Science.gov

Sample records for anrep effect requires

  1. The Anrep effect requires transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Villa-Abrille, María C; Caldiz, Claudia I; Ennis, Irene L; Nolly, Mariela B; Casarini, María J; Chiappe de Cingolani, Gladys E; Cingolani, Horacio E; Pérez, Néstor G

    2010-05-01

    Myocardial stretch elicits a biphasic contractile response: the Frank-Starling mechanism followed by the slow force response (SFR) or Anrep effect. In this study we hypothesized that the SFR depends on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation after the myocardial stretch-induced angiotensin II (Ang II)/endothelin (ET) release. Experiments were performed in isolated cat papillary muscles stretched from 92 to 98% of the length at which maximal twitch force was developed (L(max)). The SFR was 123 +/- 1% of the immediate rapid phase (n = 6, P < 0.05) and was blunted by preventing EGFR transactivation with the Src-kinase inhibitor PP1 (99 +/- 2%, n = 4), matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor MMPI (108 +/- 4%, n = 11), the EGFR blocker AG1478 (98 +/- 2%, n = 6) or the mitochondrial transition pore blocker clyclosporine (99 +/- 3%, n = 6). Stretch increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation by 196 +/- 17% of control (n = 7, P < 0.05), an effect that was prevented by PP1 (124 +/- 22%, n = 7) and AG1478 (131 +/- 17%, n = 4). In myocardial slices, Ang II (which enhances ET mRNA) or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced increase in O(2)() production (146 +/- 14%, n = 9, and 191 +/- 17%, n = 13, of control, respectively, P < 0.05) was cancelled by AG1478 (94 +/- 5%, n = 12, and 98 +/- 15%, n = 8, respectively) or PP1 (100 +/- 4%, n = 6, and 99 +/- 8%, n = 3, respectively). EGF increased O(2)() production by 149 +/- 4% of control (n = 9, P < 0.05), an effect cancelled by inhibiting NADPH oxidase with apocynin (110 +/- 6% n = 7), mKATP channels with 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD; 105 +/- 5%, n = 8), the respiratory chain with rotenone (110 +/- 7%, n = 7) or the mitochondrial permeability transition pore with cyclosporine (111 +/- 10%, n = 6). EGF increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation (136 +/- 8% of control, n = 9, P < 0.05), which was blunted by 5-HD (97 +/- 5%, n = 4), suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is downstream of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Finally, stretch increased Ser703 Na

  2. Adaptive right ventricular performance in response to acutely increased afterload in a lamb model of congenital heart disease: evidence for enhanced Anrep effect

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rebecca C.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Oishi, Peter E.; Bennett, Stephen; Maki, Jun; Sun, Christine; Johengen, Michael; He, Youping; Raff, Gary W.; Redington, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease survive longer with preserved right ventricular (RV) function compared with those with primary pulmonary hypertension. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that superior RV performance can be demonstrated, at baseline and when challenged with increased RV afterload, in lambs with chronic left-to-right cardiac shunts compared with control lambs. A shunt was placed between the pulmonary artery and the aorta in fetal lambs (shunt). RV pressure-volume loops were obtained 4 wk after delivery in shunt and control lambs, before and after increased afterload was applied using pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Baseline stroke volume (8.7 ± 1.8 vs. 15.8 ± 2.7 ml, P = 0.04) and cardiac index (73.0 ± 4.0 vs. 159.2 ± 25.1 ml·min−1·kg−1, P = 0.02) were greater in shunts. After PAB, there was no difference in the change in cardiac index (relative to baseline) between groups; however, heart rate (HR) was greater in controls (168 ± 7.3 vs. 138 ± 6.6 beats/min, P = 0.01), and end-systolic elastance (Ees) was greater in shunts (2.63 vs. 1.31 × baseline, P = 0.02). Control lambs showed decreased mechanical efficiency (71% baseline) compared with shunts. With acute afterload challenge, both controls and shunts maintained cardiac output; however, this was via maladaptive responses in controls, while shunts maintained mechanical efficiency and increased contractility via a proposed enhanced Anrep effect—the second, slow inotropic response in the biphasic ventricular response to increased afterload, a novel finding in the RV. The mechanisms related to these physiological differences may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:24561861

  3. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  4. Requirements for Effective Interviewing Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; And Others

