Science.gov

Sample records for anos del accidente

  1. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  2. ANO10 c.1150_1151del is a founder mutation causing autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia in Roma/Gypsies.

    PubMed

    Chamova, Teodora; Florez, Laura; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Raycheva, Margarita; Kaneva, Radka; Lochmüller, Hanns; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Tournev, Ivailo

    2012-05-01

    A recent report (Vermeer et al. in Am J Hum Genet 87:813-819, 2010) implicated for the first time the ANO10 gene in the genetic basis of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias. One of the three described families were Roma/Gypsies from Serbia, where the affected individuals were homozygous for the truncating p.Leu384fs mutation and displayed distinct phenotypic features (Vermeer et al. in Am J Hum Genet 87:813-819, 2010). Based on the history and population genetics of the Roma/Gypsies, we hypothesised that p.Leu384fs could be another founder mutation in this population, whose identification in a larger number of genetically homogeneous patients will contribute to defining the phenotypic spectrum of the disorder. Here, we describe additional patients from neighbouring Bulgaria, outlining invariable ANO10-ataxia features and confirming global intellectual decline as part of the phenotype resulting from complete Anactomin 10 deficit.

  3. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate ... underwear or pads Diarrhea Constipation How will my health care provider diagnose the cause of my accidental bowel ...

  4. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-04-02

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  5. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  6. Composite accidental axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Michele; Sato, Ryosuke

    2016-05-01

    We present several models where the QCD axion arises accidentally. Confining gauge theories can generate axion candidates whose properties are uniquely determined by the quantum numbers of the new fermions under the Standard Model. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry can emerge accidentally if the gauge theory is chiral. We generalise previous constructions in a unified framework. In some cases these models can be understood as the deconstruction of 5-dimensional gauge theories where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is protected by locality but more general constructions are possible.

  7. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Miele, A; Suarez, C; Hannigan, J; Hurley, R M

    1984-12-01

    In this case report of an accidental automobile carbon monoxide poisoning, we identify the following risk factors: freezing temperature, young passenger age, location in the rear of the auto, smaller patient mass, and auto disrepair. The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Emergency treatment and suggested criteria for hyperbaric oxygen use in pediatric patients are discussed.

  8. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  9. Accidental mobile phone card ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudesh; Mekwan, Jayanand; Brayley, Nigel F

    2009-01-01

    Accidental overdose, poisoning and foreign-body ingestion are common presentations to the emergency department. Usually, the ingested material is a common drug or household product. We present an unusual case of accidental ingestion where the foreign body was a mobile phone simulation (SIM) card. PMID:21686554

  10. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  11. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cardis, E

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed.

  12. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  13. [My accidental discovery].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya

    2008-10-01

    gleaned from my one accidental discovery.

  14. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. When are burns not accidental?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J

    1986-04-01

    One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis.

  16. [Management of severe accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Avellanas, M L; Ricart, A; Botella, J; Mengelle, F; Soteras, I; Veres, T; Vidal, M

    2012-04-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an environmental condition with basic principles of classification and resuscitation that apply to mountain, sea or urban scenarios. Along with coagulopathy and acidosis, hypothermia belongs to the lethal triad of trauma victims requiring critical care. A customized healthcare chain is involved in its management, extending from on site assistance to intensive care, cardiac surgery and/or the extracorporeal circulation protocols. A good classification of the degree of hypothermia preceding admission contributes to improve management and avoids inappropriate referrals between hospitals. The most important issue is to admit hypothermia victims in asystolia or ventricular fibrillation to those hospitals equipped with the medical technology which these special clinical scenarios require. This study attempts to establish the foundations for optimum management of accidental hypothermia from first emergency care on site to treatment in hospital including, resuscitation and rewarming with extracorporeal circulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. [Accidental poisoning in the home].

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J

    1989-09-25

    During a period of one year, a total of 79 cases of accidental poisoning were registered prospectively in the County Hospital in Aarhus and the City Hospital in Randers. The female/male ratio was 1/1.5. The incidence in children aged 0-14 years of age was 13 per 10,000. In Denmark as a whole, a total of 1,300 cases of accidental poisoning were estimated to occur during a period of one year. Sixty-four (81%) of the accidents occurred in small children aged 0-4 years. Twenty-five patients (32%) were hospitalized. The average duration of hospitalization was 2.4 days (1-4 days) and 84% of the inpatients were aged 0-4 years. The survey revealed that 27 case of accidental poisoning were due to medicine, 20 to organic solvents, eight to chemicals, 22 to poison and two to asphyxiation. It is concluded that the special legal regulations about packing and labelling are not sufficient when storage of the potential poison is not safe enough.

  18. Gold granuloma after accidental implantation.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, F R; Dhillon, A P; Lewin, J F; Flavell, W; Laws, I M

    1995-01-01

    A case, in a 66 year old man, of a florid granulomatous reaction to gold dental alloy presenting about 20 years after accidental implantation in the oral mucosa of the lip is reported. Subsequent energy dispersive analysis confirmed the presence of a high nobility gold dental alloy. Florid granulomatosis has only rarely been reported in association with gold. Possible explanations for the delay in presentation include alteration of immune status or the development of hypersensitivity with components of the gold dental alloy acting as haptens. Images PMID:8543638

  19. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    PubMed

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  20. ANO1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ANO1, or anoctamin-1, is a calcium-activated chloride channel gene overexpressed in many tumors. ANO1 is ubiquitously expressed in epithelia and is thought to be important in epithelial fluid transport.

  1. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  2. Field Management of Accidental Hypothermia during Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Case history number 97: Core rewarming by peritoneal irrigation in accidental hypothermia with cacdiac arrest. Anesth Analg 1966; 56:574-577. 85. Lint-n...Intractable ventricular fibrillation associated with profound accidental hypothermia - Successful treatment with ;irtial cardiopulmonary bypass . N Engl...5 B. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPOTHERMIC DIVER ................ 6 C. FIELD TREATMENT OF HYPOTHERMIA. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 D

  3. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Metallinos, Konstantinos

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  4. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  5. Accidental hypothermia in severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Vardon, Fanny; Mrozek, Ségolène; Geeraerts, Thomas; Fourcade, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Hypothermia, along with acidosis and coagulopathy, is part of the lethal triad that worsen the prognosis of severe trauma patients. While accidental hypothermia is easy to identify by a simple measurement, it is no less pernicious if it is not detected or treated in the initial phase of patient care. It is a multifactorial process and is a factor of mortality in severe trauma cases. The consequences of hypothermia are many: it modifies myocardial contractions and may induce arrhythmias; it contributes to trauma-induced coagulopathy; from an immunological point of view, it diminishes inflammatory response and increases the chance of pneumonia in the patient; it inhibits the elimination of anaesthetic drugs and can complicate the calculation of dosing requirements; and it leads to an over-estimation of coagulation factor activities. This review will detail the pathophysiological consequences of hypothermia, as well as the most recent principle recommendations in dealing with it.

  6. Electric fences and accidental death.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael; Odell, Morris; Bouwer, Heinrich; Murdoch, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Deaths which occur in association with agricultural electric fences are very rare. In fact, electric fences have undoubtedly saved numerous human and animal lives by safely and reliably keeping livestock confined to their fields and enclosures and thus preventing motor vehicle incidents when livestock get onto roads and highways. Accidental and intentional human contact with electric fences occurs regularly and causes little more than transient discomfort, however, on exceptional occasions, contact with electric fences appears to be directly related to the death of the individual. The precise pathophysiological cause of these deaths is unclear. We present two cases of deaths associated with electric fences, discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms in these cases, and suggest a universal approach to the medico-legal investigation and documentation of these deaths.

  7. Accidental decapitation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of an accidental decapitation of an agriculture worker in a field. The scene investigation revealed that the worker had loosely tied a scarf tied over his face in an attempt to diminish his exposure to barley dust, to which he was allergic, while distributing the barley loads with a shovel upon a trailer. The trailer was simultaneously being loaded by a helix elevator machine and its rotating shaft suddenly caught the victim's scarf and pulled it down to the victim's neck. The rotating motion immediately tightened the scarf around the neck resulting in hanging/strangulation noose that, by continued tightening, caused decapitation of the victim. The victim's body was found on the ground by the trailer and the victim's head was discovered in the barley load in the trailer. Examination revealed that the neck was severed at the level of the second and third cervical vertebrae.

  8. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  9. Ano1 as a regulator of proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Stanich, Jennifer E.; Gibbons, Simon J.; Eisenman, Seth T.; Bardsley, Michael R.; Rock, Jason R.; Harfe, Brian D.; Ordog, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Ano1 is a recently discovered Ca2+-activated Cl− channel expressed on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that has been implicated in slow-wave activity in the gut. However, Ano1 is expressed on all classes of ICC, even those that do not contribute to generation of the slow wave, suggesting that Ano1 may have an alternate function in these cells. Ano1 is also highly expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Mice lacking Ano1 had fewer proliferating ICC in whole mount preparations and in culture, raising the possibility that Ano1 is involved in proliferation. Cl− channel blockers decreased proliferation in cells expressing Ano1, including primary cultures of ICC and in the pancreatic cancer-derived cell line, CFPAC-1. Cl− channel blockers had a reduced effect on Ano1(−/−) cultures, confirming that the blockers are acting on Ano1. Ki67 immunoreactivity, 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation, and cell-cycle analysis of cells grown in low-Cl− media showed fewer proliferating cells than in cultures grown in regular medium. We confirmed that mice lacking Ano1 had less phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein compared with controls. These data led us to conclude that Ano1 regulates proliferation at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle and may play a role in tumorigenesis. PMID:21940901

  10. Idiopathic fistula-in-ano

    PubMed Central

    Shawki, Sherief; Wexner, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is the most common form of perineal sepsis. Typically, a fistula includes an internal opening, a track, and an external opening. The external opening might acutely appear following infection and/or an abscess, or more insiduously in a chronic manner. Management includes control of infection, assessment of the fistulous track in relation to the anal sphincter muscle, and finally, definitive treatment of the fistula. Fistulotomy was the most commonly used mode of management, but concerns about post-fistulotomy incontinence prompted the use of sphincter preserving techniques such as advancement flaps, fibrin glue, collagen fistula plug, ligation of the intersphincteric fistula track, and stem cells. Many descriptive and comparative studies have evaluated these different techniques with variable outcomes. The lack of consistent results, level I evidence, or long-term follow-up, as well as the heterogeneity of fistula pathology has prevented a definitive treatment algorithm. This article will review the most commonly available modalities and techniques for managing idiopathic fistula-in-ano. PMID:21876614

  11. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  12. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim.

  13. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  14. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  15. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  16. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  17. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a) (1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  18. Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-09-01

    We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

  19. Deep accidental hypothermia during the Queensland summer.

    PubMed

    Udy, Andrew A; Ziegenfuss, Marc D; Fraser, John F

    2007-12-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with severe accidental hypothermia associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after a polypharmacy overdose. Deep hypothermia developed while she lay unconscious, with a split-system air-conditioning unit rapidly cooling the confined area of her bedroom. Despite the need for lengthy resuscitative efforts at the scene and in hospital, she went on to a full neurological recovery. The neuroprotective role of accidental hypothermia is reviewed, as are the guidelines for resuscitation in this setting. We conclude that hypothermia must be considered even in unlikely circumstances, such as the Queensland summer, when ambient temperatures are high.

  20. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  1. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  2. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  3. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  4. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  5. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  6. Expression of calcium-activated chloride channels Ano1 and Ano2 in mouse taste cells.

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, Alexander P; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tarasov, Michail V; Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2016-02-01

    Specialized Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels ubiquitously couple intracellular Ca(2+) signals to a change in cell polarization. The existing physiological evidence suggests that Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are functional in taste cells. Because Ano1 and Ano2 encode channel proteins that form CaCCs in a variety of cells, we analyzed their expression in mouse taste cells. Transcripts for Ano1 and Ano2 were detected in circumvallate (CV) papillae, and their expression in taste cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. When dialyzed with CsCl, taste cells of the type III exhibited no ion currents dependent on cytosolic Ca(2+). Large Ca(2+)-gated currents mediated by TRPM5 were elicited in type II cells by Ca(2+) uncaging. When TRPM5 was inhibited by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), ionomycin stimulated a small but resolvable inward current that was eliminated by anion channel blockers, including T16Ainh-A01 (T16), a specific Ano1 antagonist. This suggests that CaCCs, including Ano1-like channels, are functional in type II cells. In type I cells, CaCCs were prominently active, blockable with the CaCC antagonist CaCCinh-A01 but insensitive to T16. By profiling Ano1 and Ano2 expressions in individual taste cells, we revealed Ano1 transcripts in type II cells only, while Ano2 transcripts were detected in both type I and type II cells. P2Y agonists stimulated Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents in type I cells. Thus, CaCCs, possibly formed by Ano2, serve as effectors downstream of P2Y receptors in type I cells. While the role for TRPM5 in taste transduction is well established, the physiological significance of expression of CaCCs in type II cells remains to be elucidated.

  7. Fatal accidental inhalation of bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211).

    PubMed

    Lerman, Y; Winkler, E; Tirosh, M S; Danon, Y; Almog, S

    1991-03-01

    Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211) is a widely used fire extinguishing agent. Several cases of sudden death in teenagers associated with BCF abuse have been reported. BCF is used as a fire extinguisher in battle tanks. Two young previously healthy male soldiers were accidentally exposed to BCF in a battle tank. The tank driver died, but the gunner survived the event with no medial complications. It is concluded that BCF should be used in confined chambers only after the evacuation of all personnel.

  8. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.

  9. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:24470856

  10. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  11. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  12. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske E-mail: markus.rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  13. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  15. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  16. Ground Shock Effects from Accidental Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    2,640 2.47 x 10_1+ Limestone 2,400 2.25 x 10ŕ* Sandstone 2,240 2.10 x 10_l+ Shale 2,320 2.17 x 10-*4 Concrete 2,400 2.25 x 10ŕ* 19 Table 4...and compact soils Sandstone and cemented soils Shale and marl Limestone-chalk Metamorphic rocks Volcanic rocks Sound plutonic rocks Jointed...Accidental Explosions," Dept. of the Army Technical Manual TM 5-1300 (also NAVFAC P-397, AFM 88-22), Washington, DC, June 1969. 2. R. E. Crawford

  17. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  18. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  19. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  20. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  1. Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Entremont, Barbara; Yazbek, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an experimenter demonstrated either an "intentional" and an "accidental" action or two "intentional" actions on the same toy [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello ("1998a") "Infant Behavior and Development, 21," 315-330]. CWA tended…

  2. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  3. 49 CFR 192.195 - Protection against accidental overpressuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection against accidental overpressuring. 192.195 Section 192.195 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Pipeline Components § 192.195 Protection against accidental overpressuring. (a) General requirements...

  4. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  5. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  6. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  7. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  8. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  9. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) for 7 days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  10. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  11. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.

    1988-07-01

    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  12. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  13. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  14. Reduce accidental releases of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, D.

    1996-09-01

    With final publication of the Risk Management Program (RMP), operating companies must take action to lessen the likelihood of accidental hazardous chemical releases. Now, companies must extensively investigate how raw materials and products are managed within the process and storage facilities. Protection at high costs is not profitable. At the same time, not enough protection is also costly should a release invoke substantial property damage or loss of life. Modern ways to confine regulated compounds include inherently safer technologies (ISTs) and active mitigation technologies. These new designs and added options can improve protection against more likely release scenarios. Using the guidelines, HPI operators manage both compliance and cost of compliance when developing safety programs for RMP.

  15. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; Del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery.

  16. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  17. Accidental cell phone ingestion with pharyngeal impaction.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed M; Bahl, Kazal; Dross, Matthew; Farooqui, Shoheb; Dross, Peter

    2014-09-01

    35 year old intoxicated male ingested an unusual, large foreign object (cell phone). To report the ingestion of an unusual large foreign object with hypopharyngeal impaction, complications, and treatment. Foreign body ingestion in the adult population is more prevalent in those who engage in drug or alcohol abuse. Impaction and perforation of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant and potentially fatal complications including parapharyngeal/retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and aortoesophageal fistula. The treatment of foreign object ingestion is dependent on the type of foreign object ingested, its location, and potential for perforation. Endoscopic removal under general anesthesia is the treatment method recommended for foreign bodies impacted at the cricopharyngeus or esophagus. We report the only case of the accidental ingestion of an entire cell phone with casing. A plain film x-ray of the neck can be used in the assessment of the location of radiopaque foreign objects and in diagnosing potential complication.

  18. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ani9, A Novel Potent Small-Molecule ANO1 Inhibitor with Negligible Effect on ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yohan; Lee, Ho K.; Park, Jinhong; Jeon, Dong-kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Jo, Minjae; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1)/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the most potent inhibitor, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylideneamino]-acetamide (Ani9), completely inhibited ANO1 chloride current with submicromolar potency. Notably, unlike previous small-molecule ANO1 inhibitors identified to date, Ani9 displayed high selectivity for ANO1 as compared to ANO2, which shares a high amino acid homology to ANO1. In addition, Ani9 did not affect the intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR chloride channel activity. Our results suggest that Ani9 may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying ANO1 and a potential development candidate for drug therapy of cancer, hypertension, pain, diarrhea and asthma. PMID:27219012

  20. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  1. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption.

  2. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

  3. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol

  4. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms.

  5. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  6. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  8. [Management of hypothermia -- Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre in Krakow].

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Sobczyk, Dorota; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sanak, Tomasz; Hymczak, Hubert; Kapelak, Bogusław; Drwiła, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the years 2009–2012 the Polish National Statistics Department reported 1836 deaths due to exposure to excessive natural cold. The Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre (CLHG, Centrum Leczenia Hipotermii Glebokiej) was set up in Krakow in 2013. It is a unit functioning within the structure of the Cardiac Surgery Clinic, established in order to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of patients in the advanced stages of severe hypothermia. Early identification of hypothermia, binding algorithm and coordination leading to extracorporeal rewarming, are the most important elements in the deep hypothermia management.

  9. Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

    2014-12-01

    The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

  10. Herb-induced cardiotoxicity from accidental aconitine overdose

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sujata; Tan, Elaine Ching Ching; Tan, Hock Heng; Tay, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Patients who overdose on aconite can present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Aconite must be prepared and used with caution to avoid cardiotoxic effects that can be fatal. We herein describe a case of a patient who had an accidental aconite overdose but survived with no lasting effects. The patient had prepared Chinese herbal medication to treat his pain, which resulted in an accidental overdose of aconite with cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. The patient had ventricular tachycardia, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Following treatment with anti-arrhythmic medications, defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he made an uneventful recovery, with no further cardiac arrhythmias reported. PMID:26243980

  11. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  12. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of...

  13. Accidental introductions of natural enemies: causes and implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accidental introductions of natural enemies, including parasitoid and predatory groups, may exceed species introduced intentionally. Several factors favor this: a general surge in international trade; lack of surveillance for species that are not associated with live plants or animals; inability to ...

  14. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

  15. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  16. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of...

  17. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  18. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  19. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  20. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  1. Accidental nuclear war--a post-cold war assessment.

    PubMed

    Forrow, L; Blair, B G; Helfand, I; Lewis, G; Postol, T; Sidel, V; Levy, B S; Abrams, H; Cassel, C

    1998-04-30

    In the 1980s, many medical organizations identified the prevention of nuclear war as one of the medical profession's most important goals. An assessment of the current danger is warranted given the radically changed context of the post-Cold War era. We reviewed the recent literature on the status of nuclear arsenals and the risk of nuclear war. We then estimated the likely medical effects of a scenario identified by leading experts as posing a serious danger: an accidental launch of nuclear weapons. We assessed possible measures to reduce the risk of such an event. U.S. and Russian nuclear-weapons systems remain on a high-level alert status. This fact, combined with the aging of Russian technical systems, has recently increased the risk of an accidental nuclear attack. As a conservative estimate, an accidental intermediate-sized launch of weapons from a single Russian submarine would result in the deaths of 6,838,000 persons from firestorms in eight U.S. cities. Millions of other people would probably be exposed to potentially lethal radiation from fallout. An agreement to remove all nuclear missiles from high-level alert status and eliminate the capability of a rapid launch would put an end to this threat. The risk of an accidental nuclear attack has increased in recent years, threatening a public health disaster of unprecedented scale. Physicians and medical organizations should work actively to help build support for the policy changes that would prevent such a disaster.

  2. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is regulating...

  3. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  4. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  5. 76 FR 58566 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Report of Accidental Injury in Support... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation... needed to support a claim for disability benefits based on an accidental injury. DATES: Written comments...

  6. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  7. Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature.

  8. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    PubMed

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  10. Epidemiology of accidental drowning in Denmark 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Steensberg, J

    1998-11-01

    Three hundred and forty-nine cases of accidental drowning or cooling in water occurring in Denmark from 1989 to 1993 have been studied. The incidence was highest in 0-4-year-old children, in middle-aged men, and in old people. A third of the children drowned in private pools. A quarter of all fatalities occurred during leisure boating. At least half of those that drowned in this way did not wear a life-jacket and could have been saved if they had been wearing one. Between a third and a half of the adult drownings were related to alcohol intake, and a large number of inebriated men fell into harbour basins and other water bodies. A few final remarks are made on the prospects for preventing accidental drowning in children, elderly people and adult males.

  11. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    PubMed

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Accidental mydriasis from exposure to Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens).

    PubMed

    Havelius, Ulf; Asman, Peter

    2002-06-01

    To report clinical findings after accidental instillation into the eye of sap from Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens). We report findings on seven patients who developed sudden onset of unilateral mydriasis. At least three of them also had ipsilateral cycloplegia and one developed transient tachycardia. The symptoms evolved after ocular exposure to sap from Angel's trumpet, a plant containing natural alkaloids with parasympatholytic properties. Six patients were initially unaware of the cause of their symptoms. In these cases, patient history revealed recent contact with Angel's trumpet. Accidental ocular instillation of sap from Angel's trumpet should be noted as a cause of sudden onset of mydriasis in otherwise unaffected patients and also of general symptoms like tachycardia.

  13. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nikhil A.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature. PMID:25140237

  14. Accidentally discovered large metallic intra-orbital foreign body.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Yilikal

    2002-01-01

    A 6.2 cm long and 2.7 cm thick metallic foreign body was accidentally found and removed from a 62 years old man. He was sent to a minor operation theater for repair of left lower lid laceration secondary to trauma after a fight. Subsequent investigation, management, patient follow-up and outcome are discussed. Importance of careful history taking, thorough physical examination and proper investigations are stressed.

  15. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nikhil A; Kundargi, Vinay S; Patil, Siddangouda B; Biradar, Ashok N; Desai, Anup S

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature.

  16. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed Central

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R.

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  17. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures.

  18. Accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus: tomographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariano Paiva; Magalhães, Edno; de Farias Cascudo, Elialba; Jogaib, Marco Antonio Dias; da Silva, Marcelo Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA), underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus: tomographic analysis].

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariano Paiva; Magalhães, Edno; Cascudo, Elialba de Farias; Jogaib, Marco Antonio Dias; Silva, Marcelo Carneiro da

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA), underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Accidental ingestions of oral prescription drugs: a multicenter survey.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, B J; Rock, A R; Cohn, M S; Litovitz, T

    1989-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of oral prescription drugs by children under age five continues to be a public health problem. A telephone survey of 1,866 ingestion incidents reported to nine poison control centers was conducted in the spring of 1986. Accidental ingestion occurred most often with a two-year-old child (42 per cent) in their own home (82 per cent). Thirty-five per cent of the toxic drugs ingested at home belonged to someone other than the immediate family, most often a grandparent. Toxic drugs were more often out of their usual storage location and in non-child-resistant prescription packaging, a nonprescription container, or in no container. Twenty-two per cent of all child-resistant packages were non-functional. Overall, at least 61 per cent of all medications had no child-resistant barrier at the time of ingestion. Accessible storage locations such as the kitchen counter, table top, or top of a dresser or bedside table greatly increased the risk of accidental ingestion. These results suggest the need for effective child-resistant packaging that is easier for all adults to use. PMID:2660604

  1. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions.

  2. Accidental asphyxia in bed in severely disabled children.

    PubMed

    Amanuel, B; Byard, R W

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether there are specific situations which may increase the risk of accidental asphyxia during sleep in children with physical and mental disabilities. Review of all cases where death was attributed to accidental asphyxia caused by unsafe sleeping situations in children listed in the Department of Histopathology database over a 10-year period from March 1989 to February 1999. A total of 26 cases were found (M:F, 19:7; age range, 1-48 months; average age, 7.4 months). Of those cases, two involved children with significant mental and physical impairment. Case 1: A 4-year-old boy with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome, macrocephaly and severe developmental delay, was found dead with his head hanging over a wooden board attached to the side of his bed. Case 2: A 4-year-old boy with lissencephaly and severe developmental delay was found dead wedged between a retractable mesh cot side and the side of his bed. In both cases the devices resulting in death had been put in place to prevent the boys from falling out of bed. Accidental asphyxia in physically and mentally impaired children may be caused by devices that have been used to prevent injury from falling out of bed. Careful assessment of the specific developmental problems that children suffer should be undertaken before their beds are modified. It may be safer for these children either to have no barrier, or to have drop-sided cots/beds that meet recognized safety standards.

  3. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  4. Accidental falls involving medical implant re-operation.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Moore, Tara; Heller, Michelle F

    2009-10-01

    Implantation of medical devices is becoming more prevalent, and as a result, a greater number of patients who fall accidentally are expected to have a medical implant. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to evaluate hospital admissions following accidental falls involving re-operation of existing medical implants (hip, knee, spine, and fracture fixation) from 1990 to 2005. From 1990 to 2005, hospitalisations due to accidental falls on level surfaces increased by 306%, and hospitalisations due to falls from stairs increased by 310%. Falls involving orthopaedic revision surgery (re-operation) are relatively rare, but the incidence has increased by approximately 35%. Hospital stays after falls on level surfaces involving re-operation were 1.0 day (median) longer and cost 50% (median) more than those that did not involve re-operation in 2005. After staircase falls, hospital stays for patients undergoing re-operations were 2.0 days (median) longer and cost 108% (median) more. The greater hospital costs and hospital stay for patients needing re-operations indicate that additional medical treatment was required.

  5. A normal ano-genital exam: sexual abuse or not?

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are at the forefront of providing care to children and families. The PNP is in a unique position to educate patients and families regarding sexual abuse and dispel common myths associated with sexual abuse. One such myth is that a normal ano-genital examination is synonymous with the absence of sexual abuse. This article will provide primary care providers, including PNPs, with a framework for understanding why a normal ano-genital examination does not negate the possibility of sexual abuse/assault. Normal ano-genital anatomy, changes that occur with puberty, and physical properties related to the genitalia and anus will be discussed. Photos will provide visualization of both normal variants of the pre-pubertal hymen and genitalia as well as changes that occur with puberty. Implications for practice for PNPs will be discussed.

  6. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una

  7. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Lehan, Nora E; Murphy, Julia R; Thorburn, Lukas P; Bradley, Bethany A

    2013-07-01

    Preventing new plant invasions is critical for reducing large-scale ecological change. Most studies have focused on the deliberate introduction of nonnatives via the ornamental plant trade. However, accidental introduction may be an important source of nonnative, invasive plants. Using Web and literature searches, we compiled pathways of introduction to the United States for 1112 nonnative plants identified as invasive in the continental United States. We assessed how the proportion of accidentally and deliberately introduced invasive plants varies over time and space and by growth habit across the lower 48 states. Deliberate introductions of ornamentals are the primary source of invasive plants in the United States, but accidental introductions through seed contaminants are an important secondary source. Invasive forbs and grasses are the most likely to have arrived accidentally through seed contaminants, while almost all nonnative, invasive trees were introduced deliberately. Nonnative plants invading eastern states primarily arrived deliberately as ornamentals, while a high proportion of invasive plants in western states arrived accidentally as seed contaminants. Accidental introductions may be increasing in importance through time. Before 1850, 10 of 89 (11%) of invasive plants arrived accidentally. After 1900, 20 of 65 (31%) arrived accidentally. Recently enacted screening protocols and weed risk assessments aim to reduce the number of potentially invasive species arriving to the United States via deliberate introduction pathways. Increasing proportions of accidentally introduced invasive plants, particularly associated with contaminated seed imports across the western states, suggest that accidental introduction pathways also need to be considered in future regulatory decisions.

  8. The spectrum of accidental childhood poisoning in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas C; Brinkman, William

    2002-11-01

    To assess accidental poisoning in children in the Caribbean country of Antigua and Barbuda, including the incidence, the types of substances ingested, the age of the children involved, and the clinical outcomes. The results from Antigua and Barbuda were compared with the results of other reports from the English-speaking Caribbean and from the United States of America. We performed a retrospective review of the charts of all patients less than 13 years old admitted to the Children's Ward at Holberton Hospital in Antigua for accidental poisoning between March 1989 and March 1999. Those data were compared with data from earlier reports from Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and the United States of America. In Antigua and Barbuda there were 255 hospital admissions for accidental poisoning among children below 13 years old over that 10-year period. Of the 255 ingestions, 115 of them (45%) were in 1-year-old children, 69 (27%) were in 2-year-old children, and 26 (10%) were in 3-year-old children. These proportions in Antigua and Barbuda are similar to the age patterns seen in the other countries with which we made comparisons. In Antigua and Barbuda there was an annual average of 26 hospital admissions for poisoning for the roughly 20,000 children below 13 years of age, for a rate of 1.3 per 1,000. In comparing the patterns of childhood poisoning in all the countries we studied, we found that, as economic levels rose, there was a shift in the substances ingested, with hydrocarbon and plant ingestions decreasing and chemical and medication ingestions increasing. There is an increasing variety and complexity of poisonous substances ingested as economic conditions improve. This trend would make the establishment of a poison control center for the English-speaking Caribbean a logical step.

  9. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  10. Accidental outcomes guide punishment in a "trembling hand" game.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

    2009-08-26

    How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a "trembling hand": that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution.

  11. Evaluation and treatment of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Peyko, Vincent; Cohen, Victor; Jellinek-Cohen, Samantha P; Pearl-Davis, Michelle

    2013-05-01

    A case of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine is described. A 47-year-old man arrived at the emergency department after accidental injection of epinephrine with an autoinjector into his left thumb. His vital signs were stable at admission. The patient was allergic to nuts and thought he may have eaten something containing a pine nut. The patient reported feeling itching in his throat but had no shortness of breath or swollen tongue. He tried to self-administer an epinephrine injection, but it did not inject. While he was checking the device, it accidently injected into his left thumb pad. A review of systems revealed throat discomfort, a tingling sensation of the tongue, and a left-thumb puncture with pain. Physical examination of the left thumb pad revealed a pale, cool thumb with diminished capillary refill and punctuate black discoloration at the site of injection. Topical nitroglycerin paste was applied but had no effect, so terbutaline was ordered. The terbutaline injection was prepared as a 1:1 preparation of terbutaline sulfate 1 mg/mL and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The immediate effects were the return of color from pale white to red and observable perfusion to the area within seconds. After 20 minutes, the red color remained, with observable perfusion and warmth, in addition to complete neurosensory function. Sixty minutes after terbutaline administration, the patient was discharged home. A 47-year-old man who accidentally injected himself in the thumb with an epinephrine autoinjector was successfully treated with subcutaneous terbutaline. The treatment had an immediate effect, including revascularization and resolution of pain.

  12. Outcome of accidental peritoneal dialysis catheter holes or tip exposure.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Douglas M; Wilcox, Jennifer E

    2010-06-01

    Pediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are at risk for acute peritonitis. One risk factor is accidental exposure of the catheter to a non-sterile surface. We studied catheter exposures in 17 pediatric patients receiving PD who developed 16 holes and 12 other accidental exposures. The rate of exposures was 3.7 events/100 patient-months. After exposure, the mean counts (+ or - standard error) of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells, and neutrophils were 39.8 + or - 19.3, 9.5 + or - 7.1, and 24.2 + or - 5.3/mm(3), respectively. There was a trend towards higher peritoneal fluid WBC in patients with holes than in those with exposures (60.1 + or - 34.8 vs. 15.4 + or - 5.1/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.2). The initial peritoneal fluid WBC count was significantly higher if there was a positive culture than a negative culture (165.0 + or - 132.6 vs. 20.3 + or - 6.4/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.01). The percentage of neutrophils was higher in patients with a positive culture than in those with a negative culture (54.7 + or - 14.1 vs. 19.1 + or - 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Of the 28 patients, 27 received a single dose of intravenous antibiotics, as per the protocol at that time. Among those treated, 7% developed a positive culture (all staphylococcal species) while 93% had a negative culture. We conclude that following accidental exposure of the peritoneal dialysis catheter: (1) the prevalence of peritonitis is low; (2) measuring peritoneal fluid WBC provides treatment guidance; (3) if treatment is initiated, it should be applied intraperitoneally and include activity against Gram-positive organisms.

  13. Extrapyramidal symptoms following accidental ingestion of risperidone in a child.

    PubMed

    Cheslik, T A; Erramouspe, J

    1996-04-01

    To describe the development of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) precipitated by an accidental overdose of risperidone in a 3.5-year-old boy. The boy presented to the emergency department with bilateral upward eye gaze, jerky movements of his extremities, and motor restlessness following an accidental ingestion of a single 4-mg risperidone tablet. Decontamination with NaCl 0.9% lavage and activated charcoal with sorbitol was performed. His symptoms responded immediately to intravenous diphenhydramine (on 3 different occasions) during his first 9.5 hours of hospitalization. He experienced no additional EPS, and was discharged home approximately 33 hours following initial presentation. At home, he received three oral doses of diphenhydramine in the 24 hours following hospital discharge because of hand tremor, total body shivering, and eye wandering. These signs resolved without further complications. Although the incidence of EPS associated with therapeutic risperidone use is low, its occurrence following overdose is less clearly defined. This represents the first published case, to our knowledge, of risperidone overdose in a child and highlights the potential for dystonic reactions at low doses in this population. Seven intentional overdoses of risperidone in adults (aged 21-68 y) have been reported in the literature and are reviewed. Amounts ingested ranged from 5 to 270 mg. All adult patients appeared to have a relatively benign course. Reported symptoms included drowsiness, slurred speech, altered levels of consciousness, hypertension, tachycardia, electrocardiogram abnormalities, atypical motor behavior, tremors, and other EPS (not specified). Accidental ingestion of low doses of risperidone can cause EPS in children that may respond well to an anticholinergic agent. Overdose management includes gastrointestinal lavage, activated charcoal with cathartic, cardiovascular monitoring, and supportive therapy.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  16. [Intoxication from accidental ingestion of cannabis: analysis of eight cases].

    PubMed

    Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant.

  17. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Multidisciplinary approach to "accidental" falls in the elderly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Mazzella, Francesca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Ungar, Andrea; Masotti, Giulio; Rengo, Franco; Abete, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Falls in the elderly are commonly and often wrongly identified as "accidental". We report a case of an elderly woman admitted to first aid for a trauma due to an accidental fall. Geriatric multidisciplinary evaluation revealed mild cognitive impairment associated with depressive symptoms; both findings made the anamnesis uncertain. Syncope algorithm was applied and "tachy-brady form of sick sinus syndrome" was diagnosed. Differential diagnosis between "accidental" and "apparently accidental" falls in elderly patients is very difficult but a multidisciplinary geriatric evaluation can clarify the correct diagnosis.

  19. A historical perspective: Simian AIDS-an accidental windfall.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Murray

    2016-10-01

    For the past 30 years, Simian AIDS has provided an indispensible animal model for the human disease. This historical perspective highlights the circumstances leading to the creation of this experimental model. Historical information and stored non-human primate (NHP) specimens, including isolates of Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), were analyzed by molecular epidemiologic methods to trace the lineage and transmission of SIV among NHPs at US primate centers. The rhesus and stump-tailed macaque models of Simian AIDS are the result of the accidental transmission of SIV from healthy sooty mangabey carriers to naïve macaques during the course of human kuru experimental transmission studies at UC Davis during the 1960s. Simian AIDS, first recognized in the 1980s, is the accidental result of experimental kuru transmission experiments carried out in the 1960s, which led to the discovery of infectious prions but inadvertently transmitted SIV, unknown at that time, from sooty mangabeys to macaques. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Accidental acute alcohol intoxication in infants: review and case report.

    PubMed

    Minera, Gabriella; Robinson, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication in children younger than 18 months old is both rarely documented and rarely fatal. Previous case reports suggest hypoglycemia and faster than normal rates of alcohol elimination found in children with acute alcohol intoxication compared with adults, but data are lacking. A 2-month-old infant presented with a decreased mental status after accidental ingestion of alcohol. He was diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication, with a blood alcohol level of 330 mg/dL and was hyperglycemic (167 mg/dL). Alcohol elimination rate was calculated to be 21.6 mg/dL/h, similar to that in adults. To our knowledge, this case is the second youngest documented patient with accidental alcohol intoxication via ingestion in the United States. We present a rare case report of acute alcohol intoxication in an infant and a review of the literature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although rare in the literature, poison control data suggests that alcohol poisoning in very young children is not rare. Emergency physicians should be prepared for the management of infants with alcohol poisoning. This case report and review brings attention to this subject and briefly discusses ethanol metabolism in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Apnoea and brain swelling in non-accidental head injury

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A; Stoodley, N; Cobley, C; Coles, L; Kemp, K; Geddes, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: (1) To identify whether infants and young children admitted to hospital with subdural haematomas (SDH) secondary to non-accidental head injury (NAHI), suffer from apnoea leading to radiological evidence of hypoxic ischaemic brain damage, and whether this is related to a poor prognosis; and (2) to determine what degree of trauma is associated with NAHI. Methods: Retrospective case series (1992–98) with case control analysis of 65 children under 2 years old, with an SDH secondary to NAHI. Outcome measures were presenting symptoms, associated injuries and apnoea at presentation, brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemic changes on neuroimaging, and clinical outcome (KOSCHI). Results: Twenty two children had a history of apnoea at presentation to hospital. Apnoea was significantly associated with hypoxic ischaemic brain damage. Severe symptoms at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling/hypoxic ischaemic damage were significantly associated with a poor prognosis. Eighty five per cent of cases had associated injuries consistent with a diagnosis of non-accidental injury. Conclusions: Coma at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemia all predict a poor outcome in an infant who has suffered from SDH after NAHI. There is evidence of associated violence in the majority of infants with NAHI. At this point in time we do not know the minimum forces necessary to cause NAHI. It is clear however that it is never acceptable to shake a baby. PMID:12765909

  2. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  3. Accidental Peccei-Quinn Symmetry Protected to Arbitrary Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Nardi, Enrico; Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    A S U (N )L×S U (N )R gauge theory for a scalar multiplet Y transforming in the bifundamental representation (N ,N ¯) preserves, for N >4 , an accidental U (1 ) symmetry first broken at operator dimension N . A vacuum expectation value for Y can break the symmetry to Hs=S U (N )L+R or to Hh=S U (N -1 )L×S U (N -1 )R×U (1 )L +R . In the first case the accidental U (1 ) gets also broken, yielding a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson with mass suppression controlled by N . In the second case a global U (1 ) remains unbroken. The strong C P problem is solved by coupling Y to new fermions carrying color. The first case allows for a Peccei-Quinn solution with U (1 )PQ protected by the gauge symmetry up to order N . In the second case U (1 ) can get broken by condensates of the new strong dynamics, resulting in a composite axion. By coupling Y to fermions carrying only weak isospin, models for axionlike particles can be constructed.

