lower and mean development time was longer on dallisgrass compared to rice and junglerice. Knowledge of O. pugnax rate of growth and development on host grasses could be useful in the future development of rice integrated pest management strategies. PMID:25635144

  6. How Management of Grass Hedges Affects Their Erosion Reduction Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass hedges are specialized vegetative buffers effective in trapping sediment. Information is needed on how the effectiveness of grass hedges changes over time after planting, and in response to hedge clipping management. Erosion from natural rainfall was measured during thirteen years after establ...

  7. Grazing invasive annual grasses: the green and brown guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of rangeland by annual grasses has become one of the most serious and catastrophic problems in the western United States. Annual grasses displace desired plants and create monocultures that do not provide adequate plant cover for the entire year. Using the ecologically-based invasive plant ...

  8. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model Grass Brachypodium Distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the compl...

  9. Molecular understandings on 'the never thirsty' and apomictic Cenchrus grass.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Divya P; Meena, S S; Nagar, R P

    2016-03-01

    The genus Cenchrus comprises around 25 species of 'bristle clade' grasses. Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel grass) is a hardy, perennial range grass that survives in poor sandy soils and limiting soil moisture conditions and, due to the very same reasons, this grass is one of the most prevalent fodder grasses of the arid and semi-arid regions. Most of the germplasms of Cenchrus produce seeds asexually through the process of apomeiosis. Therefore, the lack of sufficient sexual lines has hindered the crop improvement efforts in Cenchrus being confined to simple selection methods. Many attempts have been initiated in buffel grass to investigate the various molecular aspects such as genomic signatures of different species and genotypes, molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance and reproductive performance. Even though it is an important fodder crop, molecular investigations in Cenchrus lack focus and the molecular information available on this grass is scanty. Cenchrus is a very good gene source for abiotic stress tolerance and apomixis studies. Biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus can help in crop improvement in Cenchrus as well as other crops through transgenic technology or marker assisted selection. To date no consolidated review on biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus grass has been published. Therefore we provide a thorough and in depth review on molecular research in Cenchrus focusing on molecular signatures of evolution, tolerance to abiotic stress and apomictic reproductive mechanism. PMID:26601981

  10. Preliminary gravity and magnetic models across Midway Valley and Yucca Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1994-12-31

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along ten traverses across Midway Valley and Yucca Wash on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley. Gravity and magnetic data across the northwest trending Yucca Wash and the inferred Yucca Wash fault indicate no major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. In addition, a broad magnetic high coincides with the approximate location of the hydrologic gradient and probably reflects moderately magnetic Topopah Spring Tuff or lavas in the Calico Hills Formation.

  11. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G; Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Cohen, Kari

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  12. A comparative view of the evolution of grasses under domestication.

    PubMed

    Glémin, Sylvain; Bataillon, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Crop grasses were among the first plants to be domesticated c. 12,000 yr ago, and they still represent the main staple crops for humans. During domestication, as did many other crops, grasses went through dramatic genetic and phenotypic changes. The recent massive increase in genomic data has provided new tools to investigate the genetic basis and consequences of domestication. Beyond the genetics of domestication, many aspects of grass biology, including their phylogeny and developmental biology, are also increasingly well studied, offering a unique opportunity to analyse the domestication process in a comparative way. Taking such a comparative point of view, we review the history of domesticated grasses and how domestication affected their phenotypic and genomic diversity. Considering recent theoretical developments and the accumulation of genetic data, we revisit more specifically the role of mating systems in the domestication process. We close by suggesting future directions for the study of domestication in grasses.

  13. A magnetic anomaly of possible economic significance in southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zietz, Isidore

    1964-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey in southeastern Minnesota by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the State of Minnesota has revealed a high-amplitude, linear, and narrow magnetic feature that suggests a possible source of Precambrian iron-formation of economic value. For the past few years the U. S. Geological Survey has been conducting detailed geophysical studies of the midcontinent gravity anomaly--a broad, high-amplitude feature that extends from Lake Superior through the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and part of Kansas. As part of this study an aeromagnetic survey of the southern part of the State was made in cooperation with the State of Minnesota during the summer of 1963, in which a linear high-amplitude anomaly of the order of 4,000 gammas was discovered. Because of the high amplitude, the linearity, and the narrowness of the magnetic feature, it is believed the source may be Precambrian iron-formation of possible economic value. The anomalous area is in Fillmore County, approximately between the towns of Lanesboro and Peterson in the extreme southeastern part of the State. (See figures 1 and 2.) At the site of the anomaly, Cambrian sedimentary rocks occur in the valley of the Root River, and Ordovician rocks (nearly flat lying) mantle the upland areas. The uplands are largely covered by glacial deposits, which are relatively thin (Paul K. Sims, written communication, 1964). Depths to the Precambrian are estimated to range from 500 feet to 1,000 feet below the surface. The aeromagnetic map shown in figure 2 was compiled from continuous magnetic profiles made along east-west flight lines 1,000 feet above ground, and spaced approximately 1 mile apart. Contour intervals of 20, 100, and 500 gammas were used depending on the intensity. The instrument for the survey was a flux-gate type magnetometer (AN/ASQ-3A) which measures total-field variations. The contour map displays variations in magnetic pattern which are typical of shallow Precambrian rocks

  14. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  15. [Rift Valley fever].

    PubMed

    Pépin, M

    2011-06-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arbovirosis. Among animals, it mainly affects ruminants, causing abortions in gravid females and mortality among young animals. In humans, RVF virus infection is usually asymptomatic or characterized by a moderate fever. However, in 1 to 3% of cases, more severe forms of the disease (hepatitis, encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever) can lead to the death of infected individuals or to major sequels. The RVF virus (Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) was identified for the first time in the 1930s in Kenya. It then spread over almost all African countries, sometimes causing major epizootics/epidemics. In 2000, the virus was carried out of Africa, in the Middle East Arabian Peninsula. In 2007-2008, Eastern-African countries, including Madagascar, reported significant episodes of RVF virus, this was also the case for the Comoros archipelago and the French island of Mayotte. This ability to spread associated with many vectors, including in Europe, and high viral loads in infected animals led the health authorities worldwide to warn about the potential emergence of RVF virus in areas with a temperate climate. The awareness has increased in recent years with climate changes, which may possibly modify the vector distribution and competence, and prompted many RVF virus-free countries to better prepare for a potential implantation of RVF.

  16. A controlled study of associated dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, T

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal patterns of association among seven types of dental anomalies (aplasia of second premolars, small size of maxillary lateral incisors, infraocclusion of primary molars, enamel hypoplasia, ectopic eruption of first molars, supernumerary teeth, and palatal displacement of maxillary canines) in an untreated orthodontic population, ages 7 to 14. The prevalence of associated tooth anomalies in seven groups of 100 subjects selected according to one primarily diagnosed dental anomaly was compared with the prevalence of the examined dental anomalies in a control group of 1,000 subjects. Significant reciprocal associations (p < 0.005) were found among five of the anomalies (aplasia of second premolars, small size of maxillary lateral incisors, infraocclusion of primary molars, enamel hypoplasia, and palatal displacement of maxillary canines), suggesting a common genetic origin for these conditions. Supernumerary teeth appeared to be a separate etiological entity with respect to all other examined tooth anomalies. The existence of associations between different tooth anomalies is clinically relevant, as the early diagnosis of one anomaly may indicate an increased risk for others. PMID:9622764

  17. Photodiode and photomultiplier areal sensitivity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Several silicon photodiodes and photomultipliers were tested to determine signal variations as a light spot was scanned over the photosensitive surface of these detectors. Qualitative and quantitative data is presented to demonstrate the areal sensitivity anomalies. These anomalies are related back to the fabrication techniques of the manufacturers.

  18. Sources of Near Side Lunar Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Nicola C.; Hood, Lon L.; Halekas, J. S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector magnetometer data has been used to identify a number of nearside magnetic anomalies. Some of the features identified appear to correlate with impact ejecta, supporting a basin ejecta origin to the nearside anomalies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  20. Fetal cardiac anomalies and genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pajkrt, Eva; Weisz, Boaz; Firth, Helen V; Chitty, Lyn S

    2004-12-30

    Cardiac anomalies may occur in isolation or can be part of a genetic syndrome. In this article, we describe some of the genetic syndromes commonly associated with cardiac anomalies where there are other sonographic features that may aid accurate prenatal diagnosis.

  1. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  2. Scintigraphic demonstration of a gallbladder anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Holmes, R.A.; Witten, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the gallbladder are uncommon. In this paper the authors report a case of double gallbladder in which intravenous cholecystokinin analog (CCK) was used to confirm the presence of two ectopic gallbladders rather than other biliary tract anomalies or dilated hepatic ducts.

  3. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  4. Magnetic and gravity anomalies of the slow-spreading system in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, M.; Fujimoto, H.; Tamaki, K.; Okino, K.

    2002-12-01

    The spreading system in the Gulf of Aden between Somalia, NE Africa, and Arabia has an ENE-WSW trend and its half spreading rate is about 1.0 cm/yr (e.g., Jestin et al., 1994). Previous studies (e.g., Tamsett and Searle, 1988) provided the general morphology of the spreading system. To reveal detailed morphology and tectonics of the spreading system in the Gulf of Aden, geophysical investigation was conducted along the spreading system between 45°30OE and 50°20OE by the R/V Hakuho-maru from December 2000 to January 2001. Bathymetric data were collected using an echo sounder SEA BEAM 2120 aboard R/V Hakuho-maru. Magnetic and gravity data were collected by towed proton magnetometer and shipboard gravimeter, respectively. The strike of the spreading centers east of 46°30OE is N65°W. The topographic expression of the spreading centers east of N46°30OE is an axial rift valley offset by transform faults siilar to that observed at slow spreading centers in other areas. The bathymetric feature of the spreading centers between 45°50OE and 46°30OE with a strike N80°E is N65°W trending en-echelon basins. The spreading center west of 45°50OE with a strike E-W is bouned by linear ridges and its bathymetric expression is N65°W trending en-echelon ridges. The axial rift valley west of N46°30OE is not offset by any prominent transform faults. Negative magnetic anomaly is dominant over the axial valleys. Its amplitude is about 500 nT and the wavelength is about 30 km. Prominent linear negative magnetic anomaly, which is more than 1000 nT, exists west of N46°30OE. The strike of the linear magnetic anomaly correlates with that of axial valleys west of N46°30OE. Mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly of the spreading centers increases eastward. This trend correlates with the eastward deepening of spreading centers.

  5. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.F. )

    1990-09-01

    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

  6. An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Mark A; Weiss, Benjamin P; Stewart, Sarah T

    2012-03-01

    The Moon possesses strong magnetic anomalies that are enigmatic given the weak magnetism of lunar rocks. We show that the most prominent grouping of anomalies can be explained by highly magnetic extralunar materials from the projectile that formed the largest and oldest impact crater on the Moon: the South Pole-Aitken basin. The distribution of projectile materials from a model oblique impact coincides with the distribution of magnetic anomalies surrounding this basin, and the magnetic properties of these materials can account for the intensity of the observed anomalies if they were magnetized in a core dynamo field. Distal ejecta from this event can explain the origin of isolated magnetic anomalies far from this basin.