    Supervisory behaviors considered effective by medical students were identified and organized into descriptive categories. A second study objective was to compare the supervisory behaviors of family physicians and those of behavioral scientists. Eighty-four sophomore medical students completed a critical incident report form at the end of an…

  5. Does the isolation effect require attention?

    PubMed

    Bireta, Tamra J; Mazzei, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    An item that differs from the surrounding items is remembered better than an item that is consistent with its surroundings; this is known as the von Restorff effect or isolation effect (von Restorff, Psychologische Forschung, 18, 299-342, 1933). Theoretical explanations have proposed that the isolate is processed differently from control items, though some research has suggested that this processing might require more attention for semantic than for physical isolates. To test this possibility, in the present study we examined the isolation effects for physical isolates and semantic isolates under full and divided attention. Participants viewed lists of categorized words, with some lists containing either a physical or a semantic isolate, followed by immediate written free recall. Across three experiments, divided attention eliminated the semantic isolation effect but did not impact the physical isolation effect. Furthermore, semantic isolates were output earlier in recall than controls, whereas physical isolates were output more similarly to controls. These findings suggest that semantic isolation effects require attention during encoding, whereas physical isolation effects are relatively automatic.

  6. Analysis of cost effective pipe insulation requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, D.W.; Somasundaram, S.

    1997-06-01

    The proposed BRS/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989R contains updated requirements for pipe insulation thicknesses developed on the basis of technical and economic principles. These requirements were determined based on computer simulations of the annual energy flow through the insulation, first cost assumptions for the insulation, and economic assumptions of discount rate and energy escalation rate. In later work, the same tools were used to analyze the sensitivity of the cost-effective insulation level for piping insulation to variations in operating hours, ambient temperature, fluid temperature, and economic assumptions. These analyses were carried out using cost data for pipe insulation averaged across several sources. The results of the sensitivity study showed that system operating hours is a critical parameter in determining the cost-effective pipe insulation thicknesses. Although there is a lack of reliable sources of typical operating hour data for heating systems, anecdotal information suggests that while most smaller, building level systems are operated only during a heating season, many site-wide steam and hot water heating systems are operated year round and insulation levels on these systems should reflect both the pipe size and the different operating schedules. In addition, the analysis showed that because of differences in private and Federal sector economics, the cost-effective pipe insulation levels appropriate for the private sector are often substantially different from those that are appropriate for the Federal sector.

  7. Requirements of team effectiveness in neurosurgical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kemper, B; von Wild, K

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to stress the importance of working with interdisciplinary teams in neurorehabilitation and describe requirements of team effectiveness. It is not sufficient to focus only on different impairments associated with brain injury and offer individuals a variety of therapy. The essential aspect in neurorehabilitation is the integration of disciplines and consistent goal setting to regard individual patient's needs. Interdisciplinary teams benefit from a leader qualified for neuroscience, neurorehabilitation, clinical neuropsychology and psychotherapy. A good structural organization of the team, notice of basic communication rules, understanding typical group dynamics and stressors of interdisciplinary teams, conflict management and a definite decision making increase productive interdisciplinary working and enable the team to continue to mature. Further empirical research is necessary to support the effectiveness of interdisciplinary teams as an important variable in the evaluation of rehabilitation outcome and quality control.

  8. 32 CFR 196.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 196.125 Section... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 196.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other... regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these...

  9. 45 CFR 2555.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 2555.125 Section... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 2555.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other... regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these...

  10. 36 CFR 1211.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of other requirements... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1211.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other... regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these...

  11. 45 CFR 2555.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 2555.125 Section... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 2555.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other... regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title...

  12. 78 FR 44559 - Effective Date of Revised Company Registration Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Effective Date of Revised Company Registration Requirements AGENCY: Federal... of the Revised Company Registration Requirements. The Commission issued a Notice in the Federal..., anthony.barracchini@ferc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice of Effective Date of Revised...

  13. Removing Remediation Requirements: Effectiveness of Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Anne; Duggan, Mickle; Braddy, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of incoming college freshman students is a national concern because remediated students are at higher risk of failing to complete their degrees. Some Oklahoma higher education institutions are working to assist K-12 systems in finding ways to reduce the number of incoming college freshman students requiring remediation. This study…

  14. Removing Remediation Requirements: Effectiveness of Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Anne; Duggan, Mickle; Braddy, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of incoming college freshman students is a national concern because remediated students are at higher risk of failing to complete their degrees. Some Oklahoma higher education institutions are working to assist K-12 systems in finding ways to reduce the number of incoming college freshman students requiring remediation. This study…

  15. 24 CFR 200.121 - Requirements and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements and effectiveness. 200... Requirements and effectiveness. (a) Multifamily mortgagees, which are required by 24 CFR part 207 to report... with the following schedule of effectiveness: (1) Mortgagees having 70 or more insured mortgage...