  4. Accidental Bolt Gun Injury to Femur - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Ravi Prasad; Shetty, Sanath; Mirza, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are used in meat industry for “humane killing” of animals. Injuries caused by bolt gun are rare, reported exclusively from central European countries. We report a case of 28 year old male, who accidentally shot himself with a bolt gun to his right thigh. Case Report: A 28 years old male presented to our Accident and Emergency department after accidental injury to his right thigh with bolt gun. He had an entry wound measuring 2 cm in length and 1 cm in breadth over anterior aspect of lower one third of thigh at lower and sustained Grade II compound fracture of right femur shaft at distal one third. The wound was treated with multiple debridements, negative pressure wound therapy and intravenous antibiotics based on culture and sensitivity. Conclusion: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are weapons used in meat industry for slaughtering animals. Wounds inflicted by bolt guns have specific morphological feature, distinctive from wounds made by other kinds of hand firearms. Most of the time wound will be infected at presentation. Lesions caused by these weapons are likely to have a more serious character than is to be expected from the size of the entrance wound. The mainstay of treatment is liberal wound exploration, multiple debridement’s and intra venous antibiotics based on culture reports to treat infection and prevent morbidity. PMID:28164044

  5. Epidemiology of accidental home poisoning in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, A H; Taha, S A; Al Rifai, M R

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study on 178 cases of accidental home poisoning admitted to the main children's hospital in Riyadh poisoning was found to account for 5.6% of the total annual admissions--greater than any other developing country and approaching Western proportions. The commonest ages were between 1 and 5 years. Drugs accounted for 52% of cases and household products for 46%. This picture also differs from the pattern of poisoning in developing countries and is more akin to that of industrialised countries. The most important factors in aetiology, besides the age of the patient and the underprivileged social class, were the abundance of drugs and household chemicals in the Saudi home, none of them in child proof containers; inappropriate storage; and lack of supervision of children. Cultural factors also contributed. The frequency of poisoning in childhood may be decreased in the long run by improved housing, socioeconomic status, and education. The place and methods of health education, also a long term objective, is discussed. For immediate primary prevention two important legislative measures are proposed: (1) provision of childproof containers of drugs and other chemicals used in the home and (2) banning of over the counter sales of drugs. For more accurate epidemiological data collection, and thereby better preventative planning, a national register of accidental poisoning and other accidents is recommended. Poison information centres are also deemed necessary. PMID:6655419

  6. Forensic aspects of 40 accidental autoerotic deaths in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Janssen, W; Koops, E; Anders, S; Kuhn, S; Püschel, K

    2005-01-17

    Between 1983 and 2003, 40 accidental autoerotic fatalities have been investigated. in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg. Only 50% (n=20) were autopsied (13 legal autopsies, 6 for scientific purposes and 1 for an insurance company). All the victims were males, aged between 13 and 79 years (among them five children and adolescents, the deceased mainly between 20 and 40 years). The paraphiliacs utilized a great range of devices and props as fetishism, sexual aids or pain-stimulating agents, like intimate feminine garments, ropes, chains, bondages, locks, pornographic magazines, condoms, rubber items, and chemical anaesthetics. The cause of death was strangulation in 20 cases (17 x hanging, 3 x ligature strangulation), 11 x suffocation (8 x under plastic bags, 3 x with face-masks, 2 x thoracic compression, 1 x positional asphyxia, and 1 x cocaine intoxication). Five cases without autopsy remained unclear because of missing morphological and toxicological findings; it could not be differentiated between asphyxiation/intoxication/natural disease, although the scene characteristics seemed to be typical for autoerotic deaths. It is emphasized that the findings at the scene, the morphological and toxicological examination of the dead body (full autopsy as prerequisite) by experienced investigators and the personal history of the deceased have to be evaluated very carefully and intensely to reconstruct the accidental fatal autoerotic course accurately and undoubtedly (to exclude the possibility of sexual homicide, neglected killing, or suicide).

  7. Incidence and characteristics of accidental falls in hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Inagaki, Yuko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Ando, Kei; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Yoshimasa; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    Aging of the patient population has led to increased occurrence of accidental falls in acute care settings. The aim of this study is to survey the annual occurrence of falls in a university hospital, and to examine procedures to prevent fall. A total of 49,059 inpatients were admitted to our hospital from April 2015 to March 2016. A fall assessment scale was developed to estimate the risk of fall at admission. Data on falls were obtained from the hospital incident reporting system. There were fall-related incidents in 826 patients (1.7%). Most falls occurred in hospital rooms (67%). Adverse events occurred in 101 patients who fell (12%) and were significantly more frequent in patients aged ≥80 years old and in those wearing slippers. The incidence of falls was also significantly higher in patients in the highest risk group. These results support the validity of the risk assessment scale for predicting accidental falls in an acute treatment setting. The findings also clarify the demographic and environmental factors and consequences associated with fall. These results of the study could provide important information for designing effective interventions to prevent fall in elderly patients.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for primary fistula in ano.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, G N; Halligan, S; Williams, A B; Cohen, C R G; Tarroni, D; Phillips, R K S; Bartram, C I

    2003-07-01

    This was a prospective study designed to determine the therapeutic impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in primary fistula in ano, and to assess its effect on outcome. Thirty patients with suspected primary fistula in ano underwent preoperative MRI, and the findings were revealed during surgery following examination under anaesthesia (EUA). Any effect on operative approach was noted. Outcome was assessed at a median of 12 months. Two patients had sinuses, one had no sepsis and 27 had fistulas: five superficial, seven intersphincteric, 14 trans-sphincteric and one suprasphincteric. MRI and EUA agreed in 15 patients and MRI findings altered the surgical approach in a further three (10 per cent); two of the latter patients were believed to have a sinus at EUA, which MRI correctly identified as a fistula, allowing definitive treatment. The therapeutic impact of MRI was therefore 10 per cent. Persisting disagreement between MRI and EUA in 12 patients mostly related to minor discrepancies in classification. Only one patient required further unplanned surgery, which was for skin-bridging rather than any new sepsis. In experienced hands, MRI has a therapeutic impact of 10 per cent for primary fistula in ano, precipitating surgery that is likely to reduce recurrence in a small, but important, proportion of patients. Copyright 2003 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-09-01

    Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41μg/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57μg/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with

  10. 78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks for Combined License Applications--DC/COL-ISG-013 and Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks.../COL-ISG-013, Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials...

  11. [Accidental hypothermia in adults: taking charge by the SAMU of Paris].

    PubMed

    Deny, N; Bresard, D; Bertrand, J; Poisvert, M

    1990-02-01

    Thirty one cases of accidental hypothermia have been taken in care by the SAMU de Paris during the year of 1987. The accidental hypothermias happening in the cities are, most of the time, moderated and not very serious. The search for a cause is a prime necessity. The prognosis is based on that search to guide and advise the patients.

  12. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental ingestion...

  13. Two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into a digit treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injections.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Ryan P; Acquisto, Nicole M; Gunyan, Holly; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  14. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  15. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  16. 76 FR 73021 - Agency Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation or Pension/Statement of Witness to Accident, VA Form 21- 4176...: VA Form 21-4176 is used to support a claim for disability benefits based on an accidental injury that... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation or...

  17. Evolution Towards Critical Fluctuations in a System of Accidental Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Jansen, Vincent; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago a model for accidental pathogens was developed to describe large fluctuations in the epidemiology of some diseases where the pathogen mostly lives with its host as a commensal and only rarely causes disease, leading to a disadvantage of the mutants which cause disease more often. By now the simplest version of this scenario is known as Stollenwerk-Jansen (SJ) model, showing that the critical exponents of the large fluctuations are of the type of the voter model (which by itself has an evolutionary biologists predecessor) but no further attempt was made there to investigate in more detail the mechanism leading the system to evolve towards small pathogenicity. We investigate an extended version of the SJ model, the SJ model version II in which we find the system to evolve to low pathogenicity causing large critical fluctuations without tuning the control parameter, a self-organization of criticality.

  18. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation.

  19. Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

    2008-12-01

    Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile.

  20. Accidental boric acid poisoning following the ingestion of household pesticide.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Rebecca A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2007-05-01

    Borate-containing compounds were formerly used as topical antiseptics and were components of many medicinal preparations including skin powders and ointments used for the treatment of burns and diaper rash. These compounds were also used as irrigants for body cavities, including the pleural, vaginal, and rectal cavities. These applications were subsequently discontinued by the medical community when the toxicity and potential lethality of borates were recognized. Although documented cases of borate poisoning are now rare, the chemical is still an active component commonly used in high concentrations in household disinfectants/cleaners, pesticides, and wood preservatives. While the majority of documented borate-related deaths have occurred in infants, the toddler population is currently at risk due to possible exposure to these household products. We present the case of an 18-month-old child who died following the accidental ingestion of a boric acid-containing, commercially available roach pesticide product.

  1. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  2. Clinical Signs and Pathology of Accidental Monensin Poisoning in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. N.; Crowe, S. P.; Harries, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical signs and postmortem findings in sheep from two flocks accidentally poisoned with monensin are described. Clinical signs began within 24 hours of exposure to monensin. In the acute stages they consisted of lethargy, stiffness, muscular weakness, a stilted gait and recumbency. Feed refusal was seen in one flock but not in the second. Subacute to chronic clinical signs were decreased muscle volume of the rump and thigh. When forced to run, chronically affected sheep had a stilted, stiff legged, rocking horse gait. Gross postmortem changes were not always visible. Where visible, they affected skeletal muscles and consisted of pale streaking, with atrophy in the chronic stages. Lesions were most severe in muscles of the rump and hind limbs. Microscopically myofiber swelling and hyalinization were seen with interstitial mononuclear cell reaction and extensive sarcoplasmic mineralization in some cases. Chronic lesions consisted of fibrosis and myofiber atrophy. In lambs less than one month old, diffuse gastrointestinal hemorrhage was the only finding. PMID:17422198

  3. Endocardial left ventricular pacing after accidental aortic wall perforation.

    PubMed

    Şoşdean, Raluca; Enache, Bogdan; Macarie, Răzvan Ioan; Pescariu, Sorin

    2016-03-01

    Inadvertent endocardial placement of a pacing lead in the left ventricle through the aortic valve is a rare complication with an unknown incidence because of inadequate reporting. Reported cases are usually the result of lead insertion via the subclavian artery. A possible but very unusual situation is endocardial lead insertion in the left ventricle after aortic arch perforation. We report the case of a 72-year-old woman in whom a screw-in pacing lead accidentally perforated the aortic arch and continued its way through the ascending aorta, aortic valve and left ventricle, after insertion through the left subclavian vein. We describe how this complication was diagnosed, the predisposing factors, the risks it carries and the ways in which devastating consequences have so far been avoided, as the patient refused any surgical intervention including lead removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España.

  4. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  5. [Complex pelvic trauma caused by an accidental side split].

    PubMed

    Heinermann, J D B; Hessmann, M H; Rommens, P M

    2005-04-01

    Complex pelvic ring fractures are defined as injuries of the pelvic ring in association with lesions of the pelvic organs or the pelvic soft tissues. These injuries are typically caused by high-energy accidents. In contrast to the typical mechanism of injury a case is described in which a low energy trauma led to a complex pelvic ring trauma. An obese woman suffered an open-book injury of the pelvis with severe open urogenital soft-tissue damage by accidentally doing forced splits. Primary stabilization of the pelvic ring with external fixation and secondary internal fixation with a double-plate osteosynthesis of the symphysis led to a good clinical outcome concerning the osseous lesion. The urogenital injuries with rupture of the bladder, the urethra and the vagina led despite immediate urological management to an incontinence, which finally required definitive urine drainage via an ileum conduit.

  6. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.M.C.

    1996-05-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  7. Delayed upper-airway injury after accidental alkaline ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Matthew F; Fernandez, Mindy; Laauwe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions.

  8. Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

  9. Realization of unidirectional transmission under accidental degenerated Dirac point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Qun; Zhang, Yichi; Poo, Yin; Ma, HuiFeng; Wu, Ruixin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated a good unidirectional transmission (UT) with high transmission efficiency without breaking time-reversal symmetry both theoretically and experimentally. By adjusting the topological structure and designing the component of all-dielectric photonic crystal, an accidental degenerated Dirac point is built at Γ point. We obtained simultaneous zero permittivity and zero permeability. Truncating the PC into a bow-tie shape, we observed a total reflection in one direction but a total transmission in the opposite direction. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data verifies such model supports a good UT even considering the material's loss. Due to the PC's scale invariance, this kind of UT can be conveniently exploited into terahertz or optical frequency, providing a great promising application to optical communication and optical circuit.

  10. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  11. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary

  12. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  13. [Accidental ingestion of two magnets--aggresive or prolonged approach?].

    PubMed

    Durko, Alina; Czkwianianc, Elzbieta; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Małecka-Panas, Ewa

    2007-05-01

    Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common pediatric problem. Non-sharp items like coins, jewelry, pieces of toys are most frequently found among swallowed objects. They usually pass through a child's digestive system without health consequences (40-90% of reported cases). Approximately 10% of children require endoscopic intervention and 1-3% undergoes a surgical treatment. Authors present a unique health hazard caused by multiple magnet ingestion and general management in these cases of this specific foreign body presence. A 6 y.o. boy, in excellent health has been admitted G.I. Dept. presenting a history of accidental ingestion of two magnets (size 1.5 x 0.5 cm) 4 days prior to hospitalization. On admission patient presented no symptoms of foreign body in GI tract, however his WBC was 15000/mm3, ESR-22mm. Foreign bodies have been removed under general anesthesia using endoscopic technique. Endoscopic view of the esophagus region from which magnet has been removed at first might have been identify as a perforation of the esophageal wall. Chest X-ray has not revealed symptoms of pneumothorax, as well as the contrast radiologic study showed symptoms of upper GI tract perforation. Conservative treatment has been administered. Patient has been discharged home with no complaints in general and local good condition. Ingestion of more than one magnets is an strong indication for an immediate endoscopic intervention. Such an algorithm is strongly advocated to prevent of lesion formation in the soft tissues located between two objects with paramagnetic properties which may cause ischemic necrosis and perforation of the GI tract wall.

  14. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  15. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing...

  17. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing...

  18. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing...

  19. Experimental porcine model of complex fistula-in-ano

    PubMed Central

    A Ba-Bai-Ke-Re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Xue; Wang, Yun-Hai

    2017-01-01

    AIM To establish and evaluate an experimental porcine model of fistula-in-ano. METHODS Twelve healthy pigs were randomly divided into two groups. Under general anesthesia, the experimental group underwent rubber band ligation surgery, and the control group underwent an artificial damage technique. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological evaluation were performed on the 38th d and 48th d after surgery in both groups, respectively. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in general characteristics such as body weight, gender, and the number of fistula (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, 15 fistulas were confirmed clinically, 13 complex fistulas were confirmed by MRI, and 11 complex fistulas were confirmed by histopathology. The success rate in the porcine complex fistula model establishment was 83.33%. Among the 18 fistulas in the control group, 5 fistulas were confirmed clinically, 4 complex fistulas were confirmed by MRI, and 3 fistulas were confirmed by histopathology. The success rate in the porcine fistula model establishment was 27.78%. Thus, the success rate of the rubber band ligation group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Rubber band ligation is a stable and reliable method to establish complex fistula-in-ano models. Large animal models of complex anal fistulas can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of anal fistulas. PMID:28348488

  20. Cocaine- and methamphetamine-related deaths in San Diego County (1987): homicides and accidental overdoses.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D N; Shaw, R F

    1989-03-01

    Cocaine- and methamphetamine-related homicides and fatal accidental overdoses in San Diego County were studied retrospectively for the 1987 calendar year. Cocaine was involved in 66 cases (39 homicides, 27 accidental overdoses), methamphetamine in 32 cases (23 homicides, 9 accidental overdoses), and a combination of cocaine and methamphetamine in 10 cases (4 homicides, 6 accidental overdoses). The composite for cocaine-related deaths was a 30-year-old black man in whom was also found at least 1 other drug, usually ethanol or morphine. The composite for methamphetamine-related deaths was a 32-year-old Caucasian man who used methamphetamine with at least 1 other drug (usually ethanol). For cases involving both cocaine and methamphetamine, the composite was a 36-year-old Caucasian man in whom was also found at least 1 other drug, usually ethanol, codeine, or morphine. Mean tissue concentrations of cocaine and benzoylecgonine were significantly higher in accidental overdoses than in homicides except for cocaine concentrations in liver, which did not differ significantly between the two groups. For methamphetamine-related deaths there was no significant difference between mean tissue concentrations in accidental overdoses and in homicides. Cocaine or methamphetamine or both were involved in approximately one third of homicides in San Diego County in 1987, and when fatal accidental overdoses were included, cocaine was involved in twice as many cases as methamphetamine.

  1. Accidental out-of-hospital deliveries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Renesme, L; Garlantézec, R; Anouilh, F; Bertschy, F; Carpentier, M; Sizun, J

    2013-04-01

    To determine risk factors for accidental out-of-hospital deliveries (OHDs), which represent 0.5% of live births in France and are associated with poor neonatal outcomes. This retrospective case-control study assessed accidental OHDs that occurred in the Finistère District (Brittany, France) between January 2007 and December 2009. For each OHD case, two controls were randomly selected. Outcome measures included maternal demographics, obstetric characteristics and neonatal outcomes. During the study period, accidental OHDs accounted for 0.42% of all births; 76 accidental OHDs were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis found four independent risk factors for accidental OHD: multiparity [OR: 8.84 (3.22-24.29)], unemployment [OR: 4.99 (1.85-13.47)], lack of or poor antenatal care [OR: 9.00 (2.41-33.72)] and a travel time >45 min from home to the delivery unit [OR: 6.18 (1.33-28.65) versus < 15 min]. Significantly more newborns from the OHD group required admission to the neonatal unit (p = 0.04), but accidental OHD was not significantly associated with prematurity or low birth weight. Four risk factors for accidental OHD were identified. Setting up an anonymous registry of OHD cases could improve our knowledge and screening of women at risk. ©2013 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  2. Inhibition of ANO1 by luteolin and its cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhong; Jeon, Dong-kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Lee, Ho K.

    2017-01-01

    Anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a calcium-activated chloride channel, is highly amplified in prostate cancer, the most common form of cancer and leading causes of cancer death in men, and downregulation of ANO1 expression or its functional activity is known to inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. Here, we performed a cell-based screening for the identification of ANO1 inhibitors as potential anticancer therapeutic agents for prostate cancer. Screening of ~300 selected bioactive natural products revealed that luteolin is a novel potent inhibitor of ANO1. Electrophysiological studies indicated that luteolin potently inhibited ANO1 chloride channel activity in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 9.8 μM and luteolin did not alter intracellular calcium signaling in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Luteolin inhibited cell proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells expressing high levels of ANO1 more potently than that of ANO1-deficient PC-3 cells. Notably, luteolin not only inhibited ANO1 channel activity, but also strongly decreased protein expression levels of ANO1. Our results suggest that downregulation of ANO1 by luteolin is a potential mechanism for the anticancer effect of luteolin. PMID:28362855

  3. Ano-Genital Warts and HIV Status– A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Aim To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Results Significant association of HIV positivity (p<0.05) was observed between age group of 15-30 years and HIV negative status (p<0.05) in age group of 31-45 years. HIV positive status significantly higher in patients with self-admitted multiple sexual partners (p<0.01), homosexuality (p<0.05) and presentation with anal warts (p<0.01). HIV negative status correlated significantly with single sexual partner admission (p<0.01) and hetero-sexuality (p<0.05). Gender did not show significant association with number of sexual partners or HIV positivity. Extra-genital or only genital warts had no association with HIV status. Co-STDs though more in number in ser-positive group, did not show any significant association with HIV positivity (p>0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). Conclusion HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary. PMID:28274028

  4. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  5. Comparative toxicology of intentional and accidental heroin overdose.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan; Torok, Michelle

    2010-07-01

    The demographic and toxicological characteristics of deliberate (SUI, n = 50) and accidental (ACC, n = 927) fatal heroin overdose cases were examined. SUI cases were more likely to be female, had lower body mass indices, were more likely to be enrolled in treatment and less likely to have hepatic pathology. The median blood morphine concentration of SUI cases was significantly higher than that of ACC cases (0.70 vs. 0.40 mg/L, p < 0.001). Blood morphine concentrations of >1 mg/L were seen among 38.0% of SUI cases compared to 13.9% of ACC cases. Being a member of the SUI group remained a significant independent predictor of higher morphine concentrations after controlling for the effects of potential confounders (p < 0.001), other significant predictors being the absence of alcohol (p < 0.001), the presence of methadone (p < 0.05), and the presence of cocaine (p < 0.05). The current data are consistent with the view that suicide forms a small, but distinct, category of heroin overdose cases, rather than overdose being a parasuicidal phenomenon per se.

  6. Non-accidental trauma: the role of radiology.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Cory M; Hammer, Matthew R; Mangona, Kate L; Booth, Timothy N

    2017-04-01

    Non-accidental trauma is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Given the vulnerable state of the child, the radiologist can often provide valuable diagnostic information in the setting of suspected abuse. This review focuses on common findings of abusive trauma and serves as a guide to aid in clinical decision-making for providers of emergency medicine and pediatrics. Amid this discussion is an assessment of modern controversies regarding reported mimicking pathologies, recapitulation of the current state of evidence with respect to radiologic findings of abuse, and examination of the contribution that spine imaging may add to the diagnosis of possible abusive head trauma in the acutely injured child. Recommendations for avoiding pitfalls regarding the dating of intracranial injuries are discussed, and illustrated depictions of perpetrator-induced pathology are provided to aid in the understanding of these injuries. Through the use of the appropriate approach to imaging and evidence-based guidelines regarding radiologic findings, the role of radiology is to provide fundamental clues to diagnose and prevent recurrence of abusive injury in patients who cannot speak for themselves.

  7. [Arachnoid cyst and tension headache: symptom or accidental finding?].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, M; Niedermaier, N; Lowitzsch, K

    2002-08-01

    We report a 34 year old male patient presenting with occipital headache and bilateral shoulder and neck pain. Cranial MRT discloses a large arachnoid cyst ventral to the medulla oblongata. The cyst displaces the caudal medulla oblongata dorsally to an angle of almost 90 degrees without causing myelopathy. Physical examination reveals normal neurological findings without any sign of brainstem lesions or lesions of the medulla oblongata. Orthopedic evaluation shows mild functional abnormalities as expected in tension headache. Multiple electrophysiologic investigations such as motor-, somatosensory-, and acoustic-evoked potentials, masseter and brain stem reflexes, and electromyography of the left M. trapezius were performed and reveal normal results. MR-angiography discloses displacement of the left vertebral artery to the right without stenosis.We discuss the possibility of a causal connection between the cystic lesion and the reported symptoms. Considering the findings based on a review of the available literature we conclude that the pain syndrome is very likely unrelated to the arachnoid cyst. The latter is herewith an accidental finding in a patient with tension headache, and underlines the importance of thoroughfull clinical examination to avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

  8. Chemical causes of the typical burnt smell after accidental fires.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Katharina; Wichmann, Hubertus; Bahadir, Müfit

    2009-11-01

    The components responsible for the typical burnt smell that occurs after accidental fires (e.g. in buildings) were identified. For this purpose, samples of odorous materials were taken from different real fire sites. Their volatile fractions were analysed by means of thermal desorption, headspace analysis and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Measurements performed with SPME gave the highest number of analytes as well as the highest signal intensities. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre was found to be the most suitable for this task. To distinguish the odour-active compounds from the ca. 1,400 identified volatiles concentrated by SPME, an olfactory detection port was attached to the GC/MS and the column effluent was assessed by panellists. The results revealed that eleven odorous compounds were present in most of the investigated samples: acetophenone, benzyl alcohol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol, 2-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol and naphthalene. Their odour activities were confirmed in additional olfactory experiments, and the relative ratios of these eleven compounds were determined. Based on these ratios, standard solutions that presented an intense odour with typical characteristics of the burnt smell were produced.

  9. Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful.

  10. User`s guide to federal accidental release databases

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Chapter II of the guide provides a list of the databases featured in this document, and outlines some general search strategies to assist the user in formulating a search and choosing the appropriate databases. Chapter III includes brief, descriptive profiles of seven federal accidental release databases maintained by the National Response Center (NRC), EPA, DOT, OSHA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Each profile is two to four pages in length and briefly describes the database for those unfamiliar with the specific characteristics of the database. Additional databases not featured in the these profiles are described at the end of Chapter III. Chapter IV provides a quick cross reference to the databases and to information of interest (e.g., chemicals covered, number of records). By reviewing Chapter IV`s comparison of different databases, users of this guidance document may be better equipped to choose the database that best meets their information needs. Chapter V discusses the value of and possible pilot project for linking the databases to enable comparative analysis.

  11. Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

  12. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    PubMed

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  13. Accidental macular hole following neodymium:YAG posterior capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Mihnea; Petrović, Zarko; Stanca, Horia; Rosca, Cosmin; Jianu, Adelina; Boruga, Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is the commonest complication of cataract surgery, occurring in up to one-third of patients in a period of five years. The treatment of choice is the Neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. This treatment can be associated with several complications, some of them severe. A rare complication of this procedure is the accidental induced macular hole. A 54-year-old female patient was referred to our Department because of a severe loss of vision and a central scotoma at the right eye. The patient underwent a Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy 2 days ago, for a PCO. The fundus examination at presentation revealed a round retinal defect in the macular region, a massive inferior preretinal hemorrhage and a mild vitreous hamorrhage. A 6-months follow-up of the case, including retinography and fluorescein angiography, is presented. Although the Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is a safe, noninvasive, and effective outpatient procedure to improve vision hindered by PCO, it must be recognized that it carries a low but definite risk of serious complications. Physicians and patients should be aware of these rare but severe complications regarding this otherwise safe procedure. Fortunately, most of the complications related to this procedure are transient and can be managed by proper medication.

  14. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l⁻¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l⁻¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l⁻¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l⁻¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98).

  15. Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  16. Individual dose due to radioactivity accidental release from fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Wei, Shiping

    2017-04-05

    As an important index shaping the design of fusion safety system, evaluation of public radiation consequences have risen as a hot topic on the way to develop fusion energy. In this work, the comprehensive public early dose was evaluated due to unit gram tritium (HT/HTO), activated dust, activated corrosion products (ACPs) and activated gases accidental release from ITER like fusion reactor. Meanwhile, considering that we cannot completely eliminate the occurrence likelihood of multi-failure of vacuum vessel and tokamak building, we conservatively evaluated the public radiation consequences and environment restoration after the worst hypothetical accident preliminarily. The comparison results show early dose of different unit radioactivity release under different conditions. After further performing the radiation consequences, we find it possible that the hypothetical accident for ITER like fusion reactor would result in a level 6 accident according to INES, not appear level 7 like Chernobyl or Fukushima accidents. And from the point of environment restoration, we need at least 69 years for case 1 (1kg HTO and 1000kg dust release) and 34-52years for case 2 (1kg HTO and 10kg-100kg dust release) to wait the contaminated zone drop below the general public safety limit (1mSv per year) before it is suitable for human habitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A fatality caused by accidental production of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A K; Smith, D R; Canfield, D V

    2001-12-01

    A 55-year-old male Caucasian truck driver was dead at the scene after breathing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) produced by an accidental transfer of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) from a tanker truck to a tank containing 4% sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and iron(II) sulfate (FeSO(4)). Autopsy of the decedent's body revealed pulmonary edema and passive congestion in lungs, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Postmortem biological samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs. Since a potential exposure to H(2)S was involved, blood was also analyzed for sulfide (S(2-)). The analysis entailed isolating S(2-) from blood as H(2)S using 0.5M H(3)PO(4), trapping the gas in 0.1M NaOH, and determining the electromotive force using a sulfide ion specific electrode. Acetaminophen at a concentration of 14.3 microg/ml was found in blood, and metoprolol was detected in the blood, liver, and kidney samples. The blood S(2-) level was determined to be 1.68 microg/ml. It is concluded that the cause of death was H(2)S poisoning associated with a hazardous material accident in an industrial situation.

  18. Adenocarcinoma in an ano-vaginal fistula in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Atinga, Angela; Mohsen, Yasser; Anthony, Andrew; Myers, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Fistulas are a relatively common occurrence in Crohn's disease (CD), and often present early in the disease process. Additionally, patients suffering from either CD or ulcerative colitis are shown to have an increased risk of colorectal malignancies compared with the general population. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of adenocarcinoma in an ano-vaginal fistula in a patient with longstanding CD. DISCUSSION Various pathogenic mechanisms for the development of carcinoma in fistulas have been suggested, but there is no consensus and indeed this risk may be cumulative. In this case report, we also discuss the pathogenesis of mucinous adenocarcinoma in fistulas secondary to CD. CONCLUSION Better detection of adenocarcinoma in patients presenting with persistent non-resolving fistulas in the presence of CD should be undertaken with regular biopsies following examinations under anaesthetic of the anorectum. PMID:23702362

  19. 450 Years of Chicano History in Pictures/450 Anos del Pueblo Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicano Communications Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    For use with junior and senior high school students, this book presents more than 250 drawings and pictures, with an introduction and brief texts in English and Spanish, depicting 450 years of Chicano history. The book covers: Mexico before the Spanish Conquests, Spain's colonization of the Southwest, the United States war on Mexico, events in the…

  20. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  1. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  2. 450 Years of Chicano History in Pictures/450 Anos del Pueblo Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicano Communications Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    For use with junior and senior high school students, this book presents more than 250 drawings and pictures, with an introduction and brief texts in English and Spanish, depicting 450 years of Chicano history. The book covers: Mexico before the Spanish Conquests, Spain's colonization of the Southwest, the United States war on Mexico, events in the…

  3. Fact Sheet: Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Accidental Release Prevention / Risk Management Plan Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.

  4. An Allegory of Addiction Recovery: Exploring the Performance of "Eumenides" by Aeschylus, as Adapted by 18 ANO Theatre Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zontou, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the "Eumenides," as adapted and performed by 18 ANO theatre group. 18 ANO is the theatre group of the Drug dependence treatment unit 18 ANO of Attica's Psychiatric Hospital, which is based in Athens, Greece. Each year 18 ANO organises performances in the wider community with the aim of promoting…

  5. An Allegory of Addiction Recovery: Exploring the Performance of "Eumenides" by Aeschylus, as Adapted by 18 ANO Theatre Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zontou, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the "Eumenides," as adapted and performed by 18 ANO theatre group. 18 ANO is the theatre group of the Drug dependence treatment unit 18 ANO of Attica's Psychiatric Hospital, which is based in Athens, Greece. Each year 18 ANO organises performances in the wider community with the aim of promoting…

  6. Accidental puncture or laceration in colorectal surgery: a quality indicator or a complexity measure?

    PubMed

    Kin, Cindy; Snyder, Karen; Kiran, Ravi P; Remzi, Feza H; Vogel, Jon D

    2013-02-01

    Accidental puncture or laceration during a surgical procedure is a patient safety indicator that is publicly reported and will factor into the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid's pay-for-performance plan. Accidental puncture or laceration includes serosal tear, enterotomy, and injury to the ureter, bladder, spleen, or blood vessels. This study aimed to identify risk factors and assess surgical outcomes related to accidental puncture or laceration. This is a retrospective study. This study was conducted in a single-hospital department of colorectal surgery. Inpatients undergoing colorectal surgery in which an accidental puncture or laceration did or did not occur were selected. The primary outcomes measured were surgical complications, length of stay, and readmission. Of 2897 operations, 269 had accidental puncture or laceration (9.2%) including serosal tear (47%), enterotomy (38%), and extraintestinal injuries (15%). Accidental puncture or laceration cases had more diagnoses of enterocutaneous fistula (11% vs 2%, p < 0.001), reoperative cases (91% vs 61%, p < 0.001), open surgery (96% vs 77%, p < 0.001), longer operative times (186 vs 146 minutes, p = 0.001), and increased length of stay (10 vs 7 days, p = 0.002). Patients with serosal tears had entirely similar outcomes to those without an injury, whereas patients with enterotomies had increased operative times and length of stay, and patients with extraintestinal injuries had higher rates of reoperation and sepsis (p < 0.05 for all). This study was limited by the loss of sensitivity due to grouping extraintestinal injuries. Accidental puncture or laceration is more likely to occur in complex colorectal operations. The clinical consequences range from none to significant depending on the specific type of injury. To make accidental puncture or laceration a more meaningful quality indicator, we advocate that groups who use the measure eliminate the injuries that have no bearing on surgical outcome and that risk

  7. Accidental ingestion of a component of a fixed orthodontic appliance--a case report.

    PubMed

    Quick, A N; Harris, A M P

    2002-03-01

    Most dental patients are treated in the supine position, enhancing the risk of accidental aspiration or swallowing of foreign objects. This article presents a case report of an orthodontic patient who accidentally ingested a section of orthodontic wire and coil spring from a fixed expansion device placed in the maxillary dental arch. Some guidelines for the prevention of such occurrences in the practice and at home, and possible courses of remedial action, are discussed.

  8. Accidental infusion leakage at subgalea in infants: report of 6 cases

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Ning, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration remains the commonest iatrogenic injury within infants care. We report a series of 6 infants affected by accidental infusion leakage occurring in subgalea. They were applied wet-hot compresses by sterile gauze, and topically administrated mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS) cream following hot compress. There was no skin impairment in all cases. Early recognition and appropriate care for topical skin are essential to minimize the extent of accidental infusion leakage. PMID:26550108

  9. Prevention and control of serious trauma and accidental injury in China: Timely but difficult.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaobing; Lu, Shuliang; Wang, Zhengguo

    2013-01-01

    Serious trauma and accidental injury are the leading causes of death among people younger than 45 years old in China. Thus, the prevention and control of serious trauma and accidental injury are important for reducing these deaths. The concept is timely but difficult. Here, we review the current state of serious trauma and accidents in China and other countries, focusing on road accidents, and provide our personal perspectives and suggestions on how to prevent and control these serious injuries in China.

  10. Increasing U.S. Mortality Due to Accidental Poisoning: The Role of the Baby Boom Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miech, Richard; Koester, Steve; Dorsey-Holliman, Brook

    2014-01-01

    Aims In this study we examine whether the recent, sharp increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 is the result of the aging of the baby boom cohort, or instead, a historical trend apparent among decedents of all ages. Design We conduct an age-period-cohort analysis using data from the U.S. Vital Statistics and the U.S. Census covering the period 1968–2007. Setting and Participants The United States population aged 15–64. Findings The increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 stems primarily from a historical period effect across all ages for whites, but results in large part from a rate spike in the baby boom cohort among blacks. For all demographic groups baby boomers had higher odds of death due to accidental poisoning than the cohorts that came before them and after them. Historical influences acting across all ages led to an increase in accidental poisoning mortality that was almost tenfold for whites and threefold for blacks over the study period. Conclusions While the recent, sharp increase in accidental poisoning mortality stems in part from the aging of the baby boom cohort, substantially more of the increase results from influences unique to recent years that have affected all age groups. These results point to the need to bolster overdose prevention programs and policies as the historical increase in accidental poisoning mortality appears to continue unabated. PMID:21205051

  11. Useful methods in preventing accidental falls from the bed in children at the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tzu-Hui; Liu, Min-Cih; Yang, Jia-Yu; Syu, Wei-Yiu; Wu, Han-Ping

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics of children in the pediatric emergency department (PED) who accidentally fall off the crib and to establish useful preventive measures. This prospective research analyzed pediatric patients who accidentally fell off their beds in the observational unit (OU) of the PED from July 2005 to June 2006 (first period). From July 2006 to February 2007 (second period), the causes of children falling off the crib in the first year were analyzed and five related preventive methods were instituted in the OU. From July 2007 to March 2008 (third period), the preventive methods were enhanced to achieve zero-event of accidental falls in the PED. The differences between patients falling off the bed among the three periods were then compared. This study collected 7,281 children admitted to the OU during the first period and recorded 15 cases of accidental falls. After performing the preventive methods in 6,232 patients in the second period, three events of accidental falls were noted. In the third period, there was no accident in the 5,225 patients admitted to the PED. Comparing the occurrences of children falling off the bed among the three periods, accidental falls significantly decreased in the third period (p < 0.001). Effective methods can be instituted to prevent children from falling off the bed, especially in the PED.

  12. [Accidental mercury poisoning in a 12-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Alby-Laurent, F; Honoré-Goldman, N; Cavau, A; Bellon, N; Allali, S; Abadie, V

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to metallic mercury can cause severe accidental intoxications in children, whose clinical symptoms can vary depending on the route of administration, the dose, as well as the time and duration of the exposure. It has become unusual in France, yet it must be considered when taking a patient's medical history in cases of multisystemic involvement without a clear explanation. We report the case of a 12-year-old patient hospitalized because of a cough, poor general condition, chills, night sweats, psychomotor retardation, and skin lesions that had been developing for several weeks. The initial clinical examination also revealed sinus tachycardia, arterial hypertension, and abolition of osteotendinous reflexes. Complementary examination results were normal apart from a glomerular proteinuria without renal failure. When interviewing the mother, she reported that the child had played with mercury balls 3 months earlier. The suspicion of poisoning was confirmed by blood and urine analysis as well as renal biopsy showing an aspect of membranous glomerulonephritis with IgG and C3 depositions. An intoxication via a transdermal route being unlikely on healthy skin, the Regional Health Agency's survey concluded that chronic intoxication had occurred by inhalation of the mercury spread on the floor at the time of the exposure, which was then vacuum cleaned and released again by the contaminated vacuum cleaner. The patient's outcome was favorable within a few weeks after initiating DMSA chelation therapy. Mercury poisoning should be considered in cases of a multisystemic disorder without clear explanation, in order to intervene quickly and thus prevent irreversible renal and neurological consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-accidental head injury: a consequence of deprivation?

