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Sample records for anonymizing weighted social

  1. Deploying Low-Latency Anonymity: Design Challenges and Social Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Page 1 of 807-1226-2439.txt Printed: 12/16/08 Dec 16 4:39:54 PM Printed For: Kate Green Deploying Low-Latency Anonymity : Design Challenges and Social...Security & Privacy, September/October 2007 (Vol. 5, No. 5), pp. 83-87 Anonymous communication systems hide conversations against unwanted observations...Deploying an anonymous communications infrastructure presents surprises unlike those found in other types of systems. For example, given that

  2. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-08-21

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity.

  3. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  4. Social Network Variables in Alcoholics Anonymous: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Groh, D.R.; Jason, L.A.; Keys, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA’s impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  5. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  6. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  7. Cognitive and strategic processes in small groups: effects of anonymity of the self and anonymity of the group on social influence.

    PubMed

    Sassenberg, Kai; Postmes, Tom

    2002-09-01

    Two studies examined cognitive and strategic processes of social influence in small groups. A first study showed that anonymity of in-group members to the self cognitively enhanced the perceived unity or entitativity of the group, while the interpersonal attraction to group members decreased. A second study showed that anonymity of the self to the group strategically enhanced differentiation from the group on non-normative dimensions. Overall, it was found that strategic and cognitive processes interact to produce social influence within the group. Implications for theories of social influence in groups are discussed.

  8. Social contagions on weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2017-07-01

    We investigate critical behaviors of a social contagion model on weighted networks. An edge-weight compartmental approach is applied to analyze the weighted social contagion on strongly heterogenous networks with skewed degree and weight distributions. We find that degree heterogeneity cannot only alter the nature of contagion transition from discontinuous to continuous but also can enhance or hamper the size of adoption, depending on the unit transmission probability. We also show that the heterogeneity of weight distribution always hinders social contagions, and does not alter the transition type.

  9. Narcotics Anonymous participation and changes in substance use and social support.

    PubMed

    Toumbourou, John Winston; Hamilton, Margaret; U'Ren, Alison; Stevens-Jones, Pru; Storey, Gordon

    2002-07-01

    In Victoria (a southern Australian state) in 1995, Narcotics Anonymous had a small but growing membership providing an opportunity to study the early experience of new self-help members. Ninety-one new members were interviewed and 62 (68%) were reinterviewed after 12 months. Three measures of self-help participation were examined: service role involvement, step work, and stable meeting attendance. Lower prior involvement in treatment services and greater participation in self-help predicted subsequent self-help participation. Higher levels of secondary school education predicted service role involvement and longer periods in stable meeting attendance. Higher self-help participation through the 12 months prior to follow-up was associated with lower levels of hazardous alcohol use and higher emotional support at reinterview. Multivariate regression analysis suggested stable self-help meeting attendance and step work continued to predict reductions in hazardous alcohol use and improvements in social support, after controlling for a range of alternative predictors.

  10. Abstinence and well-being among members of Alcoholics Anonymous: personal experience and social perceptions.

    PubMed

    Kairouz, S; Dubé, L

    2000-10-01

    The authors examined the subjective experience of well-being (WB) among abstinent Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members and social perceptions of an abstinent alcoholic's WB among 3 nonalcoholic French-Canadian samples: male police officers, Catholic nuns, and university women. The short-term abstinent AA members, along with the university women, reported the lowest self-ratings of WB, whereas the Catholic nuns reported the highest. However, among the abstinent AA members, the level of WB was positively related to the length of abstention. The 3 nonalcoholic groups evaluated an abstinent AA member more positively than a nonabstinent alcoholic. These evaluations of an abstinent AA member converged with the AA members' self-evaluations on the measure of WB.

  11. Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step recovery: a model based on social and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Galanter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine recent findings associated with these disciplines that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying this change. Literature review and hypothesis development. Pertinent aspects of the neural impact of drugs of abuse are summarized. After this, research regarding specific brain sites, elucidated primarily by imaging techniques, is reviewed relative to the following: Mirroring and mentalizing are described in relation to experimentally modeled studies on empathy and mutuality, which may parallel the experiences of social interaction and influence on AA members. Integration and retrieval of memories acquired in a setting like AA are described, and are related to studies on storytelling, models of self-schema development, and value formation. A model for ascription to a Higher Power is presented. The phenomena associated with AA reflect greater complexity than the empirical studies on which this article is based, and certainly require further elucidation. Despite this substantial limitation in currently available findings, there is heuristic value in considering the relationship between the brain-based and clinical phenomena described here. There are opportunities for the study of neuroscientific correlates of Twelve-Step-based recovery, and these can potentially enhance our understanding of related clinical phenomena. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Effects of Anonymity, Gender, and Erotophilia on the Quality of Data Obtained from Self-Reports of Socially Sensitive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Lauren E.; Carey, Michael P.; Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of anonymity, gender, and erotophilia on the quality of self-reports of socially sensitive health-related behaviors. A sample of 155 male and 203 female undergraduate students was randomly assigned to an anonymous and a confidential (i.e., non-anonymous) assessment condition. Gender, erotophilia, self-reports (on substance use, sexual behaviors, illegal activity), and perceived item threat were assessed by questionnaire. Data quality was strongly affected by experimental condition and gender. Thus, terminations were more frequent in the confidential condition and among women. In the confidential condition, women were significantly more likely to “prefer not to respond” to sensitive item compared to men. Both female gender and confidential condition were associated with lower frequency reports of sensitive health behaviors, and greater perceived threat of the assessment questions. Self-reported engagement in sensitive behaviors was positively related to both perceived question threat and erotophilia. Path analyses suggest that question threat mediates the effects of anonymity manipulations and gender on data quality (item refusal, termination), and that erotophilia mediates the effects of gender on incidence and frequency self-reports. The results indicate that anonymous assessments as well as male gender are associated with better data quality. PMID:12442560

  13. Against anonymity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile.

  14. [Social class and birth weight].

    PubMed

    Nødtvedt, A M; Jacobsen, G; Balstad, P; Bakketeig, L S

    1999-12-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the birthweight of Scandinavian children varies according to the social class of their parents, especially the mother. Data were taken from the Scandinavian part of an international multicentre study of fetal growth and perinatal outcome. The occupations of the pregnant woman, her spouse and her parents were registered according to the Nordic classification of occupations. This classification has been criticised for being too detailed to be suitable in epidemiological studies, and the data were recorded into the British system of five classes. The birthweight of female newborns in social class V was 301 g lower than in the other social classes (p < 0.05). A corresponding difference was not shown among male newborns. Newborns of women that had migrated downwards in the socioeconomic system, were 117 g lower than if the migration was upwards (p < 0.05). This difference among female newborns was 164 g (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that there are differences in birthweight according to social class. This may partly be due to genetic factors and a higher prevalence of smoking and high body mass index, i.e. a less favourable lifestyle in the lower social classes.

  15. Quasi-Anonymous Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    QUASI- ANONYMOUS CHANNELS Ira S. Moskowitz Center for High Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC...Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA Abstract Although both anonymity and covert...channels are part of the larger topic of information hiding, there also exists an intrinsic linkage between anonymity and covert channels. This linkage

  16. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  17. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  18. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  19. Deniable Anonymous Group Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    anonymity under the DDH assumption in the random oracle model. Forward Anonymity: We extend the anonymity property to situations in which an adversary...Hellman ( DDH ) assump- tions hold, that is, any probabilistic polynomial algorithm solves the DL problem and the DDH problem respectively only with a...use Aanon as a subroutine to another probabilistic polynomial time adversary Addh that solves the DDH problem with non-negligible probability. Addh

  20. Anonymous Atomic Transactions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    We show here an example of a protocol that satisfies anonymity properties while providing strong ACID (atomic, consistent, isolated, durable...transactional properties, resolving an open question. Blinded signatures are used to certify an anonymous asymmetric key which authorizes the use of a...key is spent. We show here an example of a protocol that satisfies anonymity properties while providing strong ACID (atomic, consistent, isolated

  1. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag. Proxies for Anonymous Routing, 12th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference...San Diego, CA, December 9-13, 1996. Proxies for Anonymous Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory...implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both

  2. Associations between Adolescents' Weight and Maladjustment Differ with Deviation from Weight Norms in Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Witkow, Melissa R.; Bellmore, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Background: In line with the reflected self-appraisal hypothesis, previous research finds associations between weight and maladjustment are strongest when there is a mismatch between individuals' weight and the weight norm of their social contexts. However, research has not considered associations in more proximal social contexts. We examined…

  3. Associations between Adolescents' Weight and Maladjustment Differ with Deviation from Weight Norms in Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Witkow, Melissa R.; Bellmore, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Background: In line with the reflected self-appraisal hypothesis, previous research finds associations between weight and maladjustment are strongest when there is a mismatch between individuals' weight and the weight norm of their social contexts. However, research has not considered associations in more proximal social contexts. We examined…

  4. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, Dmitri; Kilin, Sergei

    2011-02-01

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  5. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  6. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P < 0.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P < 0.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  7. [Anonymous birth and neonaticide in Tyrol].

    PubMed

    Danner, C; Pacher, M; Ambach, E; Brezinka, C

    2005-10-01

    In 2001 the Austrian government provided the legal means that formally enabled "anonymous birth": a woman can now give birth in any hospital in Austria without giving her name or insurance number, the baby is taken into care by social services and placed with adoptive parents. The cost of the hospital stay is covered from public funds. These measures were put into effect after some highly publicized cases of infant abandonment and neonaticide in Austria. In the mostly rural and small-town province of Tyrol province in western Austria (687,000 inhabitants, 7000 births per year) four cases of neonaticide were discovered in the years from 1996 to 2004. One child was abandoned inside a hospital. Since 2001 two women have made use of the "anonymous birth" option. Neither had had any pregnancy controls, both showed up at or near term with contractions. They delivered healthy infants that were then taken into care by local adoption services. Both women were extensively counselled by psychologists, social workers, medical and midwifery staff and both insisted on their original decision to remain anonymous. A few weeks later one of the women found herself at the centre of a criminal investigation for infanticide after anonymous letters were sent to family members insinuating she had done away with the child. Police stopped that investigation when hospital staff confirmed that the woman had had an "anonymous" delivery. Despite the option of legal "anonymous" birth free of charge in modern hospitals there are still cases of infant abandonment and neonaticide in Austria. It is proposed that the women who opt for anonymous birth may not be the women who would otherwise kill their babies. Instead, it appears that the women opted for anonymity to escape the probably well-intentioned but overbearing attention of their families and of social services. It is doubtful that the option of anonymous birth will lead to a complete disappearance of infanticide and infant abandonment in

  8. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  9. Positioning of Weight Bias: Moving towards Social Justice

    PubMed Central

    Alberga, Angela S.; Kassan, Anusha; Sesma-Vazquez, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity. We suggest that, despite differences, each perspective acknowledges the negative influences that position weight as being within individual control and the negative consequences of weight bias. We call for recognition and discussion of weight bias as a social justice issue in order to change the discourse and professional practices extended towards individuals with large bodies. We advocate for an emphasis on social justice as a uniting framework for interdisciplinary research on weight bias. PMID:27747099

  10. Measuring social support for weight loss in an internet weight loss community.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kevin O; Ottenbacher, Allison J; Lucke, Joseph F; Etchegaray, Jason M; Graham, Amanda L; Thomas, Eric J; Bernstam, Elmer V

    2011-02-01

    Although overweight and obese individuals are turning to Internet communities for social support for weight loss, there is no validated online instrument for measuring the subjective social support experiences of participants in these communities. The authors' objective was to determine whether an online version of a validated paper questionnaire, the Weight Management Support Inventory, is appropriate for measuring social support among members of Internet weight loss communities. The authors administered the paper and online versions of the questionnaire in random, counterbalanced fashion to 199 members of a large Internet weight loss community. Scores for the paper and online versions were comparable in between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons. Convergent validity is suggested by the finding that participants who posted messages on Internet forums several times per day reported more social support than those who posted less frequently. However, the instrumental (tangible) support items did not load significantly on the instrumental support factor, suggesting that instrumental support is not relevant to the social support exchanged among participants in these communities. The authors conclude that the online, modified Weight Management Support Inventory, without items for instrumental support, is an appropriate instrument for measuring social support for weight loss among members of Internet weight loss communities.

  11. Anonymous Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Gambs, Sébastien; Tapp, Alain

    We introduce the first protocol for the anonymous transmission of a quantum state that is information-theoretically secure against an active adversary, without any assumption on the number of corrupt participants. The anonymity of the sender and receiver is perfectly preserved, and the privacy of the quantum state is protected except with exponentially small probability. Even though a single corrupt participant can cause the protocol to abort, the quantum state can only be destroyed with exponentially small probability: if the protocol succeeds, the state is transferred to the receiver and otherwise it remains in the hands of the sender (provided the receiver is honest).

  12. Social factors, weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Villatoro, Jorge; Delgadillo, Marlene; Fleiz, Clara; Fregoso, Diana; Unikel, Claudia

    2016-04-22

    We evaluated the association of social factors and weight control practices in adolescents, and the mediation of this association by weight perception, in a national survey of students in Mexico (n = 28,266). We employed multinomial and Poisson regression models and Sobel's test to assess mediation. Students whose mothers had a higher level of education were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight and also to engage in weight control practices. After adjusting for body weight perception, the effect of maternal education on weight control practices remained significant. Mediation tests were significant for boys and non-significant for girls.

  13. Children's judgements and emotions about social exclusion based on weight.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christine; Malti, Tina

    2014-09-01

    This study examined children's judgements and emotions associated with weight-based social exclusion using an ethnically diverse sample of one hundred and seventeen 9- and 13-year-old children. Children were interviewed about three scenarios depicting weight-based exclusion in athletic, academic, and social contexts. Children's judgements of exclusion, emotions attributed to the excluder and excluded targets, and justifications for judgements and emotions were examined. Overall, children judged weight-based exclusion to be wrong for moral reasons. However, they viewed weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts as less wrong compared with academic contexts, and they used more social-conventional reasoning to justify judgements and emotions attributed to excluders in athletic contexts compared with academic and social contexts. Children also expected excluded targets to feel negative emotions, whereas a range of positive and negative emotions was attributed to excluders. In addition, older children were more accepting of weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts than in academic and social contexts. We discuss the results in relation to the development of children's understanding of, and emotions associated with, exclusion based on weight.

  14. Altruism and anonymity: A behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Locey, Matthew L; Rachlin, Howard

    2015-09-01

    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting - the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant - was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Altruism and Anonymity: A Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Locey, Matthew L.; Rachlin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting – the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant – was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation. PMID:26051191

  16. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-06

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes.

  17. Anonymous, Yet Trustworthy Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Prasit Bikash; Naessens, Vincent; de Decker, Bart

    An auction is an inevitable market mechanism to setup prices of goods or services in a competitive and dynamic environment. Anonymity of bidders is required to conceal their business strategies from competitors. However, it is also essential to provide the seller guarantees that a bidder is trustworthy and competent enough to perform certain tasks (e.g transports). This paper proposes an auction protocol where bidders will participate anonymously, yet prove to be trustworthy and competent and can be held accountable towards auctioneers and sellers. Moreover, the protocol introduces promises, bonuses and compensations to ensure the best price for the sellers, extra profit for bidders and opportunities for newcomers in the business. It also handles ties, and copes with last minute bidding. Finally, the auction’s fair proceedings and outcome can be verified by everyone.

  18. The role of social support in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance.

  19. In Defence of Anonymity: Rejoining the Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This article is a response to the growing criticisms of the British Educational Research Association (BERA) and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) ethical guidelines on anonymity and pseudonymity as default positions for participants in qualitative educational research. It discusses and responds to those criticisms under four…

  20. Narcotics Anonymous: Understanding the "Bridge of Recovery."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronel, Natti

    1998-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is investigated as a subculture of recovery bridging the drug subculture and the prevailing culture. A phenomenological study of NA in Israel is reported. Innovation, cultural conflict, the value of recovery and its norms, supporting social mechanisms, limitations of the program, and intercultural attributes are…

  1. Narcotics Anonymous: Understanding the "Bridge of Recovery."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronel, Natti

    1998-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is investigated as a subculture of recovery bridging the drug subculture and the prevailing culture. A phenomenological study of NA in Israel is reported. Innovation, cultural conflict, the value of recovery and its norms, supporting social mechanisms, limitations of the program, and intercultural attributes are…

  2. Parents Anonymous Chairperson-Sponsor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parents Anonymous, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA.

    Presented is a manual which focuses on the Chairperson-Sponsor relationship of Parents Anonymous (PA), an organization for helping parents with child abuse problems. Brief sections cover the following topics: Jolly and Leonard (the cases of two people, one an abusive mother and the other a psychiatric social worker, involved in PA); the basic…

  3. Social Dynamics of a University Weight Room: A Microethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; Chissom, Brad S.

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe and explain the social dynamics of America's second most popular recreational sport, weight lifting, as performed on a university campus. Data were collected and analyzed using the participant observation approach to grounded theory research. Several hypotheses evolved from this analysis: (1) it is…

  4. Birth Weight and Social Trust in Adulthood: Evidence for Early Calibration of Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Social trust forms the fundamental basis for social interaction within societies. Understanding the cognitive architecture of trust and the roots of individual differences in trust is of key importance. We predicted that one of the factors calibrating individual levels of trust is the intrauterine flow of nutrients from mother to child as indexed by birth weight. Birth weight forecasts both the future external environment and the internal condition of the individual in multiple ways relevant for social cognition. Specifically, we predicted that low birth weight is utilized as a forecast of a harsh environment, vulnerable condition, or both and, consequently, reduces social trust. The results of the study reported here are consistent with this prediction. Controlling for many confounds through sibling and panel designs, we found that lower birth weight reduced social trust in adulthood. Furthermore, we obtained tentative evidence that this effect is mitigated if adult environments do not induce stress.

  5. Covert Channels and Anonymizing Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-30

    Covert Channels and Anonymizing Networks Ira S. Moskowitz Center for High Assurance Computer Systems Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375...ABSTRACT There have long been threads of investigation into covert channels, and threads of investigation into anonymity , but these two closely related...channel capacity and anonymity , and poses more questions than it answers. Even this preliminary work has proven difficult, but in this investigation lies

  6. Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory Abstract Onion Routing...eavesdropping and trac analysis. Onion routing’s anonymous connections are bidirectional and near real- time, and can be used anywhere a socket connection...can be used. Any identifying information must be in the data stream carried over an anonymous connec- tion. An onion is a data structure that is

  7. Structural social support predicts functional social support in an online weight loss programme.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kevin O; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Bernstam, Elmer V; Thomas, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    Online weight loss programmes allow members to use social media tools to give and receive social support for weight loss. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of social media tools and the perception of specific types of support. To test the hypothesis that the frequency of using social media tools (structural support) is directly related to perceptions of Encouragement, Information and Shared Experiences support (functional support). Online survey. Members of an online weight loss programme. The outcome was the perception of Encouragement (motivation, congratulations), Information (advice, tips) and Shared Experiences (belonging to a group) social support. The predictor was a social media scale based on the frequency of using forums and blogs within the online weight loss programme (alpha = 0.91). The relationship between predictor and outcomes was evaluated with structural equation modelling (SEM) and logistic regression, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI and duration of website membership. The 187 participants were mostly female (95%) and white (91%), with mean (SD) age 37 (12) years and mean (SD) BMI 31 (8). SEM produced a model in which social media use predicted Encouragement support, but not Information or Shared Experiences support. Participants who used the social media tools at least weekly were almost five times as likely to experience Encouragement support compared to those who used the features less frequently [adjusted OR 4.8 (95% CI 1.8-12.8)]. Using the social media tools of an online weight loss programme at least once per week is strongly associated with receiving Encouragement for weight loss behaviours. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An Extensive Study on Data Anonymization Algorithms Based on K-Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simi, Ms. M. S.; Sankara Nayaki, Mrs. K.; Sudheep Elayidom, M., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    For business and research oriented works engaging Data Analysis and Cloud services needing qualitative data, many organizations release huge microdata. It excludes an individual’s explicit identity marks like name, address and comprises of specific information like DOB, Pin-code, sex, marital status, which can be combined with other public data to recognize a person. This implication attack can be manipulated to acquire any sensitive information from social network platform, thereby putting the privacy of a person in grave danger. To prevent such attacks by modifying microdata, K-anonymization is used. With potentially increasing data, the effective method to anonymize it stands challenging. After series of trails and systematic comparison, in this paper, we propose three best algorithms along with its efficiency and effectiveness. Studies help researchers to identify the relationship between the values of k, degree of anonymization, choosing a quasi-identifier and focus on execution time.

  9. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  10. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam

    2016-01-14

    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues.

  11. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  12. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  13. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  14. Model of community emergence in weighted social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpula, J. M.; Onnela, J.-P.; Saramäki, J.; Kertész, J.; Kaski, K.

    2009-04-01

    Over the years network theory has proven to be rapidly expanding methodology to investigate various complex systems and it has turned out to give quite unparalleled insight to their structure, function, and response through data analysis, modeling, and simulation. For social systems in particular the network approach has empirically revealed a modular structure due to interplay between the network topology and link weights between network nodes or individuals. This inspired us to develop a simple network model that could catch some salient features of mesoscopic community and macroscopic topology formation during network evolution. Our model is based on two fundamental mechanisms of network sociology for individuals to find new friends, namely cyclic closure and focal closure, which are mimicked by local search-link-reinforcement and random global attachment mechanisms, respectively. In addition we included to the model a node deletion mechanism by removing all its links simultaneously, which corresponds for an individual to depart from the network. Here we describe in detail the implementation of our model algorithm, which was found to be computationally efficient and produce many empirically observed features of large-scale social networks. Thus this model opens a new perspective for studying such collective social phenomena as spreading, structure formation, and evolutionary processes.

  15. The influence of social power on weight perception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hee; Schnall, Simone

    2014-08-01

    Three studies explored whether social power affects the perception of physical properties of objects, testing the hypothesis that the powerless find objects to be heavier than the powerful do. Correlational findings from Study 1 revealed that people with a low personal sense of power perceived loaded boxes to be heavier than people with a high personal sense of power perceived them to be. In Study 2, experimentally manipulated power indicated that participants in the powerless condition judged the boxes to be heavier than did participants in the powerful condition. Study 3 further indicated that lacking power actively influences weight perception relative to a neutral control condition, whereas having power does not. Although much research on embodied perception has shown that various physiological and psychosocial resources influence visual perception of the physical environment, this is the first demonstration suggesting that power, a psychosocial construct that relates to the control of resources, changes the perception of physical properties of objects.

  16. Endocrine disruptors alter social behaviors and indirectly influence social hierarchies via changes in body weight.

    PubMed

    Kim, Benjamin; Colon, Eliezer; Chawla, Shivansh; Vandenberg, Laura N; Suvorov, Alexander

    2015-08-05

    In humans, the causal link between socioeconomic status (SES) and body weight (BW) is bidirectional, as chronic stress associated with low SES may increase risk of obesity and excess weight may worsen career opportunities resulting in lower SES. We hypothesize that environmental factors affecting BW and/or social stress might reprogram physiological and social trajectories of individuals. To analyze interactions between BW and social behaviors in mice perinatally exposed to one of several environmental endocrine disruptors. CD-1 mice were fed 0.2 mg/kg BW/day tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), bisphenol S (BPS), or oil (vehicle) from pregnancy day 8 through postpartum day 21. Three male offspring (triad) from each litter were housed together until week 15 and subjected to a Sociability Test and Tube Tests. Cages were then rearranged so that animals of the same social rank from the four exposure groups were housed together in tetrads. Social hierarchy in tetrads was again analyzed by Tube Tests. In Sociability Tests, the mean velocity of all exposed animals increased when they encountered a stranger mouse and less time was spent with conspecifics. BW and social dominance of animals in triads and tetrads were inversely associated. BDE-47 and BPS caused transient decreases in BW. Developmental exposure to environmental xenobiotics shifted behavior towards increased anxiety and decreased interest in social interactions. Our mouse model reproduces negative associations between social hierarchy status and BW. These results suggest that manipulation of BW by endocrine disruptors may affect social ranking.

  17. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  18. Technology for Anonymity: Names By Other Nyms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayner, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Provides a summary of some of the technical solutions for producing anonymous communication on the Internet and presents an argument that anonymity is as much a part of crime prevention as requiring people to provide their names. Discusses identity theft; the three major techniques that make anonymous cash possible; and anonymizing Internet…

  19. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  20. Spirituality and alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Tonigan, J Scott

    2007-04-01

    What can be confidently said about AA in general and about the role of spirituality in AA in particular? First, there is convincing evidence that alcoholism severity predicts later AA attendance. Second, atheists are less likely to attend AA, relative to individuals who already hold spiritual and/or religious beliefs. However, belief in God before AA attendance does not offer any advantage in AA-related benefits, and atheists, once involved, are at no apparent disadvantage in deriving AA-related benefits. Third, the spiritually-based principles of AA appear to be endorsed in AA meetings regardless of the perceived social dynamics or climate of a particular meeting, eg, highly cohesive or aggressive. Fourth, significant increases in spiritual and religious beliefs and practices seem to occur among AA-exposed individuals. Fifth, in spite of much discussion to the contrary there is little evidence that spirituality directly accounts for later abstinence. We are finding, however, that spirituality has an important indirect effect in predicting later drinking reductions. Specifically, in the past 20 years a number of effective methods have been developed to facilitate initial AA attendance (AA dropout is high, with some estimates ranging as high as 80%). Interventions that lead to initial increases in spirituality appear to lead to sustained AA affiliation, which, in turn, produces sustained recovery over time.

  1. Reconstructing Spatial Distributions from Anonymized Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Forrest, Stephanie; Groat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and sensors are often equipped with GPS that accurately report a person's location. Combined with wireless communication, these devices enable a wide range of new social tools and applications. These same qualities, however, leave location-aware applications vulnerable to privacy violations. This paper introduces the Negative Quad Tree, a privacy protection method for location aware applications. The method is broadly applicable to applications that use spatial density information, such as social applications that measure the popularity of social venues. The method employs a simple anonymization algorithm running on mobile devices, and a more complex reconstruction algorithm on a central server. This strategy is well suited to low-powered mobile devices. The paper analyzes the accuracy of the reconstruction method in a variety of simulated and real-world settings and demonstrates that the method is accurate enough to be used in many real-world scenarios.

  2. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight.

  3. k-Times Anonymous Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Isamu; Furukawa, Jun; Sako, Kazue

    We propose an authentication scheme in which users can be authenticated anonymously so long as times that they are authenticated is within an allowable number. The proposed scheme has two features: 1) no one, not even an authority, can identify users who have been authenticated within the allowable number, 2) anyone can trace, without help from the authority, dishonest users who have been authenticated beyond the allowable number by using the records of these authentications. Our scheme can be applied to e-voting, e-cash, electronic coupons, and trial browsing of content. In these applications, our scheme, unlike the previous one, conceals users' participation from protocols and guarantees that they will remain anonymous to everyone.

  4. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2009-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  5. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2007-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  6. The influence of family, friend, and coworker social support and social undermining on weight gain prevention among adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine longitudinal associations between sources of social support and social undermining for healthy eating and physical activity and weight change. Design and Methods Data are from 633 employed adults participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Primary predictors included social support and social undermining for two types of behaviors (healthy eating and physical activity) from three sources (family, friends, and coworkers) obtained via self-administered surveys. The primary outcome (weight in kg) was measured by trained staff. Data were collected at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. Linear multivariable models examined the association of support and social undermining with weight over time, adjusting for intervention status, time, gender, age, education, and clustering of individuals within schools. Results Adjusting for all primary predictors and covariates, friend support for healthy eating (β=−0.15), coworker support for healthy eating (β=−0.11), and family support for physical activity (β=−0.032) were associated with weight reduction at 24 months (p-values<0.05). Family social undermining for healthy eating was associated with weight gain at 24 months (β=0.12; p=0.0019). Conclusions Among adult employees, friend and coworker support for healthy eating and family support for physical activity predicted improved weight management. Interventions that help adults navigate family social undermining of healthy eating are warranted. PMID:24942930

  7. Influence of family, friend and coworker social support and social undermining on weight gain prevention among adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Monica L; Pbert, Lori; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2014-09-01

    Examine longitudinal associations between sources of social support and social undermining for healthy eating and physical activity and weight change. Data are from 633 employed adults participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Primary predictors included social support and social undermining for two types of behaviors (healthy eating and physical activity) from three sources (family, friends, and coworkers) obtained via self-administered surveys. The primary outcome (weight in kg) was measured by trained staff. Data were collected at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. Linear multivariable models examined the association of support and social undermining with weight over time, adjusting for intervention status, time, gender, age, education, and clustering of individuals within schools. Adjusting for all primary predictors and covariates, friend support for healthy eating (β = -0.15), coworker support for healthy eating (β = -0.11), and family support for physical activity (β = -0.032) were associated with weight reduction at 24 months (P-values<0.05). Family social undermining for healthy eating was associated with weight gain at 24 months (β = 0.12; P = 0.0019). Among adult employees, friend and coworker support for healthy eating and family support for physical activity predicted improved weight management. Interventions that help adults navigate family social undermining of healthy eating are warranted. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Weighted social networks for a large scale artificial society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zong Chen; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Qiu, Xiao Gang

    2016-12-01

    The method of artificial society has provided a powerful way to study and explain how individual behaviors at micro level give rise to the emergence of global social phenomenon. It also creates the need for an appropriate representation of social structure which usually has a significant influence on human behaviors. It has been widely acknowledged that social networks are the main paradigm to describe social structure and reflect social relationships within a population. To generate social networks for a population of interest, considering physical distance and social distance among people, we propose a generation model of social networks for a large-scale artificial society based on human choice behavior theory under the principle of random utility maximization. As a premise, we first build an artificial society through constructing a synthetic population with a series of attributes in line with the statistical (census) data for Beijing. Then the generation model is applied to assign social relationships to each individual in the synthetic population. Compared with previous empirical findings, the results show that our model can reproduce the general characteristics of social networks, such as high clustering coefficient, significant community structure and small-world property. Our model can also be extended to a larger social micro-simulation as an input initial. It will facilitate to research and predict some social phenomenon or issues, for example, epidemic transition and rumor spreading.

  9. Sizing up Peers: Adolescent Girls' Weight Control and Social Comparison in the School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Anna S.; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Frank, Kenneth; Turner, Alyn

    2010-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multi-level modeling, we examine the role of social comparison with schoolmates in adolescent girls' weight control. Specifically, we focus on how girls' own weight control is influenced by the body sizes and weight-control behaviors of their schoolmates. Our findings suggest that…

  10. Sizing up Peers: Adolescent Girls' Weight Control and Social Comparison in the School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Anna S.; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Frank, Kenneth; Turner, Alyn

    2010-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multi-level modeling, we examine the role of social comparison with schoolmates in adolescent girls' weight control. Specifically, we focus on how girls' own weight control is influenced by the body sizes and weight-control behaviors of their schoolmates. Our findings suggest that…

  11. Sizing Up Peers: Adolescent Girls’ Weight Control and Social Comparison in the School Context *

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Anna S.; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Frank, Kenneth; Turner, Alyn

    2014-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multi-level modeling, we examine the role of social comparison with schoolmates in adolescent girls’ weight control. Specifically, we focus on how girls’ own weight control is influenced by the body sizes and weight-control behaviors of their schoolmates. Our findings suggest that comparisons with similar others (in this case, girls of a similar body size) appears to have the strongest association with individual girls’ reports of trying to lose weight. For example, the odds than an overweight girl is engaged in weight control increases substantially when many overweight girls in her school are also trying to lose weight. This study highlights how schools play an important role in shaping girls’ decisions to practice weight control and demonstrates how social comparison theory improves our understanding of how health behaviors are linked to social contexts. PMID:20420295

  12. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason J.; Bond, Robert M.; Fariss, Christopher J.; Settle, Jaime E.; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being “leaked” or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records. PMID:23441156

  13. Nonresident Father Involvement, Social Class, and Adolescent Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menning, Chadwick L.; Stewart, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    Body weight issues disproportionately affect children with nonresident fathers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors investigate the relationship between nonresident father involvement and adolescent weight, specifically adolescents' risk of being underweight, overweight, and obese. The results show…

  14. Nonresident Father Involvement, Social Class, and Adolescent Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menning, Chadwick L.; Stewart, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    Body weight issues disproportionately affect children with nonresident fathers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors investigate the relationship between nonresident father involvement and adolescent weight, specifically adolescents' risk of being underweight, overweight, and obese. The results show…

  15. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  16. Is social support associated with greater weight loss after bariatric surgery?: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Livhits, M; Mercado, C; Yermilov, I; Parikh, J A; Dutson, E; Mehran, A; Ko, C Y; Shekelle, P G; Gibbons, M M

    2011-02-01

    Social support may be associated with increased weight loss after bariatric surgery. The objective of this article is to determine impact of post-operative support groups and other forms of social support on weight loss after bariatric surgery. MEDLINE search (1988-2009) was completed using MeSH terms including bariatric procedures and a spectrum of patient factors with potential relationship to weight loss outcomes. Of the 934 screened studies, 10 reported on social support and weight loss outcomes. Five studies reported on support groups and five studies reported on other forms of social support (such as perceived family support or number of confidants) and degree of post-operative weight loss (total n = 735 patients). All studies found a positive association between post-operative support groups and weight loss. One study found a positive association between marital status (being single) and weight loss, while three studies found a non-significant positive trend and one study was inconclusive. Support group attendance after bariatric surgery is associated with greater post-operative weight loss. Further research is necessary to determine the impact of other forms of social support. These factors should be addressed in prospective studies of weight loss following bariatric surgery, as they may represent ways to improve post-operative outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. A sociocultural history of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    PubMed

    Trice, H M; Staudenmeier, W J

    1989-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has not only helped numerous alcoholics, it has also influenced the current generation's view of, and response to, the alcoholic. This chapter describes the emergence of AA and analyzes its successful growth. During the period of reduced alternatives for helping the alcoholic, AA began and soon flourished, helped by favorable publicity, committed members, and AA publications. We argue that its founder, Bill W., played a crucial role as a charismatic leader and that AA found a unique organizational solution to the problem of charismatic succession, a solution that helped AA maintain growth and stability beyond the life of its founder. This chapter also reviews the social response to AA including early research on AA, the generally favorable response to AA, criticism of AA, and the widespread imitation of AA by other problem area groups.

  18. Does worksite social capital enhance retention into a worksite weight-loss programme?

    PubMed

    Hill, J L; Wilson, K; Harden, S; Almeida, F; Linnan, L; Estabrooks, P A

    2016-03-01

    To determine if worksite social capital predicted retention in a worksite-based weight-loss programme using structural equation modelling. A secondary aim was to determine if worksite social capital was related to changes in weight at 6 months. Overweight or obese employees from 28 worksites enrolled in a larger 12-month worksite weight-loss trial. Workplace social capital was assessed using an eight-item scale specific to the workplace. Weight was measured using a HealthSpot(tm), and change in weight was computed from weigh-ins at baseline and 6 months and reported as pounds (lbs) lost. Retention was defined as those employees who completed a weigh-in at 6 months. Across the trial, N = 1,790; age = 46.6 ± 11; 73% women; 73% White overweight or obese employees participated. The odds of participant attrition were 1.12 times greater with each unit decrease in social capital score at baseline (p < 0.05), and while the model testing the direct effect of social capital at baseline on weight loss at 6 months demonstrated acceptable fit, social capital was not a significant predictor of weight loss (p > 0.05). Increased worksite social capital was predictive of retention in a worksite weight-loss programme. To maximize return on investments for employee wellness and weight-loss programmes, employers may benefit from understanding the facets of the 'social' environment such as social capital that may increase the likelihood of sustained participation.