  16. 38 CFR 23.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 23.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal... regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law or other requirement that...

  17. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, Sandra G

    2007-01-01

    Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork. PMID:17284324

  18. Requirements for effective functional breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, I. N.; Zawarzin, V.; Adler, L. P.; Pani, R.; DeVincentis, G.; Khalkhali, I.; Vargas, H.; Venegas, R.; Kim, S. C.; Bakale, G.; Levine, E.; Perrier, N.; Freimanis, R. I.; Lesko, N. M.; Newman, D. P.; Geisinger, K. R.; Berg, W. A.; Masood, S.

    2003-01-01

    Most nuclear medicine physicists were trained on devices aimed at functional neuroimaging. The clinical goals of brain-centered devices differ dramatically from the parameters needed to be useful in the breast clinic. We will discuss similarities and differences that impact on design considerations, and describe our latest generation of positron emission mammography and intraoperative products. Source of physiologic contrast: Clinical neuroimaging depends on flow agents to detect the presence of breaks in the blood-brain barrier. Breast flow agents are nonspecific, and may miss preinvasive lesions. Resolution: Brain cancers are generally diagnosed at late stages, so resolution is not so critical. Detecting early breast cancers, and specifying margins for surgery requires 3 mm spatial resolution or better. Prevalence: Primary brain cancer is uncommon, and lesions mimicking brain cancer are rare. Primary breast cancer is common, and benign lesions are even more common, so specificity and biopsy capability are very important. Anatomic references: Brain structure is standard, while breast structure is highly variable, requiring immobilization/compression for physiologic imaging and biopsy. Surgery: Complete cancer resections for brain are very rare, but are possible for breast with appropriate imaging guidance, implying the need for rapid and reliable imaging. To summarize, the breast clinic needs a rapid and highly sensitive method of assessing breast physiology, compatible with biopsy and surgery. Positron emission mammography devices, in handheld and X-ray platform based configurations, are ideal for this mission.

  19. 24 CFR 200.640 - Effect on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect on other requirements. 200.640 Section 200.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Regulations § 200.640 Effect on other requirements. The requirement for compliance with this part is...

  20. 24 CFR 200.640 - Effect on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on other requirements. 200.640 Section 200.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Regulations § 200.640 Effect on other requirements. The requirement for compliance with this part is in...

  1. 13 CFR 113.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 113... Introduction § 113.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations... Pay Act of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect...

  2. 28 CFR 54.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 54.125... Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these... of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect of State...

  3. 31 CFR 28.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 28.125... Introduction § 28.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations... Pay Act of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect...

  4. 22 CFR 229.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 229.125 Section... Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these... of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect of State or...

  5. Acute pain: effective management requires comprehensive assessment.

    PubMed

    Radnovich, Richard; Chapman, C Richard; Gudin, Jeffrey A; Panchal, Sunil J; Webster, Lynn R; Pergolizzi, Joseph V

    2014-07-01

    Pain is among the most common reasons that patients seek medical care, and inadequate assessment may result in suboptimal management. Acute pain in response to trauma or surgery can be complex, variable, and dynamic, but its assessment is often simplistic and brief. One-dimensional rating scale measures of pain severity facilitate rapid evaluation and often form the basis of treatment algorithms. However, additional features of pain should inform the selection of a treatment regimen, and can include pain qualities, duration, impact on functional capabilities, and underlying cause. Patient age, sex, psychosocial features, and comorbid conditions are also important features to consider. Use of a multidimensional tool is recommended for assessing many of these features if time permits. Additionally, clinicians often fail to recognize or consider the potentially detrimental long-term effects of acute pain. As the United States continues to experience a prescription drug crisis, a "universal precautions" approach including abuse risk assessment and abuse deterrence strategies should be implemented for patients receiving opioids. Increased efforts and research are necessary to enhance the utility of available acute pain assessment tools. Developing more comprehensive tools for patient assessment is the first step in achieving the ultimate goal of effective acute pain management. The objectives of this review are to summarize issues regarding the complexity of acute pain and to provide suggestions for its evaluation.