  7. A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Bridges, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

  8. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  9. Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louhaichi, Mounir

    A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of

  10. Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2012-12-01

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA

  11. Sensitivity of Asian Summer Monsoon precipitation to tropical sea surface temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lei; Shin, Sang-Ik; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Qinyu

    2016-10-01

    Sensitivity of Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) precipitation to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies was estimated from ensemble simulations of two atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) with an array of idealized SST anomaly patch prescriptions. Consistent sensitivity patterns were obtained in both models. Sensitivity of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation to cooling in the East Pacific was much weaker than to that of the same magnitude in the local Indian-western Pacific, over which a meridional pattern of warm north and cold south was most instrumental in increasing ISM precipitation. This indicates that the strength of the ENSO-ISM relationship is due to the large-amplitude East Pacific SST anomaly rather than its sensitivity value. Sensitivity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), represented by the Yangtze-Huai River Valley (YHRV, also known as the meiyu-baiu front) precipitation, is non-uniform across the Indian Ocean basin. YHRV precipitation was most sensitive to warm SST anomalies over the northern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, whereas the southern Indian Ocean had the opposite effect. This implies that the strengthened EASM in the post-Niño year is attributable mainly to warming of the northern Indian Ocean. The corresponding physical links between these SST anomaly patterns and ASM precipitation were also discussed. The relevance of sensitivity maps was justified by the high correlation between sensitivity-map-based reconstructed time series using observed SST anomaly patterns and actual precipitation series derived from ensemble-mean atmospheric GCM runs with time-varying global SST prescriptions during the same period. The correlation results indicated that sensitivity maps derived from patch experiments were far superior to those based on regression methods.

  12. Impacts of cloud-induced mass forcing on the development of moist potential vorticity anomaly during torrential rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shouting; Zhou, Yushu; Cui, Xiaopeng; Dai, Guoping

    2004-12-01

    The impacts of cloud-induced mass forcing on the development of the moist potential vorticity (MPV) anomaly associated with torrential rains are investigated by using NCEP/NCAR 1° × 1° data. The MPV tendency equation with the cloud-induced mass forcing is derived, and applied to the torrential rain event over the Changjiang River-Huaihe River Valleys during 26 30 June 1999. The result shows that positive anomalies are located mainly between 850 hPa and 500 hPa, while the maximum MPV, maximum positive tendency of the MPV, and maximum surface rainfall are nearly collocated. The cloud-induced mass forcing contributes to the positive tendency of the moist potential vorticity anomaly. The results indicate that the MPV may be used to track the propagation of rain systems for operational applications.

  13. Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium: Central Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurgens, B.C.; Fram, M.S.; Belitz, K.; Burow, K.R.; Landon, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco2 concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential long-term effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world. Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  14. Resolution of grass canopy biomass classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of variance methods has been applied to in situ grassland spectral reflectance data in order to determine the classes or levels of total wet biomass that can be resolved spectrally by a single narrow band measurement. Ground-truth clipping of blue grama grass plots was performed immediately following spectral reflectance measurements at 91 wavelength intervals which were 0.005 microns apart over the spectral range from 0.350 to 0.800 microns. It was found that the photographic infrared region of 0.750 to 0.800 microns could be used to distinguish three classes or levels of total wet biomass. Four or five classes, particularly at higher biomass levels, could not be distinguished by this technique.

  15. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb in wild grasses affected by the Aznalcóllar mine spill (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; López, R

    2002-05-01

    The collapse of the tailing dam in the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) occurred in April 1998 and affected approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. An urgent soil cleaning up and remediation programme was started just after the accident. Eighteen months later, mineral nutrients and trace elements concentration in soil and two wild grasses--Cynodon dactylon and Sorghum halepense--have been studied. Three types of conditions are distinguished: (a) unaffected soils (control); (b) cleaned up and remediated soils (remediated); and (c) sludge-covered soils left in a fenced plot (non-remediated). As, Cd, Cu and Pb in grasses reached toxic levels for the food web in the non-remediated plot, while on remediated soils only Cd reached a toxic level in grass tissues. However, Pb and, to a lesser extent As and Fe, reached also toxic levels in unwashed plants (as they would be ingested by animals) in remediated soils. Both native grasses seem tolerant of trace elements pollution and suitable for stabilisation of spill-affected soils.

  16. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  17. Summer Dormancy in Perennial Temperate Grasses

    PubMed Central

    VOLAIRE, FLORENCE; NORTON, MARK

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait. • Scope Under severe drought, it is difficult to separate the responses by which plants avoid and tolerate dehydration from those associated with the expression of summer dormancy. Consequently, this type of endogenous (endo-) dormancy can be tested only in plants that are not subjected to moisture deficit. Summer dormancy can be defined by four criteria, one of which is considered optional: (1) reduction or cessation of leaf production and expansion; (2) senescence of mature foliage; (3) dehydration of surviving organs; and (4, optional) formation of resting organs. The proposed terminology recognizes two levels of summer dormancy: (a) complete dormancy, when cessation of growth is associated with full senescence of foliage and induced dehydration of leaf bases; and (b) incomplete dormancy, when leaf growth is partially inhibited and is associated with moderate levels of foliage senescence. Summer dormancy is expressed under increasing photoperiod and temperature. It is under hormonal control and usually associated with flowering and a reduction in metabolic activity in meristematic tissues. Dehydration tolerance and dormancy are independent phenomena and differ from the adaptations of resurrection plants. • Conclusions Summer dormancy has been correlated with superior survival after severe and repeated summer drought in a large range of perennial grasses. In the face of increasing aridity, this trait could be used in the development of cultivars that are able to meet agronomic and environmental goals. It is therefore important to have a better

  18. Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine.

  19. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  20. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  1. Valley blockade quantum switching in Silicon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Prati, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    In analogy to the Coulomb and the Pauli spin blockade, based on the electrostatic repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle respectively, the concept of valley blockade in Silicon nanostructures is explored. The valley parity operator is defined. Valley blockade is determined by the parity conservation of valley composition eigenvectors in quantum transport. A Silicon quantum changeover switch based on a triple of donor quantum dots capable to separate electrons having opposite valley parity by virtue of the valley parity conservation is proposed. The quantum changeover switch represents a novel kind of hybrid quantum based classical logic device.

  2. Nonlocal topological valley transport at large valley Hall angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beconcini, Michael; Taddei, Fabio; Polini, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Berry curvature hot spots in two-dimensional materials with broken inversion symmetry are responsible for the existence of transverse valley currents, which give rise to giant nonlocal dc voltages. Recent experiments in high-quality gapped graphene have highlighted a saturation of the nonlocal resistance as a function of the longitudinal charge resistivity ρc ,x x, when the system is driven deep into the insulating phase. The origin of this saturation is, to date, unclear. In this work we show that this behavior is fully compatible with bulk topological transport in the regime of large valley Hall angles (VHAs). We demonstrate that, for a fixed value of the valley diffusion length, the dependence of the nonlocal resistance on ρc ,x x weakens for increasing VHAs, transitioning from the standard ρc,x x 3 power law to a result that is independent of ρc ,x x.

  3. Application of image analysis for grass tillering determination.

    PubMed

    Głąb, Tomasz; Sadowska, Urszula; Żabiński, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Tillering is defined as the process of above-ground shoot production by a single plant. The number of grass tillers is one of the most important parameters in ecology and breeding studies. The number of tillers is usually determined by manually counting the separated shoots from a single plant. Unfortunately, this method is too time-consuming. In this study, a new method for counting grass tillers based on image analysis is presented. The usefulness of the method was evaluated for five grass species, Phleum pratense, Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca pratensis and Bromus unioloides. The grass bunches were prepared for analysis by cutting and tip painting. The images obtained were analysed using an automatic procedure with separation of shoots and other objects based on morphological parameters. It was found that image analysis allows for very quick and accurate counting of grass tillers. However, the set of morphological parameters for object recognition must be selected individually for different grass species. This method can be recommended as a replacement for the traditional, time-consuming method in grass breeding.

  4. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-02-03

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  5. Stability theory for the synchronized waving of marine grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravi; Mahadevan, Amala; Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Synchronized waving of grass blades in the presence of fluid flow has been observed in cases such as wheat field in wind, marine grass in tidal currents. The synchronous motion can have important environmental and ecological impact via mixing of fluid due to waving. When the hydrodynamic and elastic time scales are well separated, this waving is thought to be due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting from an inflection point in the flow profile. We find that the inflection point is located near the tip of grass canopy. We extend the Orr-Sommerfeld equation for the stability of a shear flow to include a continuum mean-field approximation for the vegetation, thus capturing the essential ingredients for flow instability leading to coherent waving. Our linear stability analysis shows that the flow in presence of grass become unstable not only through a mechanism of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability but also through shear instability of flow above grass. We also find that flow with low submergence ratio of grass becomes unstable due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability whereas flow high submergence ratio becomes unstable due to shear instability of flow above the grass. Numerical results demonstrating these instability mechanism will also be presented.

  6. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement. PMID:27249195

  7. Martian oceans, valleys and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The new Mars Global Surveyor altimetry shows that the heavily cratered southern hemisphere of Mars is 5 km higher that the sparely cratered plains of the northern hemisphere. Previous suggestions that oceans formerly occupied that northern plains as evidenced by shorelines are partly supported by the new data. A previously identified outer boundary has a wide range of elevations and is unlikely to be a shoreline but an inner contact with a narrow range of elevations is a more likely candidate. No shorelines are visible in the newly acquired, 2.5 metre/pixel imaging. Newly imaged valleys provide strong support for sustained or episodic flow of water across the Martian surface. A major surprise, however, is the near absence of valleys less than 100 m across. Martian valleys seemingly do not divide into ever smaller valleys as terrestrial valleys commonly do. This could be due to lack of precipitation or lack of surface runoff because of high infiltration rates. High erosion rates and supports warm climates and presence of large bodies of water during heavy bombardment. The climate history and fate of the water after heavy bombardment remain cotroversial.