  19. Social patterns of birth weight in Hong Kong, 1984-1997.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y B; Yip, P S

    2001-04-01

    Fetal growth is an indicator of social inequalities in health that may have a long-term impact persisting into later life. Little is known about the social patterns of birth weight in Hong Kong. This is a study of live-born singletons from 1984 to 1997 in a Hong Kong birth registry. Ordinary least-squares regression and logistic regression are used to analyse birth weight and low birth weight (< 2500 g), respectively. A gradient of birth weight and prevalence of low birth weight is demonstrated according to mothers' educational attainment. In relation to babies of the most educated mothers, babies of the least educated mothers had a mean deficit of 46g in birth weight and an odds ratio of 1.56 of low birth weight (each P<0.05). This social gradient was hidden unless parity was adjusted for. Unexpectedly, migrants from mainland China delivered heavier rather than lighter babies (each P<0.05). Type of living quarters and parental relation were also related to birth weight and low birth weight (each P<0.05). Continuous monitoring of the social patterns of birth weight is recommended.

  20. Social Engagement in Adolescence Moderates the Association between Weight Status and Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

  1. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control podcast and theory-based podcast). Path models were constructed (n = 66). The IPTs—elaboration likelihood model, information control theory, and cognitive load theory—mediated the effect of a theory-based podcast on weight loss. The intervention was significantly associated with all IPTs. Information control theory and cognitive load theory were related to elaboration, and elaboration was associated with weight loss. Social cognitive theory constructs did not mediate weight loss. Future podcast interventions grounded in theory may be effective in promoting weight loss. PMID:24082027

  2. Information processing versus social cognitive mediators of weight loss in a podcast-delivered health intervention.

    PubMed

    Ko, Linda K; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Campbell, Marci K

    2014-04-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control podcast and theory-based podcast). Path models were constructed (n = 66). The IPTs, elaboration likelihood model, information control theory, and cognitive load theory mediated the effect of a theory-based podcast on weight loss. The intervention was significantly associated with all IPTs. Information control theory and cognitive load theory were related to elaboration, and elaboration was associated with weight loss. Social cognitive theory constructs did not mediate weight loss. Future podcast interventions grounded in theory may be effective in promoting weight loss.

  3. The intergenerational correlation in weight: How genetic resemblance reveals the social role of families*

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.

    2009-01-01

    According to behavioral genetics research, the intergenerational correlation in weight derives solely from shared genetic predispositions, but complete genetic determinism contradicts the scientific consensus that social and behavioral change underlies the modern obesity epidemic. To address this conundrum, this article utilizes sibling data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and extends structural equation sibling models to incorporate siblings’ genetic relationships to explore the role of families’ social characteristics for adolescent weight. The article is the first to demonstrate that the association between parents’ obesity and adolescent weight is both social and genetic. Furthermore, by incorporating genetic information, the shared and social origins of the correlation between inactivity and weight are better revealed. PMID:19569401

  4. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Javier; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Silva Trujillo, Alejandra Guadalupe; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks. PMID:27809275

  5. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status.

  6. More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    attempt to compromise his anonymity . How should he take this trust into account when he selects his paths? 2.1. The model To make this question concrete...It also does not take into account the total effect of an adversary’s actions on a user’s anonymity , such as the analysis performed in [24]. The...More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust Aaron Johnson Computer Science Department Yale University New Haven, CT 06520 USA aaron.johnson@yale.edu

  7. LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    accountability that plagues PAR and XPAY, wherein anonymity inherently de- creases as the ability to detect cheaters improves. Ngan et al. propose a...LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity Rob Jansen Aaron Johnson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory {rob.g.jansen, aaron.m.johnson...prob- lems stemming from a lack of incentives for volunteers to contribute. Insufficient capacity limits scalability and harms the anonymity of its

  8. Protocols using Anonymous Connections: Mobile Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Protocols using Anonymous Connections: Mobile Applications Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag ? Naval Research Laboratory...Abstract. This paper describes security protocols that use anonymous channels as primitive, much in the way that key distribution protocols take...encryption as primitive. This abstraction allows us to focus on high level anonymity goals of these protocols much as abstracting away from encryption clari

  9. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  10. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  11. An investigation of psychological, social and environmental correlates of obesity and weight gain in young women.

    PubMed

    Ball, K; Crawford, D

    2006-08-01

    This study explored the biological, psychological, social and environmental correlates of young women's current weight and retrospective 2-year weight change. A total of 790 young women (mean age 26.8 years), sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, provided self-reported data on their height and weight, sociodemographics and a range of biological, psychological, social and environmental variables. Several variables from all domains (biological, psychological, social support and environmental) were correlated with higher body mass index, and less strongly greater 2-year weight change. Key correlates included the tendency to never put on weight, no matter what; self-efficacy for avoiding weight gain, and for healthy eating; attention paid to weight; family support and friends' support/sabotage of physical activity/healthy eating; and perceived difficulty of taking the stairs rather than the elevator as part of the daily routine. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing weight gain and obesity may need to focus on social and environmental, as well as psychological factors; however, further research is necessary to confirm these findings given that a number of hypothesized associations were not observed.

  12. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  13. Effects of social support and spirituality on weight loss for rural African-American women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sanggon

    2013-01-01

    Obesity continues to be an increasing health problem among African-American women. A 10-week weight-loss intervention program designed to address the problem in these women. Two different interventions (spiritually based and nonspiritually based) were tested, and both utilized a pre-test, posttest design On the basis of theories of social support, it was expected that participation in the intervention would produce a significant reduction in weight. In addition, the spiritual-based weight-loss program was hypothesized to produce greater weight reduction than the standard health (non-spiritual) program. The results demonstrated that the average weight and BMI of all participants in either a spiritually-based or a nonspiritually-based program were lower at the completion of the intervention program. In addition, the average weight and BMI loss for the spiritual group was significantly greater than the average weight and BMI loss for the non-spiritual group.

  14. Dysfunctional involvement of emotion and reward brain regions on social decision making in excess weight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Rio-Valle, Jacqueline S; Lacomba, Juan A; Lagos, Francisco M; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Obese adolescents suffer negative social experiences, but no studies have examined whether obesity is associated with dysfunction of the social brain or whether social brain abnormalities relate to disadvantageous traits and social decisions. We aimed at mapping functional activation differences in the brain circuitry of social decision making in adolescents with excess versus normal weight, and at examining whether these separate patterns correlate with reward/punishment sensitivity, disordered eating features, and behavioral decisions. In this fMRI study, 80 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old were classified in two groups based on age adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentiles: normal weight (n = 44, BMI percentiles 5th-84th) and excess weight (n = 36, BMI percentile ≥ 85th). Participants were scanned while performing a social decision-making task (ultimatum game) in which they chose to "accept" or "reject" offers to split monetary stakes made by another peer. Offers varied in fairness (Fair vs. Unfair) but in all cases "accepting" meant both players win the money, whereas "rejecting" meant both lose it. We showed that adolescents with excess weight compared to controls display significantly decreased activation of anterior insula, anterior cingulate, and midbrain during decisions about Unfair versus Fair offers. Moreover, excess weight subjects show lower sensitivity to reward and more maturity fears, which correlate with insula activation. Indeed, blunted insula activation accounted for the relationship between maturity fears and acceptance of unfair offers. Excess weight adolescents have diminished activation of brain regions essential for affective tracking of social decision making, which accounts for the association between maturity fears and social decisions.

  15. The Role of Anonymity in Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lan

    2017-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the impact of anonymity and training (an alternative strategy when anonymity was unattainable) on students' performance and perceptions in formative peer assessment. The training in this study focused on educating students to understand and appreciate formative peer assessment. A sample of 77 students…

  16. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  17. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  18. Self-tallying quantum anonymous voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingle; Yu, Chaohua; Gao, Fei; Qi, Haoyu; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2016-08-01

    Anonymous voting is a voting method of hiding the link between a vote and a voter, the context of which ranges from governmental elections to decision making in small groups like councils and companies. In this paper, we propose a quantum anonymous voting protocol assisted by two kinds of entangled quantum states. Particularly, we provide a mechanism of opening and permuting the ordered votes of all the voters in an anonymous manner; any party who is interested in the voting results can acquire a permutation copy and then obtains the voting result through a simple calculation. Unlike all previous quantum works on anonymous voting, our quantum anonymous protocol possesses the properties of privacy, self-tallying, nonreusability, verifiability, and fairness at the same time. In addition, we demonstrate that the entanglement of the quantum states used in our protocol makes an attack from an outside eavesdropper and inside dishonest voters impossible. We also generalize our protocol to execute the task of anonymous multiparty computation, such as anonymous broadcast and anonymous ranking.

  19. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  20. The Role of Anonymity in Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lan

    2017-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the impact of anonymity and training (an alternative strategy when anonymity was unattainable) on students' performance and perceptions in formative peer assessment. The training in this study focused on educating students to understand and appreciate formative peer assessment. A sample of 77 students…

  1. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    PubMed

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity.

  2. Workplace Social and Organizational Environments and Healthy-Weight Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Hipp, J. Aaron; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and obesity among employees. Methods Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workplace socio/organizational factors related to activity and diet, and individual diet and PA behaviors, and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between the workplace socio/organizational environment and nutrition, PA, and obesity. Results There were differences in reported health behaviors and socio/organizational environment by gender, race, age, income, and worksite size. For example, agreement with the statement the ‘company values my health’ was highest among Whites, older employees, and higher income workers. As worksite size increased, the frequency of reporting seeing co-workers doing several types of healthy behaviors (eat fruits and vegetables, doing PA, and doing PA on breaks at work) increased. In adjusted analyses, employees agreeing the company values my health were more likely to engage in higher PA levels (aOR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) and less likely to be obese (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98). Seeing co-workers eating fruits and vegetables was associated with increased reporting of eating at least one vegetable per day (aOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.91) and seeing co-workers being active was associated with higher PA levels (aOR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05). Conclusions This research suggests that social/organizational characteristics of the workplace environment, particularly feeling the company values the workers’ health and to seeing co-workers engaging in healthy behaviors, may be related to nutrition and PA behaviors and

  3. Workplace social and organizational environments and healthy-weight behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Rachel G; Hipp, J Aaron; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and obesity among employees. Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workplace socio/organizational factors related to activity and diet, and individual diet and PA behaviors, and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between the workplace socio/organizational environment and nutrition, PA, and obesity. There were differences in reported health behaviors and socio/organizational environment by gender, race, age, income, and worksite size. For example, agreement with the statement the 'company values my health' was highest among Whites, older employees, and higher income workers. As worksite size increased, the frequency of reporting seeing co-workers doing several types of healthy behaviors (eat fruits and vegetables, doing PA, and doing PA on breaks at work) increased. In adjusted analyses, employees agreeing the company values my health were more likely to engage in higher PA levels (aOR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) and less likely to be obese (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98). Seeing co-workers eating fruits and vegetables was associated with increased reporting of eating at least one vegetable per day (aOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.91) and seeing co-workers being active was associated with higher PA levels (aOR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05). This research suggests that social/organizational characteristics of the workplace environment, particularly feeling the company values the workers' health and to seeing co-workers engaging in healthy behaviors, may be related to nutrition and PA behaviors and obesity. These findings point to the potential for

  4. A randomized trial testing a contingency-based weight loss intervention involving social reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Thomas, John G; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Wing, Rena R

    2012-02-01

    Even though behavioral weight loss interventions are conducted in groups, a social contingency (SC) paradigm that capitalizes on the social reinforcement potential of the weight loss group has never been tested. We tested a weight loss intervention in which participation in the weight loss group was contingent upon meeting periodic weight goals. We hypothesized that making access to the group dependent upon weight loss would improve weight outcomes. Participants (N = 62; 84% female; 94% white; age = 51.9 ± 9.0; BMI = 34.7 ± 4.5) were randomized to 6-months of standard behavioral weight loss (SBWL) or to a behavioral program that included a SC paradigm. Both groups engaged in social cohesion activities. Participants in SC who did not meet weight goals did not attend group meetings; instead, they received individual treatment with a new interventionist and returned to group once their weight goals were met. SC did not improve overall weight loss outcomes (SC: -10.0 ± 4.9 kg, SBWL: -10.8 ± 6.4 kg, P = 0.63). Similarly, overall weight loss was not significantly different in the subgroup of participants in the SC and SBWL conditions who did not meet periodic weight loss goals (-7.3 ± 4.1 kg vs. -7.1 ± 3.5 kg, P = 0.90). Surprisingly, "successful" SC participants (who met their weight goals) actually lost less weight than "successful" SBWL participants (-12.4 ± 3.2 kg vs. -14.5 ± 4.7 kg, P = 0.02). Whereas contingency-based treatments have been tested for other health behaviors (e.g., substance abuse), this is the first study to test a SC intervention for weight loss. This approach did not improve overall weight loss outcomes. Our attempt to offer appropriate clinical care by providing individual treatment to SC participants when needed may have mitigated the effects of the SC paradigm.

  5. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  6. Executive functions, social information processing, and social adjustment in young children born with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly R; Vannatta, Kathryn; Nelin, Mary Ann; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae. Although VLBW infants are at higher risk for deficits in executive functions (EFs) and social functioning during school-age years, few studies have investigated those sequelae or their association in young children born VLBW. We examined the associations between EFs and social functioning in preterm, VLBW children age 4-6 years (n = 20) and matched, term-born, normal birth weight controls admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after birth (n = 18). The groups did not differ significantly on measures of EFs, social information processing, or parent-reported social adjustment. The VLBW group had lower IQs than controls, though both group means were in the average range. Within the VLBW group, medical predictors of better EFs included older gestational age at birth and no history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Across groups, EFs and social information processing were positively correlated. Deficits in EFs and social functioning may emerge after the preschool years in VLBW children, or improved care of children born VLBW may be reducing the cognitive and psychosocial sequelae observed in earlier cohorts. Among children born VLBW, early EFs may be directly related to social information processing.

  7. Young adults' strategies for managing social support during weight-loss attempts.

    PubMed

    Faw, Meara H

    2014-02-01

    Obesity and being overweight often result in serious health problems. Despite growing awareness of the dangers associated with being overweight, many individuals struggle to lose weight. Investigators have identified social support as a key element in weight-loss attempts. Unfortunately, little has been done to investigate how people solicit social support from members of their pre-existing social network without a structured intervention. To address this limitation, I conducted in-depth interviews with 25 participants. Through grounded theory analysis of these interviews, I developed a typology of support management strategies used by overweight young adults when attempting to lose weight. I outline these strategies, their perceived success, and implications for future research in this article.

  8. A flexible approach to distributed data anonymization.

    PubMed

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Eckert, Claudia; Kuhn, Klaus A

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive biomedical data is often collected from distributed sources, involving different information systems and different organizational units. Local autonomy and legal reasons lead to the need of privacy preserving integration concepts. In this article, we focus on anonymization, which plays an important role for the re-use of clinical data and for the sharing of research data. We present a flexible solution for anonymizing distributed data in the semi-honest model. Prior to the anonymization procedure, an encrypted global view of the dataset is constructed by means of a secure multi-party computing (SMC) protocol. This global representation can then be anonymized. Our approach is not limited to specific anonymization algorithms but provides pre- and postprocessing for a broad spectrum of algorithms and many privacy criteria. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and discuss which types of methods and criteria are supported. Our prototype demonstrates the approach by implementing k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness and δ-presence with a globally optimal de-identification method in horizontally and vertically distributed setups. The experiments show that our method provides highly competitive performance and offers a practical and flexible solution for anonymizing distributed biomedical datasets.

  9. [Effects of a weight loss program with group participation supported by strengthened social support].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akio; Nagata, Junko; Sugiyama, Masumi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a weight loss program with group participation supported by strengthened social support (hereafter termed the Weight Loss Rally). Thirty-eight groups (41 males, 73 females) with a BMI of more than 22 kg/m2 living or working in Shizuoka Prefecture participated in the Weight Loss Rally. In order to strengthen social support, group participation approaches were taken instead of an individual participation approach. In the Weight Loss Rally, the weight changes of each group were monitored for twelve weeks with a goal of reducing 5% of their initial weight. In addition, the average steps taken per day, the average achievement rate for exercise, and attainment of diet objectives were assessed at the same time. All evaluations with other characteristics, such as remuneration and communication systems, were made on a group rather than an individual basis. In order to confrim the benefit of the Weight Loss Rally, physical measurements of all participants were taken and questionnaires were administered before and after the program. Complete data were obtained for 32 groups (35 males, 61 females). An average of 3.7 kg weight loss was observed for a total of 96 men and women (92.7%) along with increase of physical activity and decreased dietary intake (P < 0.001). An average of 1.4 kg/m2 decrease in BMI, an average of 2.8% decrease in body fat percentage, and an average of 3.9 cm reduction in waist circumference were reported (P < 0.001). According to the results of the questionnaires, 91 participants (94.8%) answered that they felt comfortable with the group participation toward the Weight Loss Rally. Other grouping methods were also used to analyze the results. First, group of colleagues, friends and family members were compared. Second, males, females and mixed groups were also compared for analysis. For every group similar results such as decrease in weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference were

  10. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female's motivation to interact with conspecifics. 2010 Elsevier

  11. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  12. Comments on ``Anonymous Reviews'' From D. Fisher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David

    I'd like to suggest that the recent letters complaining about reviewers' anonymity are on the wrong track. What we need is more anonymity, not less: we need double-blind mandatory anonymity. The main argument proposed so far is the unfairness of not being able to confront the reviewers' criticisms. But you don't need to know who someone is to be able to argue against their ideas. Reviewers' reports are spelled out clearly and can be rebutted without getting into personalities.

  13. Varying social media post types differentially impacts engagement in a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Hales, Sarah B; Davidson, Charis; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether different types of posts differentially affect participant engagement and if engagement with social media enhances weight loss. Data are a subanalysis from a randomized weight loss study with a 4-month follow-up support period via private Facebook groups and monthly meetings. Counselors posted five different post types/week based on social cognitive theory (weight-related, recipes, nutrition information, poll votes, or requests for suggestions). Types of participant engagement (likes, comments/poll votes, and views) were assessed. Poll votes were the most engaging (mean number of votes or comments/poll 14.6 ± 3.4, P < 0.01) followed by suggestions (9.1 ± 2.7 posts, P < 0.01) and weight-related posts (7.4 ± 3.1 posts, P < 0.01). Engagement with Facebook was significantly associated with weight loss during the 4-month maintenance period (B = -0.09, P = 0.04). The findings provide evidence for ways to provide social support during weight loss interventions using remote methodology.

  14. Teacher and Friend Social Support: Association with Body Weight in African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Jevetta; Webb, Fern J.; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12–17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha=0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B=0.421, p<0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B=0.227, p<0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study’s findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465

  15. Teacher and Friend Social Support: Association with Body Weight in African-American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels.

  16. Development and Validation of the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure * (AAIM)

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Kaskutas, Lee Ann

    2009-01-01

    Background Drop-out from 12-step groups is notoriously high, yet the field lacks strong models and scales for addressing this problem. We aim to determine whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) can be applied to 12-step involvement, and to develop and validate a scale of 12-step readiness based on that theory: the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure (AAIM). Method Data were from a longitudinal trial of a manual-guided 12-step facilitation intervention called Making AA Easier (MAAEZ) involving 2 treatment programs in California (N=508). Participants completed surveys at baseline, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Surveys included the preliminary AAIM, a 12-step involvement measure, other readiness measures, and substance use outcomes. Results The final, 17-item AAIM measured attitudes (5-item α's=.75-.83), subjective norms (4-item α's=.56-.81), perceived control (5 item α's=.78-.85), and intentions (3-item α's=.80-.95) regarding attendance at 12-step groups. Components were correlated with each other and other readiness measures as expected, supporting the AAIM's validity. Scale components predicted 31% of the variance in Intention to attend 12-step groups at 6 months and 41% of the variance in 12-step involvement at 12 months. Social factors were among the strongest predictors of 12-step involvement. Results did not support the expectancy-value formulation of the TPB, as unweighted (vs. weighted) belief items performed optimally. Conclusions Results generally support the TPB as a model of 12-step involvement and suggest specific targets for 12-step facilitation interventions within attitude, norm, and control components. Findings also support the AAIM as a tool for identifying drop-out risks and tailoring individual interventions. PMID:19581057

  17. Viral depletion of VTA BDNF in rats modulates social behavior, consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, and long-term weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Sanya; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M

    2011-09-20

    Mesolimbic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in sustained behavioral changes following chronic social stress, and its depletion may reduce susceptibility to such behavioral alterations. Enhanced mesolimbic BDNF is proposed as pro-depressive and anhedonic, while depleting ventral tegmetal area (VTA) BDNF increases weight by enhancing hedonic eating. Here, we questioned whether depletion of VTA BDNF would alleviate social defeat stress-induced deficits in weight regulation, or affect social behavior in the presence or absence of social stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral intra-VTA infusions of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors containing shRNA against BDNF or a control virus. Three weeks later, rats underwent 4 episodes of social defeat stress involving exposure to an aggressive Long-Evans resident rat, or control handling every third day. Depleted VTA BDNF conferred resistance to the deficient weight regulation normally observed during intermittent social defeat stress, and enhanced long-term weight gain regardless of stress history. In addition, social approach and avoidance behavior towards a novel social target were measured 7 weeks after stress. Social defeat stress chronically reduced social behavior, whereas depletion of VTA BDNF chronically increased social behavior. Our results reveal that depletion of VTA BDNF alleviates some consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, enhances social behavior, and may contribute to weight gain. These data implicate VTA BDNF in protracted behavioral responses to stress, social stimuli, and weight regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of deployment, distress, and perceived social support on Army spouses' weight status.

    PubMed

    Fish, Tammy L; Harrington, Donna; Bellin, Melissa H; Shaw, Terry V

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between deployment status, psychological distress, perceived social support, age, rank, and gender with Army spouses' (N=1863) weight status. We posited that spouses of deployed Soldiers have a higher body mass index (BMI) than spouses of nondeployed Soldiers; spouses with higher psychological distress scores have a higher BMI than those with lower distress scores; and spouses with low social support scores have higher BMIs than those with higher social support scores. Secondary analysis of data from the 2008 Active Duty Spouse Survey was used to examine the relationship between weight status (health versus overweight or obese) and Army spouses' deployment status, demographic characteristics, psychological distress, and perceived social support. Deployment status and weight status were not related (P=.097). Male spouses were significantly more likely than female spouses to be overweight or obese. Psychological distress increased in direct correlation with increased age, and as perceived social support decreased, the incidents of being overweight or obese increased. Findings suggest several risk factors are associated with being overweight or obese: male spouse, noncommissioned officers in the ranks of E5 through E9, older age, higher psychological distress scores, and lower perceived social support scores. The risk factors support the use of the Army Surgeon General's Performance Triad of sleep, activity, and nutrition as a tool to assist Army personnel and Department of the Army civilians in teaching spouses awareness and methods of changing behaviors that may result in choosing healthy options.

  19. Participation in alcoholics anonymous: intended and unintended change mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Owen, Patricia L; Slaymaker, Valerie; Tonigan, J Scott; McCrady, Barbara S; Epstein, Elizabeth E; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Humphreys, Keith; Miller, William R

    2003-03-01

    This article is a compilation of the information presented at a symposium at the 2001 RSA Meeting in Montreal, Canada. The presentations were: (1) Maintaining change after conjoint behavioral alcohol treatment for men: the role of involvement with Alcoholics Anonymous, by Barbara S. McCrady and Elizabeth E. Epstein; (2) Changing AA practices and outcomes: Project MATCH 3-year follow-up, by J. Scott Tonigan; (3) Life events and patterns of recovery of AA-exposed adults and adolescents, by Patricia L. Owen and Valerie Slaymaker; (4) Social networks and AA involvement as mediators of change, by Lee Ann Kaskutas and Keith Humphreys; and (5) What do we know about Alcoholics Anonymous? by William R. Miller, discussant.

  20. Social network characteristics associated with weight loss among black and hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Winston, Ginger J; Phillips, Erica G; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol; Wells, Martin; Peterson, Janey C; Hippolyte, Jessica; Ramos, Rosio; Martinez, Guillerma; Eldridge, Johanna; Charlson, Mary

    2015-08-01

    To examine social network member characteristics associated with weight loss. A cross-sectional examination included egocentric network data from 245 Black and Hispanic adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) enrolled in a small change weight loss study. The relationships between weight loss at 12 months and characteristics of helpful and harmful network members (relationship, contact frequency, living proximity, and body size) were examined. There were 2,571 network members identified. Mean weight loss was -4.8 (±11.3) lbs. among participants with network help and no harm with eating goals vs. +3.4 (±7.8) lbs. among participants with network harm alone. In a multivariable regression model, greater weight loss was associated with help from a child with eating goals (P = 0.0002) and coworker help with physical activity (P = 0.01). Weight gain was associated with having network members with obesity living in the home (P = 0.048) and increased network size (P = 0.002). There was greater weight loss among participants with support from children and coworkers. Weight gain was associated with harmful network behaviors and having network members with obesity in the home. Incorporating child and coworker support and evaluating network harm and the body size of network members should be considered in future weight loss interventions. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Social rank, feeding and winter weight loss in red deer: any evidence of interference competition?

    PubMed

    Veiberg, Vebjørn; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle; Langvatn, Rolf; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2004-01-01

    During winter at northern latitudes, large herbivores often exploit patches of concentrated, relatively high quality forage, which may lead to interference competition. The factors affecting success in contests and subsequent dominance rank, such as age and body weight, remain key issues in ungulate behavioural ecology. Maternal effects on offspring body weight are well known, but few studies have investigated if mother's social rank influence offspring rank. Moreover, no study has related dominance rank in ungulates to weight loss during winter. Outcomes of social interactions (n=7,609), feeding time and spatial position in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds and calves, and weight loss of calves, were registered from 1981 to 1996 at six winter-feeding sites within the county of Sør-Trøndelag in Norway. The level of aggressiveness was higher among calves than among adult hinds, and the factors determining the outcome of contests also differed. The initiator won the majority of interactions (more than 90% in both hinds and calves). Social rank was related to both age and body weight in adult hinds, and related to body weight and mother rank in calves. The relationship between feeding time and rank was non-linear. Feeding time was correlated with rank only among high ranked hinds, while there was no such relationship among low ranked hinds or calves. There was no correlation between winter weight loss and social rank in calves. Our study therefore underlines that, although frequent aggression is observed at artificial feeding sites of northern herbivores, this is not necessarily sufficient to give rise to interference competition.

  2. Anonymity in P2P Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanares-Lopez, Pilar; Muñoz-Gea, Juan Pedro; Malgosa-Sanahuja, Josemaria; Sanchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos

    In the last years, the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications to share and exchange knowledge among people around the world has experienced an exponential growth. Therefore, it is understandable that, like in any successful communication mechanism used by a lot of humans being, the anonymity can be a desirable characteristic in this scenario. Anonymity in P2P networks can be obtained by means of different methods, although the most significant ones are broadcast protocols, dining-cryptographer (DC) nets and multiple-hop paths. Each of these methods can be tunable in order to build a real anonymity P2P application. In addition, there is a mathematical tool called entropy that can be used in some scenarios to quantify anonymity in communication networks. In some cases, it can be calculated analytically but in others it is necessary to use simulation to obtain the network entropy.

  3. Cumulative social risk exposure, infant birth weight, and cognitive delay in infancy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Erika R; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Mullahy, John; Witt, Whitney P

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of exposure to multiple social risks on cognitive delay at 9 months of age; and whether obstetric factors mediate the relationship between cumulative social risk and cognitive delay. Data were from 8950 mother-child dyads participating in the first wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Cognitive delay was defined as falling in the lowest 10% of mental scale scores from the Bayley Short Form-Research Edition. Five social risk factors were combined and categorized into a social risk index. Staged multivariable logistic regressions were used to investigate whether obstetric factors mediated the impact of social risk on the odds of cognitive delay. Infants with cognitive delay were more likely to live with social risks than infants without cognitive delay. The percentage of infants with cognitive delay increased with the number of social risks. In adjusted analyses, exposure to multiple social risk factors was associated with higher odds of cognitive delay at 9 months of age (adjusted odds ratio 2.11; 95% confidence interval 1.18-3.78 for 4 or more risks vs no risks). Accounting for birth weight attenuated this relationship (P < .001). This population-based study investigated the independent and cumulative effects of social risk factors on cognitive delay in infancy. Findings revealed a significant cumulative relationship between exposure to social risk and cognitive delay, which was partly mediated by birth weight. Programs that address the social context of US infants are needed to improve their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stationary Anonymous Sequential Games with Undiscounted Rewards.

    PubMed

    Więcek, Piotr; Altman, Eitan

    Stationary anonymous sequential games with undiscounted rewards are a special class of games that combine features from both population games (infinitely many players) with stochastic games. We extend the theory for these games to the cases of total expected reward as well as to the expected average reward. We show that in the anonymous sequential game equilibria correspond to the limits of those of related finite population games as the number of players grows to infinity. We provide examples to illustrate our results.

  5. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user.

  6. Adolescent Weight Status: Associations With Structural and Functional Dimensions of Social Relations.

    PubMed

    Kjelgaard, Heidi Hjort; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Rasmussen, Mette

    2017-04-01

    To examine the associations between weight status and structural and functional dimensions of social relations among 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys. Analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behavior in School-aged Children study 2010. The study population (n = 4,922) included students in the fifth, seventh, and ninth grade from a representative sample of Danish schools. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study the associations between weight status and social relations, supported by a conceptual framework for the study of social relations. Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with spending less time with friends after school compared to normal-weight status (0 days/week: odds ratio: 6.25, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-17.95, 1 day/week: 2.81, 1.02-7.77, 2 days/week: 3.27, 1.25-8.56, 3 days/week: 3.32, 1.28-8.61, and 4 days/week: 3.23, 1.17-8.92, respectively vs. 5 days/week). Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with being bullied (2.62, 1.55-4.43). Among boys, overweight/obese weight status was associated with infrequent (1 to 2 days vs. every day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close same-sex and opposite-sex friends, mother/father as confidant, and perceived classmate acceptance. This study shows that overweight/obese adolescents have higher odds of numerous poor social relations than their normal-weight peers both in terms of structural and functional dimensions of social relations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact on social capital of mobility disability and weight status: the Stockholm Public Health Cohort.

    PubMed

    Norrbäck, Mattias; de Munter, Jeroen; Tynelius, Per; Ahlström, Gerd; Rasmussen, Finn

    2015-04-01

    People with mobility disability are more often overweight or obese and have lower social capital than people without mobility disability. It is unclear whether having a combination of mobility disability and overweight or obesity furthers negative development of social capital over time. To explore whether there were differences in social capital between normal-weight, overweight and obese people with or without mobility disability over a period of 8 years. We included 14,481 individuals (18-64 at baseline) from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort that started in 2002. Mobility disability, weight status, and social capital (structural: social activities, voting; cognitive: trust in authorities, and trust in people) were identified from self-reports. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in multivariate longitudinal regression analyses. We found no significant differences in social activities and voting between the groups over time. However, when compared with the reference group, the groups with mobility disability had less trust in authorities and public institutions over time. Notably, obese people with mobility disability showed the largest decrease in trust in the police (RR = 2.29; 1.50-3.50), the parliament (RR = 2.00; 1.31-3.05), and local politicians (RR = 2.52; 1.61-3.94). People with mobility disability experience lower cognitive social capital over time than people without mobility disability. Being burdened by both mobility disability and obesity may be worse in terms of social capital than having just one of the conditions, especially regarding cognitive social capital. This finding is of public health importance, since social capital is related to health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural connections foster social connections: a diffusion-weighted imaging study of social networks.

    PubMed

    Hampton, William H; Unger, Ashley; Von Der Heide, Rebecca J; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-05-01

    Although we know the transition from childhood to adulthood is marked by important social and neural development, little is known about how social network size might affect neurocognitive development or vice versa. Neuroimaging research has identified several brain regions, such as the amygdala, as key to this affiliative behavior. However, white matter connectivity among these regions, and its behavioral correlates, remain unclear. Here we tested two hypotheses: that an amygdalocentric structural white matter network governs social affiliative behavior and that this network changes during adolescence and young adulthood. We measured social network size behaviorally, and white matter microstructure using probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of neurologically normal adolescents and young adults. Our results suggest amygdala white matter microstructure is key to understanding individual differences in social network size, with connectivity to other social brain regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior temporal lobe predicting much variation. In addition, participant age correlated with both network size and white matter variation in this network. These findings suggest the transition to adulthood may constitute a critical period for the optimization of structural brain networks underlying affiliative behavior. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects of weight-focused social comparisons on diet and activity outcomes among overweight and obese young women

    PubMed Central

    Rancourt, Diana; Leahey, Tricia M.; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Crowther, Janis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate social comparison processes as a potential mechanism by which social networks impact young women's weight control thoughts and behaviors and to examine whether social comparisons with close social ties (i.e. friends) have a greater influence on weight control outcomes relative to more emotionally distant ties. Design and Methods Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) overweight young adult women (N=46; M age = 19; M BMI = 29) reported the nature and effects of weight-focused social comparisons on dieting and exercising intentions and behaviors during their daily routine. Results Relative to social comparisons to targets of the same weight, weight-focused comparisons to both thinner and heavier individuals led to increased thoughts of dieting and exercising. Moreover, comparisons to thinner targets also increased the likelihood of engaging in actual dieting and exercising behavior. Weight comparisons to friends amplified these effects. Conclusions Weight-focused social comparisons may be one mechanism by which social networks impact weight control thoughts and behaviors. Obesity interventions with young adults may achieve better outcomes by harnessing social comparison processes in treatment. PMID:25407550

  10. Adult social outcomes of extremely low birth weight survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Lund, J I; Day, K L; Schmidt, L A; Saigal, S; Van Lieshout, R J

    2016-12-01

    Preterm birth and exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are early physiological and psychological adversities that have been linked to reduced social functioning across the lifespan. However, the joint effects of being born preterm and being exposed to CSA on adult social outcomes remains unclear. We sought to determine the impact of exposure to both preterm birth and CSA on adult social functioning in a group of 179 extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g) participants in the fourth decade of life. Social outcome data from a prospective, longitudinal, population-based Canadian birth cohort initiated between the years of 1977 and 1982 were examined. At age 29-36 years, ELBW survivors who experienced CSA reported poorer relationships with their partner, worse family functioning, greater loneliness, lower self-esteem and had higher rates of avoidant personality problems than those who had not experienced CSA. Birth weight status was also found to moderate associations between CSA and self-esteem (P=0.032), loneliness (P=0.021) and family functioning (P=0.060), such that the adverse effects of CSA were amplified in ELBW survivors. Exposure to CSA appears to augment the adult social risks associated with perinatal adversity. Individuals born preterm and exposed to CSA appear to be a group at particularly high risk for adverse social outcomes in adulthood.