    PubMed

    Mok, J Y Q; Jones, P A; Myerscough, E; Shah, A R F; Minns, R A

    2010-12-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a significant personal and public health problem, with considerable mortality and morbidity. The evidence base for risk factors specific for NAHI is limited due to difficulties with case definition and study design. The risk factors associated with NAHI in infants was evaluated in this study, and the extent to which indices of deprivation influence this health problem was addressed. A 10-year prospective study was conducted in Scotland involving all paediatric hospitals and other general hospital departments admitting children. Subjects were children ≤2 years of age, with a diagnosis of "suspected NAHI". Socioeconomic characteristics of the index cases were compared to the general population, using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) 2006. There were highly significant differences (p<0.001) between the SIMD rank scores of the NAHI cases and scores for the whole Scottish population. For the cohort, SIMD ranks ranged from 34 to 6253 (median 1210; mean 1577) compared to the population range of 1-6505 (median and mean=3253). Similar differences were found for each of the component domains of income, employment, health, education, crime and housing (p<0.001). In contrast, the scores for "geographic access" (to essential service) were higher than for the whole population (p<0.001), indicating that the deprivation was not due to lack of local services. In Scotland, children who present with suspected NAHI originate predominantly from the most deprived areas of the community. Public health and intervention strategies should be focused in these areas.

  14. Targeting of observations for accidental atmospheric release monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc

    2009-12-01

    In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is acutely required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. Yet, the accuracy of the forecasted plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. Inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques should help in that respect. However the plume can locally be thin and could avoid a significant part of the radiological monitoring network surrounding the plant. Deploying mobile measuring stations following the accident could help to improve the source term estimation. In this paper, a method is proposed for the sequential reconstruction of the plume, by coupling a sequential data assimilation algorithm based on inverse modelling with an observation targeting strategy. The targeting design strategy consists in seeking the optimal locations of the mobile monitors at time t + 1 based on all available observations up to time t. The performance of the sequential assimilation with and without targeting of observations has been assessed in a realistic framework. It focuses on the Bugey nuclear power plant (France) and its surroundings within 50 km from the plant. The existing surveillance network is used and realistic observational errors are assumed. The targeting scheme leads to a better estimation of the source term as well as the activity concentrations in the domain. The mobile stations tend to be deployed along plume contours, where activity concentration gradients are important. It is shown that the information carried by the targeted observations is very significant, as compared to the information content of fixed observations. A simple test on the impact of model error from meteorology shows that the targeting strategy is still very useful in a more uncertain context.

  15. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  16. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  17. Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

  18. Identification of a lipid scrambling domain in ANO6/TMEM16F

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kuai; Whitlock, Jarred M; Lee, Kyleen; Ortlund, Eric A; Yuan Cui, Yuan; Hartzell, H Criss

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipid scrambling (PLS) is a ubiquitous cellular mechanism involving the regulated bidirectional transport of phospholipids down their concentration gradient between membrane leaflets. ANO6/TMEM16F has been shown to be essential for Ca2+-dependent PLS, but controversy surrounds whether ANO6 is a phospholipid scramblase or an ion channel like other ANO/TMEM16 family members. Combining patch clamp recording with measurement of PLS, we show that ANO6 elicits robust Ca2+-dependent PLS coinciding with ionic currents that are explained by ionic leak during phospholipid translocation. By analyzing ANO1-ANO6 chimeric proteins, we identify a domain in ANO6 necessary for PLS and sufficient to confer this function on ANO1, which normally does not scramble. Homology modeling shows that the scramblase domain forms an unusual hydrophilic cleft that faces the lipid bilayer and may function to facilitate translocation of phospholipid between membrane leaflets. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for understanding PLS and how ANO6 functions in this process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06901.001 PMID:26057829

  19. Abnormal Sleep Duration Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Accidental Injury.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Develop normative data for adult sleep duration and determine if nonstandard sleep time relates to the likelihood of accidental injury. Cross-sectional analysis. National health information database. The National Health Interview Survey, 2004-2013, was examined for adult sleep time and accidental injury within the past 3 months. The mean hours slept per night was determined. The relationship between sleep time and incidence of accidental injury was determined for any injury, injury while driving, and injury while working, adjusting for demographic variables. Among 221.4 million adults (raw sample, N = 282,692), the mean sleep time was 7.17 hours (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 7.16-7.18 hours). Men and women slept very similar times (7.14 vs 7.17 hours, respectively), and sleep time decreased until the fifth decade (minimum, 6.99 hours), increasing each decade thereafter; 2.81% of adults reported being accidentally injured in the preceding 3 months. Too little sleep and excessive sleep times were both associated with higher rates of accidental injury (odds ratio per hour of deviation from mean, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.12-1.19]), adjusting for age, sex, marital status, and education level. Similar increased odds ratios were noted for injury while driving (1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.22]) and injury while at work (1.12 [95% CI, 1.04-1.20]) with sleep time deviation. Most adults sleep between 7 and 8 hours nightly. Adults with sleep time outside this range, with either less or more sleep, have increased rates of accidental injury. These data highlight the need for sufficient quantity and quality of sleep in preventing accidental injury. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. ANOs 3–7 in the anoctamin/Tmem16 Cl− channel family are intracellular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Charity; Qu, Zhiqiang; Osunkoya, Adeboye O.; Cui, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) participate in numerous physiological functions such as neuronal excitability, sensory transduction, and transepithelial fluid transport. Recently, it was shown that heterologously expressed anoctamins ANO1 and ANO2 generate currents that resemble native CaCCs. The anoctamin family (also called Tmem16) consists of 10 members, but it is not known whether all members of the family are CaCCs. Expression of ANOs 3–7 in HEK293 cells did not generate Cl− currents activated by intracellular Ca2+, as determined by whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. With the use of confocal imaging, only ANO1 and ANO2 traffic to the plasma membrane when expressed heterologously. Furthermore, endogenously expressed ANO7 in the human prostate is predominantly intracellular. We took a chimeric approach to identify regions critical for channel trafficking and function. However, none of the chimeras of ANO1 and ANO5/7 that we made trafficked to the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that intracellular anoctamins may be endoplasmic reticulum proteins, although it remains unknown whether these family members are CaCCs. Determining the role of anoctamin family members in ion transport will be critical to understanding their functions in physiology and disease. PMID:22075693

  1. ANO1 as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma and silencing ANO1 suppresses migration of human scc-25 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yadong; Zhang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to confirm that ANO1 correlates with occurrence and metastasis of OSCC. Study Design: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ANO1 in 160 specimens of OSCC and normal tissues. Lentiviral silencing ANO1 was used in scc-25 cell line to study the cell migration and cell detachment. Results: Immunohistochemical staining revealed that ANO1 was expressed in a large majority (132 out of 160, 82.5%) of OSCC specimens and that the rate of ANO1 expression in OSCC was significantly higher than that of normal tissue (P<0.05); The rate of ANO1 expression was higher in metastatic tumors than in non-metastatic tumors, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). The results of cell migration assay showed that the percentage of cells through the membrane was 26.61 ±0.81 in assay group, and 54.26 ±3.74 in control group, respectively (t=-16.22,P<0.0001). The results of cell detachment assay showed that the percentage of cells detachment was 37.42 ±0.90 in assay group, and 87.38 ±1.59 in control group, respectively (t=-62.34, P<0.0001). The results of wound healing assay showed the assay group had a reduced migration rate compared with the control group in 32 h (F=1038.78, P<0.0001). Wound closure was no significantly different between the assay and control cells when DIDS was used in wound healing assay (F=4.61,P>0.05). Conclusions: Our study shows that abnormal expression of ANO1 correlated with the occurrence and metastasis of OSCC in clinical specimens and that silencing ANO1 greatly reduced migration ability of scc-25 cells. Calcium activated chloride channel activity of ANO1 promoted the cell migration. Thus, ANO1 could represent a new diagnostic biomarker and a potentially important therapeutic target of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, chloride channel, metastasis. PMID:24316695

  2. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2.

    PubMed

    Strege, Peter R; Bernard, Cheryl E; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-"exon 0" upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca(2+) sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(-0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl(-) currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular anions, or Cl(-) channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(-0) in response to varying intracellular Ca(2+). The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(-0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(-0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl(-) current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca(2+) and CACC inhibitors.

  3. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl− channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Strege, Peter R.; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R.; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca2+ regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-“exon 0” upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca2+ sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(−0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl− currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca2+, extracellular anions, or Cl− channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(−0) in response to varying intracellular Ca2+. The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(−0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(−0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl− current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ and CACC inhibitors. PMID:26359375

  4. Profile of non-accidental childhood injury at a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatunya, Oladele Simeon; Isinkaye, Ayodeji Olusola; Oluwadiya, Kehinde Sunday

    2015-06-01

    Injury threatens children lives worldwide. Most studies from Nigeria have been on accidental injuries in children. To study the profile of non-accidental injuries among children receiving care at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Children with non-accidental injuries were serially recruited and studied. The Paediatrics Trauma Score (PTS) was tested against the outcome. Non-accidental injuries accounted for 0.84% of all 5264 patients and 21.3% of the 207 injured. The case fatality rate was 6.8%. Physical abuse, sexual assault, drowning/near drowning, gunshot, poisoning and human bite caused the injuries in 68.2, 13.6, 6.8, 4.5, 4.5 and 2.3%, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc analysis showed that the mean PTS score of patients who died was significantly lower than the scores of those who were either discharged home or who discharged against medical advice (p < 0.001). The burden of non-accidental childhood injuries was high in the study area. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality.

  6. Childhood death attributable to trauma: is there a difference between accidental and abusive fatal injuries?

    PubMed

    Ortega, Henry W; Vander Velden, Heidi; Kreykes, Nathaniel S; Reid, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of childhood fatal injuries is necessary for preventing injuries. To determine clinical differences between children who were treated in an emergency department for accidental or abusive injuries. A retrospective review of all deceased patients who were treated in two urban pediatric emergency departments between 1998 and 2010 was performed. Patients were categorized into two groups, accidental and abusive, for comparison. A total of 1498 patients died during the study period, with 124 deaths being attributable to injury for a rate of 9.5 injury-related deaths per year. Most fatal injuries were accidental. Children with abusive fatal injuries were younger and more likely to have been seen for an injury in a clinic or emergency department within 2 months of their death. Eighty-two percent of abusive fatal injuries had documented subdural hematomas, whereas only 7.2% of accidental fatal injuries had a subdural hematoma documented. Nearly 50% of abusive fatal injuries had retinal hemorrhages reported, although no child with an accidental fatal injury had this type of injury documented. Younger children, especially those previously seen in an emergency department or clinic for injury, are more likely to sustain an abusive fatal injury. Sentinel physical findings associated with abusive fatal injuries include subdural hematomas and retinal hemorrhages, and the presence of these findings should prompt an investigation into the circumstances of injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insomnia medication use and the probability of an accidental event in an older adult population

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, Alon Y; Palmer, Liisa A; Doan, Justin F; Baran, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the risk of accidental events in older adults prescribed a sedating antidepressant, long-acting benzodiazepine, short-acting benzodiazepine, and nonbenzodiazepine, relative to a reference group (selective melatonin receptor agonist). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of older adults (≥65 years) with newly initiated pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Data were collected from the Thomson MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2006). Probit models were used to evaluate the probability of an accidental event. Results: Data were analyzed for 445,329 patients. Patients taking a long-acting benzodiazepine (1.21 odds ratio [OR]), short-acting benzodiazepine (1.16 OR), or nonbenzodiazepine (1.12 OR) had a significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event during the first month following treatment initiation compared with patients taking the reference medication (P < 0.05 for all). A significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event was also observed during the 3-month period following the initiation of treatment (1.62 long-acting benzodiazepine, 1.60 short-acting benzodiazepine, 1.48 nonbenzodiazepine, and 1.56 sedating antidepressant; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Older adults taking an SAD or any of the benzodiazepine receptor agonists appear to have a greater risk of an accidental event compared with a reference group taking an MR. PMID:21701634

  8. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania’s Experience 1979-2014

    PubMed Central

    Balmert, Lauren C.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Pringle, Janice L.; Williams, Karl E.; Burke, Donald S.; Marsh, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014. Methods Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49) from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates. Results Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35–44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton. Conclusions The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35–44. PMID:26963396

  9. Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2015-11-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental SO(4) symmetry, that enlarges the rotational SO(3) symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius R with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter γ, in general the accidental SO(4) symmetry is lifted. However, for R =(l + 1) (l + 2) a (where a is the Bohr radius and l is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when γ = ∞ or γ =2/R. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is always lifted in a finite volume. We also investigate the accidental symmetry in the context of the Pauli equation, which sheds light on the proper non-relativistic treatment including spin. In that case, again some degeneracy remains for specific values of R and γ.

  10. [Accidental injuries in older adults: a challenge for the health systems].

    PubMed

    Ruelas González, María Guadalupe; Salgado de Snyder, V Nelly

    2008-01-01

    To identify factors (sociodemographic, health, and social support) associated with the presence of accidental injuries in older adults living in deprived urban neighborhoods in four Mexican municipalities. Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2004-2005, with a non-probabilistic, intentional sample of 799 male and female elderly living in deprived urban areas in four Mexican municipalities. For the statistical analysis, non-parametric tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used. More than a third (37%) of the sample reported injuries; with falls being the main cause. Home was the venue where most accidents took place (52%). Risk factors for accidental injuries were: advanced age, working, greater number of illnesses, consumption of more medicines and remedies, self-perception of "poor" health , consumption of alcoholic beverages, inadequate family support and being a caretaker of others. The multi-causality of accidental injuries in older adults demands the participation of all sectors of society, and particularly public health interventions.

  11. Increasing US mortality due to accidental poisoning: the role of the baby boom cohort.

    PubMed

    Miech, Richard; Koester, Steve; Dorsey-Holliman, Brook

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examine whether the recent, sharp increase in mortality in the United States due to accidental poisoning since 2000 is the result of the aging of the baby boom cohort or, instead, a historical trend apparent among decedents of all ages. We conducted an age-period-cohort analysis using data from the US Vital Statistics and the US Census covering the period 1968-2007. The United States population aged 15-64 years. Cause of death and demographic data as recorded on death certificates. The increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 stems primarily from a historical period effect across all ages for whites, but results in large part from a rate spike in the baby boom cohort among blacks. For all demographic groups baby boomers had higher odds of death due to accidental poisoning than the cohorts that came before and after them. Historical influences acting across all ages led to an increase in accidental poisoning mortality that was almost 10-fold for whites and threefold for blacks over the study period. While the recent, sharp increase in accidental poisoning mortality stems in part from the aging of the baby boom cohort, substantially more of the increase results from influences unique to recent years that have affected all age groups. These results point to the need to bolster overdose prevention programs and policies as the historical increase in accidental poisoning mortality appears to continue unabated. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channel ANO1 by localized Ca(2+) signals.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Shah, Sihab; Du, Xiaona; Zhang, Hailin; Gamper, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) regulate numerous physiological processes including epithelial transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory processing. Anoctamin-1 (ANO1, TMEM16A) is a principal CaCC subunit in many cell types, yet our understanding of the mechanisms of ANO1 activation and regulation are only beginning to emerge. Ca(2+) sensitivity of ANO1 is rather low and at negative membrane potentials the channel requires several micromoles of intracellular Ca(2+) for activation. However, global Ca(2+) levels in cells rarely reach such levels and, therefore, there must be mechanisms that focus intracellular Ca(2+) transients towards the ANO1 channels. Recent findings indeed indicate that ANO1 channels often co-localize with sources of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. Interestingly, it appears that in many cell types ANO1 is particularly tightly coupled to the Ca(2+) release sites of the intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Such preferential coupling may represent a general mechanism of ANO1 activation in native tissues.

  13. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report.

    PubMed

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-09-27

    The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  14. Fire-eater's pneumonia: two case reports of accidentally aspirated paraffin oil.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Ozlem; Bektas, Fırat; Sayrac, Ali Vefa; Senay, Engin

    2012-04-01

    Fire-eater's pneumonia is a chemical pneumonitis that can develop after accidental aspiration of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuel during a flame-blowing or a fire-eating performance. Typical findings of the patient are similar with any infectious pneumonia: chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, fever, and hemoptysis can be seen. We report two cases of acute paraffin oil-induced pneumonia due to accidental aspiration during fire-eating performance. The symptoms and course of respiratory manifestations and the treatment strategies of fire-eater's pneumonia are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of Thermal Equilibrium around an Accidental Event and Impact on Possibly Enclosed Surrounding Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Kapoor, Himanshu; Kumar, Uday; Das, Jotirmoy; Bhattacharaya, Ritendra; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    Complex and large cryogenic distribution systems are integral part of a fusion machine having superconducting magnets, cryopumps, etc. The various equipment of the cryogenic distribution system are interconnected via Cryogenic Transfer Lines (CTLs) to distribute cold helium to end users. During nominal operation of the fusion machine, helium inventory in CTLs could be in order of several tons. The cold helium present in CTLs could be released in surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The present analysis, aims to estimate lowest temperature in the surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The paper will describe simulation results and the test plan in a simulated condition.

  16. Was the rocket invented or accidentally discovered? Some new observations on its origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Frank H.; Neufeld, Michael J.; Dougherty, Kerrie

    2012-08-01

    The history of spaceflight would not have been possible without a single object, the rocket—one of the most complex engineering feats in human history. However, a closer examination of the earliest history of the basic rocket, a gunpowder-propelled device developed in China around 900 years ago, suggests that it originated as an accidental discovery rather than as a deliberately planned invention. This paper will examine the evidence in support of the idea of accidental discovery, including new observations on the earliest concepts of rocket motion, not only in China but also in the West.

  17. Accidental separation and lodgment of rotary endodontic file into the dentist's thumb.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Rohit; Shetty, Subraj; Desai, Rajiv S; Shetty, Karthick

    2016-01-01

    Separation of the endodontic instrument within the root canal system and sharp injuries to the dentist is not an uncommon event in endodontic practice. Although root canal instruments can fracture at any stage of endodontic treatment, its fracture within the dentist's hand is a very rare event. An unusual case of accidental separation and lodgment of rotary endodontic file in the dentist's thumb is presented along with its management. A 33-year-old dentist reported with an accidental lodgment of rotary endodontic file into his thumb. The fractured instrument was removed successfully by a surgeon. The present case describes a rare event of occupational risk in endodontic practice.

  18. Spiral tibial fractures of children: a commonly accidental spiral long bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Mellick, L B; Reesor, K

    1990-05-01

    Pediatric training in child abuse has consistently emphasized a strong association between nonaccidental injuries and spiral fractures of long bones. Isolated spiral tibial fractures of childhood have previously been recognized by the orthopedic specialty to most frequently be accidental in etiology. The authors present evidence that supports a predominantly accidental etiology for isolated spiral tibial fractures of young children. This article presents a series in which 9 of 10 such spiral fractures were most likely the result of an accident and not child abuse or gross neglect. Additionally, almost all of these fractures presented as a gait disturbance and should be included in the differential of this complaint.

  19. A tunnel shape defect on maxillary bone after accidental injection of formocresol instead of anesthetic solution.

    PubMed

    Ege, Bilal; Demirkol, Mehmet; Mustafa, Rawand; Aras, Mutan Hamdi

    2014-09-01

    Accidental injection or leakages of various chemical disinfectants used during root canal preparation into adjacent tissues have been shown to have deleterious effects on surrounding tissue. Formocresol (FC) is an effective intracanal disinfectant used in endodontic procedures. However, it is known to have harmful effects into adjacent tissues. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case in which a 28-year-old male patient developed gingival and bone necrosis after the accidental injection of FC instead of local anesthetic solution for tooth extraction and to review cases in the literature where complications have occurred due to the use of FC.

  20. EAVK "segment c" sequence confers Ca(2+)-dependent changes to the kinetics of full length human Ano1.

    PubMed

    Strege, Peter R; Gibbons, Simon J; Mazzone, Amelia; Bernard, Cheryl E; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2017-03-23

    Anoctamin1 (Ano1, TMEM16A) is a calcium-activated chloride channel specifically expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract muscularis propria. Ano1 is necessary for normal electrical slow waves and ICC proliferation. The full length human Ano1 sequence includes an additional exon, exon "0," at the N-terminus. Ano1 with exon "0" (Ano1(0)) had a lower EC50 for intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) and faster chloride current (ICl) kinetics. The Ano1 alternative splice variant with segment "c" encoding exon 13 expresses on the first intracellular loop four additional amino acid residues, EAVK, which alter ICl at low [Ca(2+)]i Exon 13 is expressed in 75-100% of Ano1 transcripts in most human tissues but only 25% in human stomach. Our aim was to determine the effect of EAVK deletion on Ano1(0) ICl parameters. By voltage-clamp electrophysiology, we examined ICl in HEK293 cells transiently expressing Ano1(0) with or without the EAVK sequence (Ano1(0)ΔEAVK). The EC50 values of activating and deactivating ICl for [Ca(2+)]i was 438±7 and 493±9 nM for Ano1(0) but higher for Ano1(0)ΔEAVK at 746±47 and 761±26 nM, respectively. Meanwhile, the EC50 values for the ratio of instantaneous to steady-state ICl were not different between variants. Congruently, the time constant of activation was slower for Ano1(0)ΔEAVK than Ano1(0) currents at intermediate [Ca(2+)]i These results suggest that EAVK decreases the calcium sensitivity of Ano1(0) current activation and deactivation by slowing activation kinetics. Differential expression of EAVK in human stomach may function as a switch to increase sensitivity to [Ca(2+)]i via faster gating of Ano1.

  1. Inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of epithelium originated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lizhao; Song, Yan; Gao, Jian; Gao, Jianjun; Wang, KeWei

    2016-11-29

    ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, has been reported to be amplified or overexpressed in tissues of several cancers. However, reports on its roles in tumor progression obtained from cancer cell lines are inconsistent, suggesting that the role of ANO1 in tumorigenesis is likely dependent on either its expression level or cell-type expressing ANO1. To investigate the biological roles of ANO1 in different tumor cells, we, in this study, selected several cancer cell lines and a normal HaCaT cell line with high expression levels of ANO1, and examined the function of ANO1 in these cells using approaches of lentiviral knockdown and pharmacological inhibition. We found that ANO1 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in either tumor cell lines or normal HaCaT cell line. Moreover, silencing ANO1 arrested cancer cells at G1 phase of cell cycle. Treatment with ANO1 inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both ANO1 inhibitors CaCCinh-A01 and T16Ainh-A01 significantly suppressed cell migration. Our findings show that ANO1 overexpression promotes cancer cell proliferation and migration; and genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ANO1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in different types of epithelium-originated cancer cells.

  2. Inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of epithelium originated cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lizhao; Song, Yan; Gao, Jian; Gao, Jianjun; Wang, KeWei

    2016-01-01

    ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, has been reported to be amplified or overexpressed in tissues of several cancers. However, reports on its roles in tumor progression obtained from cancer cell lines are inconsistent, suggesting that the role of ANO1 in tumorigenesis is likely dependent on either its expression level or cell-type expressing ANO1. To investigate the biological roles of ANO1 in different tumor cells, we, in this study, selected several cancer cell lines and a normal HaCaT cell line with high expression levels of ANO1, and examined the function of ANO1 in these cells using approaches of lentiviral knockdown and pharmacological inhibition. We found that ANO1 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in either tumor cell lines or normal HaCaT cell line. Moreover, silencing ANO1 arrested cancer cells at G1 phase of cell cycle. Treatment with ANO1 inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both ANO1 inhibitors CaCCinh-A01 and T16Ainh-A01 significantly suppressed cell migration. Our findings show that ANO1 overexpression promotes cancer cell proliferation and migration; and genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ANO1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in different types of epithelium-originated cancer cells. PMID:27732935

  3. 75 FR 8411 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing the Consequences of an Accidental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Release of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Nuclear...-ISG-013, ``Assessing the Consequences of an Accidental Release of Radioactive Materials from Liquid... site associated with the effects of accidental releases of radioactive liquid on existing or likely...

  4. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  5. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  6. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC Operations...

  7. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC Operations...

  8. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC Operations...

  9. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC Operations...

  10. Intrathecal Catheterization by Epidural Catheter: Management of Accidental Dural Puncture and Prophylaxis of PDPH.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Ashok; Chakraborty, Swastika; Sinha, Neelam; Agrawal, Rajiv

    2009-02-01

    Accidental or inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anaesthesia results in high incidence of post dural puncture headache (PDPH). Spinal or intrathecal catheter in such a situation, provides a conduit for administration of appropriate local anaesthetic for rapid onset of intraoperative surgical anaesthesia and postoperative pain relief. This procedure prevents PDPH if catheter left in situ for > 24 hrs and also avoids the associated risks with a repeat attempts at epidural analgesia. Primary aim of this study was to observe the effect of spinal catheter on incidence of PDPH, and to assess early and delayed complications of spinal catheterization by epidural catheter. In prospective clinical study 34 patients who had accidental dural puncture during epidural anaesthesia were included. The catheter meant for epidural use was inserted in spinal space and used for spinal anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Catheter was removed between 24-36hrs after surgery. The incidence of accidental dural puncture was 4%(34/846). Two patients 5.88% (2/34) had transient paresthesia during spinal catheter insertion. Post dural puncture headache occurred in 11.76% (4/34) patients. Two patients required epidural blood patch and two patients were managed with conservative treatment. No patient had any serious intraoperative or postoperative side effects. Epidural catheter can be used as spinal catheter to manage accidental dural puncture without serious complications, and it also prevents PDPH.

  11. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  12. 61 FR 31668 - Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under Clean Air Act Section...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-06-20

    ... compliance with the prevention requirements under OSHA's Process Safety Management Standard. Processes that... history of accidental releases and processes already complying with OSHA's Process Safety Management... applies to all processes subject to the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) standard (29 CFR...

  13. Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals.

  14. The Scotch Broom gall mite: Accidental introduction to classical biological control agent?

    Treesearch

    J. Andreas; T. Wax; E. Coombs; J. Gaskin; G. Markin; S. Sing

    2013-01-01

    The gall mite, Aceria genistae (Nal.) Castagnoli s.l., an accidentally introduced natural enemy of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link), was first discovered in the Portland OR and Tacoma WA region in 2005. It has since been reported from southern British Columbia to southern Oregon. Observationally, the mite appears to reduce Scotch broom seed production and at...

  15. Abbreviata terrapenis (Nematoda: Physalopteridae): an accidental parasite of the banded rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus klauberi).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R; Holycross, Andrew T

    2002-04-01

    The nematode, Abbreviata terrapenis (Physalopteridae) was found in 16 (6%) of 267 banded rock rattlesnakes (Crotalus lepidus klauberi) from Arizona and New Mexico. Abbreviata terrapenis in C. lepidus represents an accidental parasite in that "infection" was acquired by the ingestion of lizard prey. Feeding captive snakes on wild-caught lizards poses a risk of introducing nematodes to the snakes.

  16. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... statements be used on the label of all drug products....

  17. Fatal acute intoxication of accidentally ingested nifedipine in an infant - A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Takayasu, Tatsunori; Nosaka, Mizuho; Kimura, Akihiko; Ishida, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Fukami, Mie; Okada, Misato; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    A fatal case of acute nifedipine intoxication in a two-year-old boy is presented. The boy accidentally orally ingested an unknown amount of his grandfather's nifedipine (40mg/tablet), mistaking it for a ramune confectionery. Despite intensive medical treatment, his death was confirmed at 31h after the accidental ingestion. The forensic autopsy revealed that there were neither pathological alterations or injuries in all of the organs. Toxicologically, nifedipine could be detected at the concentrations of 0.463, 0.669 and 13.0μg/g in cardiac blood, peripheral blood and stomach contents, respectively. These concentrations were evaluated as fatal levels, and the cause of death was diagnosed as acute nifedipine intoxication. Recently, the number of infants and children who accidentally ingest drugs in the home is increasing. This case report prompts forensic pathologists and toxicologists to emphasize that children are always exposed to the risk of accidental drug ingestion in daily life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  19. Changes in Surface Charge Density of Blood Cells in Fatal Accidental Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Szeremeta, Michał; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Kotyńska, Joanna; Pepiński, Witold; Naumowicz, Monika; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate postmortem changes concerning electric charge of human erythrocytes and thrombocytes in fatal accidental hypothermia. The surface charge density values were determined on the basis of the electrophoretic mobility measurements of the cells conducted at various pH values of electrolyte solution. The surface charge of erythrocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia increased compared to the control group within whole range of experimental pH values. Moreover, a slight shift of the isoelectric point of erythrocyte membranes towards high pH values was observed. The surface charge of thrombocyte membranes in fatal accidental hypothermia decreased at low pH compared to the control group. However, at pH range 4-9, the values increased compared to the control group. The isoelectric point of thrombocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia was slightly shifted towards low pH values compared to the control group. The observed changes are probably connected with the partial destruction and functional changes of the blood cell structure.

  20. Frequency and outcomes of accidental ingestion of tobacco products in young children.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Scott

    2011-11-01

    This review assesses published literature related to frequency and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Twenty-seven years of annual reports by American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) were analyzed for occurrence and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion events involving tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Over a 27-year period, and of >50 million contacts for all categories combined, 217,340 contacts involving ingestion of tobacco products were reported. Approximately 89% involved children <6 years old. One fatality was reported, however the co-ingestion of both cigarettes and diazepam complicates an assessment of a contributory role of tobacco. The rate of major, non-fatal, outcomes was <0.1%. Data from AAPCC reports and other sources indicate the frequency of accidental poisoning events is relatively low for tobacco products compared with other products such as drugs, dietary supplements, cleaning products, and personal care products. These findings, along with those for pharmaceutical nicotine products, are consistent with published case reports and reviews, indicating that the frequency and severity of outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco products by young children appear to be relatively low. However, adults should keep tobacco products out of the reach of children.

  1. Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chi-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

  2. Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

  3. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  4. Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chi-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

  5. [Impact of heat waves on non-accidental deaths in Jinan, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liu, S Q; Zhou, L; Gong, S P; Liu, Y L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J

    2016-02-20

    To assess the impact of heat waves on non-accidental deaths, and to investigate the influencing factors for deaths caused by heat waves in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data for summer days with or without heat waves in Jinan from 2012 to 2014 were collected, and a cross-over analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of heat waves on non-accidental deaths and deaths caused by other reasons. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the influencing factors for deaths caused by heat waves. The risks of non-accidental deaths and deaths caused by circulation system diseases during the days with heat waves were 1.82 times(95% CI: 1.47~2.36) and 1.53 times(95% CI: 1.14~2.07) those during the days without heat waves. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that old age(≥75 years)(OR=1.184, 95% CI: 1.068~1.313), low educational level(OR=1.187, 95% CI: 1.064~1.324), and deaths outside hospital(OR=1.105, 95% CI: 1.009~1.210) were associated with the high risk of deaths during the days with heat waves. Heat waves significantly increase the risk of non-accidental deaths and deaths caused by circulation system diseases in Jinan, and the deaths during the days with heat waves are related to age, educational level, and place of death.

  6. [Accidental hypothermia, not just a clinical sign, a social alarm bell].

    PubMed

    Delmas, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia, even slight, affects the physiological functioning of the body. It requires all the attention of the caregivers, both in terms of prevention among vulnerable people as well as its treatment. Two types of rewarming therapy, one external and passive, the other internal and active, can be envisaged depending on the seriousness of the hypothermia to be treated.

  7. Young and juvenile chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) reactions to intentional versus accidental and inadvertent actions.

    PubMed

    Povinelli, D J; Perilloux, H K; Reaux, J E; Bierschwale, D T

    1998-02-01

    Chimpanzees were tested for their ability to discriminate between accidental/inadvertent and intentional actions with equivalent adverse consequences. Subjects were first trained to `point' to human trainers in order to receive food rewards. In Experiment 1, six 5-year-old subjects were alternately presented with two unfamiliar human actors. In condition 1, each actor either started to hand a cup of juice to the trainer but then pulled it back and intentionally poured it onto the floor, or accidentally spilled it while handing it to the trainer. In condition 2, the actors either accidentally spilled it as above, or aggressively threw the juice onto the floor. The subjects were then presented with both actors and were allowed to choose between them. In Experiment 2, seven 6-7-year-old chimpanzees were confronted with unfamiliar actors who either (a) intentionally withheld and consumed food intended for the subjects, (b) attempted to hand the intended food to the subjects but were victimized by a third party who consumed the food, or (c) always succeeded in delivering the food to the subjects. In general, the subjects showed little evidence of using the accidental/inadvertent versus intentional distinction in their choices between the actors, although they did display some evidence of favoring the actor involved in the most passive role in both conditions in Experiment 1.

  8. [Factors associated with the danger of accidental falls among institutionalized elderly individuals: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Erika Carla Cavalcanti; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Barros, Benvinda Pereira de

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this research is to identify the major risk factors associated with accidental falls among the elderly. It involves an integrative review of the literature between 2002 and 2012 in English and Portuguese. The selection of articles was based on the following key words in the Lilacs, Medline and BDENF databases: accidental falls, homes for the elderly and health services. In the final sample 19 articles were selected, of which 11 were national and 8 were international. They indicate that the major factors related to the risk of accidental falls in Homes for the Elderly are: being female, being diagnosed with chronic disease, treatment with benzodiazepine, earlier cases of accident falls, and mobility restriction. The research reveals that architectonic and furniture inadequacies in Homes for the Elderly may be predisposing factors for accidental falls. Analysis of the articles reveals the need for further longitudinal studies and, consequently, enhanced monitoring of the conditions of the functional capacity of the elderly, especially the risks related to falls, considered one of the leading causes of death among institutionalized elderly individuals.

  9. Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

  10. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR...

  11. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR...

  12. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR...

  13. The accidental mentor: Australian rural nurses developing supportive relationships in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Mills, J E; Francis, K; Bonner, A

    2007-01-01

    Like the fictional 'Accidental Tourist', an author who does not plan to write about travel, the accidental mentor is an experienced rural nurse who does not plan to be a mentor, and yet assumes that role with new or novice rural nurses as a result of them encountering a critical incident. Accidental mentoring is a short-term relationship that provides support for the new or novice nurse in managing the incident, while maintaining their level of confidence. This article describes the findings from a constructivist grounded theory study that examined Australian rural nurses' experiences of mentoring, including evidence for a new concept of mentoring - accidental mentoring. Constructivist grounded theory is a research methodology that focuses on issues of importance for participants around an area of common interest - in this case Australian rural nurse mentoring. In this study, seven participants were interviewed, generating nine transcripts. These were analysed using a process of concurrent data generation and analysis. In addition, the literature regarding rural nurse workforce and mentoring was incorporated as a source of data, using collective frame analysis. Rural nurses live their work, which predisposes them to developing supportive relationships with new or novice rural nurses. Supportive relationships range from preceptoring, to accidental mentoring, mentoring and deep friendship, depending on the level of trust and engagement that is established between the partners and the amount of time they spend together. Accidental mentoring is a short-term relationship that is prompted by experienced rural nurses observing a new or novice rural nurse experiencing a critical incident. Findings are presented that illustrate a new concept of accidental mentoring not present in the current literature around nurse mentoring. A series of recommendations are included that suggest strategies for improved rural nurse retention as an outcome of recognising and developing such

  14. Suicide and accidental deaths in children and adolescents in England and Wales, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Kirsten; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M; Shaw, Jenny; Appleby, Louis; Kapur, Nav

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of narrative verdicts on suicide statistics among 10-19-year-olds; to identify the number and rate of suicide and accidental deaths, particularly in 10-14-year-olds. National cohort study. England and Wales. Mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) were used to calculate rates per 100,000 population for suicide (undetermined and suicide verdicts) and accidental deaths (poisoning, hanging) for those aged 10-14 and 15-19. Trends in rates over time (2001-2010) were investigated using Poisson regression. Interaction tests were carried out to determine differences in trends between the two time periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010). There were 1523 suicides (2.25/100,000). Suicide rates were highest in those aged 15-19 years (4.04/100,000) and in males (3.14/100,000). Between 2001 and 2010, rates significantly decreased among those aged 15-19 years (incidence rate-ratio (IRR): 0.95; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.97), with no change in rates of accidental deaths (IRR: 1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.07). However, there was a significant interaction between the two time periods for accidental poisonings (2001-2005: IRR: 0.79 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.91); 2006-2010: IRR: 1.01 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.15), interaction p=0.012) and accidental hangings (2001-2005: IRR: 0.93 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.14); 2006-2010: IRR: 1.25 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.49), interaction=0.01) Undetermined deaths significantly decreased among females aged 15-19 yeras (IRR: 0.93; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.98). There were no significant trends among 10-14-year-olds. Rates of suicide are higher among older adolescents and males. There was a significant fall in suicide rates in males aged 15-19 years that was not accounted for by changes in rates of accidental death. The absence of a significant trend in suicide or accidental deaths in those aged 10-14 years may have been the result of small numbers. However, monitoring should continue to identify longitudinal trends in all young people.

  15. [Daily number of accidental injuries among elementary school children and school size factors in elementary schools].

    PubMed

    Ishigure, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between the daily number of accidental injuries and school size factors in elementary schools. The accidental injuries that occurred during the school day among elementary school children were investigated in twenty-one schools for two-month periods (from October to November) in 1999 and 2004. The relationship between the number of accidental injuries and school size factors (i.e. the numbers of school children and children per class) was analyzed by nonlinear regression analysis. The number of children injured and the frequency of accidental injuries were evaluated by school size. The ratio of the average number of injuries to all injuries was 1.79 per 100 children per day. The number of injuries in the small-sized schools was 2.36 per 100 children per day, and were respectively 1.29 and 1.57 in the middle- and large-sized schools. The number of injuries was small in middle-sized schools. As a result of the nonlinear regression analysis, a statistically significant quadratic equation was provided between the number of injuries per 100 children per day and the number of children per class. The number of injuries showed a minimum value for 26.7 children per class. The number of children injured during the investigation period was larger in the small-sized schools. In the small-sized schools, in comparison with the middle- and large-sized schools, the number of accidental injuries was smaller for boys. In the large-sized schools, there were more injuries inside the school building and during the lesson break times. large. In addition, it is suggested that the number of children injured was larger in small-sized schools.