  8. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  9. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  10. Is the Isabella anomaly a fossil slab or the foundered lithospheric root of the Sierra Nevada batholith?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoots, C. R.; Schmandt, B.; Clayton, R. W.; Hansen, S. M.; Dougherty, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Isabella Anomaly is a volume of relatively high seismic velocity upper mantle beneath the southern Great Valley in California. We deployed ~45 broadband seismometers in central California to test two main hypotheses for the origin of the Isabella Anomaly. One suggests that the Isabella Anomaly is the foundered lithospheric root of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith, which delaminated on account of eclogite-rich composition and translated westward as it began to sink into the asthenosphere. The other hypothesis suggests that the Isabella Anomaly is a fossil slab fragment attached to the Monterey microplate that lies offshore of central California and thus it is mechanically coupled to the Pacific plate. Prior seismic imaging with ~70 km station spacing cannot resolve the landward termination of Monterey microplate lithosphere beneath coastal California or where/if the Isabella Anomaly is attached to North America lithosphere beneath the Great Valley. The new temporary broadband array consists of 40 broadband seismometers with ~7 km spacing extending from the central California coast to the western Sierra Nevada batholith, plus some outliers to fill gaps in the regional network coverage. The temporary array was initially deployed in early 2014 and will continue to record until October 2015 so the complete data are not yet available. Preliminary Ps scattered wave images show an abrupt ~6 km increase in Moho depth eastward across the San Andreas fault, a strong positive impedance contrast that dips westward from ~7-25 km beneath Great Valley, and a sharp Moho with a slight westward dip beneath the western edge of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Apparently low impedance contrast characterizes the Moho beneath the eastern Great Valley and foothills, consistent with near mantle velocities in the lower crust. Processing of the cumulative data that will be available in October 2015 and incorporation of new tomography models into scattered wave imaging are needed before

  11. Analysis of Renal Anomalies in VACTERL Association

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Bridget K.; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F.; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and Limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least 3 component features of VACTERL and who had abdominal ultrasound performed) met criteria for analysis. Four other patients were additionally analyzed separately, with the hypothesis that subtle renal system anomalies may occur in patients who would not otherwise meet criteria for VACTERL association. Thirty-three (69%) of the 48 patients had a clinical manifestation affecting the renal system. The most common renal manifestation (RM) was vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in addition to a structural defect (present in 27%), followed by unilateral renal agenesis (24%), and then dysplastic/multicystic kidneys or duplicated collected system (18% for each). Twenty-two (88%) of the 25 patients with a structural RM had an associated anorectal malformation. Individuals with either isolated lower anatomic anomalies, or both upper and lower anatomic anomalies were not statistically more likely to have a structural renal defect than those with isolated upper anatomic anomalies (p=0.22, p=0.284 respectively). Given the high prevalence of isolated VUR in our cohort, we recommend a screening VCUG or other imaging modality be obtained to evaluate for VUR if initial renal US shows evidence of obstruction or renal scarring, as well as ongoing evaluation of renal health. PMID:25196458

  12. The Gabbs Valley, Nevada, geothermal prospect: Exploring for a potential blind geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, J.; Bell, J. W.; Calvin, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    .5 km long temperature anomaly greater than 3° C above background temperatures forms west-northwest trending zone between terminations of the Phillips Wash fault zone and unnamed faults of Gabbs Valley to the south. Rupture segments of two young active faults bracket the temperature anomaly. The temperature anomaly may be due to several possible causes. 1. Increases in stress near the rupture segments or tip-lines of these faults, or where multiple fault splays exist, can increase fault permeability. The un-ruptured segments of these faults may be controlling the location of the Gabbs Valley thermal anomaly between ruptured segments of the 1932 Cedar Mountain and 1954 Fairview Peak earthquakes. 2. Numerous unnamed normal faults may interact and the hanging wall of these faults is hosting the thermal anomaly. The size and extent of the anomaly may be due to its proximity to a flat playa and not the direct location of the shallow heat anomaly. 3. The linear northwest nature of the thermal anomaly may reflect a hydrologic barrier in the subsurface controlling where heated fluids rise. A concealed NW- striking fault is possible, but has not been identified in previous studies or in the LiDAR or LSA fault mapping.

  13. Recent Advances in Ionospheric Anomalies detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Anton; Vyacheslav, Khattatov

    2016-07-01

    The variability of the parameters of the ionosphere and ionospheric anomalies are the subject of intensive research. It is widely known and studied in the literature ionospheric disturbances caused by solar activity, the passage of the terminator, artificial heating of high-latitude ionosphere, as well as seismic events. Each of the above types of anomalies is the subject of study and analysis. Analysis of these anomalies will provide an opportunity to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of ionospheric disturbances. To solve this problem are encouraged to develop a method of modeling the ionosphere, based on the assimilation of large amounts of observational data.

  14. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  15. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  16. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  17. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental breakup

    SciTech Connect

    von Frese, R.R.B.; Hinze, W.J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Continental lithosphere magnetic anomalies mapped by the Magsat satellite are related to tectonic features associated with regional compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. These continental-scale anomaly patterns when corrected for varying observation elevation and the global change in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field show remarkable correlation of regional lithospheric magnetic sources across rifted continental margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans.

  18. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  19. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  20. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  1. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  2. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  3. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  4. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  5. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  6. Nitrogen isotope anomalies in primitive ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Naoji; Hashizume, Ko

    1992-07-01

    Large anomalies in nitrogen isotopic composition were found in two type-L3 ordinary chondrites. One of them is isotopically heavy, and the other is isotopically light. The carriers of anomalous nitrogen are partly soluble in HCl. Thus, the anomalies are probably due to new types of presolar grains, although they have not been identified yet. Trapped Ar-36 in these chondrites seems to be associated with this anomalous nitrogen, and may be presolar in origin. The presence of two different nitrogen isotopic anomalies suggests that the parent body of L chondrites, and also the primitive solar nebula, were not homogeneous. Nitrogen isotope anomalies seem to be useful in detecting subdivisions of chemical groups of chondrites.

  7. Negative gravity anomalies on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two kinds of negative gravity anomalies on the moon are distinguished - those which show a correspondence to lunar topography and those which appear to be unrelated to surface topography. The former appear to be due to mass deficiencies caused by the cratering process, in large part probably by ejection of material from the crater. Anomalies on the far side which do not correspond to topography are thought to have resulted from irregularities in the thickness of the lunar crust. Localized large negative anomalies adjacent to mascons are considered. Although structures on the moon having a half-wavelength of 800 km or less and large negative or positive gravity anomalies are not in isostatic equilibrium, many of these features have mass loadings of about 1000 kg/sq cm which can be statically sustained on the moon.

  8. Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

  9. Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

  10. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  11. Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.

  12. Flyby Anomaly Test Integrating Multiple Approaches (FATIMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, Creon; Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2014-01-01

    FATIMA is a mission concept for a small satellite to investigate the flyby anomaly - a possible velocity increase that has been observed in some earlier satellites when they have performed gravitational swingy maneuvers of the earth.

  13. Quantum anomalies in superconducting Weyl metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Hao, Lei; Wang, Baigeng; Ting, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically study the quantum anomalies in the superconducting Weyl metals based on the topological field theory. It is demonstrated that the Fermi arc and the surface Andreev bound state, characteristic of the superconducting Weyl metals, are the manifestations of two underlying phenomena, namely, the chiral anomaly and the paritylike anomaly, respectively. The first anomaly is inherited from the Berry curvature around the original Weyl points, while the second is the result of the superconductivity. We show that all the fascinating topological behavior of the superconducting Weyl metals, either the intranode Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov or the internode Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing state, can be satisfactorily described and predicted by our topological field theory.

  14. Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherjeiran, A; Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2005-07-11

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.

  15. Relaxing Lorentz invariance in general perturbative anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Salvio, A.

    2008-10-15

    We analyze the role of Lorentz symmetry in the perturbative nongravitational anomalies for a single family of fermions. The theory is assumed to be translational-invariant, power-counting renormalizable and based on a local action, but is allowed to have general Lorentz violating operators. We study the conservation of global and gauge currents associated with general internal symmetry groups and find, by using a perturbative approach, that Lorentz symmetry does not participate in the clash of symmetries that leads to the anomalies. We first analyze the triangle graphs and prove that there are regulators for which the anomalous part of the Ward identities exactly reproduces the Lorentz-invariant case. Then we show, by means of a regulator independent argument, that the anomaly cancellation conditions derived in Lorentz-invariant theories remain necessary ingredients for anomaly freedom.

  16. Zinc Isotope Anomalies in bulk Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, P. S.; Boyet, M.; Moynier, F.

    2014-09-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that Zn isotope anomalies are present in bulk primitive meteorites, consistent with the injection of material derived from a neutron-rich supernova source into the solar nebula.

  17. US Aeromagnetic and Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Sexton, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO) Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous U.S. were screened for periods of intense diurnal magnetic activity and reduced to anomaly form, filtered, and continued upward. A number of correlations between the NOO, POGO and preliminary MAGSAT data are evident at satellite elevations, including a prominent transcontinental magnetic high which extends from the Anadarko Basin to the Cincinnati Arch. The transcontinental magnetic high is breached by negative anomalies located over the Rio Grande Rift and Mississippi River Aulacogen. Differentially reduced-to-pole NOO and POGO magnetic anomaly data show that the transcontinental magnetic high corresponds to a well-defined regional trend of negative free-air gravity and enhanced crustal thickness anomalies.

  18. Estimated natural ground-water recharge, discharge, and budget for the Dixie Valley area, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrill, J.R.; Hines, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Dixie Valley area includes seven valleys in west-central Nevada (Dixie, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys; total, 2,380 square miles). Dixie Valley receives surface-water and ground-water flow from Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys and subsurface flow from Fairview Valley, which is a topographically closed basin. The relation between precipitation and altitude was re-evaluated for the Dixie Valley area using new data, and empirical estimates of recharge were revised accordingly. The revised estimate of total recharge is 23,000 acre-feet per Re-evaluation of ground-water discharge focused on Dixie Valley as the largest basin in the study area. Phreatophytic vegetation was mapped and partitioned into nine zones on the basis of species composition and foliage density. For woody phreatophytes, annual evapotranspiration rates of 0.7 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for greasewood and 1.1 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for rabbitbrush were adapted from lysimeter studies near Winnemucca, Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the foliage density of the respective phreatophytes in each zone to estimate a specific rate for that zone. Rates for salt-grass (0.5 to 0.8 foot per year) and the playa surface (0.1 to 0.3 foot per year) were based on a range of rates. used in other recent studies in western and central Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the areas of the zones to produce estimates of the annual volume of ground water discharged. The discharge estimated for Dixie Valley is between 17,000 and 28,000 acre-feet per year. The revised discharge estimate for the entire Dixie Valley area is between 20,000 and 31,000 acre-feet per year. The revised ground-water budget for the entire Dixie Valley study area has a total recharge of about 23,000 acre-feet per year. This is within the range of estimates of natural discharge--from 20,000 to 31,000 acre-feet per year. For Dixie Valley

  19. Pentaquarks and possible anomalies at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, G.

    2016-07-01

    With the LHC Run 1 data, the LHCb experiment discovered two pentaquark states and has evidence for a number of possible anomalies in the flavour sector. The possible anomalies include indications of violations of lepton flavour universality, deviations from Standard Model predictions in several B-meson decay modes that are mediated by flavour-changing neutral currents, and further evidence for a discrepancy between inclusive and exclusive measurements of the CKM matrix element |Vub|.

  20. Interpretations of the ATLAS diboson anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kingman; Keung, Wai-Yee; Tseng, Po-Yan; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the ATLAS Collaboration recorded an interesting anomaly in diboson production with excesses at the diboson invariant mass around 2 TeV in boosted jets of all the WZ, W+W-, and ZZ channels. We offer a theoretical interpretation of the anomaly using a phenomenological right-handed model with extra W‧ and Z‧ bosons. Constraints from narrow total decay widths, dijet cross sections, and W / Z + H production are taken into account. We also comment on a few other possibilities.

  1. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  2. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  3. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  4. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  5. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Kalluri, Udaya C; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2010-01-01

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops.

  6. Microwave backscattering and emission model for grass canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Lang, Roger H.; Levine, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-layer model is developed that treats the grass canopy as a collection of randomly oriented elliptical dielectric discs over a layer of thatch with underlying soil surface. The distorted Born approximation in conjunction with the Peake formulation is used to calculate the backscattering coefficient and the emissivity from the canopy. Two particular features of this model which are unique for grass canopies are the variation of the canopy structure and the presence of the thatch layer. The basic parameters in the model such as the size and orientation of grass blades, dielectric constant of soil and vegetation, and thickness and water content of the thatch layer have been obtained from ground truth data. To interpret the available experimental observations of grasslands, numerical results from both passive and active models at L-band (1.4 GHz) are generated and various scattering and emission properties of the grass canopies are discussed.