  11. Social Stress at Work and Change in Women’s Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    KOTTWITZ, Maria U.; GREBNER, Simone; SEMMER, Norbert K.; TSCHAN, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  12. Use of a mobile social networking intervention for weight management: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Liliana; Lau, Annie Y S; Martin, Paige; Tong, Huong Ly; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-07-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are major societal challenges and significant contributors to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used in interventions to promote behaviour change in diet and physical activity. In particular, social networking platforms seem promising for the delivery of weight control interventions.We intend to pilot test an intervention involving the use of a social networking mobile application and tracking devices (Fitbit Flex 2 and Fitbit Aria scale) to promote the social comparison of weight and physical activity, in order to evaluate whether mechanisms of social influence lead to changes in those outcomes over the course of the study. Mixed-methods study involving semi-structured interviews and a pre-post quasi-experimental pilot with one arm, where healthy participants in different body mass index (BMI) categories, aged between 19 and 35 years old, will be subjected to a social networking intervention over a 6-month period. The primary outcome is the average difference in weight before and after the intervention. Secondary outcomes include BMI, number of steps per day, engagement with the intervention, social support and system usability. Semi-structured interviews will assess participants' expectations and perceptions regarding the intervention. Ethics approval was granted by Macquarie University's Human Research Ethics Committee for Medical Sciences on 3 November 2016 (ethics reference number 5201600716).The social network will be moderated by a researcher with clinical expertise, who will monitor and respond to concerns raised by participants. Monitoring will involve daily observation of measures collected by the fitness tracker and the wireless scale, as well as continuous supervision of forum interactions and posts. Additionally, a protocol is in place to monitor for participant misbehaviour and direct participants-in-need to appropriate sources of help.

  13. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider’s desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users’ desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly “re-anonymize” their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  14. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  15. Effects of a weight management program delivered by social media on weight and metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jane, Monica; Hagger, Martin; Foster, Jonathan; Ho, Suleen; Kane, Robert; Pal, Sebely

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of using social media to augment the delivery of, and provide support for, a weight management program delivered to overweight and obese individuals during a twenty four week intervention. Participants randomly divided into either one of two intervention groups or a control group. The two intervention groups were instructed to follow identical weight-management program. One group received the program within a Facebook group, along with a support network with the group, and the other intervention group received the same program in a booklet. The control group was given standard care. Participants' weight and other metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured at baseline and at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24. The Facebook Group reported a 4.8% reduction in initial weight, significant compared to the CG only (p = 0.01), as well as numerically greater improvements in body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, lean mass, and energy intake compared to the Pamphlet Group and the Control Group. These results demonstrate the potential of social media to assist overweight and obese individuals with respect to dietary and physical activity modifications for weight management, and justify further research into the inclusion of social media in clinical weight management programs. It is anticipated that social media will provide an invaluable resource for health professionals, as a low maintenance vehicle for communicating with patients, as well as a source of social support and information sharing for individuals undergoing lifestyle modifications.

  16. Peer support enhanced social support in adolescent females during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Noel L; Fisher, Edwin B; Ward, Dianne S; Ennett, Susan T; Bowling, J Michael; Tate, Deborah F

    2014-09-01

    To describe the development of a peer support intervention and test an enhanced version compared to a standard protocol. Participants (N = 36 females) were assigned to an Enhanced Peer Support (PS) vs Standard weight loss group for 4 months. The PS component consisted of skills training and practice between sessions using social networking. The PS group perceived significantly more peer support and experienced higher levels of social interaction. When meeting frequency decreased, the PS group showed an increase in overall types of support from group members. Findings suggest that an intervention targeting peer support skills results in greater feelings of peer support.

  17. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing online social networks versus group phone conference call

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Erik A.; Szabo‐Reed, Amanda N.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Steger, Felicia L.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Al‐Hihi, Eyad M.; Lee, Robert; Lee, Jaehoon; Oh, Youngha; Washburn, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective The increase in technology and online social networks (OSNs) may present healthcare providers with an innovative modality for delivering weight management programmes that could have an impact on health care at the population level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using an OSN to deliver a weight loss programme to inform future, large‐scale trials. Methods Seventy individuals (age = 47 ± 12.4, minority = 24.3%) with obesity (BMI = 36.2 ± 4.0) completed a 6‐month weight loss intervention and were randomized to either a conference call or OSN delivery group. Weight loss was achieved by reducing energy intake by 500–700 kcal·d−1 below estimated total daily energy expenditure and progressing physical activity to 300 min/week. Behavioural weight loss strategies were delivered weekly throughout the intervention. Results Conference call and OSN groups produced clinically meaningful weight loss of ≥5% from baseline to 6 months (phone = −6.3 ± 6.4%, OSN = −5.8 ± 6.7%). There was no significant difference in weight change between groups (p = 0.765). Conclusion The phone and OSN groups met the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/The Obesity Society's Guidelines by reducing baseline weight by 5–10% within 6 months. OSNs appear to be a viable delivery platform for weight loss interventions; however, larger scale adequately powered trials are needed. PMID:28713582

  18. Comments on “Anonymous reviews”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emille A.

    I would like to add the triple perspective of a now-retired editor (GRL, 1993-19997), a reviewer and author to the ongoing debate in Eos about anonymous versus signed reviews.As an editor, I did not keep precise statistics, but my recollection would be that a little under (perhaps 40%) of the more than 3000 reviews I handled were signed. While some sort of "trend" expectedly existed between glowing reviews and signed ones, the correlation would probably not have passed a statistical test. By and large, my reviewers, whether or not they waived anonymity, were a professional and responsible pool, and the kind of personal and potentially unethical antagonisms described by Myrl Beck was the rare exception, rather than the rule, among anonymous reviews. The careful editor should be able to recognize this attitude in the tone and style of the review, and through comparison with other reviews of the same paper.

  19. The living anonymous kidney donor: lunatic or saint?

    PubMed

    Henderson, Antonia J Z; Landolt, Monica A; McDonald, Michael F; Barrable, William M; Soos, John G; Gourlay, William; Allison, Colleen J; Landsberg, David N

    2003-02-01

    Studies indicate that 11% to 54% of individuals surveyed would consider donating a kidney, while alive, to a stranger. The idea of 'living anonymous donors' (LADs) as a donor source, however, has not been embraced by the medical community. Reservations focus on the belief that LADs might be psychologically unstable and thus unsuitable donors. Our goal was to inform policy development by exploring the psycho-social make up and motivations of the LAD. Ninety-three unsolicited individuals contacted our center expressing interest in living anonymous donation. Of these, 43 participated in our study, completing two extensive inventories of psychopathology and personality disorder and taking part in the Comprehensive Psycho-Social Interview (CPSI). From the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), and the CPSI, coders assessed psychological health, psycho-social suitability, commitment, and motivations. Twenty-one participants passed the stringent criteria to be considered potential LADs. Content analysis of motivations showed that potential LADs were more likely than non-LADs (those who did not pass the criteria) to have a spiritual belief system and to be altruistic. Non-LADs were more likely than potential LADs to use donation to make a statement against their families. The authors conclude with a preliminary outline of eight policy recommendations.

  20. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims.

  1. Inverse probability weighting in STI/HIV prevention research: methods for evaluating social and community interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Shade, Starley B.; Hubbard, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intervention effects estimated from non-randomized intervention studies are plagued by biases, yet social or structural intervention studies are rarely randomized. There are underutilized statistical methods available to mitigate biases due to self-selection, missing data, and confounding in longitudinal, observational data permitting estimation of causal effects. We demonstrate the use of Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) to evaluate the effect of participating in a combined clinical and social STI/HIV prevention intervention on reduction of incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among sex workers in Brazil. Methods We demonstrate the step-by-step use of IPW, including presentation of the theoretical background, data set up, model selection for weighting, application of weights, estimation of effects using varied modeling procedures, and discussion of assumptions for use of IPW. Results 420 sex workers contributed data on 840 incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Participators were compared to non-participators following application of inverse probability weights to correct for differences in covariate patterns between exposed and unexposed participants and between those who remained in the intervention and those who were lost-to-follow-up. Estimators using four model selection procedures provided estimates of intervention effect between odds ratio (OR) .43 (95% CI:.22-.85) and .53 (95% CI:.26-1.1). Conclusions After correcting for selection bias, loss-to-follow-up, and confounding, our analysis suggests a protective effect of participating in the Encontros intervention. Evaluations of behavioral, social, and multi-level interventions to prevent STI can benefit by introduction of weighting methods such as IPW. PMID:20375927

  2. Social determinants of disparities in weight among US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Talih, Makram

    2014-10-01

    To explore whether contextual variables attenuate disparities in weight among 18,639 US children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 to 2010. Disparities were assessed using the Symmetrized Rényi Index, a new measure that summarizes disparities in the severity of a disease, as well as the prevalence, across multiple population groups. Propensity score subclassification was used to ensure covariate balance between racial and ethnic subgroups and account for individual-level and contextual covariates. Before propensity score subclassification, significant disparities were evident in the prevalence of overweight and/or obesity and the degree of excess weight among overweight/obese children and adolescents. After propensity score subclassification, racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and severity of excess weight were completely attenuated within matched groups, indicating that racial and ethnic differences were explained by social determinants such as neighborhood socioeconomic and demographic factors. The limited overlap in covariate distributions between various racial/ethnic subgroups warrants further attention in disparities research. The attenuation of disparities within matched groups suggests that social determinants such as neighborhood socioeconomic factors may engender disparities in weight among US children and adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Social networks for improving healthy weight loss behaviors for overweight and obese adults: A randomized clinical trial of the social pounds off digitally (Social POD) mobile app.

    PubMed

    Hales, Sarah; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wilcox, Sara; Fahim, Arjang; Davis, Rachel E; Huhns, Michael; Valafar, Homayoun

    2016-10-01

    To test the efficacy of a weight loss mobile app based on recommender systems and developed by experts in health promotion and computer science to target social support and self-monitoring of diet, physical activity (PA), and weight (Social POD app), compared to a commercially available diet and PA tracking app (standard). Overweight adults [N=51] were recruited and randomly assigned to either the experimental group [n=26; theory-based podcasts (TBP)+Social POD app] or the comparison group (n=25; TBP+standard app). The Social POD app issued notifications to encourage users to self-monitor and send theory-based messages to support users who had not self-monitored in the previous 48h. Independent samples t-test were used to examine group differences in kilograms lost and change in BMI. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze secondary outcomes while controlling for baseline values. Participant attrition was 12% (n=3 experimental and n=3 comparison). Experimental group participants lost significantly more weight (-5.3kg, CI: -7.5, -3.0) than comparison group (-2.23kg, CI: -3.6, -1.0; d=0.8, r=0.4, p=0.02) and had a greater reduction in BMI (p=0.02). While there were significant differences in positive outcome expectations between groups (p=0.04) other secondary outcomes (e.g., caloric intake and social support) were not significant. Use of the Social POD app resulted in significantly greater weight loss than use of a commercially available tracking app. This mobile health intervention has the potential to be widely disseminated to reduce the risk of chronic disease associated with overweight and obesity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness.

  5. The socially weighted encoding of spoken words: a dual-route approach to speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Meghan; Kim, Seung Kyung; King, Ed; McGowan, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information. PMID:24550851

  6. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    regular expressions, and robustly coping with more than 200 versions of the configuration language. Conventional tools and techniques are poorly suited...regular expressions, and robustly coping with more than 200 versions of the configuration language. Conventional tools and techniques are poorly...configuration language, so conventional compiler tools and techniques are poorly suited to the problem. Third, the anonymization needs to support a

  7. Minimizing risk in anonymous egg donation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G; Nair, S; Rimington, M R; Armar, N A

    2003-11-01

    Assisted conception carries with it known and putative medical and surgical risks. Exposing healthy women to these risks in order to harvest eggs for donation when a safer alternative exists is morally and ethically unacceptable. Egg sharing minimizes risk and provides a source of eggs for donation. Anonymity protects all parties involved and should not be removed.

  8. Anonymization server system for DICOM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Amano, M.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nishitani, H.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed an anonymization system for DICOM images. It requires consent from the patient to use the DICOM images for research or education. However, providing the DICOM image to the other facilities is not safe because it contains a lot of personal data. Our system is a server that provides anonymization service of DICOM images for users in the facility. The distinctive features of the system are, input interface, flexible anonymization policy, and automatic body part identification. In the first feature, we can use the anonymization service on the existing DICOM workstations. In the second feature, we can select a best policy fitting for the Protection of personal data that is ruled by each medical facility. In the third feature, we can identify the body parts that are included in the input image set, even if the set lacks the body part tag in DICOM header. We installed the system for the first time to a hospital in December 2005. Currently, the system is working in other four facilities. In this paper we describe the system and how it works.

  9. Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating), and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada). Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating) were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight), and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA) allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were

  10. Good intentions gone awry? Effects of weight-related social control on health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Brunson, Julie A; Overup, Camilla S; Nguyen, Mai-Ly; Novak, Sarah A; Smith, C Veronica

    2014-01-01

    A negative body image has been associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes. Social pressures from others, in the form of weight-related social control, may serve to exacerbate this effect, especially for college-aged women. Undergraduate students (N=399) completed a variety of questionnaires assessing weight-related social control, well-being, and diet and exercise behaviors. The results suggest that weight is associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes and particularly for women, weight-related social control is also associated with these negative effects. In addition, men of higher body mass indexes (BMIs) or higher self-perceived weight did not experience negative health and well-being outcomes to the same degree that overweight women did. Parents in particular seem to instigate weight-related social control to change students' diet and exercise behaviors. These results help clarify the effects of weight-related social control in a college population, where weight may be especially important.

  11. Gender and social mobility modify the effect of birth weight on total and central obesity.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Pinheiro, Tanara Vogel; Guimarães, Luciano Santos Pinto; Bettiol, Heloisa; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2017-06-26

    Little is known about the interaction between gender and low birth weight (LBW) and lifelong social mobility as an explanation of the etiology of obesity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total and central obesity according to gender, LBW and social mobility, within the context of the epidemiological transition in middle-income countries. We hypothesize that there are more pronounced metabolic consequences of social mobility for women born with LBW. We used data from a birth cohort study conducted in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, schooling and smoking status were collected at 23-25 years of age. Social mobility was determined based on maternal and adult offspring schooling and categorized as Low-Low, Low-High and High-High. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess the association between social mobility and body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) in adulthood, stratified by LBW and gender. Data on 6827 singleton pregnancies were collected at birth in 1978/79 and a sample was followed up in 2002/04. A total of 2063 subjects were included in the study. Mean age was 23.9 ± 0.7 years, 51.8% (n = 1068) were female and the LBW was 6.2% (n = 128). There was a triple interaction between social mobility, LBW and gender. Among women born without LBW, BMI and WC were higher in the Low-Low group compared to High-High schooling group. Among LBW women, BMI and WC were higher in the Low-Low group compared to the Low-High group. Women born with LBW belonging to the low schooling group in early adulthood had high BMI and WC, compared to the Low-High social mobility group.

  12. Does Social Support Buffer the Association Between Stress Eating and Weight Gain During the Transition to College? Differences by Gender.

    PubMed

    Darling, Katherine E; Fahrenkamp, Amy J; Wilson, Shana M; Karazsia, Bryan T; Sato, Amy F

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between stress eating and body mass index (BMI) change over the freshman year in males and females. This longitudinal study included 70 college students (72.9% female; M age = 18.23) who completed self-reported measures of stress eating and perceived social support, with objective height and weight measurements collected. Among males, social support moderated the relationship between stress eating and BMI change. Among males, social support may serve as a buffer against the impact of stress eating on weight gain during the freshman year of college.

  13. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-06-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children's food intake is influenced by a peer's intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the participants (N=223) were asked to solve a puzzle with a same-sex normal weight confederate who was instructed to either eat nothing, a small or large amount. In the second session (about two days later), the participants had to solve the puzzle alone while they could freely eat. The study involved a three (no, low, high confederate intake) by two (normal weight, overweight) between-participants design. An interaction effect in the first session suggested that overweight children might be triggered to (over)eat when a peer eats a high amount of snack food, whereas the food intake of normal weight children seemed to depend on whether the confederate did actually eat, regardless of the amount. The guideline set during the first session persisted over time and influenced food intake during the second session, while differences between normal- and overweight children became insignificant. Peers can set an example as to what food intake is appropriate which could affect long-term food intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Evidence of social support as therapy for weight loss: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Flores-Gómez, I; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Armendáriz-Anguiano, A L; Pérez-Morales, M E; Jiménez-Cruz, A

    2012-01-01

    Social Support (SS) therapy can be an effective method of weight loss compared with conventional treatment (CT). To evaluate RCT's using SS therapy on weight in subjects with overweight or obesity. We reviewed all original articles published in MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, EBSCO, Google Scholar, from 2000 to August 2011, and one referred in a previous metanalisis, of RCT's of the effect of SS therapy on weight loss, with at least five months of treatment, compared with another therapy or a CT. Eight articles were analyzed. It was observed heterogeneity in the design, differences in the components of the interventions, and cultural characteristics of the population. The difference between groups in weight loss in five out of seven studies, ranged from 2.3 kg (24 m) to 8.3 kg (12 m). However, the treatment in the control groups did not meet the accepted recommended guidelines. There was no allocation concealment in two studies, and no blindness in four. Most studies showed large dispersion in the results. Therefore, the quality of the evidence is low. These results warrant further and better design and longer term studies to generate higher quality evidence.

  15. A Novel Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Complete Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liaojun; Yan, Xuxia; Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Huixian

    2016-01-01

    Anonymity, which is more and more important to multi-receiver schemes, has been taken into consideration by many researchers recently. To protect the receiver anonymity, in 2010, the first multi-receiver scheme based on the Lagrange interpolating polynomial was proposed. To ensure the sender's anonymity, the concept of the ring signature was proposed in 2005, but afterwards, this scheme was proven to has some weakness and at the same time, a completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme is proposed. In this completely anonymous scheme, the sender anonymity is achieved by improving the ring signature, and the receiver anonymity is achieved by also using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Unfortunately, the Lagrange interpolation method was proven a failure to protect the anonymity of receivers, because each authorized receiver could judge whether anyone else is authorized or not. Therefore, the completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption mentioned above can only protect the sender anonymity. In this paper, we propose a new completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme with a new polynomial technology used to replace the Lagrange interpolating polynomial, which can mix the identity information of receivers to save it as a ciphertext element and prevent the authorized receivers from verifying others. With the receiver anonymity, the proposed scheme also owns the anonymity of the sender at the same time. Meanwhile, the decryption fairness and public verification are also provided.

  16. A Novel Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Complete Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Liaojun; Yan, Xuxia; Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Huixian

    2016-01-01

    Anonymity, which is more and more important to multi-receiver schemes, has been taken into consideration by many researchers recently. To protect the receiver anonymity, in 2010, the first multi-receiver scheme based on the Lagrange interpolating polynomial was proposed. To ensure the sender’s anonymity, the concept of the ring signature was proposed in 2005, but afterwards, this scheme was proven to has some weakness and at the same time, a completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme is proposed. In this completely anonymous scheme, the sender anonymity is achieved by improving the ring signature, and the receiver anonymity is achieved by also using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Unfortunately, the Lagrange interpolation method was proven a failure to protect the anonymity of receivers, because each authorized receiver could judge whether anyone else is authorized or not. Therefore, the completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption mentioned above can only protect the sender anonymity. In this paper, we propose a new completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme with a new polynomial technology used to replace the Lagrange interpolating polynomial, which can mix the identity information of receivers to save it as a ciphertext element and prevent the authorized receivers from verifying others. With the receiver anonymity, the proposed scheme also owns the anonymity of the sender at the same time. Meanwhile, the decryption fairness and public verification are also provided. PMID:27832105

  17. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  18. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile) and 74 control subjects completed the Adult Self-Report (ASR) of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, the Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Revised, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale III assessment. Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term. PMID:23216805

  19. Social attribution skills of children born preterm at very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kathryn E; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2014-11-01

    Children born prematurely at very low birth weight (<1500 g) are at increased risk for impairments affecting social functioning, including autism spectrum disorders (e.g., Johnson et al., 2010). In the current study, we used the Happé-Frith animated triangles task (Abell, Happé, & Frith, 2000) to study social attribution skills in this population. In this task, typical viewers attribute intentionality and mental states to shapes, based on characteristics of their movements. Participants included 34 preterm children and 36 full-term controls, aged 8-11 years. Groups were comparable in terms of age at test, gender, handedness, and socioeconomic status; they also performed similarly on tests of selective attention/processing speed and verbal intelligence. Relative to full-term peers, preterm children's descriptions of the animations were less appropriate overall; they also overattributed intentionality/mental states to randomly moving shapes and underattributed intentionality/mental states to shapes that seemed to be interacting socially. Impairments in the ability to infer the putative mental states of triangles from movement cues alone were most evident in children displaying more "autistic-like" traits, and this may reflect atypical development of and/or functioning in, or atypical connections between, parts of the social brain.

  20. Medical document anonymization with a semantic lexicon.

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, P.; Baud, R. H.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Bouillon, P.; Robert, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present an original system for locating and removing personally-identifying information in patient records. In this experiment, anonymization is seen as a particular case of knowledge extraction. We use natural language processing tools provided by the MEDTAG framework: a semantic lexicon specialized in medicine, and a toolkit for word-sense and morpho-syntactic tagging. The system finds 98-99% of all personally-identifying information. PMID:11079980

  1. Anonymous donation: a transplant center's experience.

    PubMed

    Mitzel, Heather; Snyders, Michele

    2002-06-01

    As demands for organs increase, transplant centers are now considering alternative resources. This paper looks at the experiences of one kidney transplant center as it developed its anonymous donor protocol. The authors review the historical use of living donors and discuss why the program initially considered this type of donor. The team members and the decision-making process are identified, including ethical dilemmas confronted by the team. Finally, the protocol and anticipated concerns are presented.

  2. Extraction and anonymity protocol of medical file.

    PubMed Central

    Bouzelat, H.; Quantin, C.; Dusserre, L.

    1996-01-01

    To carry out the epidemiological study of patients suffering from a given cancer, the Department of Medical Informatics (DIM) has to link information coming from different hospitals and medical laboratories in the Burgundy region. Demands from the French department for computerized information security (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés: CNIL), in regard to abiding by the law of January 6, 1978, completed by the law of July 1st, 1994 on nominal data processing in the framework of medical research have to be taken into account. Notably, the CNIL advised to render anonymous patient identities before the extraction of each establishment file. This paper describes a recently implemented protocol, registered with the French department for computerized information security (Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'information : SCSSI) whose purpose is to render anonymous medical files in view of their extraction. Once rendered anonymous, these files will be exportable so as to be merged with other files and used in a framework of epidemiological studies. Therefore, this protocol uses the Standard Hash Algorithm (SHA) which allows the replacement of identities by their imprints while ensuring a minimal collision rate in order to allow a correct linkage of the different information concerning the same patient. A first evaluation of the extraction and anonymity software with regard to the purpose of an epidemiological survey is described here. In this paper, we also show how it would be possible to implement this system by means of the Internet communication network. PMID:8947681

  3. Remote Electronic Voting with Revocable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Matt; Ritter, Eike

    We present a new remote, coercion-free electronic voting protocol which satisfies a number of properties previously considered contradictory. We introduce (and justify) the idea of revocable anonymity in electronic voting, on the grounds of it being a legal requirement in the United Kingdom, and show a method of proving the validity of a ballot to a verifier in zero knowledge, by extension of known two-candidate proofs.

  4. A 2-Round Anonymous Veto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Feng; Zieliński, Piotr

    The dining cryptographers network (or DC-net) is a seminal technique devised by Chaum to solve the dining cryptographers problem — namely, how to send a boolean-OR bit anonymously from a group of participants. In this paper, we investigate the weaknesses of DC-nets, study alternative methods and propose a new way to tackle this problem. Our protocol, Anonymous Veto Network (or AV-net), overcomes all the major limitations of DC-nets, including the complex key setup, message collisions and susceptibility to disruptions. While DC-nets are unconditionally secure, AV-nets are computationally secure under the Decision Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption. An AV-net is more efficient than other techniques based on the same public-key primitives. It requires only two rounds of broadcast and the least computational load and bandwidth usage per participant. Furthermore, it provides the strongest protection against collusion — only full collusion can breach the anonymity of message senders.

  5. Anonymous Peer Assessment of Medication Management Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Greg; Woulfe, Jim; Bartimote-Aufflick, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether pharmacy students' anonymous peer assessment of a medication management review (MMR) was constructive, consistent with the feedback provided by an expert tutor, and enhanced the students' learning experience. Design Fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students were randomly and anonymously assigned to a partner and participated in an online peer assessment of their partner's MMR. Assessment An independent expert graded a randomly selected sample of the MMR's using a schedule developed for the study. A second expert evaluated the quality of the peer and expert feedback. Students also completed a questionnaire and participated in a focus group interview. Student peers gave significantly higher marks than an expert for the same MMR; however, no significant difference between the quality of written feedback between the students and expert was detected. The majority of students agreed that this activity was a useful learning experience. Conclusions Anonymous peer assessment is an effective means of providing additional constructive feedback on student performance on the medication review process. Exposure to other students' work and the giving and receiving of peer feedback were perceived as valuable by students. PMID:20798808

  6. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  7. Use of social networking sites and perception and intentions regarding body weight among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sampasa‐Kanyinga, H.; Hamilton, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. Methods The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11–19‐year‐old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Results Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d−1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34−3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47−0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1. Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62−3.90). Conclusions Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women. PMID:27812377

  8. A Model of Onion Routing With Provable Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    Yale University Department of Computer Science A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity Aaron Johnson YALEU/DCS/TR-1368 August 30, 2006...2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-08-2006 to 00-08-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity 5a... Anonymity Aaron Johnson∗ Department of Computer Science Yale University New Haven, CT ajohnson@cs.yale.edu Abstract Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous

  9. Study on Privacy Protection Algorithm Based on K-Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FeiFei, Zhao; LiFeng, Dong; Kun, Wang; Yang, Li

    Basing on the study of K-Anonymity algorithm in privacy protection issue, this paper proposed a "Degree Priority" method of visiting Lattice nodes on the generalization tree to improve the performance of K-Anonymity algorithm. This paper also proposed a "Two Times K-anonymity" methods to reduce the information loss in the process of K-Anonymity. Finally, we used experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods.

  10. Do weight management interventions delivered by online social networks effectively improve body weight, body composition, and chronic disease risk factors? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Currently, no systematic review/meta-analysis has examined studies that used online social networks (OSN) as a primary intervention platform. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions delivered through OSN. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched (January 1990-November 2015) for studies with data on the effect of OSNs on weight loss. Only primary source articles that utilized OSN as the main platform for delivery of weight management/healthy lifestyle interventions, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals, and reported outcome data on weight were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Five articles were included in this review. Results One-hundred percent of the studies ( n = 5) reported a reduction in baseline weight. Three of the five studies (60%) reported significant decreases in body weight when OSN was paired with health educator support. Only one study reported a clinical significant weight loss of ≥5%. Conclusion Using OSN for weight management is in its early stages of development and, while these few studies show promise, more research is needed to acquire information about optimizing these interventions to increase their efficacy.

  11. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  12. 64 FR 11360 - Evaluation of Parents AnonymousSUPSM/SUP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-03-08

    ... Justice Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Evaluation of Parents Anonymous SM ; Notice... Anonymous SM AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention... Anonymous SM program. The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the implementation and effectiveness of...

  13. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Johnson, Aaron; Syverson, Paul

    Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until now, however, it has had no formal model and therefore no rigorous analysis of its anonymity guarantees. We give an IO-automata model of an onion-routing protocol and, under possibilistic definitions, characterize the situations in which anonymity and unlinkability are guaranteed.

  14. Perceived Social Support for Exercise and Weight Loss in Adolescents Undergoing Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; Olson, Alexandra; Merwin, Stephanie; Wang, Jichuan; Nadler, Evan P

    2017-08-02

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for youth with severe obesity. However, outcomes are variable and there remains sparse understanding of predictors of weight loss following surgery. The current study examines the role of adolescent-reported pre-operative social support around exercise, binge eating, and exercise to predict excess body mass index (EBMI) loss from 3 to 12 months post-surgery. Participants were 101 adolescents ages 12-21 (M age = 16.6, SD = 1.8). Pre-operative body mass index (BMI) ranged from 35 to 87 (M = 50.3, SD = 8.6). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate a model of the association of adolescent report of perceived social support for exercise with less binge eating (items from the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale) and more self-reported exercise (items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System). The model was used to predict EBMI loss at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-surgery. Social support significantly predicted exercise and demonstrated a trend for predicting binge eating, such that more social support was associated with more exercise and a trend for less binge eating. Binge eating was associated with less EBMI loss. However, there was no association of exercise with EBMI loss. Pre-operative binge eating should be a target for identification and treatment prior to sleeve gastrectomy in adolescents. Although not directly or indirectly associated with EBMI loss, perceived social support around exercise was associated with increased exercise, which may make it a consideration for a target for intervention as well.

  15. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.

  16. Identification of influential spreaders in online social networks using interaction weighted K-core decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-garadi, Mohammed Ali; Varathan, Kasturi Dewi; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) have become a vital part of everyday living. OSNs provide researchers and scientists with unique prospects to comprehend individuals on a scale and to analyze human behavioral patterns. Influential spreaders identification is an important subject in understanding the dynamics of information diffusion in OSNs. Targeting these influential spreaders is significant in planning the techniques for accelerating the propagation of information that is useful for various applications, such as viral marketing applications or blocking the diffusion of annoying information (spreading of viruses, rumors, online negative behaviors, and cyberbullying). Existing K-core decomposition methods consider links equally when calculating the influential spreaders for unweighted networks. Alternatively, the proposed link weights are based only on the degree of nodes. Thus, if a node is linked to high-degree nodes, then this node will receive high weight and is treated as an important node. Conversely, the degree of nodes in OSN context does not always provide accurate influence of users. In the present study, we improve the K-core method for OSNs by proposing a novel link-weighting method based on the interaction among users. The proposed method is based on the observation that the interaction of users is a significant factor in quantifying the spreading capability of user in OSNs. The tracking of diffusion links in the real spreading dynamics of information verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method for identifying influential spreaders in OSNs as compared with degree centrality, PageRank, and original K-core.

  17. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. Objective The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. Methods DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. Results From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Ps<.001). In addition, weight loss clustered within games (P<.001), suggesting that players influenced each others’ weight outcomes. Conclusions DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced

  18. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia; Rosen, Jamie

    2014-02-07

    Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Ps<.001). In addition, weight loss clustered within games (P<.001), suggesting that players influenced each others' weight outcomes. DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced excellent 4-week weight loss results. Given its reach and

  19. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rachel Gick; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2,500 g) infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III) was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8). The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9) compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2). Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001) and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. PMID:23917653

  20. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Steven; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence--a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting) to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools--a rare occurrence--was more prevalent. Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of evidence by planners with limited numeracy

  1. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  2. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  3. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Chris Y. T.; Yau, David K. Y.; Yip, Nung Kwan; ...

    2013-06-01

    Mobility traces of people and vehicles have been collected and published to assist the design and evaluation of mobile networks, such as large-scale urban sensing networks. Although the published traces are often made anonymous in that the true identities of nodes are replaced by random identifiers, the privacy concern remains. This is because in real life, nodes are open to observations in public spaces, or they may voluntarily or inadvertently disclose partial knowledge of their whereabouts. Thus, snapshots of nodes’ location information can be learned by interested third parties, e.g., directly through chance/engineered meetings between the nodes and their observers,more » or indirectly through casual conversations or other information sources about people. In this paper, we investigate how an adversary, when equipped with a small amount of the snapshot information termed as side information, can infer an extended view of the whereabouts of a victim node appearing in an anonymous trace. Our results quantify the loss of victim nodes’ privacy as a function of the nodal mobility, the inference strategies of adversaries, and any noise that may appear in the trace or the side information. Generally, our results indicate that the privacy concern is significant in that a relatively small amount of side information is sufficient for the adversary to infer the true identity (either uniquely or with high probability) of a victim in a set of anonymous traces. For instance, an adversary is able to identify the trace of 30%-50% of the victims when she has collected 10 pieces of side information about a victim.« less

  4. Anonymity: An Impediment to Performance in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are “Always” or “Often” able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either “Often” or “Sometimes” page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either “Rarely” or “Never” able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were “Rarely” or “Never” recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  5. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Chris Y. T.; Yau, David K. Y.; Yip, Nung Kwan; Rao, Nageswara S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Mobility traces of people and vehicles have been collected and published to assist the design and evaluation of mobile networks, such as large-scale urban sensing networks. Although the published traces are often made anonymous in that the true identities of nodes are replaced by random identifiers, the privacy concern remains. This is because in real life, nodes are open to observations in public spaces, or they may voluntarily or inadvertently disclose partial knowledge of their whereabouts. Thus, snapshots of nodes’ location information can be learned by interested third parties, e.g., directly through chance/engineered meetings between the nodes and their observers, or indirectly through casual conversations or other information sources about people. In this paper, we investigate how an adversary, when equipped with a small amount of the snapshot information termed as side information, can infer an extended view of the whereabouts of a victim node appearing in an anonymous trace. Our results quantify the loss of victim nodes’ privacy as a function of the nodal mobility, the inference strategies of adversaries, and any noise that may appear in the trace or the side information. Generally, our results indicate that the privacy concern is significant in that a relatively small amount of side information is sufficient for the adversary to infer the true identity (either uniquely or with high probability) of a victim in a set of anonymous traces. For instance, an adversary is able to identify the trace of 30%-50% of the victims when she has collected 10 pieces of side information about a victim.

  6. You can be too thin (but not too tall): Social desirability bias in self-reports of weight and height.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary A; Carman, Katherine G

    2017-07-13

    Previous studies of survey data from the U.S. and other countries find that women tend to understate their body weight on average, while both men and women overstate their height on average. Social norms have been posited as one potential explanation for misreporting of weight and height, but lack of awareness of body weight has been suggested as an alternative explanation, and the evidence presented to date is inconclusive. This paper is the first to offer a theoretical model of self-reporting behavior for weight and height, in which individuals face a tradeoff between reporting an accurate weight (or height) and reporting a socially desirable weight (or height). The model generates testable implications that help us to determine whether self-reporting errors arise because of social desirability bias or instead reflect lack of awareness of body weight and/or other factors. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010, we find that self-reports of weight offer robust evidence of social desirability bias. However, lack of awareness of weight may also contribute to self-reporting biases, and this factor appears to be more important within some demographic groups than others. Among both women and men, self-reports of height exhibit significant social desirability bias only among those of below-average height, and very few individuals underreport their height. Implied self-reports of BMI exhibit gender-specific patterns similar to those observed for self-reporting of weight, and the inferred social norms for BMI (20.8 for women and 24.8 for men) are within the "normal" range established by public health institutions. Determining why individuals misreport their weight has important implications for survey design as well as for clinical practice. For example, our findings suggest that health care providers might take additional steps to increase self-awareness of body weight. The framework also helps to explain previous

  7. A Quantitative Study on Anonymity and Professionalism within an Online Free Open Access Medical Education Community.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Daneilla; Gubert, Andrea; Miller, Amanda B; Thoma, Brent; Chan, Teresa

    2016-09-18

    The increasing use of social media to share knowledge in medical education has led to concerns about the professionalism of online medical learners and physicians. However, there is a lack of research on the behavior of professionals within open online discussions. In 2013, the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine website (ALiEM.com) launched a series of moderated online case discussions that provided an opportunity to explore the relationship between anonymity and professionalism. Comments from 12 case discussions conducted over a one-year period were analyzed using modified scales of anonymity and professionalism derived by Kilner and Hoadley. Descriptive statistics and Spearman calculations were conducted for the professionalism score, anonymity score, and level of participation. No correlation was found between professionalism and anonymity scores (rho = -0.004, p = 0.97). However, the number of comments (rho = 0.35, p < 0.01) and number of cases contributed to (rho = 0.26, p < 0.05) correlated positively with clear identification. Our results differed from previous literature, the majority of which found anonymity associated with unprofessionalism. We believe that this may be a result of the fostering of a professional environment through the use of a website with a positive reputation, the modelling of respectful behaviour by the moderators, the norms of the broader online community, and the pre-specified objectives for each discussion.