  6. 29 CFR 36.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 36.125 Section 36.125 Labor... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 36.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are...

  7. 49 CFR 25.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 25.125 Section 25... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 25.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title...

  8. 29 CFR 36.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 36.125 Section 36.125 Labor... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 36.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are...

  9. 10 CFR 1042.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1042.125 Section 1042.125... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1042.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations...

  10. 10 CFR 1042.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1042.125 Section 1042.125... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1042.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations...

  11. 44 CFR 19.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of other requirements... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are...

  12. 29 CFR 36.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 36.125 Section 36.125 Labor... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 36.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are...

  13. 44 CFR 19.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of other requirements... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent...

  14. 44 CFR 19.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Effect of other requirements... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent...

  15. 7 CFR 15a.5 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.5 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of...); and any other act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law...

  16. 28 CFR 54.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 54.125 Section 54.125 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 54.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of...

  17. 43 CFR 41.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 41.125 Section 41.125 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 41.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect...

  18. 22 CFR 146.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 146.125 Section... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 146.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX...

  19. 6 CFR 17.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 17.125 Section 17.125 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 17.125 Effect of other requirements. (a)...

  20. 15 CFR 8a.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 8a.125 Section 8a.125 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 8a.125 Effect of other requirements. (a)...

  1. 43 CFR 41.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not... § 41.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent of, and do not alter, obligations not to...

  2. 6 CFR 17.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is... Introduction § 17.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent of, and do not alter, obligations not...

  3. 14 CFR 1253.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is... Introduction § 1253.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent of, and do not alter, obligations not...

  4. 22 CFR 146.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 146.125 Effect of.... 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other... State or local law or other requirement that would render any applicant or student ineligible, or limit...

  5. 18 CFR 1317.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1317.125 Section 1317.125 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1317.125 Effect of...

  6. 18 CFR 1317.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1317.125 Section 1317.125 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1317.125 Effect of...

  7. 45 CFR 618.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 618.125 Section 618.125 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 618.125 Effect of other...

  8. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05 Section 1302.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND... labels on commercial containers of, and all labeling of, a controlled substance which either...

  9. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05 Section 1302.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND... labels on commercial containers of, and all labeling of, a controlled substance which either...

  10. 10 CFR 5.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 5.125 Section 5.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... participation of any applicant or student, on the basis of sex, in any education program or activity operated...

  11. 10 CFR 5.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 5.125 Section 5.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... participation of any applicant or student, on the basis of sex, in any education program or activity operated...

  12. 10 CFR 5.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 5.125 Section 5.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... participation of any applicant or student, on the basis of sex, in any education program or activity operated...

  13. 10 CFR 5.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 5.125 Section 5.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... participation of any applicant or student, on the basis of sex, in any education program or activity operated...

  14. 10 CFR 5.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 5.125 Section 5.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... participation of any applicant or student, on the basis of sex, in any education program or activity operated...

  15. 18 CFR 1317.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of other requirements. 1317.125 Section 1317.125 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  16. 18 CFR 1317.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1317.125 Section 1317.125 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  17. 18 CFR 1317.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1317.125 Section 1317.125 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  18. 40 CFR 5.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 5.125 Section 5.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction §...

  19. 36 CFR 1211.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1211.125 Section 1211.125 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction §...

  20. 34 CFR 106.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 106.6 Section 106.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 106.6...

  1. 38 CFR 23.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 23.125 Section 23.125 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 23.125...

  2. 24 CFR 3.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 3.125 Section 3.125 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 3.125...

  3. 24 CFR 3.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 3.125 Section 3.125 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 3.125...

  4. 32 CFR 196.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 196.125 Section 196.125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction §...

  5. 45 CFR 2555.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 2555.125 Section 2555.125 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction §...

  6. 10 CFR 1042.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law... requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent of, and do not alter, obligations not to discriminate on the basis of sex imposed by...

  7. 36 CFR 1211.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title... Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent of, and do not alter, obligations not to discriminate on the basis of sex imposed by Executive Order 11246, 3 CFR,...

  8. 45 CFR 2555.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title... Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent of, and do not alter, obligations not to discriminate on the basis of sex imposed by Executive Order 11246, 3 CFR,...