  7. Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

  8. 6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, WATER MILFOIL, AND OTHER AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TRANSPLANTING FROM A COULEE SIX MILES AWAY FROM THE REFUGE - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  9. Temperate Perennial Grass Response to Defoliation Height and Interval

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency and extent to which temperate perennial grasses are defoliated influences their productivity and persistence. Field-grown tillers of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), common quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould], and reed canarygrass (Phala...

  10. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  11. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  12. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  13. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  14. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  15. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  16. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  19. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.100 Mesilla Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Mesilla Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Mesilla Valley...

  20. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  2. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.69 - Yakima Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.69 Yakima Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yakima Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Yakima Valley...

  4. 27 CFR 9.69 - Yakima Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.69 Yakima Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yakima Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Yakima Valley...

  5. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  6. 27 CFR 9.69 - Yakima Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.69 Yakima Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yakima Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Yakima Valley...

  7. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  8. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  9. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  10. 27 CFR 9.50 - Temecula Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.50 Temecula Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Temecula Valley.” (b) Approved map.The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Temecula Valley...

  11. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  12. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  13. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  14. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  16. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  17. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  18. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.100 Mesilla Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Mesilla Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Mesilla Valley...

  19. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  20. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.100 Mesilla Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Mesilla Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Mesilla Valley...

  1. Classifying gauge anomalies through symmetry-protected trivial orders and classifying gravitational anomalies through topological orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]⊕Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of π-cohomology group, Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.

  2. Musculotendinous anomalies in musician and nonmusician hands.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gavin; Peck, Fiona; Brain, Anne; Watson, Stewart

    2003-12-01

    Musculoskeletal abnormalities of musicians' hands and upper extremities are well-recognized and potentially career-threatening problems. Of the many types of potentiality problematic musculoskeletal disorders that could be assessed, this study focused on joint instability and musculotendinous anomalies. For this study, the hands of 92 music students were compared with the hands of 64 nonmusician control subjects. Flexor anomalies were observed much more frequently than extensor musculotendinous anomalies; clinical evidence of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly was noted for 60 to 70 percent of subjects in both groups. Further analysis of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly demonstrated that the sites of pain among test-positive subjects were variable, test positivity was more frequent in the left hand and among string players, and test positivity tended to decrease from the radial side to the ulnar side of the hand. There were only two definite extensor musculotendinous anomalies (1.3 percent), and both involved a subluxating extensor mechanism affecting the little fingers. Forty-three percent of all subjects exhibited a degree of instability affecting the joints of their hands.

  3. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  4. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  5. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values).

  6. Architectural Evolution and its Implications for Domestication in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Doust, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background The cereal crops domesticated from grasses provide a large percentage of the calories consumed by humans. Domestication and breeding in individual cereals has historically occurred in isolation, although this is rapidly changing with comparative genomics of the sequenced or soon-to-be sequenced genomes of rice, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium. Genetic information transferred through genomic comparisons is helping our understanding of genetically less tractable crops such as the hexaploid wheats and polyploid sugarcane, as well as the approx. 10 000 species of wild grasses. In turn, phylogenetic analysis helps put our knowledge of the morphology of cereal crops into an evolutionary context. Grass Architecture Domestication often involves a change in the pattern and timing of branching, which affects both vegetative and inflorescence architecture, and ultimately yield. Cereal grasses exhibit two main forms of vegetative architecture: the pooid and erhartoid cereals such as wheat and rice have multiple basal tillers, while panicoid cereals such as maize, sorghum and the millets have few tillers or even only a single main stem. These differences are reflected in the differences between the wild species of pooid and some erhartoid grasses, which emphasize basal branching over axillary branching, and the panicoid grasses, where axillary branching is more frequently found. A combination of phylogenetic and genomic analysis is beginning to reveal the similarities and differences between different cereal crops, and relate these to the diversity of wild grasses to which they are related. Recent work on genes controlling branching emphasizes that developmental genetics needs to be viewed in both an evolutionary and ecological framework, if it is to be useful in understanding how morphology evolves. Increasingly, exploring the phylogenetic context of the crop grasses will suggest new ways to identify and create combinations of morphological traits that will best

  7. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  8. Outbreaks of equine grass sickness in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, B; Brunthaler, R; Hahn, C; van den Hoven, R

    2012-01-21

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) occurs mainly in Great Britain, but has once been reported in Hungary. The stud which was affected by EGS in 2001 had no new cases until 2009/10, when 11 of 60 and five of 12 one- to three-year-old colts died or were euthanased due to EGS. Following a few hours in the high-risk field during the winter of 2010/11 further four cases of acute EGS were noted among these horses. The affected horses showed somewhat different clinical signs compared with the cases reported in Great Britain. Histopathological findings in these horses were consistent with EGS. In most examined cases carbofuran, a carbamate was found in the liver by toxicological examination, and it is postulated that carbofuran may influence the immune system and therefore predispose the horses to develop EGS. Carbamates are thought to cause a delayed neurotoxicity in human beings. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of carbamates in EGS.

  9. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  10. Atmospheric turbidity over Kathmandu valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Balkrishna; Dhaubhadel, Rajan

    The atmosphere of Kathmandu Valley has been investigated by using Sunphotometer and Nephelometer during the pre-monsoon period of 1999. The atmospheric turbidity parameters (extinction coefficient for 500 nm wavelength τAG and Angstrom coefficient β) are found high in the morning and show decreasing trends from morning to late afternoon on average. Vertical dispersion of pollutants and increasing pollutant flushing rate by increasing wind speed from morning to late afternoon is the cause for this decreasing trend of turbidity over the valley. Being surrounded by high hills all around the valley, horizontal exit of pollutants without vertical dispersion is not possible. The scattering coefficient bscat of aerosols in ground level troposphere is also found high in the morning, which decreases and becomes minimum during afternoon. During late afternoon, bscat again shows a slightly increasing trend. The reason is the increasing vehicular emission during late afternoon rush period. The average values of Angstrom exponent α, β, τAG and bscat are found to be 0.624±0.023, 0.299±0.009, 0.602±0.022 and 0.353±0.014 km -1, respectively. About 76.8% of the observed values of β lie above 0.2 indicating heavy particulate pollution in the valley. A comparison of observed values of turbidity parameters with other major cities of the world shows that Kathmandu is as polluted as cities like Jakarta, Kansas, Beijing, Vienna, etc.

  11. Navigating the valley of death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2014-11-01

    Taking an innovation from the lab to the market is hard in any discipline, but physics start-ups face some unique challenges crossing the so-called "valley of death". James Dacey speaks to scientists and business professionals in the Boston area of the US who have dared to take on this journey.

  12. Effects of low levels of herbicides on prairie species of the Willamette Valley, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Blakeley-Smith, Matthew; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2013-11-01

    The relative sensitivity of 17 noncrop plant species from Oregon's Willamette Valley was determined in response to glyphosate, tribenuron methyl (tribenuron), and fluazifop-p-butyl (fluazifop) herbicides. For glyphosate, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca arundinacea, Madia elegans, Potentilla gracilis, and Ranunculus occidentalis were the most sensitive species, based on a concentration calculated to reduce shoot dry weight by 25% (IC25 values) of 0.02 to 0.04 × a field application rate of 1112 g active ingredient (a.i.) per hectare. Clarkia amoena and Lupinus albicaulis were the most tolerant to glyphosate, with IC25 values near the field application rate. Clarkia amoena, Prunella vulgaris, and R. occidentalis were the most sensitive to tribenuron, with IC25 values of 0.001 to 0.004 × a field application rate of 8.7 g a.i. ha(-1) for shoot dry weight. Five grass species were tolerant to tribenuron with no significant IC25 values. For fluazifop, 2 native grasses, E. trachycaulus and Danthonia californica, were the most sensitive species, with IC25 values of 0.007 and 0.010 × a field application rate of 210 g a.i. ha(-1) , respectively, for shoot dry weight, while a native grass, Festuca roemeri, and nearly all forbs showed little or no response. These results also indicated that the 3 introduced species used in the present study may be controlled with 1 of the tested herbicides: glyphosate (F. arundinacea), tribenuron (Leucanthemum vulgare), and fluazifop (Cynosurus echinatus). PMID:23881750

  13. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-08-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics.

  14. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  15. Ellen R. Grass lecture: Back to the future: from grass roots to microchips.

    PubMed

    Drazkowski, Joseph F

    2011-06-01

    The study of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and other clinical neurophysiology (CNP) measurement tools has evolved over the last 70 years. In this evolutionary process, Ellen Grass and many professional technologists along the way have been instrumental in the translation of new developments in CNP technology to clinical utility. Technological developments in long-term EEG/video intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring, intraoperative monitoring, high frequency oscillation (HFO) recordings, automated signal analysis tools, seizure prediction devices, and the study of implanted intracranial recording and stimulation devices will improve our understanding of how the nervous system works. Improved understanding and translation of this evolving technology for improved patient care and outcomes remains the ultimate goal of such endeavors. Professional organizations such as the American Board of Registration of Electroencephalographic and Evoked Potential Technologists (ABRET) and the American Society of Electroneurodiagnostic Technologists (ASET) must continue to serve the CNP community and society to guide the application of this technology with an emphasis on providing information, guidelines on its use, and setting standards of professionalism. Any prior prediction of the demise of CNP technology has been greatly exaggerated. Quite the opposite has occurred, considering that the humble origins of vacuum tube powered Grass EEG machines will eventually yield to intracranial implanted microchip based recording and stimulation devices; the future appears bright for our profession.

  16. Teleseismic tomography of the compressional wave velocity structure beneath the Long Valley region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, P.B.; Evans, J.R.; Iyer, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    In 1982 and 1984 the US Geological Survey used several seismic networks, totaling over 90 stations, to record teleseismic P waves and measure travel time residuals in an area centered on the Long Valley caldera. The travel time residuals have been inverted to obtain a three-dimensional image of the velocity structure with resolution of 5-6 km to depths of 70 km beneath the array. Direct inversion of these data indicates that the 2- to 4-km-thick low-velocity caldera fill contaminates the signal from any midcrustal velocity anomalies beneath the caldera. Two methods were used to strip the effects of the upper crust from the travel time residuals and the resulting "stripped' models show two well-resolved midcrustal low-velocity bodies in the Long Valley region. The features are interpreted as silicic magma chambers and the presence of additional pockets of magma <5 km across in the upper crust is not ruled out. The high eruptive rate of the Mono Craters and upper mantle velocity anomalies suggest that the focus of volcanism is shifting north from Long Valley to the Mono Craters. -from Authors

  17. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M.; Happ, Hannah C.; Levin, Alex V.; Wheeler, Patricia G.; David, Karen L.; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the frst study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  18. Preliminary aeromagnetic anomaly map of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Carter W.; Jachens, Rober C.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetization in crustal rocks is the vector sum of induced in minerals by the Earth’s present main field and the remanent magnetization of minerals susceptible to magnetization (chiefly magnetite) (Blakely, 1995). The direction of remanent magnetization acquired during the rock’s history can be highly variable. Crystalline rocks generally contain sufficient magnetic minerals to cause variations in the Earth’s magnetic field that can be mapped by aeromagnetic surveys. Sedimentary rocks are generally weakly magnetized and consequently have a small effect on the magnetic field: thus a magnetic anomaly map can be used to “see through” the sedimentary rock cover and can convey information on lithologic contrasts and structural trends related to the underlying crystalline basement (see Nettleton,1971; Blakely, 1995). The magnetic anomaly map (fig. 2) provides a synoptic view of major anomalies and contributes to our understanding of the tectonic development of California. Reference fields, that approximate the Earth’s main (core) field, have been subtracted from the recorded magnetic data. The resulting map of the total magnetic anomalies exhibits anomaly patterns related to the distribution of magnetized crustal rocks at depths shallower than the Curie point isotherm (the surface within the Earth beneath which temperatures are so high that rocks lose their magnetic properties). The magnetic anomaly map has been compiled from existing digital data. Data obtained from aeromagnetic surveys that were made at different times, spacings and elevations, were merged by analytical continuation of each set onto a common surface 305 m (1000 ft) above terrain. Digital data in this compatible form allows application of analytical techniques (Blakley, 1995) that can be used to enhance anomaly characteristics (e.g., wavelength and trends) and provide new interpretive information.