  16. Determinants of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database.

    PubMed

    McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D; Watson, Jo; O'Connor, Catherine C; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Law, Matthew G

    2014-01-01

    Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69-20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06-10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70-25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17-30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07-0.87) and HIV-positive date ≥1990 (1990-1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death.

  17. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  18. Accidental hanging by a T-shirt collar in a man with morphine intoxication: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Alagiyawanna, Ramesh

    2011-09-01

    Accidental hanging is rare across all age groups, and it is even rarer in the adult population except in autoerotic asphyxia. Few cases have been reported in the literature, which describe unusual patterns of accidental hanging. This article focuses on an unusual pattern of accidental hanging of a 25-year-old man, who was in a state of morphine-induced central nervous system depression and found dead in a sitting position with the collar of his T-shirt hanging off a jutting-out root of a tree. The hanged collar acted as a ligature compressing the neck.

  19. MR imaging of fistula in ano: indications and contribution to surgical assessment.

    PubMed

    Mullen, R; Deveraj, S; Suttie, S A; Matthews, A G; Yalamarthi, S

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice for fistula in ano. The purpose of this study was to analyse the use of MRI, and to assess its contribution towards the assessment of this sometimes difficult condition. A retrospective analysis of all patients with fistula in ano between January 2003 and December 2007 was performed, focussing on those who had MRI assessment. The primary pathology, indication for MRI and the contribution of this investigation to assessment of fistula in ano were analysed. MRI was performed in 40 patients. The primary pathologies included: perianal sepsis in 20 (50%), Crohn's disease in 11 (27.5%), primary fistula in ano in 6 (15%) and others in 3 (7.5%) patients. Indications for MRI were to assess the fistula anatomy in 17 (42.5%), to assess a clinically suspected fistula in 12 (30%), to assess a complex fistula found at Examination Under Anaesthesia (EUA) in 6 (15%) and to exclude a fistula in 5 (12.5%). MRI was considered helpful in 34 (85%) of all cases. MRI established the fistula anatomy and guided further surgery in 47.1%, correlated with EUA findings in 38.2% and excluded a suspected fistula in 14.7% of these. This study further supports the benefit of using MRI to assess fistula in ano. When used in selected patients, it was of benefit in 85% of cases, by establishing fistula anatomy and guiding further surgery, correlating EUA findings or excluding a clinically suspected fistula.

  20. The lethal paraphiliac syndrome. Accidental autoerotic deaths in Denmark 1933-1990.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, N; Modvig, J

    1995-09-01

    A new definition of accidental autoerotic death (AAD) is proposed. A death is an AAD if it is solitary, accidental, and caused by a lethal paraphilia. On the basis of a series of 46 AADs, all occurring among men in the period 1933-1990 in Denmark, the definition cannot be rejected. A paraphilia is regarded as lethal if it is inherently life-threatening. The results of this study have been related to previous reports of similar autoerotic deaths in the literature. It is suggested that the present distinction between asphyxial AAD as typical and nonasphyxial ADD as atypical be replaced with lethal paraphilia with accompanying nonlethal paraphilia or props as typical AAD and lethal paraphilia with no accompanying nonlethal paraphilia or props as atypical AAD.

  1. [The prevalence of accidental poisoning in a hospital pediatric unit of Latium].

    PubMed

    Faraoni, F; Protano, C; Bini, V; Lizzi, R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of accidental poisoning among children, over a period of fifteen years, from 1990 to 2004, in the pediatric wards of a hospital in Latium (Italy). The prevalence of childhood poisoning was calculated based on the medical records of the pediatric unit of the hospital. The derived data was divided into different categories according to age, gender and types of poisoning. The results of this study show a decrease in accidental pediatric poisoning; according to the literature the frequency of poisoning was higher in males, under the age of 2 years, than females. Trends show an increase in pharmaceutical poisonings. The present study underlines the need for continuous information on prevention and educational programs organized by the Institutions, territorial sanitary services and GP with the aim of increasing the awareness of parents regarding the risk factors of poisoning.

  2. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  3. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  4. Multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy induced by accidental consumption of levamisole: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sariaslani, Payam; Ghanbari, Ali; Ghanbari, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.

  5. Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Björn

    2011-03-01

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  6. Accidental germ-line modifications through somatic cell gene therapies: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J M; Roy, I

    2001-01-01

    Proposed somatic cell gene-therapies (especially those involving in utero therapies) may involve a small risk of germ-line modifications; this risk has engendered serious concern, and arguments have been made that such therapies ought not be pursued if such risks exists. We argue here that while pursuing deliberate germ-line modifications in humans would be inappropriate given the current state of the art, the risk of accidental germ-line modifications from most currently proposed in utero gene therapy is no different in kind or degree from other risks regularly taken in medical procedures. Given the possible benefits of such therapies, we argue that the risk of accidental germ-line modifications is well worth taking in these cases.

  7. Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter; Brugger, Hermann

    2014-06-01

    Core temperature (T core) measurement is the only diagnostic tool to accurately assess the severity of hypothermia. International recommendations for management of accidental hypothermia encourage T core measurement for triage, treatment, and transport decisions, but they also recognize that lack of equipment may be a limiting factor, particularly in the field. The aim of this nonsystematic review is to highlight the importance of field measurement of T core and to provide practical guidance for clinicians on pre-hospital temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. Clinicians should recognize the difference between alternative measurement locations and available thermometers, tailoring their decision to the purpose of the measurement (i.e., intermittent vs. continual measurement), and the impact on management decisions. The importance of T core measurement in therapeutic hypothermia protocols during early cooling and monitoring of target temperature is discussed.

  8. A case of accidental fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning involving humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Krishna, Karthik; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Rautji, Ravi; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-05-01

    Aluminum phosphide is one of the commonest poisons encountered in agricultural areas, and manner of death in the victims is often suicidal and rarely homicidal or accidental. This paper presents an unusual case, where two humans (owner and housemaid) and eight dogs were found dead in the morning hours inside a room of a house, used as shelter for stray dogs. There was allegation by the son of the owner that his father had been killed. Crime scene visit by forensic pathologists helped to collect vital evidence. Autopsies of both the human victims and the dogs were conducted. Toxicological analysis of viscera, vomitus, leftover food, and chemical container at the crime scene tested positive for aluminum phosphide. The cause of death in both humans and dogs was aluminum phosphide poisoning. Investigation by police and the forensic approach to the case helped in ascertaining the manner of death, which was accidental.

  9. Giant choroid plexus cyst as an accidental finding in an older man.

    PubMed

    Bozić, Boris; Rotim, Kresimir; Houra, Karlo

    2008-01-01

    Choroid plexus cysts (CPC) are usually found at the end of the second trimester of pregnancy. Sometimes they can be accidentally and found on prenatal ultrasound examinations. Vast majority of CPC resolve spontaneously by 28th weeks gestation. In the older aged group the choroid plexus cysts are extremely rare pathomorphologic medical entity. Since they are almost always asymptomatic, they are therefore accidentally found on brain magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) scans. They are usually located in the lateral ventricles and measure around 2 cm in diameter. We present a case of a 75-year-old male with a giant choroid plexus cyst whose leading symptom was excruciating headache refractory to previous conservative therapy. He underwent surgery when osteoplastic craniotomy was performed with cyst fenestration and ablation. His recovery was uneventful with total regression of headaches. Reviewing the recent literature we did not find such a case considering the patients age and the size of the choroid plexus cyst.

  10. Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk = 2.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

  11. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pan; Wang, Shigong; Fan, Xingang; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Emergency room (ER) visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC). Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature. PMID:27827842

  12. [Fatal accidental mixed poisoning of 3 men at the same time].

    PubMed

    Minnasch, P; Reiter, A; Meissner, C; Oehmichen, M

    1999-01-01

    The case history presented reports on three 30- to 40-years-old men, who were found dead in a party like situation in the living room. The toxicological investigation proved alcohol and THC as well as therapeutic Flunitrazepam- and Pentobarbital levels and toxic 7- Amino-Flunitrazepam concentrations. The background of this surprising scene led up to the conclusion of an accidental death caused by a mixed intoxication.

  13. Successful replantation following an accidental forearm amputation. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sauma, A; Quiroga, R; Brockmann, C; Montaño, M; Flores, G; Barrenechea, J P

    2002-04-01

    We report a patient who suffered an accidental complete amputation of the right forearm followed by a successful replantation and comment on the indications and management of macro-replantations of the upper limbs. This is the first time that a successful surgical procedure of this nature has been performed in Bolivia, with no post-operative complications and excellent long-term functional recovery.

  14. Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew

    2010-10-21

    While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 μg/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal.

  15. Accidental inhalation injury of phosgene gas leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Chaudhari, Sudhir; Kush, Luv; Kumar, Suraj; Garg, Atul; Shukla, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    Irritant gas exposure may lead to significant respiratory distress as is seen in the present case of 25 year old male worker who suffered accidental phosgene inhalation. He remained asymptomatic for six hours but later landed up in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the hospital and required ventilatory support. No investigative feature is diagnostic of the nature of irritant gas. Similarly there is no antidote available to the phosgene. Only timely administered supportive management may lead to successful outcome. PMID:23580841

  16. Epidemiology and outcomes of children with accidental hypothermia: A propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Totapally, Abhinav; Leoncio, Michael; Beltramo, Fernando; Meyer, Keith; Raszynski, Andre; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the epidemiology and outcomes of hospitalized children with a diagnosis of accidental hypothermia. The 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database, detailing discharge diagnoses in children admitted to US hospitals, was analyzed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes to filter out relevant patients. Children ages 1 month to 17 years were included in the analysis. Demographic and outcome variables in the hypothermia group were compared with the rest of the patients. In a separate analysis, children with hypothermia were matched 1:1 using a correlative propensity score using sex, age, hospital region, income quartiles, race, ventilation status, coagulopathy, drowning, and All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups severity score and their outcomes were compared with controls. The sample data were weighted to get a national estimate. Accidental hypothermia was present in 1,028 cases out of 1,915,435 discharges. Children with hypothermia were more likely to be males (54.7% vs. 50.9%; p < 0.05) and infants (32.6% vs. 17.5%); they were less likely to be teens (30% vs. 37.8%). Children with hypothermia were more likely to be admitted in the Southern region (48.3% vs. 38.4%; p < 0.05) and have a higher mortality rate compared to all other discharges (8.5% vs. 0.3%; p < 0.05) or when compared with the matched controls (8.9% vs. 4.4%). The diagnosis of accidental hypothermia significantly increased mortality in hospitalized children. Interestingly, accidental hypothermia was more common in Southern states compared to the other areas of the United States. Prognostic/epidemiological study, level III.

  17. Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

  18. Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity*

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

  19. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion.

  20. Measuring the visual salience of alignments by their non-accidentalness.

    PubMed

    Blusseau, S; Carboni, A; Maiche, A; Morel, J M; Grompone von Gioi, R

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative approaches are part of the understanding of contour integration and the Gestalt law of good continuation. The present study introduces a new quantitative approach based on the a contrario theory, which formalizes the non-accidentalness principle for good continuation. This model yields an ideal observer algorithm, able to detect non-accidental alignments in Gabor patterns. More precisely, this parameterless algorithm associates with each candidate percept a measure, the Number of False Alarms (NFA), quantifying its degree of masking. To evaluate the approach, we compared this ideal observer with the human attentive performance on three experiments of straight contours detection in arrays of Gabor patches. The experiments showed a strong correlation between the detectability of the target stimuli and their degree of non-accidentalness, as measured by our model. What is more, the algorithm's detection curves were very similar to the ones of human subjects. This fact seems to validate our proposed measurement method as a convenient way to predict the visibility of alignments. This framework could be generalized to other Gestalts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Infant homicide and accidental death in the United States, 1940-2005: ethics and epidemiological classification.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Jack E; Hobbs, Gerald R

    2011-07-01

    Potential ethical issues can arise during the process of epidemiological classification. For example, unnatural infant deaths are classified as accidental deaths or homicides. Societal sensitivity to the physical abuse and neglect of children has increased over recent decades. This enhanced sensitivity could impact reported infant homicide rates. Infant homicide and accident mortality rates in boys and girls in the USA from 1940 to 2005 were analysed. In 1940, infant accident mortality rates were over 20 times greater than infant homicide rates in both boys and girls. After about 1980, when the ratio of infant accident mortality rates to infant homicide rates decreased to less than five, and the sum of infant accident and homicide rates became relatively constant, further decreases in infant accident mortality rates were associated with increases in reported infant homicide rates. These findings suggest that the dramatic decline of accidental infant mortality and recent increased societal sensitivity to child abuse may be related to the increased infant homicide rates observed in the USA since 1980 rather than an actual increase in societal violence directed against infants. Ethical consequences of epidemiological classification, involving the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, are suggested by observed patterns in infant accidental deaths and homicides in the USA from 1940 to 2005.

  2. South Dakota accidental childhood deaths, 2000-2007: what can we do?

    PubMed

    Svien, Lana R; Senne, Svien A; Rasmussen, Carl

    2010-05-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children around the world and are an under-recognized public health problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to highlight the nature of the problem in South Dakota and outline interventions that have been successful in reducing childhood injuries in other states. This quantitative retrospective study examined mortality files in South Dakota for children birth to 19 years of age who died between January 1, 2000 to December 28, 2007. Although the number of deaths declined considerably from 2006 to 2007, South Dakota had the second-highest rate in the nation of childhood unintentional injury deaths from all causes between 2000-2005. The majority of deaths occurred in males and were associated with transportation-related deaths. Suffocation was the leading cause of death for newborns to age 1 year. Childhood accidental death in South Dakota is clearly a critical public health problem. Intervention efforts to reduce deaths from unintentional injuries amongst children should be targeted as the leading causes of accidental death for specific age groups and American Indian youth. Physicians, health educators and policymakers must play a role in prevention targeting the high-risk groups in addition to advocating for policy changes to protect childhood safety. More stringent child restraint laws, graduated driving laws, smoking cessation programs for parents, creation of safer sleep environments and further investigation of why a high proportion of American Indian children die accidentally in South Dakota are all warranted.

  3. Judgments of moral responsibility and wrongness for intentional and accidental harm and purity violations.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Mary; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2017-01-31

    Two experiments examine whether people reason differently about intentional and accidental violations in the moral domains of harm and purity, by examining moral responsibility and wrongness judgments for violations that affect others or the self. The first experiment shows that intentional violations are judged to be worse than accidental ones, regardless of whether they are harm or purity violations-for example, Sam poisons his colleague versus Sam eats his dog, when participants judge how morally responsible was Sam for what he did, or how morally wrong was what Sam did. The second experiment shows that violations of others are judged to be worse than violations of the self, regardless of whether they are harm or purity violations, when their content and context is matched-for example, on a tropical holiday Sam orders poisonous starfruit for dinner for his friend, or for himself, versus on a tropical holiday Sam orders dog meat for dinner for his friend, or for himself. Moral reasoning is influenced by whether the violation was intentional or accidental, and whether its target was the self or another person, rather than by the moral domain, such as harm or purity.

  4. Accidental crossing of energy eigenvalues in PT-symmetric Natanzon-class potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévai, G.

    2017-05-01

    The accidental crossing of energy levels is studied for a number of exactly solvable PT-symmetric potentials in one spatial dimension. This phenomenon occurs when the potential possesses two series of bound-state levels discriminated by the q = ± quasi-parity quantum number and a potential parameter is tuned to specific values. In contrast with the coalescing of two such real-energy levels with the same n quantum number and continuing as a complex conjugate pair, corresponding to the breakdown of PT symmetry, accidental crossing occurs for energy levels with different n and q. In this case the energy eigenvalues become degenerate, and the corresponding wave functions become linearly dependent. It is shown that besides the known examples, the PT-symmetric harmonic oscillator, Coulomb and Scarf II potentials, this phenomenon occurs for any member of the Natanzon potential class for which the q quantum number can be defined. Two such potentials are discussed as concrete examples: the PT-symmetric generalized Ginocchio potential and a four-parameter subset of the Natanzon potential class. These potentials have been described in detail previously, however, the accidental crossing of their energy eigenvalues has not been noticed then.

  5. No clinically relevant effects in children after accidental ingestion of Panaeolina foenisecii (lawn mower's mushroom).

    PubMed

    Schenk-Jaeger, Katharina M; Hofer-Lentner, Katharina E; Plenert, Bettina; Eckart, Dagmar; Haberl, Bettina; Schulze, Gabriele; Borchert-Avalone, Janine; Stedtler, Uwe; Pfab, Rudolph

    2017-03-01

    Panaeolina foenisecii is one of the most common and widely distributed lawn mushrooms in Europe and North America, and frequently involved in accidental mushroom ingestion, mainly in children. Nevertheless, there is contradictory information regarding the toxicity profile of P. foenisecii in the literature. Objective of the study was to assess clinical effects with particular attention on psychoactive properties of P. foenisecii in case of accidental oral exposure. This observational case series is based on prospectively collected data on mushroom poisoning using a structured data collection form, and it was performed in seven poisons centres in Germany and Switzerland. Inclusion criteria were accidental ingestion of at least one cap of P. foenisecii identified by a mycologist, and a follow up of at least 4 hours. Nineteen cases met all inclusion criteria, and only children were involved with a mean age of 3 years. They ingested 1-2 mushrooms in 14 cases and 3-5 mushrooms in five cases. Three patients received a single dose of activated charcoal. Sixteen out of 19 cases did not develop any symptoms, 2/19 complained of minor abdominal discomfort. One child was temporarily mildly hyperactive, and this was the only patient observed in a hospital for 12 hours. None of the children showed signs of hallucinations. This multicentre study demonstrates that the typically small amounts of P. foenisecii ingested by children probably do not lead to clinically significant symptoms.

  6. Analysis of trends in adolescent suicides and accidental deaths in England and Wales, 1972-2011.

    PubMed

    Redmore, James; Kipping, Ruth; Trickey, Adam; May, Margaret T; Gunnell, David

    2016-10-01

    Previous analyses of adolescent suicides in England and Wales have focused on short time periods. To investigate trends in suicide and accidental deaths in adolescents between 1972 and 2011. Time trend analysis of rates of suicides and deaths from accidental poisoning and hanging in 10- to 19-year-olds by age, gender and deprivation. Rate ratios were estimated for 1982-1991, 1992-2001 and 2002-2011 with 1972-1981 as comparator. Suicide rates have remained stable in 10- to 14-year-olds, with strong evidence for a reduction in accidental deaths. In males aged 15-19, suicide rates peaked in 2001 before declining. Suicide by hanging is the most common method of suicide. Rates were higher in males and in 15- to 19-year-olds living in more deprived areas. Suicide rates in adolescents are at their lowest since the early 1970s with no clear evidence that changes in coroners' practices underlie this trend. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. Accidental oral poisoning caused by RDX (cyclonite): a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Küçükardali, Yaşar; Acar, H Volkan; Ozkan, Sezai; Nalbant, Selim; Yazgan, Yusuf; Atasoyu, E Murat; Keskin, Ozcan; Naz, Alişan; Akyatan, Nevzat; Gökben, Merih; Danaci, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The explosive RDX (hexogen, cyclonite) is usually used for the production of C-4 explosive. The rare occurrence of accidental and intentional RDX intoxications has been reported during manufacturing process or in wartime. In this article, the authors report 5 cases of accidental oral RDX poisoning. On admission, observed signs and symptoms included repetitive generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, postictal coma, lethargy, confusion, hyperreflexia, postictal amnesia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal tenderness, sinusal tachycardia, dysrhythmia with frequent ventricular premature beats, generalized muscle spasms, and myoclonus. Leukocytosis, mild anemia, methemoglobinemia, elevated levels of blood glucose, serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, amilase, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, proteinuria, glucosuria, and myoglobinuria were also noted. Plasma RDX concentrations were 268 to 969 ng/mL at 3 hours of ingestion. For management, supportive and symptomatic measures were taken. Whole-bowel irrigation might have been an effective therapeutic procedure due to probable slow gastrointestinal absorption of RDX. Three patients who developed severe metabolic acidosis underwent urgent hemodialysis. All patients were discharged 7 to 21 days after admission without any sequelae. Plasma RDX levels were strongly correlated with the clinical and laboratory manifestations. The available toxicological data on this rare accidental poisoning are reviewed in light of the literature.

  8. Accidental hanging: a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes.

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-12-01

    Accidental hanging is uncommon. An immobile/fixed and exposed suspension apparatus is seen in almost all cases of hanging. A 50-year-old man, who was drunk, was trying to steal an iron rod by hiding it under his clothing. To secure hiding, he attached it to his body by a loose ligature around the neck, the waist belt of the sarong, and another band around the waist and by his underwear. Sometime later, because of ethanol intoxication, he fell asleep in the sitting position. While he was sitting on the floor, the iron rod was lifted up accidentally, and its upper end was wedged against the wall behind the victim, and the lower end was fixed against the floor. When he fell asleep, the weight of the tilted head acted as the constricting force compressing the neck by the ligature that was used to attach the iron rod to the neck. The cause of death was concluded as hanging in a man with ethanol intoxication. This case highlights a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes, in a case of accidental hanging. A similar case has not been reported in the forensic literature.

  9. Apoptosis and accidental cell death in cultured human keratinocytes after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Matylevitch, N P; Schuschereba, S T; Mata, J R; Gilligan, G R; Lawlor, D F; Goodwin, C W; Bowman, P D

    1998-08-01

    The respective roles of apoptosis and accidental cell death after thermal injury were evaluated in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. By coupling the LIVE/DEAD fluorescence viability assay with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and ultrastructural morphology, these two processes could be distinguished. Cells were grown on glass coverslips with a microgrid pattern so that the results of several staining procedures performed sequentially could be visualized in the same cells after heating at temperatures of up to 72 degrees C for 1 second. After exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C, cells died predominantly by apoptosis; viable cells became TUNEL positive, indicating degradation of DNA. After exposure to temperatures of 60 to 66 degrees C, both TUNEL-positive viable cells and TUNEL-positive nonviable cells were observed, indicating that apoptosis and accidental cell death were occurring simultaneously. Cells died almost immediately after exposure to temperatures above 72 degrees C, presumably from heat fixation. The fluorescent mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Orange indicated that cells undergoing apoptosis became TUNEL positive before loss of mitochondrial function. Nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis occurred after exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C. The characteristic morphological findings of cells undergoing apoptosis, by transmission electron microscopy, included cellular shrinkage, cytoplasmic budding, and relatively intact mitochondria. Depending on temperature and time of exposure, normal human epidermal keratinocytes may die by apoptosis, accidental cell death, or heat fixation.

  10. Involving parents in indicated early intervention for childhood PTSD following accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Cobham, Vanessa E; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-12-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome research in this area. This review focuses on two key issues within the child PTSD literature--namely the role of parents in treatment and the timing of intervention. The issue of parental involvement in the treatment of child PTSD is a question that is increasingly being recognized as important. In addition, the need to find a balance between providing early intervention to at risk youth while avoiding providing treatment to those youth who will recover spontaneously has yet to be addressed. This paper outlines the rationale for and the development of a trauma-focused CBT protocol with separate parent and child programs, for use with children and adolescents experiencing PTSD following an accidental injury. The protocol is embedded within an indicated intervention framework, allowing for the early identification of youth at risk within a medical setting. Two case studies are presented in order to illustrate key issues raised in the review, implementation of the interventions, and the challenges involved.

  11. Shape measurement tools in footwear analysis: a statistical investigation of accidental characteristics over time.

    PubMed

    Sheets, H David; Gross, Susan; Langenburg, Glenn; Bush, Peter J; Bush, Mary A

    2013-10-10

    Presence of accidental characteristics on footwear strengthens the linkage of a given piece of footwear to a footwear impression left at a crime-scene. Thus an understanding of rate of appearance and disappearance of these characteristics is of importance. Artificial cut-marks, 1-3mm in depth, were cut into outsoles of 11 pairs of athletic shoes. Loss of these cut-marks and acquisition of new accidental characteristics/wear patterns were monitored over a seven-week time-span. Feature-vector methods were used to acquire multivariate data on wear/acquisition rates. A repeatability study indicated the feature vector method could detect small differences among shoes relative to measurement uncertainty. The shoes displayed a strong retention of artificial cut-marks over the study interval. Net rate of wear was 0.1% of the textured area of the shoe per week, predominantly in the heel and ball area. Results indicate accidental characteristics can reasonably be expected to persist over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accidental poisoning in childhood: five year urban population study with 15 year analysis of fatality.

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Ansford, A; Corcoran, A

    1984-01-01

    Patterns of accidental poisoning in children are changing dramatically. A five year population study (1977-81) was undertaken in urban children from Brisbane (population 1 000 000). A total of 2098 children were poisoned during this period with only one fatality, which represents a dramatic reduction in mortality. Over the past 15 years (1968-82) 13 children have died from accidental poisoning from this population, and two were murdered with drugs. A study of secular trends has indicated that peak incidence occurred in 1979, and the rate has been falling progressively since. The current age corrected rate of poisoning is 393 per 100 000 children per year (0-5 year olds). The rank order of poisons, drugs, and chemicals causing hospital admission and death is: petroleum distillates 13%; antihistamines 9%; benzodiazepines 9%; bleach and detergents 7%; and aspirin 6%. The ratio of fatalities to ingestions requiring hospital admission was calculated to give an index of a practical danger of noxious agents to which children are currently exposed and the rank order is: cardiotoxic drugs, one fatality to 25 ingestions; tricyclic antidepressants, one to 44; sympathomimetic drugs, one to 54; caustic soda, one to 68; aspirin, one fatality to 350 ingestions. Accidental poisoning of children leading to death has been reduced because patterns of drug prescriptions have changed, packaging of dangerous drugs has been made safer, and substances such as kerosene have been coloured blue. PMID:6140065

  13. The role of environmental accidental risk assessment in the process of granting development consent.

    PubMed

    Kontic, Branko; Gerbec, Marko

    2009-11-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure that must be followed for certain types of development before they are granted development consent. The procedure requires the developer to compile an environmental impact report (EIR) describing the likely significant effects of the project on the environment. A regulatory requirement in Slovenia is that an accidental risk assessment for a new installation should be a part of an EIR. The article shows how risk assessment (RA) related to accidental release of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or a polyvalent alcohol mixture from a new planned unit of a chemical factory in the Alpine region of Slovenia was performed in the framework of an EIA for the purpose of obtaining a construction permit. Two accidental scenarios were considered: (a) a spill of 20 m(3) of MDI or polyvalent alcohol mixture into the river Soca (the river runs close to the chemical factory) and (b) a fire in the warehouse storing the raw material, where emission of toxic gases HCN, NO(x), and CO is expected during combustion of MDI. One of the most important results of this case is the agreement among the developer, the competent authority, and a consultant in the field of EIA and RA to positively conclude the licensing process despite the absence of formal (regulatory) limit values for risk. It has been approved that transparent, reasonably uncertain, and semi-quantitative environmental risk assessment is an inevitable component of an EIA, and an essential factor in informed, licensing-related decision making.

  14. The EPA's process safety management program for preventing accidental chemical releases (40 CFR 68)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. )

    1994-04-01

    Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.

  15. Analysis of trends in adolescent suicides and accidental deaths in England and Wales, 1972–2011

    PubMed Central

    Redmore, James; Kipping, Ruth; Trickey, Adam; May, Margaret T.; Gunnell, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous analyses of adolescent suicides in England and Wales have focused on short time periods. Aims To investigate trends in suicide and accidental deaths in adolescents between 1972 and 2011. Method Time trend analysis of rates of suicides and deaths from accidental poisoning and hanging in 10- to 19-year-olds by age, gender and deprivation. Rate ratios were estimated for 1982–1991, 1992–2001 and 2002–2011 with 1972–1981 as comparator. Results Suicide rates have remained stable in 10- to 14-year-olds, with strong evidence for a reduction in accidental deaths. In males aged 15–19, suicide rates peaked in 2001 before declining. Suicide by hanging is the most common method of suicide. Rates were higher in males and in 15- to 19-year-olds living in more deprived areas. Conclusions Suicide rates in adolescents are at their lowest since the early 1970s with no clear evidence that changes in coroners' practices underlie this trend. PMID:27284083

  16. Amplitude-integrated EEG revealed nonconvulsive status epilepticus in children with non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Ayuko; Okumura, Akihisa; Komatsu, Mitsutaka; Tomita, Osamu; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Saito, Masako; Nakazawa, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    We describe the clinical course and amplitude-integrated EEG findings in three children with non-accidental head injury and discuss on the importance of continuous aEEG monitoring in infants. NCSE was defined as a continuous 30-min seizure or briefer seizures occurring consecutively comprising at least 30 min of any 1-h period. Non-accidental head injury was diagnosed on the basis of neuroimaging findings such as subdural hemorrhage. Antiepileptic treatment was performed with continuous amplitude-integrated EEG monitoring. The age of the patients ranged from 48 days to nine months. All of them had loss of consciousness and seizures on presentation. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus without clinical symptoms were recognized in all patients. Vigorous antiepileptic treatment against nonconvulsive status epilepticus was made in two patients, whereas nonconvulsive status epilepticus disappeared within one hour without additional treatment in one. Our experience indicates that nonconvulsive status epilepticus were not uncommon in children with non-accidental head injury. Continuous amplitude-integrated EEG monitoring will be one of the useful methods in encephalopathic children in order to estimate seizure burden objectively and to treat seizures appropriately. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Epidemiology and management of patients with ano-genital warts in Italy].

    PubMed

    Suligoi, Barbara; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Mariani, Luciano

    2010-01-01

    Overview of the impact of ano-genital warts in Italy. In Italy, the HPV infection is not subject to mandatory reporting, the available epidemiological data come from sentinel surveillance of STIs and show a high spread among young people under 25 years and an increase in reports after 2004. Although ano-genital warts are a benign disease, nonetheless they are characterized by a big relational and psycho-sexual impact, due also to high recurrence rates. It is extremely useful to promote information activities, education in safe sex, early diagnosis and treatment of genital warts. In this context, primary prevention through vaccination represents a valid tool of protection.

  18. US infant mortality trends attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed from 1984 through 2004: are rates increasing?

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Kimball, Melissa; Tomashek, Kay M; Anderson, Robert N; Blanding, Sarah

    2009-02-01

    Accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, a subgroup of sudden, unexpected infant deaths, is a leading mechanism of injury-related infant deaths. We explored trends and characteristics of these potentially preventable deaths. In this descriptive study, we analyzed US infant mortality data from 1984 through 2004. To explore trends in accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed and other sudden, unexpected infant deaths, we calculated cause-specific infant mortality rates and estimated proportionate mortality. Sudden, unexpected infant death was defined as a combination of all deaths attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, sudden infant death syndrome, and unknown causes. Finally, we examined factors that were reported as contributing to these accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed deaths. Between 1984 and 2004, infant mortality rates attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed increased from 2.8 to 12.5 deaths per 100000 live births. These rates remained relatively stagnant between 1984 and 1992 and increased between 1992 and 2004; the most dramatic increase occurred between 1996 and 2004 (14% average annual increase). In contrast, total sudden, unexpected infant death rates remained stagnant between 1996 and 2004, whereas the proportion of deaths attributed to sudden infant death syndrome declined and to unknown cause increased. Black male infants <4 months of age were disproportionately affected by accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. Beds, cribs, and couches were reported as places where deaths attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed occurred. Infant mortality rates attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed have quadrupled since 1984. The reason for this increase is unknown. Prevention efforts should target those at highest risk and focus on helping parents and caregivers provide safer sleep environments.

  19. Skeletal survey normal variants, artefacts and commonly misinterpreted findings not to be confused with non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Alan J; Stafrace, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Radiology plays a key part in the investigation of non-accidental injury. Many normal variants and artefacts can simulate an abnormality associated with non-accidental injury. It is essential that radiologists reporting skeletal surveys in cases of suspected child abuse are aware of these. We present a pictorial essay to aid the reporting radiologist in the differentiation between normal variants or artefacts and true traumatic injury. We show plain film examples of potential pitfalls throughout the body.

  20. Activation of the Ano1 (TMEM16A) chloride channel by calcium is not mediated by calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinqiu; Qu, Zhiqiang; Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Hartzell, H. Criss

    2014-01-01

    The Ca2+-activated Cl channel anoctamin-1 (Ano1; Tmem16A) plays a variety of physiological roles, including epithelial fluid secretion. Ano1 is activated by increases in intracellular Ca2+, but there is uncertainty whether Ca2+ binds directly to Ano1 or whether phosphorylation or additional Ca2+-binding subunits like calmodulin (CaM) are required. Here we show that CaM is not necessary for activation of Ano1 by Ca2+ for the following reasons. (a) Exogenous CaM has no effect on Ano1 currents in inside-out excised patches. (b) Overexpression of Ca2+-insensitive mutants of CaM have no effect on Ano1 currents, whereas they eliminate the current mediated by the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK2) channel. (c) Ano1 does not coimmunoprecipitate with CaM, whereas SK2 does. Furthermore, Ano1 binds very weakly to CaM in pull-down assays. (d) Ano1 is activated in excised patches by low concentrations of Ba2+, which does not activate CaM. In addition, we conclude that reversible phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is not required for current activation by Ca2+ because the current can be repeatedly activated in excised patches in the absence of ATP or other high-energy compounds. Although Ano1 is blocked by the CaM inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP), we propose that TFP inhibits the channel in a CaM-independent manner because TFP does not inhibit Ano1 when applied to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches. These experiments lead us to conclude that CaM is not required for activation of Ano1 by Ca2+. Although CaM is not required for channel opening by Ca2+, work of other investigators suggests that CaM may have effects in modulating the biophysical properties of the channel. PMID:24420770

  1. Next generation sequencing on patients with LGMD and nonspecific myopathies: Findings associated with ANO5 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Savarese, Marco; Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Tasca, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Lucia; Janssens, Sandra; De Bleecker, Jan; Delpech, Marc; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio; Angelini, Corrado; Sacconi, Sabrina; Santoro, Lucio; Ricci, Enzo; Claes, Kathleen; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We studied 786 undiagnosed patients with LGMD or nonspecific myopathic features to investigate the role of ANO5 mutations in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and in nonspecific myopathies using the next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In 160 LGMD patients, we first sequenced hotspot exons 5 and 20 and then sequenced the remaining part of the coding region. Another 626 patients, recruited using broader inclusion criteria, were directly analyzed by targeted NGS. By combining NGS and Sanger sequencing, we identified 33/786 (4%) patients carrying putative pathogenic changes in both alleles and 23 ANO5 heterozygotes (3%). The phenotypic spectrum is broader than expected, from hyperCKemia to myopathies, with lack of genotype/phenotype correlations. In particular, this is currently the largest screening of the ANO5 gene. The large number of heterozygotes for damaging mutations suggests that anoctaminopathies should be frequent and often nonpenetrant. We propose the multiple genetic testing by targeted NGS as a first step to analyze patients with nonspecific myopathic presentations. This represents a straightforward approach to overcome the difficulties of clinical heterogeneity of ANO5 patients, and to test, at the same time, many other genes involved in neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25891276

  2. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-02-23

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl(-) channels and phospholipid scramblases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl(-) currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca(2+) signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection.

  3. Next generation sequencing on patients with LGMD and nonspecific myopathies: Findings associated with ANO5 mutations.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Marco; Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Tasca, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Lucia; Janssens, Sandra; De Bleecker, Jan; Delpech, Marc; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio; Angelini, Corrado; Sacconi, Sabrina; Santoro, Lucio; Ricci, Enzo; Claes, Kathleen; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    We studied 786 undiagnosed patients with LGMD or nonspecific myopathic features to investigate the role of ANO5 mutations in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and in nonspecific myopathies using the next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In 160 LGMD patients, we first sequenced hotspot exons 5 and 20 and then sequenced the remaining part of the coding region. Another 626 patients, recruited using broader inclusion criteria, were directly analyzed by targeted NGS. By combining NGS and Sanger sequencing, we identified 33/786 (4%) patients carrying putative pathogenic changes in both alleles and 23 ANO5 heterozygotes (3%). The phenotypic spectrum is broader than expected, from hyperCKemia to myopathies, with lack of genotype/phenotype correlations. In particular, this is currently the largest screening of the ANO5 gene. The large number of heterozygotes for damaging mutations suggests that anoctaminopathies should be frequent and often nonpenetrant. We propose the multiple genetic testing by targeted NGS as a first step to analyze patients with nonspecific myopathic presentations. This represents a straightforward approach to overcome the difficulties of clinical heterogeneity of ANO5 patients, and to test, at the same time, many other genes involved in neuromuscular disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  5. Accidental Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 (Click on image for larger view)

    This image, acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera on the 53rd martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission, struck science and engineering teams as not only scientifically interesting but remarkably beautiful. The large, shadowed rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Sandia' for a mountain range in New Mexico. An imposing rock, 'Sandia' is about 33 centimeters high (1 foot) and about 1.7 meters (5.5 feet) long.

    Figure 1 above is a lightened version of the more artistic image above.

    The combination of the rover's high-resolution cameras with software tools used by scientists allows the minute details on martian targets to be visualized. When lightened, this image reveals much about the pictured rocks, which the science team believes are ejected material, or ejecta, from the nearby crater called 'Bonneville.' Scientists believe 'Sandia' is a basaltic rock that landed on its side after being ejected from the crater. The vertical lines on the side of the rock facing the camera are known by geologists as 'flow banding' and typically run horizontally, indicating that 'Sandia' is on its side. What look like small holes on the two visible sides of the rock are called vesicles; they were probably once gas bubbles within the lava.

    The lighting not only makes for an artistic image, it helps scientists get a virtual three-dimensional feel for target rocks. Observations taken at different times of day, as shadows move and surface texture details on target rocks are revealed, are entered into modeling software that turns a two-dimensional image into a three-dimensional research tool.

    Many smaller rocks can be seen in the background of the image. Some rocks are completely exposed, while others are only peeking out of the surface. Scientists believe that two processes might be at work here: accretion, which occurs when winds deposit material that slowly buries many of the rocks; and deflation, which occurs when surface material is removed by wind, exposing more and more of the rocks.

  6. Accidental Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 (Click on image for larger view)

    This image, acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera on the 53rd martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission, struck science and engineering teams as not only scientifically interesting but remarkably beautiful. The large, shadowed rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Sandia' for a mountain range in New Mexico. An imposing rock, 'Sandia' is about 33 centimeters high (1 foot) and about 1.7 meters (5.5 feet) long.

    Figure 1 above is a lightened version of the more artistic image above.