  8. Participant Anonymity in the Internet Age: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Benjamin; Kitzinger, Jenny; Kitzinger, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative researchers attempting to protect the identities of their research participants now face a multitude of new challenges due to the wealth of information once considered private but now readily accessible online. We will draw on our research with family members of people with severe brain injury to discuss these challenges in relation to three areas: participant engagement with the mass media, the availability of court transcripts online, and participants’ use of social media. We suggest strategies for managing these challenges via disguise, refining informed consent, and discussion with interviewees. In the context of a largely theoretical literature on anonymization, this article offers concrete examples of the dilemmas we faced and will be of illustrative use to other researchers confronting similar challenges. PMID:25866484

  9. Food insecurity affects school children's academic performance, weight gain, and social skills.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Diana F; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2005-12-01

    Food insecurity has been associated with diverse developmental consequences for U.S. children primarily from cross-sectional studies. We used longitudinal data to investigate how food insecurity over time related to changes in reading and mathematics test performance, weight and BMI, and social skills in children. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, a prospective sample of approximately 21,000 nationally representative children entering kindergarten in 1998 and followed through 3rd grade. Food insecurity was measured by parent interview using a modification of the USDA module in which households were classified as food insecure if they reported > or =1 affirmative response in the past year. Households were grouped into 4 categories based on the temporal occurrence of food insecurity in kindergarten and 3rd grade. Children's academic performance, height, and weight were assessed directly. Children's social skills were reported by teachers. Analyses examined the effects of modified food insecurity on changes in child outcomes using lagged, dynamic, and difference (i.e., fixed-effects) models and controlling for child and household contextual variables. In lagged models, food insecurity was predictive of poor developmental trajectories in children before controlling for other variables. Food insecurity thus serves as an important marker for identifying children who fare worse in terms of subsequent development. In all models with controls, food insecurity was associated with outcomes, and associations differed by gender. This study provides the strongest empirical evidence to date that food insecurity is linked to specific developmental consequences for children, and that these consequences may be both nutritional and nonnutritional.

  10. Why do we still find anonymous ESTs?

    PubMed

    Cirera, S; Winterø, A K; Fredholm, M

    2000-08-01

    During recent years, there has been an exponential rise in the number of sequences accessible in the public databases. Despite this, a high percentage of partial sequences of cDNA (ESTs) submitted to the databases remain unrecognized (anonymous ESTs). This lack of similarities could be explained by several hypotheses: i) a different part of the transcript is present in the GenBank; ii) the transcript represents a novel gene not yet isolated in other species; iii) alternative splicing of the same gene in different species; iv) inaccurate sequence data; and/or v) the sequence of the transcript has diverged to the extent that it is not recognized as an ortholog. In the present study we selected a sample of 20 ESTs from a pool of 656 anonymous pig small intestine ESTs in order to investigate the possible cause for the lack of similarities with database entries. To test the significant hypotheses we carried out total sequencing of each insert along with zoo-blot and Northern-blot analysis. Extended analyses of the 20 ESTs showed significant matches to seven existing database entries, whereas 13 still did not show significant hits. The results are discussed in the context of the hypothesis listed above.

  11. Anonymization of Longitudinal Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Tamersoy, Acar; Loukides, Grigorios; Nergiz, Mehmet Ercan; Saygin, Yucel; Malin, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have enabled healthcare providers to collect detailed patient information from the primary care domain. At the same time, longitudinal data from EMRs are increasingly combined with biorepositories to generate personalized clinical decision support protocols. Emerging policies encourage investigators to disseminate such data in a deidentified form for reuse and collaboration, but organizations are hesitant to do so because they fear such actions will jeopardize patient privacy. In particular, there are concerns that residual demographic and clinical features could be exploited for reidentification purposes. Various approaches have been developed to anonymize clinical data, but they neglect temporal information and are, thus, insufficient for emerging biomedical research paradigms. This paper proposes a novel approach to share patient-specific longitudinal data that offers robust privacy guarantees, while preserving data utility for many biomedical investigations. Our approach aggregates temporal and diagnostic information using heuristics inspired from sequence alignment and clustering methods. We demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate anonymized data that permit effective biomedical analysis using several patient cohorts derived from the EMR system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. PMID:22287248

  12. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  13. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  14. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Method Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence – a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting) to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Results Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools – a rare occurrence - was more prevalent. Conclusions Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of

  15. Social defeat stress produces prolonged alterations in acoustic startle and body weight gain in male Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, John V K; Dawaghreh, Ahmad M; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Plotsky, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals exposed to psychological stressors may experience a long-term resetting of behavioral and neuroendocrine aspects of their "stress response" so that they either hyper or hypo-respond to subsequent stressors. These effects of psychological or traumatic stressors may be mimicked in rats using the resident-intruder model of social defeat. The social defeat model has been characterized to model aspects of the physiology and behavior associated with anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to determine if behaviors elicited following repeated social defeat can also reflect aspects of ethologically relevant stresses associated with existing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models. Socially defeated rats displayed weight loss and an enhanced and prolonged response to acoustic startle which was displayed for up to 10days following repeated social defeat. These data indicate that the severe stress of social defeat can produce physiologic and behavioral outcomes which may reflect aspects of traumatic psychosocial stress.

  16. Social support for healthy behaviors: Scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  17. The k-Anonymity Problem Is Hard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Dondi, Riccardo

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. An interesting formalization recently proposed is the k-anonymity. This approach requires that the rows in a table are clustered in sets of size at least k and that all the rows in a cluster are related to the same tuple, after the suppression of some records. The problem has been shown to be NP-hard when the values are over a ternary alphabet, k = 3 and the rows length is unbounded. In this paper we give a lower bound on the approximation of two restrictions of the problem, when the records values are over a binary alphabet and k = 3, and when the records have length at most 8 and k = 4, showing that these restrictions of the problem are APX-hard.

  18. De profundis: spiritual transformations in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    PubMed

    Forcehimes, Alyssa A

    2004-05-01

    The mechanism of change in Alcoholics Anonymous is described as "spiritual transformation." A.A. acknowledges that such transformation can occur gradually; however, nearly all of the examples presented in the Big Book of A.A. involve discrete and sudden experiences that resemble the phenomenon of quantum change. The sequence offered describes how spiritual transformations transpire. The sequence begins with hitting bottom, recognition of inability to control the problem. A feeling of contrition follows, describing not only sorrow for the present state, but also desire for a new way. The final step is the act of surrendering one's will to a higher power. The de profundis sequence sets the process of spiritual transformation in motion, offering stabilization to sobriety.

  19. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  20. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    PubMed

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery.

  1. Anonymity and Covert Channels in Simple Timed Mix-firewalls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Anonymity and Covert Channels in Simple Timed Mix- rewalls? Richard E. Newman1, Vipan R. Nalla1, and Ira S. Moskowitz2 1 CISE Department University...Washington, DC 20375 moskowitz@itd.nrl.navy.mil Abstract. Traditional methods for evaluating the amount of anonymity a orded by various Mix con...gurations have depended on either measur- ing the size of the set of possible senders of a particular message (the anonymity set size), or by measuring the

  2. The donor-conceived child's "Right to Personal Identity": the public debate on donor anonymity in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Turkmendag, Ilke

    2012-01-01

    On 1 April 2005, with the implementation of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Disclosure of Donor Information) Regulations 2004, United Kingdom law was changed to allow children born through gamete donation to access details identifying the donor. Drawing on trends in adoption law, the decision to abolish donor anonymity was strongly influenced by a discourse that asserted the ‘child's right to personal identity’. Through examination of the donor anonymity debate in the public realm, while adopting a social constructionist approach, this article discusses how donor anonymity has been defined as a social problem that requires a regulative response. It focuses on the child's ‘right to personal identity’ claims, and discusses the genetic essentialism behind these claims. By basing its assumptions on an adoption analogy, United Kingdom law ascribes a social meaning to the genetic relatedness between gamete donors and the offspring.

  3. Divisible E-Cash Systems Can Be Truly Anonymous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canard, Sébastien; Gouget, Aline

    This paper presents an off-line divisible e-cash scheme where a user can withdraw a divisible coin of monetary value 2 L that he can parceled and spend anonymously and unlinkably. We present the construction of a security tag that allows to protect the anonymity of honest users and to revoke anonymity only in case of cheat for protocols based on a binary tree structure without using a trusted third party. This is the first divisible e-cash scheme that provides both full unlinkability and anonymity without requiring a trusted third party.

  4. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Meghan; Yom-Tov, Elad; Pelleg, Dan; Puhl, Rebecca M; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI) in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve). Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest.

  5. Comments on “Anonymous reviewers” [“Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    Mryl Beck's Forum article denouncing anonymous reviews (Eos, 1 July 2003) is right on the money. Perhaps he read my letter in Applied Physics in 1990 also denouncing anonymous reviews.Some years ago, I received an anonymous review of a paper I had submitted for journal publication. The reviewer raised such interesting questions that I wanted to discuss them with him. I phoned the editor of the journal and asked if he would tell me the name of the reviewer. He politely declined, but when I told him I thought I recognized the handwriting of the reviewer and named him, he relented and said I was correct! I called the reviewer and he was generous enough to spend a wonderful hour on the phone with me discussing the paper. The paper was published with great consideration given to his ideas, much to its betterment. Now that's a reviewer whose interest is in improving the paper and helping the author, not just showing how smart he is or slapping down a junior colleague. The AGU motto,“unselfish cooperation in research,” can be well exemplified by those who wish to help rather than to tear down.

  6. What Does Anonymization Mean? DataSHIELD and the Need for Consensus on Anonymization Terminology.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    Anonymization is a recognized process by which identifiers can be removed from identifiable data to protect an individual's confidentiality and is used as a standard practice when sharing data in biomedical research. However, a plethora of terms, such as coding, pseudonymization, unlinked, and deidentified, have been and continue to be used, leading to confusion and uncertainty. This article shows that this is a historic problem and argues that such continuing uncertainty regarding the levels of protection given to data risks damaging initiatives designed to assist researchers conducting cross-national studies and sharing data internationally. DataSHIELD and the creation of a legal template are used as examples of initiatives that rely on anonymization, but where the inconsistency in terminology could hinder progress. More broadly, this article argues that there is a real possibility that there could be possible damage to the public's trust in research and the institutions that carry it out by relying on vague notions of the anonymization process. Research participants whose lack of clear understanding of the research process is compensated for by trusting those carrying out the research may have that trust damaged if the level of protection given to their data does not match their expectations. One step toward ensuring understanding between parties would be consistent use of clearly defined terminology used internationally, so that all those involved are clear on the level of identifiability of any particular set of data and, therefore, how that data can be accessed and shared.

  7. Anonymous statistical methods versus cryptographic methods in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Quantin; Allaert; Dusserre

    2000-11-01

    Sensitive data are most often indirectly identifiable and so need to be rendered anonymous in order to ensure privacy. Statistical methods to provide anonymity require data perturbation and so generate data processing difficulties. Encryption methods, while preserving confidentiality, do not require data modification.

  8. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  9. Measuring treatment process variables in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    PubMed

    Allen, J P

    2000-04-01

    Alcoholism treatment research has traditionally focused on direct questions of efficacy, such as is a particular intervention better than no treatment or is one treatment more effective than another. Recent projects, however, have also attempted to identify variables explaining why treatments vary in their effects. Many of these variables relate to the process of treatment itself or changes that may occur within the patients. Clinicians also need to continuously monitor progress of patients in engaging in behaviors supportive of long-term sobriety and how well the values and behaviors fostered by the particular treatment regimen are being incorporated into daily life. Measurement of process variables may assist in both regards. In the last decade several psychometric instruments have been developed to elucidate the processes involved in Alcoholic Anonymous (AA), a key adjunct of most formal alcoholism programs in the United States. These instruments measure dimensions such as involvement in AA, completion of steps, and adoption of values encouraged by AA. Six such measures are summarized here and several fruitful topics for future research on the measures are suggested.

  10. Utility-aware anonymization of diagnosis codes.

    PubMed

    Loukides, G; Gkoulalas-Divanis, A

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for performing large-scale and low-cost biomedical studies has led organizations to promote the reuse of patient data. For instance, the National Institutes of Health in the US requires patient-specific data collected and analyzed in the context of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) to be deposited into a biorepository and broadly disseminated. While essential to comply with regulations, disseminating such data risks privacy breaches, because patients genomic sequences can be linked to their identities through diagnosis codes. This work proposes a novel approach that prevents this type of data linkage by modifying diagnosis codes to limit the probability of associating a patients identity to their genomic sequence. Our approach employs an effective algorithm that uses generalization and suppression of diagnosis codes to preserve privacy and takes into account the intended uses of the disseminated data to guarantee utility. We also present extensive experiments using several datasets derived from the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, as well as a large-scale case-study using the EMRs of 79K patients, which are linked to DNA contained in the Vanderbilt University biobank. Our results verify that our approach generates anonymized data that permit accurate biomedical analysis in tasks including case count studies and GWAS.

  11. Comment on ``Anonymous Reviews'' From D. Forel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forel, David

    I recently read four letters against anonymous reviews (see references below) and zero letters for. I feel the need to add one to zero. When I started reviewing manuscripts, I had the ethical choice of whether to sign my name. After some thought, I decided I would not. Today I feel the same for the same reason: I do not want people to think about who I am; I want them to think about what I write. R.E. Criss and A.M. Hofmeister would have me throw off my ``cloak of secrecy- the costume of crooks.'' Would seeing my face make my argument clearer or is it an excuse to judge the messenger ? A while back, I spent two years as an associate editor. During that time, I signed my name because I felt people had the right to know who was passing judgment. In this, I agree with A. McBirney? ``A fundamental rule of our justice system holds that one who is being judged has the right to confront his accusers.'' As a lowly reviewer, I did not feel I passed judgment; I felt I was contributing to the discussion.

  12. Anonymous predictive testing for Huntington's disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Visintainer, C L; Matthias-Hagen, V; Nance, M A

    2001-01-01

    The widespread use of a predictive genetic test for Huntington's disease (HD) since 1993 has brought to the forefront issues regarding genetic privacy. Although the possibility of anonymous genetic testing has been discussed, its use in the United States has not been described previously. We review the experiences of 11 genetics specialists with anonymous predictive testing for HD. We found that more men than women requested anonymous testing, for reasons that more often related to personal privacy than to insurance or discrimination concerns. A number of approaches to anonymity were used, and genetics specialists varied in the degree to which they were comfortable with the process. A number of legal, medical, and practical questions are raised, which will require resolution if anonymous testing is to be performed with a greater frequency in the future.

  13. Women's social eating environment and its associations with dietary behavior and weight management.

    PubMed

    Mötteli, Sonja; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    As an unhealthy social eating environment is considered a risk factor for obesity, this study aimed to examine women's regular eating networks and the extent to which diet-related variables were associated with those of their regular eating companions. In Study Part I (N = 579), an egocentric network approach was used to investigate women's perceptions of their eating networks. In Study Part II (N = 262), the participants' most important eating companions responded to a similar survey, and the corresponding answers were matched. The results showed that women shared their meals most frequently with spouses and other family members. Women who dined more often with healthy eaters reported on average a higher diet quality and a lower body mass index (BMI), which were also significant after controlling for individual factors. Study Part II expanded these results by showing that different diet-related factors such as diet quality, eating styles and BMI were correlated between women and their most important eating companions (r = 0.16-0.30, p < 0.05). Moreover, an actor-partner interdependence model revealed that a higher diet quality of the eating companions was associated with a lower BMI in women, controlled for their own eating behavior (b = -0.45, p < 0.05). This study showed similarities and interdependence between women's dietary behavior and body weight and those of their regular eating companions. This might indicate that regular eating networks have a shared understanding of what constitutes a normal diet, which might be an important factor to consider in the promotion of healthy eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Meg; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brewis, Alexandra; Laska, Melissa; Todd, Michael; Hruschka, Daniel; Schaefer, David R; Whisner, Corrie M; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-08-30

    The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Social and Mobile Weight Loss Trial for Young Adults (project SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, K; Marshall, SJ; Davila, EP; Kolodziejczyk, JK; Fowler, J; Calfas, KJ; Huang, J; Rock, CL; Griswold, W; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, GJ; Raab, F; Donohue, M; Fogg, BJ; Robinson, TN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. Methods A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (Mage = 22(±4) years; MBMI=29(±2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, SMS, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SED), diet, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Conclusion Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for PA, SED, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:24215774

  16. Design and implementation of a randomized controlled social and mobile weight loss trial for young adults (project SMART).

    PubMed

    Patrick, K; Marshall, S J; Davila, E P; Kolodziejczyk, J K; Fowler, J H; Calfas, K J; Huang, J S; Rock, C L; Griswold, W G; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, G J; Raab, F; Donohue, M C; Fogg, B J; Robinson, T N

    2014-01-01

    To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (M(age) = 22( ± 4) years; M(BMI) = 29( ± 2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, text messaging, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A survey of weight perception and social desirability of obesity among adults in Kano Metropolis, Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iliyasu, Z; Abubakar, I S; Abubakar, S; Lawan, U M; Gajida, A U; Jibo, A M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and its complications are emergent health challenges in developing countries including Nigeria. We determined the concordance of perceived with measured weight and assessed the social desirability of obesity among adults in Kano metropolis in northern Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 400 adults using structured interview questionnaires. Among 386 respondents, 58 (84.1%) of underweight adults, 106 (46.2%) of healthy weight adults, 46 (66.7%) of overweight adults and 16 (84.2%) of obese adults incorrectly perceived their weight category. Sixty (15.5%) participants considered obesity as socially desirable and a sign of good living and affluence. Older respondents (> or = 40 years) (P = 0.0001), Igbo or Yoruba ethnicity (P = 0.0035) and non-formal or primary education (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with positive view of obesity. However, only ethnicity; Yoruba-Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.60, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) (1.20-2.86), P = 0.018, Igbo (aOR = 3.22, 95% CI (1.64-6.3), P =0.005 and educational status; non-formal (aOR = 4.61, 95% CI 1.62-16.9), P = 0.01; primary (aOR = 4.95, 95% CI (1.4-17.8), P = 0.015 remained significant predictors after adjusting for confounding. The discordance between perceived and measured weight is worrisome but the low social desirability of obesity should be encouraged. Weight control using periodic weight measurements, nutritional education and physical exercise are paramount.

  18. The Unequal Burden of Weight Gain: An Intersectional Approach to Understanding Social Disparities in BMI Trajectories from 1986 to 2001/2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailshire, Jennifer A.; House, James S.

    2011-01-01

    The implications of recent weight gain trends for widening social disparities in body weight in the United States are unclear. Using an intersectional approach to studying inequality, and the longitudinal and nationally representative American's Changing Lives study (1986-2001/2002), we examine social disparities in body mass index trajectories…

  19. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  20. Homophily in an Anonymous Online Community: Sociodemographic Versus Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Chung, Da Young

    2017-06-01

    In what traits do people interact with others who are similar to them in completely anonymous online communication? Can those traits contribute to greater exchange of opinion and information across the sociodemographic boundaries that often limit interaction between social strata? To answer this question concerning online homophily, we combined survey data on 7,287 users (aged 18 and above) of a Korean online dating advice platform with their behavioral data from June 2015 to August 2015 and explored whether advice exchange occurred between users with similar sociodemographic and personality traits. On this platform, two types of interactions occurred as follows: (1) responses to a randomly distributed problem submitted by an advice seeker and (2) the seeker's indication of approval of any of the responses given. The study found that (1) a receiver was more likely to respond to problems submitted by seekers of a comparable age and that (2) seekers were more likely to approve of a response if the seeker and receiver had similar educational backgrounds. By contrast, homophily based on personality traits was not observed even though some personality traits significantly affected the likelihood of both response and approval. Our findings suggest that online communication may breed sociodemographic homophily, whether based on age or education, more than expected or intended while not easily fostering alternative forms of homophily, such as personality homophily, which can potentially cut across borders dividing sociodemographic groups.

  1. A historical analysis of public health, the law, and stigmatized social groups: the need for both obesity and weight bias legislation.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    History teaches that discrimination against socially undesirable groups leads to societal and governmental neglect of the stigmatized group's health problem. By placing weight discrimination in a historical context, this article demonstrates that legislation specifically aimed at rectifying obesity is less likely while weight bias is socially acceptable. Beyond obesity legislation, public health professionals may consider advocating for legislation directly targeting discrimination based on weight. This article reviews the history of discrimination against distinct groups and provides statutory solutions for discrimination based on weight. In addition to revising current statutes and regulatory rules, a unique statute targeting weight bias in the employment context is considered.

  2. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  3. Defining ’Anonymity’ in Networked Communication, Version 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Anonymity ”  in  Networked   Communication,  version  1   Joan  Feigenbaum1   Technical  Report  YALEU/DCS/TR-­‐1448...December  2011         Support   for   anonymous   communication   in   hostile   environments   is   the   main...fact  that  the  word  is  regularly   encountered   in   common   parlance,   “ anonymity ”   is  

  4. An Enhanced Secure Authentication Scheme with Anonymity for Wireless Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woongryul; Kim, Jeeyeon; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    As anonymity increasingly becomes a necessary and legitimate aim in many applications, a number of anonymous authentication schemes have been suggested over the years. Among the many schemes is Lee and Kwon's password-based authentication scheme for wireless environments. Compared with previous schemes, Lee and Kwon's scheme not only improves anonymity by employing random temporary IDs but also provides user-friendliness by allowing human-memorable passwords. In this letter, we point out that Lee and Kwon's scheme, despite its many merits, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and a forgery attack. In addition, we show how to eliminate these vulnerabilities.

  5. A Review of Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous Programs for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of the applicability of Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous (AA/NA) for teens has only been a subject of empirical research investigation since the early 1990s. In the present review, the author describes teen involvement in AA/NA programming, provides an exhaustive review of the outcomes of 19 studies that used an AA/NA model as part of their formal teen substance abuse treatment programs, and provides data on the effects of AA/NA attendance on abstinence at follow-up, on which youth tend to become involved in AA/NA, and on mediation of the benefits of AA/NA participation. In addition, the author suggests the reasons for somewhat limited participation by teens in more informal, community-based 12-step meetings, and makes suggestions for maximizing participation at meetings in the community. The author concludes that AA/NA participation is a valuable modality of substance abuse treatment for teens and that much can be done to increase teen participation, though more research is needed. PMID:20164105

  6. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  7. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  8. Birth weight and cognitive development in adolescence: causal relationship or social selection?

    PubMed

    Gorman, Bridget K

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I investigate the relationship between birth weight and cognitive development among adolescents aged 12-17. Initial OLS regression models reveal a significant, positive relationship between low birth weight and verbal ability. Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and other adolescent characteristics modifies, but does not eliminate, this relationship. Additional models that stratify the sample by parental education illustrate the greater importance of other family and adolescent characteristics for cognitive development in adolescence, and a diminished role of birth weight. In the final section of the paper, fixed effects models of non-twin full siblings indicate no significant association between birth weight and verbal ability, suggesting that traditional cross-sectional models overstate the influence of birth weight for cognitive development in adolescence.

  9. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Erik A.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Steger, Felicia L.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Al-Hihi, Eyad M.; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0–45.0 kg/m2) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. PMID:26883282

  10. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  12. Intra- and intergenerational social mobility in relation to height, weight and body mass index in a British national cohort.

    PubMed

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2011-09-01

    Using a sample of 2090 father and son pairs, the extent of intra- and inter-generational social mobility (migration between social classes) was examined over a 42-year period in a British cohort in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). The mean height difference between the highest and lowest social class decreased from about 4 cm in the fathers' generation to about 3 cm in the sons' generation, indicating a decline in heterogeneity in height between classes. For fathers downward intra-generational social mobility ranged between 11% and 18% while between 16% and 26% were upwardly mobile; for sons 15% were downwardly mobile and 21% upwardly mobile. On average downwardly mobile fathers were shorter by between 0.1 cm and 0.7 cm while upwardly mobile fathers were taller by, on average, 0.6 cm to 1.7 cm. For sons, the downwardly mobile were on average 0.7 cm shorter and the upwardly mobile 0.8 cm taller. For weight and BMI there were no consistent relationships with intra-generational mobility in either the fathers' or sons' generations. Inter-generationally, between 18% and 19% of sons were downwardly mobile and between 39% and 40% were upwardly mobile; the downwardly mobile were shorter by about 0.9 cm and the upwardly taller by between 0.6 cm and 1.2 cm. Sons with higher BMI were more likely to be inter-generationally downwardly mobile.

  13. Inverting the food pyramid? Social and cultural acceptability of Walter Willett's dietary recommendations among people with weight concerns.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A; Korzen, S; Holm, L

    2008-07-01

    The article presents results from a survey that was carried out among participants in a strictly controlled dietary intervention trial in order to investigate and compare the social and cultural acceptability of three different diets. Measures of social and cultural acceptability included liking of diet, social eating events, practical matters surrounding shopping, cooking, eating, understandings of the relationship between diet type, bodyweight and health, and preferences for specific foods. The survey study focuses especially on the acceptability of the diet recommended by American epidemiologist Walter Willett. On most measures the results indicated that a diet based on Willett's recommendations had a generally high level of acceptability. Scepticism related primarily to the health and weight benefits of this diet in comparison with those of the present dietary recommendations in Denmark. The survey also revealed that participants attributed more influence on their body weight to the amount of food they ate than they did to the composition of the diets they followed. While the scope of the study does not allow for the generalizations of results to a general population level, the experimental design provides detailed insight into social and cultural aspects of experiences of strict dietary adherence.

  14. Alcoholics Anonymous and nursing. Lessons in holism and spiritual care.

    PubMed

    McGee, E M

    2000-03-01

    Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) is a worldwide, million-member organization that has assisted countless alcoholics to achieve sobriety through a spiritual program of recovery from alcoholism. Based on spiritual principles known as the "Twelve Steps" and "Twelve Traditions," AA has provided a model for other recovery programs such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Gamblers Anonymous (GA), and Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous (SLAA). Recovery in AA appears to involve a process of self-transcendence. In recent years, nursing scholars have increasingly explored the concepts of self-transcendence and spirituality as they apply to nursing theory and practice. This article explores the roots and spiritual dimensions of 12-step recovery programs. It further explores the ways in which theoretical and clinical knowledge about the delivery of spiritual care interventions may be gained from an understanding of AA's spiritual approach to recovery.

  15. Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2010-01-01

    Users are being tracked on the Internet more than ever before as Web sites and search engines gather pieces of information sufficient to identify and study their behavior. While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required. In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on. The scheme leverages the natural grouping of hosts in the same subnet and the universally available broadcast primitive to provide anonymity at line speeds. Our scheme is strongly resistant against all active or passive adversaries as long as they are outside the subnet. Even within the subnet, our scheme provides reasonable resistance against adversaries, providing anonymity that is suitable for common Internet applications.

  16. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  17. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  18. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy.

  19. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    on-line advertising rm DoubleClick and consumer data company Abacus Direct was \\the most danger- ous assault against anonymity on the Internet since...registrations and ecommerce trans- Preprint - 2 Stuart G. Stubblebine, and Paul F. Syverson. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection...Brother, Big `Fun’ at Amazon", Wired News, Aug. 25, 1999. www.wired.com/news/news/ business /story/21417.html [18] David Mazieres and M. Frans Kaashoek. \\The

  1. The Sniper Attack: Anonymously Deanonymizing and Disabling the Tor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    informatik.hu-berlin.de Abstract—Tor is a distributed onion -routing network used for achieving anonymity and resisting censorship online. Because of...users daily and transferring roughly 3 GiB/s in aggregate [4]. Tor uses onion routing [5] to route clients’ traffic through a circuit of geo...2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT Tor is a distributed onion -routing network used for achieving anonymity and resisting censorship online. Because of

  2. Scalable Anonymous Group Communication in the Anytrust Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    nets messaging phase was high and not a significant improvement over the shuffle alone. Herbivore [31] makes low latency guar- antees (100s of...practical anonymity systems such as Tor [16] or Herbivore [31], where a small number of “wrong” choices—e.g., the choice of entry and exit relay in Tor—can...of-service attacks makes them largely impractical. Herbivore [31] attempts to make DC-nets more scalable, but it provides unconditional anonymity only

  3. Anonymization of DICOM electronic medical records for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert; Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a cancer clinic. In addition to this we were unable to find a commercial software tool that met the minimum requirements for anonymization and preservation of data integrity for radiation therapy research. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype software code to meet the requirements for the anonymization of radiation therapy treatment plans and to develop a way to validate that code and demonstrate that it properly anonymized treatment plans and preserved data integrity. We extended an open-source code to process all relevant PHI and to allow for the automatic anonymization of multiple EMRs. The prototype code successfully anonymized multiple treatment plans in less than 1min/patient. We also tested commercial optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms for the detection of burned-in text on the images, but they were unable to reliably recognize text. In addition, we developed and tested an image filtering algorithm that allowed us to isolate and redact alpha-numeric text from a test radiograph. Validation tests verified that PHI was anonymized and data integrity, such as the relationship between DICOM unique identifiers (UID) was preserved.

  4. Weight Status as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Motivation, Emotional Social Support, and Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Van Horn, M. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation (controlled, autonomous, regulatory), emotional social support (parents, peers) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in underserved adolescents (ethnic minority, low-income). Methods Participants from the Active by Choice Today Trial (n = 1,416; 54% girls, 73% African American, 52% overweight/obese) completed baseline measures, including height and weight, psychosocial surveys, and 7-day accelerometry estimates. Weight status was defined by body mass index z-score (zBMI). Results Weight status moderated the effects of controlled, autonomous, and regulatory motivation on MVPA, such that these variables were more strongly associated with MVPA in adolescents with lower versus higher zBMI scores. Conclusions A better understanding of why motivation is not related to MVPA in underserved youth with a higher weight status is needed. Future pediatric obesity treatment in underserved youth may need to move beyond motivation into environmental factors associated with long-term behavior change. PMID:23378172

  5. Family factors and social support in the developmental outcomes of very low-birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D P; Park, J M

    2000-06-01

    This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, minority status and living in a household headed by a single mother further worsen the disadvantages associated with a very low birth weight. Nor could the disadvantages associated with very low birth weight be accounted for by controls for other risk factors or buffering statuses and behaviors. Among all children (including those of very low birth weight) poverty, reliance on Medicaid and other government sources for health insurance, a history of risky behaviors, and inadequate prenatal care are the major risk factors for developmental delays, limitations in function, and impairment at birth. State program benefit levels have no obvious effects on child outcomes, taking into account participation in individual programs. An important finding in light of TANF is that maternal work, the use of child care, and the form and cost of child care did not influence developmental delay, limitation in function, or impairment, the outcomes that we were able to measure during the first 3 years of life. TANF eligibility requirements, however, may increase difficulty in obtaining prenatal and other medical services for mothers and children in need--factors shown here to be related strongly to increased risk of low birth weight and developmental delays, limitations, and impairments. Race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure are fundamental factors in early child development and function. Minority status, poverty, and single-parent households greatly increase the likelihood that a mother will engage in risky behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, illegal drug use) during pregnancy and receive inadequate prenatal care. Risky behaviors and inadequate prenatal care are

  6. Examining Theory-Based Behavior-Change Constructs, Social Interaction, and Sociability Features of the Weight Watchers' Online Community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Willis, Erin

    2016-12-01

    . Discussion posts irrelevant to weight loss help build social relationships. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Longitudinal Influences of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environment on Children’s Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Gose, Maria; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Willié, Bianca; Johannsen, Maike; Landsberg, Beate; Müller, Manfred J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children’s body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children’s BMI-SDS. Between 2006–2008 and 2010–2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8–6.4)). Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates) were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/busses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment) had an impact on children’s BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment. PMID:24132135

  8. Subchronic and mild social defeat stress accelerates food intake and body weight gain with polydipsia-like features in mice.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Iio, Wataru; Moriya, Naoko; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2014-08-15

    Development and characterization of animal models of depression are essential for fully understanding the pathogenesis of depression in humans. We made and analyzed a mouse model exhibiting social deficit and hyperphagia-like behavior using a subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) paradigm. The body weight, food and water intake of mice were monitored during a test period, and their behaviors and serum components were analyzed at two stages: immediately after the sCSDS period and 1 month after the sCSDS. The body weight and food intake of defeated mice were significantly higher than control mice at the sCSDS period, and these differences were sustained until 1 month after the sCSDS, whereas the water intake of defeated mice was significantly higher than control mice for the period of sCSDS only. Behavioral analyses revealed that the defeated mice exhibit significant social aversion to unfamiliar mice in a social interaction test and a trend of anxiety-like behavior in an elevated-plus maze test. Possibly due to polydipsia-like symptoms, defeated mice had significantly lower levels of albumin and blood urea nitrogen than control mice immediately after the sCSDS period but not at 1 month after sCSDS. The present study revealed that our sCSDS mice keep much more water in their body than control mice. This study reports the first step toward an understanding of the mechanisms of stress-induced overhydration, over-eating and resultant weight gain.

  9. Becoming Overweight Without Gaining a Pound: Weight Evaluations and the Social Integration of Mexicans in the United States.

    PubMed

    Altman, Claire E; Van Hook, Jennifer; Gonzalez, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Mexican women gain weight with increasing duration in the United States. In the United States, body dissatisfaction tends to be associated with depression, disordered eating, and incongruent weight evaluations, particularly among white women and women of higher socioeconomic status. However, it remains unclear how overweight and obesity is interpreted by Mexican women. Using comparable data of women ages 20-64 from both Mexico (the 2006 Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion; N=17,012) and the United States (the 1999-2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; N=8,487), we compare weight status evaluations among Mexican nationals, Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Mexicans, U.S.-born non-Hispanic Whites, and U.S.-born non-Hispanic blacks. Logistic regression analyses, which control for demographic and social-economic variables and measured body mass index and adjust for the likelihood of migration for Mexican nationals, indicate that the tendency to self-evaluate as overweight among Mexicans converges with levels among non-Hispanic whites and diverges from blacks over time in the United States. Overall, the results suggest a U.S. integration process in which Mexican-American women's less critical self-evaluations originate in Mexico but fade with time in the United States as they gradually adopt U.S. white norms for thinner body sizes. These results are discussed in light of social comparison and negative health assimilation.

  10. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m(2)). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ(2) = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p < .001; normed χ(2) = 1.9; comparative fit index = 0.96; standardized root mean residual = 0.059) and explained 65% of the variance in MVPA at Time 2. At Time 2, self-efficacy demonstrated the largest direct and total effects on MVPA (βdirect = .45, p < .001; βtotal = .67, p = .002). A small-to-medium effect was observed from intention to MVPA, but not from outcome expectations or social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination.

  11. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  12. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  13. [Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis].

    PubMed

    González-Zapata, Laura Inés; Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; Alvarez-Castaño, Luz Stella; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI) and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index). An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI) and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were directly associated with higher rates of excess weight in the population, with different patterns according to gender.