  19. Analysis of gravity data in Central Valleys, Oaxaca, southern, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ferrusquia, I.

    2015-12-01

    The region known as Central Valleys is located in the state of Oaxaca, southern, Mexico (16.3o- 17.7 o N Lat. and 96 o - 97 o W Long.) In its central portion is settled the capital of the state. There are very few published detailed geological studies.. Geomorphological and geological features, indicates that Central Valleys and surrounding mountains conform a graben structure. Its shape is an inverted Y, centred on Oaxaca City. The study area was covered by a detailed gravity survey with a homogenous distribution of stations. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a large gravity low, oriented NW-SE. In order to know the characteristics of anomalies observed gravity, data transformations were used. The use of spectral methods has increased in recent years, especially for the estimation of the depth of the source. Analysis of the gravity data sheds light on the regional depth of the Graben basement and the spatial distribution of the volcanic rocks

  20. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  1. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  2. Gravity and fault structures, Long Valley caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1987-07-01

    The main and catastrophic phase of eruption in Long Valley occurred 0.73 m.y. ago with the eruption of over 600 km/sup 3/ of rhyolitic magma. Subsequent collapse of the roof rocks produced a caldera which is now elliptical in shape, 32 km east-west by 17 km north-south. The caldera, like other large Quarternary silicic ash-flow volcanoes that have been studied by various workers, has a nearly coincident Bouguer gravity low. Earlier interpretations of the gravity anomaly have attributed the entire anomaly to lower density rocks filling the collapsed structure. However, on the basis of many additional gravity stations and supporting subsurface data from several new holes, a much more complex and accurate picture has emerged of caldera structure. From a three-dimensional inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity data we can resolve discontinuities that seem to correlate with extensions of pre-caldera faults into the caldera and faults associated with the ring fracture. Some of these faults are believed related to the present-day hydrothermal upflow zone and the zone of youngest volcanic activity within the caldera.

  3. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  4. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-11-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  5. Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

  6. Airborne Bacteria in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Temporal Distribution above a Grass Seed Field

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, B.; Shaffer, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oreg., in the summer of 1993. The concentration of airborne bacteria had a maximum of 1,368.5 CFU/m(sup3), with a coefficient of variation of 90.5% and a mean of 121.3 CFU/m(sup3). The lowest concentration of bacteria occurred during the predawn hours, with an average of 32.2 CFU/m(sup3), while sunrise and early evening hours had the highest averages (164.7 and 158.1 CFU/m(sup3), respectively). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere varied greatly, with a maximum difference between two 2-min samples of 1,995 CFU/m(sup3). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere could be divided into five time periods during the day that were thought to be related to the local diurnal sea breeze and Pacific Coast monsoon weather conditions as follows: (i) the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 2300 to 0600 h; (ii) the sunrise peak concentration, i.e., 0600 to 0800 h; (iii) the midday accumulating concentration, i.e., 0800 to 1515 h; (iv) the late-afternoon sea breeze trough concentration, i.e., 1515 to 1700 h; and (v) the evening decrease to the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 1700 to 2300 h. The sunrise peak concentration (period ii) is thought to be a relatively general phenomenon dependent on ground heating by the sun, while the afternoon trough concentration is thought to be a relatively local phenomenon dependent on the afternoon sea breeze. Meteorological conditions are thought to be an important regulating influence on airborne bacterial concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere in the Willamette River Valley. PMID:16534998

  7. Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Environmental Research; Northern Iowa Univ.; Kansas State Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was initially believed to have little or no impact on root morphology, we now recognize that subtle changes do occur and that these changes may be of considerable consequence to host growth and nutrition, as well as functional growth strategy. In examining the stele and root diameters of C3 and C4 grasses, C4 grasses were demonstrated to have a significantly larger proportion of their fibrous roots occupied by stele tissue than do C3 grasses. In fact, functional growth strategy (C3 versus C4) was observed to be a relatively good predictor of stele area. Mycorrhizal fungi also influenced the amount of stele tissue, but the effect was not the same for both C3 and C4 grasses. The stele area of all C4 grasses except for Sorghastrum nutans was greater in the presence of mycorrhizal colonization. Among the C3 grasses, only Bromus inermis showed a significant increase, although Elymus cinereus and Lolium perenne displayed significant decreases in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Changes in the stele area of the plant species were closely related to their responsiveness to mycorrhizal symbiosis and might in part explain both beneficial and detrimental responses of plants to mycorrhizae. An increase in stele circumference induced by mycorrhizae would allow for greater uptake and passage of water and nutrients to the vascular cylinder, and growth depressions could be a direct outcome of reduced stele circumference. Thus, differences in stele circumference represent a possible mechanism for mycorrhizal impacts on host plants. These findings indicate that structural differences among grasses are related to different functional capabilities and further emphasize the need for better integration of comparative anatomy and morphology procedures in the study of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  8. Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

  9. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  10. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  11. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection in Urban Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas Ayuga, J. G.; Martínez Marín, R.; Marchamalo Sacristán, M.; Bonatti, J.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica) respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background) based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  12. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope attitude observer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdall, Morgan M.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Swain, Scott R.

    2006-06-01

    In mid-2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began experiencing occasional losses of lock during Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) guide star acquisitions, threatening a potential loss of science. These failures were associated with an increasing disparity between the FGS-derived estimates of gyro bias calculated in orbit day and those calculated in orbit night. Early efforts to mitigate the operational effects of this Attitude Observer Anomaly (AOA) succeeded; however, the magnitude of the anomaly continued to increase at a linear rate and operational problems resumed in mid-2005. Continued analysis led to an additional on-orbit mitigation strategy that succeeded in reducing the AOA signature. Before the investigation could be completed, HST began operations under the life-extending Two Gyro Science mode. This eliminated both the operational effects of and the visibility into the AOA phenomenon. Possible causes of the anomaly at the vehicle system level included component hardware failures, flight software errors in control law processing, distortion of the telescope optical path, and deformation of vehicle structure. Although the mechanism of the AOA was not definitively identified, the Anomaly Review Board (ARB) chartered to investigate the anomaly concluded that the most likely root cause lies within one of HST's 6 rate-integrating gyroscopes. This paper provides a summary of the initial paths of investigation, the analysis and testing performed to attempt to isolate the source, and a review of the findings of the ARB. The possibility of future operational impacts and available methods of on-orbit mitigation are also addressed.

  14. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  15. Gravity anomaly at a Pleistocene lake bed in NW Alaska interpreted by analogy with Greenland's Lake Taserssauq and its floating ice tongue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    A possible example of a very deep glacial excavation is provided by a distinctive gravity low located at the front of a valley glacier that once flowed into glacial Lake Aniuk (formerly Lake Noatak) in the western Brooks Range. Geologic and geophysical data suggest that sediments or ice filling a glacially excavated valley are the most probable cause of the 30-50 mGal anomaly. Reasonable choices of geometric models and density contrasts indicate that the former excavation is now filled with a buried-ice thickness of 700 m or sediment thicknesses greater than 1 km. No direct evidence of efficient excavation was observed in Greenland, but efficient glacial erosion behind a floating polar ice tongue could explain the excavation that caused the Alaskan gravity anomaly. -from Author

  16. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ1, λ2, and λ3), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  17. Giant negative magnetoresistance induced by the chiral anomaly in individual Cd3As2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Li-Xian; Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Jian; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Dirac electronic materials beyond graphene and topological insulators have recently attracted considerable attention. Cd3As2 is a Dirac semimetal with linear dispersion along all three momentum directions and can be viewed as a three-dimensional analogue of graphene. By breaking of either time-reversal symmetry or spatial inversion symmetry, the Dirac semimetal is believed to transform into a Weyl semimetal with an exotic chiral anomaly effect, however the experimental evidence of the chiral anomaly is still missing in Cd3As2. Here we show a large negative magnetoresistance with magnitude of -63% at 60 K and -11% at 300 K in individual Cd3As2 nanowires. The negative magnetoresistance can be modulated by gate voltage and temperature through tuning the density of chiral states at the Fermi level and the inter-valley scatterings between Weyl nodes. The results give evidence of the chiral anomaly effect and are valuable for understanding the Weyl fermions in Dirac semimetals. PMID:26673625

  18. Giant negative magnetoresistance induced by the chiral anomaly in individual Cd3As2 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Li-Xian; Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Jian; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Dirac electronic materials beyond graphene and topological insulators have recently attracted considerable attention. Cd3As2 is a Dirac semimetal with linear dispersion along all three momentum directions and can be viewed as a three-dimensional analogue of graphene. By breaking of either time-reversal symmetry or spatial inversion symmetry, the Dirac semimetal is believed to transform into a Weyl semimetal with an exotic chiral anomaly effect, however the experimental evidence of the chiral anomaly is still missing in Cd3As2. Here we show a large negative magnetoresistance with magnitude of −63% at 60 K and −11% at 300 K in individual Cd3As2 nanowires. The negative magnetoresistance can be modulated by gate voltage and temperature through tuning the density of chiral states at the Fermi level and the inter-valley scatterings between Weyl nodes. The results give evidence of the chiral anomaly effect and are valuable for understanding the Weyl fermions in Dirac semimetals. PMID:26673625

  19. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  20. Geoelectrical Characterization of the Punta Banda System: A Possible Structural Control for the Geothermal Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango-Galvan, C.; Flores-Marquez, E.; Prol-Ledesma, R.; Working Group, I.

    2007-05-01

    The lack of sufficient drinking water in México has become a very serious problem, especially in the northern desert regions of the country. In order to give a real solution to this phenomenon the IMPULSA research program has been created to develope novel technologies based on desalination of sea and brackish water using renewable sources of energy to face the problem. The Punta Banda geothermal anomaly is located towards the northern part of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico). High water temperatures in some wells along the coast depicted a geothermal anomaly. An audiomagnetotelluric survey was carried out in the area as a preliminary study, both to understand the process generating these anomalous temperatures and to assess its potential exploitation to supply hot water to desalination plants. Among the electromagnetic methods, the audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) method is appropriated for deep groundwater and geothermal studies. The survey consisted of 27 AMT stations covering a 5 km profile along the Agua Blanca Fault. The employed array allowed us to characterize the geoelectrical properties of the main structures up to 500 m depth. Two main geoelectrical zones were identified: 1) a shallow low resistivity media located at the central portion of the profile, coinciding with the Maneadero valley and 2) two high resitivity structures bordering the conductive zone possibly related to NS faulting, already identified by previous geophysical studies. These results suggest that the main geothermal anomalies are controlled by the dominant structural regime in the zone.