    The combination of the rover's high-resolution cameras with software tools used by scientists allows the minute details on martian targets to be visualized. When lightened, this image reveals much about the pictured rocks, which the science team believes are ejected material, or ejecta, from the nearby crater called 'Bonneville.' Scientists believe 'Sandia' is a basaltic rock that landed on its side after being ejected from the crater. The vertical lines on the side of the rock facing the camera are known by geologists as 'flow banding' and typically run horizontally, indicating that 'Sandia' is on its side. What look like small holes on the two visible sides of the rock are called vesicles; they were probably once gas bubbles within the lava.

    The lighting not only makes for an artistic image, it helps scientists get a virtual three-dimensional feel for target rocks. Observations taken at different times of day, as shadows move and surface texture details on target rocks are revealed, are entered into modeling software that turns a two-dimensional image into a three-dimensional research tool.

    Many smaller rocks can be seen in the background of the image. Some rocks are completely exposed, while others are only peeking out of the surface. Scientists believe that two processes might be at work here: accretion, which occurs when winds deposit material that slowly buries many of the rocks; and deflation, which occurs when surface material is removed by wind, exposing more and more of the rocks.

  7. Accidental Hypothermia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-03

    on risk factors.329,538,539,303,93 Safe experimental investigations of hypothermia in hurman volunteers terminate cooling at 350C. This precludes...clinical experiments and surgically induced hypothermia. 423 a195 ,19 3 13 ,202 ,543 ,19 7 ,84 ,175 ,227 ,10 1,443 yward measured his own esophageal...the periphery and core. L9 For example, hypothermic patients experience major afterdrops when frostbitten extremities are thawed prematurely

  8. [Accidental falls].

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential.

  9. The Phenotypic Spectrum of DYT24 Due to ANO3 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Charlesworth, Gavin; Cordivari, Carla; Schneider, Susanne A; Kägi, Georg; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Batla, Amit; Houlden, Henry; Wood, Nicholas W; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2014-01-01

    Genes causing primary dystonia are rare. Recently, pathogenic mutations in the anoctamin 3 gene (ANO3) have been identified to cause autosomal dominant craniocervical dystonia and have been assigned to the dystonia locus dystonia-24 (DYT24). Here, we expand on the phenotypic spectrum of DYT24 and provide demonstrative videos. Moreover, tremor recordings were performed, and back-averaged electroencephalography, sensory evoked potentials, and C-reflex studies were carried out in two individuals who carried two different mutations in ANO3. Ten patients from three families are described. The age at onset ranged from early childhood to the forties. Cervical dystonia was the most common site of onset followed by laryngeal dystonia. The characteristic feature in all affected individuals was the presence of tremor, which contrasts DYT24 from the typical DYT6 phenotype. Tremor was the sole initial manifestation in some individuals with ANO3 mutations, leading to misdiagnosis as essential tremor. Electrophysiology in two patients with two different mutations showed co-contraction of antagonist muscles, confirming dystonia, and a 6-Hz arm tremor at rest, which increased in amplitude during action. In one of the studied patients, clinically superimposed myoclonus was observed. The duration of the myoclonus was in the range of 250 msec at about 3 Hz, which is more consistent with subcortical myoclonus. In summary, ANO3 causes a varied phenotype of young-onset or adult-onset craniocervical dystonia with tremor and/or myoclonic jerks. Patients with familial cervical dystonia who also have myoclonus-dystonia as well as patients with prominent tremor and mild dystonia should be tested for ANO3 mutations. © 2014 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:24442708

  10. Targeted next-generation sequencing of a 12.5 Mb homozygous region reveals ANO10 mutations in patients with autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Sascha; Hoischen, Alexander; Meijer, Rowdy P P; Gilissen, Christian; Neveling, Kornelia; Wieskamp, Nienke; de Brouwer, Arjan; Koenig, Michel; Anheim, Mathieu; Assoum, Mirna; Drouot, Nathalie; Todorovic, Slobodanka; Milic-Rasic, Vedrana; Lochmüller, Hanns; Stevanin, Giovanni; Goizet, Cyril; David, Albert; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Kremer, Berry; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Schijvenaars, Mascha M V A P; Heister, Angelien; Kwint, Michael; Arts, Peer; van der Wijst, Jenny; Veltman, Joris; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Scheffer, Hans; Knoers, Nine

    2010-12-10

    Autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to their dominant counterparts, unraveling the molecular background of these ataxias has proven to be more complicated and the currently known mutations provide incomplete coverage for genotyping of patients. By combining SNP array-based linkage analysis and targeted resequencing of relevant sequences in the linkage interval with the use of next-generation sequencing technology, we identified a mutation in a gene and have shown its association with autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia. In a Dutch consanguineous family with three affected siblings a homozygous 12.5 Mb region on chromosome 3 was targeted by array-based sequence capture. Prioritization of all detected sequence variants led to four candidate genes, one of which contained a variant with a high base pair conservation score (phyloP score: 5.26). This variant was a leucine-to-arginine substitution in the DUF 590 domain of a 16K transmembrane protein, a putative calcium-activated chloride channel encoded by anoctamin 10 (ANO10). The analysis of ANO10 by Sanger sequencing revealed three additional mutations: a homozygous mutation (c.1150_1151del [p.Leu384fs]) in a Serbian family and a compound-heterozygous splice-site mutation (c.1476+1G>T) and a frameshift mutation (c.1604del [p.Leu535X]) in a French family. This illustrates the power of using initial homozygosity mapping with next-generation sequencing technology to identify genes involved in autosomal-recessive diseases. Moreover, identifying a putative calcium-dependent chloride channel involved in cerebellar ataxia adds another pathway to the list of pathophysiological mechanisms that may cause cerebellar ataxia.

  11. [Accidental ingestion of tobacco products by children and awareness by guardians of the hazard potential].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Itsuko; Tsurusaki, Kenichi; Sugihara, Narumi

    2008-04-01

    The actual state of the accidental ingestion of tobacco products by children and awareness of guardians against its hazards were investigated through a survey among guardians of kindergartenaged children. Self-reporting questionnaires were distributed to the guardians of children enrolled in nurseries and kindergartens in cities located in eastern Hiroshima prefecture. Responses of 417 guardians (response rate, 80.5%) were analyzed. The total number of children was reported to be 796 (429 boys, 366 girls, 1 gender unreported) of which 72.2% were under 6 years of age. Based on the survey, 54.4% of fathers and 12.2% of mothers were smokers. Taking into account the presence of other smoking adults such as grandparents, the percentage of families with smokers was 64.3%. Accidental ingestion of tobacco products and the rate including attempted ingestion of tobacco were reported in 15.7% and 28.7% of the families with smokers, respectively. With regard to storage of tobacco and ashtrays, 36.2% of the families with smokers did not store these out of the reach of children, and 7.5% were unaware of the need for a separate storage area. Only 50% of the guardians were aware of the hazards of nicotine exudates. 84.0% of the families with smokers agreed that children should be protected from passive smoking for maintaining good health and growth. However, only 25.0% of the families with smokers had a guardians who actually protected children from passive smoking. The results of the survey indicated that 64.3% of families with preschool-age children had smoking members. Tobacco products were not appropriately stored out of the reach of children. Moreover, several cases of accidental ingestion of tobacco products by children had occurred in families with smokers. Furthermore, it was indicated that many children were exposed to passive smoking, although most guardians were aware of its risks.

  12. U.S. Mortality Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, 1999-2014. Accidental and Intentional Deaths.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning accounts for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits in the United States annually. Development of initiatives to reduce CO mortality through poisoning prevention requires a comprehensive understanding of the condition. To describe U.S. mortality from 1999 to 2014 due to CO poisoning from all sources except fires, to examine the epidemiology of accidental and intentional exposures, and to identify trends. The CDC WONDER database was used to extract and analyze data from the CDC's Multiple Cause of Death 1999-2014 file. The file contains mortality data derived from all death certificates filed in the United States. Information on deaths, crude death rate, age-adjusted death rate, intent of exposure, and characteristics of exposures from CO poisoning was extracted. Total deaths by CO poisoning decreased from 1,967 in 1999 to 1,319 in 2014 (P < 0.001). Crude and adjusted death rates fell accordingly. Accidental poisoning accounted for 13% fewer deaths per year in 2014 than in 1999 (P < 0.001). The number of intentional deaths by CO poisoning decreased by 47% over the same period (P < 0.001). The rate of decline in combined adjusted death rates from 1999 to 2014 in the 19 states that required residential CO alarms by 2010 was not different from that for the 31 states that did not require residential alarms (P = 0.982). Numbers of deaths and death rates, both accidental and intentional, due to CO poisoning significantly declined in the United States from 1999 to 2014. Continued public education about CO toxicity should be emphasized. Additional study is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of residential CO alarms.

  13. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Musa; Mu'azu, Adamu Ladan; Idris, Nura; Rabiu, Musa Uba; Jibir, Binta Wudil; Getso, Kabir Ibrahim; Mohammad, Mohammad Aminu; Owolabi, Femi Luqman

    2015-01-01

    Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal) to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years) were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2%) were domestic violence, 26 (23.9%) street assaults, 16 (14.7%) were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6%) fall from heights. Seven (6.4%) cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7%) industrial accidents and two (1.8%) were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8%) cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8%) sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9%) under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  14. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Musa; Mu’azu, Adamu Ladan; Idris, Nura; Rabiu, Musa Uba; Jibir, Binta Wudil; Getso, Kabir Ibrahim; Mohammad, Mohammad Aminu; Owolabi, Femi Luqman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal) to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years) were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2%) were domestic violence, 26 (23.9%) street assaults, 16 (14.7%) were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6%) fall from heights. Seven (6.4%) cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7%) industrial accidents and two (1.8%) were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8%) cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8%) sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9%) under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace. PMID:25659545

  15. Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in 20 cats accidentally overdosed with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Geraldine; Boyer, Guillaume; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Bouhsira, Emilie; Bedel, Benjamin; Verwaerde, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    To describe the outcome of 20 cats treated with intravenous lipid emulsion (IVLE) after an accidental parenteral ivermectin overdose. Twenty adult cats presented after receiving a 4 mg/kg accidental subcutaneous overdose of ivermectin. After admission, two IVLE treatments were initiated in asymptomatic cats: a single bolus (1.5 mL/kg; n = 16) versus a bolus followed by a 30-minute constant rate infusion (0.25 mL/kg/min; n = 4). Six out of the 16 cats that received only the single bolus developed clinical signs of ivermectin intoxication. Based on the severity of the clinical signs and their duration (approximately 48 hours), these 6 cats were retrospectively considered either moderately (n = 3) or severely (n = 3) intoxicated by ivermectin. Cats with a low body condition score (BCS) had more severe signs of ivermectin toxicity. Additional IVLE was administered until clinical resolution was complete. Median (min to max) cumulative dose of IVLE per cat was 4.5 (3.0-4.5) mL/kg for 36 (12-36) hours and 19.5 (7.5-37.5) mL/kg for 96 (72-168) hours for moderately and severely intoxicated cats, respectively. Our series describes the treatment of accidental ivermectin parenteral overdose in 20 cats with early initiation of IVLE therapy. An early bolus followed by a 30-minute constant rate infusion of IVLE appeared to mitigate the signs of ivermectin toxicosis in cats compared to a single treatment bolus. Our observations also suggest that cats with a low BCS given only a bolus of IVLE treatment were more likely to develop signs of ivermectin intoxication and require a greater amount of IVLE for the resolution of clinical signs. Based on our observations, BCS appears to influence the severity of ivermectin toxicity with a low BCS being associated with more severe signs of ivermectin toxicity. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  16. Endoscopic removal of an endodontic file accidentally swallowed: clinical and legal approaches.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rhonan F; Martins, Emerson C; Prado, Felippe B; Júnior, Jacy R C; Júnior, Eduardo D

    2011-08-01

    The use of a rubber dam is an essential procedure when treating root canals, and not using it may compromise the success of the treatment, as well as the patient's health. This report presents a case in which a K-file was accidentally swallowed during an endodontic procedure, performed without the use of a rubber dam. Given the absence of immediate clinical complications, the subject underwent a chest radiograph. The file was located at the oesophagogastric junction and was later removed by endoscopy. In addition to the clinical repercussions, this example also illustrates the ethical-legal aspects of this type of accident.

  17. Accidental Ingestion of Molar Band and Its Management: Maintenance Is Better than Management

    PubMed Central

    Naragond, Appasaheb; Kenganal, Smitha; Rajasigamani, K.; Kumar, N. Sathish

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of a broken part of fixed orthodontic appliance is a potential complication during orthodontic treatment. We report a case of accidental ingestion of molar band and its subsequent diagnosis followed by endoscopic retrieval method. Although prevention of such incidence is the best method at the same time management of such an event is also crucial. The objective of this paper is to draw attention to the potentially serious complications that can occur if preventive techniques are not practiced and also the management of such event. PMID:23476819

  18. Accidental swallowing of a gold cast crown during orthodontic tooth separation.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, O P; Varshney, P; Dutta, U

    1995-01-01

    Accidental swallowing of a gold cast crown that became loose after separation with brass wire for orthodontic band placement, is reported. The intervention to remove the ingested crown subsequent to its location in the GI tract on immediate radiographic examination of chest and abdomen included endoscopic examination. Since the crown had past distal to the duodenum it was decided to keep a watch on its movement by daily radiographic examination. The crown passed with excreta on the 5th day uneventfully. Literature on ingestion of foreign bodies of dental origin is reviewed. Possible emergencies and their management is discussed.

  19. Problems in experimental and mathematical investigations of the accidental thermalhydraulic processes in RBMK nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Tikhonenko, L.K.; Blinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the thermalhydraulic scheme and peculiarities of the boiling water graphite-moderated channel-type reactor RBMK are presented and discussed shortly. The essential for RBMK transient regimes, accidental situations and accompanying thermalhydraulic phenomena and processes are formulated. These data are presented in the form of cross reference matrix (version 1) for system computer codes verification. The paper includes qualitative analysis of the computer codes and integral facilities which have been used or can be used for RBMK transients and accidents investigations. The stability margins for RBMK-1000 and RBMK-1500 are shown.

  20. Non-accidental trauma in pediatric patients: a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Alexandra R; Adamo, Matthew A

    2014-07-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) is a leading cause of childhood traumatic injury and death in the United States. It is estimated that 1,400 children died from maltreatment in the United States in 2002 and abusive head trauma (AHT) accounted for 80% of these deaths. This review examines the epidemiology and risk factors for NAT as well as the general presentation and required medical work up of abused children. In addition, potential algorithms for recognizing cases of abuse are reviewed as well as outcomes in children with NAT and potential neurosurgical interventions which may be required. Finally, the evidence for seizure prophylaxis in this population is addressed.

  1. Effect of accidental steam entry on gas-cooled fast reactor integral neutronics parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Morman, J.A.; Bucher, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Robinson, W.R.; Bennett, E.F.

    1980-10-01

    A possible accident scenario in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is the leakage of secondary steam into the core. A full-scale experimental study of the physics effects of such an accidental condition has been performed on the zero power reactor (ZPR)-9 critical facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The results of integral neutronics measurements performed on the simulated steam-flooded GCFR core are reported, and comparisons with corresponding results for the reference GCFR core presented. Results of calculations of these parameters with ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and standard design methods are also presented. 26 refs.

  2. Accidental bound states in the continuum in an open Sinai billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipchuk, A. S.; Sadreev, A. F.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental mechanism of the bound states in the continuum is the full destructive interference of two resonances when two eigenlevels of the closed system are crossing. There is, however, a wide class of quantum chaotic systems which display only avoided crossings of eigenlevels. As an example of such a system we consider the Sinai billiard coupled with two semi-infinite waveguides. We show that notwithstanding the absence of degeneracy bound states in the continuum occur due to accidental decoupling of the eigenstates of the billiard from the waveguides.

  3. Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-10-01

    Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are

  4. Crisis Management of Accidental Extubation in a Prone-Positioned Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spond, Matthew; Burns, Tyler; Rosenbaum, Thea; Lienhart, Kristen

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of an accidental extubation in a prone-positioned patient with a challenging airway because of Klippel-Feil syndrome and previous cervical spine fusions. The surgical procedure was well underway when this occurred, which added substantially to the difficulties produced by this event. We herein highlight the corrective steps we took in our case. We also recommend the need for a comprehensive preoperative briefing with all operating room personnel together with an action plan for how to prevent this particular scenario.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Suicide, Accidental, and Undetermined Cause of Death Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Douglas; Coon, Hilary; McGlade, Erin; Callor, W; Byrd, Josh; Viskochil, Joseph; Bakian, Amanda; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Grey, Todd; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a Medical Examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification groups, including rates of mental illness and psychiatric symptoms. Those classified suicide were more likely to be male, to have died in a violent fashion, and have a stronger family history of suicide. Physical pain was very common, but acute pain vs. chronic pain distinguished the suicide group. PMID:25057525

  6. C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, created through the Department of Energy's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, employed a large number of a highly skilled faculty, research scientists, staff, and students who created the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) software. For over a decade C-SAFE produced cutting edge research in simulating complex physical phenomena including reacting flows, material properties, multi-material interactions, and atomic level chemistry. Additionally, pioneering work was done in the field of parallel computing, software frameworks, and visualization.

  7. Morphological study of the relation between accidental hypothermia and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Foulis, A K

    1982-01-01

    There is a recognised but poorly understood association between hypothermia and acute pancreatitis. A histological study of the pancreas was made in eight patients with accidental hypothermia who had evidence of pancreatitis at necropsy. From an analysis of the patterns of parenchymal necrosis in the pancreas it was thought that there were at least three possible mechanisms for the relation between hypothermia and pancreatitis. Firstly, that ischaemic pancreatitis may result from the "microcirculatory shock" of hypothermia. Secondly, that both hypothermia and pancreatitis may be secondary to alcohol abuse: and finally, that severe pancreatitis may be the primary disease and that hypothermia results from the patients' social circumstances. Images PMID:7142433

  8. Acute ischaemia of the leg following accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

    PubMed

    Leifert, J A; Bossaller, L; Uhl, M

    2008-11-01

    Accidental intra-arterial injection of drugs is a sporadic complication in i.v. drug addicts. A 22-year-old drug-abuser injected flunitrazepam tablets dissolved in tap water into her left femoral artery and presented with clinical signs of acute ischaemia of the left leg. Severe rhabdomyolysis developed within 5 hours after the injection. Selective arterial catheter angiography showed an acute occlusion of the posterior tibial artery. Combination therapy with i.a. urokinase, i.a. prostaglandines and i.v. anticoagulation resulted in re-opening of the obstructed distal artery and complete cessation of symptoms.

  9. Spontaneous Absorption of Cerebral Air Embolus Developed Accidentally during an Intra-arterial Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE), although infrequent, is a complication that can occur at any time during an invasive medical procedure. We experienced two cases of CAAE during cerebral angiography accidentally. The author reports the two cases of CAAE wherein air emboli dissolved spontaneously and immediately under normal atmospheric pressure, not under therapeutic hyperbaric environment. One of the cases shows entire dissolution of the air embolus on the moving image. This report shows that arterial air embolus can be absorbed spontaneously, and air embolus size is one of the factors that influence air embolus dissolution besides hyperbaric oxygen condition. PMID:28184351

  10. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus

    PubMed Central

    Weijters, B.J.; Verbunt, R.J.A.M.; Hoogsteen, J.; Visser, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:96-9.) PMID:18345331

  11. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus.

    PubMed

    Weijters, B J; Verbunt, R J A M; Hoogsteen, J; Visser, R F

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:96-9.).

  12. An uncommon case of severe accidental hypothermia in an urban setting

    PubMed Central

    Meytes, Vadim; Schulberg, Steven P.; Amaturo, Michael; Kilaru, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an uncommon presentation in urban settings. Here we present a patient admitted with a core temperature of 26.6°C (80°F) and a serum potassium of 8.5 mmol/l who subsequently went into cardiac arrest. After > 90 min of active cardiopulmonary resuscitation and peak serum potassium of >12 mmol/l, the patient had a spontaneous return of circulation. The patient's hospital course was complicated by compartment syndrome of his forearm; however, he was discharged home without any lasting neurological damage. PMID:26664726

  13. Orofacial manifestations from accidental exposure to caesium 137 in Goiania, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M A; Wascheck, C de C; Scully, C; Almeida, O de P; Bozzo, L

    1990-08-01

    The accidental close exposure of over 200 adults and children to a caesium-137 (137Cs) source in Goiania, Brazil in 1987 produced significant short-term morbidity in about 50 patients, and four deaths within a few weeks. Some 57% of those maximally exposed to radiation, developed orofacial lesions, notably purpura, spontaneous bleeding, ulcers and/or acute candidiasis. These lesions were probably mainly the consequences of depression of bone marrow elements by the radionuclide. Though the oral lesions that may follow iatrogenic exposure to ionizing radiation are well recognized this appears to be the first report on the oral sequelae of a serious radiation accident.

  14. Burns in children: the importance of assessing for non-accidental injuries

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Eric; Marsdin, Emma Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Children represent 30% of all burn cases seen by accident and emergency physicians in the UK every year, with toddlers being most at risk within this age group. With the emergence of walking autonomy, the need for constant supervision is sometimes not enough to prevent this type of injury from happening. However, in remembering the importance of children’s health and safety, non-accidental injury is always to remain a differential diagnosis. The authors review a paediatric burns case underlying the importance of keeping an open mind to allow a proper clinical diagnosis to be formed. PMID:22604512

  15. A case of accidental aspiration of an endodontic instrument by a child treated under conscious sedation

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, R; Prasad, Vishnu; Menon, Padma A.

    2013-01-01

    Dental management of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often requires the need for pharmacological behavior management techniques such as the use of sedation. The purpose of this article is to describe a clinical case involving accidental aspiration of an Endodontic instrument during root canal therapy under sedation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of aspiration of an Endodontic instrument and should serve to heighten the awareness with regard to aspiration during dental procedures under sedation. It also emphasizes the need for proper isolation techniques in patients treated under sedation, thereby preventing such complications. PMID:24883031

  16. Opiates, cocaine and alcohol combinations in accidental drug overdose deaths in New York City, 1990-98.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Phillip O; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Leon, Andrew C; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth

    2003-06-01

    Accidental drug overdose contributes substantially to mortality among drug users. Multi-drug use has been documented as a key risk factor in overdose and overdose mortality in several studies. This study investigated the contribution of multiple drug combinations to overdose mortality trends. We collected data on all overdose deaths in New York City between 1990 and 1998 using records from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). We standardized yearly overdose death rates by age, sex and race to the 1990 census population for NYC to enable comparability between years relevant to this analysis. Opiates, cocaine and alcohol were the three drugs most commonly attributed as the cause of accidental overdose death by the OCME, accounting for 97.6% of all deaths; 57.8% of those deaths were attributed to two or more of these three drugs in combination. Accidental overdose deaths increased in 1990-93 and subsequently declined slightly in 1993-98. Changes in the rate of multi-drug combination deaths accounted for most of the change in overdose death rates, whereas single drug overdose death rates remained relatively stable. Trends in accidental overdose death rates within gender and racial/ethnic strata varied by drug combination suggesting different patterns of multi-drug use among different subpopulations. These data suggest that interventions to prevent accidental overdose mortality should address the use of drugs such as heroin, cocaine and alcohol in combination.

  17. Two Fatal Cases of Accidental Intrathecal Vincristine Administration: Learning from Death Events.

    PubMed

    Chotsampancharoen, Thirachit; Sripornsawan, Pornpun; Wongchanchailert, Malai

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of accidental intrathecal vincristine administration. These injections were scheduled as intravenous injections of vincristine at the same time as other intrathecal drugs were scheduled. The mistakes were recognized immediately after administration, and a lumbar puncture was performed to lavage the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immediately after the incident. However, both cases developed progressive sensorimotor and radiculo-myelo-encephalopathy and the patients died 3 and 6 days after the incidents due to decerebration. A number of cases of accidental intrathecal vincristine administration have occurred in recent years in other settings, and we add our events to emphasize the need for a preventative and strictly followed protocol in oncology treatment units to prevent further unnecessary deaths. The best 'cure' for mistakenly administered vincristine via lumbar puncture is prevention, which can be improved by strict adherence to a comprehensive guideline. Oncologic treatment centers should be aware of this guideline and evaluate their protocol for vincristine administration to prevent future incidents. Based on our past experiences, we strongly recommend 'time-independent' procedures to prevent this type of incident.

  18. Accidental ingestion of foreign object: Systematic review, recommendations and report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Anantharaj, A.; Praveen, P.; Rani, S. Prathibha; Krishnan, B. Murali

    2010-01-01

    One of the serious complications during a routine endodontic procedure is accidental ingestion/aspiration of the endodontic instruments, which can happen when proper isolation is not done. There are at present no clear guidelines whether foreign body ingestion in the gastrointestinal tract should be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. A 5 year old boy reported to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, D.A. Pandu Memorial R.V. Dental College, Bangalore, India, with a complaint of pain and swelling in the lower right back teeth region. Endodontic therapy was planned for the affected tooth. During the course of treatment the child accidentally swallowed a 21 mm 15 size K file. Endoscopy was performed immediately but the instrument could not be retrieved. The instrument passed out uneventfully along with the stools 48 h after ingestion. Careful evaluation of the patient immediately after the accident helps in managing the patient effectively along with following the recommended guidelines. PMID:23960513

  19. Creatin-kinase elevation after accidental ingestion of almotriptan in an 18-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Castagno, E; Lupica, M; Viola, S; Savino, F; Miniero, R

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have been published to demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of almotriptan in adolescents and children with migraine, particularly in the first years of life, though preliminary results are favorable. We report the case of an 18-month-old infant with elevation of serum levels of creatin-kinase after the accidental ingestion of almotriptan. A previously healthy 18-month-old girl (weight: 13 kg) was admitted to our Department four hours after the accidental ingestion of 6.25 mg of almotriptan (0.48 mg/kg), without any specific symptom. The performed investigations showed high serum levels of creatin-kinase (CK) (527 IU/L; normal values: 24-170 IU/L). Transaminase, creatinine, aldolase, myoglobin and troponin T serum levels were normal. The electrocardiogram proved negative. Initial management consisted of parenteral rehydration with saline solution. CK levels lowered significantly at 12 hours (455 IU/L) and at 65 hours (188 IU/L) after the ingestion. No symptoms were observed before discharge and on follow-up.

  20. Triage and Management of Accidental Laboratory Exposures to Biosafety Level-3 and -4 Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures. PMID:19634998

  1. A fatal accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine during a lumbar paravertebral block.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Tritapepe, Luigi; Montana, Angelo; Indorato, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is the technique of injecting a local anesthetic solution alongside the vertebral column, close to where the spinal nerves emerge, resulting in unilateral somatic and sympathetic nerve blockade. Here is reported a fatal case involving a 60-year-old woman with spondylitis arthropathy, who developed cardiac and respiratory arrest 40min after receiving an accidental subarachnoid injection (L5-S1 bilaterally) of depomedrol lidocaine and levobupivacaine. A complete autopsy including histological and toxicological analyses was performed in order to establish the cause of death. Liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and GC-MS analysis were performed according to a previously published method. Lidocaine and bupivacaine were detected both in blood, at concentrations of 14.8mg/L and 13.3mg/L respectively, and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at concentrations of 287.1mg/L and 464.2mg/L respectively. Both lidocaine and bupivacaine were also detected in the urine. The toxicological findings along with the autopsy allowed us to establish that the accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine had led to a progressive hypotension and normovolaemic shock caused by a severe ganglionic block, determining the patient's death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of accidental intrathecal methotrexate overdose with intrathecal carboxypeptidase G2.

    PubMed

    Widemann, Brigitte C; Balis, Frank M; Shalabi, Aiman; Boron, Matthew; O'Brien, Michelle; Cole, Diane E; Jayaprakash, Nalini; Ivy, Percy; Castle, Valerie; Muraszko, Karin; Moertel, Christopher L; Trueworthy, Robert; Hermann, Robert C; Moussa, Ali; Hinton, Stuart; Reaman, Gregory; Poplack, David; Adamson, Peter C

    2004-10-20

    The bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPDG2) rapidly hydrolyzes methotrexate to inactive metabolites. We administered recombinant CPDG2 (2000 U) intrathecally to seven cancer patients 3 to 9 hours after they had received an accidental overdose of intrathecal methotrexate (median dose = 364 mg; range = 155-600 mg). Four of the seven patients had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exchange to remove methotrexate before CPDG2 administration. Immediate symptoms of the methotrexate overdoses included seizures (n = 5), coma (n = 2), and cardiopulmonary compromise (n = 2). Before CPDG2 administration, the median concentrations of methotrexate in CSF were 264 microM (range = 97-510 microM) among patients who had CSF exchange and 8050 microM (range = 2439-16 500 microM) among patients who did not. After intrathecal CPDG2 administration, methotrexate concentrations in CSF declined by more than 98%. All patients recovered completely from the intrathecal methotrexate overdose except for two patients who had memory impairments. Antibodies to CPDG2 were not detected in plasma after treatment with intrathecal CPDG2. Intrathecal CPDG2 is well tolerated, rapidly decreases CSF methotrexate concentrations, and appears to be efficacious for treating accidental intrathecal methotrexate overdoses.

  3. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  4. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident.

  5. High risk for accidental death in previously burn-injured adults.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Henning; Vindenes, Hallvard A

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated the long-term mortality in 1182 burn patients admitted at a single burn centre in 1984-2003. One thousand and forty-nine patients were discharged alive, of which 999 (95.2% of all discharged) were available for follow-up (mean observation time: 9.6+/-5.5 (S.D.) years). One hundred and twenty-two patients had died after discharge but before follow-up. For 111 patients, the official information recorded from their death certificates revealed that 83 patients (mainly in the higher age groups) had died due to a variety of natural causes. Twenty-three patients (M:F=18:5) (age: 37.7+/-11.3 years), previously hospitalised for burns, had later suffered accidental or violent deaths, including suicide (5), assault (2), and deaths related to substance and/or alcohol abuse (12). Additionally, five other deaths were recorded as sudden death, with no additional specific information as to the cause of death. This study shows that the rates of accidental or violent death in previously burned adult patients (around 40 deaths per 1000 years at risk) may be an order of magnitude higher than that in the average Norwegian population.

  6. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  7. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:24339660

  8. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    PubMed

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies.

  9. The use of commercial glass as a potential gamma accidental dosimeter through the absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Yousef, S.; Bakr, S.

    2012-05-01

    Various types of commercial glass (ordinary windows, cathode ray tubes, glass kitchenware) have been studied as potential accidental radiation dosimeters. The proposed method utilizes the changes in the glasses' absorption spectra as a result of irradiation. A 60Co gamma irradiation cell has been used to irradiate samples with doses ranging from 5 to 200 Gy. The transmittance was measured using a photospectrometer (UV-visible spectrometry). The results demonstrate that the transmittance spectra of most of the glass samples change in linear proportion to the exposure dose. Moreover, the study considers the fading effect on the absorption spectra of the irradiated samples for fading times up to 100 days at room temperature. The results of this work demonstrate that several widely used types of glass can be used as high-dose accidental dosimeters for doses ranging between 8 and 200 Gy. A reasonable calibration line can be established for any irradiated glass sample by heating, re-irradiating with standard doses and measuring the related absorption coefficient. Further investigations are needed to decrease the minimum detectable dose of the proposed method and to study the effect of glass composition on radiation response.

  10. Spontaneous hematologic recovery from bone marrow aplasia after accidental tenfold overdosage with radiophosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, J.; Bischof, B.; Coninx, S.; Bucher, U.; Poretti, G.; Henrichs, K.; Kaul, A.; Roedler, H.D.; Buettner, K.; Frick, P.G.

    1983-04-01

    Two patients with polycythemia vera received intravenously an accidental tenfold overdosage of radiophosphorus therapy (60 and 50 mCi 32P, respectively). In both patients, the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications 3 wk after the 32P medication led to detection of the error and referral to our hospital. Upon admission they showed an agranulocytosis, severe thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow aplasia. In both cases, spontaneous recovery of the hematopoiesis was observed from day 40 posttreatment onward. In one patient, a slow but ultimately complete normalization of blood counts and marrow morphology took place, whereas in the other, a mild thrombocytopenia persists. Nearly 5 yr after the accidental overdosage, both patients are clinically well. Symptoms of polycythemia vera have not reappeared up to now. Attempts were made to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed by the bone marrow. In the first patient, the daily 32P excretion was determined from day 22 to day 60, whereas in the other patient a whole body count was performed on day 78 after administration. From these results, an approximate cumulative bone marrow dose of 10 Sv (1000 rem) could be calculated.

  11. Non-accidental burns in children--are we neglecting neglect?

    PubMed

    Chester, Darren L; Jose, Rajive Mathew; Aldlyami, Ehab; King, Helen; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2006-03-01

    Although many studies have described burn abuse in detail, burns that have occurred as a result of neglect have been studied to a much lesser degree. A retrospective study of 440 hospitalised paediatric burns patients during 2000-2002 inclusive was performed. A multidisciplinary team investigation of suspicious cases was used. This included a home assessment. There were 41 cases of neglect (9.3%) and 395 cases of accidental burning (89.8%). Parental drug abuse, single parent families, delay to presentation and a lack of first aid were statistically more prevalent in the "neglect" group than in the "accidental" group. Children in the "neglect" group were also statistically more likely to have deeper burns and require skin grafting. 82.9% of children whose burns were deemed to be due to neglect had a previous entry on the child protection register. 48.8% were transferred into foster care. This study shows that burning by neglect is far more prevalent than abuse. We advocate a multidisciplinary investigation coupled with the use of home assessments to aid diagnosis. It may be possible to target preventative strategies on the children with the above risk factors.

  12. Trends and characteristics of accidental and intentional codeine overdose deaths in Australia.

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, Amanda; Hall, Wayne D; Burns, Lucinda; Pilgrim, Jennifer; Saar, Eva; Nielsen, Suzanne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2015-10-05

    To examine trends in codeine-related mortality rates in Australia, and the clinical and toxicological characteristics of codeine-related deaths. Analysis of prospectively collected data from the National Coronial Information System on deaths where codeine toxicity was determined to be an underlying or contributory cause of death. The study period was 2000-2013. Population-adjusted numbers (per million persons) of (1) codeine-related deaths, classified by intent (accidental or intentional); and (2) heroin- and Schedule 8 opioid-related deaths (as a comparator). The overall rate of codeine-related deaths increased from 3.5 per million in 2000 to 8.7 per million in 2009. Deaths attributed to accidental overdoses were more common (48.8%) than intentional deaths (34.7%), and their proportion increased during the study period. High rates of prior comorbid mental health (53.6%), substance use (36.1%) and chronic pain (35.8%) problems were recorded for these deaths. For every two Schedule 8 opioid-related deaths in 2009, there was one codeine-related death. Most codeine-related deaths (83.7%) were the result of multiple drug toxicity. Codeine-related deaths (with and without other drug toxicity) are increasing as the consumption of codeine-based products increases. Educational messages are needed to better inform the public about the potential harms of chronic codeine use, especially in the context of polypharmacy.

  13. Risk Factors for new accidental falls in elderly patients at traumatology ambulatory center.

    PubMed

    Porto Gautério, Daiane; Zortea, Bruna; Costa Santos, Silvana Sidney; da Silva Tarouco, Bárbara; Lopes, Manoel José; João Fonseca, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    To identify the risks factors for new accidental falls in elderly patients attended in the Traumatology Ambulatory of a University hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Quantitative study of the type of multiple cases. Performed at the traumatology ambulatory, amongst fifteen elders that attended the inclusion criteria: age of sixty or more; patient at the traumatology ambulatory because of a fall motivated by accident, oriented and in conditions of answer an interview of data collectors. The data collection was made between April and June, 2013, with the Elderly Nursing Core Set scale (Lopes & Fonseca). The data analysis was made by a descriptive structure, which helped identify the existence of relation patterns among the cases. The risk factors for new accidental falls identified with larger incidence amongst the elders studied were: impaired balance (15/15), age above 65 (11/15), use of antihypertensive drugs (9/15), absence of non-slip material at home environment (7/15), in seven cases; rugs scattered at the floor of the house (6/15). The combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that include the environmental risks is considered a much more relevant cause to occur the new falls. The minimization of the home dangers, allied to the control of the elder intrinsic factors, may reduce the risks of causes. In that sense, is necessary that the nursing team make available more attention to the elderly assisted at the ambulatories, mainly those with sequelae due to fall accidents.

  14. Accidental Ingestion of Nasal Packing Gauze during Endonasal Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy under Local Anesthesia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Mupas-Uy, Jacqueline; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Kazushige; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of accidental ingestion of a nasal packing gauze during endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (en-DCR) under local anesthesia. Case Report A 66-year-old female patient underwent an en-DCR for a right acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The surgery was performed in a supine position under local anesthesia. An X-ray detectable ribbon gauze soaked in 0.02% epinephrine was placed in the middle meatus to prevent blood and liquid from flowing into the pharynx. The same packing gauze was also used for hemostasis during the surgery. At the end of the surgery, 1 piece of gauze was missing and could not be detected by the endonasal endoscopic exploration. An abdominal X-ray image performed on the same day demonstrated the presence of the gauze in the stomach although the patient did not notice swallowing the gauze. The gauze was not there on the X-ray 1 week later. Conclusion Surgeons need to be aware of accidental ingestion of a nasal packing gauze in en-DCR under local anesthesia. Keeping the gauze end out of the nostril is likely preventive for this complication. The use of X-ray detectable gauze was helpful to detect its location. PMID:28203194

  15. Non-accidental carbon monoxide poisoning from burning charcoal in attempted combined homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Lee, A C W; Ou, Y; Lam, S Y; So, K T; Kam, C W

    2002-10-01

    To describe an emerging form of serious child abuse in combined homicide-suicide in Hong Kong. This is a retrospective hospital chart review in a regional hospital in Hong Kong from January to December 2000. Eight children, with a mean age of 7.8 years (range 0.5-11 years), from four families were admitted to hospital because of non-accidental exposure to carbon monoxide when their parents attempted suicide by burning charcoal. A 7-year-old boy died on arrival. His 5.6-year-old sister and another 6-month-old boy had cerebral hypoxia on admission. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in both cases, with rapid improvement, although there were persistent neurological deficits in the girl. The other children in the present study were asymptomatic and none had delayed neurological sequelae. Concomitant use of sedatives was also detected in three of the surviving patients. Non-accidental poisoning with carbon monoxide appears to be a new means of child abuse with potentially serious consequences. Concomitant intoxication with psychotropic drugs is common in such cases. The reason for parents killing their own children under such circumstances was unclear, but a desire to exact revenge on an estranged partner was suggested.

  16. Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).