  9. Cost effective dynamic design and test requirements for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Bangs, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study examining current spacecraft dynamic design and test requirements for the cost effective design and development of Shuttle payloads are presented. Dynamic environments, payload configurations, design/test requirements, test levels, assembly level of testing, simulation methods, prototype role, load limiting, test facilities, and flight measurements are discussed as they relate to the development of a cost effective design and test philosophy for Shuttle Spacelab payloads. It is concluded that changes to current design/test practices will minimize long range payload costs. However, changes to current practices need be quantitatively evaluated before an orderly progression to more cost effective methods can be achieved without undue risk of mission failures. Of major importance is optimization of test levels and plans for payloads and payload subsystems which will result in minimum project costs.

  10. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  11. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  12. Effects of Using Requirements Catalogs on Effectiveness and Productivity of Requirements Specification in a Software Project Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Meca, Joaquín Vidal; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two educational experiments carried out to determine whether the process of specifying requirements (catalog-based reuse as opposed to conventional specification) has an impact on effectiveness and productivity in co-located and distributed software development environments. The participants in the experiments…

  13. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  14. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  15. Cost effectiveness of adopted quality requirements in hospital laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alneil; Ahmed-Abakur, Eltayib; Abugroun, Elsir; Bakhit, Siham; Holi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed in quasi-experiment to assess adoption of the essential clauses of particular clinical laboratory quality management requirements based on international organization for standardization (ISO 15189) in hospital laboratories and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of compliance to ISO 15189. The quality management intervention based on ISO 15189 was conceded through three phases; pre - intervention phase, Intervention phase and Post-intervention phase. In pre-intervention phase the compliance to ISO 15189 was 49% for study group vs. 47% for control group with P value 0.48, while the post intervention results displayed 54% vs. 79% for study group and control group respectively in compliance to ISO 15189 and statistically significant difference (P value 0.00) with effect size (Cohen's d) of (0.00) in pre-intervention phase and (0.99) in post - intervention phase. The annual average cost per-test for the study group and control group was 1.80 ± 0.25 vs. 1.97 ± 0.39, respectively with P value 0.39 whereas the post-intervention results showed that the annual average total costs per-test for study group and control group was 1.57 ± 0.23 vs 2.08 ± 0.38, P value 0.019 respectively, with cost-effectiveness ratio of (0.88) in pre -intervention phase and (0.52) in post-intervention phase. The planned adoption of quality management requirements (QMS) in clinical laboratories had great effect to increase the compliance percent with quality management system requirement, raise the average total cost effectiveness, and improve the analytical process capability of the testing procedure.

  16. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentz, John

    project schedule, resulting in greater success during system deployment and operational testing. This dissertation will discuss the data and findings from participant studies, present a literature review of systems engineering and design processes, and test the hypothesis that the prioritization process had no effect on stakeholder sentiment related to the conceptual design. In addition, the "Requirements Rationalization" process will be discussed in detail. Avionics, like many other systems, has transitioned from a discrete electronics engineering, hard engineering discipline to incorporate software engineering as a core process of the technology development cycle. As with other software-based systems, avionics now has significant soft system attributes that must be considered in the design process. The boundless opportunities that exist in software design demand prioritization to focus effort onto the critical functions that the software must provide. This has been a well documented and understood phenomenon in the software development community for many years. This dissertation will attempt to link the effect of software integrated avionics to the benefits of prioritization of requirements in the problem space and demonstrate the sociological and technical benefits of early prioritization practices.

  17. Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    SHIRANI BIDABADI, NAHID; NASR ISFAHANI, AHMMADREZA; ROUHOLLAHI, AMIR; KHALILI, ROYA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors). Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes. Results: According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered) plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors' behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors’ outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors’ operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers’ preparation in education are discussed. Conclusion: In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities should be awarded of

  18. Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers.

    PubMed

    Shirani Bidabadi, Nahid; Nasr Isfahani, Ahmmadreza; Rouhollahi, Amir; Khalili, Roya

    2016-10-01

    Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors). Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes. According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered) plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors' behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors' outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors' operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers' preparation in education are discussed. In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities should be awarded of these barriers and requirements as a way to

  19. Effects of Varying Trait Inconsistency and Response Requirements on the Primacy Effect in Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Clyde; Costantini, Arthur F.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that serial presentation of inconsistent information results in a primacy effect in subjects, and that the experimenter.s response requirements are responsible for any recency effects obtained. The results are interpreted in terms of attention redistribution. (RW)

  20. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  1. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhigang; Collu, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  2. Active prospective control is required for effective sensorimotor learning.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance.