  1. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  2. Seasonal variation of birch and grass pollen loads and allergen release at two sites in the German Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Lüpke, Marvin; Laube, Julia; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Menzel, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Less vegetated mountainous areas may provide better conditions for allergy sufferers. However, atmospheric transport can result in medically relevant pollen loads in such regions. The majority of investigations has focused on the pollen load, expressed as daily averages of pollen per cubic meter of air (pollen grains/m³); however, the severity of allergic symptoms is also determined by the actual allergen content of this pollen, its pollen potency, which may differ between high and low altitudes. We analysed airborne birch and grass pollen concentrations along with allergen content (birch: Bet v 1, grass: Phl p 5) at two different altitudes (734 and 2650 m a.s.l.) in the Zugspitze region (2009-2010). Back-trajectories were calculated for the high altitude site and for specific days with abrupt increases in pollen potency. We observed several days with medically relevant pollen concentrations at the highest site. In addition, a few days with pollen were not associated with allergens and vice versa. The calculated seasonal mean allergen release per pollen grain was 1.8-3.3 pg Bet v 1 and 5.7 pg Phl p 5 in the valley and 1.1-3.7 pg Bet v 1 and 0.7-1.5 pg Phl p 5 at the high altitude site. Back-trajectories revealed that high pollen potency at the higher site was generally associated with south-westerly to south-easterly (birch), or northerly (grass) wind directions. By investigating days with sudden increases in pollen potency, however, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions on long- or short-range transport. Our findings suggest that people allergic to pollen might suffer less at higher altitudes and further indicate that a risk assessment relying on the actual concentration of airborne pollen does not necessarily reflect the actual allergy exposure of individuals.

  3. SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Camacho, Oscar Francisco; Fuerte-Flores, Bertha Irene; Ricardez-Marcial, Edgar F; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is an uncommon autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the SOX2 gene and clinically characterized by severe eye malformations (anophthalmia/microphthalmia) and extraocular anomalies mainly involving brain, esophagus, and genitalia. In this work, a patient with the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and exhibiting a novel dental anomaly is described. SOX2 genotyping in this patient revealed an apparently de novo c.70del20 deletion, a commonly reported SOX2 mutation. A review of the phenotypic variation observed in patients carrying the recurrent SOX2 c.70del20 mutation is presented. Although dental anomalies are uncommonly reported in the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, we suggest that a dental examination should be performed in patients with SOX2 mutations.

  4. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  5. How to quantify structural anomalies in fluids?

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Klumov, B A; Tsiok, E N

    2014-07-21

    Some fluids are known to behave anomalously. The so-called structural anomaly which means that the fluid becomes less structures under isothermal compression is among the most frequently discussed ones. Several methods for quantifying the degree of structural order are described in the literature and are used for calculating the region of structural anomaly. It is generally thought that all of the structural order determinations yield qualitatively identical results. However, no explicit comparison was made. This paper presents such a comparison for the first time. The results of some definitions are shown to contradict the intuitive notion of a fluid. On the basis of this comparison, we show that the region of structural anomaly can be most reliably determined from the behavior of the excess entropy. PMID:25053327

  6. Martian magnetic anomalies and ionosphere escape rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A.; Barabash, S.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Looking forward to the MAVEN mission, it seems very useful to return to Mars Express data to refresh an important problem of Martian atmosphere escape: what role the crustal magnetic field may play in this process? There are several publications on this topic with completely opposite conclusions. The last hybrid simulations show that the magnetic anomalies significantly reduce the ion loss rate during solar minimum. We are trying to use a new approach to Mars Express IMA data analysis to check how it is possible.On the base of a statistical study of the ion distributions in the Martian magnetotail we show that the characteristic accelerated ions are not associated with the magnetic anomalies but only with interplanetary magnetic field clock angle. Moreover the magnetic anomalies screen and deviate the escaping flow leading to reducing of the total loss rate. Finally the observed heavy ions escaping rate is in a fantastic agreement with simulation results.

  7. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  8. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  9. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  10. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  11. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  12. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  13. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  14. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  15. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-10-13

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  16. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  17. [The textual research on the original plant of grass monkshood].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2012-05-01

    According to the literature review and field investigation, the traditional production areas of the herb grass monkshood are East China, Sichuan and its surroundings. The protophytes of grass monkshood in the east China area are mainly the Huangshan monkshood variant and truppelianum; but in the Sichuan area they are mainly aconite and aconitum hemsleyanum. The above belong to the aconitum of aconitum suby and tendril monkshood. They are the closest genetic relatives and the most evolutive groups as well as the most toxic groups. Local aconite was used as grass monkshood medicine in folk medicine but this happened only in part of the region and for a period of time. There were few records in literature in past dynasties and they would not have been able to be included in mainstream history. It is obviously different from the aconitum kusnezoffii which is stipulated in the pharmacopoeia in past ages. It is not in accordance with history to take kusnezoffii as certified quality grass monkshood and it also has some particular influence on the clinical use of grass monkshood. PMID:22883380

  18. Salt tolerance evolves more frequently in C4 grass lineages.

    PubMed

    Bromham, L; Bennett, T H

    2014-03-01

    Salt tolerance has evolved many times in the grass family, and yet few cereal crops are salt tolerant. Why has it been so difficult to develop crops tolerant of saline soils when salt tolerance has evolved so frequently in nature? One possible explanation is that some grass lineages have traits that predispose them to developing salt tolerance and that without these background traits, salt tolerance is harder to achieve. One candidate background trait is photosynthetic pathway, which has also been remarkably labile in grasses. At least 22 independent origins of the C4 photosynthetic pathway have been suggested to occur within the grass family. It is possible that the evolution of C4 photosynthesis aids exploitation of saline environments, because it reduces transpiration, increases water-use efficiency and limits the uptake of toxic ions. But the observed link between the evolution of C4 photosynthesis and salt tolerance could simply be due to biases in phylogenetic distribution of halophytes or C4 species. Here, we use a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the association between photosynthetic pathway and salt tolerance in the grass family Poaceae. We find that salt tolerance is significantly more likely to occur in lineages with C4 photosynthesis than in C3 lineages. We discuss the possible links between C4 photosynthesis and salt tolerance and consider the limitations of inferring the direction of causality of this relationship.

  19. Mismatch in aeroallergens and airborne grass pollen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Galán, C.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the allergen concentration in the atmosphere is essential for allergy sufferers. The major cause of pollinosis all over Europe is due to grass pollen and Phl p 5 has the highest rates of sensitization (>50%) in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy. However, recent research has shown that airborne pollen does not always offer a clear indicator of exposure to aeroallergens. This study aims to evaluate relations between airborne grass pollen and Phl p 5 concentrations in Córdoba (southern Spain) and to study how meteorological parameters influence these atmospheric records. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Hirst-type volumetric spore trap was used for pollen collection, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA). Aeroallergen sampling was performed using a low-volume cyclone sampler, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Besides, the influence of main meteorological factors on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was surveyed. A significant correlation was observed between grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations during the pollen season, but with some sporadic discrepancy episodes. The cumulative annual Pollen Index also varied considerably. A significant correlation has been obtained between airborne pollen and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation, during the three studied years. However, there is no clear relationship between allergens and weather variables. Our findings suggest that the correlation between grass pollen and aeroallergen Phl p 5 concentrations varies from year-to-year probably related to a complex interplay of meteorological variables.

  20. Grass meristems II: inflorescence architecture, flower development and meristem fate.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Wakana; Pautler, Michael; Jackson, David; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2013-03-01

    Plant development depends on the activity of various types of meristems that generate organs such as leaves and floral organs throughout the life cycle. Grass species produce complex inflorescences and unique flowers. The grass inflorescence is composed of different types of branches, including a specialized branch called a spikelet. The spikelet is a special unit of the inflorescence and forms one to several florets, depending on the species. In the floret, floral organs such as perianth organs, carpels and stamens are formed. In Arabidopsis, because the inflorescence meristem (IM) forms the floral meristems (FMs) directly on its flanks, the change of meristem fate is relatively simple. In contrast, in grasses, different types of meristem, such as the IM, the branch meristem (BM), the spikelet pair meristem (SPM) in some grasses, the spikelet meristem (SM) and the FM, are responsible for the elaboration of their complex inflorescences and flowers. Therefore, sequential changes of meristem fate are required, and a number of genes involved in the specification of the fate of each meristem have been identified. In this review, we focus on the following issues concerning the fate of the reproductive meristems in two grass species, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa): (i) meristem regulation during inflorescence development; (ii) specification and fate change of the BM and the SM; (iii) determinacy of the FM; and (iv) communication between the meristem and lateral organs.

  1. Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.

    PubMed

    Klančnik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue.

  2. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-10-13

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society.

  3. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  4. A rare anomaly of abductor digiti minimi.

    PubMed

    Sañudo, J R; Mirapeix, R M; Ferreira, B

    1993-06-01

    Two cases with anomalous fascicles in abductor digiti minimi, noted in the course of dissecting 62 adult postmortem forearms, are described. Both fascicles arose from the flexor retinaculum and the antebrachial fascia; one was inserted into abductor digiti minimi and the other on the proximal phalanx of the 5th finger. The anomalous muscles crossed the ulnar nerve and in 1 case also the median nerve. In the 2nd case the palmar nerve to the 5th finger was seen to penetrate the anomalous muscle. The ontogeny, morphology and clinical significance of this anomaly are discussed in relation to previously described anomalies of the hypothenar muscles.

  5. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can induce electrical anomalies in spacecraft through discharging of charged surfaces (also EMP (electromagnetic pulse?).

  6. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  7. Seasonal Allocation and Respiration of New Assimilates in Perennial Grasses and Shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, M. S.; Czimczik, C. I.; Xu, X.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon (C) enters terrestrial ecosystems through photosynthesis, and returns to the atmosphere by numerous pathways (above- and belowground, auto- and heterotrophic), collectively called ecosystem respiration. Incomplete understanding of how new photosynthetic products partition among these pathways, particularly belowground, is a major source of uncertainty with modeling ecosystem respiration in space and time. The allocation of newly assimilated C initially constrains the quantity and timing of C available for respiration by different plant components and microbial communities. Yet, very few studies have been able to quantify these plant allocation patterns with field observations and non-destructive in situ methodologies. In this study, we use a 13C and 14C pulse-labeling field method to quantify both the seasonal C allocation patterns and the speed of C cycling in two plant communities, perennial grasses and shrubs, in the Owens Valley, CA. We will present new data on the timing and quantity of current photosynthetic products contributing to the different above- and belowground sources of respiration, as well as the respiration fluxes themselves, from this desert ecosystem.

  8. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  9. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner's statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  10. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... desert valley located in the northwest portion of Death Valley National Park. Despite the variety of... passage of the California Desert Protection Act in 1994. Under NPS management, efforts have been made...