  14. Completely Anonymous Multi-Recipient Signcryption Scheme with Public Verification

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer’s anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer’s and the recipient’s anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer’s and the recipient’s anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant. Key words: Multi-recipient signcryption; Signcryption; Complete Anonymity; Public verification. PMID:23675490

  15. Personal, social and environmental correlates of vegetable intake in normal weight and overweight 9 to 13-year old boys

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Yngve, Agneta; te Velde, Saskia J; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Rasmussen, Mette; Thorsdottir, Inga; Wolf, Alexandra; Brug, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Background The first aim of the present study was to investigate differences in correlates of vegetable intake between the normal weight and the overweight boys in the Pro Children Cross Sectional Study. The second aim was to explore whether the association between vegetable intake and potential correlates is different in overweight boys compared with normal weight boys. Methods Random samples of mainly 11-year old children were recruited in 9 European countries. The total sample size consisted of 3960 boys (16.5% overweight). A validated self-report questionnaire was used to measure vegetable intake, and personal, social and environmental factors related to vegetable intake in the classroom. Weight and height were reported by the parents of the children in parents' questionnaires. Results Regression analyses explained 23% to 28% of the variance in vegetable intake by potential correlates. Liking, self-efficacy and bringing vegetables to school were related to intake in both normal weight and overweight boys (β's>0.10). Active parental encouragement and availability at home was only related to intake in overweight boys (β's>0.10), whereas knowledge about recommendations was only related to vegetable consumption in normal weight boys (β>0.10) Conclusion Intervention strategies to increase vegetable intake should focus on increase in liking and preferences, increase in self-efficacy, and increase in bringing vegetables to school in both normal weight and overweight boys. Further research should investigate whether advising parents of overweight boys to encourage their child to eat vegetables every day, to insist as far as possible that their child eats vegetables regularly and to make vegetables easily available at home is effective in changing vegetable intake. PMID:17064409

  16. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  17. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  18. Social/Electronic Media Use of Children and Adolescents Who Attend the Pediatric Weight Management Programs of the COMPASS Network.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Robert; Fals, Angela; Mirza, Nazrat; Datto, George; Stratbucker, William; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Christison, Amy; Wang, Yu; Woolford, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a major healthcare problem in youth and their social/electronic media (SEM) use has been described as a risk factor. Though much is known about the newer technologies youth use to communicate, little is known about what is used by those in weight management programs. The aim of this study was to determine what types of SEM, including sedentary and active video games, youth in weight management programs use and which they prefer for communicating with healthcare providers. This was a multisite study using a 24-question online SurveyMonkey® questionnaire. Youth, 12-17 years old, attending pediatric weight management programs at seven participating centers in the Childhood Obesity Multi Program Analysis and Study System network were eligible. There were 292 responders with a mean age of 14.2 years. Fifty-four percent were female, 36% Caucasian, 35% African American, and 33% were Hispanic. Ninety-four percent had access to a computer, 71% had Internet access, and 63% had smartphones. Whereas 87% had at least one gaming system at home, 50% reported they never played sedentary video games (71% of females vs. 25% males; p < 0.0001) and 63% never played exercise video games during the week. The preferred method of communication with a healthcare provider was face to face (60%), with few indicating a preference for communication by texting (13%), phone (12%), or social media (6%). Face-to-face communication with healthcare providers is the preferred method for youth in pediatric weight management programs. They self-reported video game use less than previously described.

  19. Nursing lives in the blogosphere: A thematic analysis of anonymous online nursing narratives.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aimee; Andrews, Gavin

    2017-08-10

    The aim of this study was to explore the work-life narratives of nurses through a thematic analysis of the nursing accounts they post in their publicly accessible, anonymous blogs. Many nurses participate on social media. Blogs have been advocated as a self-reflective tool in nursing practice, yet as far as the authors are aware, no previous studies have explored nurses' individual blogs for their potential to reveal nurses' perceptions of nursing work. The research design was qualitative description. Between May-August 2015, Internet search engines were used to discover lists of nursing blogs recommended by organizations representing nurses' interests. Recommended blogs were purposively sampled. Four anonymous blogs written by nurses from different nursing specialties met the sampling criteria. All 520 of their entries from 2014 were read and copied into NVivo 10, where an inductive coding process was followed. Three major themes arose in these nurses' online discussions of their work lives: they truly care about and value their nursing work, but they are feeling stressed and burnt out and they are using their anonymous blogs to share factors that frustrate them in their nursing work. Three main areas of frustration were revealed: teamwork problems, challenging patients and families, and management issues. Anonymous nursing blogs offer valuable, longitudinal insights into nurses' perceptions of their work lives. Nursing blogs should be further explored for ongoing insights into nurses' experiences of nursing work, as well as nurses' recommendations for addressing issues causing them to feel frustrated in their work environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  1. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  2. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  3. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  4. The Impact of Shame, Self-Criticism and Social Rank on Eating Behaviours in Overweight and Obese Women Participating in a Weight Management Programme

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiana; Matos, Marcela; Stubbs, R. James; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gouveia, Jose Pinto; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions. Correlation analyses showed that shame, self-criticism and social comparison were associated with negative affect. All of these variables were related to eating regulation and weight control (p < 0.001). Path analysis revealed that the association of shame, hated-self, and low self-reassurance on disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger was fully mediated by weight-related negative affect, even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms (p < 0.050 to p < 0.010). In addition, feelings of inadequacy and unfavourable social comparisons were associated with higher disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, partially mediated through weight-related negative affect (p = 0.001). These variables were negatively associated with extent of weight loss during programme attendance prior to the survey, while self-reassurance and positive social comparisons were positively associated with the extent of weight loss prior to the survey (p < .050). Shame, self-criticism, and perceptions of inferiority may play a significant role in self-regulation of eating behaviour in overweight people trying to manage their weight. PMID:28107449

  5. The Impact of Shame, Self-Criticism and Social Rank on Eating Behaviours in Overweight and Obese Women Participating in a Weight Management Programme.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Matos, Marcela; Stubbs, R James; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gouveia, Jose Pinto; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions. Correlation analyses showed that shame, self-criticism and social comparison were associated with negative affect. All of these variables were related to eating regulation and weight control (p < 0.001). Path analysis revealed that the association of shame, hated-self, and low self-reassurance on disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger was fully mediated by weight-related negative affect, even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms (p < 0.050 to p < 0.010). In addition, feelings of inadequacy and unfavourable social comparisons were associated with higher disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, partially mediated through weight-related negative affect (p = 0.001). These variables were negatively associated with extent of weight loss during programme attendance prior to the survey, while self-reassurance and positive social comparisons were positively associated with the extent of weight loss prior to the survey (p < .050). Shame, self-criticism, and perceptions of inferiority may play a significant role in self-regulation of eating behaviour in overweight people trying to manage their weight.

  6. Effects of Maternal Pregnancy Intention, Depressive Symptoms and Social Support on Risk of Low Birth Weight: A Prospective Study from Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. Methods Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. Results The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD±504 grams), and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. Conclusion The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women’s pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes. PMID:24848269

  7. Enabling Genomic-Phenomic Association Discovery without Sacrificing Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Heatherly, Raymond D.; Loukides, Grigorios; Denny, Joshua C.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Roden, Dan M.; Malin, Bradley A.

    2013-01-01

    Health information technologies facilitate the collection of massive quantities of patient-level data. A growing body of research demonstrates that such information can support novel, large-scale biomedical investigations at a fraction of the cost of traditional prospective studies. While healthcare organizations are being encouraged to share these data in a de-identified form, there is hesitation over concerns that it will allow corresponding patients to be re-identified. Currently proposed technologies to anonymize clinical data may make unrealistic assumptions with respect to the capabilities of a recipient to ascertain a patients identity. We show that more pragmatic assumptions enable the design of anonymization algorithms that permit the dissemination of detailed clinical profiles with provable guarantees of protection. We demonstrate this strategy with a dataset of over one million medical records and show that 192 genotype-phenotype associations can be discovered with fidelity equivalent to non-anonymized clinical data. PMID:23405076

  8. Anonymous and Confidential Communications from an IP Addressless Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on a mediating computer interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity to the receivers. In this model, the strength of the system to protect the identity of the sender depends on the ability and willingness of the mediator to keep the secret. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous message over the Internet which does not depend on a third party. Our idea departs from the traditional approach by sending the anonymous messages from an Internet wireless and addressless computer, such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) bridged to the Internet by a Mobile Support Station (MSS).

  9. Self-organized Anonymous Authentication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudiger, Julien; Raya, Maxim; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    Pervasive communications bring along new privacy challenges, fueled by the capability of mobile devices to communicate with, and thus “sniff on”, each other directly. We design a new mechanism that aims at achieving location privacy in these forthcoming mobile networks, whereby mobile nodes collect the pseudonyms of the nodes they encounter to generate their own privacy cloaks. Thus, privacy emerges from the mobile network and users gain control over the disclosure of their locations. We call this new paradigm self-organized location privacy. In this work, we focus on the problem of self-organized anonymous authentication that is a necessary prerequisite for location privacy. We investigate, using graph theory, the optimality of different cloak constructions and evaluate with simulations the achievable anonymity in various network topologies. We show that peer-to-peer wireless communications and mobility help in the establishment of self-organized anonymous authentication in mobile networks.

  10. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  11. The relationship between body mass index and unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents: the role of family and peer social support.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2012-12-01

    Adolescents classified as overweight or obese are more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors such as skipping meals or fasting than their healthy weight peers. Adolescents with low perceived social support may be at particular risk. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between adolescent overweight and obesity, indices of perceived peer and family social support, and their interaction in the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents. The present study used data from the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children collaborative survey. Participants included 4598 adolescent girls and boys in the ninth and tenth grades. Results of binary logistic regression analyses showed that obese boys and girls were more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors than their healthy weight peers. Boys and girls who endorsed difficult communication with their parents, low levels of parent school support, or frequent bullying were more likely to engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors than relevant comparison groups. Among girls, poor classmate relationships were associated with increased use of unhealthy weight control behaviors whereas fewer friendships were associated with decreased use. Results suggest that adolescents are at high risk for use of unhealthy weight control behaviors and would benefit from interventions to increase knowledge and social support for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.

  12. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    PubMed

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  13. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P.; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  14. Collecting substance use data with an anonymous mailed survey.

    PubMed

    Trinkoff, A M; Storr, C L

    1997-10-25

    Because mailed surveys minimize personal contact, they are useful for collecting sensitive data on substance use, as long as the problems of achieving adequate response rates can be conquered. To address these issues, we report on an anonymous mailed survey of substance use with a 78% response rate, including data collection and survey methods. Analysis of sociodemographic effects on responding found certain groups required additional contacts. Substance use estimates were not affected by non-response bias, suggesting that anonymous mailed surveys can be a feasible means of collecting data on substance use.

  15. Anonymizing patient genomic data for public sharing association studies.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Seoane, Jose A; Lopez-Alonso, Victoria; Dorado, Julian; Martín-Sanchez, Fernando; Pazos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The development of personalized medicine is tightly linked with the correct exploitation of molecular data, especially those associated with the genome sequence along with these use of genomic data there is an increasing demand to share these data for research purposes. Transition of clinical data to research is based in the anonymization of these data so the patient cannot be identified, the use of genomic data poses a great challenge because its nature of identifying data. In this work we have analyzed current methods for genome anonymization and propose a one way encryption method that may enable the process of genomic data sharing accessing only to certain regions of genomes for research purposes.

  16. Outcomes of social care for adults: developing a preference-weighted measure.

    PubMed

    Netten, A; Burge, P; Malley, J; Potoglou, D; Towers, A-M; Brazier, J; Flynn, T; Forder, J; Wall, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a measure of social care outcome, an equivalent to the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) in health, which could be used in a range of circumstances. The project drew on previous and parallel work developing the Adult Social Care Outcome Toolkit and the national Adult Social Care Survey. We developed and tested an instrument designed to reflect service users' social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) and tested it with 30 service users from a variety of user groups and 300 older home care service users. In parallel, we explored discrete choice experiment (DCE) and best-worst scaling (BWS) approaches to preference elicitation with 300 members of the general population, and cognitively tested these with service users. We also cognitively tested a computer-aided time trade-off (TTO) exercise using SCRQoL attributes with members of the general population. In the second phase, using the finalised instruments, BWS interviews were conducted with 500 members of the general population, TTO interviews with a follow-up sample of 126 of these respondents, and BWS interviews with 458 people using equipment services. The final measure had eight domains: personal cleanliness and comfort, accommodation cleanliness and comfort, food and drink, safety, social participation and involvement, occupation, control over daily life and dignity. In addition to measuring current SCRQoL, the instrument includes questions used to establish service users' views of their 'expected' SCRQoL in the absence of services. The difference between a person's current and 'expected' SCRQoL provides an indicator of service impact. There was good evidence for the validity of the descriptive system and the validity of the current, expected and SCRQoL gain scales. The DCE and BWS approaches yielded similar results and, once introductions made clear, were understood by service users. BWS was used for the main stages, as it had technical and cognitive advantages. The

  17. Relations among weight control behaviors and eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Kiziltan, Gül

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among dieting, eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption among Turkish adolescents. Abnormal eating behavior (EAT-26 > or =20) was found in 32.8% of the total sample; this included 26.4% of the males and 38.7% of the females. Weight-control and weight-related behaviors are associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Dieting was significantly associated with types of consumption in female adolescents. In addition, EAT-26 scores were significantly positively correlated with high fruit and vegetable consumption, but this association was not observed in SPAS scores among adolescents. Adolescents who engage in dieting behaviors seem to consume more fruit and vegetables than do other adolescents. Female adolescents may be more likely to display abnormal eating attitudes and dieting behaviors than do males. Although some weight-control behaviors may be risky, adolescents who were practicing dieting behaviors engaged in the positive dietary behavior of consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables than did non-dieters.

  18. Smartphone Usage, Social Media Engagement, and Willingness to Participate in mHealth Weight Management Research Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Harville, Cedric

    2017-06-01

    African American women (AAW) are in a unique position to be recruited into mobile (mHealth) weight management research and programs due to their high rates of obesity and their high ownership of smartphones. This study examined smartphone usage, social media engagement, and willingness to participate in mHealth weight management among AAW in north-central Florida, United States. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenience sample of 425 smartphone owners in north-central Florida. Mean age was 34.84 ± 13.74, with age distribution of 18 to 29 (45%), 30 to 50 (39%), and 51+ years (17%). Mean body mass index was 29.52 ± 8.18. Most used smartphones to access the Internet daily and were engaged with eight social media sites, such as Facebook (85%), YouTube (75%), and Google+ (57%). Compared to those 51+, those 18 to 29 were more likely to use YouTube (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52, p = .017) and Instagram (OR = 10.90, p < .0001), but they were less likely to use Google+ (OR = 0.40, p = .009). Compared to those 51+, those 30 to 50 were more likely to use Instagram (β = 1.28, OR = 3.61, p = .014) and Facebook (β = 1.04, OR = 2.84, p < .006). Most were willing to participate in research that used text messages (73%), smartwatches/fitness trackers (69%), and smartphone apps (68%). Compared to those 51+, women 18 to 29 were more likely to report willingness to use a smartphone app (OR = 5.45, p < .0001) as were those 30 to 50 (OR = 3.14, p < .0001). AAW's high ownership of smartphones, use of mHealth apps and tools, and willingness to participate in mHealth research has the potential to curb the obesity epidemic by participating in mHealth weight management programs and research.

  19. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trend<0·01) and consuming SSB (P trend<0·01) and energy drinks (P trend<0·01) in a dose-response manner with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use as well as BMI. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between use of SNS and BMI before or after adjusting for all the covariates and unhealthy eating behaviours. In conclusion, our results suggest associations between the use of SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours among youth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight.

  20. Physical and social predictors for pre-term births and low birth weight infants in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-Li; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Pi-Chen

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors associated with pre-term labor (PTL) (< 37 gestational weeks) and low birth weight (LBW) (< 2500 gm) infants in a healthy Taiwanese population. From December 1998 through June 1999, a total of 633 healthy pregnant women were recruited at three teaching hospitals in Taipei. Using a prospective study design, the pregnancy outcome information was followed up by telephone or from medical records during the first month postpartum. Data were statistically analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of premature births was 5.4%, and the prevalence of LBW infants was 5.1%. Pre-term births were significantly associated with high self-reported fatigue scores (OR = 3.45); extreme maternal age (< 20 and >/= 35 years, OR = 2.38); history of abortion (>/= 2, OR = 3.11); maternal height (weight infants was significantly increased when the woman had an extreme maternal age (OR = 2.65), nulliparity (OR = 1.64); multiple pregnancies (OR = 9.3) and no domestic helper (OR = 1.65). The study provides a reference basis for prenatal care.

  1. Direct versus indirect effects of social rank, maternal weight, body condition and age on milk production in Iberian red deer ( Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Estevez, Jose A; Gallego, Laureano

    2010-02-01

    Social rank in cervids and other mammals is not entirely predicted by body weight, but in most cases influences access to food directly. Milk provisioning depends on maternal weight and on daily food intake. Usually, body weight, body condition, age and social rank are inter-correlated making it very difficult to discern the relative importance of each variable to milk production. This study used path analysis to assess direct versus indirect effects of these variables on milk production of 62 Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Once the known direct effects of body weight and body condition were set as fixed, hind age and social rank did not affect milk production directly. In contrast, they exerted an indirect influence through the correlation both with hind body weight and body condition. Body weight exerted an effect on milk production nearly twice as great as that of body condition. This study shows, for the first time in a wild mammal, the relative importance of social rank, body weight, body condition and age in affecting milk production ability.

  2. A collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on weighted SimRank and social trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Butao

    2017-05-01

    Collaborative filtering is one of the most widely used recommendation technologies, but the data sparsity and cold start problem of collaborative filtering algorithms are difficult to solve effectively. In order to alleviate the problem of data sparsity in collaborative filtering algorithm, firstly, a weighted improved SimRank algorithm is proposed to compute the rating similarity between users in rating data set. The improved SimRank can find more nearest neighbors for target users according to the transmissibility of rating similarity. Then, we build trust network and introduce the calculation of trust degree in the trust relationship data set. Finally, we combine rating similarity and trust to build a comprehensive similarity in order to find more appropriate nearest neighbors for target user. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper improves the recommendation precision of the Collaborative algorithm effectively.

  3. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyas, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…

  4. Anonymity in Blended Learning: Who Would You like to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the learning outcomes associated with implementing discussion forums and blog writings using pseudonyms in blended learning. Although anonymity or masking one's identity has been used as a teaching strategy designed to induce higher writing production and lowering anxiety in face-to-face writing instruction, little research has…

  5. Gamblers anonymous and cognitive-behavioral therapies for pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    Numerous types of treatments for pathological gambling have been described, but two of the most common are Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. This paper describes some outcome data associated with the two approaches. It also reviews evidence suggesting that a combined intervention may enhance therapy engagement and reduce relapse rates.

  6. An Analysis of College Students' Anonymous Questions about Human Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Waring, Kathryn A.

    1991-01-01

    Study analyzed the frequency and type of questions about sexuality submitted anonymously by college students in health education courses over five semesters. The most common categories were sexual arousal/response; general anatomy/physiology; contraception; dating/relationships; pregnancy/fertility; and sexually transmitted diseases. The appendix…

  7. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyas, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…

  8. K-Anonymous Multi-party Secret Handshakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai; Yung, Moti

    Anonymity-protection techniques are crucial for various commercial and financial transactions, where participants are worried about their privacy. On the other hand, authentication methods are also crucial for such interactions. Secret handshake is a relatively recent mechanism that facilitates privacy-preserving mutual authentication between communicating peers. In recent years, researchers have proposed a set of secret handshake schemes based on different assumptions about the credentials used: from one-time credentials to the more general PKI-like credentials. In this paper, we concentrate on k-anonymous secret handshake schemes based on PKI-like infrastructures. More specifically, we deal with the k-anonymous m-party (m > 2) secret handshake problem, which is significantly more involved than its two-party counterpart due to the following: When an honest user hand-shakes with m - 1 parties, it must be assured that these parties are distinct; otherwise, under the mask of anonymity a dishonest participant may clone itself in a single handshake session (i.e., assuming multiple personalities).

  9. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  10. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  11. Anonymous Reviews: Self-serving, Counterproductive, and Unacceptable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    Recently, I became involved in an incident in which a manuscript was rejected on the advise of two anonymous reviewers and an anonymous Associate Editor. This re-activated my long-standing disgust at the entire system of anonymous reviews and pushed me-finally-into doing something about it. A few weeks or months ago, I read a similar protest, somewhere-one much more persuasive than I am likely to write-but my high-mileage brain has misplaced its provenance. Consider this a ``high-five'' to that misplaced author. The system of reviewing is supposed to filter out junk science and provide useful feedback to authors of non-junk science who have submitted work that can be improved. These are honest, commendable endeavors that can be accomplished quite comfortably out in the open. Concealment, on the other hand, permits and invites all manner of dishonorable motives-not least of which is laziness-to creep in. Offhand I can think of four reasons for remaining anonymous in a review, none valid.

  12. Preventing Active Timing Attacks in Low-Latency Anonymous Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    Nambiar and Wright [28] use redundancy in the host lookup of Salsa to protect against route capture. Interestingly, an analysis by Mittal and Borisov...Symposium (PET 2007), pages 167–183, 2007. 28. Arjun Nambiar and Matthew Wright. Salsa : a structured approach to large-scale anonymity. In

  13. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  14. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  15. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  16. Reversible anonymization of DICOM images using automatically generated policies.

    PubMed

    Onken, Michael; Riesmeier, Jörg; Engel, Marcel; Yabanci, Adem; Zabel, Bernhard; Després, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Many real-world applications in the area of medical imaging like case study databases require separation of identifying (IDATA) and non-identifying (MDATA) data, specifically those offering Internet-based data access. These kinds of projects also must provide a role-based access system, controlling, how patient data must be organized and how it can be accessed. On DICOM image level, different image types support different kind of information, intermixing IDATA and MDATA in a single object. To separate them, it is possible to reversibly anonymize DICOM objects by substituting IDATA by a unique anonymous token. In case that later an authenticated user needs full access to an image, this token can be used for re-linking formerly separated IDATA and MDATA, thus resulting in a dynamically generated, exact copy of the original image. The approach described in this paper is based on the automatic generation of anonymization policies from the DICOM standard text, providing specific support for all kinds of DICOM images. The policies are executed by a newly developed framework based on the DICOM toolkit DCMTK and offer a reliable approach to reversible anonymization. The implementation is evaluated in a German BMBF-supported expert network in the area of skeletal dysplasias, SKELNET, but may generally be applicable to related projects, enormously improving quality and integrity of diagnostics in a field focused on images. It performs effectively and efficiently on real-world test images from the project and other kind of DICOM images.

  17. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  18. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor painting of Fort McHenry bombardment of 1814. Peale Museum, Baltimore. View of southeast bastion and sally port. - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  20. The role of mediating factors in the association between social deprivation and low birth weight in Germany.

    PubMed

    Reime, Birgit; Ratner, Pamela A; Tomaselli-Reime, Sandra N; Kelly, Ann; Schuecking, Beate A; Wenzlaff, Paul

    2006-04-01

    This study examines whether the association between social inequalities and low birth weight (LBW) (occurring in both pre- and full-term births) in Germany can be explained by several potentially confounding factors. These include maternal age, occupational status, marital status, nationality, employment status, smoking, prenatal care, psychosocial stress, obesity, short stature, short inter-pregnancy interval, chronic conditions, and several obstetrical risk factors such as pregnancy induced hypertension. We also examined how the risk for LBW varies over time within each socioeconomic group. We analyzed routinely collected perinatal data on singletons born in the federal state of Lower Saxony, Germany, in 1990, 1995, and 1999 (n = 182,444). After adjustment for all potentially confounding factors in multivariate logistic regression models, working class women, unemployed women, single mothers, and women over 39 years of age were at increased risk for pre- and full-term LBW infants. Migrant status was not related to LBW. We examined variations in the risk for LBW over time within groups, using the 1990 birth cohort as the referent group for the 1995 and 1999 birth cohorts. Compared to 1990, in 1999 women aged 19-34 years, housewives, unemployed women, women of German nationality and women with partners had higher risks for pre- and full-term LBW infants; the eldest subgroup had lower risks for LBW after adjustment for confounding factors. The factors we examined partly explain the social inequalities in LBW occurring in pre- and full-term infants. The subgroups with higher rates of LBW in 1999 compared to 1990, included women experiencing childbirth in an optimal stage of life or in a privileged social context. Public health policies in Germany should target social inequalities contributing to the aetiology of LBW and to the factors that result in increased LBW rates.

  1. The effect of group-based weight control intervention on adolescent psychosocial outcomes: Perceived peer rejection, social anxiety and self-concept

    PubMed Central

    Jelalian, Elissa; Sato, Amy; Hart, Chantelle N

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of group-based weight control treatment on adolescent social functioning. Eighty-nine adolescents who were randomized to group-based cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) with aerobic exercise (CBT+EXER) or peer enhanced adventure therapy (CBT+PEAT) completed measures of social functioning at baseline, end of treatment, and 12-month follow-up. Results demonstrated significant reductions in adolescent perceptions of peer rejection and social anxiety over time with no significant demonstrated group differences. Improvements in social functioning were related to increases in self-concept dimensions. Findings demonstrate benefits of group-based weight control treatment for enhancing adolescent self-perceived social functioning across multiple domains. PMID:23258948

  2. Perinatal, neonatal, and family social factors predicting poor school outcome of low-birth-weight survivors: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Holditch-Davis, Diane L; Darcy-Mahoney, Ashley

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship of perinatal factors, neonatal factors, and family characteristics with school outcomes of low-birth-weight (LBW) children. An integrative review of the literature was performed using electronic databases focusing on key words, including school outcome, school performance, educational outcome, academic outcome/academic achievement, and LBW. The in utero or neonatal risk factors for poor school outcome included in this review were perinatal brain injury, brain structural abnormality, motor deficits, and neonatal conditions. Social risk factors found to contribute to poorer school outcomes were family structure, family stability, parental education, poverty, male sex, nonwhite race, and acculturation level. Long-term school outcomes of LBW children are influenced by a number of factors related to the characteristics of both children and their families. These factors need to be considered when designing preventive interventions.

  3. "I'd Be So Much More Comfortable Posting Anonymously": Identified versus Anonymous Participation in Student Discussion Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.

    2013-01-01

    Academic staff members encourage university students to use online student discussion boards within learning management systems to ask and answer questions, share information and engage in discussion. We explore the impact of anonymity on student posting behaviour. An online survey was completed by 131 second year undergraduate psychology students…

  4. "I'd Be So Much More Comfortable Posting Anonymously": Identified versus Anonymous Participation in Student Discussion Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.

    2013-01-01

    Academic staff members encourage university students to use online student discussion boards within learning management systems to ask and answer questions, share information and engage in discussion. We explore the impact of anonymity on student posting behaviour. An online survey was completed by 131 second year undergraduate psychology students…

  5. Excessive Time on Social Networking Sites and Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Undergraduate Students: Appearance and Weight Esteem as Mediating Pathways.

    PubMed

    Murray, Marisa; Maras, Danijela; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are a popular form of communication among undergraduate students. Body image concerns and disordered eating behaviors are also quite prevalent among this population. Maladaptive use of SNS has been associated with disordered eating behaviors; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study examined if body image concerns (e.g., appearance and weight esteem) mediate the relationship between excessive time spent on SNS and disordered eating behaviors (restrained and emotional eating). The sample included 383 (70.2 percent female) undergraduate students (mean age = 23.08 years, standard deviation = 3.09) who completed self-report questionnaires related to SNS engagement, body image, disordered eating behaviors, and demographics. Parallel multiple mediation and moderated mediation analyses revealed that lower weight and appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and restrained eating for males and females, whereas appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and emotional eating for females only. The study adds to the literature by highlighting mediational pathways and gender differences. Intervention research is needed to determine if teaching undergraduate students more adaptive ways of using SNS or reducing exposure to SNS reduces body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in this high-risk population.

  6. Cost of care and social consequences of very low birth weight infants without premature- related morbidities in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Maria Caterina; Gugiatti, Attilio; Fattore, Giovanni; Gerzeli, Simone; Barbieri, Dario; Zanini, Rinaldo

    2015-08-19

    Aim of this study was to estimate the cost that is borne by the Italian National Health Service, families, and social security due to very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) without prematurity-related morbidities up to the age of 18 months. We followed up on 150 VLBWIs and 145 comparable full-term infants (FTIs) who were born in one of 25 different neonatal intensive care units upon discharge from the hospital and at six and 18 months of age. The average length of the primary hospitalisation of the VLBWIs was 59.7 days (SD 21.6 days), with a total cost of €20,502 (SD €8409), compared with three days (SD 0.4 days) with a total cost of €907 (SD €304) for the FTIs. The total societal cost of the VLBWIs for the first 18 months of life was €58,098 (SD €21,625), while the corresponding figure for FTIs was €24,209 (SD €15,557). Among VLBWIs, both low birth weight and gestational age were correlated with the length of hospitalisation after birth (r(2) = 0.61 and r(2) = 0.57, respectively; p values < 0.0005). Our findings highlight that the existing DRGs and tariffs inadequately reflect the actual costs for Italian National Health Service.

  7. Privacy preserving data anonymization of spontaneous ADE reporting system dataset.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Yang, Duen-Chuan; Wang, Jie-Teng

    2016-07-18

    To facilitate long-term safety surveillance of marketing drugs, many spontaneously reporting systems (SRSs) of ADR events have been established world-wide. Since the data collected by SRSs contain sensitive personal health information that should be protected to prevent the identification of individuals, it procures the issue of privacy preserving data publishing (PPDP), that is, how to sanitize (anonymize) raw data before publishing. Although much work has been done on PPDP, very few studies have focused on protecting privacy of SRS data and none of the anonymization methods is favorable for SRS datasets, due to which contain some characteristics such as rare events, multiple individual records, and multi-valued sensitive attributes. We propose a new privacy model called MS(k, θ (*) )-bounding for protecting published spontaneous ADE reporting data from privacy attacks. Our model has the flexibility of varying privacy thresholds, i.e., θ (*) , for different sensitive values and takes the characteristics of SRS data into consideration. We also propose an anonymization algorithm for sanitizing the raw data to meet the requirements specified through the proposed model. Our algorithm adopts a greedy-based clustering strategy to group the records into clusters, conforming to an innovative anonymization metric aiming to minimize the privacy risk as well as maintain the data utility for ADR detection. Empirical study was conducted using FAERS dataset from 2004Q1 to 2011Q4. We compared our model with four prevailing methods, including k-anonymity, (X, Y)-anonymity, Multi-sensitive l-diversity, and (α, k)-anonymity, evaluated via two measures, Danger Ratio (DR) and Information Loss (IL), and considered three different scenarios of threshold setting for θ (*) , including uniform setting, level-wise setting and frequency-based setting. We also conducted experiments to inspect the impact of anonymized data on the strengths of discovered ADR signals. With all three

  8. Social variables predict gains in cognitive scores across the preschool years in children with birth weights 500 to 1250 grams.

    PubMed

    Manley, Brett J; Roberts, Robin S; Doyle, Lex W; Schmidt, Barbara; Anderson, Peter J; Barrington, Keith J; Böhm, Birgitta; Golan, Agneta; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Davis, Peter G

    2015-04-01

    To determine the extent that social variables influence cognitive development of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants across the preschool years. Participants were VLBW (500-1250 g) children enrolled in the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity randomized trial between 1999 and 2004. We investigated the relationships between 4 potential social advantages: higher maternal education, higher paternal education, caregiver employment, and 2 biologic parents in the same home--and gain in cognitive scores. Cognitive assessments were performed at the corrected ages of 18 months (Mental Development Index score on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II) and 5 years (Full Scale IQ on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III). Cognitive gain was computed by subtracting each individual 18-month Mental Development Index score from the corresponding Full Scale IQ at 5 years. Data were available for 1347 children. Mean (SD) cognitive scores were 90.8 (15.7) at 18 months and 98.9 (14.5) at 5 years. Multivariable regression showed that higher maternal education, higher paternal education, and caregiver employment had independent and additive effects of similar size on cognitive gain (P < .001); the mean cognitive gain between 18 months and 5 years increased by 3.6 points in the presence of each of these advantages. When all 3 were present, cognitive scores improved on average by 10.9 points compared with children without any of these advantages. In VLBW children, a count of 3 social advantages strongly predicts gains in cognitive scores across the preschool years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of social mobility and geographical migration on variation in male height, weight and body mass index in a British cohort.

    PubMed

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2012-03-01

    Using a sample of 2090 British father and son pairs the relationships between social and geographical intra- and inter-generational mobility were examined in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). There was much more social mobility than geographical (regional) migration. Social mobility and geographical migration were not independent: socially non-mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be geographical non-migrants, and upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be regional migrants. Upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were, on average, taller and had a lower BMI than non-mobile and downwardly mobile fathers and sons. In general, no significant associations were found between geographical migration and height or weight. Migrating fathers had a lower BMI than sedentes, as did their sons who migrated between 1965 and 1991. There was no significant interaction that indicated that social mobility and geographical migration were acting in a simple additive way on height, weight and BMI.

  10. Changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, body temperature, body weight and food intake with repeated social stress exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, S; Vining, C; Iyer, V; Kinni, V

    2006-01-01

    These present studies aimed to compare changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and body temperature in response to acute social defeat, to repeated social stress and to novel restraint after repeated stress, as well as to assess effects on metabolic parameters by measuring body weight gain and food and water intake. We found that social defeat produced a marked increase in both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone compared to placement in a novel cage. Similarly, body temperature was also increased during social defeat and during 30 min of recovery from defeat. We then examined the effects of 6 days of repeated social stress and observed minimal HPA responses to repeated social stress compared to control rats. These neuroendocrine responses were contrasted by robust increases in body temperature during stress and during recovery from stress during 6 days of repeated stress. However, in response to novel restraint, repeatedly stressed rats displayed facilitated body temperature responses compared to controls, similar to our previous findings with HPA activity. Food intake was increased during the light period during which defeat took place, but later intake during the dark period was not affected. Repeated stress decreased body weight gain in the dark period but food intake was increased overall during the 6 days of repeated stress in the light period. As a result, repeated stress increased cumulative food intake during the light period in the stressed rats but these relatively small increases in food intake were unable to prevent the diminished total weight gain in repeatedly stressed rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that, although acute social defeat has similar effects on temperature and HPA activity, repeated exposure to social stress has divergent effects on HPA activity compared to body temperature and that dampened weight gain produced by repeated social stress cannot be fully explained by changes in food intake.

  11. Methadone Anonymous: A 12-Step Program for Methadone Maintained Heroin Addicts.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Stephen M.; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen

    2001-12-01

    Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Clients rated components of MA to be significantly more helpful to recovery than MMTP treatment components. Affiliation to five MA members known best by the respondents was significantly greater than affiliation to non-MA members. Length of time in MA was positively associated with MA affiliation. Social affiliation and endorsement of 12-step principles were positively correlated. These findings suggest that MA participation has benefits not available in professionally driven MMTP, and should be further studied.

  12. Female and male life stories published in the Finnish Alcoholics Anonymous journal.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, I; Mäkelä, K

    1994-03-01

    To study differences in how women and men describe their drinking problems, key expressions were recorded in 50 female and 50 male stories published in the Finnish A.A. (Alcoholics Anonymous) journal. Men show more interest in the past and try to understand their lives in causal terms. Women focus on the present and on experiences in A.A. Men more frequently mention narcotics and alcohol substitutes; medical drugs are more common in female stories. Men's stories more frequently contain social deviance. Women pay more attention to social relationships. The phrase Higher Power is used with equal frequency, but women more commonly use the word God. Women express more positive emotions. Registers of negative emotions differ. The drinking man is threatened by feelings of inferiority; the drinking woman by shame and guilt.