    PubMed

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

    2003-10-01

    A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time.

  17. Fatal colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron-case report.

    PubMed

    Sundov, Zeljko; Nincevic, Zeljko; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija; Glavina-Durdov, Merica; Jukic, Ivana; Hulina, Nada; Tonkic, Ante

    2005-05-10

    A 62-year-old male died of colchicine poisoning after accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron). He ate a salad of plant with green leaves regarded as wild garlic (Allium ursinum). A few hours later he developed symptoms of gastroenteritis and was admitted to hospital. In spite of gastric lavage, activated charcoal and supportive measures, multi-organ system failure developed over the next two days. Laboratory analysis showed highly elevated blood concentrations of hepatic enzymes, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen, as well as leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Mechanical ventilation, dopamine, noradrenaline, crystalloid solutions and fresh frozen plasma were applied but despite treatment the patient died five days after the ingestion. Post-mortem examination revealed hepatic centrilobular necrosis, nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis, petechial bleeding in fatty tissue, blunt and shortened intestinal villi and cerebral toxic edema. Botanical identification of incriminated plant gave Colchicum autumnale which confirmed colchicine poisoning. Although the accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale is rare and to our knowledge only five such cases have been described in detail, this is the second fatal case in Croatia described in the last 3 years.

  18. [Thermolabile drugs stability faced with an accidental interruption in the cold chain].

    PubMed

    Ricote-Lobera, I; Ortiz-Martín, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Santos-Mena, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

    2014-05-01

    To develop an updated guide about the stability of thermolabile drugs included in the Pharmacotherapeutic Guide that,according to product information sheet, should be stored under refrigeration or freezing, when are accidentally exposed to temperatures outside the range recommended by the manufacturer. It was reviewed the information about storage temperatures recommended in the product information sheet and the available stability data at different temperatures of thermolabile drugs included in the Pharmacotherapeutic Guide of a 400-bed hospital that, according to the manufacturer, should be stored under refrigeration or freezing. Drugs of clinical trials were excluded. Stability data were obtained from the product information sheet, the last two guides published in Spain about thermolabile drugs and through consultations to laboratories(via phone or e-mail). It was created a table with the storage temperatures recommended in the product information sheet and currently available stability data at different temperatures of 209 presentations of several drugs. Stability data were requested to laboratories in 172 cases. The stability guide is a tool that facilitates decisions of pharmacists when they are faced with an accidental interruption of the cold chain, when it is necessary to know whether the drug can be used and it is not possible to contact the laboratory. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of three instruments in predicting accidental falls in selected inpatients in a general teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Eagle, D J; Salama, S; Whitman, D; Evans, L A; Ho, E; Olde, J

    1999-07-01

    Accidental patient falls are becoming a major cause of concern for hospitalized inpatients. It is well known that patients who fall once during their hospital stay are more likely to fall again and that fall rates tend to be higher in hospitalized elderly individuals. Concerned health care team personnel recognize that many accidental patient falls may be predicted and, thus, prevented. The best tool to predict falls has not been determined yet. The purpose of this study was to compare the abilities of the Morse Fall Scale (MFS), the Functional Reach (FR) test, and the nurses' clinical judgment in predicting those inpatients on a rehabilitation unit and a geriatric medical ward who were most likely to fall. A total of 98 patients were screened in a 3-month period, with each patient undergoing all three instruments the same day. The results showed that the two objective standardized tests (i.e., MFS, FR) were time consuming and often inconvenient and were no better at prediction than the clinical judgments made by the primary nurses.

  20. Sulphuric acid marketed in water bottle in India: A cause for fatal accidental poisoning in an adult.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Chopra, Saurav; Garg, Aayushi; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Corrosive acid ingestion is a rare but serious health hazard with fatal complications. Cases of suicidal and accidental acid ingestion have been documented in the scientific literature. Accidental acid poisoning due to a mistaken identity of the bottle containing sulphuric acid is a matter of grave concern especially in a household set-up. We hereby report a fatal case of accidental sulphuric acid ingestion in an adult, who unsuspectingly swallowed about 50 ml of 'toilet-cleaner' at his residence. The bottle containing the acid was recently purchased from a local vendor and placed with water bottles in the kitchen. The autopsy and toxicological findings of this case are discussed in this paper with discussion of medico-legal issues on the sale and use of such corrosive acids in illegal bottles and its subsequent health hazards in India.

  1. Accidental Strangulation Due to Entrapment of Saree in Crop Thrasher Machine in an Elderly Women Working at Agricultural Field.

    PubMed

    Parchake, Manoj Bhausaheb; Kumre, Vikas; Kachare, Rajesh V

    2016-09-01

    Strangulation is generally considered as homicidal death and in accidental strangulation circumstantial evidence alone can point toward the accidental nature of incidence. In present case, a 71-year-old woman, wearing a saree (garment worn by traditional women in India) working in agricultural field, got entangled in the crop thrasher machine and got strangled. Immediately, she was taken to the nearest hospital, where she survived for 6 to 8 hours and then died. The autopsy reveals cross ribbon-shaped ligature mark on neck and anterior chest along with 1 puncture wound at the right lateral aspect of the neck. A lack of proper precaution and safety measures at agricultural field are other contributing factors. Accidental strangulation by saree is extremely rare, hence, this case is presented for its rarity and pattern of injury.

  2. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. This is an updated version of the original Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(4):425-445. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A case of pediatric age anticholinergic intoxication due to accidental Datura stramonium ingestion admitting with visual hallucination.

    PubMed

    Şanlıdağ, Burçin; Derinöz, Okşan; Yıldız, Nagehan

    2014-01-01

    Datura stramonium (DS) is a hallucinogenic plant that can produce anticholinergic toxicity because of its significant concentrations of toxic alkaloids, such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. DS grows in both rural and urban areas in Turkey. Clinical findings of toxicity are similar to those of atropine toxicity. DS abuse is common among adolescents because of its hallucinatory effects. However, accidental DS poisoning from contaminated food is very rare. Accidental poisonings are commonly seen among children. Children are more prone to the toxic effects of atropine; ingestion of even a small amount can cause serious central nervous system symptoms. Treatment is supportive; antidote treatment is given rarely. An eight-year-old male with accidental DS poisoning who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with aggression, agitation, delirium, and visual hallucinations is reported.

  4. Caregivers' voices: The experiences of caregivers of children who sustained serious accidental and non-accidental head injury in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Wharewera-Mika, Julie; Cooper, Erana; Kool, Bridget; Pereira, Susana; Kelly, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of mortality and acquired neurological impairment in children. Head-injured children may have neurobehavioural deficits that persist for years following injury. Head injury can result in significant and persistent caregiver burden, including mental health issues, family stress and disorganisation, and unmet social and healthcare service needs. Few studies have examined the healthcare and social service needs of children and their families following head injury sustained at an early age. This qualitative study aims to describe the experiences of caregivers of children who sustained a serious head injury (particularly non-accidental head injury) before the age of 2 years. Caregivers were interviewed up to 15 years following the initial injury. Semi-structured interviews with 21 caregivers of 15 children (aged 3-15 years at the time of interview) were completed. Thematic analysis of interview data generated three key themes: impact, support and information. The study's findings reveal the broad impact of serious childhood head injury on caregivers, specifically the significant distress and burden brought about through lack of information, challenges in accessing support and inconsistent care. Recommendations for developing a quality 'model of care' and improving ease of access to supports for caregivers are provided.

  5. ANO10 mutations cause ataxia and coenzyme Q₁₀ deficiency.

    PubMed

    Balreira, Andrea; Boczonadi, Veronika; Barca, Emanuele; Pyle, Angela; Bansagi, Boglarka; Appleton, Marie; Graham, Claire; Hargreaves, Iain P; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Lochmüller, Hanns; Griffin, Helen; Taylor, Robert W; Naini, Ali; Chinnery, Patrick F; Hirano, Michio; Quinzii, Catarina M; Horvath, Rita

    2014-11-01

    Inherited ataxias are heterogeneous disorders affecting both children and adults, with over 40 different causative genes, making molecular genetic diagnosis challenging. Although recent advances in next-generation sequencing have significantly improved mutation detection, few treatments exist for patients with inherited ataxia. In two patients with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency in muscle, whole exome sequencing revealed mutations in ANO10, which encodes anoctamin 10, a member of a family of putative calcium-activated chloride channels, and the causative gene for autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-10 (SCAR10). Both patients presented with slowly progressive ataxia and dysarthria leading to severe disability in the sixth decade. Epilepsy and learning difficulties were also present in one patient, while retinal degeneration and cataract were present in the other. The detection of mutations in ANO10 in our patients indicate that ANO10 defects cause secondary low CoQ10 and SCAR10 patients may benefit from CoQ10 supplementation.

  6. A systematic review of new treatments for cryptoglandular fistula in ano.

    PubMed

    Narang, Sunil K; Keogh, Kenneth; Alam, Nasra N; Pathak, Samir; Daniels, Ian R; Smart, Neil J

    2017-02-01

    In 2007 the ACPGBI published a position statement on the management of cryptoglandular fistula in ano. Over the last seven years a number of new treatments have been developed and the aim of this systematic review was to assess their effectiveness. A systematic review of all English language literature relevant to novel treatment strategies for cryptoglandular fistula in ano, published between 1 January 2007 and 31 Dec 2014 was carried out using MEDLINE (PubMed and Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid) and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews/Controlled Trials for relevant literature. Technical notes, commentaries, letters and meeting abstracts were excluded. The different treatments were assessed with regards to fistula closure rate in relation to length of follow up and reported complications. Seventy potential articles published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2014 were identified from the initial literature search. Twenty-one articles were included for final analysis although only two were randomized controlled trials, the remainder being retrospective or prospective series. This systematic review has demonstrated that whilst there have been technological advances to treat complex cryptoglandular fistula in ano, these are in an early stage of evolution and although early results were promising they are difficult to reproduce. Longer follow up data is not currently available and these treatments should not be introduced without further evidence. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Association between Dust Storms and Daily Non-Accidental Mortality in the United States, 1993-2005.

    PubMed

    Crooks, James Lewis; Cascio, Wayne E; Percy, Madelyn S; Reyes, Jeanette; Neas, Lucas M; Hilborn, Elizabeth D

    2016-11-01

    The impact of dust storms on human health has been studied in the context of Asian, Saharan, Arabian, and Australian storms, but there has been no recent population-level epidemiological research on the dust storms in North America. The relevance of dust storms to public health is likely to increase as extreme weather events are predicted to become more frequent with anticipated changes in climate through the 21st century. We examined the association between dust storms and county-level non-accidental mortality in the United States from 1993 through 2005. Dust storm incidence data, including date and approximate location, are taken from the U.S. National Weather Service storm database. County-level mortality data for the years 1993-2005 were acquired from the National Center for Health Statistics. Distributed lag conditional logistic regression models under a time-stratified case-crossover design were used to study the relationship between dust storms and daily mortality counts over the whole United States and in Arizona and California specifically. End points included total non-accidental mortality and three mortality subgroups (cardiovascular, respiratory, and other non-accidental). We estimated that for the United States as a whole, total non-accidental mortality increased by 7.4% (95% CI: 1.6, 13.5; p = 0.011) and 6.7% (95% CI: 1.1, 12.6; p = 0.018) at 2- and 3-day lags, respectively, and by an average of 2.7% (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1; p = 0.023) over lags 0-5 compared with referent days. Significant associations with non-accidental mortality were estimated for California (lag 2 and 0-5 day) and Arizona (lag 3), for cardiovascular mortality in the United States (lag 2) and Arizona (lag 3), and for other non-accidental mortality in California (lags 1-3 and 0-5). Dust storms are associated with increases in lagged non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. Citation: Crooks JL, Cascio WE, Percy MS, Reyes J, Neas LM, Hilborn ED. 2016. The association between dust storms

  8. The Association between Dust Storms and Daily Non-Accidental Mortality in the United States, 1993–2005

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, James Lewis; Cascio, Wayne E.; Percy, Madelyn S.; Reyes, Jeanette; Neas, Lucas M.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of dust storms on human health has been studied in the context of Asian, Saharan, Arabian, and Australian storms, but there has been no recent population-level epidemiological research on the dust storms in North America. The relevance of dust storms to public health is likely to increase as extreme weather events are predicted to become more frequent with anticipated changes in climate through the 21st century. Objectives: We examined the association between dust storms and county-level non-accidental mortality in the United States from 1993 through 2005. Methods: Dust storm incidence data, including date and approximate location, are taken from the U.S. National Weather Service storm database. County-level mortality data for the years 1993–2005 were acquired from the National Center for Health Statistics. Distributed lag conditional logistic regression models under a time-stratified case-crossover design were used to study the relationship between dust storms and daily mortality counts over the whole United States and in Arizona and California specifically. End points included total non-accidental mortality and three mortality subgroups (cardiovascular, respiratory, and other non-accidental). Results: We estimated that for the United States as a whole, total non-accidental mortality increased by 7.4% (95% CI: 1.6, 13.5; p = 0.011) and 6.7% (95% CI: 1.1, 12.6; p = 0.018) at 2- and 3-day lags, respectively, and by an average of 2.7% (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1; p = 0.023) over lags 0–5 compared with referent days. Significant associations with non-accidental mortality were estimated for California (lag 2 and 0–5 day) and Arizona (lag 3), for cardiovascular mortality in the United States (lag 2) and Arizona (lag 3), and for other non-accidental mortality in California (lags 1–3 and 0–5). Conclusions: Dust storms are associated with increases in lagged non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. Citation: Crooks JL, Cascio WE, Percy MS, Reyes

  9. Autonomic nervous system modulation during accidental syncope induced by heat and orthostatic stress.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Andres E; Cheung, Stephen S; Flouris, Andreas D

    2013-07-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) indices (LF, HF, LF/HF, RMSSD, and pNN50) under combined heat and orthostatic stress leading up to and during accidental syncope (EXP group: one man, two women; age: 23.7 +/- 2.9 yr) were compared with data collected from subjects who did not experience syncope (CON group: one man, two women; age: 22.3 +/- 1.5 yr). Minute averages of HRV indices were collected during 5 min at baseline (Base), 5 min leading up to syncope (PRE), and 5 min during syncope (Syncope) (i.e., 2 min leading up to, 1 min during, and 2 min post-syncope). Data were individually analyzed as 1-min means during Syncope as well as 5-min means during Base, PRE, and Syncope. Between-group results revealed that LF and LF/HF were significantly higher and HF was significantly lower in EXP compared to CON subjects at minutes 1, 2, and 3 during Syncope. Further, RMSSD (CON: 161.1 +/- 37.0 ms; EXP: 17.5 +/- 13.3 ms) and pNN50 (CON: 26.4 +/- 36.3%; EXP: 1.3 +/- 1.2%) were significantly lower in EXP compared to CON subjects at minute 3 during Syncope. During Syncope, 5-min averages of LF (CON: 46.1 +/- 13.9 nu; EXP: 77.5 +/- 6.6 nu) and LF/HF (CON: 1.0 0.5; EXP: 3.8 +/- 1.7) were significantly higher, and HF (CON: 53.9 +/- 13.9 nu; EXP: 22.5 +/ 1 6.6 nu) was significantly lower in EXP subjects compared to CON. Our findings show that autonomic nervous system modulation leading up to and during accidental syncope induced by heat and orthostatic stress is characterized by an exaggerated suppression of parasympathetic and elevation of sympathetic activity. Thus, elevated LF and LF/HF, and lower HF, RMSSD, and pNN50 may represent risk factors for accidental syncope.

  10. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and

  11. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  12. NSAIDs and the risk of accidental falls in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hegeman, Judith; van den Bemt, Bart J F; Duysens, Jacques; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Accidental falls, especially those occurring in the elderly, are a major health and research topic nowadays. Besides environmental hazards and the physiological changes associated with aging, medication use (e.g. benzodiazepines, vasodilators and antidepressants) and polypharmacy are significant risk factors for falling as well. Exposure to NSAIDs has been associated with accidental falls too, although information on this area is less consistent. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to provide an updated overview of all the evidence published on the risk of falling due to NSAID use thus far. A systematic literature search for material published between 1966 and March 2008 in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Exerpta Medica, Current Contents and Science Citation Index was combined with a check of the reference lists of all the retrieved articles. Validity and data extraction of the eligible articles was assessed by adapted criteria, based on checklists that were originally developed to assess case-control or cohort studies. From the 16 selected articles, two studies were rejected because of clustering of data and one article was excluded because it contained the same data as that in one of the included articles. None of the articles retrieved included a randomized controlled trial. The remaining 13 studies all showed some lack in completeness of their statistical methods, and much variation in reporting of effects. The overall mean age was high in the study populations, leaving the results to be poorly generalizable to a larger population and other age categories. Despite these imperfections, all studies showed an increased risk of falling due to NSAID use (four significant, nine non-significant), and a tendency towards an increased fall risk with NSAID exposure could be noted. The results shown in the present review suggest that an increased risk for accidental falls is probable when elderly individuals are exposed to NSAIDs. The

  13. Double-read of skeletal surveys in suspected non-accidental trauma: what we learned.

    PubMed

    Karmazyn, Boaz; Miller, Elise M; Lay, Sara E; Massey, James M; Wanner, Matthew R; Marine, Megan B; Jennings, S Gregory; Ouyang, Fangqian; Hibbard, Roberta A

    2017-05-01

    Missing a fracture in a child on skeletal surveys for suspected non-accidental trauma can have devastating results. Double-read has the potential to improve fracture detection. However the yield of double-read is unknown. To determine the advantage of double-read versus single-read of radiographic skeletal surveys for suspected non-accidental trauma. The study was performed in two phases. In the first phase (April 2013 to September 2013), double-read was performed for all skeletal surveys obtained during weekday working hours. Because we had no new double-read findings in studies initially read as negative, we conducted a second phase (January 2014 to March 2014). In the second phase we limited double-reads to skeletal surveys found positive on the first read. At the end of this period, we retrospectively performed double-read for all initially negative skeletal surveys. We excluded follow-up skeletal surveys. The difference in discrepancy (new fracture or false diagnosis of a fracture) ratio between negative and positive skeletal surveys was evaluated using the Fisher exact test, and change in discrepancy ratio between the first and second study phases was evaluated using the stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. Overall in the two phases, 178 skeletal surveys were performed in 178 children (67 girls) with mean age of 9 months (range 3 days to 3.7 years). Double-read found 16 discrepancies in 8/178 (4.5%) skeletal surveys. Seven of these studies showed additional fractures (n=15). In one study, an initial read of a skull fracture was read as a variant on the second read. There was a significant (P=0.01) difference between rate of disagreement in negative skeletal surveys (1/104, 1.0%) and positive skeletal surveys (7/74, 9.5%). No significant change in disagreement rate was demonstrated between the two phases of the study (P=0.59). Double-read of skeletal survey for suspected non-accidental trauma found false-negative fractures in a few cases and rarely

  14. Variomics screen identifies the re-entrant loop of the calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 that facilitates channel activation.

    PubMed

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A; Auld, Douglas S; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J; Gaither, L Alex

    2015-01-09

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases.

  15. Variomics Screen Identifies the Re-entrant Loop of the Calcium-activated Chloride Channel ANO1 That Facilitates Channel Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M. Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T.; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A.; Auld, Douglas S.; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J.; Gaither, L. Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  16. Legal update. Definition of accident--accidental death and dismemberment--alcohol-related automobile collision--foreseeability of death as result of driving while intoxicated.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    LaAsmar v. Phelps Dodge Corp. Life, Accidental Death & Dismemberment & Dependent Life Ins. Plan, 605 F3d 789, 2010 WL 1794437(10th Cir. 2010). A death caused by an alcohol-related automobile collision qualifies as an "accident" that would require payment of accidental death and dismemberment plan benefits.

  17. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  18. Accidental human injection of Excenel RTU: ceftiofur hydrochloride in cottonseed oil.

    PubMed

    Gwynne-Jones, David; Lyall, Patrick; Hung, Noelyn A; Meikle, Grant

    2008-11-01

    There is little knowledge within the medical community of the existence of veterinary antibiotics in oil-based suspensions and the adverse effects that may occur with accidental human injection. A farmer injected an unknown quantity of Excenel RTU into her right thigh. Despite early debridement she developed a deep infection and recurrent chronic inflammation in the subcutaneous tissues and muscle secondary to the cottonseed oil suspension. Radical debridement and extensive split skin grafting was required but she still has had recurrences 12 months after injury. Prompt surgical debridement should be performed as in cases of oil based veterinary vaccines. Despite being an antibiotic there is a significant risk of infection from a dirty needle following inoculation and multiple cultures should be taken and appropriate broad spectrum antibiotics used. Radical debridement and skin grafting necessitating specialist plastic surgical attention may be required.

  19. Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Parker, B.

    1994-02-01

    The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we study such accidents taking the Superconducting Supercollider complex as an example. Particle tracking, beam loss and energy deposition calculations were done using the realistic machine simulation with the Monte-Carlo codes MARS 12 and STRUCT. Protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of prefire and misfire of injection and extraction kicker magnets are proposed here.

  20. Cardiac thrombus developing after an accidental high-voltage electric shock in a child.

    PubMed

    Akın, Alper; Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Gözü Pirinççioğlu, Ayfer; Yavuz, Celal

    2015-01-01

    Electric shock is a condition that may affect various organ systems and potentially cause death. Cardiac findings vary from asymptomatic mild injury to fatal myocardial involvement. Herein we present a five-year-old boy with a cardiac thrombus developing after an accidental electrical shock. Cardiac arrhythmias and evidence of ischemia have been reported after electric shock; we were, however, unable to identify an earlier case report of intracardiac thrombosis related to electric shock. Findings such as elevated cardiac enzymes and systolic dysfunction, which indicate myocardial damage following electric shock, were present in our patient. We think that the cardiac thrombus might have resulted from the myocardial damage and the slowed intracardiac blood flow related to systolic dysfunction. As the thrombus was thought to have been formed through known mechanisms, it was treated traditionally. However, further data regarding the etiology and management of such thrombi is needed.

  1. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated commercial color pencils for accidental retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Meriç, Niyazi; Şahiner, Eren; Bariş, Aytaç; Polymeris, George S

    2015-05-01

    Color pencils are widely used mostly in kindergartens, in schools and could be found in all houses with families having young children. Their wide spread use in modern times as well as their chemical composition, consisting mostly of Si and Al, constitute two strong motivations towards exploiting their use as accidental retrospective thermoluminescent dosimeters. The present manuscript reports on the study of colored pencils manufactured by a commercial brand in China which is very common throughout Turkey. The preliminary results discussed in the present work illustrated encouraging characteristics, such as the presence of a trapping level giving rise to natural TL in a temperature range that is sufficiently high. Specific thermoluminescence features of this peak, such as glow peak shape and analysis, anomalous fading, thermal quenching, reproducibility, linearity and recovery ability to low attributed doses were studied. The results suggest that the color pencils could be effectively used in the framework of retrospective thermoluminescent dosimetry with extreme caution, based on multiple aliquot protocols.

  2. [Accidental ingestion of methadone by children and suggestions for better prevention].

    PubMed

    Hein, Henrik; Püschel, Klaus; Schaper, Andreas; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the medial attention attracted by the presented case in January 2012 and the determined measures taken to minimize the risk of accidental poisoning for children in the direct surroundings of substituted persons, we recently faced two more cases of methadone-intoxicated children in Hamburg. We believe that the most important step to increase awareness of the dangerous effects of methadone for children might be the storage of methadone in lockable boxes, which would make it safe from access by children and third parties. Moreover this way of storing reminds the patients of the risks resulting from their medication. Repeated and comprehensive instruction appears to be the best protection against cases like this to counteract careless handling of the substitution medication.

  3. Accidental Inclusions Following Blast Injury in Esthetical Zones: Ablation by a Hydrosurgery System

    PubMed Central

    Siemers, Frank; Mauss, Karl L.; Liodaki, Eirini; Ottomann, Christian; Bergmann, Philipp A.; Mailänder, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In case of blast injuries, traumatic tattoos can result from accidental inclusions of intradermal pigmented particles. To avoid these tattoos, especially in esthetical areas like the head and neck region and the hands, the primary goal in our treatment is to remove all particles and foreign bodies. Superficial foreign bodies can easily be removed by brushes or dermabrasion. Deeper lesions are a challenge for plastic surgeons, because they are not so easily removed. Ablation by a water jet surgical tool, the Versajet-system (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA), enables the removal of nearly all particles and foreign bodies, which sustained a blast injury of the face or the hands. Aim of this paper is to describe the method of using this hydrosurgery system in blast injuries in esthetical zones and its advantages by presenting cases of two patients of us. PMID:22848777

  4. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema following accidental electrocution in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Sankar, Jhuma; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2011-04-19

    Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema due to electrocution is an underdiagnosed clinical entity. The authors report a toddler who presented with symptoms and signs of respiratory failure following accidental electrocution. His chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse infiltrates and cardiac involvement was ruled out by echocardiography. The child was managed symptomatically and discharged in a stable condition. The cause of pulmonary oedema in this child was thought to be neurogenic in origin as cardiac and pulmonary causes were ruled out. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema is an uncommonly recognised entity which occurs with any neurological or non-neurological event stimulating the vasomotor centres. There are divergent theories to explain the cause for this rare phenomenon but none has been proved. The authors chose to report this case to highlight this uncommon complication of electrocution hitherto unreported in children.

  5. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite.

    PubMed

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-31

    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  6. Long-term follow-up after accidental gamma irradiation from a 60Co source

    SciTech Connect

    Klener, V.; Tuscany, R.; Vejlupkova, J.; Dvorak, J.; Vlkovic, P.

    1986-11-01

    In December 1973 a technician was accidentally irradiated when attempting to bring under control a sealed /sup 60/Co source (110 TBq) which had been lodged in the head of a medical irradiation unit during a replacement operation. In the early period after the accident, severe skin changes on the left hand, epilation in a small area of the left temporal region and minor deviations in peripheral blood developed. In the following years, repeated surgery due to secondary skin defects of the left hand resulted in the loss of the fingers 2-5. Since 1975, changes in the lens of the left eye began to appear leading gradually to the deterioration of visual acuity. Later, opacities of the lens of the right eye were found. The patient's psychological and emotional attitude about the accident changed in the course of time. The factors influencing the psychic state of the patient are identified.

  7. [Secondary medullary aplasia from accidental radiation:therapeutic options and evolution of the concept].

    PubMed

    de Revel, T; Fagot, T; Souleau, B; Dormont, D; Nedellec, G

    2002-07-01

    Bone marrow grafting following accidental irradiation exposure should be viewed in the perspective of a severe myeloablative syndrome linked to high medullary damage for a dose range higher than 6-8 Gy, resulting in very late or no recovery. Prognosis will depend on the presence or absence of radio-combined injuries, the toxicity of the transplant procedure, and the risk of rejection induced by insufficient percritical immunosuppression. It is in this context that new cell therapy modalities, which combine enhanced peripheral hematopoietic cell engraftment and high immunosuppressive conditioning regimen with low extrahematological toxicity, inducing early and stable mixed lymphomyeloid chimerism with minimal morbidity, can be considered. Such an approach is being evaluated in the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies at high risk of transplant-related mortality using conventional bone marrow methods.

  8. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored.

  9. Accidental occupational exposure of intravenous nurses to human immunodeficiency virus. Anticipating the consequences.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, J B

    1998-01-01

    This descriptive study randomly surveyed all 302 Massachusetts members of the Intravenous Nurses Society in 1991 regarding their perceptions of nine possible consequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection caused by accidental occupational exposure. Areas of highest concern were financial: adequacy of worker's compensation, ability of the employer to cover all healthcare costs, and job security. Nurses also were concerned about confidentiality of their HIV status and personal history jeopardizing their benefits. The i.v. nurses felt most secure in areas of their personal lives: housing and support of family and friends. Although some concerns correlated significantly with fear of contagion, others were unrelated, indicating a need for policy and attitude changes to promote comfort in working with HIV.

  10. Treatment of accidental perianal injection of topical thrombin with intravenous antithrombin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Paidy, Samata R; McLeod, Whitney; Fox, Alexandra; Nfonsam, Valentine N

    2017-04-01

    While topical thrombin application can markedly improve surgical hemostasis, rapid absorption of thrombin can result in pulmonary embolism and death. We report a case of accidental interstitial infiltration of topical thrombin after hemorrhoidectomy that was treated with administration of human antithrombin and heparin anticoagulation. Except for a marked decrease in antithrombin activity from super normal to normal values, the patient exhibited no laboratory or clinical signs of pulmonary embolism, thrombin mediated consumptive loss of procoagulants, or regional thrombosis. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery without sign of thrombotic morbidity. While it is hoped that such a medical misadventure should not occur, our case may serve as a reference to guide anticoagulant therapy if such a clinical scenario arises.

  11. Estimating accidental pollutant releases in the built environment from turbulent concentration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, N.; Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present an inverse atmospheric model to estimate the mass flow rate of an impulsive source of pollutant, whose position is known, from concentration signals registered at receptors placed downwind of the source. The originality of this study is twofold. Firstly, the inversion is performed using high-frequency fluctuating, i.e. turbulent, concentration signals. Secondly, the inverse algorithm is applied to a dispersion process within a dense urban canopy, at the district scale, and a street network model, SIRANERISK, is adopted. The model, which is tested against wind tunnel experiments, simulates the dispersion of short-duration releases of pollutant in different typologies of idealised urban geometries. Results allow us to discuss the reliability of the inverse model as an operational tool for crisis management and the risk assessments related to the accidental release of toxic and flammable substances.

  12. Accidental needle sticks, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the fallacy of public policy.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Bruce L; Marks, Albert; Fahrenholz, John M

    2006-07-01

    Current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines mandate the use of safety needles when allergy injections are given. Safety needles for intradermal testing remain optional. Whether safety needles reduce the number of accidental needle sticks (ANSs) in the outpatient setting has yet to be proven. To determine the rate of ANSs with new (safety) needles vs old needles used in allergy immunotherapy and intradermal testing. Allergy practices from 22 states were surveyed by e-mail. Seventy practices (28%) responded to the survey. Twice as many ANSs occurred in practices giving immunotherapy when using new needles vs old needles (P < .01). The rate of ANSs was roughly the same for intradermal testing with new needles vs old needles. These findings further question whether OSHA's guidelines for safety needle use in outpatient practice need revision and if allergy practices might be excluded from the requirement to use safety needles.

  13. Accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maietta, Pauline Marie

    2012-08-01

    More than 2.1 million central venous catheters are placed annually. While carotid artery cannulation is rare, its effects can be devastating. Anesthesia providers frequently work with central venous catheters in the perioperative setting. Therefore, it is imperative that they be able to identify and react appropriately to carotid artery injury both in preexisting central lines and those that they have placed. This case report details a case of accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization and the steps taken to treat the patient following its recognition. A discussion of technique for central venous catheterization, indications for suspicion of arterial puncture, methods for confirming venous or arterial placement, appropriate methods for management of carotid artery cannulation, and the benefit of ultrasound in central venous cannulation follow. Through the appropriate use of equipment, early detection and management of carotid artery injury, and proper training, patient outcomes may be improved.

  14. Hospital-based screening tools in the identification of non-accidental trauma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Dani O; Deans, Katherine J

    2017-02-01

    Over 700,000 children are victims of abuse and neglect each year in the United States. Effective screening programs that entail broad capture of suspected non-accidental trauma (NAT) may help to identify sentinel injuries. This can facilitate earlier detection and psychosocial interventions in hopes of decreasing recurrent NAT, which confers a higher mortality rate. The purpose of this article is to outline essential components of hospital-based NAT screening tools and highlight existing programs. In general, these tools should include several components: education sessions for healthcare providers on how to identify signs of NAT, automated notes or checklists within the electronic medical record to prompt specialty referrals, and a multidisciplinary team of experts that can address the needs of these children in the acute care setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Kłosowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

  16. A precise calculation of delayed coincidence selection efficiency and accidental coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shao-Min

    2015-05-01

    A precise background evaluation model is proposed to address the complex data structure of the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, and background are all studied analytically, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate. The results of the calculations are validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013CB834302), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2012Z02161), and Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education.

  17. Single Nodal Loop of Accidental Degeneracies in Minimal Symmetry: Triclinic CaAs3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Y.; Yin, Z. P.; Pickett, W. E.

    2017-04-01

    The existence of closed loops of degeneracies in crystals has been intimately connected with associated crystal symmetries, raising the following question: What is the minimum symmetry required for topological character, and can one find an example? Triclinic CaAs3 , in the space group P 1 ¯ with only a center of inversion, has been found to display, without need for tuning, a nodal loop of accidental degeneracies with topological character, centered on one face of the Brillouin zone that is otherwise fully gapped. The small loop is very flat in energy, yet is cut four times by the Fermi energy, a condition that results in an intricate repeated touching of inversion related pairs of Fermi surfaces at Weyl points. Spin-orbit coupling lifts the fourfold degeneracy along the loop, leaving trivial Kramers pairs. With its single nodal loop that emerges without protection from any point group symmetry, CaAs3 represents the primal "hydrogen atom" of nodal loop systems.

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Tschiedel, Eva; Groch, Manuela; Klepper, Jörg; Ratjen, Felix

    2007-08-01

    Chronic exposure to chlorine gas has been shown to cause occupational asthma. Acute inhalation of chlorine is known to cause airway inflammation and induce airway nitric oxide formation. Exhaled nitric oxide may therefore be a marker of airway damage after chlorine gas exposure. After accidental chlorine gas exposure in a swimming pool, exhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary function were repeatedly measured in 18 children over a 1-mo period. Symptomatic children with impaired pulmonary function had higher nitric oxide levels on the day after the exposure compared to day 8 and day 28. Differences in exhaled nitric oxide were more pronounced at a higher exhalation flow compared to lower flow, suggesting peripheral rather than central airway damage. This was in accordance with the observed changes in pulmonary function. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were seen in asymptomatic children. These data suggest that acute chlorine gas exposure results in a mild increase of exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children.

  19. Predictors of accidental fatal drug overdose among a cohort of injection drug users.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, P T; McGough, J; Hagan, H; Thiede, H; Critchlow, C; Alexander, E R

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated factors associated with accidental fatal drug overdose among a cohort of injection drug users (IDUs). In a prospective cohort study of 2849 IDUs in King County, Washington, deaths were identified by electronically merging subject identifiers with death certificate records. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of overdose mortality. Thirty-two overdoses were observed. Independent predictors of overdose mortality were bisexual sexual orientation (relative risk [RR] = 4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.30, 13.2), homelessness (RR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.06, 5.01), infrequent injection of speedballs (RR = 5.36; 95% CI = 1.58, 18.1), daily use of powdered cocaine (RR = 4.84; 95% CI = 1.13, 20.8), and daily use of poppers (RR = 22.0; 95% CI = 1.74, 278). Sexual orientation, homelessness, and drug use identify IDUs who may benefit from targeted interventions.

  20. Non-accidental properties underlie human categorization of complex natural scenes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dandan

    2013-01-01

    Humans can categorize complex natural scenes quickly and accurately. Which scene properties enable us to do this with such apparent ease? We extracted structural properties of contours (orientation, length, curvature) and contour junctions (types and angles) from line drawings of natural scenes. All of these properties contain information about scene category that can be exploited computationally. But, when comparing error patterns from computational scene categorization with those from a six-alternative forced-choice scene categorization experiment, we found that only junctions and curvature made significant contributions to human behavior. To further test the critical role of these properties we perturbed junctions in line drawings by randomly shifting contours. As predicted, we found a significant decrease in human categorization accuracy. We conclude that scene categorization by humans relies on curvature as well as the same non-accidental junction properties used for object recognition. These properties correspond to the visual features represented in area V2. PMID:24474725

  1. [Accidental injection sodium hypochlorite during endodontic therapy. Better understand to better manage].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, H; Douki, N

    2015-09-01

    The high frequency of iatrogenic incidents during endodontic treatment is a source of stress for the practitioner. These incidents may occur during the different steps of a root canal treatment. During irrigation, extrusion of sodium hypochlorite beyond the apex is a rare but impressive accident. Sodium hypochlorite, is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics, but when it comes in contact with the periapical tissue, it can cause complications ranging from mild discomfort to serious tissue damage such as the hematoma and hemato-emphysema. The aims of this article are to discuss through the presentation of two clinical cases: Etiological and predisposing factors; Signs guiding to suspicion of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite. In this work, we focused on clinical keys that help the practitioner in better understanding this accident in order to prevent it or to manage it well when it occurs.

  2. Non-accidental injuries found in necropsies of domestic cats: a review of 191 cases.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Cassiano, Fabiana Cecília; de Albuquerque Landi, Marina Frota; Marlet, Elza Fernandes; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2012-10-01

    Animal cruelty is defined as a deliberate action that causes pain and suffering to an animal. In Brazil, legislation known as the Environmental Crimes Law states that cruelty toward all animal species is criminal in nature. From 644 domestic cats necropsied between January 1998 and December 2009, 191 (29.66%) presented lesions highly suggestive of animal cruelty. The main necroscopic finding was exogenous carbamate poisoning (75.39%) followed by blunt-force trauma (21.99%). Cats from 7 months to 2 years of age were the most affected (50.79%). In Brazil, violence is a public health problem and there is a high prevalence of domestic violence. Therefore, even if laws provide for animal welfare and protection, animals are common targets for violent acts. Within a context of social violence, cruelty toward animals is an important parameter to be considered, and the non-accidental lesions that were found are evidence of malicious actions.

  3. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Aranda, María L; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-07-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite.