  11. Morphology and downslope sediment displacement in a deep-sea valley, the Valencia Valley (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Maldonado, A.; Malinverno, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, William B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Valencia Valley is a Quaternary, 200 km long deep-sea valley in the Valencia Trough, Western Mediterranean Sea. A swathmapping survey approximately mid-way along the valley length, where the floor has an average gradient of 1:250 (0.2??), shows valley walls that rise 200 to 350 m above the valley floor, with slopes of 2 to 18??. Sediment forming the walls is undergoing retrogressive, upslope-directed slumping with increasing bedding disruption along steeper walls. The valley exhibits a winding course with steep outer and gentler inner walls around bends, and bedforms on the valley floor. Lateral migration around bends is less than 5 km and the valley is deeply entrenched into Quaternary-bedded sediments. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, and Tri-State Generation and...

  13. St. Augustine grass germplasm resistant to Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    PubMed

    Youngs, Katharine M; Milla-Lewis, Susana R; Brandenburg, Rick L; Cardoza, Yasmin J

    2014-08-01

    St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze) is an economically important turfgrass in the southeastern United States. However, this turf species is prone to southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber (Heteroptera: Blissidae) outbreaks. This insect is the most destructive pest of St. Augustine grass wherever this turf grass is grown. Host plant resistance has historically been an effective management tool for southern chinch bug. Since 1973, the 'Floratam' St. Augustine grass cultivar effectively controlled southern chinch bug in the southeast. However, southern chinch bug populations from Florida and Texas have now circumvented this resistance, through mechanisms still unknown. Therefore, identifying and deploying new cultivars with resistance to the southern chinch bug is imperative to combat this pest in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. Currently, the number of cultivars with resistance against southern chinch bug is limited, and their efficacy, climatic adaptability, and aesthetic characters are variable. Hence, the main focus of this study is the identification of alternative sources of resistance to southern chinch bugs in previously uncharacterized St. Augustine grass plant introductions (PIs) and its closely related, crossbreeding species, Pembagrass (Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongniart). The PIs exhibited a wide range of responses to southern chinch bug feeding, as indicated by damage ratings. Damage ratings for seven PIs grouped with our resistant reference cultivars. Moreover, nine PIs exhibited antibiosis, based on poor development of southern chinch bug neonates, when compared with our susceptible reference cultivars. Altogether our study has produced strong support to indicate these materials are good candidates for future southern chinch bug resistance breeding in St. Augustine grass.

  14. Variations of Roughness Coefficients with Flow Depth of Grassed Swale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, N.; Ahmad, N. A.; Razi, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Grassed swales are the best management practice (BMP), which has been widely used to reduce the peak flow, reduce water pollution through vegetated filtration, and improve the groundwater recharge. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) is using the approach of grassed swales recommended by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) for reducing the risk of flooding and controlling the water pollution. This paper investigates the variations of roughness coefficients with the flow depth of grassed swales in the campus of UTHM. Fieldwork was carried out on the grassed swale to collect the hydraulic data, which including the levelling work, measuring the flow depth and flow velocity of the swale. The flow depth of swale was taken at three points divided along the width of swale and the flow velocity is captured three times at each of the point. The variations of roughness coefficients of grassed swales are presented in Manning's equation, and the results reveal that the n value increases with the increasing of flow depth. Manning's coefficient value found in this study is in the range of 0.110 to 0.756, which are higher than the value proposed by the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA). The relationships of flow depth and velocity at each section of the swale are portrayed in graphs, which show that the velocity increases with the decreasing of flow depth. The outcomes of this study can be concluded that the variation of Manning's coefficient value is influenced by the swale profile, flow depth, flow velocity, and as well as the vegetation used in the grassed swale concerned.

  15. A magnetic investigation of the Round Mountain plug, Castle Valley, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, R.A.

    1953-01-01

    A magnetic survey was made in Castle Valley, Grand County, Utah, to determine if the Round Mountain plug was fed laterally from the La Sal Mountains or vertically from a source at depth. Additional measurements were made around the exposure of igneous rock to obtain the shape of the plug at depth. No indication of a buried lateral igneous feeder was detected on the magnetic profileso The magnetic contour map showed that the plug was much larger than indicated by the diorite porphyry outcrop, and that the buried part of the plug southeast of Round Mountain has a higher magnetic susceptibility than the diorite outcrop. Theoretical anomalies, calculated using the susceptibility of the diorite outcrop, indicate that a lateral feeder at a depth of greater than 200 feet could not be detected. The size and shape of the magnetic anomaly as shown on the contour map suggest that the plug was fed from a source at depth.

  16. Structure of Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    In 1976, the second oil field in Nevada - Trap Springs - was discovered in Railroad Valley. Since then, more than 100 oil wells have been drilled in Nye County, and most of these have been in Railroad Valley. This well-control helped to unravel the complex structure of Railroad Valley and enabled the construction of more accurate maps of this valley than any other. This information can be used to construct models for exploring other valleys in the Basin and Range Province of eastern Nevada. The basic stratigraphy of the valley consists of Paleozoic carbonates and shales overlain by Tertiary volcanics, overlain, in turn, by valley fill. The areal extent of Tertiary volcanics, which can be a good reservoir rock, is controlled by tensional normal faulting and paleotopography. In some areas, these volcanics can be in excess of 5000 ft thick, but absent within a few miles, owing to paleotopography and/or faulting. The Paleozoic rocks are deformed by a pre-basin and range compressional history that folded and faulted them. As a result, the structure within the Paleozoics is more complex. Thrust faulting played an important role in the deformation of these rocks. Crystalline basement rocks can be found juxtaposed between Paleozoic outcrops in the flanks of the valley, and Paleozoic rocks found in well control farther out in the valley. The geothermal history of Railroad Valley plays an important role in constructing a structural map of the valley, taking into account the Mesozoic thrust faulting and Tertiary normal faulting. Air photos, combined with good well control and published reports, assist in mapping the geologic structure in Railroad Valley.

  17. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  18. Uterine anomaly and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Katano, Kinue; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Mizutani, Eita

    2011-11-01

    Women with recurrent pregnancy loss have a 3.2 to 6.9% likelihood of having a major uterine anomaly and a 1.0 to 16.9% chance of having an arcuate uterus. Bicornuate and septate uterine have a negative impact on reproductive outcomes and are associated with subsequent euploid miscarriage. The impact of an arcuate uterus on pregnancy outcome remains unclear. There are no definitive criteria to distinguish among the arcuate, septate, and bicornuate uteri. The American Fertility Society classification of Müllerian anomalies is the most common standardized classification of uterine anomalies. According to estimates, 65 to 85% of patients with bicornuate or septate uteri have a successful pregnancy outcome after metroplasty. However, 59.5% of the patients with such anomalies have a successful subsequent pregnancy without surgery, with a cumulative live birthrate of 78.0%. There is no case-control study to compare live birthrates in women who had surgery compared with those who did not. Strict criteria to distinguish between the bicornuate and septate uterus should be established. Further study is needed to confirm the benefits of metroplasty.

  19. Heineman Prize Lecture: Anomaly Cancellation: A Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John

    2002-04-01

    The mechanism by which gauge and gravitational anomalies cancel in certain string theories is reviewed. A few new tricks are introduced to make the derivation a little simpler, and the string-theoretic interpretation a little clearer, than in the original 1984 work.

  20. Understanding Anomalies to Extract Vacuum Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, P.A

    2004-02-04

    Recent Russian literature contains some interesting speculations of potentially wide applicability regarding the physical vacuum. These investigations examined and applied a theory to various anomalies to try and understand what these events may represent. Data were collected by Dmitriev to quantify these events and identify commonalties that indicate the anomalies might have a natural origin. Dyatlov created theories on the Polarized Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum where he claimed that each anomaly possessed a distinct boundary separate from its surroundings. Within this inhomogeneous boundary, the theory suggests that the magnetic, electric, gravitic, and spin fields would be different from its surroundings. From these findings, he developed equations that resemble the London equations for a superconductor and are somewhat similar to those developed later by Puthoff. The importance of these events is that with additional understanding, they may offer a means for extracting energy from the physical vacuum. Moreover, one may speculate that these anomalies may represent a gravitational vortex or even a portal or a wormhole to look into potential travel within other dimensions.

  1. Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

  2. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one. Images PMID:3712396

  3. The anomaly data base of screwworm information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Standard statistical processing of anomaly data in the screwworm eradication data system is possible from data compiled on magnetic tapes with the Univac 1108 computer. The format and organization of the data in the data base, which is also available on dedicated disc storage, are described.

  4. Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, J.R.

    2013-01-15

    This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Büttgenbach [S. Büttgenbach, Hyperfine Int. 20 (1984) 1] and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period up to January 2011.

  5. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The Curie Balance was brought to operational stage and is producing data of a preliminary nature. Substantial problems experienced in the assembly and initial operation of the instrument were, for the most part, rectified, but certain problems still exist. Relationships between the geology and the gravity and MAGSAT anomalies of West Africa are reexamined in the context of a partial reconstruction of Gondwanaland.

  6. A natural origin for the LHCb anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megías, Eugenio; Panico, Giuliano; Pujolàs, Oriol; Quirós, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    The anomalies recently found by the LHCb collaboration in B-meson decays seem to point towards the existence of new physics coupled non-universally to muons and electrons. We show that a beyond-the-Standard-Model dynamics with these features naturally arises in models with a warped extra-dimension that aim to solve the electroweak Hierarchy Problem. The attractiveness of our set-up is the fact that the dynamics responsible for generating the flavor anomalies is automatically present, being provided by the massive Kaluza-Klein excitations of the electroweak gauge bosons. The flavor anomalies can be easily reproduced by assuming that the bottom and muon fields have a sizable amount of compositeness, while the electron is almost elementary. Interestingly enough, this framework correlates the flavor anomalies to a pattern of corrections in the electroweak observables and in flavor-changing processes. In particular the deviations in the bottom and muon couplings to the Z-boson and in Δ F = 2 flavor-changing observables are predicted to be close to the present experimental bounds, and thus potentially testable in near-future experiments.

  7. Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David; Martínez, Cristián

    2016-03-01

    We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS4, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m 2 = -2 l -2 and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged {N}=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.

  8. Hyperspectral anomaly detection using enhanced global factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciencia, Todd J.; Bauer, Kenneth W.

    2016-05-01

    Dimension reduction techniques have become one popular unsupervised approach used towards detecting anomalies in hyperspectral imagery. Although demonstrating promising results in the literature on specific images, these methods can become difficult to directly interpret and often require tuning of their parameters to achieve high performance on a specific set of images. This lack of generality is also compounded by the need to remove noise and atmospheric absorption spectral bands from the image prior to detection. Without a process for this band selection and to make the methods adaptable to different image compositions, performance becomes difficult to maintain across a wider variety of images. Here, we present a framework that uses factor analysis to provide a robust band selection and more meaningful dimension reduction with which to detect anomalies in the imagery. Measurable characteristics of the image are used to create an automated decision process that allows the algorithm to adjust to a particular image, while maintaining high detection performance. The framework and its algorithms are detailed, and results are shown for forest, desert, sea, rural, urban, anomaly-sparse, and anomaly-dense imagery types from different sensors. Additionally, the method is compared to current state-of-the-art methods and is shown to be computationally efficient.