  13. Weight management and weight loss strategies of professional jockeys.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jan M; Timperio, Anna F; Crawford, David A; Burns, Cate M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2002-03-01

    Jockeys are required to maintain very low body weight and precise weight control during competition. This study examined the weight loss and weight management strategies of professional horseracing jockeys in the state of Victoria, Australia. An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was administered (55% response rate, n = 116). Almost half (43%) reported that maintaining riding weight was difficult or very difficult, with 75% routinely skipping meals. In preparation for racing, 60% reported that they typically required additional weight loss, with 81% restricting food intake in the 24 hours prior to racing. Additionally, sauna-induced sweating (29%) and diuretics (22%) were frequently employed to further aid in weight loss prior to racing. These rapid weight loss methods did not differ between the 51% of jockeys who followed a weight management plan compared to those who did not. The impact of these extreme weight loss practices on riding performance and health remains unknown.

  14. The relationships among stress, coping, social support, and weight class in premenopausal African American women at risk for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ora Lea; Giger, Joyce Newman; Nelson, Michelle A; Davis, Claudia M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of the relationships among stress, coping, social support, and weight class in premenopausal African American women as risk factors for coronary heart disease. Overweight and obesity are significant problems for African American women who are at an increased risk of weight-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Of these women, those who are premenopausal have a significantly higher coronary heart disease mortality rate than their white counterparts. There are gaps in current knowledge concerning the role that stress and other psychosocial factors play in weight control of premenopausal African American women. Data were obtained from 178 women with eligible data sets from a larger study of 236 subjects (Genetic Predictors of Coronary Heart Disease in Premenopausal African American Women). The measures for stress, coping, and social support included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. The weight class of the women was determined as: normal weight-body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9 kg/m, overweight-BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m, or obese-BMI > or = 30 kg/m. Statistical analysis conducted included Spearman's rho, Chi-square, and regression analysis. Confrontive coping was shown to be used more often to a "high" degree in normal-weight African American women than in overweight and obese African American women (chi = 24.024; P = .0001). Confrontive coping was the only independent predictor of weight class in a regression model that included perceived stress, life events, social support, and optimistic, self-reliant, and evasive coping strategies. Therefore, African American women who use confrontive coping to a high degree were more likely to confront problems, such as weight control issues, than those who use this coping strategy to a low or medium degree.

  15. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  16. ARX - A Comprehensive Tool for Anonymizing Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Prasser, Fabian; Kohlmayer, Florian; Lautenschläger, Ronald; Kuhn, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and data sharing have become core elements of biomedical research. Especially when sensitive data from distributed sources are linked, privacy threats have to be considered. Statistical disclosure control allows the protection of sensitive data by introducing fuzziness. Reduction of data quality, however, needs to be balanced against gains in protection. Therefore, tools are needed which provide a good overview of the anonymization process to those responsible for data sharing. These tools require graphical interfaces and the use of intuitive and replicable methods. In addition, extensive testing, documentation and openness to reviews by the community are important. Existing publicly available software is limited in functionality, and often active support is lacking. We present ARX, an anonymization tool that i) implements a wide variety of privacy methods in a highly efficient manner, ii) provides an intuitive cross-platform graphical interface, iii) offers a programming interface for integration into other software systems, and iv) is well documented and actively supported. PMID:25954407

  17. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-10-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  18. Can Anonymous Posters on Medical Forums be Reidentified?

    PubMed Central

    Bobicev, Victoria; El Emam, Khaled; Jafer, Yasser; Dewar, Brian; Jonker, Elizabeth; Matwin, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Background Participants in medical forums often reveal personal health information about themselves in their online postings. To feel comfortable revealing sensitive personal health information, some participants may hide their identity by posting anonymously. They can do this by using fake identities, nicknames, or pseudonyms that cannot readily be traced back to them. However, individual writing styles have unique features and it may be possible to determine the true identity of an anonymous user through author attribution analysis. Although there has been previous work on the authorship attribution problem, there has been a dearth of research on automated authorship attribution on medical forums. The focus of the paper is to demonstrate that character-based author attribution works better than word-based methods in medical forums. Objective The goal was to build a system that accurately attributes authorship of messages posted on medical forums. The Authorship Attributor system uses text analysis techniques to crawl medical forums and automatically correlate messages written by the same authors. Authorship Attributor processes unstructured texts regardless of the document type, context, and content. Methods The messages were labeled by nicknames of the forum participants. We evaluated the system’s performance through its accuracy on 6000 messages gathered from 2 medical forums on an in vitro fertilization (IVF) support website. Results Given 2 lists of candidate authors (30 and 50 candidates, respectively), we obtained an F score accuracy in detecting authors of 75% to 80% on messages containing 100 to 150 words on average, and 97.9% on longer messages containing at least 300 words. Conclusions Authorship can be successfully detected in short free-form messages posted on medical forums. This raises a concern about the meaningfulness of anonymous posting on such medical forums. Authorship attribution tools can be used to warn consumers wishing to post

  19. Taxonomy for and Analysis of Anonymous Communications Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Internet culture. In societies throughout history, anonymity has always been a pervasive, dichotomous issue. For instance, millionaires differ on...dubious dogma as well as abusive, illegal activity. AFIT/DCS/ENG/09-08 - 2 - In the boundless digital world and global society of the Internet...with respect to preventing physical assault, but as newer business models and media coverage started to significantly affect society , intrusion into

  20. Self-disclosure. Reconciling psychoanalytic psychotherapy and alcoholics anonymous philosophy.

    PubMed

    Mallow, A J

    1998-01-01

    Therapists working in the addictions field and practicing from a psychoanalytic psychodynamic framework are often confronted with the patient's need to know, the demand for therapist self-disclosure. Consistent with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) principles, many patients state that they cannot be helped unless the therapist is revealing of their personal background. This paper discusses the theoretical roots of therapist self-disclosure and the AA philosophy and offers suggestions for how the two might be reconciled.

  1. Alcoholics Anonymous-Related Helping and the Helper Therapy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helper’s health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry. PMID:23525280

  2. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymous Group Communication in Dissent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    simple yet powerful attack against one scheme (Park, Itoh, and Kurosawa 1994) trivially breaks an honest member’s anonymity if an attacker can create a...probably secure (Jakobsson 1998) was given by Mitomo and Kurosawa (2000). A corrupted mix server can alter intermediate ciphertexts, affect- ing the...Pfizmann 1990; Desmedt and Kurosawa 2000) general design flaws as well 62 as the ability of mix servers to use incorrect and specially-prepared inputs

  3. Socialization and Selection Effects in the Association between Weight Conscious Peer Groups and Thin-Ideal Internalization: A Co-Twin Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; O’Connor, Shannon; Thompson, J. Kevin; Klump, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    Affiliation with weight conscious peer groups is theorized to increase thin-ideal internalization through socialization processes. However, selection effects could contribute if genetic and/or environmental predispositions lead to affiliation with weight conscious peers. Co-twin control methodology was used to examine socialization and selection effects in 614 female twins (ages 8–15) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Thin-ideal internalization and peer group characteristics were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Results suggested the presence of both socialization and selection effects. In terms of socialization, twins who reported increased exposure to weight conscious peers relative to their co-twins had elevated thin-ideal internalization scores, regardless of zygosity. However, associations between weight conscious peers and thin-ideal internationalization within twin pairs were attenuated, suggesting that genetic and shared environmental selection effects also contribute. Findings significantly extend previous work by confirming the presence of socialization processes and highlighting selection processes to be examined in future longitudinal research. PMID:26859605

  4. Socialization and selection effects in the association between weight conscious peer groups and thin-ideal internalization: A co-twin control study.

    PubMed

    VanHuysse, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; O'Connor, Shannon M; Thompson, J Kevin; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-06-01

    Affiliation with weight conscious peer groups is theorized to increase thin-ideal internalization through socialization processes. However, selection effects could contribute if genetic and/or environmental predispositions lead to affiliation with weight conscious peers. Co-twin control methodology was used to examine socialization and selection effects in 614 female twins (ages 8-15) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Thin-ideal internalization and peer group characteristics were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Results suggested the presence of both socialization and selection effects. In terms of socialization, twins who reported increased exposure to weight conscious peers relative to their co-twins had elevated thin-ideal internalization scores, regardless of zygosity. However, associations between weight conscious peers and thin-ideal internationalization within twin pairs were attenuated, suggesting that genetic and shared environmental selection effects also contribute. Findings significantly extend previous work by confirming the presence of socialization processes and highlighting selection processes to be examined in future longitudinal research.

  5. Utility-preserving transaction data anonymization with low information loss

    PubMed Central

    Loukides, Grigorios; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2012-01-01

    Transaction data record various information about individuals, including their purchases and diagnoses, and are increasingly published to support large-scale and low-cost studies in domains such as marketing and medicine. However, the dissemination of transaction data may lead to privacy breaches, as it allows an attacker to link an individual’s record to their identity. Approaches that anonymize data by eliminating certain values in an individual’s record or by replacing them with more general values have been proposed recently, but they often produce data of limited usefulness. This is because these approaches adopt value transformation strategies that do not guarantee data utility in intended applications and objective measures that may lead to excessive data distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for anonymizing data in a way that satisfies data publishers’ utility requirements and incurs low information loss. To achieve this, we introduce an accurate information loss measure and an effective anonymization algorithm that explores a large part of the problem space. An extensive experimental study, using click-stream and medical data, demonstrates that our approach permits many times more accurate query answering than the state-of-the-art methods, while it is comparable to them in terms of efficiency. PMID:22563145

  6. [E-research: problems with anonymity and consent].

    PubMed

    Woolderink, Marla; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Constant P; van Wijmen, Frans C B

    2013-01-01

    The Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) requires that participants in medical-scientific studies provide written consent. This requirement makes e-research (online research) unnecessarily difficult and sometimes impossible. Much of e-research involves online interventions that focus on sensitive issues such as sexual dysfunction, addiction and child abuse, for which anonymity is an important condition. WMO procedures, however, strictly interpret the word "written" as "on paper", and participants are not permitted to give consent by email, for example. A second requirement, which mainly makes studies among minors between the ages of 12 and 18 more difficult, is that both parents or the guardian must provide written consent. This undermines anonymity to such an extent that virtually no subjects remain. Participants in medical-scientific studies must always be identifiable to the investigator. But, apart from this, he/she should be possible to guarantee anonymity within the regulatory framework. There is good reason to adapt legal regulations to today's needs.

  7. Utility-preserving transaction data anonymization with low information loss.

    PubMed

    Loukides, Grigorios; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2012-08-01

    Transaction data record various information about individuals, including their purchases and diagnoses, and are increasingly published to support large-scale and low-cost studies in domains such as marketing and medicine. However, the dissemination of transaction data may lead to privacy breaches, as it allows an attacker to link an individual's record to their identity. Approaches that anonymize data by eliminating certain values in an individual's record or by replacing them with more general values have been proposed recently, but they often produce data of limited usefulness. This is because these approaches adopt value transformation strategies that do not guarantee data utility in intended applications and objective measures that may lead to excessive data distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for anonymizing data in a way that satisfies data publishers' utility requirements and incurs low information loss. To achieve this, we introduce an accurate information loss measure and an effective anonymization algorithm that explores a large part of the problem space. An extensive experimental study, using click-stream and medical data, demonstrates that our approach permits many times more accurate query answering than the state-of-the-art methods, while it is comparable to them in terms of efficiency.

  8. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  9. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain.

    PubMed

    Granger, Jill I; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R

    2013-07-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24-48 h. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6h to 72 h post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for

  10. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Jill I.; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C.; Raymond, Richard M.; Opp, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24 – 48 hours. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6–72 hour post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are

  11. The relative importance of body change strategies, weight perception, perceived social support, and self-esteem on adolescent depressive symptoms: longitudinal findings from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Rawana, Jennine S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of body change strategies and weight perception in adolescent depression after accounting for established risk factors for depression, namely low social support across key adolescent contexts. The moderating effect of self-esteem was also examined. Participants (N=4587, 49% female) were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Regression analyses were conducted on the association between well-known depression risk factors (lack of perceived support from parents, peers, and schools), body change strategies, weight perception, and adolescent depressive symptoms one year later. Each well-known risk factor significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Body change strategies related to losing weight and overweight perceptions predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond established risk factors. Self-esteem moderated the relationship between trying to lose weight and depressive symptoms. Maladaptive weight loss strategies and overweight perceptions should be addressed in early identification depression programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social class and body management. A qualitative exploration of differences in perceptions and practices related to health and personal body weight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Louise H; Holm, Lotte

    2010-10-01

    To deepen our understanding of the relationship between social class and obesity, the study compares the ways in which conceptions of health and personal body weight are enmeshed in the everyday lives of people with disparate socio-cultural backgrounds and weight status. We ask how perceptions and enactments of health and personal body weight are related to social structures and practices at work, in spare time, and in family life. Qualitative interviews focusing on life history and current everyday life were conducted with two groups of Danish adults. One group contained highly educated people of normal weight. The other contained people with less education and body weights above the obesity threshold. Recommended healthy lifestyle regimes complied more fully with the established practices and internalized ideas of those in the normal weight highly educated group than they did with the practices and ideas of those in the high-BMI less educated group. Work environments, and also conditions connected with work that were carried over into spare time and family life, further promoted the integration of healthy lifestyles into the everyday practices of the highly educated, normal weight group. In the less educated, high-BMI group this kind of integration occurred less.

  13. 65 FR 17745 - Program Announcement for the Evaluation of Parents Anonymous®

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-04-04

    ... Parents Anonymous ; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 65 / Tuesday, April 4, 2000 / Notices#0... Announcement for the Evaluation of Parents Anonymous AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile... Parents Anonymous program. The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the implementation and...

  14. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogami, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  15. Moves on the Street: Classifying Crime Hotspots Using Aggregated Anonymized Data on People Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month.

  16. Why Barbie Feels Heavier than Ken: The Influence of Size-Based Expectancies and Social Cues on the Illusory Perception of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijker, Anton J. M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine the relative influence of size-based expectancies and social cues on the perceived weight of objects, two studies were performed, using equally weighing dolls differing in sex-related and age-related vulnerability or physical strength cues. To increase variation in perceived size, stimulus objects were viewed through optical…

  17. Why Barbie Feels Heavier than Ken: The Influence of Size-Based Expectancies and Social Cues on the Illusory Perception of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijker, Anton J. M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine the relative influence of size-based expectancies and social cues on the perceived weight of objects, two studies were performed, using equally weighing dolls differing in sex-related and age-related vulnerability or physical strength cues. To increase variation in perceived size, stimulus objects were viewed through optical…

  18. Anonymous HIV testing: the impact of availability on demand in Arizona.

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, D; Gellert, G A; Fleming, K; Boyd, D; Englender, S J; Hawks, H

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of anonymous testing availability on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test demand in Arizona. Testing patterns before and after the introduction of anonymous testing were compared. Client knowledge of new test policy and delay in testing until an anonymous option was available were assessed. Test numbers among men who have sex with men showed a statistically significant increase after introduction of an anonymous testing option. Arizona continues to maintain anonymous testing availability. Public health agencies should consider how test policy may influence people's HIV test decisions. PMID:7998649

  19. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness.

  20. Parents as the start of the solution: a social marketing approach to understanding triggers and barriers to entering a childhood weight management service.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J; Midmore, C; Hoeflich, J; Ness, C; Ballard, P; Stewart, L

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a sensitive subject and barriers exist with respect to accessing weight management programmes. Social marketing insight gathering provides an opportunity to understand behaviours and address these challenges. This project gained insight into the views of parents/carers on triggers and barriers to entering a childhood weight management service. Participants were identified from the public using marketing recruitment. Four focus groups were conducted with parents of school aged children (n = 27) by an experienced interviewer. Twenty two mothers, three fathers and two grandmothers participated, with half describing their child as overweight. Groups discussed health behaviours; attitudes to health messages and weight issues; and motivations, benefits and barriers with respect to accessing weight management services. Discussions were taped and transcribed. Themes were identified using framework analysis of content matrix data analysis. Participants were aware of healthy lifestyle messages, although the ability to implement these was variable. Triggers to seeking help included bullying, health concerns and inability to participate in school activities. Barriers included feeling a lack of control, desire to avoid conflict and no proven case that weight was a problem. Parents wished to be given information regarding their child's weight by a trusted person. The Internet and word of mouth were identified as methods of recruitment into a weight management service, with a focus on fitness, fun and friendliness and being free-of-charge. Insight gathering can be used to establish parental/carer opinion regarding engaging in childhood weight management services. A fun, friendly programme that is free of charge appealed to parents. Local community involvement around normalising child weight issues may boost referrals into child healthy weight interventions. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. An efficient and anonymous buyer-seller watermarking protocol.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chin-Laung; Yu, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Pan-Lung; Chan, Ming-Hwa

    2004-12-01

    For the purpose of deterring unauthorized duplication and distribution of multimedia contents, a seller may insert a unique digital watermark into each copy of the multimedia contents to be sold. When an illegal replica is found in the market sometime later, the seller can determine the responsible distributor by examining the watermark embedded. However, the accusation against the charged distributor, who was the buyer in some earlier transaction, is objectionable because the seller also has access to the watermarked copies and, hence, is able to release such a replica on her own. In this paper, a watermarking protocol is proposed to avoid such difficulties, known as the customer's right problem, in the phase of arbitration. The proposed watermarking protocol also provides a fix to Memon and Wong's scheme by solving the unbinding problem. In addition, the buyer is no longer required to contact the watermark certification authority during transactions, and the anonymity of the buyer can be retained through a trusted third party. The result is an efficient and anonymous buyer-seller watermarking protocol.

  2. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  3. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengtong; Guo, Dianli

    2014-05-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) constructs an efficient and convenient connection between patients and the medical server. The patients can enjoy medical services through public networks, and hence the protection of patients' privacy is very significant. Very recently, Wu et al. identified Jiang et al.'s authentication scheme had some security drawbacks and proposed an enhanced authentication scheme for TMIS. However, we analyze Wu et al.'s scheme and show that their scheme suffers from server spoofing attack, off-line password guessing attack, impersonation attack. Moreover, Wu et al.'s scheme fails to preserve the claimed patient anonymity and its password change phase is unfriendly and inefficient. Thereby, we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems to eliminate the aforementioned faults. Besides, We demonstrate the completeness of the proposed scheme through the BAN logic. Furthermore, the security of our proposed scheme is proven through Bellare and Rogaways model. Compared with the related existing schemes, our scheme is more secure.

  4. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  5. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  6. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  7. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  8. What drives the association between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating? Disentangling genetic and environmental selection from pure socialization effects.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Shannon M; Burt, S Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight-conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8-14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight-conscious peer groups.

  9. What Drives the Association between Weight Conscious Peer Groups and Disordered Eating? Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Selection from Pure Socialization Effects

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Shannon M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8–14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight conscious peer groups. PMID:27043917

  10. Body-Esteem Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Weight and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Reza Vakili Mobarakeh, Mohammad; Momtaz, Vahid; Kavian Mobarake, Roya

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of social anxiety during adolescence is high, and it is necessary that we increase our knowledge on the related factors that contribute to social anxiety. The present study sought to examine the relationships among self-esteem, body-esteem, and social anxiety among adolescent students, as well as to examine the mediating role of…

  11. Body-Esteem Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Weight and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Reza Vakili Mobarakeh, Mohammad; Momtaz, Vahid; Kavian Mobarake, Roya

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of social anxiety during adolescence is high, and it is necessary that we increase our knowledge on the related factors that contribute to social anxiety. The present study sought to examine the relationships among self-esteem, body-esteem, and social anxiety among adolescent students, as well as to examine the mediating role of…

  12. Associations between program outcomes and adherence to Social Cognitive Theory tasks: process evaluation of the SHED-IT community weight loss trial for men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite rising international rates of obesity, men remain reluctant to participate in weight loss research. There is a lack of evidence to guide the development of effective weight loss interventions that engage men. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive process evaluation of the SHED-IT (Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Information Technology) weight loss program for men, as delivered in the SHED-IT community weight loss trial, and to identify key components associated with success. Methods In an assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, 159 overweight and obese men (BMI 25.0-40.0 kg/m2) were randomised to one of two gender-tailored weight loss interventions with no face-to-face contact, or a control group. The interventions were informed by Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) with men encouraged to complete a Support Book containing SCT-based tasks including goal setting, reward setting, creation of social support strategies and self-monitoring of: i) weight, ii) physical activity, and iii) diet. At post-test, compliance with SCT tasks was examined and men also completed a process evaluation questionnaire. Results Both SHED-IT intervention groups demonstrated greater weight loss during the intervention compared to the control, with no difference between intervention groups. Most men engaged with the SCT tasks although compliance declined over time and utilisation of social support networks and reward selection was poor. In a multiple regression model, the number of goals set (β [95% CI] = -0.3 [-0.6, -0.1], p = 0.01) and the number of weight records documented (β [95% CI] = -0.2 [-0.4, -0.0], p = 0.03) independently predicted weight loss. The process evaluation indicated that men found the programs to be supportive, enjoyable and beneficial. Conclusions This process evaluation provides valuable information to inform the development of obesity treatment strategies that engage men. Future studies with

  13. Physical Activity Pattern and Personal-Social Factors of Mothers During Pregnancy And Infant Birth Weight Based On MET Scale: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Karimlou, Masoud; Sajjadi, Homeira; Dejman, Masoumeh; Vameghi, Meroe; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir

    2013-07-01

    Low birth weight is one of the most important public health issues in developing and developed countries and identifying its etiology is important for prevention. Considering the unknown impact of physical activity on low birth weight, this research was conducted to investigate the relationship between physical activity and low birth weight. This research was conducted using a case-control design. The control group was made of 500 women with normal birth weight infants and the case group included 250 women with low birth weight infants from the selected hospitals in city of Tehran. The information was gathered using a researcher-made questionnaire which was prepared for determining the relationship between mothers' lifestyle during pregnancy and infants' low birth weight using social determinants of health approach. In this questionnaire, scope of physical activity was investigated in three groups of athletic activities, activities at home and leisure activities. Activity intensity was determined using MET scale and the data were analyzed in SPSS software using independent t-test, Chi-square and logistic regression. In the present research, based on the results of multiple logistic regression test, an increase in the time spent on sport activities (OR = 2.20) and home activities (OR =1.44) (P = 0.003) was accompanied by increased chance of giving birth to low birth weight infants; in contrast, one hour increase of leisure activities decreased the probability of low birth weight infants by 0.32 (P = 0.008). An increase in the time spent on sport and home activities, even after considering other influential factors, was related to low birth weight.

  14. Social environment factors, diet quality, and body weight in 12-year-old children from four public schools in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Mónica; Torres, Roxana; Pérez, Cynthia M; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    To explore the association of social-environment (SE) factors and diet quality (DQ) with weight status in a group of children in Puerto Rico (PR). A cross-sectional study in a sample of 114 12-year-old children enrolled in 4 public schools in the San Juan Metropolitan area in Puerto Rico (PR) during the 2012-2013 school year. These children completed a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and SE, with information on family meal patterns; parental feeding styles; parental, peer, and school support for healthy eating; physical activity (PA); and frequency of PA and sedentary times. The participants also completed at 24-hour dietary recall interview to determine DQ. This was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index (HIE)-2010, an instrument that evaluates compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized as healthy weight, overweight, or obese. 36% of participants were overweight/obese. In terms of DQ, 55% had "poor" DQ, 45% had diets that "need improvement", and none had "good" DQ. Children of healthy weight (75.0%) reported more frequent family meals than did overweight/obese children (57.5%; p = 0.05). No other significant associations were found between SE factors and DQ or body weight status. Most of the participants were of healthy weight but had poor quality diets. Having a healthy weight was positively associated with frequent family meals.

  15. A randomized study of the effect of anonymity, quasi-anonymity, and Certificates of Confidentiality on postpartum women's disclosure of sensitive information.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Jessica R; Chase, Sara K; Ondersma, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Under-reporting of substance use and other sensitive information is a substantial threat to internal study validity, particularly during the perinatal period. Anonymous approaches are associated with greater disclosure but are incompatible with longitudinal follow-up. Alternative approaches include use of a U.S. Federal Certificate of Confidentiality (CoC) and quasi-anonymous methods, in which there is no link between name and data. However, the relative effect of these procedures on disclosure is unknown. This randomized study was designed to evaluate the effects of consent condition (anonymous, quasi-anonymous, CoC, and traditional confidentiality) on disclosure of sensitive information among postpartum women. Participants were 200 postpartum, primarily African-American women who were randomly assigned to one of the four consent conditions and completed a brief computer-delivered assessment of alcohol and drug use, sexual risk, intimate partner violence, and emotional distress. Participants in the anonymous and quasi-anonymous conditions disclosed significantly more sensitive information than those in the traditional consent condition. In contrast, no advantage in overall disclosure was observed for the CoC condition. This result was largely consistent across specific content areas with the exception of emotional distress, disclosure of which was unrelated to consent condition. Although use of a CoC has limited impact on disclosure, the quasi-anonymous method may increase disclosure to a similar extent as full anonymity. Quasi-anonymous approaches should be considered when under-reporting is likely, a context in which the disadvantages of this approach must be balanced against its advantages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low birth weight, prematurity, and paternal social status: impact on the basic competence test in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Li; Sung, Yao-Ting; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Kuo, Su-Chen; Li, Chung-Yi

    2008-09-01

    To investigate whether birth weight and paternal education may have independent and interactive effects on the learning achievement of adolescents. We linked birth weights, gestational ages (term or preterm) and paternal education of a 4-year birth cohort to the Basic Competence Test (BCT) scores in Mandarin, mathematics and science for junior high school students age 15 to 16 years. The study groups comprised infants with term low birth weight (TLBW; n = 33 507), preterm normal birth weight (PNBW; n =19 905), and preterm low birth weight (PLBW; n = 25 840), as well as randomly selected term infants with normal birth weight (TNBW; n = 83 756). Paternal education levels were categorized. Compared with the TNBW adolescents, the TLBW adolescents consistently showed larger deficits in mean scores for Mandarin (beta = -2.36), mathematics (beta = -2.89), and science (beta = -2.11). The corresponding significant deficit scores for the PLBW adolescents were -1.93, -2.80, and -1.92. The deficit scores were very small for the PNBW adolescents. Paternal education was inversely associated with scores of all 3 groups. Lower paternal education level tended to worsen the negative impact of low birth weight on BCT scores. Both lower birth weight and lower paternal education exert an independent and interactive effect on adolescent learning achievement.

  17. Evaluation of medical student attitudes toward alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Fazzio, Lydia; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Levounis, Petros

    2003-09-01

    This is a two-phase study on attitudes of medical students toward Alcoholics Anonymous. The first phase compares views of addiction faculty to third-year medical students on the importance of spirituality in addiction treatment. We administered a questionnaire to assess attitudes toward spiritual, biological, and psychosocial approaches to addiction treatment. The faculty viewed spirituality as relatively more important in addiction treatment than did the students. The second phase was designed to assess whether medical student attitudes toward spiritually based treatments changed over the course of a psychiatry clerkship. At the beginning of the clerkship, students rated a spiritually oriented approach as important in addiction treatment as a biological approach, whereas, at the end of the clerkship, they rated the biological approach as more important. It may be important to educate medical students about the spiritual dimensions of recovery so they can integrate this into their treatment of addiction.

  18. Robust anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Na

    2013-04-01

    Patient can obtain sorts of health-care delivery services via Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS). Authentication, security, patient's privacy protection and data confidentiality are important for patient or doctor accessing to Electronic Medical Records (EMR). In 2012, Chen et al. showed that Khan et al.'s dynamic ID-based authentication scheme has some weaknesses and proposed an improved scheme, and they claimed that their scheme is more suitable for TMIS. However, we show that Chen et al.'s scheme also has some weaknesses. In particular, Chen et al.'s scheme does not provide user's privacy protection and perfect forward secrecy, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and impersonation attack once user's smart card is compromised. Further, we propose a secure anonymity authentication scheme to overcome their weaknesses even an adversary can know all information stored in smart card.

  19. Watermarking medical images with anonymous patient identification to verify authenticity.

    PubMed

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Quantin, Catherine; Montagner, Julien; Fassa, Maniane; Allaert, François-André; Roux, Christian

    2008-01-01

    When dealing with medical image management, there is a need to ensure information authenticity and dependability. Being able to verify the information belongs to the correct patient and is issued from the right source is a major concern. Verification can help to reduce the risk of errors when identifying documents in daily practice or when sending a patient's Electronic Health Record. At the same time, patient privacy issues may appear during the verification process when the verifier accesses patient data without appropriate authorization. In this paper we discuss the combination of watermarking with different identifiers ranging from DICOM standard UID to an Anonymous European Patient Identifier in order to improve medical image protection in terms of authenticity and maintainability.

  20. Parameterized Complexity of k-Anonymity: Hardness and Tractability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. A precise formalization that has been recently proposed is the k-anonymity, where the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least k and all rows in a cluster become the same tuple after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is hard even when the stored values are over a binary alphabet or the table consists of a bounded number of columns. In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. First we show that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the value of the solution (and k). Then we exhibit a fixed-parameter algorithm when the problem is parameterized by the number of columns and the number of different values in any column.

  1. Father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V S; Kommor, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were more likely than controls to endorse feeling damaged, psychologically injured, estranged from one or both parents, and shamed by others when they tried to open up about their experience. They had been eroticized early on by the incest experience, and it interfered with their adult sexuality. Incest victims experienced coitus earlier than controls and after reaching age 18 had more sex partners and were more likely to have casual sex outside their primary relationship and engage in sex for money than controls. They also had worse scores on scales measuring depression, sexual satisfaction, and communication about sex than controls.

  2. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  3. Evaluating alcoholics anonymous sponsor attributes using conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Edward B; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-12-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) considers sponsorship an important element of the AA program, especially in early recovery. 225 adult individuals who had experience as either a sponsor, sponsee, or both, participated in a hypothetical sponsor ranking exercise where five attributes were varied across three levels. Conjoint analysis was used to compute part-worth utility of the attributes and their levels for experience, knowledge, availability, confidentiality, and goal-setting. Differences in utilities by attribute were found where confidentiality had the greatest overall possible impact on utility and sponsor knowledge had the least. These findings suggest qualitative differences in sponsors may impact their effectiveness. Future research on AA should continue to investigate sponsor influence on an individual's overall recovery trajectory.

  4. Alcoholics Anonymous and 12-step alcoholism treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) self-help groups are the most commonly accessed component of the de facto system of care for alcohol problems in the United States. Further, AA's concepts and approach have strongly influenced a significant number of professional treatment programs. Nevertheless, only a modest number of longitudinal, comparative outcome studies on AA and on professional 12-step treatment programs have been conducted, which has limited both the certainty and scope of conclusions that can be drawn about these interventions. Research indicates that participation in Alcoholics Anonymous and in 12-step treatment are associated with significant reductions in substance abuse and psychiatric problems. Further, such interventions, it has been found, reduce health care costs over time in naturalistic, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies. Evaluation studies have also begun to illuminate the processes through which self-help groups and 12-step treatment programs exert their effects. To build on this knowledge base, future research should (1) be methodologically flexible and well-matched to its phenomenon of interest, (2) include evaluation of the unique features of self-help organizations, (3) increase representation of African-Americans and women in research samples, and (4) increase statistical power through larger sample sizes and more reliable measurement. Key content areas for future enquiry include further longitudinal evaluation of the outcomes of participation in AA and 12-step treatment (particularly in outpatient samples); better specification of the aspects of AA that influence outcome; and individual-, community-, and health organization-level controlled studies of the health care cost consequences of 12-step interventions.

  5. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  6. Anonymity versus privacy: selective information sharing in online cancer communities.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jeana; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-05-14

    Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients' prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F1,114=135.59, P=.001, η(2)=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Respondents' information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity information. The results suggest the need to focus on

  7. Relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and social function of Wisconsin 2- and 3-year-olds born at very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie A; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2011-02-01

    To examine whether (1) neighborhood disadvantage is associated with social function in 2- and 3-year-olds born at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and (2) the association between social function and child's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is moderated by neighborhood disadvantage. Cross-sectional study using the Newborn Lung Project, a cohort of infants born at very low birth weight in 2003 and 2004 in Wisconsin. Wisconsin. This study includes the subgroup of 626 non-Hispanic black or white infants who were followed up at ages 24 to 43 months with parent-reported health and developmental information. An index of neighborhood disadvantage was derived by principal component analysis of 5 census tract variables (percentage of families in poverty, percentage of households with income higher than the state median, percentage of women with bachelor's degree or more, percentage of single mothers, and percentage of mothers of young children unemployed). Children were then classified (based on index tertiles) as living in either disadvantaged, middle advantage, or advantaged neighborhoods. Children's HRQoL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Social function was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Adjusting for child medical and family socioeconomic attributes, social function was lower (mean difference, -4.60; 95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -0.8) for children living in disadvantaged vs advantaged neighborhoods. We also found that the ill effects of lower HRQoL are particularly bad for children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood. Children born at very low birth weight have disparities in social function at ages 2 and 3 years that are associated with both HRQoL and neighborhood characteristics.