  3. Identifying Requirements for Effective Human-Automation Teamwork

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O'Hara; Heather D. Medema; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that poorly designed human-automation collaboration, such as poorly designed communication protocols, often leads to problems for the human operators, such as: lack of vigilance, complacency, and loss of skills. These problems often lead to suboptimal system performance. To address this situation, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to improve human-automation collaboration and to make automation function better as a “team player.” Much of this research is based on an understanding of what it means to be a good team player from the perspective of a human team. However, the research is often based on a simplified view of human teams and teamwork. In this study, we sought to better understand the capabilities and limitations of automation from the standpoint of human teams. We first examined human teams to identify the principles for effective teamwork. We next reviewed the research on integrating automation agents and human agents into mixed agent teams to identify the limitations of automation agents to conform to teamwork principles. This research resulted in insights that can lead to more effective human-automation collaboration by enabling a more realistic set of requirements to be developed based on the strengths and limitations of all agents.

  4. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively.

  5. Effects of electroacupuncture on intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirement.

    PubMed

    Sim, Chin-Keng; Xu, Pei-Chang; Pua, Hwee-Leng; Zhang, Guojing; Lee, Tat-Leang

    2002-08-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to be effective in experimental and clinical acute pain settings. This study aims to evaluate the effect of preoperative electroacupuncture (EA) on intraoperative and postoperative analgesic (alfentanil and morphine) requirement in patients scheduled for gynaecologic lower abdominal surgery. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group I (control group)--received placebo EA for 45 minutes before induction of general anaesthesia (GA); Group II--preoperative EA instituted 45 minutes before induction of GA; Group III--45 minutes of postoperative EA. The Bispectral Index monitor was used intraoperatively to monitor the hypnotic effect of anaesthetic drugs, and alfentanil was titrated to maintain the blood pressure and pulse rate within +/- 15% of basal values. Postoperative pain was managed by intravenous morphine via a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device. Patients in Group II (0.44 +/- .15microg/kg/min) received less alfentanil than those in Group III (0.58 +/- .22 microg/kg/min) (p = p.024), but not significantly less than those in Group I 10.51 +/- 0.21 microg/kg/min) (p = 0.472). Postoperative morphine consumption was numerically lower in Group II compared with the other groups; however, the difference was statistically significant only during the period of 6-12 hours between Group II [0.03 (0.05) mg/kg] and Group I [0.10 (0.11) mg/kg] (p = 0.015), and Group II and Group III [0.08 (0.10) mg/kg] (p = 0.010). The 24-hour cumulative morphine consumption for Group II (0.52 +/- .19mg/kg) was less than that for either Group I I0.68 +/- 38mg/kg) or Group III (0.58 +/- .27mg/kg), but the difference did not reach significance. In conclusion, preoperative EA leads to a reduced intraoperative alfentanil consumption, though this effect may not be specific, and has a morphine sparing effect during the early postoperative period.

  6. 42 CFR 456.652 - Requirements for an effective utilization control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for an effective utilization control... Requirements for an effective utilization control program. (a) General requirements. In order to avoid a... require a review in each subsequent quarter until the review is performed. (4) The requirement for an...

  7. 42 CFR 456.652 - Requirements for an effective utilization control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for an effective utilization control... Requirements for an effective utilization control program. (a) General requirements. In order to avoid a... require a review in each subsequent quarter until the review is performed. (4) The requirement for an...

  8. 42 CFR 456.652 - Requirements for an effective utilization control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for an effective utilization control... Requirements for an effective utilization control program. (a) General requirements. In order to avoid a... require a review in each subsequent quarter until the review is performed. (4) The requirement for an...

  9. 42 CFR 456.652 - Requirements for an effective utilization control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for an effective utilization control... Requirements for an effective utilization control program. (a) General requirements. In order to avoid a... require a review in each subsequent quarter until the review is performed. (4) The requirement for an...