  9. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  10. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  11. Os trigonum and soleus tertius anomaly.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, J; Reynders-Frederix, P A; Stoffelen, D; Broos, P L; Fabry, G

    1993-01-01

    A case of both an os trigonum and a soleus tertius anomaly is presented in a patient with chronic posteromedial ankle pain. A resection of the os trigonum was performed, with complete relief of symptoms. The diagnosis and therapy are discussed, and the literature is reviewed.

  12. An experimental study of flow around submerged grass vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Julia; Mandre, Shreyas; Singh, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Mixing of fluids through submerged vegetation caused by tidal currents facilitate various environmental and ecological transport processes. This fluid-vegetation interaction is believed to result from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability from an inflection point in the flow profile. Recent studies suggest that flow in presence of grass can also become unstable due to shear instability of flow above the grass. We devise a two-dimensional lab scale analog of the fluid-vegetation interaction using ABS plastic filaments immersed in a soap film. We employ PIV of the surrounding flow to gain an understanding of the role of instabilities in the flow.

  13. Brachypodium distachyon: making hay with a wild grass.

    PubMed

    Opanowicz, Magdalena; Vain, Philippe; Draper, John; Parker, David; Doonan, John H

    2008-04-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a wild grass with a short life cycle. Although it is related to small grain cereals such as wheat, its genome is only a fraction of the size. A draft genome sequence is currently available, and molecular and genetic tools have been developed for transformation, mutagenesis and gene mapping. Accessions collected from across its ancestral range show a surprising degree of phenotypic variation in many traits, including those implicated in domestication of the cereals. Thus, given its rapid cycling time and ease of cultivation, Brachypodium will be a useful model for investigating problems in grass biology. PMID:18343709

  14. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Pueblo County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  15. Nearly perfect valley filter in silicene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingtian; Chan, K S; Long, Mengqiu

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate theoretically how a perfect valley filter can be obtained in silicene under the effects of a ferromagnetic stripe and an electric field perpendicular to silicene. A ferromagnetic stripe or an electric field alone can not generate any valley polarization in silicene, but a combination of them can make a perfect valley filter. Two configurations, one with magnetization of the ferromagnetic stripe being perpendicular to the silicene plane and one being parallel to the current direction, are considered. Our proposed device is useful for the realization of a valley beam filter in the development of valleytronic devices.

  16. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  17. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  18. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  19. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levelsmore » of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.« less

  20. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levels of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.

  1. Short root anomaly in families and its association with other dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Apajalahti, S; Arte, S; Pirinen, S

    1999-04-01

    In the present study, we collected a family series with short root anomaly in order to analyze the inheritance pattern of the condition. Another aim was to identify in these families an association with other dental anomalies, such as tooth agenesis, peg-shaped lateral incisors, supernumeraries, ectopia, and such morphological characteristics as invaginations, taurodontism, and a tendency to root resorption. Mesiodistal dimensions of the crowns of the affected teeth were measured in order to reveal any association with reduction or increase in tooth size. The apparent genetic heterogeneity of the pedigrees did not permit definitive conclusions as to the mode of inheritance. Autosomal dominant transmission of short root anomaly was seen in 3/8 families. In 2/8 families, the condition was seen in siblings but not in parents. An association with tooth agenesis and ectopic canines was noted, the prevalences of which were 46% and 33%, respectively. We stress the importance of not misdiagnosing this anomaly as resorption.

  2. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  3. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as livestock nutritive energy sources and potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass, Brachypodium distanchyon, has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agricultur...

  4. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  5. A grassed waterway and earthen dams to control muddy floods from a cultivated catchment of the Belgian loess belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Vandaele, Karel; van Wesemael, Bas; Bielders, Charles L.

    2008-08-01

    Muddy floods, i.e. runoff from cultivated areas carrying large quantities of soil, are frequent and widespread in the European loess belt. They are mainly generated in dry zero-order valleys and are nowadays considered as the most likely process transferring material eroded from cultivated hillslopes during the Holocene to the flood plain. The huge costs of muddy flood damages justify the urgent installation of control measures. In the framework of the 'Soil Erosion Decree' of the Belgian Flemish region, a 12 ha-grassed waterway and three earthen dams have been installed between 2002-2004 in the thalweg of a 300-ha cultivated dry valley in the Belgian loess belt. The measures served their purpose by preventing any muddy flood in the downstream village, despite the occurrence of several extreme rainfall events (with a maximum return period of 150 years). The catchment has been intensively monitored from 2005-2007 and 39 runoff events were recorded in that period. Peak discharge (per ha) was reduced by 69% between the upstream and the downstream extremities of the grassed waterway (GWW). Furthermore, runoff was buffered for 5-12 h behind the dams, and the lag time at the outlet of the catchment was thereby increased by 75%. Reinfiltration was also observed within the waterway, runoff coefficients decreasing by a mean of 50% between both extremities of the GWW. Sediment discharge was also reduced by 93% between the GWW's inflow and the outlet. Before the installation of the control measures, specific sediment yield (SSY) of the catchment reached 3.5 t ha - 1 yr - 1 and an ephemeral gully was observed nearly each year in the catchment. Since the control measures have been installed, no (ephemeral) gully has developed and the SSY of the catchment dropped to a mean of 0.5 t ha - 1 yr - 1 . Hence, sediment transfer from the cultivated dry valley to the alluvial plain should dramatically decrease. Total cost of the control measures that are built for a 20 year-period is

  6. North Valley/South Valley Survey--Perceptions of Utah Valley State College and the Need for a Branch Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bart R.

    Utah Valley Community College became Utah Valley State College (UVSC) in 1993, due to the increasing need for a four-year, degree-granting institution in Utah County. UVSC now offers 21 four-year programs, and enrollment has been growing at an average rate of 8% per year since 1986. There were 20,946 students enrolled for fall term 2000, and…

  7. Liquefaction sites, Imperial Valley, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Sands that did and did not liquefy at two sites during the 1979 Imperial Valley, Calif., earthquake (ML = 6.6) are identified and their properties evaluated. SPT tests were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility. Loose fine sands in an abandoned channel liquefied and produced sand boils, ground fissures, and a lateral spread at the Heber Road sites. Evidence of liquefaction was not observed over moderately dense over-bank sand east of the channel nor over dense point-bar sand to the west. -from ASCE Publications Information

  8. Work through the valley: plan.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Koegel, Paul; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Young-Brinn, Angela; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This first of three chapters on the Valley stage, or main work of a Community-Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) initiative, concerns the planning phase of the work cycle. The main goal of this phase is to develop an action plan, which clarifies the goals, methods, responsible individuals, and timeline for doing the work. Further, this chapter reviews approaches, such as creativity and use of humor, that help level the playing field and assure community co-leadership with academic partners in developing effective action plans.

  9. Geologic history of the Yosemite Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthes, Francois E.

    1930-01-01

    Projection of the longitudinal profiles of these hanging valleys forward to the axis of the Merced Canyon shows that they are closely accordant in height. Their profiles indicate a series of points on a former profile of the Merced with respect to which the side streams had graded their courses prior to the last uplift. This old profile can be extended upward into the glaciated part of the Merced Canyon above El Portal and even into the profoundly glaciated Yosemite Valley, accordant points being furnished by a number of hanging side valleys (due allowance being made for glacial erosion suffered by those valleys). However, not all the hanging valleys of the Yosemite region are accordant with this set. Several of them, including the upland valley of Yosemite Creek, constitute a separate set indicating another old profile of the Merced at a level 600 to 1,000 feet higher than the first. Others, including the hanging gulch of lower Bridalveil Creek, point to an old profile of the Merced about 1,200 feet lower than the first. There are thus three distinct sets of hanging valleys produced in three cycles of stream erosion. The valleys of the upper set, like those of the middle set, were left hanging as a result of rapid trenching by the Merced induced by an uplift of the range, there having been two such uplifts. Only the valleys of the lower set hang because of glacial deepening and widening of the Yosemite Valley, the cycle in which they were cut having been interrupted by the advent of the Pleistocene glaciers. They consequently indicate the preglacial depth of the Yosemite Valley. That depth, measured from the brow of El Capitan, was about 2,400 feet; measured from the rim at Glacier Point it was about 2,000 feet.

  10. Spectral anomalies in Young's double-slit interference experiment.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jixiong; Cai, Chao; Nemoto, Shojiro

    2004-10-18

    We report a phenomenon of spectral anomalies in the interference field of Young's double-slit interference experiment. The potential applications of the spectral anomalies in the information encoding and information transmission in free space are also considered.

  11. Humidity critical for grass growth in warming climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth responses to climate change might be confounded by multi-factor changes such as temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The growth and water loss of tall fescue (Festuca arundinaccea Schreb.), a cool season grass, was measured over 6 weeks with independent control of temperature a...

  12. Co-existing grass species have distinctive arbuscular mycorrhizal communities.

    PubMed

    Vandenkoornhuyse, P; Ridgway, K P; Watson, I J; Fitter, A H; Young, J P W

    2003-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are biotrophic symbionts colonizing the majority of land plants, and are of major importance in plant nutrient supply. Their diversity is suggested to be an important determinant of plant community structure, but the influence of host-plant and environmental factors on AM fungal community in plant roots is poorly documented. Using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) strategy, the diversity of AM fungi was assessed in 89 roots of three grass species (Agrostis capillaris, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis) that co-occurred in the same plots of a field experiment. The impact of different soil amendments (nitrogen, lime, nitrogen and lime) and insecticide application on AM fungal community was also studied. The level of diversity found in AM fungal communities using the T-RFLP strategy was consistent with previous studies based on clone libraries. Our results clearly confirm that an AM fungal host-plant preference exists, even between different grass species. AM communities colonizing A. capillaris were statistically different from the others (P < 0.05). Although grass species evenness changed in amended soils, AM fungal community composition in roots of a given grass species remained stable. Conversely, in plots where insecticide was applied, we found higher AM fungal diversity and, in F. rubra roots, a statistically different AM fungal community.

  13. Weed-suppressive bacteria to reduce annual grass weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica L.) are exotic, annual grasses that negatively affect cereal production in cropland; reduce protein-rich forage for cattle; choke out native plants in the shrub-steppe habi...

  14. Grass invasion into switchgrass managed for biomass energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season perennial grass and is the model herbaceous perennial bioenergy feedstock. Although it is indigenous to North American grasslands east of the Rocky Mountains and has been planted for forage and conservation purposes for more than 75 years, there is con...

  15. Grass forages:Dynamics of digestion in the rumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses have been the mainstay of the diet of grazing ruminants for thousands of years. Ruminants evolved a multi-compartment stomach to provide an environment for microbial fermentation of the complex polysaccharides that comprise the carbohydrates in plant cell walls (what we nutritionists call fi...

  16. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  17. Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

  18. Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various management practices have been proposed to help alleviate deleterious effects of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff. Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetla...

  19. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  20. Theoretical versus Grass-Roots Development of a Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escandon, Socorro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine Bracht, Kingbury, and Rissel's five-stage community development model as applied to a grass-roots community action group. The sample consisted of low-income, predominantly Hispanic women in a community action group in a Southwestern barrio, some of whom were experiencing domestic violence. The…