  8. New Frameworks for Detecting and Minimizing Information Leakage in Anonymized Network Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE NEW FRAMEWORKS FOR DETECTING AND MINIMIZING INFORMATION LEAKAGE IN ANONYMIZED NETWORK...FRAMEWORKS FOR DETECTING AND MINIMIZING INFORMATION LEAKAGE IN ANONYMIZED NETWORK DATA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-08-2-0147 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A...risk, high-value data is that of trace anonymization - a process of sanitizing data before release so that information of concern cannot be extracted

  9. Preventing Active Timing Attacks in Low-Latency Anonymous Communication [Extended Abstract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Preventing Active Timing Attacks in Low-Latency Anonymous Communication [Extended Abstract] Joan Feigenbaum1?, Aaron Johnson2??, and Paul Syverson3...itd.nrl.navy.mil Abstract. Low-latency anonymous communication protocols in gen- eral, and the popular onion-routing protocol in particular, are broken...inserting delays and dropping messages. We present a protocol that provides anonymity against an active adver- sary by using a black-box padding scheme

  10. Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in an Anonymous Routing Environment: Client Puzzles and Tor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    by a distributed system like Tor. The protocol must account for Tor’s threat environment and also address any secondary DDoS or anonymity attacks...Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in an Anonymous Routing Environment: Client Puzzles and Tor THESIS Nicholas A. Fraser, Captain, USAF... Anonymous Routing Environment: Client Puzzles and Tor THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate

  11. Using Client Puzzles to Mitigate Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in the Tor Anonymous Routing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    a viable solution for mitigating distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks in an anonymous routing environment. One such environment, Tor...provides anonymity for interactive Internet services. However, Tor relies on the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, making it vulnerable to...the first to explore TLS DDoS attack mitigation in the Tor anonymous routing environment. Using the MPP, the central processing unit (CPU

  12. Secular trends in social class differences of height, weight and BMI of boys from two schools in Lisbon, Portugal (1910-2000).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Caninas, Madalena

    2010-03-01

    Data on the physical growth of children can provide useful information about the temporal changes in the economic conditions of the society in which they live and the extent of social inequalities within that society as well. Several studies have documented secular changes in the physical growth of children or of adult height, but seldom have the socioeconomic differences in secular trend been reported. The aim of this study is to examine differences in the secular trend of height, weight and BMI of 10-16-year-old boys enrolled in two schools of opposite socioeconomic makeup in Lisbon, Portugal, in the early and late 20th century. The samples from the upper-middle class come from the Colégio Militar, a military boarding school, and the lower-class samples come from the Casa Pia de Lisboa, a residential school for underprivileged boys. While boys from both schools show an approximate increase of 13.6cm in height, 13.5kg in weight and 2.4kg/m(2) in BMI, the Casa Pia students were shorter and lighter than their Colégio Militar counterparts throughout the 90-year period. Social class differences in mean height, weight and BMI tend to be greater in 1910 than in 2000, but results are statistically significant for height alone. When the two periods are taken together, Colégio Militar boys differ from their Casa Pia counterparts by approximately 6.4cm in height, 4.8kg in weight and 0.4kg/m(2) in BMI. Both samples show a considerable increase in height, weight and BMI but class differences in height, weight and BMI decreased slightly if at all, throughout the 90-year period. This suggests that socioeconomic disparities are persistent, having diminished only slightly since the early 20th century. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Give or Take a Few? Comparing Measured and Self-Reported Height and Weight as Correlates of Social Physique Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Statistically controlling for physical size is common practice, especially in self-perception studies uncovering the etiology of maladaptive behaviors, such as eating disorders. For example, social physique anxiety (SPA)--apprehension about social evaluations while presenting oneself in front of others (Leary, 1992)--is a prominent correlate of…

  14. Give or Take a Few? Comparing Measured and Self-Reported Height and Weight as Correlates of Social Physique Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Statistically controlling for physical size is common practice, especially in self-perception studies uncovering the etiology of maladaptive behaviors, such as eating disorders. For example, social physique anxiety (SPA)--apprehension about social evaluations while presenting oneself in front of others (Leary, 1992)--is a prominent correlate of…

  15. Do Drug-Dependent Patients Attending Alcoholics Anonymous Rather than Narcotics Anonymous Do As Well? A Prospective, Lagged, Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Greene, M. Claire; Bergman, Brandon G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most prevalent 12-step mutual-help organization (MHO), yet debate has persisted clinically regarding whether patients whose primary substance is not alcohol should be referred to AA. Narcotics Anonymous (NA) was created as a more specific fit to enhance recovery from drug addiction; however, compared with AA, NA meetings are not as ubiquitous. Little is known about the effects of a mismatch between individuals' primary substance and MHOs, and whether any incongruence might result in a lower likelihood of continuation and benefit. More research would inform clinical recommendations. Method: Young adults (N = 279, M age 20.4, SD 1.6, 27% female; 95% White) in a treatment effectiveness study completed assessments at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. A matching variable was created for ‘primary drug’ patients (i.e. those reporting cannabis, opiates or stimulants as primary substance; n = 198/279), reflecting the proportion of total 12-step meetings attended that were AA. Hierarchical linear models (HLMs) tested this variable's effects on future 12-step participation and percent days abstinent (PDA). Results: The majority of meetings attended by both alcohol and drug patients was AA. Drug patients attending proportionately more AA than NA meetings (i.e. mismatched) were no different than those who were better matched to NA with respect to future 12-step participation or PDA. Conclusion: Drug patients may be at no greater risk of discontinuation or diminished recovery benefit from participation in AA relative to NA. Findings may boost clinical confidence in making AA referrals for drug patients when NA is less available. PMID:25294352

  16. Weight Gain Prevention for College Freshmen: Comparing Two Social Cognitive Theory-Based Interventions with and without Explicit Self-Regulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Potter, Kerry L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT), while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR). Methods. Freshmen (n = 45) aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P = 0.01). Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR) and 98% (SCT); SCTSR students (>50%) remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes. PMID:22778919

  17. Early-life social origins of later-life body weight: the role of socioeconomic status and health behaviors over the life course.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-07-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage.

  18. Early-Life Social Origins of Later-Life Body Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590

  19. Effect of the Intervention Based on New Communication Technologies and the Social-Cognitive Theory on the Weight Control of the Employees with Overweight and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Shojayzadeh, Davood; Sadeghi, Roya; Saber, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Work settings provide a unique opportunity for health promotion interventions. Considering the issue of obesity in employees, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the intervention based on new communication technologies and the social cognitive theory on weight control in the governmental employees of Hamadan City, western Iran in 2014. This randomized control trial study was conducted in "telephone- assisted intervention", "web- assisted intervention", and "control" groups comprising 435 employees of Hamadan City with overweight or obesity in 2014 (Ethics Committee Code: 93/D/130/1139). The educational intervention was performed for 6 months under the title of "lifestyle program". Then, the participants were evaluated in terms of weight and changes in the constructs of the social-cognitive theory 6 and 9 months after the intervention. A researcher-made questionnaire based on the Dishman and Dewar questionnaires was used to evaluate the constructs of social-cognitive theory. The data were collected and analyzed using SPSS-20. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a weight loss of 1.92 and 1.08 kg in the telephone-assisted and web-assisted intervention groups, respectively. The intervention in the telephone-assisted group increased the mean scores of the constructs of self-efficacy (P=0.001), environment (P=0.001), outcome expectations (P=0.040), and outcome expectancies (P=0.001) among participants. In the web-assisted intervention group, the mean scores of the constructs of self-efficacy (P=0.001) and outcome expectancies (P=0.020) increased. Our results showed the effectiveness of the intervention based on new communication technologies and the Social-Cognitive Theory. Future studies with more retention strategies regarding self-efficacy and environment constructs are needed to further explain the application of SCT and technology-based approaches to reduce obese and overweight.

  20. Psychosocial factors related to gambling abstinence and relapse in members of gamblers anonymous.

    PubMed

    Oei, Tian P S; Gordon, Leon M

    2008-03-01

    Problem gamblers account for almost one-third of the industry's total revenue with the adverse effects of problem gambling including significant financial loss, legal and occupational difficulties, family problems, psychological distress and suicide. As such, it is important to understand the influential factors in gambling abstinence and relapse, which will assist in the development of relapse prevention methods in therapeutic treatment regimes. This paper reported the role of a set of seven predictors in distinguishing between abstinent and relapsed gamblers among 75 Gambling Anonymous (GA) members (55 males; 20 females; Mean age 45 years) in Southeast Queensland. The measures taken were meeting Attendance and Participation, Social Support, God Belief, Belief in a Higher Power, Working the 12-steps of Recovery, Gambling Urges and Erroneous Cognitions. Discriminant analysis revealed that the variables separating the two groups were significant, suggesting that GA members achieving abstinence could be distinguished from those who relapsed, with Attendance and Participation, and Social Support contributing the greatest influence on member's ability to abstain from gambling. The findings suggested that GA member's involvement in meetings, and support from family and friends had significant impact on their gambling abstinence. In contrast, increased gambling urges and erroneous cognitions increased the chance of relapse.

  1. Physical appearance as a measure of social ranking: the role of a new scale to understand the relationship between weight and dieting.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Cristiana

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the development of a new self-report instrument to assess how an individual perceives himself as social agent within his group having physical appearance as a reference, the Social Comparison through Physical Appearance Scale (SCPAS). This scale adds to the existent measures by assessing the social ranking based on one's physical appearance, and not the tendency to make comparisons of the general physical appearance or specific body parts. Its psychometric characteristics are investigated in a sample of 828 female participants from normal population. Principal components analysis was conducted for each part of the instrument: the Part A: peers shows a 2-factor structure (Attractiveness/Rank and Group Fit) explaining 72.142% of the variance; the Part B: models presents a one-dimensional structure that explains 69.191% of the variance. Findings show very good internal consistency coefficients and test-retest reliability. The two parts of the SCPAS are significantly associated to social comparison and shame measures, to anxiety, depression and stress indicators, and to eating disorders symptomatology. The scale discriminates between a clinical sample of 91 patients with an eating disorder and a non-clinical sample of 102 participants. Regression analyses pointed out that social comparison through physical appearance with peers and models partially mediates the effect of the dissatisfaction with current weight on disordered eating, namely drive for thinness. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 'Fish out of water': a cross-sectional study on the interaction between social and neighbourhood effects on weight management behaviours.

    PubMed

    Green, M A; Subramanian, S V; Strong, M; Cooper, C L; Loban, A; Bissell, P

    2015-03-01

    To analyse whether an individual's neighbourhood influences the uptake of weight management strategies and whether there is an interaction between individual socio-economic status and neighbourhood deprivation. Data were collected from the Yorkshire Health Study (2010-2012) for 27 806 individuals on the use of the following weight management strategies: 'slimming clubs', 'healthy eating', 'increasing exercise' and 'controlling portion size'. A multi-level logistic regression was fit to analyse the use of these strategies, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, education, neighbourhood deprivation and neighbourhood population turnover (a proxy for neighbourhood social capital). A cross-level interaction term was included for education and neighbourhood deprivation. Lower Super Output Area was used as the geographical scale for the areal unit of analysis. Significant neighbourhood effects were observed for use of 'slimming clubs', 'healthy eating' and 'increasing exercise' as weight management strategies, independent of individual- and area-level covariates. A significant interaction between education and neighbourhood deprivation was observed across all strategies, suggesting that as an area becomes more deprived, individuals of the lowest education are more likely not to use any strategy compared with those of the highest education. Neighbourhoods modify/amplify individual disadvantage and social inequalities, with individuals of low education disproportionally affected by deprivation. It is important to include neighbourhood-based explanations in the development of community-based policy interventions to help tackle obesity.

  3. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  4. Preference for Anonymous Classroom Participation: Linking Student Characteristics and Reactions to Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alyson; Hill, N. Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Electronic response systems (ERS) are a means to foster class participation by students who are reluctant to participate in class. In this study, we identify individual characteristics that relate to students' preference for anonymous classroom participation, and we also examine the extent to which preference for anonymity is related to their…

  5. Preference for Anonymous Classroom Participation: Linking Student Characteristics and Reactions to Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alyson; Hill, N. Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Electronic response systems (ERS) are a means to foster class participation by students who are reluctant to participate in class. In this study, we identify individual characteristics that relate to students' preference for anonymous classroom participation, and we also examine the extent to which preference for anonymity is related to their…

  6. Use of WhatsApp in Higher Education: What's Up with Assessing Peers Anonymously?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güler, Çetin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of WhatsApp application in anonymous peer assessment in higher education. The mobile phone application WhatsApp was used as both an anonymous and nonanonymous peer assessment tool in a classroom environment. The participants of the study were the students of two classes (sophomores and juniors), half…

  7. Survey Confidentiality vs. Anonymity: Young Men's Self-Reported Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roland S.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2002-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to see if respondents providing identification would be as forthcoming regarding substance use as anonymous respondents. No statistically significant differences were found between 2 groups' self-reported substance use over the previous 12 months. Findings suggest the lack of anonymity does not necessarily impede the same…

  8. A Psychological Rationale in Support of the Alcoholics Anonymous' Concept of Fellowship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    This article creates a strong theoretical rationale in support of the concept of fellowship, the cornerstone healing influence of Alcoholic Anonymous (AA). It reviews the literature which supports the Alcoholic Anonymous' concept of fellowship or client perceived belongingness. It provides a strong rationale for the establishment of new…

  9. Comparison of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Procedures: Effects on Health Indicators in Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Goldschmeding, Judith E. J.; de Wilde, Erik Jan

    2006-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are frequently used in youth research, but doubt remains whether total anonymity affects the results. This study compared the responses of 704 mainly 16-17-year-old adolescents to self-report measures of various health indicators in 2 groups: anonymous and confidential collection. For most health indicators no…

  10. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  11. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    PubMed

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback.

  12. What Do Adolescents Exposed to Alcoholic Anonymous Think about 12-Step Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Rodolico, John

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Referral to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is a common continuing care recommendation. Evidence suggests some youth benefit, yet, despite referrals, youth participation is low. Little is known about adolescents' experiences of AA/NA. Greater knowledge would inform and help tailor aftercare recommendations.…

  13. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  14. Oral History Research Ethics: Should Anonymity and Confidentially Issues Be Dealt with on Their Own Merit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Roux, C.

    2015-01-01

    A primary principle of ethical codes in research involving people is that of informed consent which ensures participants' right to privacy, confidentiality and anonymity. A blanket application of the principle of anonymity to Oral History (OH) research could well be counterproductive to the purported aims of OH research. The research comprised a…

  15. Oral History Research Ethics: Should Anonymity and Confidentially Issues Be Dealt with on Their Own Merit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Roux, C.

    2015-01-01

    A primary principle of ethical codes in research involving people is that of informed consent which ensures participants' right to privacy, confidentiality and anonymity. A blanket application of the principle of anonymity to Oral History (OH) research could well be counterproductive to the purported aims of OH research. The research comprised a…

  16. What Do Adolescents Exposed to Alcoholic Anonymous Think about 12-Step Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Rodolico, John

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Referral to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is a common continuing care recommendation. Evidence suggests some youth benefit, yet, despite referrals, youth participation is low. Little is known about adolescents' experiences of AA/NA. Greater knowledge would inform and help tailor aftercare recommendations.…

  17. Determining the relative importance of the mechanisms of behavior change within Alcoholics Anonymous: a multiple mediator analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John F; Hoeppner, Bettina; Stout, Robert L; Pagano, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Evidence indicates that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation reduces relapse risk but less is known about the mechanisms through which AA confers this benefit. Initial studies indicate self-efficacy, negative affect, adaptive social networks and spiritual practices are mediators of this effect, but because these have been tested in isolation, their relative importance remains elusive. This study tested multiple mediators simultaneously to help determine the most influential pathways. Prospective, statistically controlled, naturalistic investigation examined the extent to which these previously identified mechanisms mediated AA attendance effects on alcohol outcomes controlling for baseline outcome values, mediators, treatment, and other confounders. Nine clinical sites within the United States. Adults (n = 1726) suffering from alcohol use disorder (AUD) initially enrolled in a randomized study with two arms: aftercare (n = 774); and out-patient (n = 952) comparing three out-patient treatments (Project MATCH). AA attendance during treatment; mediators at 9 months; and outcomes [percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and drinks per drinking day (DDD)] at 15 months. Among out-patients the effect of AA attendance on alcohol outcomes was explained primarily by adaptive social network changes and increases in social abstinence self-efficacy. Among more impaired aftercare patients, in addition to mediation through adaptive network changes and increases in social self-efficacy, AA lead to better outcomes through increasing spirituality/religiosity and by reducing negative affect. The degree to which mediators explained the relationship between AA and outcomes ranged from 43% to 67%. While Alcoholics Anonymous facilitates recovery by mobilizing several processes simultaneously, it is changes in social factors which appear to be of primary importance. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Automated Gene Ontology annotation for anonymous sequence data.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Steffen; Groth, Detlef; Lehrach, Hans

    2003-07-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) is the most widely accepted attempt to construct a unified and structured vocabulary for the description of genes and their products in any organism. Annotation by GO terms is performed in most of the current genome projects, which besides generality has the advantage of being very convenient for computer based classification methods. However, direct use of GO in small sequencing projects is not easy, especially for species not commonly represented in public databases. We present a software package (GOblet), which performs annotation based on GO terms for anonymous cDNA or protein sequences. It uses the species independent GO structure and vocabulary together with a series of protein databases collected from various sites, to perform a detailed GO annotation by sequence similarity searches. The sensitivity and the reference protein sets can be selected by the user. GOblet runs automatically and is available as a public service on our web server. The paper also addresses the reliability of automated GO annotations by using a reference set of more than 6000 human proteins. The GOblet server is accessible at http://goblet.molgen.mpg.de.

  19. A proposal for an anonymous living organ donation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rittner, Christian K; Besold, Andrea; Wandel, Evelyn

    2003-03-01

    In Germany, living organ donation of paired and usually not regenerating organs is restricted by law to related individuals, as well as persons who 'obviously entertain an especially intimate personal relationship'. When this law was adopted in 1997, the intention of the legislator was to guarantee the free will of the donor and to exclude any trade of organs. Since then the transplantation of cadaveric organs has not increased. Additional organs were donated from living donors. However, for a number of reasons only a limited array of transplantation centers use living organ donation as a supply facing a steadily increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure. Living organ donation raises a variety of medical, ethical and legal questions. Although transplantation is a generally accepted therapeutic approach for impaired organ function, doctors do not promote it actively. Prospective donor-recipient pairs use the information obtained via internet and other sources before they contact the clinician. Doctors are hesitant to operate a healthy individual for allowing her or him to profit from this organ loss only emotionally or in an altruistic sense. Often a complex relationship between donor and recipient, as well as tissue incompatibility (ABO, HLA) may be additional reasons to restrain from carrying out living organ transplantation. To improve the chances for good organ function and better life quality of the patients we here propose a model for anonymous living organ donation with special reference to kidney transplantation.

  20. Anonymous semen donor recruitment without reimbursement in Canada.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, Alfonso P; Bradley, Leanne; Said, Tamer

    2008-01-01

    A previous review of 22 studies from eight countries, conducted between 1980 and 2003, concluded that semen donors who are older, married or are fathers are less likely to be financially motivated. Despite the Assisted Human Reproduction Act coming into force in 2004, no data originating from Canada have been published on this topic. The objective of this study was to validate these findings in the Canadian population within the context of an anonymous semen donor programme in Canada. A survey of 301 donor applicants was conducted to collect demographic data including age, marital status, paternity status and occupation, in addition to information assessing donor eligibility and willingness to donate without reimbursement. Eligible candidates were screened to determine their acceptance or exclusion from the semen donor programme. The results showed that the relationships found between donor applicant demographics and their willingness to participate without reimbursement do not appear to be consistent with earlier published studies in various countries. Further screening resulted in a recruitment rate of less than 1%. Additional studies will be required to investigate the feasibility of altruistic semen donation programmes in Canada, and to determine the potential impact of these findings on Canadians who rely on donor gamete services to build their families.

  1. Gamblers Anonymous as a Recovery Pathway: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Andrée; Ferentzy, Peter; Turner, Nigel E; Skinner, Wayne; McIsaac, Kathryn E; Ziegler, Carolyn P; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-12-01

    Given the preponderance of Gamblers Anonymous (GA), there has been relatively little effort to explore the existing evidence base on its effectiveness as a recovery approach for problem gambling. To remedy this gap in the literature we conducted a scoping review of the literature on mutual aid for individuals experiencing problem gambling published between 2002 and 2015. We searched 13 databases and reviewed reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. We reviewed records for eligibility and extracted relevant data from eligible articles. Three reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. We identified 17 studies in 25 publications that were eligible for inclusion. Most studies were conducted in the United States, were cross-sectional in design, and involved both male and female adult participants. Results indicate that the evidence for the effectiveness of GA either as a control condition or in conjunction with formal treatment or medication is inconsistent. An emphasis on patience, using the Serenity Prayer as a way to gain acceptance of financial matters and reality, and absolute assertion of identity as a "compulsive gambler" were identified as important aspects of GA's recovery culture. There is a need for large-scale randomized controlled trials to determine GA's effectiveness, as well as research exploring the mechanisms through which GA works, barriers to GA as a recovery approach, and the status of women in the fellowship.

  2. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2011-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses. PMID:22081224

  3. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2012-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses.

  4. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims.

  5. Maxwell and creation: Acceptance, criticism, and his anonymous publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2007-08-01

    Although James Clerk Maxwell's religious views and discussions on atoms having the properties of ``manufactured articles'' have been discussed, some aspects of the responses by his contemporaries to his remarks on creation have been neglected. Various responses quoted here include a book from 1878 by ``Physicus'' (George John Romanes) attributing ``arrogance'' to Maxwell for his inferences. Relevant aspects of the evolution of the perspective of Romanes are noted. A response by B. F. Westcott indicated that Maxwell was the author of a related anonymous publication concerned with what eventually became known as the heat death of the universe. In his teaching to theology students, Westcott, a friend of Maxwell, emphasized Maxwell's reasoning based on the dissipation of energy. There are similarities between Maxwell's perspective on creation and Biblical commentaries by fellow Eranus Club members Westcott and J. B. Lightfoot. Interest in Maxwell's remarks extended into the twentieth century. The principal Baptist chapel attended by Maxwell and his wife when in London in the 1860s is identified and some relevant attributes of the chapel and of its pastor are described.

  6. Statistical disclosure limitation of health data based on Pk-anonymity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Chida, Koji; Ikarashi, Dai; Hamada, Koki; Ishihara, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The Act for the Protection of Personal Information in Japan considers as personal information any quasi-identifier that may be used to obtain information that identifies individuals through comparisons with datasets. Studies using health records are not widely conducted because of the concern regarding the safety of anonymized health records. To increase the safety of such records, we used the Pk-anonymity method. In this method, attributes are probabilistically randomized and then reconstructions are performed on the basis of statistical information from perturbed data. Hence, it is expected to provide more precise statistics and more reliably preserve privacy than the traditional "k-anonymity" method. We anonymized health records, performed cross tabulation, and assessed the error rate using original data. This study shows that the Pk-anonymity method can be used to perform safety statistical disclosures with low error rates, even in small cases.

  7. Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization of datasets to support the heterogeneous needs of biomedical researchers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huimin; Chen, Elizabeth S

    2011-01-01

    In order to support the increasing need to share electronic health data for research purposes, various methods have been proposed for privacy preservation including k-anonymity. Many k-anonymity models provide the same level of anoymization regardless of practical need, which may decrease the utility of the dataset for a particular research study. In this study, we explore extensions to the k-anonymity algorithm that aim to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of different researchers while preserving privacy as well as utility of the dataset. The proposed algorithm, Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization (AUM), involves analyzing the characteristics of attributes and utilizing them to minimize information loss during the anonymization process. Through comparison with two existing algorithms, Mondrian and Incognito, preliminary results indicate that AUM may preserve more information from original datasets thus providing higher quality results with lower distortion.

  8. Using Social and Mobile Tools for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Young Adults (Project SMART): A 2-Year Parallel Group Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Job G.; Merchant, Gina; Norman, Gregory J.; Donohue, Michael C.; Marshall, Simon J.; Fowler, James H.; Calfas, Karen J.; Huang, Jeannie S.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Griswold, William G.; Gupta, Anjali; Raab, Fredric; Fogg, B.J.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Patrick, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background Few weight-loss interventions are evaluated for longer than a year, and even fewer employ social and mobile technologies commonly used among young adults. We assessed the efficacy of a two-year, theory-based weight-loss intervention that was remotely and adaptively delivered via integrated user-experiences with 1) Facebook, 2) mobile apps, 3) text messaging, 4) emails, 5) a website, and 6) technology-mediated communication with a health coach. Methods From May 2011 to May 2012, 404 overweight or obese college students (aged 18 to 35 years) from three universities in San Diego, CA were randomized using a computer-based procedure to receive either the intervention (n=202) or general information about health and wellness (control group, n=202). The primary outcome was objectively measured weight in kg at 24 months, and differences between groups were evaluated using linear mixed-effects regression and an intention-to-treat framework. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01200459. Findings Participants’ mean (standard deviation (SD)) age was 22·7 (3.8) years. They were 70% female and 31% Hispanic. Mean (SD) body mass index was 29·0 (2.8) kg/m2. At 24 months, weight was assessed in 341 (84%) participants, but all 404 were included in analyses. Weight, adjusted for sex, ethnicity, and college, was significantly less in the intervention group compared to the control group at 6 months (−1·33 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2·36 to −0·30, p = 0·011) and 12 months (−1·33 kg, 95% CI =−2·30 to −0·35, p = 0·008). However, differences between groups at 18 months (−0·67 kg, 95% CI = −1·69 to 0·35, p = 0·200) and 24 months (−0·79 kg, 95% CI = −2·02 to 0·43, p = 0·204) were not significant. Interpretation Social and mobile technologies may facilitate limited short-term weight loss among young adults, but as utilized in this intervention, these approaches did not produce sustained reductions in weight. PMID

  9. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  10. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    PubMed

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated.

  11. Quality of life among obese patients seeking weight loss surgery: the importance of obesity-related social stigma and functional status.

    PubMed

    Wee, Christina C; Davis, Roger B; Huskey, Karen W; Jones, Daniel B; Hamel, Mary B

    2013-02-01

    10 % risk of death to achieve their most valued health/weight state. Interference with role functioning due to physical limitations and obesity-related social stigma were strong determinants of reduced health utility.

  12. Using social and mobile tools for weight loss in overweight and obese young adults (Project SMART): a 2 year, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Godino, Job G; Merchant, Gina; Norman, Gregory J; Donohue, Michael C; Marshall, Simon J; Fowler, James H; Calfas, Karen J; Huang, Jeannie S; Rock, Cheryl L; Griswold, William G; Gupta, Anjali; Raab, Fredric; Fogg, B J; Robinson, Thomas N; Patrick, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Few weight loss interventions are evaluated for longer than a year, and even fewer employ social and mobile technologies commonly used among young adults. We assessed the efficacy of a 2 year, theory-based, weight loss intervention that was remotely and adaptively delivered via integrated user experiences with Facebook, mobile apps, text messaging, emails, a website, and technology-mediated communication with a health coach (the SMART intervention). In this parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial, we enrolled overweight or obese college students (aged 18-35 years) from three universities in San Diego, CA, USA. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either the intervention (SMART intervention group) or general information about health and wellness (control group). We used computer-based permuted-block randomisation with block sizes of four, stratified by sex, ethnicity, and college. Participants, study staff, and investigators were masked until the intervention was assigned. The primary outcome was objectively measured weight in kg at 24 months. Differences between groups were evaluated using linear mixed-effects regression within an intention-to-treat framework. Objectively measured weight at 6, 12, and 18 months was included as a secondary outcome. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01200459. Between May 18, 2011, and May 17, 2012, 404 individuals were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=202) or control (n=202). Participants' mean (SD) age was 22·7 (3·8) years. 284 (70%) participants were female and 125 (31%) were Hispanic. Mean (SD) body-mass index at baseline was 29·0 (2·8) kg/m(2). At 24 months, weight was assessed in 341 (84%) participants, but all 404 were included in analyses. Weight, adjusted for sex, ethnicity, and college, was not significantly different between the groups at 24 months (-0·79 kg [95% CI -2·02 to 0·43], p=0·204). However, weight was significantly less in the intervention group

  13. Impact of a male-only weight loss maintenance programme on social-cognitive determinants of physical activity and healthy eating: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effect of a gender-tailored, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based weight loss maintenance (WLM) intervention on men's physical activity and healthy eating cognitions and behaviours in the 12 months after completing a weight loss programme. A two-phase, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Ninety-two overweight/obese men (mean [SD] age: 49.2 years [10.1], BMI: 30.7 [3.3] kg/m(2) ) who lost at least 4 kg after completing the 3-month SCT-based SHED-IT Weight Loss Program were randomly allocated to receive (1) the SCT-based SHED-IT WLM Program; or (2) no additional resources (self-help control group). The 6-month gender-tailored SHED-IT WLM Program was completely self-administered and operationalized SCT behaviour change principles to assist men to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decrease energy-dense, nutrient-poor (discretionary) food consumption after initial weight loss. After randomization (WLM baseline), men were reassessed at 6 months (WLM post-test) and 12 months (6-month WLM follow-up). SCT cognitions (e.g., self-efficacy, goal setting), MVPA, and discretionary food consumption were assessed with validated measures. Following significant improvements in cognitions, MVPA and discretionary food consumption during the weight loss phase, intention-to-treat, linear mixed models revealed no significant group-by-time differences in cognitions or behaviours during the WLM phase. Initial improvements in MVPA and some cognitions (e.g., goal setting, planning, and social support) were largely maintained by both groups at the end of the study. Dietary effects were not as strongly maintained, with the intervention and control groups maintaining 57% and 75% of the Phase I improvements in discretionary food intake, respectively. An additional SCT-based WLM programme did not elicit further improvements over a self-help control in the cognitions or behaviours for MVPA or discretionary food intake of men who had lost weight

  14. Feedback to Supervisors: Is Anonymity Really So Important?

    PubMed

    Dudek, Nancy L; Dojeiji, Suzan; Day, Kathleen; Varpio, Lara

    2016-09-01

    Research demonstrates that physicians benefit from regular feedback on their clinical supervision from their trainees. Several features of effective feedback are enabled by nonanonymous processes (i.e., open feedback). However, most resident-to-faculty feedback processes are anonymous given concerns of power differentials and possible reprisals. This exploratory study investigated resident experiences of giving faculty open feedback, advantages, and disadvantages. Between January and August 2014, nine graduates of a Canadian Physiatry residency program that uses open resident-to-faculty feedback participated in semistructured interviews in which they described their experiences of this system. Three members of the research team analyzed transcripts for emergent themes using conventional content analysis. In June 2014, semistructured group interviews were held with six residents who were actively enrolled in the program as a member-checking activity. Themes were refined on the basis of these data. Advantages of the open feedback system included giving timely feedback that was acted upon (thus enhancing residents' educational experiences), and improved ability to receive feedback (thanks to observing modeled behavior). Although some disadvantages were noted, they were often speculative (e.g., "I think others might have felt …") and were described as outweighed by advantages. Participants emphasized the program's "feedback culture" as an open feedback enabler. The relationship between the feedback giver and recipient has been described as influencing the uptake of feedback. Findings suggest that nonanonymous practices can enable a positive relationship in resident-to-faculty feedback. The benefits of an open system for resident-to-faculty feedback can be reaped if a "feedback culture" exists.

  15. Seeking insights about cycling mood disorders via anonymized search logs.

    PubMed

    Yom-Tov, Elad; White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-02-25

    Mood disorders affect a significant portion of the general population. Cycling mood disorders are characterized by intermittent episodes (or events) of the disease. Using anonymized Web search logs, we identify a population of people with significant interest in mood stabilizing drugs (MSD) and seek evidence of mood swings in this population. We extracted queries to the Microsoft Bing search engine made by 20,046 Web searchers over six months, separately explored searcher demographics using data from a large external panel of users, and sought supporting information from people with mood disorders via a survey. We analyzed changes in information needs over time relative to searches on MSD. Queries for MSD focused on side effects and their relation to the disease. We found evidence of significant changes in search behavior and interests coinciding with days that MSD queries are made. These include large increases (>100%) in the access of nutrition information, commercial information, and adult materials. A survey of patients diagnosed with mood disorders provided evidence that repeated queries on MSD may come with exacerbations of mood disorder. A classifier predicting the occurrence of such queries one day before they are observed obtains strong performance (AUC=0.78). Observed patterns in search behavior align with known behaviors and those highlighted by survey respondents. These observations suggest that searchers showing intensive interest in MSD may be patients who have been prescribed these drugs. Given behavioral dynamics, we surmise that the days on which MSD queries are made may coincide with commencement of mania or depression. Although we do not have data on mood changes and whether users have been diagnosed with bipolar illness, we see evidence of cycling in people who show interest in MSD and further show that we can predict impending shifts in behavior and interest.

  16. Seeking Insights About Cycling Mood Disorders via Anonymized Search Logs

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Mood disorders affect a significant portion of the general population. Cycling mood disorders are characterized by intermittent episodes (or events) of the disease. Objective Using anonymized Web search logs, we identify a population of people with significant interest in mood stabilizing drugs (MSD) and seek evidence of mood swings in this population. Methods We extracted queries to the Microsoft Bing search engine made by 20,046 Web searchers over six months, separately explored searcher demographics using data from a large external panel of users, and sought supporting information from people with mood disorders via a survey. We analyzed changes in information needs over time relative to searches on MSD. Results Queries for MSD focused on side effects and their relation to the disease. We found evidence of significant changes in search behavior and interests coinciding with days that MSD queries are made. These include large increases (>100%) in the access of nutrition information, commercial information, and adult materials. A survey of patients diagnosed with mood disorders provided evidence that repeated queries on MSD may come with exacerbations of mood disorder. A classifier predicting the occurrence of such queries one day before they are observed obtains strong performance (AUC=0.78). Conclusions Observed patterns in search behavior align with known behaviors and those highlighted by survey respondents. These observations suggest that searchers showing intensive interest in MSD may be patients who have been prescribed these drugs. Given behavioral dynamics, we surmise that the days on which MSD queries are made may coincide with commencement of mania or depression. Although we do not have data on mood changes and whether users have been diagnosed with bipolar illness, we see evidence of cycling in people who show interest in MSD and further show that we can predict impending shifts in behavior and interest. PMID:24568936

  17. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  18. Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange: New Construction and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    An anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (anonymous PAKE) protocol is designed to provide both password-only authentication and user anonymity against a semi-honest server, who follows the protocol honestly. Very recently, Yang and Zhang [25] have proposed a new anonymous PAKE (NAPAKE) protocol that is claimed efficient compared to the previous constructions. In this paper, we propose a very-efficient anonymous PAKE (called, VEAP) protocol that provides the most efficiency among their kinds in terms of computation and communication costs. The VEAP protocol guarantees semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model under the chosen target CDH problem, and unconditional user anonymity against a semi-honest server. If the pre-computation is allowed, both the user and the server are required to compute only one modular exponentiation, respectively. Surprisingly, this is the same computation cost of the well-known Diffie-Hellman protocol that does not provide authentication at all. In addition, we extend the VEAP protocol in two ways: the first is designed to reduce the communication costs of the VEAP protocol and the second shows that stripping off anonymity parts from the VEAP protocol results in a new PAKE protocol.

  19. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet.

  20. Primary antiretroviral drug resistance in newly human immunodeficiency virus-diagnosed individuals testing anonymously and confidentially.

    PubMed

    Markovitz, Amanda R; Thibault, Christina S; Brandauer, Peter W; Buskin, Susan E

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if anonymous and confidential testers differ in recency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at time of testing and prevalence of antiretroviral drug (ARV) resistance. We examined data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing project, which performed genotypic testing on leftover HIV diagnostic serum specimens of confidentially and anonymously tested ARV-naïve persons newly diagnosed with HIV in Colorado (n = 365 at 11 sites) and King County, Washington (n = 492 at 44 sites). The serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion was used to classify people as likely to have been recently infected or not. Type of testing, anonymous or confidential, was not significantly associated with either timing of HIV testing by serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion or resistance rates. Mutations conferring any level of ARV resistance were present in 17% of testers, and high-level resistance mutations were present in 10%. Anonymous testers were significantly more likely to have CD4+ counts >500 cells per mm(3) (45% vs. 28%; p = 0.018), indicative of an early infection. This study indicates that anonymous testers have demographic differences relative to confidential HIV testers but were not more likely to exhibit drug resistance. Findings related to when in the course of disease anonymous testers are tested are inconsistent, but anonymous testers had higher CD4 counts, which indicates early testing and is consistent with other studies.

  1. AIB-OR: Improving Onion Routing Circuit Construction Using Anonymous Identity-Based Cryptosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  2. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter.

  3. Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: Implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Caitlin E.; Herschel, Daniel; Lasek, Amy W.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

  4. Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Caitlin E; Herschel, Daniel J; Lasek, Amy W; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M

    2015-02-01

    Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse.