  5. Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Aranda, María L.; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite. PMID:24558554

  6. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  7. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Accidental arterial puncture during right internal jugular vein cannulation in cardiac surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Madan Mohan; Arun, Venkitaramanan; Wala, Al-Ajmi Ahmed; Al-Bahrani, Maher Jaffer; Jayatilaka, Cheskey Manoj; Nishant, Arora Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary aim of this study was to compare the incidence of accidental arterial puncture during right internal jugular vein (RIJV) cannulation with and without ultrasound guidance (USG). The secondary end points were to assess if USG improves the chances of successful first pass cannulation and if BMI has an impact on incidence of arterial puncture and the number of attempts that are to be made for successful cannulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study performed at a single tertiary cardiac care center. Material and methods: 255 consecutive adult and pediatric cardiac surgical patients were included. In Group I (n = 124) USG was used for the right internal jugular vein cannulation and in Group II (n = 81) it was not used. There were 135 adult patients and 70 pediatric patients. Statistical analysis: Demographic and categorical data were analyzed using Student ‘t’ test and chi- square test was used for qualitative variables. Results: The overall incidence of accidental arterial puncture in the entire study population was significantly higher when ultrasound guidance was not used (P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, incidence of arterial puncture was significant in both adult (P = 0.03) and pediatric patients (P < 0.001) without USG. First attempt cannulation was more often possible in pediatric patients under USG (P = 0.03). In adult patients USG did not improve first attempt cannulation except in underweight patients. Conclusions: USG helped in the avoidance of inadvertent arterial puncture during RIJV cannulation and simultaneously improved the chances of first attempt cannulation in pediatric and in underweight adult cardiac surgical patients. PMID:27716688

  9. Outcome after severe accidental hypothermia in the French Alps: A 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Debaty, Guillaume; Moustapha, Ibrahim; Bouzat, Pierre; Maignan, Maxime; Blancher, Marc; Rallo, Amandine; Brun, Julien; Chavanon, Olivier; Danel, Vincent; Carpentier, Françoise; Payen, Jean-François; Briot, Raphaël

    2015-08-01

    To describe the factors associated with outcome after accidental deep hypothermia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients with accidental hypothermia (core temperature <28 °C) admitted to a Level I emergency room over a 10-year period. Forty-eight patients were included with a median temperature of 26 °C (range, 16.3-28 °C) on admission. The etiology of hypothermia was exposure to a cold environment (n = 27), avalanche (n = 13) or immersion in cold water (n = 8). Mean age was 47 ± 22 years, and 58% were males. Thirty-two patients had a cardiac arrest (CA): 15 patients presented unwitnessed cardiac arrest (UCA) and 17 patients presented rescue collapse (RC). Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) was implemented in 21 patients with refractory cardiac arrest and in two patients with hemodynamic instability. Overall mortality was 50%. For cardiac arrest patients, only three out of 15 patients with UCA survived at day 28, whereas eight out of 17 patients with RC survived. The cerebral performance category score was 4 for all the survivors of UCA and 1 [range, 1-2] for survivors of RC. Patients with poor outcome presented more UCA, a lower pH, a higher serum potassium, creatinine, serum sodium or lactate level as well as more severe coagulation disorders. Cardiac arrest related to rescue collapse was associated with favorable outcome. On-scene rescue collapse should prompt prolonged resuscitation and ECLS rewarming in all CA patients with deep hypothermia. Conversely, unwitnessed cardiac arrest was associated with unfavorable outcome and will likely not benefit from ECLS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute health effects after accidental exposure to styrene from drinking water in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Bellido-Blasco, Juan; Villamarin-Vazquez, Jose-Luis; Aranda-Mares, Jose-Luis; Font-Cardona, Nuria; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    Objectives We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. Methods Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. Results Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 μg/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3–48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3–47) and eating foods prepared with tap water (OR = 8.6, 1.9–40). All residents in the ground floor reported symptoms. Conclusions This accidental contamination led to very high styrene concentrations in water and was related to a high prevalence of subjective symptoms of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Similar exposures have been described in workers but not in subjects exposed at their residence. Various gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in this population probably due to a local irritative effect. PMID:12777181

  11. [Plasma cell dyscrasias and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Is it a merely accidental association?].

    PubMed

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C; Spanedda, R; Piva, N

    1991-05-01

    The radiologic staging of a series of 144 patients (88 males and 56 females) affected with plasma-cell dyscrasias and observed over a 26-month period, revealed both the well-known bone myeloma-related abnormalities and hyperostotic lesions similar to those described in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. The incidence of skeletal hyperostosis was 31.94%, much higher than that reported in literature for the general population (5%). Typically, the axial skeleton is the most common location for abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) as well as in DISH: involvement of the dorsal spine was observed in 65% of cases, the cervical spine was involved in 34.8% of patients, and the lumbar spine in 28.3%. Peripheral ossifying enthesopathy, considered as "whiskering" in the pelvis, was found in 12 cases (8.2%), 7 males and 5 females. DISH was indifferently present in both MM (23 cases), with severe osteolysis (stage III) or simple osteoporosis (stage I), and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (17 cases), usually without any myeloma-related bone lesions, and in Waldenström disease (4 cases). Many hypotheses are discussed as to the possible pathogenesis (e.g.: accidental, dysmetabolic, or degenerative) of hyperostosis in dysgammaglobulinemias, but, to date, they are no more than mere guesses. DISH is a disorder the etiology of which is still unknown: it is likely to be an ossifying diathesis, but its incidence in both illnesses--which are both plasma-cell dyscarsias--is too high for the association to be accidental. Thus, a pathogenetic factor produced by multiple myeloma can be hypothesized, capable of increasing the so-called idiopathic hyperostosis.

  12. Elimination kinetics of metals after an accidental exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Karl H; Csanady, György; Filser, Johannes; Jüngert, Barbara; Drexler, Hans

    2007-07-01

    We had the opportunity to study the kinetics of metals in blood and urine samples of a flame-sprayer exposed to high accident-prone workplace exposure. We measured over 1 year, the nickel, aluminium, and chromium concentrations in blood and urine specimens after exposure. On this basis, we evaluated the corresponding half-lives. Blood and urine sampling were carried out five times after accidental exposure over a period of 1 year. The metals were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and Zeeman compensation with reliable methods. Either a mono-exponential or a bi-exponential function was fitted to the concentration-time courses of selected metals using weighted least squares non-linear regression analysis. The amount excreted in urine was calculated integrating the urinary decay curve and multiplying with the daily creatinine excretion. The first examination was carried out 15 days after exposure. The mean aluminium concentration in plasma was 8.2 microg/l and in urine, 58.4 microg/g creatinine. The mean nickel concentration in blood was 59.6 microg/l and the excretion in urine 700 microg/g creatinine. The mean chromium level in blood was 1.4 microg/l in urine, 7.4 microg/g creatinine. For the three elements, the metal concentrations in blood and urine exceeded the reference values at least in the initial phase. For nickel, the German biological threshold limit values (EKA) were exceeded. Aluminium showed a mono-exponential decay, whereas the elimination of chromium and nickel was biphasic in biological fluids of the accidentally exposed welder. The half-lives were as follows: for aluminium 140 days (urine) and 160 days (plasma); for chromium 40 and 730 days (urine); for nickel 25 and 610 days (urine) as well as 30 and 240 days (blood). The renal clearance of aluminium and nickel was about 2 l/h estimated for the last monitoring day.

  13. Acute accidental exposure to chlorine gas: clinical presentation, pulmonary functions and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Alladi; Kumar, S Naveen; Rao, M H; Bollineni, S; Manohar, I Chiranjeevi

    2010-01-01

    To study the clinical presentation, pulmonary functions and outcomes in subjects who were accidentally exposed to chlorine gas. Prospective observational study of 64 patients who sustained acute accidental exposure to chlorine gas during a leak in the chlorination system of the public bathing pool of a temple. The major presenting symptoms and signs included acute dyspnoea (100%), chest discomfort (100%), cough (97%), eye irritation (88%), giddiness (72%), vomiting (46%), and heaviness in the head (44%); tachycardia (100%), tachypnoea (96%) and polyphonic wheezing (28%). All patients were managed in the emergency room with humidified oxygen inhalation and beta-2 agonist nebulisation and 52 were discharged within six hours. Twelve patients were severely affected and required hospitalisation; three of them were admitted into the intensive care unit. Three patients developed pulmonary oedema six to eight hours following admission. Pulmonary function testing (n = 12) at presentation revealed obstructive defect in eight and mixed obstructive-cum-restrictive defect in four patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.1 +/- 2.1 days. None of the patients died. Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS) was observed in three of the 12 hospitalised patients, who complained of manifested persistent cough that lasted for three months period following discharge. Serial pulmonary functions recovered to normal range by the end of the six months in all patients and remained so at one-year follow-up. Acute exposure to chlorine gas is an uncommon, but important public health hazard and can cause RADS, acute lung injury and pulmonary function abnormalities, which are reversible on prompt and appropriate management.

  14. Observations on increased accidental asphyxia deaths in infancy while cosleeping in the state of Maryland.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Yang; Zielke, Ron H; Ping, Yan; Fowler, David R

    2009-12-01

    The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) has recorded a significant increase of accidental asphyxia deaths in infancy associated with cosleeping in the state of Maryland in 2003. A total of 102 infants died suddenly and unexpectedly during 2003 in the state of Maryland. Of the 102 infants, 46 (45%) were found cosleeping. The frequency of cosleeping among these 102 infants was 28% (29/102) for black infants and 15% (15/102) for white infants. Ten of the 46 cosleeping infant deaths (20%) were determined to be the result of accidental asphyxia, and 28 cosleeping infant deaths (59%) were classified as "undetermined" because the possibility of asphyxia due to overlay while cosleeping could not be ruled out. Only 21 cases were determined to be Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), which is consistent with the continuous decline of SIDS death in Maryland since 1994. The age of asphyxiated cosleeping infants ranged from 15 days to 9 months. Nine out of the 10 asphyxia deaths were black infants. The most common sleeping location of the asphyxia infants was on a couch/sofa, followed by an adult bed. Crib availability was documented in all of the cosleeping cases. A majority (61%) of the cosleeping infants (28/46) had an available crib or bassinet at home and 9 out of 10 asphyxiated cosleeping infants had a crib at home at the time of the incident. This report focuses on the detailed scene investigation findings of infant victims who died of asphyxia while cosleeping. The shift of diagnosis in sudden infant death investigation is also addressed.

  15. Probability Analysis for Accidental Impact on Mars by the Micro-Spacecraft Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Ryu; Yano, Hajime; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Ozaki, Naoya; Nakajima, Shintaro; Shimizu, Yukio

    This paper analyzes the impact probability on Mars for the 50kg-class micro-spacecraft PROCYON (PRoximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation) in 50 years after its launch. PROCYON, which is mainly developed by the University of Tokyo and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), has two missions: the first is the technology demonstration of a micro-spacecraft bus system for deep space exploration and the second is proximity operation by Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as the closest flyby distance from a target asteroid is aimed around 30 kilometer. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched together with Japan’s second asteroid sample return spacecraft "Hayabusa-2" at the end of 2014. Initially PROCYON will be inserted into an Earth resonant trajectory that allows the spacecraft to cruise back to the Earth by solar electric propulsion leveraging. The Earth gravity assist, which is scheduled at the end of 2015, will enable the spacecraft to expand a number of candidate NEAs for flyby operations. At the time of the writing, its candidate NEAs include "2000 DP107", "2010 LJ14" and "2002 AJ29". A miniature ion thruster is mounted on the spacecraft to provide 300muN of thrust with specific impulse of 1200 seconds for deep space maneuver before Earth gravity assist. Considering a small amount of its fuel (about 2 kg of Xenon propellant), PROCYON has no possibility to impact directly on Mars without Earth gravity assist. However, if PROCYON successfully obtains large enough delta-V by the Earth gravity assist at the end of 2015, a possibility of accidental impact on Mars cannot be neglected in order to comply the COSPAR planetary protection requirements for forward contamination. In this paper, we calculate the possibility of accidental impact on Mars after the Earth gravity assist. As the result we conclude that the possibility of Mars impact is negligible within 50 years after its launch.

  16. Accidental Falls and Risk of Mortality among Older Adults on Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Farragher, Janine; Chiu, Ernest; Ulutas, Ozkan; Tomlinson, George; Cook, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives More than 40% of elderly hemodialysis patients experience one or more accidental falls within a 1-year period. Such falls are associated with higher mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess whether falls are also common in elderly patients established on peritoneal dialysis and evaluate if patients with falls have a higher risk of mortality than patients who do not experience a fall. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a prospective cohort study design, patients ages≥65 years on chronic peritoneal dialysis from April 2002 to April 2003 at the University Health Network were recruited. Patients were followed biweekly, and falls occurring within the first 15 months were recorded. Outcome data were collected until death, study end (July 31, 2012), transplantation, or transfer to another dialysis center. Results Seventy-four of seventy-six potential patients were recruited, assessed at baseline, and followed biweekly for falls; 40 of 74 (54%) peritoneal dialysis patients experienced 89 falls (adjusted mean fall rate, 1.7 falls per patient-year; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.7). Patients with falls were more likely to have had previous falls, be more recently initiated onto dialysis, be men, be older, and have higher comorbidity. Twenty-eight patients died during the follow-up period. After adjustment for known risk factors, each successive fall was associated with a 1.62-fold higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 2.02; P<0.001). Conclusions Accidental falls are common in the peritoneal dialysis population and often go unrecognized. Falls were associated with higher mortality risk. Because fall interventions are effective in other populations, screening peritoneal dialysis patients for falls may be a simple measure of clinical importance. PMID:24763867

  17. Accidental falls and risk of mortality among older adults on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Farragher, Janine; Chiu, Ernest; Ulutas, Ozkan; Tomlinson, George; Cook, Wendy L; Jassal, Sarbjit V

    2014-07-01

    More than 40% of elderly hemodialysis patients experience one or more accidental falls within a 1-year period. Such falls are associated with higher mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess whether falls are also common in elderly patients established on peritoneal dialysis and evaluate if patients with falls have a higher risk of mortality than patients who do not experience a fall. Using a prospective cohort study design, patients ages ≥ 65 years on chronic peritoneal dialysis from April 2002 to April 2003 at the University Health Network were recruited. Patients were followed biweekly, and falls occurring within the first 15 months were recorded. Outcome data were collected until death, study end (July 31, 2012), transplantation, or transfer to another dialysis center. Seventy-four of seventy-six potential patients were recruited, assessed at baseline, and followed biweekly for falls; 40 of 74 (54%) peritoneal dialysis patients experienced 89 falls (adjusted mean fall rate, 1.7 falls per patient-year; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.7). Patients with falls were more likely to have had previous falls, be more recently initiated onto dialysis, be men, be older, and have higher comorbidity. Twenty-eight patients died during the follow-up period. After adjustment for known risk factors, each successive fall was associated with a 1.62-fold higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 2.02; P<0.001). Accidental falls are common in the peritoneal dialysis population and often go unrecognized. Falls were associated with higher mortality risk. Because fall interventions are effective in other populations, screening peritoneal dialysis patients for falls may be a simple measure of clinical importance. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Inhibition of Cell Proliferation by a Selective Inhibitor of the Ca2+-activated Cl− Channel, Ano1

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Amelia; Eisenman, Seth T.; Strege, Peter R.; Yao, Zhen; Ordog, Tamas; Gibbons, Simon J.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-01-01

    Background Ion channels play important roles in regulation of cellular proliferation. Ano1 (TMEM16A) is a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel expressed in several tumors and cell types. In the muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract Ano1 is selectively expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and appears to be required for normal gastrointestinal slow wave electrical activity. However, Ano1 is expressed in all classes of ICC, including those that do not generate slow waves suggesting that Ano1 may have other functions. Indeed, a role for Ano1 in regulating proliferation of tumors and ICC has been recently suggested. Recently, a high-throughput screen identified a small molecule, T16Ainh-A01 as a specific inhibitor of Ano1. Aim To investigate the effect of the T16Ainh-A01 inhibitor on proliferation in ICC and in the Ano1-expressing human pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1. Methods Inhibition of Ano1 was demonstrated by whole cell voltage clamp recordings of currents in cells transfected with full-length human Ano1. The effect of T16Ainh-A01 on ICC proliferation was examined in situ in organotypic cultures of intact mouse small intestinal smooth muscle strips and in primary cell cultures prepared from these tissues. ICC were identified by Kit immunoreactivity. Proliferating ICC and CFPAC-1 cells were identified by immunoreactivity for the nuclear antigen Ki67 or EdU incorporation, respectively. Results T16Ainh-A01 inhibited Ca2+- activated Cl− currents by 60% at 10 µM in a voltage-independent fashion. Proliferation of ICC was significantly reduced in primary cultures from BALB/c mice following treatment with T16Ainh-A01. Proliferation of the CFPAC-1 human cell-line was also reduced by T16Ainh-A01. In organotypic cultures of smooth muscle strips from mouse jejunum, the proliferation of ICC was reduced but the total number of proliferating cells/confocal stack was not affected, suggesting that the inhibitory effect was specific for ICC. Conclusions The selective

  19. Analysis of hospital admissions due to accidental non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisoning in England, between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rebecca E.; Close, Rebecca; McCann, Lucy J.; Crabbe, Helen; Garwood, Kevin; Hansell, Anna L.; Leonardi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Accidental non-fire-related (ANFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a cause of fatalities and hospital admissions. This is the first study that describes the characteristics of ANFR CO hospital admissions in England. Methods Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) inpatient data for England between 2001 and 2010 were used. ANFR CO poisoning admissions were defined as any mention of ICD-10 code T58: toxic effect of CO and X47: accidental poisoning by gases or vapours, excluding ICD-10 codes potentially related to fires (X00-X09, T20-T32 and Y26). Results There were 2463 ANFR CO admissions over the 10-year period (annual rate: 0.49/100 000); these comprised just under half (48.7%) of all non-fire-related (accidental and non-accidental) CO admissions. There was seasonal variability, with more admissions in colder winter months. Higher admission rates were observed in the north of England. Just over half (53%) of ANFR admissions were male, and the highest rates of ANFR admissions were in those aged >80 years. Conclusion The burden of ANFR CO poisoning is preventable. The results of this study suggest an appreciable burden of CO and highlight differences that may aid targeting of public health interventions. PMID:25755248

  20. Analysis of hospital admissions due to accidental non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisoning in England, between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rebecca E; Close, Rebecca; McCann, Lucy J; Crabbe, Helen; Garwood, Kevin; Hansell, Anna L; Leonardi, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Accidental non-fire-related (ANFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a cause of fatalities and hospital admissions. This is the first study that describes the characteristics of ANFR CO hospital admissions in England. Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) inpatient data for England between 2001 and 2010 were used. ANFR CO poisoning admissions were defined as any mention of ICD-10 code T58: toxic effect of CO and X47: accidental poisoning by gases or vapours, excluding ICD-10 codes potentially related to fires (X00-X09, T20-T32 and Y26). There were 2463 ANFR CO admissions over the 10-year period (annual rate: 0.49/100 000); these comprised just under half (48.7%) of all non-fire-related (accidental and non-accidental) CO admissions. There was seasonal variability, with more admissions in colder winter months. Higher admission rates were observed in the north of England. Just over half (53%) of ANFR admissions were male, and the highest rates of ANFR admissions were in those aged >80 years. The burden of ANFR CO poisoning is preventable. The results of this study suggest an appreciable burden of CO and highlight differences that may aid targeting of public health interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  1. Accidental oil spill due to grounding: Summary of model test results. Summary report, Jan-Jun 92

    SciTech Connect

    Karafiath, G.

    1992-06-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) sponsored model tests to help in their evaluation of accidental oil spillage from a Mid-Deck Tanker (MDT) and from a Double Hull Tanker (DHT) Design. These tests were conducted at Tsukuba Institute, Japan, and at the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center. The test results are explained herein and their significance is summarized.

  2. Ocular and cerebral trauma in non-accidental injury in infancy: underlying mechanisms and implications for paediatric practice.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M A; Lieberman, G; Milroy, C M; Parsons, M A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the sites, mechanisms, and clinical significance of injuries to the eyes and brains of children with non-accidental injuries in relation to differing levels of trauma. METHODS: A forensic pathological study of injuries in the eyes and brains of 23 consecutive children dying of non-accidental injuries over a 4 year period (1988-92) under the jurisdiction of Yorkshire and Humberside coroners. RESULTS: Sixteen children died from cerebral injuries and seven died from non-cerebral causes. There were high incidences of retinal detachment (63%) and subhyaloid (75%), intraretinal (75%), and perineural (68%) haemorrhages in CNS deaths. Local subhyaloid haemorrhages and retinal detachment were more common at the periphery and optic disc than at the equator. There was a strong correlation between CNS and eye trauma scores in all 23 children (r = 0.7551, p < 0.0001). Ranking of injuries by severity suggests progressively more trauma required for (a) subdural haemorrhage, (b) subhyaloid, intraretinal, perineural haemorrhages, and (c) retinal detachment. At highest trauma levels choroidal and vitreous haemorrhages were associated with additional cerebral lacerations, intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhages. CONCLUSIONS: In non-accidental (and probably accidental) infantile head injury the earliest eye injuries (coinciding with subdural haemorrhage) could be missed if indirect ophthalmoscopy is not performed. Retinal detachment and multiple (particularly choroidal/vitreous) haemorrhages may indicate additional cerebral lacerations and/or intracerebral haemorrhage. Vitreous traction is the likely cause of intraocular pathology. PMID:8703874

  3. Ambient temperature and risk of death from accidental drug overdose in New York City, 1990-2006.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Amy S B; Prescott, Marta R; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Galea, Sandro

    2010-06-01

    Mortality increases as ambient temperature increases. Because cocaine affects core body temperature, ambient temperature may play a role in cocaine-related mortality in particular. The present study examined the association between ambient temperature and fatal overdoses over time in New York City. Mortality data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for 1990 to 2006, and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. We used generalized additive models to test the relationship between weekly average temperatures and counts of accidental overdose deaths in New York City, controlling for year and average length of daylight hours. We found a significant relation between ambient temperature and accidental overdose fatality for all models where the overdoses were due in whole or in part to cocaine (all P < 0.05), but not for non-cocaine overdoses. Risk of accidental overdose deaths increased for weeks when the average temperature was above 24 degrees Celsius. These results suggest a strong relation between temperature and accidental overdose mortality that is driven by cocaine-related overdoses rising at temperatures above 24 degrees Celsius; this is a substantially lower temperature than prior estimates. To put this into perspective, approximately 7 weeks a year between 1990 and 2006 had an average weekly temperature of 24 or above in New York City. Heat-related mortality presents a considerable public health concern, and cocaine users constitute a high-risk group.

  4. Ambient temperature and risk of death from accidental drug overdose in New York City, 1990-2006

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Prescott, Marta; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mortality increases as ambient temperature increases. Because cocaine affects core body temperature, ambient temperature may play a role in cocaine-related mortality in particular. The present study examined the association between ambient temperature and fatal overdoses over time in New York City (NYC). Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for 1990 through 2006, and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. We used Generalized Additive Models to test the relationship between weekly average temperatures and counts of accidental overdose deaths in NYC, controlling for year and average length of daylight hours. Results: We found a significant relation between ambient temperature and accidental overdose fatality for all models where the overdoses were due in whole or in part to cocaine (all p < 0.05), but not for non-cocaine overdoses. Risk of accidental overdose deaths increased for weeks when the average temperature was above 24 degrees Celsius. Conclusions: These results suggest a strong relation between temperature and accidental overdose mortality that is driven by cocaine-related overdoses rising at temperatures above 24 degrees Celsius; this is a substantially lower temperature than prior estimates. To put this in perspective, approximately seven weeks a year between 1990 and 2006 had an average weekly temperature of 24 or above in NYC. Heat-related mortality presents a considerable public health concern, and cocaine users constitute a high-risk group. PMID:20219056

  5. Accidental degeneracy in photonic bands and topological phase transitions in two-dimensional core-shell dielectric photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-08

    A simple core-shell two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied where the triangular lattice symmetry and the C6 point group symmetry give rich physics in accidental touching points of photonic bands. We systematically evaluate different types of accidental nodal points at the Brillouin zone center for transverse-magnetic harmonic modes when the geometry and permittivity of the core-shell material are continuously tuned. The accidental nodal points can have different dispersions and topological properties (i.e., Berry phases). These accidental nodal points can be the critical states lying between a topological phase and a normal phase of the photonic crystal. They are thus very important for the study of topological photonic states. We show that, without breaking time-reversal symmetry, by tuning the geometry of the core-shell material, a phase transition into the photonic quantum spin Hall insulator can be achieved. Here the "spin" is defined as the orbital angular momentum of a photon. We study the topological phase transition as well as the properties of the edge and bulk states and their application potentials in optics.

  6. [Radioecological situation in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3" in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)].

    PubMed

    Sobakin, P I; Gerasimov, Ya R; Chevychelov, A P; Perk, A A; Goryachenkova, T A; Novikov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of a ground walking gamma- and gamma-spectrometric survey made in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3". Patterns of migration, 137Cs, 90Sr and Pu distribution in the soil-vegetable cover of the northern taiga on permafrost are considered. Radioeco- logical situation within the territory surveyed is noted as unfavorable.

  7. [Effects of membrane protein ANO1 stable overexpression on laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-dong

    2014-02-01

    To explore the effects of ANO1 overexpression on the proliferation, detachment, spreading, and migration of laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cell line. ANO1-overexpressing Hep-2 cell line was selected as the assay group, and Hep-2 cell line with empty plasmid was selected as the control group. MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation abilities of Hep-2 cells in both two groups. Cell detachment assay and spreading assay were used to detect the detachment and spreading abilities of Hep-2 cells. Boyden chamber invasion assay, wound healing assay in vitro, and niflumic acid block chloride channel were used to detect the migration abilities of Hep-2 cells. All data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 software package. Cell proliferation assay by MTT showed that, compared with the control group, the optical density value of assay group was not significantly different (P=0.62). The results of cell detachment assay and cell spreading assay showed the cell detachment rates and cell spreading rates in assay group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.0001). The results of Boyden chamber invasion assay showed the percentages of cells migrating through the membrane in assay group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.0001). The results of in vitro wound healing experiments showed the wound area rate in assay group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.0001). The results of niflumic acid blocking chloride channel experiments showed the wound area rates in assay group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.0001). ANO1 overexpression does not remarkably alter the proliferation rate of cancer cells, but increases the migration, spreading, and detachment capacities of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. ANOS1: a unified nomenclature for Kallmann syndrome 1 gene (KAL1) and anosmin-1.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Fernando; Seal, Ruth; Maggi, Roberto

    2016-11-29

    It is accepted that confusion regarding the description of genetic variants occurs when researchers do not use standard nomenclature. The Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature Committee contacted a panel of consultants, all working on the KAL1 gene, to propose an update of the nomenclature of the gene, as there was a convention in the literature of using the 'KAL1' symbol, when referring to the gene, but using the name 'anosmin-1' when referring to the protein. The new name, ANOS1, reflects protein name and is more transferrable across species.

  9. Reducing Accidental Dislodgement of the Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy: A Prospective Trial of the "SafetyBreak" Device.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Guidry, Christopher A; Davis, John P; Hranjec, Tjasa; Johnston, Vonda K; Wages, Nolan A; Watson, Christopher M; Sawyer, Robert G

    2016-02-01

    The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a ubiquitous feeding tube with high rates of accidental dislodgement, with significant morbidity and health care costs. We hypothesized use of a decoupling device is a safe and effective mechanism to reduce dislodgements. We studied a prospective cohort of 100 patients from an academic center. Enrollment included patients requiring PEG tube placement with follow up extending through an individual's lifetime use of their PEG tube. The primary endpoint was accidental dislodgement of the principally placed PEG tube. The secondary endpoint was time to accidental dislodgement of the PEG tube. All 100 patients received the SafetyBreak device and had complete follow-up. Half of the patients had at least a single episode of device decoupling, indicating prevention of dislodgement of the PEG. Eight patients ultimately had dislodgement, resulting in a significantly lower dislodgement rate when compared with a historical cohort (P = .036) and significantly longer survival of the PEG (log rank = 0.005). When compared with a concurrent cohort (without the device) there was also significantly lower dislodgement rate (P = .03) and a trend toward longer survival of the PEG (log rank = 0.08). When compared with both a historical and concurrent cohort of patients, the SafetyBreak device reduces accidental dislodgement of PEG tubes. As an increasing number of PEGs are being placed, an increasing number of patients are at risk for dislodgement. The SafetyBreak device is an innovative, economical solution to the problem of accidental dislodgement of the PEG tube. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Statistical discrimination of footwear: a method for the comparison of accidentals on shoe outsoles inspired by facial recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Petraco, Nicholas D K; Gambino, Carol; Kubic, Thomas A; Olivio, Dayhana; Petraco, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    In the field of forensic footwear examination, it is a widely held belief that patterns of accidental marks found on footwear and footwear impressions possess a high degree of "uniqueness." This belief, however, has not been thoroughly studied in a numerical way using controlled experiments. As a result, this form of valuable physical evidence has been the subject of admissibility challenges. In this study, we apply statistical techniques used in facial pattern recognition, to a minimal set of information gleaned from accidental patterns. That is, in order to maximize the amount of potential similarity between patterns, we only use the coordinate locations of accidental marks (on the top portion of a footwear impression) to characterize the entire pattern. This allows us to numerically gauge how similar two patterns are to one another in a worst-case scenario, i.e., in the absence of a tremendous amount of information normally available to the footwear examiner such as accidental mark size and shape. The patterns were recorded from the top portion of the shoe soles (i.e., not the heel) of five shoe pairs. All shoes were the same make and model and all were worn by the same person for a period of 30 days. We found that in 20-30 dimensional principal component (PC) space (99.5% variance retained), patterns from the same shoe, even at different points in time, tended to cluster closer to each other than patterns from different shoes. Correct shoe identification rates using maximum likelihood linear classification analysis and the hold-one-out procedure ranged from 81% to 100%. Although low in variance, three-dimensional PC plots were made and generally corroborated the findings in the much higher dimensional PC-space. This study is intended to be a starting point for future research to build statistical models on the formation and evolution of accidental patterns.

  11. [Establishment of a nursing-driven sedation protocol: effect on the sedation level and accidental withdrawal of tubes and catheters].

    PubMed

    Arias-Rivera, S; Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Sánchez-Izquierdo, R; Gallardo-Murillo, M J; Santos-Díaz, R I; Frutos-Vivar, F

    2008-01-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients require sedation during ventilatory support. Our study has aimed to determine if the effects on the sedation level of a nursing-driven sedation protocol has any influence in the accidental removal of tubes and catheters. A quasi-experimental intervention study was performed in a medical-surgical intensive care unit. A 17-month pre-intervention observational period was followed by a 17-month intervention period where a nursing-driven sedation protocol based on the Glasgow Coma Score modified by Cook and Palma was implemented. In both periods, we registered the accidental removals of endotracheal tube, nasogastric tube, urinary catheter and intravascular catheters. A total of 176 patients (age: 65 +/- 17 years; SAPS II: 43 +/- 14) were included in the observation period and 189 patients (age: 65 +/- 15 years; SAPS II: 40 +/- 13) in the intervention period. In second period, the percentage of patients excessively sedated decreased (20% vs. 41%; p = 0.001) and the percentage of patients with optimal sedation increased (53% vs. 35%; p < 0.001). The rate of accidental removals of enteral tubes in the first period was 15.8 per 1,000 tube-days vs. 5.6 in the second period (p = 0.001). No accidental removal of intravascular catheters was found in the second period vs. a rate of 2.6 central venous catheters per 1,000 catheter-days and a rate of 3.4 intra-arterial catheters per 1,000 catheter-days during the first period. Implementation of a nursing-driven sedation protocol increases the percentage of patients with an optimal sedation and decreases the incidence of accidental removal of tubes and catheters.

  12. The Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, ANO1 (TMEM16A), is a double-edged sword in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhiqiang; Yao, Weicheng; Yao, Ruyong; Liu, Xiangping; Yu, Kuai; Hartzell, Criss

    2014-01-01

    Since anoctamin 1 ANO1 (TMEM16A) was found to be a molecular component of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels, its role in tumorigenesis has gained attention at a fast pace. ANO1 overexpression frequently occurs in the cancer tissues along with 11q13 chromosome amplification. Poor prognosis of many types of cancers has been closely correlated with ANO1 gene amplification and protein overexpression. ANO1 is now considered an excellent biomarker for certain cancers. Recent research suggests that it is the channel function of ANO1 that is involved in the tumorigenesis. However, how the overexpression of the functional ANO1 causes malignant transformation of tissues via signaling pathways, for example, MAPK remains to be investigated. Clarification of the reasons in future will avail to make ANO1 as a target for cancer treatment. PMID:24639373

  13. The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel ANO1/TMEM16A regulates primary ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruppersburg, Chelsey Chandler; Hartzell, H Criss

    2014-06-01

    Many cells possess a single, nonmotile, primary cilium highly enriched in receptors and sensory transduction machinery that plays crucial roles in cellular morphogenesis. Although sensory transduction requires ion channels, relatively little is known about ion channels in the primary cilium (with the exception of TRPP2). Here we show that the Ca(2+)-activated Cl ((-)) channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A) is located in the primary cilium and that blocking its channel function pharmacologically or knocking it down with short hairpin RNA interferes with ciliogenesis. Before ciliogenesis, the channel becomes organized into a torus-shaped structure ("the nimbus") enriched in proteins required for ciliogenesis, including the small GTPases Cdc42 and Arl13b and the exocyst complex component Sec6. The nimbus excludes F-actin and coincides with a ring of acetylated microtubules. The nimbus appears to form before, or independent of, apical docking of the mother centriole. Our data support a model in which the nimbus provides a scaffold for staging of ciliary components for assembly very early in ciliogenesis and chloride transport by ANO1/TMEM16A is required for the genesis or maintenance of primary cilia.

  14. Comparing Ksharasutra (Ayurvedic Seton) and open fistulotomy in the management of fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Gouranga; Bain, Jayanta; Ray, Ajay Kumar; Dey, Soumedhik; Das, Nandini; Das, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    Most commonly practiced surgical "lay open" technique to treat fistula-in-ano (a common anorectal pathology) has high rate of recurrence and anal incontinence. Alternatively, a nonsurgical cost efficient treatment with Ksharasutra (cotton Seton coated with Ayurvedic medicines) has minimal complications. In our study, we have tried to compare these two techniques. A prospective randomized control study was designed involving patients referred to the Department of General Surgery in RG Kar Medical College, Kolkata, India, from January 2010 to September 2011. Among 50 patients, 26 were in Ksharasutra and 24 were in fistulotomy group. 86% patients were male and 54% of the patients were in the fourth decade. About 74% fistulas are inter-sphincteric and 26% were of trans-sphincteric variety. Severe postoperative pain was more (7.7% vs. 25%) in fistulotomy group, while wound discharge was more associated with Ksharasutra group (15.3% vs. 8.3%). Wound scarring, bleeding, and infection rate were similar in both groups. Ksharasutra group took more time to heal (mean: 53 vs. 35.7 days, P = 0.002) despite reduced disruption to their routine work (2.7 vs. 15.5 days work off, P <0.001). Interestingly, pain experienced was less in Ksharasutra group, there was no open wound in contrast to fistulotomy and it was significantly cost effective (Rupees 166 vs. 464). Treatment of fistula-in-ano with Ksharasutra is a simple with low complications and minimal cost.

  15. Ano1, a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, coordinates contractility in mouse intestine by Ca2+ transient coordination between interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raman Deep; Gibbons, Simon J; Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Du, Peng; Hennig, Grant W; Eisenman, Seth T; Mazzone, Amelia; Hayashi, Yujiro; Cao, Chike; Stoltz, Gary J; Ordog, Tamas; Rock, Jason R; Harfe, Brian D; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells that generate electrical activity to drive contractility in the gastrointestinal tract via ion channels. Ano1 (Tmem16a), a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, is an ion channel expressed in ICC. Genetic deletion of Ano1 in mice resulted in loss of slow waves in smooth muscle of small intestine. In this study, we show that Ano1 is required to maintain coordinated Ca2+ transients between myenteric ICC (ICC-MY) of small intestine. First, we found spontaneous Ca2+ transients in ICC-MY in both Ano1 WT and knockout (KO) mice. However, Ca2+ transients within the ICC-MY network in Ano1 KO mice were uncoordinated, while ICC-MY Ca2+ transients in Ano1 WT mice were rhythmic and coordinated. To confirm the role of Ano1 in the loss of Ca2+ transient coordination, we used pharmacological inhibitors of Ano1 activity and shRNA-mediated knock down of Ano1 expression in organotypic cultures of Ano1 WT small intestine. Coordinated Ca2+ transients became uncoordinated using both these approaches, supporting the conclusion that Ano1 is required to maintain coordination/rhythmicity of Ca2+ transients. We next determined the effect on smooth muscle contractility using spatiotemporal maps of contractile activity in Ano1 KO and WT tissues. Significantly decreased contractility that appeared to be non-rhythmic and uncoordinated was observed in Ano1 KO jejunum. In conclusion, Ano1 has a previously unidentified role in the regulation of coordinated gastrointestinal smooth muscle function through coordination of Ca2+ transients in ICC-MY. PMID:25063822

  16. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was

  17. Improving Prediction of Suicide and Accidental Death After Discharge From General Hospitals With Natural Language Processing.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Thomas H; Castro, Victor M; Roberson, Ashlee M; Snapper, Leslie A; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-10-01

    Suicide represents the 10th leading cause of death across age groups in the United States (12.6 cases per 100 000) and remains challenging to predict. While many individuals who die by suicide are seen by physicians before their attempt, they may not seek psychiatric care. To determine the extent to which incorporating natural language processing of narrative discharge notes improves stratification of risk for death by suicide after medical or surgical hospital discharge. In this retrospective health care use study, clinical data were analyzed from individuals with discharges from 2 large academic medical centers between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2013. The primary outcome was suicide as a reported cause of death based on Massachusetts Department of Public Health records. Regression models for prediction of death by suicide or accidental death were compared relying solely on coded clinical data and those using natural language processing of hospital discharge notes. There were 845 417 hospital discharges represented in the cohort, including 458 053 unique individuals. Overall, all-cause mortality was 18% during 9 years, and the median follow-up was 5.2 years. The cohort included 235 (0.1%) who died by suicide during 2.4 million patient-years of follow-up. Positive valence reflected in narrative notes was associated with a 30% reduction in risk for suicide in models adjusted for coded sociodemographic and clinical features (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58-0.85; P < .001) and improved model fit (χ22 = 14.843, P < .001 by log-likelihood test). The C statistic was 0.741 (95% CI, 0.738-0.744) for models of suicide with or without inclusion of accidental death. Multiple clinical features available at hospital discharge identified a cohort of individuals at substantially increased risk for suicide. Greater positive valence expressed in narrative discharge summaries was associated with substantially diminished risk. Automated tools to aid

  18. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was

  19. International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Sleepiness and Accidental Risk in 36140 Regularly Registered Highway Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Taillard, Jacques; Canel, Annick; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder that increases accidental risk. Recent studies show that some patients with ADHD can also suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness but there are no data assessing the role of sleepiness in road safety in patients with ADHD. We conducted an epidemiological study to explore sleep complaints, inattention and driving risks among automobile drivers. Methods and Findings From August to September 2014, 491186 regular highway users were invited to participate in an Internet survey on driving habits. 36140 drivers answered a questionnaire exploring driving risks, sleep complaints, sleepiness at the wheel, ADHD symptoms (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and distraction at the wheel. 1.7% of all drivers reported inattention-related driving accidents and 0.3% sleep-related driving accidents in the previous year. 1543 drivers (4.3%) reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to report accidents than drivers without ADHD symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.24, [1.03–1.51], p < .021). 14.2% of drivers with ADHD symptoms reported severe excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale >15) versus 3.2% of drivers without ADHD symptoms and 20.5% reported severe sleepiness at the wheel versus 7.3%. Drivers with ADHD symptoms reported significantly more sleep-related (adjusted OR = 1.4, [1.21–1.60], p < .0001) and inattention-related (adjusted OR = 1.9, [1.71–2.14], p<0001) near misses than drivers without ADHD symptoms. The fraction of near-misses attributable to severe sleepiness at the wheel was 4.24% for drivers without ADHD symptoms versus 10,35% for drivers with ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Our study shows that drivers with ADHD symptoms have more accidents and a higher level of sleepiness at the wheel than drivers without ADHD symptoms. Drivers with ADHD symptoms report more sleep-related and inattention-related near misses, thus confirming the clinical importance of exploring both

  1. Plutino (15810) 1994 JR1, an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2012-11-01

    In the Solar system, quasi-satellites move in a 1:1 mean motion resonance going around their host body like a retrograde satellite but their mutual separation is well beyond the Hill radius and the trajectory is not closed as they orbit the Sun, not the host body. Although they share the semi-major axis and the mean longitude of their host body, their eccentricity and inclination may be very different. So far, minor bodies temporarily trapped in the quasi-satellite dynamical state have been identified around Venus, the Earth, the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the large asteroid (4) Vesta, Jupiter and Saturn. Using computer simulations, Tiscareno & Malhotra have predicted the existence of a small but significant population of minor bodies moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto. Here we show using N-body calculations that the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 is currently an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto and it will remain as such for nearly 350 000 years. By accidental we mean that the quasi-satellite phase is triggered (or terminated) not by a direct gravitational influence in the form of a discrete close encounter, but as a result of a resonance. The relative mean longitude of the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 circulates with a superimposed libration resulting from the oscillation of the orbital period induced by the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. These quasi-satellite episodes are recurrent with a periodicity of nearly 2 Myr. This makes the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 the first minor body moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto and the first quasi-satellite found in the trans-Neptunian region. It also makes Pluto the second dwarf planet, besides Ceres, to host a quasi-satellite. Our finding confirms that the quasi-satellite resonant phase is not restricted to small bodies orbiting major planets but is possible for dwarf planets/asteroids too. Moreover, the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 could be considered as a possible secondary target for NASA's Pluto

  2. [The short-term effect of temperature on non-accidental mortality in Guangzhou, Changsha and Kunming].