  5. Rejection of unfair offers can be driven by negative emotions, evidence from modified ultimatum games with anonymity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Nan; He, Xiao-Song; Sun, De-Lin; Zhang, Xiaochu; Zhang, Da-Ren

    2012-01-01

    The rejection of unfair offers can be affected by both negative emotions (e.g. anger and moral disgust) and deliberate cognitive processing of behavioral consequences (e.g. concerns of maintaining social fairness and protecting personal reputation). However, whether negative emotions are sufficient to motivate this behavior is still controversial. With modified ultimatum games, a recent study (Yamagishi T, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:11520-11523) found that people reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases inequity, and even when they could not communicate to the proposers. Yamagishi suggested that rejection of unfair offers could occur without people's concerning of maintaining social fairness, and could be driven by negative emotions. However, as anonymity was not sufficiently guaranteed in Yamagishi's study, the rejection rates in their experiments may have been influenced by people's concerns of protecting personal reputation (reputational concerns) in addition to negative emotions; thus, it was unclear whether the rejection was driven by negative emotions, or by reputational concerns, or both. In the present study, with specific methods to ensure anonymity, the effect of reputational concerns was successfully ruled out. We found that in a private situation in which rejection could not be driven by reputational concerns, the rejection rates of unfair offers were significantly larger than zero, and in public situations in which rejection rates could be influenced by both negative emotions and reputational concerns, rejection rates were significantly higher than that in the private situation. These results, together with Yamagishi's findings, provided more complete evidence suggesting (a) that the rejection of unfair offers can be driven by negative emotions and (b) that deliberate cognitive processing of the consequences of the behavior can increase the rejection rate, which may benefit social cooperation.

  6. Maternal social support and neighborhood income inequality as predictors of low birth weight and preterm birth outcome disparities: analysis of South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System survey, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Dhawain, Ashish; Hussey, James Robert; Luchok, Kathryn J

    2010-09-01

    Effects of income inequality on health and other social systems have been a subject of considerable debate, but only a few studies have used multilevel models to evaluate these relationships. The main objectives of the study were to (1) Evaluate the relationships among neighborhood income inequality, social support and birth outcomes (low birth weight, and preterm delivery) and (2) Assess variations in racial disparities in birth outcomes across neighborhood contexts of income distribution and maternal social support. We evaluated these relationships by using South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey for 2000-2003 geocoded to 2000 US Census data for South Carolina. Multilevel analysis was used to simultaneously evaluate the association between income inequality (measured as Gini), maternal social relationships and birth outcomes (low birth weight and preterm delivery). The results showed residence in neighborhoods with medium levels of income inequality was independently associated with low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI 1.14-3.26), but not preterm birth; low social support was an independent risk for low birth weight or preterm births. The evidence suggests that non-Hispanic black mothers were at increased risks of low birth weight or preterm birth primarily due to greater exposures of neighborhood deprivations associated with low income and reduced social support and modified by unequal income distribution.

  7. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  8. HIV test-seeking before and after the restriction of anonymous testing in North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Lee, L W; Hoyo, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the impact on HIV test-seeking of North Carolina's restriction of anonymous testing to 18 of its 100 counties as of September 1, 1991. METHODS: Trends from 4 months prerestriction to the 16-month restriction period in counties retaining vs counties eliminating anonymous testing were compared. RESULTS: HIV testing increased throughout the state, but more rapidly where anonymous testing was retained than elsewhere: 64% vs 44%. These differences held for all sociodemographic subgroups and were most pronounced among adolescents and African Americans and other non-Whites. CONCLUSIONS: The data are consistent with a detrimental effect of elimination of anonymous testing, although confounding from differences in AIDS awareness or in repeat tests is possible. PMID:8876517

  9. The relationship between young adults' beliefs about anonymity and subsequent cyber aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2013-12-01

    Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given.

  10. Security analysis and improvement of an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  11. Anonymous Warrior: The Contributions of Harold L. George to Strategic Air Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    AU/ACSC/0126I/97–03 ANONYMOUS WARRIOR: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF HAROLD L. GEORGE TO STRATEGIC AIR POWER A Research Paper Presented To The Research...Documentation Page Report Date 00031997 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Anonymous Warrior: The contributions of Harold L...Situation and Recommendation for the Conduct of the War.” This revision proposed a general increase in bomber strength to account for the loss of sea

  12. A Secure Construction for Threshold Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    At Indocrypt 2005, Viet et al., [21] have proposed an anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocol and its threshold construction both of which are designed for client's password-based authentication and anonymity against a passive server, who does not deviate the protocol. In this paper, we first point out that their threshold construction is completely insecure against off-line dictionary attacks. For the threshold t > 1, we propose a secure threshold anonymous PAKE (for short, TAP) protocol with the number of clients n upper-bounded, such that n\\leq 2 \\sqrt{N-1} -1, where N is a dictionary size of passwords. We rigorously prove that the TAP protocol has semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model by showing the reduction to the computational Diffie-Hellman problem. In addition, the TAP protocol provides unconditional anonymity against a passive server. For the threshold t=1, we propose an efficient anonymous PAKE protocol that significantly improves efficiency in terms of computation costs and communication bandwidth compared to the original (not threshold) anonymous PAKE protocol [21].

  13. An Enhanced Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Scheme for a Scalable Localization Roaming Service in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Chung, Youngseok; Choi, Seokjin; Lee, Youngsook; Park, Namje; Won, Dongho

    2016-10-07

    More security concerns and complicated requirements arise in wireless sensor networks than in wired networks, due to the vulnerability caused by their openness. To address this vulnerability, anonymous authentication is an essential security mechanism for preserving privacy and providing security. Over recent years, various anonymous authentication schemes have been proposed. Most of them reveal both strengths and weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency. Recently, Farash et al. proposed a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme in ubiquitous networks, which remedies the security faults of previous schemes. However, their scheme still suffers from certain weaknesses. In this paper, we prove that Farash et al.'s scheme fails to provide anonymity, authentication, or password replacement. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Considering the limited capability of sensor nodes, we utilize only low-cost functions, such as one-way hash functions and bit-wise exclusive-OR operations. The security and lightness of the proposed scheme mean that it can be applied to roaming service in localized domains of wireless sensor networks, to provide anonymous authentication of sensor nodes.

  14. An Enhanced Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Scheme for a Scalable Localization Roaming Service in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Youngseok; Choi, Seokjin; Lee, Youngsook; Park, Namje; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    More security concerns and complicated requirements arise in wireless sensor networks than in wired networks, due to the vulnerability caused by their openness. To address this vulnerability, anonymous authentication is an essential security mechanism for preserving privacy and providing security. Over recent years, various anonymous authentication schemes have been proposed. Most of them reveal both strengths and weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency. Recently, Farash et al. proposed a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme in ubiquitous networks, which remedies the security faults of previous schemes. However, their scheme still suffers from certain weaknesses. In this paper, we prove that Farash et al.’s scheme fails to provide anonymity, authentication, or password replacement. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Considering the limited capability of sensor nodes, we utilize only low-cost functions, such as one-way hash functions and bit-wise exclusive-OR operations. The security and lightness of the proposed scheme mean that it can be applied to roaming service in localized domains of wireless sensor networks, to provide anonymous authentication of sensor nodes. PMID:27739417

  15. Unexplained Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight ... unintentional. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 2, ...

  16. Size matters: How population size influences genotype–phenotype association studies in anonymized data

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua C.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Roden, Dan M.; Malin, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Electronic medical records (EMRs) data is increasingly incorporated into genome-phenome association studies. Investigators hope to share data, but there are concerns it may be “re-identified” through the exploitation of various features, such as combinations of standardized clinical codes. Formal anonymization algorithms (e.g., k-anonymization) can prevent such violations, but prior studies suggest that the size of the population available for anonymization may influence the utility of the resulting data. We systematically investigate this issue using a large-scale biorepository and EMR system through which we evaluate the ability of researchers to learn from anonymized data for genome- phenome association studies under various conditions. Methods We use a k-anonymization strategy to simulate a data protection process (on data sets containing clinical codes) for resources of similar size to those found at nine academic medical institutions within the United States. Following the protection process, we replicate an existing genome-phenome association study and compare the discoveries using the protected data and the original data through the correlation (r2) of the p-values of association significance. Results Our investigation shows that anonymizing an entire dataset with respect to the population from which it is derived yields significantly more utility than small study-specific datasets anonymized unto themselves. When evaluated using the correlation of genome-phenome association strengths on anonymized data versus original data, all nine simulated sites, results from largest-scale anonymizations (population ∼ 100;000) retained better utility to those on smaller sizes (population ∼ 6000—75;000). We observed a general trend of increasing r2 for larger data set sizes: r2 = 0.9481 for small-sized datasets, r2 = 0.9493 for moderately-sized datasets, r2 = 0.9934 for large-sized datasets. Conclusions This research implies that regardless of the

  17. Anonymous indexing of health conditions for a similarity measure.

    PubMed

    Song, Insu; Marsh, Nigel V

    2012-07-01

    A health social network is an online information service which facilitates information sharing between closely related members of a community with the same or a similar health condition. Over the years, many automated recommender systems have been developed for social networking in order to help users find their communities of interest. For health social networking, the ideal source of information for measuring similarities of patients is the medical information of the patients. However, it is not desirable that such sensitive and private information be shared over the Internet. This is also true for many other security sensitive domains. A new information-sharing scheme is developed where each patient is represented as a small number of (possibly disjoint) d-words (discriminant words) and the d-words are used to measure similarities between patients without revealing sensitive personal information. The d-words are simple words like "food,'' and thus do not contain identifiable personal information. This makes our method an effective one-way hashing of patient assessments for a similarity measure. The d-words can be easily shared on the Internet to find peers who might have similar health conditions.

  18. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    PubMed

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  19. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  20. Anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors in the explanation of social inequalities in low birth weight in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Pfinder, Manuela

    2014-01-08

    There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  1. [BREASTFEEDING PROBLEMS AND OTHER FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EXCESSIVE NEONATAL WEIGHT LOSS IN A SOCIAL SECURITY HOSPITAL IN LIMA, PERU].

    PubMed

    Berger-Larrañaga, Melissa; Bustamante-Abuid, Claudia; Díaz-Vergara, Silvia; Tresierra-Cabrera, Julio; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; R Segura, Eddy

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: durante los primeros días de vida la madre es la principal fuente de alimento para el recién nacido. Sin embargo, es común que la madre presente trastornos de la lactancia y se genere una pérdida de peso neonatal superior a la fisiológica. Objetivo: estimar la magnitud y asociación entre los trastornos de la lactancia y la pérdida de peso neonatal superior a la fisiológica en neonatos en el área de alojamiento conjunto de un servicio de neonatología en un hospital de la Seguridad Social en Lima, Perú. Métodos: estudio de tipo transversal analítico. Registramos el peso neonatal en una evaluación de rutina (entre las 24 y 72 horas de vida) y lo comparamos con el peso al nacer. La pérdida de peso excesiva fue definida como una diferencia igual o mayor al 7%. Mediante una encuesta y una verificación visual investigamos los trastornos de la lactancia materna (retraso en el inicio, posición de la boca, duración de la lactancia, frecuencia de la lactancia, sobreabrigo, dolor en el pezón y forma de la C). La asociación entre la pérdida de peso excesiva y los trastornos, ajustada por otros factores, fue cuantificada mediante un modelo lineal generalizado múltiple. Resultados: en 18,8% (74/393) de los neonatos, la pérdida de peso excesiva fue igual o superior al 7% del peso al nacer. La posición inadecuada de la boca en el pezón estuvo presente en el 53,7% (211/393) de los neonatos, mientras que el dolor en el pezón fue reportado en el 44,0% (173/393) de las madres. En el análisis ajustado, el dolor en el pezón [RP = 1,50 (IC95%:1,02-2,22)] y la posición inadecuada de la boca [RP = 1,67 (IC95%:1,09- 2,57)] estuvieron asociados a una mayor pérdida de peso excesiva. Conclusiones: los trastornos de la lactancia son comunes. Estos factores están directa y positivamente asociados a una mayor pérdida de peso excesiva. La introducción de mejoras en las prácticas de lactancia, por ejemplo mediante programas educativos, podr

  2. Anonymization for outputs of population health and health services research conducted via an online data center.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Christine M; Westcott, Mark; O'Sullivan, Maree; Ickowicz, Adrien; Churches, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Online data centers (ODCs) are becoming increasingly popular for making health-related data available for research. Such centers provide good privacy protection during analysis by trusted researchers, but privacy concerns may still remain if the system outputs are not sufficiently anonymized. In this article, we propose a method for anonymizing analysis outputs from ODCs for publication in academic literature. We use as a model system the Secure Unified Research Environment, an online computing system that allows researchers to access and analyze linked health-related data for approved studies in Australia. This model system suggests realistic assumptions for an ODC that, together with literature and practice reviews, inform our solution design. We propose a two-step approach to anonymizing analysis outputs from an ODC. A data preparation stage requires data custodians to apply some basic treatments to the dataset before making it available. A subsequent output anonymization stage requires researchers to use a checklist at the point of downloading analysis output. The checklist assists researchers with highlighting potential privacy concerns, then applying appropriate anonymization treatments. The checklist can be used more broadly in health care research, not just in ODCs. Ease of online publication as well as encouragement from journals to submit supplementary material are likely to increase both the volume and detail of analysis results publicly available, which in turn will increase the need for approaches such as the one suggested in this paper.

  3. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  4. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  5. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight share What It Takes to Lose Weight: Calorie Basics When you’re trying to lose weight... ... wcdapps.hhs.gov/Badges/Handlers/Badge.ashx?js=0&widgetname=betobaccofreew200short</NOFRAMES& ...

  6. Database design to ensure anonymous study of medical errors: a report from the ASIPS Collaborative.

    PubMed

    Pace, Wilson D; Staton, Elizabeth W; Higgins, Gregory S; Main, Deborah S; West, David R; Harris, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    Medical error reporting systems are important information sources for designing strategies to improve the safety of health care. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) is a multi-institutional, practice-based research project that collects and analyzes data on primary care medical errors and develops interventions to reduce error. The voluntary ASIPS Patient Safety Reporting System captures anonymous and confidential reports of medical errors. Confidential reports, which are quickly de-identified, provide better detail than do anonymous reports; however, concerns exist about the confidentiality of those reports should the database be subject to legal discovery or other security breaches. Standard database elements, for example, serial ID numbers, date/time stamps, and backups, could enable an outsider to link an ASIPS report to a specific medical error. The authors present the design and implementation of a database and administrative system that reduce this risk, facilitate research, and maintain near anonymity of the events, practices, and clinicians.

  7. A bilinear pairing based anonymous authentication scheme in wireless body area networks for mHealth.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Lian, Xinxin; Yang, Chao; Ma, Jianfeng; Tian, Youliang; Yang, Yuanyuan

    2016-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have become one of the key components of mobile health (mHealth) which provides 24/7 health monitoring service and greatly improves the quality and efficiency of healthcare. However, users' concern about the security and privacy of their health information has become one of the major obstacles that impede the wide adoption of WBANs. Anonymous and unlinkable authentication is critical to protect the security and privacy of sensitive physiological information in transit from the client to the application provider. We first show that the anonymous authentication scheme of Wang and Zhang based on bilinear pairing is prone to client impersonation attack. Then, we propose an enhanced anonymous authentication scheme to remedy the flaw in Wang and Zhang's scheme. We give the security analysis to demonstrate that the enhanced scheme achieves the desired security features and withstands various known attacks.

  8. Database Design to Ensure Anonymous Study of Medical Errors: A Report from the ASIPS collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Wilson D.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Higgins, Gregory S.; Main, Deborah S.; West, David R.; Harris, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Medical error reporting systems are important information sources for designing strategies to improve the safety of health care. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) is a multi-institutional, practice-based research project that collects and analyzes data on primary care medical errors and develops interventions to reduce error. The voluntary ASIPS Patient Safety Reporting System captures anonymous and confidential reports of medical errors. Confidential reports, which are quickly de-identified, provide better detail than do anonymous reports; however, concerns exist about the confidentiality of those reports should the database be subject to legal discovery or other security breaches. Standard database elements, for example, serial ID numbers, date/time stamps, and backups, could enable an outsider to link an ASIPS report to a specific medical error. The authors present the design and implementation of a database and administrative system that reduce this risk, facilitate research, and maintain near anonymity of the events, practices, and clinicians. PMID:12925548

  9. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  10. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  11. Eating behaviour and its association with social living conditions and weight status among adolescent girls: results of the cross-sectional Berlin School Children's Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bau, Anne-Madeleine; Krull, Sarah; Ernert, Andrea; Babitsch, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    To capture a more holistic picture of eating behaviour by investigating the impact of the social living conditions and weight status of parents and daughters on food consumption frequency, the context of meals and daily portion sizes. Cross-sectional Berlin School Children's Cohort study. A total of sixty-nine schools in Berlin (3 400 000 inhabitants, eastern Germany) participated in the present study. A total of 1519 girls aged 11-14 years were selected. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the impact of age, migration background, socio-economic status (SES), parental education, family situation and the weight status of parents and daughters on three different eating behaviour scores according to nutritional recommendations. For the three dependent eating behaviour variables, different patterns of influencing factors emerged. Multivariate regression (model 1) revealed that low and middle SES, two-parent migration background and older age were significant risk factors. Meal context was also significantly influenced by living with a single parent. Similar results were obtained for the daily portion size scores and maternal overweight status was the most influential. Model 2 succeeded in showing that, within the composite variable of family SES, mothers' level of education was the dominant component. SES as a whole, and especially the component of mothers' level of education and two-parent migration background, was the strongest risk factor for an unfavourable eating pattern among adolescent girls. The results clearly indicated preventive potential. Using three different measures of eating behaviour simultaneously provided an in-depth understanding of general patterns and potential risk factors.

  12. Impact of physical activity on energy balance, food intake and choice in normal weight and obese children in the setting of acute social stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Antje; Wobmann, Marion; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Borloz, Sylvie; Balz, Alexandra; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Borghini, Ayala; Puder, Jardena J

    2015-02-19

    Psychological stress negatively influences food intake and food choices, thereby contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Physical activity can also moderate eating behavior and influence calorie intake. However, it is unknown if acute physical activity influences food intake and overall energy balance after acute stress exposure in children. We therefore investigated the impact of acute physical activity on overall energy balance (food intake minus energy expenditure), food intake, and choice in the setting of acute social stress in normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children as well as the impact of psychological risk factors. After receiving written consent from their parents, 26 NW (BMI < 90(th) percentile) and 24 7-to 11-year-old OW (n = 5)/OB (n = 19, BMI ≥ 90(th) percentile) children were randomly allocated using computer-generated numbers (1:1, after stratification for weight status) to acute moderate physical or to sedentary activity for 30 min. Afterwards, all children were exposed to an acute social stressor. Children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires. At the end of the stressor, children were allowed to eat freely from a range of 12 different foods (6 sweet/6 salty; each of low/high caloric density). Energy balance, food intake/choice and obesity-related psychological risk factors were assessed. Lower overall energy balance (p = 0.019) and a decreased choice of low density salty foods (p < 0.001) in NW children compared with OW/OB children was found after acute moderate physical activity but not sedentary activity. Independent of their allocation, OW/OB children ate more high density salty foods (104 kcal (34 to 173), p = 0.004) following stress. They scored higher on impulsive behavior (p = 0.005), restrained eating (p < 0.001) and parental corporal punishment (p = 0.03), but these psychological factors were not related to stress-induced food intake/choice. Positive parenting tended to be related to

  13. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions.

  14. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  15. Anonymizing datasets with demographics and diagnosis codes in the presence of utility constraints.

    PubMed

    Poulis, Giorgos; Loukides, Grigorios; Skiadopoulos, Spiros; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2017-01-01

    Publishing data about patients that contain both demographics and diagnosis codes is essential to perform large-scale, low-cost medical studies. However, preserving the privacy and utility of such data is challenging, because it requires: (i) guarding against identity disclosure (re-identification) attacks based on both demographics and diagnosis codes, (ii) ensuring that the anonymized data remain useful in intended analysis tasks, and (iii) minimizing the information loss, incurred by anonymization, to preserve the utility of general analysis tasks that are difficult to determine before data publishing. Existing anonymization approaches are not suitable for being used in this setting, because they cannot satisfy all three requirements. Therefore, in this work, we propose a new approach to deal with this problem. We enforce the requirement (i) by applying (k,k(m))-anonymity, a privacy principle that prevents re-identification from attackers who know the demographics of a patient and up to m of their diagnosis codes, where k and m are tunable parameters. To capture the requirement (ii), we propose the concept of utility constraint for both demographics and diagnosis codes. Utility constraints limit the amount of generalization and are specified by data owners (e.g., the healthcare institution that performs anonymization). We also capture requirement (iii), by employing well-established information loss measures for demographics and for diagnosis codes. To realize our approach, we develop an algorithm that enforces (k,k(m))-anonymity on a dataset containing both demographics and diagnosis codes, in a way that satisfies the specified utility constraints and with minimal information loss, according to the measures. Our experiments with a large dataset containing more than 200,000 electronic health records show the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm.

  16. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  17. Eliminating access to anonymous HIV antibody testing in North Carolina: effects on HIV testing and partner notification.

    PubMed

    Kassler, W J; Meriwether, R A; Klimko, T B; Peterman, T A; Zaidi, A

    1997-03-01

    Anonymous HIV testing may attract persons who might otherwise not be tested but may hinder partner notification. We evaluated the effects on North Carolina's HIV testing and partner notification programs of policy changes that eliminated and later restored anonymous testing in 82 counties. We used an interrupted time-series design to compare counties eliminating with counties retaining anonymous testing. We analyzed HIV testing and partner notification data from before, during, and after elimination of anonymous testing. After elimination of anonymous testing in 82 counties, the mean monthly level of testing (+/- SE) increased by 45%, or 548 (+/- 123) tests per month, while in 18 counties that retained anonymous testing, there was a 63% increase, or 802 (+/- 162) tests per month (p > .05). Among men of all races, testing increased by 16%, or 155 (+/- 35) tests per month, in counties that eliminated anonymous testing; and by 51%, or 305 (+/- 42) tests per month (p < .05), in counties that retained anonymous testing. After elimination of anonymous testing, both county types experienced similar increases in the rate of partners notified. However, partner notification was more successful if the index patient was tested confidentially; 2.7 times as many partners per index patient were notified and counseled. There was no effect on testing or on partner notification rates following restoration of anonymous testing. Substantial community opposition to eliminating anonymous testing was encountered. The policy change appeared to result in a slight decrease in testing among men and a slight increase in partners notified. Programs considering the elimination of anonymous testing should weigh these potential gains and losses, as well as the impact on relationships between the public health and advocacy communities

  18. Darknet and bitcoin, the obscure and anonymous side of the internet in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Masoni, Marco; Guelfi, Maria Renza; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-11-14

    Illegal activities prosecutable by law in the real life can be committed on the internet alike. In the healthcare domain, we refer mainly to selling of illegal and counterfeit drugs, exchange of pedo-pornographic material and marketing of stolen medical records. These illegal activities are made easier by recent developments of the Internet that medical community must be aware of: darknet and bitcoin. The first allows anonymous surfing and the last anonymous financial transactions. After discussing which healthcare areas are affected by these technological developments of the Internet and the deriving consequences, then the Authors express their opinion on what actions can be taken to protect internet community.

  19. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  20. Anonymous As a Cyber Tribe: A New Model for Complex, Non-State Cyber Actors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Crossing the cultural barrier into Anonymous membership requires access to this knowledge.50 Other examples of Anonymous’ argot include, “cheese pizza ...moar,” “moralfag,”51 and “namefagging.”52 The argot term “cheese pizza ” hints at Anonymous’ tribe-like use of atrocity to create cultural...On 4chan and in Anonymous culture “cheese pizza ” refers to child pornography in an obscenely humorous way.54 Mainstream Western culture reviles

  1. Anonymity to Promote Peer Feedback: Pre-Service Teachers' Comments in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Craig D.; Barrett, Andrew F.; Frick, Theodore W.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental case study, we compared five sections of a basic undergraduate technology course. Within an asynchronous web forum, pre-service teachers wrote short critiques of websites designed by their classmates. This peer feedback was provided anonymously by students in two classes (n = 35) whereas providers and recipients of peer…

  2. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  3. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  4. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  5. Counselling couples and donors for oocyte donation: the decision to use either known or anonymous oocytes.

    PubMed

    Baetens, P; Devroey, P; Camus, M; Van Steirteghem, A C; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I

    2000-02-01

    In order to avoid a long waiting period, the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Free University of Brussels suggests that couples in need of donor oocytes search for a donor among family and friends. Recipient couples can choose between two types of donation: known donation, i.e. treatment with the oocytes of the donor recruited by the couple, or anonymous donation, i.e. an exchange of the donor recruited by the couple with a donor recruited by another couple in order to ensure anonymity between donor and recipients. In total, 144 couples were counselled by a psychologist in the decision-making process with regard to the kind of donation to be used. Some 68.8% of the recipient couples preferred known donation. This choice was mainly motivated by reasons related to fears associated with anonymity, such as fear of the unknown origin of genetic material and the trust that couples had in 'their' donor. Almost one-third of the couples opted to use anonymous oocytes. The desire to establish explicit boundaries between the two families involved was the major motivation for this choice. Approximately 44% of the couples were willing to tell the child about the oocyte donation.

  6. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  7. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  8. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  9. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  10. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  11. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  12. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  13. A Psychological Rationale in Support of the Alcoholics Anonymous' Concept of Fellowship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    1992-01-01

    Develops a theoretical rationale in support of the concept of "fellowship," the healing cornerstone of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Reviews supporting literature from the areas of personality theory, group psychotherapy, alcoholism psychopathology, and alcoholism psychological treatment. Suggests a common premise and common ground of…

  14. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  15. Leadership Style, Anonymity, and Creativity in Group Decision Support Systems: The Mediating Role of Optimal Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosik, John J.; Kahai, Surinder S.; Avolio, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 159 undergraduates found that flow (a psychological state characterized by concentration, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation) mediated effects of leadership style on creativity in a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) context, and that its role may be moderated by anonymity. Results also indicated that both flow and anonymity…

  16. Anonymous Examination Marking at University of Cape Town: The Quest for an "Agonising-Free Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, S.; Jones, B.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the University of Cape Town introduced an anonymous examination policy. This article reports on a study of the impact of the implementation of this policy on student performance. Comparisons of student results pre- and post policy implementation showed no evidence of negative or positive discrimination of students in the examination…

  17. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  18. A Case Study on Measuring Statistical Data in the Tor Anonymity Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loesing, Karsten; Murdoch, Steven J.; Dingledine, Roger

    The Tor network is one of the largest deployed anonymity networks, consisting of 1500+ volunteer-run relays and probably hundreds of thousands of clients connecting every day. Its large user-base has made it attractive for researchers to analyze usage of a real deployed anonymity network. The recent growth of the network has also led to performance problems, as well as attempts by some governments to block access to the Tor network. Investigating these performance problems and learning about network blocking is best done by measuring usage data of the Tor network. However, analyzing a live anonymity system must be performed with great care, so that the users' privacy is not put at risk. In this paper we present a case study of measuring two different types of sensitive data in the Tor network: countries of connecting clients, and exiting traffic by port. Based on these examples we derive general guidelines for safely measuring potentially sensitive data, both in the Tor network and in other anonymity networks.

  19. Enhancing self-report of adolescent smoking: the effects of bogus pipeline and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jane; Parkinson, Lynne; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Walsh, Raoul A

    2008-10-01

    Adolescent smoking prevalence is usually assessed via self-complete questionnaires. However, concern has been expressed about the validity of such self-report. One approach to increase validity involves the threat of biological validation, known as the bogus pipeline method (BPL).This study aimed to assess the effects of BPL, using an expired air carbon monoxide monitor, and of questionnaire anonymity on student smoking self-report data. High school students (n=801) were randomly allocated to one of four conditions: anonymous questionnaire+BPL, named questionnaire+BPL, anonymous questionnaire without BPL and named questionnaire without BPL. Overall, 37% of students agreed that questionnaires were a good way to obtain honest answers. In a logistic regression analysis, students in the BPL condition had significantly higher odds of reporting weekly smoking (OR=1.83 95% CI 1.27-2.65) and monthly smoking (OR=1.66 95% CI 1.21-2.28) but not of lifetime smoking compared with non-BPL students. Students in the named questionnaire condition had a significantly higher odds of reporting lifetime smoking (OR=1.49 95% CI 1.08-2.04) compared with anonymous students. Studies assessing current smoking patterns in adolescents should consider incorporating a BPL method.

  20. Romantic Relationship Advice from Anonymous Online Helpers: The Peer Support Adolescents Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Weinstein, Emily C.; Selman, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study investigates adolescents' responses to peers' personal accounts of romantic relationship difficulties posted to an online forum. We analyze 440 anonymous responses to personal accounts of four romantic relationship issues: controlling partners, break-ups, trust issues, and partner cruelty. Responses were categorized, in order…

  1. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  2. Anonymity to Promote Peer Feedback: Pre-Service Teachers' Comments in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Craig D.; Barrett, Andrew F.; Frick, Theodore W.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental case study, we compared five sections of a basic undergraduate technology course. Within an asynchronous web forum, pre-service teachers wrote short critiques of websites designed by their classmates. This peer feedback was provided anonymously by students in two classes (n = 35) whereas providers and recipients of peer…

  3. The ideal of the anonymous analyst and the problem of self-disclosure.

    PubMed

    Renik, O

    1995-07-01

    The principle of analytic anonymity is critically reviewed. A connection between the technical stance of nondisclosure and idealization of the analyst is proposed. Some preliminary suggestions are offered concerning what kinds of information about the analyst are useful to communicate to a patient.

  4. A Variation on the Use of Interactive Anonymous Quizzes in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an interesting variation on the use of interactive anonymous quizzes (IAQs) in the chemistry classroom. In this variation, IAQs are used to introduce new material or topics in a course, as opposed to their traditional use for reviewing previously covered material. Two examples of IAQs used to introduce new topics in a…

  5. Understanding the Role of Storytelling in the Transformation of Female Cocaine Addicts in Narcotics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Melissa Weida

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the role of storytelling in the transformation of female cocaine addicts in Narcotics Anonymous. For this research the primary investigator utilized a theoretical orientation of transformative learning theory and storytelling. The rationale for employing transformative learning theory is that…

  6. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  7. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  8. Understanding the Role of Storytelling in the Transformation of Female Cocaine Addicts in Narcotics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Melissa Weida

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the role of storytelling in the transformation of female cocaine addicts in Narcotics Anonymous. For this research the primary investigator utilized a theoretical orientation of transformative learning theory and storytelling. The rationale for employing transformative learning theory is that…

  9. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  10. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  11. Maintaining the anonymity of cadavers in medical education: Historic relic or educational and ethical necessity?

    PubMed

    Jones, D Gareth; King, Mike R

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the modern history of anatomical dissection by medical and other health science students, cadavers have been anonymized. This has meant that students have been provided with limited, if any, information on the identities or medical histories of those they are dissecting. While there was little way around this when the bodies were unclaimed, this need not be the case when the bodies have been donated. However, with a few exceptions, no efforts have been made to change this model. Recent attempts to move anatomy teaching in a more humanistic direction, by emphasizing the cadaver as the students' first patient and with the growth of commemoration services following the dissecting process, raise the question of whether cadavers should continue to be anonymized. In laying a basis for discussion of this matter, we outline what appear to be the virtues of anonymity, and the form that alternatives to anonymity might take. The options identified are nonidentification, low information; nonidentification, moderate information; and identification, full information. The virtues and drawbacks of each of these possibilities are assessed by analyzing their value for students, and also for donors and their families. Policy issues raised by alternatives are also considered. This article provides a basis for continued discussion and suggestions for further research in this area. Anat Sci Educ 10: 87-97. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  13. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    PubMed

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case.

  14. Social epidemiology of excess weight and central adiposity in older Indians: analysis of Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sudipta; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dutta, Ambarish

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, represented by extra body weight and abdominal circumference, among older Indians; and to characterise the social pattern of obesity and measure the magnitude of hypertension attributable to it. Setting A nationally representative sample of older Indians was selected from 6 Indian states, including Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra and Karnataka, as a part of the multicountry Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Participants Indians aged 50 years or more (n=7273) were included in the first wave of the SAGE (2010), which we used in our study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures included excess weight (EW), defined by body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, and central adiposity (CA), defined by waist circumference >90 cm for men and >80 cm for women. The secondary outcome included hypertension, defined by systolic blood pressure >139 or diastolic blood pressure >79 mm Hg, or by those receiving antihypertensive medications. Results 14% of older Indians possessed EW, whereas 35% possessed CA; 50.9% of the wealthier third and 27.7% of the poorer two-thirds have CA; the proportions being 69.1% and 46.2%, respectively, in older women. Mostly wealth (adjusted OR for CA: 4.36 (3.23 to 5.95) and EW: 4.39 (3.49 to 5.53)), but also urban residence, privileged caste, higher education, white-collared occupation and female gender, were important determinants. One of 17 older Indians overall and 1 of 18 in the poorer 70% suffered from CA-driven hypertension, independent of BMI. Conclusions The problem of CA and its allied diseases is already substantial and expected to rise across all socioeconomic strata of older Indians, though currently, CA affects the privileged more than the underprivileged, in later life. Population-based promotion of appropriate lifestyles, with special emphasis on women, is required to counteract prosperity

  15. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  16. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  17. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  19. Choosing area based socioeconomic measures to monitor social inequalities in low birth weight and childhood lead poisoning: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US)

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N; Chen, J; Waterman, P; Soobader, M; Subramanian, S; Carson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: To determine which area based socioeconomic measures can meaningfully be used, at which level of geography, to monitor socioeconomic inequalities in childhood health in the US. Design: Cross sectional analysis of birth certificate and childhood lead poisoning registry data, geocoded and linked to diverse area based socioeconomic measures that were generated at three geographical levels: census tract, block group, and ZIP code. Setting: Two US states: Massachusetts (1990 population=6 016 425) and Rhode Island (1990 population=1 003 464). Participants: All births born to mothers ages 15 to 55 years old who were residents of either Massachusetts (1989–1991; n=267 311) or Rhode Island (1987–1993; n=96 138), and all children ages 1 to 5 years residing in Rhode Island who were screened for lead levels between 1994 and 1996 (n=62 514 children, restricted to first test during the study period). Main results: Analyses of both the birth weight and lead data indicated that: (a) block group and tract socioeconomic measures performed similarly within and across both states, while ZIP code level measures tended to detect smaller effects; (b) measures pertaining to economic poverty detected stronger gradients than measures of education, occupation, and wealth; (c) results were similar for categories generated by quintiles and by a priori categorical cut off points; and (d) the area based socioeconomic measures yielded estimates of effect equal to or augmenting those detected, respectively, by individual level educational data for birth outcomes and by the area based housing measure recommended by the US government for monitoring childhood lead poisoning. Conclusions: Census tract or block group area based socioeconomic measures of economic deprivation could be meaningfully used in conjunction with US public health surveillance systems to enable or enhance monitoring of social inequalities in health in the United States. PMID:12594195

  20. Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and anonymous real-time team competition in a networked gaming learning environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Han, Chialing; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of anonymous, computerized, synchronized team competition on students' motivation, satisfaction, and interpersonal relationships. Sixty-eight fourth-graders participated in this study. A synchronous gaming learning system was developed to have dyads compete against each other in answering multiple-choice questions set in accordance with the school curriculum in two conditions (face-to-face and anonymous). The results showed that students who were exposed to the anonymous team competition condition responded significantly more positively than those in the face-to-face condition in terms of motivation and satisfaction at the 0.050 and 0.056 levels respectively. Although further studies regarding the effects of anonymous interaction in a networked gaming learning environment are imperative, the positive effects detected in this preliminary study indicate that anonymity is a viable feature for mitigating the negative effects that competition may inflict on motivation and satisfaction as reported in traditional face-to-face environments.