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiyan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Tao; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Luo, Yuan; Xu, Yanjun; Xu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    To explore the relationship between temperature and non-accidental mortality in Guangzhou, Changsha and Kunming;to evaluate the temperature-related risk of mortality; and thereby to provide scientific evidence for enacting the policy to tackle climate changes. Daily meteorology data and mortality data were collected in 2006-2009 in Guangzhou, Changsha and Kunming. Distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was established and applied in a case-crossover design, which controlled the secular trend of time, to estimate the specified effects of temperature on non-accidental mortality at conditions of lag 0-2, lag 0-18 and lag 0-27 days, respectively. An obvious seasonal periodicity was found in non-accidental mortality in Guangzhou, Changsha and Kunming during 2006-2009. The mortality number was comparatively high in the winters, and some high temperature days in summer; but was comparatively low in springs and autumn. An L-shaped relationship was found between temperature and mortality in Guangzhou and Kunming and a U-shaped relationship was found in Changsha. When daily mean temperature exceeded 28.2 °C, 24.5°C and 23.2°C, as average temperature increase 1°C, non-accidental mortality increased 4.56% (95%CI:2.74%-6.63%), 5.66% (95%CI:0.22%-12.65%) , -3.94% (95%CI:-32.77%-39.01%) , respectively; when daily mean temperature below 24.8°C, 20.0°C and 17.3°C, as average temperature decrease 1°C, the corresponding increase in non-accidental mortality were 3.28% (95%CI:2.41%-4.10%) (lag 0-18 days), 1.35% (95%CI:0.31%-1.77%) (lag 0-2 days) and 2.42% (95%CI:1.08%-3.27%) (lag 0-27 days) , respectively. The effects of hot weather were acute and short term; while the effects of cold weather had a several days delay, but a longer persistence. Extreme cold and hot temperature could increase the risk of non-accidental mortality in Guangzhou, Changsha and Kunming. The effects of cold weather had a several days delay, but a longer persistence.

  3. Three novel ANO5 missense mutations in Caucasian and Chinese families and sporadic cases with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lingling; Liu, Yi; Sun, Fanyue; Collins, Michael T.; Blackwell, Keith; Woo, Albert S.; Reichenberger, Ernst J.; Hu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD; MIM#166260) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with characteristic cemento-osseous lesions of jawbones, bone fragility, and diaphyseal sclerosis of tubular bones. To date, only five mutations in the proposed calcium-activated chloride channel ANO5/TMEM16E gene have been identified. In this study, we describe two families and two singular patients with three new mutations. One Caucasian family with seven affected members exhibited frequent bone fractures and florid osseous dysplasia (p.Cys356Tyr), while one Chinese family with two affected members suffered from cementoma and purulent osteomyelitis (p.Cys360Tyr). In addition, two different novel mutations (p.Gly518Glu and p.Arg215Gly) were identified in sporadic patients without family history. In vitro studies overexpressing GDD mutations (p.Cys356Tyr and p.Cys360Tyr) showed significantly reduced ANO5 protein. It appears that all GDD mutations known so far locate in an extracellular domain following the first transmembrane domain or in the 4th putative transmembrane domain. Both wild-type and mutant ANO5 protein localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. After Ano5 gene knock-down with shRNA in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast precursors we saw elevated expression of osteoblast-related genes such as Col1a1, osteocalcin, osterix and Runx2 as well as increased mineral nodule formation in differentiating cells. Our data suggest that ANO5 plays a role in osteoblast differentiation. PMID:28176803

  4. Mapping of long-range INS promoter interactions reveals a role for calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixiong; Lefevre, Gaelle M; Gavrilova, Oksana; Foster St Claire, Mark B; Riddick, Gregory; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2014-11-25

    We used circular chromatin conformation capture (4C) to identify a physical contact in human pancreatic islets between the region near the insulin (INS) promoter and the ANO1 gene, lying 68 Mb away on human chromosome 11, which encodes a Ca(2+)-dependent chloride ion channel. In response to glucose, this contact was strengthened and ANO1 expression increased, whereas inhibition of INS gene transcription by INS promoter targeting siRNA decreased ANO1 expression, revealing a regulatory effect of INS promoter on ANO1 expression. Knockdown of ANO1 expression caused decreased insulin secretion in human islets, establishing a physical proximity-dependent feedback loop involving INS transcription, ANO1 expression, and insulin secretion. To explore a possible role of ANO1 in insulin metabolism, we carried out experiments in Ano1(+/-) mice. We observed reduced serum insulin levels and insulin-to-glucose ratios in high-fat diet-fed Ano1(+/-) mice relative to Ano1(+/+) mice fed the same diet. Our results show that determination of long-range contacts within the nucleus can be used to detect novel and physiologically relevant mechanisms. They also show that networks of long-range physical contacts are important to the regulation of insulin metabolism.

  5. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  6. Mapping of long-range INS promoter interactions reveals a role for calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 in insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhixiong; Lefevre, Gaelle M.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Foster St. Claire, Mark B.; Riddick, Gregory; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2014-01-01

    We used circular chromatin conformation capture (4C) to identify a physical contact in human pancreatic islets between the region near the insulin (INS) promoter and the ANO1 gene, lying 68 Mb away on human chromosome 11, which encodes a Ca2+-dependent chloride ion channel. In response to glucose, this contact was strengthened and ANO1 expression increased, whereas inhibition of INS gene transcription by INS promoter targeting siRNA decreased ANO1 expression, revealing a regulatory effect of INS promoter on ANO1 expression. Knockdown of ANO1 expression caused decreased insulin secretion in human islets, establishing a physical proximity-dependent feedback loop involving INS transcription, ANO1 expression, and insulin secretion. To explore a possible role of ANO1 in insulin metabolism, we carried out experiments in Ano1+/− mice. We observed reduced serum insulin levels and insulin-to-glucose ratios in high-fat diet–fed Ano1+/− mice relative to Ano1+/+ mice fed the same diet. Our results show that determination of long-range contacts within the nucleus can be used to detect novel and physiologically relevant mechanisms. They also show that networks of long-range physical contacts are important to the regulation of insulin metabolism. PMID:25385647

  7. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.

  8. Fistula Plug in Fistulising Ano-Perineal Crohn's Disease: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Senéjoux, A; Siproudhis, L; Abramowitz, L; Munoz-Bongrand, N; Desseaux, K; Bouguen, G; Bourreille, A; Dewit, O; Stefanescu, C; Vernier, G; Louis, E; Grimaud, J C; Godart, B; Savoye, G; Hebuterne, X; Bauer, P; Nachury, M; Laharie, D; Chevret, S; Bouhnik, Y

    2016-02-01

    Anal fistula plug [AFP] is a bioabsorbable bioprosthesis used in ano-perineal fistula treatment. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of AFP in fistulising ano-perineal Crohn's disease [FAP-CD]. In a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial we compared seton removal alone [control group] with AFP insertion [AFP group] in 106 Crohn's disease patients with non- or mildly active disease having at least one ano-perineal fistula tract drained for more than 1 month. Patients with abscess [collection ≥ 3mm on magnetic resonance imaging or recto-vaginal fistulas were excluded. Randomisation was stratified in simple or complex fistulas according to AGA classification. Primary end point was fistula closure at Week 12. In all, 54 patients were randomised to AFP group [control group 52]. Median fistula duration was 23 [10-53] months. Median Crohn's Disease Activity Index at baseline was 81 [45-135]. Fistula closure at Week 12 was achieved in 31.5% patients in the AFP group and in 23.1 % in the control group (relative risk [RR] stratified on AGA classification: 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 0.59-4.02; p = 0.19). No interaction in treatment effect with complexity stratum was found; 33.3% of patients with complex fistula and 30.8% of patients with simple fistula closed the tracts after AFP, as compared with 15.4% and 25.6% in controls, respectively [RR of success = 2.17 in complex fistula vs RR = 1.20 in simple fistula; p = 0.45]. Concerning safety, at Week 12, 17 patients developed at least one adverse event in the AFP group vs 8 in the controls [p = 0.07]. AFP is not more effective than seton removal alone to achieve FAP-CD closure. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Modular condenser replacement at ANO-1 solves operating problems and improves performance

    SciTech Connect

    Edgell, D.; Davidian, A.

    1999-07-01

    After 22 years of operation, the condenser tube bundles and waterboxes at Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1 (ANO-1) had deteriorated significantly, impairing operating performance, reducing condenser reliability and increasing maintenance cost. An extensive condition assessment performed in 1995 revealed a 34% wall loss on the original Admiralty tubing and an erosion rate of 1.7% annually. Additionally, Arkansas Nuclear One was considering an 8% power uprate, which would place additional duty on the main condenser. As a result, it was decided to completely reconstruct the four condenser tube bundles serving the two low-pressure turbines at Arkansas Nuclear One. An evaluation of the available condenser tube materials was performed to determine which material was best suited for service in the single pass, single pressure condenser at ANO-1. All copper based materials were excluded from consideration due to the detrimental effect copper has on secondary chemistry and more specifically steam generator integrity. Titanium and a variety of stainless steel materials were evaluated, and ultimately titanium was selected as the replacement condenser tube material for the rebuilt condenser tube bundles due primarily to its corrosion resistance and extensive operating experience in condenser service. An impressed current cathodic protection system and epoxy waterbox coating was also installed to prevent galvanic corrosion of the carbon steel waterboxes. The cathodic protection system included local alarm indication to alert plant operating staff of any system malfunction that could result in titanium hydrating. A comparison of the heat transfer characteristics of the existing condenser design with Admiralty tubes and a new tube bundle design with titanium tubes concluded that a new tube bundle design was required to optimize the condenser performance and accommodate the anticipated 8% power uprate. This paper will discuss the condenser optimization program from the design state to

  10. Geothermal power production: accidental fluid releases, waste disposal, and water use

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Morris, W.F.

    1980-06-01

    Environmental problems related to the use and disposal of fluids can accompany the operation of geothermal power plants using hot water resources (temperature > 150/sup 0/C). More than 100 kg of fluids must be extracted, processed, and disposed for each kW.h of electricity generated from a facility relying on a geothermal reservoir with fluids of 150/sup 0/C. The low thermal efficiencies of geothermal power plants result in large requirements for cooling water - over 7.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y compared with 1.7 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y for coal-fired plants. Geothermal fluids can contain as much as 250,000 mg/1 total dissolved solids. Toxic substances like boron and NH/sub 3/ are often present in fluids. This paper focuses on impacts associated with accidental releases of geothermal fluids as well as the disposal of liquid and solid wastes. The consequences of consuming alternative sources of cooling water are also addressed. Inadvertent discharges of fluids are of concern because they could contaminate soils and surface waters, adversely affecting crops and aquatic organisms. The pretreatment of fluids before subsurface injection could lead to solid waste problems - especially when toxic substances are produced. The consumption of alternative cooling waters can pose problems involving the disposal of blowdown from cooling towers. In addition, the toxicity of drift emitted from cooling towers depends on the kind of cooling water used.

  11. The review of autopsy cases of accidental childhood deaths in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Yayci, Nesime; Pakis, Isil; Karapirli, Mustafa; Celik, Sefa; Uysal, Cem; Polat, Oguz

    2011-08-01

    Children are at increased risk for various causes of injury from accidents. Accidents are, by far, the leading cause of death among children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lethal childhood accidents in İstanbul by age groups. Reports of autopsies performed between 2001 and 2005 in the Morgue Department of the Council of Forensic. Medicine in Istanbul (n :16853) are examined retrospectively. 833 deaths from accidents in children aged 0-18 years are investigated into the study. The parameters of age, gender, types of accidents and causes of death are evaluated. The accidents account for 47.3% of the deaths among children aged 0-18 years. Of 833 cases, 601 (73%) are male and 232 (27%) are female. The female to male ratio is 1/2.6. The highest rate of death from accidents is at the group of 15-18 years. The primary causes of accidental childhood deaths are motor vehicle accidents (23.1%), followed by drowning (20,1%), poisoning (15.7%), and fall from height (15.5%). The incidence and types of trauma vary with socio-economic status and culture. İstanbul, where this study is conducted in, has approximately 3000 autopsy number annually. Therefore, it provides an important database. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-06-05

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their temperature high for a substantial amount of time, even under the most extreme environmental conditions. We also considered two disease states that highlight the spectrum of possible pathologies implicated in thermal regulation of the human body. These states are (i) cardiomyopathy, which affects the operating capacity of the heart, and (ii) malnutrition, which directly impairs the body's ability to regulate heat exchange with the environment. We have found that cardiomyopathy has little influence on the thermal balance of the human body, whereas malnutrition has a profound negative effect on the thermal balance and leads to dramatic reduction in core temperature.

  13. Medical management of a potentially toxic accidental trialkylamine ingestion during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Blue, Rebecca S; Hudson, Joseph C; Rieders, Michael F; James, John T; Stepaniak, Philip C

    2013-10-01

    To reduce excessive iodine consumption by astronauts, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed various methods of removing residual iodine after iodine-based water purification aboard spacecraft. The Low Iodine Residual System (LIRS) was developed as an iodine removal system for use aboard the space shuttle. This is a case report of an accidental, potentially toxic ingestion by astronauts aboard a space shuttle mission following exposure to contaminated water from LIRS filtration and the medical response operations that followed. Astronauts ingested significant levels of trialkylamines from water that had passed through gamma-irradiated, de-iodination resin in the LIRS hardware. Medical response operations included crew evaluations, consultations with toxicologists and systems experts, hardware testing, contaminant evaluation, and close crewmember follow-up. Despite the significant ingestion there were no adverse clinical symptoms in any of the exposed astronauts; however, the case highlights a simple pitfall in the classification of hardware that ultimately lead to a potentially harmful toxic ingestion among the crewmembers, and the real-time response of medical personnel to ensure crew safety.

  14. [Non-accidental injuries in childhood and the nature of their appearance].

    PubMed

    Eberl, R; Huber-Zeyringer, A; Curcic, N; Höllwarth, M E

    2010-02-01

    Child abuse has been the leading cause of death in pediatric patients for a long time. The subject is complex in its etiology, appearance, consequences and prognosis. To be confronted with the patient is emotional. Inpatient treatment at a pediatric centre should be performed in any suspicious cases of non-accidental injury. The child protection group consists of one pediatric specialist as well as four ward physicians, one psychotherapist, two staff nurses and one graduated social worker. The team's aims are the early detection of violence towards children, the safeguarding of child protection policies and the provision of family centred, interdisciplinary treatment. During a 6-year period (2001-2006) 476 children were treated at our department. Cruelty was found in 47%, sexual abuse in 28% and willful neglect in 25%. Only 12% of the patients presented obvious injuries. In 88% secondary symptoms resulted in the correct diagnosis. Child protection groups are important institutions for dealing with the complex matter of child abuse. The burden and responsibility for the single person can be reduced within the team. Medical practitioners outside the hospital may give a referral without a loss of confidence.

  15. Features of the Asynchronous Correlation between the China Coal Price Index and Coal Mining Accidental Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuecheng; Cheng, Wuyi; Luo, Sida; Luo, Yun; Ma, Chengchen; He, Tailin

    2016-01-01

    The features of the asynchronous correlation between accident indices and the factors that influence accidents can provide an effective reference for warnings of coal mining accidents. However, what are the features of this correlation? To answer this question, data from the China coal price index and the number of deaths from coal mining accidents were selected as the sample data. The fluctuation modes of the asynchronous correlation between the two data sets were defined according to the asynchronous correlation coefficients, symbolization, and sliding windows. We then built several directed and weighted network models, within which the fluctuation modes and the transformations between modes were represented by nodes and edges. Then, the features of the asynchronous correlation between these two variables could be studied from a perspective of network topology. We found that the correlation between the price index and the accidental deaths was asynchronous and fluctuating. Certain aspects, such as the key fluctuation modes, the subgroups characteristics, the transmission medium, the periodicity and transmission path length in the network, were analyzed by using complex network theory, analytical methods and spectral analysis method. These results provide a scientific reference for generating warnings for coal mining accidents based on economic indices. PMID:27902748

  16. Non-accidental Trauma Injury Patterns and Outcomes: A Single Institutional Experience.

    PubMed

    Ward, Austin; Iocono, Joseph A; Brown, Samuel; Ashley, Phillip; Draus, John M

    2015-09-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) victims account for a significant percentage of our pediatric trauma population. We sought to better understand the injury patterns and outcomes of NAT victims who were treated at our level I pediatric trauma center. Trauma registry data were used to identify NAT victims between January 2008 and December 2012. Demographic data, injury severity, hospital course, and outcomes were evaluated. One hundred and eighty-eight cases of suspected NAT were identified. Children were mostly male and white. The median age was 1.1 years; the median Injury Severity Score was 9. Traumatic brain injuries, lower extremity fractures, and skull fractures were the most common injuries. Twenty-seven per cent required medical procedures; most were performed by orthopedic surgery. Twenty-four per cent required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. The median length of stay was two days. The mortality rate was 9.6 per cent. We generated a hot spot map of our catchment area and identified areas of our state where NAT occurs at increased rates. NAT victims sustain significant morbidity and mortality. Due to the severity of injuries, pediatric trauma surgeons should be involved in the evaluation and management of these children. Much work is needed to prevent the death and disability incurred by victims of child abuse.

  17. Challenges and promises for nurse education curriculum development in Kosovo: results of an "accidental ethnography".

    PubMed

    Goepp, Julius G; Johnson, Tiesha D; Maddow, Charles L

    2008-05-01

    Kosovo's infrastructure was devastated by armed conflict through the 1990s; in 1999 a visiting inter-disciplinary team described healthcare services as being in "disarray". Several collaborative programs were initiated to enhance delivery of emergency medical (EM) services. Our inter-disciplinary team traveled to Kosovo in 2004 to evaluate EM physician education and training. A brief renewed outbreak of hostilities created a mass casualty incident. An "accidental ethnography" focused on nurse education was conducted by team members during and after the event. Results indicated low levels of professionalization of nurses as indicated by expressions of professional self-identity and self-esteem, autonomy, and submission to patriarchal attitudes. Undergraduate nurse education is restricted to a diploma program and one foreign training project, one graduate degree program exists abroad, and no national board examination exists. Nurses' social location is described as marginalized and disenfranchised, and retention of nurses is a persistent problem. Based on these observations we outline an inter-professional curriculum development program to foster professionalization of Kosovar nurses through a synthesis of participatory action research with elements of grounded theory and standard curriculum development methodologies. The collaborative, emancipatory, and empowering nature of PAR is described in the context of professionalizing nurse education programs.

  18. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-12-02

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the "source-pathway-target" in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method.

  19. Accidental Epidural Injection of Rocuronium in a Pediatric Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Accidental administration of non-epidural drugs into the epidural or subarachnoid spaces may be associated with unexpected pain, morbidity, adverse effects, increased level of care, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality. We describe a 12-month-old admitted for secondary-stage hypospadias reconstruction. General anesthesia was induced with sevofiurane and a peripheral catheter was placed. Instead of ropivacaine, rocuronium (80 mg; 6.3 mg/kg) was injected into the epidural space by the caudal route. Surgery was uneventful and was completed 160 minutes after rocuronium was given. The patient exhibited paralysis with 1 of 4 twitches to the train-of-four with some posttetanic potentiation at the end of surgery. He was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for supportive ventilation and recovery. He did not experience oxygen desaturation or hypoventilation between the time of rocuronium administration and intubation. He was hemodynamically stable, without respiratory insufficiency, and his neurologic exam was normal, without motor or sensorial block. The patient was discharged home on the morning of the first postoperative day. Clinical examination 1 week after surgery revealed no lasting sequelae from the error. PMID:27877098

  20. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  1. Accidental infection of veterinary personnel with Mycobacterium tuberculosis at necropsy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Posthaus, H; Bodmer, T; Alves, L; Oevermann, A; Schiller, I; Rhodes, S G; Zimmerli, S

    2011-05-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main cause of human tuberculosis. Infection in companion animals is mainly acquired from close contact to a diseased human patient and hence rarely diagnosed in countries with low tuberculosis incidence rates. Therefore the general awareness of the disease might be low. Here we report the potential risk of infection for veterinary personnel with M. tuberculosis during the clinical and pathological examination of a dog with unexpected disseminated tuberculosis. The dog had presented with symptoms of a central nervous system disease; rapid deterioration prevented a complete clinical workup, however. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic mycobacteriosis, and M. tuberculosis was identified by PCR amplification of DNA extracts from paraffin-embedded tissue sections and spoligotyping. Contact investigations among the owners and veterinary personnel using an IFN-γ release assay indicated that the index dog did not infect humans during its lifetime. Serological and IFN-γ release assay results of one of two cats in direct contact with the index dog, however, suggested that transmission of M. tuberculosis might have occurred. Importantly, all three pathologists performing the necropsy on the dog tested positive. Accidental infection was most likely due to inhalation of M. tuberculosis containing aerosols created by using an electric saw to open the brain cavity. As a consequence routine necropsy procedures have been adapted and a disease surveillance program, including tuberculosis, has been initiated. Our results highlight the importance of disease awareness and timely diagnosis of zoonotic infectious agents in optimizing work safety for veterinary personnel.

  2. Accidental degeneracy beats: A distinct type of beat phenomenon in nonlinear optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, K. A.; Thompson, David E.; Fayer, M. D.

    2002-02-01

    A type of beat in nonlinear optical spectroscopy that is distinct from quantum beats (QB's) and polarization beats, is described. Like a quantum beat, this beat, which we refer to as an accidental degeneracy beat (ADB), can only be seen in multilevel systems. However, unlike quantum beats, which are the result of intramolecular interferences, ADB's are interferences between different subensembles of molecules in the sample. They require multilevel systems with spectral overlap. ADB's can appear as separate frequencies or as phase and amplitude contributions with the same frequency as that of quantum beats. A procedure for distinguishing between quantum beats and ADB's is outlined, and criteria under which ADB's are expected to be observed are delineated. Calculations of the spectrally resolved stimulated vibrational echo signal from an inhomogeneously broadened coupled anharmonic oscillator system are presented to illustrate the differences between the two types of beats. ADB's carry information about the anharmonicity of a system, while QB's carry information about intramolecular correspondence of transition frequencies in a multilevel system.

  3. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-26

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  4. An accidental death due to Freon 22 (monochlorodifluoromethane) inhalation in a fishing vessel.

    PubMed

    Koreeda, Ako; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Mimasaka, Sohtarou; Ohtsu, Yuki; Tsunenari, Shigeyuki

    2007-05-24

    A case of accidental Freon 22 (monochlorodifluoromethane) poisoning in a fishing vessel is reported. Forensic autopsy revealed severe pulmonary edema and congestion (left lung; 576 g, right lung; 740 g). GC-MS analysis clearly showed that the deceased inhaled Freon 22 gas prior to his death. Freon 22 concentration was 169+/-7.0 microg/ml in the heart blood. The distribution pattern of Freon 22 in tissue samples was similar to that in previously reported cases. The brain had the highest concentration of Freon 22 followed by the spleen, liver, kidney and lung, respectively. Histopathologically, Oil red O staining of the liver showed many small, positive red areas in the cytosol, which have been reported in other cases of Freon 22 poisoning. However, Schmorl staining revealed that most areas of Oil red O positivity were lipofuscin granules. Lipofuscin in the liver, which closely relates to aging and other cell stresses, could have a relevance to Freon 22 exposure, but further experimental studies are needed to confirm it.

  5. Macular hole surgery following accidental laser injury with a military rangefinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custis, Peter H.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Zwick, Harry; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Regillo, Carl D.

    1996-04-01

    An active duty marine corps service member had bilateral full thickness macular holes induced following accidental Q-switched laser exposure from a hand held Neodymium range finder (ANGVS-5). The right eye had a large hole nasal to the fovea, while the left eye had a much smaller hole closer to the fovea centralis. Over the 18 months following the injury, the left eye demonstrated mild progressive degradation in visual function, but retained 20/20 final visual acuity. In contrast, the hole in the right eye increased in size, developed a localized retinal detachment with cystic changes in the fovea, and had atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Within 6 months after injury, acuity declined to 20/100. Macular hole surgery was performed with a goal of sealing the edges of the hole in order to allow resolution of the localized detachment and cystic changes in the fovea. In spite of surgical techniques that are generally successful in the treatment of macular holes associated with other etiologies, the fundus findings remained unchanged and visual acuity declined to 20/400. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of macular hole surgery for this condition.

  6. Features of the Asynchronous Correlation between the China Coal Price Index and Coal Mining Accidental Deaths.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuecheng; Cheng, Wuyi; Luo, Sida; Luo, Yun; Ma, Chengchen; He, Tailin

    2016-01-01

    The features of the asynchronous correlation between accident indices and the factors that influence accidents can provide an effective reference for warnings of coal mining accidents. However, what are the features of this correlation? To answer this question, data from the China coal price index and the number of deaths from coal mining accidents were selected as the sample data. The fluctuation modes of the asynchronous correlation between the two data sets were defined according to the asynchronous correlation coefficients, symbolization, and sliding windows. We then built several directed and weighted network models, within which the fluctuation modes and the transformations between modes were represented by nodes and edges. Then, the features of the asynchronous correlation between these two variables could be studied from a perspective of network topology. We found that the correlation between the price index and the accidental deaths was asynchronous and fluctuating. Certain aspects, such as the key fluctuation modes, the subgroups characteristics, the transmission medium, the periodicity and transmission path length in the network, were analyzed by using complex network theory, analytical methods and spectral analysis method. These results provide a scientific reference for generating warnings for coal mining accidents based on economic indices.

  7. Response of Microorganisms to an Accidental Gasoline Spillage in an Arctic Freshwater Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, A.; Atlas, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to “total” heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO2. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including “volatile components” at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable. PMID:879781

  8. Neuropathological changes in a lamb model of non-accidental head injury (the shaken baby syndrome).

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Turner, R J; Helps, S; Vink, R; Byard, R W; Chidlow, G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J; Anderson, R W G

    2012-08-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI), also termed the "shaken baby syndrome", is a major cause of death and severe neurological dysfunction in children under three years of age, but it is debated whether shaking alone is sufficient to produce brain injury and mortality or whether an additional head impact is required. In an attempt to resolve this question, we used a lamb model of NAHI since these animals have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling those of a human infant. Three anaesthetised lambs of lower body weight than others in the experimental group died unexpectedly after being shaken, proving that shaking alone can be lethal. In these lambs, axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction, and of much greater magnitude than in higher body weight lambs which did not die. Moreover, in the eyes of these shaken lambs, there was damage to retinal inner nuclear layer neurons, mild, patchy ganglion cell axonal injury, widespread Muller glial reaction, and uveal albumin extravasation. This study proved that shaking of a subset of lambs can result in death, without an additional head impact being required.

  9. Gastroenteritis associated with accidental contamination of drinking water with partially treated water.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, T M A; Schout, C; De Roda Husman, A M; Eilander, A; Vennema, H; van Duynhoven, Y T H P

    2007-07-01

    Due to human error, drinking water supplied to a new housing estate in The Netherlands was contaminated with grey water. The cohort of 921 accidentally exposed households (area A) had a higher attack rate for diarrhoea (54.1%) than a non-exposed cohort of 1529 households from an adjacent area (B) (24%) (RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.9-2.7). Household water score showed a dose-response with illness, in both areas A and B. For each 1000 inhabitants, 19.8 cases in area A, 7.0 cases in control area B (RRAB 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8) and 3.3 cases in a more distant control area C (RRAC 4.6, 95% CI 2.7-8.0) were diagnosed with gastroenteritis by their general practitioner. A gastroenteritis outbreak associated with consumption of contaminated drinking water was observed in the exposed area. The use of grey water was banned in 2003, with the exception of rainwater use for flushing toilets. The risk of rainwater use is currently being investigated.

  10. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  11. Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2014-08-22

    This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI.

  12. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    PubMed

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-04

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11B, and δ7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), δ11B (25-31‰) and δ7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (∼0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF.

  13. Do accidents happen accidentally? A study of trauma registry and periodical examination database.

    PubMed

    Avi, A; Yehonatan, S; Alon, S; Alexandra, H; Arieh, E

    2001-01-01

    Health profile of trauma victims might affect accident involvement. Information linking medical data to accident epidemiology is lacking. This study aims to identify health factors that increase risk of accident involvement. The Israeli Defense Forces maintains two databases: records of periodical health examination of military personnel and a trauma registry including emergency department referrals of personnel resulting from injury. We identified 5,578 subjects who were examined in the Periodical Health Examination Center and were victims of trauma. We analyzed relation between injuries and various health parameters. Results shows cigarette smoking is more frequent among the population involved in trauma (40% in motor vehicle crash, 37% in fall injury, and 31% in blunt contusion compared with 28% in Periodical Health Examination Center population not involved in trauma, p < 0.05). Odds ratio of smokers involvement in motor vehicle crash is 1.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.67, p < 0.005). Younger age is relatively more frequent among trauma victims. We conclude that cigarette smokers and younger subjects might be at greater risk of being involved in accidental injuries.

  14. Radiology in suspected non-accidental injury: theory and practice in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, R R; Kieviet, N; Hoekstra, R; Nijs, H G T; Bilo, R A C

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluates radiological imaging in suspected non accidental injury (NAI) in children below the age of 2 years in the Netherlands. The study consisted of two parts; first an on-line questionnaire on suspected NAI, amongst radiological practices within the Netherlands. The second part of the study was a retrospective analysis of skeletal surveys in children under the age of 2 years, which were reviewed in an expert centre of forensic medicine on request of the public prosecutor. Out of 116 hospitals 45 (39%) radiologists completed the on-line questionnaire; 8 (8%) of the proposed skeletal surveys complied with the ACR criteria. A total of 29 skeletal surveys in 26 children were reviewed. The median age at the time of the radiographic exam was 3 months for both boys and girls. Only 2 (7%) studies complied with the ACR criteria. The results of our study show that, in theory as well as in practice, Dutch radiological practices show a large variation in imaging protocols for suspected NAI.

  15. Socio-professional handicap and accidental risk in patients with hypersomnias of central origin.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien; Philip, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia profoundly affect quality of life, education and work. Young patients are very handicapped by unexpected sleep episodes during lessons. Professionals frequently complain about sleepiness at work. Motor discomfort (i.e., cataplectic attacks) surprisingly is less handicapping in narcoleptics than sleepiness but only a few studies clearly assess the problem. Quality of life is also largely impaired in its physical and emotional dimensions. Sleepiness is the major factor explaining a decrease of quality of life and unexpectedly cataplectic attacks have little impact on patients. Another potential problem for these patients is the risk of accidents at work or when driving. Narcoleptic and hypersomniac patients have a higher risk of accidents than apneic or insomniac subjects. But, confounding factors such as duration of driving, number of cataplectic attacks or even objective level of alertness are not always entered in the analytic models mainly because of small samples of patients. Unlike in apneic patients, the effect of treatment on accidental risk has not been studied in narcoleptics or in hypersomniacs. Epidemiological data are needed to improve knowledge concerning these areas. Clinical trials assessing the impact of treatment on driving and work are also urgently needed. Finally, medical treatment does not seem to be completely efficient and physicians should pay more attention to the education, work, life and social environment of their patients.

  16. Accidental ammonia exposure to county fair show livestock due to contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Kasten, Steve; Banerjee, Monty

    2002-10-01

    Nitrogen based fertilizers represent an important element in the farm economy, but their storage and use are associated with major risks to livestock and humans. An accidental ammonia exposure occurred at a Midwest county fair in Illinois. Six deaths occurred in show livestock; a Holstein cow, 3 Holstein heifers, a goat, and a lamb. Mortality was associated with consumption of water inadvertently contaminated with a liquid fertilizer containing ammonium nitrate and urea commonly used for irrigating agricultural crop fields and brought onto the fairgrounds by a tanker truck previously used to transport liquid fertilizer. The show animals that drank the contaminated water immediately became ill, developed seizures and died within a few hours. Postmortem findings were unremarkable to nonspecific. Rumen contents from the lamb, Holstein cow, and Holstein heifer had ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of l,000, 1,150 and 1,440 ppm, respectively. Water from the heifer's water bucket, the cow's water bucket, and the tanker truck, had nitrate levels of 6,336, 6,116, and 6,248 ppm, respectively. The ammonia toxicosis was attributed to the contaminated water brought onto the fairgrounds by the tankertruck that previously transported liquid ammonium nitrateand urea. This accident underscores the importance of meticulous observation of safety guidelines and measured working practices in agriculture and animal husbandry.

  17. Mechanical airway obstruction caused by accidental aspiration of part of a ballpoint pen.

    PubMed

    Bhana, B D; Gunaselvam, J G; Dada, M A

    2000-12-01

    The authors present three cases of death in children aged 4, 9, and 10 years, respectively, that were first thought to be caused by herbal or other poisonings but at autopsy were found to be caused by airway obstruction from aspiration of ballpoint pen parts. Aspiration of a foreign body is a leading cause of accidental death in children, but the circumstances in these cases were unique. In the first case, a 4-year-old child died shortly after a visit to a traditional healer. The child's mother blamed him for the death and fatally assaulted him. The second case was a 9-year-old who died at school. Case 3 was a 10-year-old who collapsed while playing with a ballpoint pen in her mouth. In the latter two cases, the relatives alleged poisoning. At autopsy, there was no evidence of trauma, disease, or poisoning in all three cases. Ballpoint pen parts were present in the larynx, carina, and left main bronchus, respectively. Features of "asphyxial" death were present, and included subconjunctival hemorrhages, subendocardial hemorrhages, and congestion of the face and internal organs. These deaths are preventable by education of children, parents, and teachers. Ballpoint pen manufacturers should also modify the design of these pens to improve their safety.

  18. Physics effects of accidental submersion of space power reactors in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Lell, R. M.

    A study has been performed of the generic aspects of the accidental submersion phenomenon in fast spectrum space power reactors. Since the net effect of submersion is a balance of competing effects of neutron spectrum softening and neutron reflection, a systematic study using rigorous analytical methods is necessary to extract the trends. Monte Carlo calculations were used to determine essential flooding characteristics in realistic infinite lattice cells. For practical clad/structural materials, computed flooding reactivity worths in infinite lattices were found to be negative because parasitic absorption rises faster than neutron production over the neutron energy range of importance. The flooding worth depends strongly on cell design, becoming increasingly negative as the coolant volume fraction increases. Negative flooding worth was calculated for all fissile enrichments considered (24 to 93 percent). Transport theory analyses of idealized cores of realistic sizes showed that computed flooding worths are positive or slightly negative for small cores because reflection of thermalized neutrons by the water outside dominates other flooding effects. As core size increases, infinite lattice behavior in the interior dominates, and flooding worth becomes increasingly negative. The loss of control drums was found to increase the core radius for crossover to negative flooding worths. Monte Carlo and Sn calculations for realistic core designs confirmed the dependence of sign and magnitude of the flooding worth on core size and on the presence or absence of control drums. Experimental evidence from terrestrial reactor programs have demonstrated the need for critical experiments to benchmark and calibrate analytical procedures for flooding calculations.

  19. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  20. Death by hanging while watching violent pornographic videos on the Internet - suicide or accidental autoerotic death?

    PubMed

    Vennemann, B; Pollak, S

    2006-03-01

    In deaths by hanging, it may sometimes be difficult to differentiate between autoerotic accident and suicide. Our report deals with a 30-year-old man who was found hanged in the living room of his flat. The deceased was wearing headphones connected to a PC. Within the deceased's view was a computer screen showing the last picture of a video file downloaded from the Internet with the head of an unclothed, allegedly hanged female. The deceased's left hand was inside his trousers in the genital region. The autopsy did not only show findings typical for hanging, but also advanced sarcoidosis, which was known to the victim. Although this basic illness could have been a possible motive for suicide, the circumstances in the presented case pointed more in the direction of an accidental autoerotic death. As far as we know, this is the first description of a death during autoerotic activity in which sexual stimulation was achieved by watching a video file downloaded from the Internet.