  10. The Impact on Space Radiation Requirements and Effects on ASIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Johnston, A.; Swift, G.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of highly miniaturized electronic and mechanical systems will be accompanied by new problems and issues regarding the radiation response of these systems in the space environment. In this paper we discuss some of the more prominent radiation problems brought about by miniaturization. For example, autonomous micro-spacecraft will require large amounts of high density memory, most likely in the form of stacked, multichip modules of DRAM's, that must tolerate the radiation environment. However, advanced DRAM's (16 to 256 Mbit) are quite susceptible to radiation, particularly single event effects, and even exhibit new radiation phenomena that were not a problem for older, less dense memory chips. Another important trend in micro-spacecraft electronics is toward the use of low-voltage microelectronic systems that consume less power. However, the reduction in operating voltage also caries with it an increased susceptibility to radiation. In the case of application specific integrated microcircuits (ASIM's), advanced devices of this type, such as high density field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's) exhibit new single event effects (SEE), such as single particle reprogramming of anti-fuse links. New advanced bipolar circuits have been shown recently to degrade more rapidly in the low dose rate space environment than in the typical laboratory total dose radiation test used to qualify such devices. Thus total dose testing of these parts is no longer an appropriately conservative measure to be used for hardness assurance. We also note that the functionality of micromechanical Si-based devices may be altered due to the radiation-induced deposition of charge in the oxide passivation layers.

  11. 16 CFR 1109.5 - Conditions, requirements, and effects generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Test method and sampling protocol. Each certifier and testing party must exercise due care to ensure...: (1) All testing is done using required test methods, if any; (2) Required sampling protocols are... method(s) and sampling protocol(s) used; (5) The date or date range when the component part or...

  12. 16 CFR 1109.5 - Conditions, requirements, and effects generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Test method and sampling protocol. Each certifier and testing party must exercise due care to ensure...: (1) All testing is done using required test methods, if any; (2) Required sampling protocols are... method(s) and sampling protocol(s) used; (5) The date or date range when the component part or...

  13. 16 CFR 1109.5 - Conditions, requirements, and effects generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Test method and sampling protocol. Each certifier and testing party must exercise due care to ensure...: (1) All testing is done using required test methods, if any; (2) Required sampling protocols are... method(s) and sampling protocol(s) used; (5) The date or date range when the component part or...

  14. 40 CFR 5.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5... local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law or other requirement that would render any applicant or...

  15. 15 CFR 8a.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction... local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law or other requirement that would render any applicant or...

  16. 22 CFR 229.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 229.125... local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law or other requirement that would render any applicant or...

  17. ORACLE (Oversight of Resources and Capability for Logistics Effectiveness) and Requirements Forecasting. Volume 3. Predicting the Peacetime Spares Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    to be estimated partly on the basis of trends in past requirements, past requirements should be calculated by the methodology that will be in effect...weapon system, or computing the cost per weapon system and trending that cost on certain independent variables (see the ALERT and POSSEM discussions... trend with other known variables must be given individual attention and expert judgment. In addition to identifying parts, or classes of parts, that

  18. Effect of particulate adjuvant on the anthrax protective antigen dose required for effective nasal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bento, Dulce; Staats, Herman F; Borges, Olga

    2015-07-17

    Successful vaccine development is dependent on the development of effective adjuvants since the poor immunogenicity of modern subunit vaccines typically requires the use of potent adjuvants and high antigen doses. In recent years, adjuvant formulations combining both immunopotentiators and delivery systems have emerged as a promising strategy to develop effective and improved vaccines. In this study we investigate if the association of the mast cell activating adjuvant compound 48/80 (C48/80) with chitosan nanoparticles would promote an antigen dose sparing effect when administered intranasally. Even though the induction of strong mucosal immunity required higher antigen doses, incorporation of C48/80 into nanoparticles provided significant dose sparing when compared to antigen and C48/80 in solution with no significant effect on serum neutralizing antibodies titers. These results suggest the potential of this novel adjuvant combination to improve the immunogenicity of a vaccine and decrease the antigen dose required for vaccination.

  19. Army Materiel Requirements Documents: Qualitative Analysis of Efficiency and Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Operational Need Statement OPTEMPO Operational Tempo ORD Operational Requirement Document PEO Program Executive Office PLGR Precision Lightweight ...example of this is if users state that they need an M224 60-mm Lightweight Mortar. This may not be the best solution. The user should request a system...brigades with armored track vehicles like Abrams Tanks, Bradley Fighting Vehicles, and Armored Personnel Carriers. However, a heavy-force conflict

  20. Frequency of streamflow measurements required to determine forest treatment effects

    Treesearch

    Kenneth G. Reinhart

    1964-01-01

    Most of the stream-discharge records for our experimental watersheds are taken by continuous measurements. But the question arises: are continuous measurements necessary to determine effects of forest treatments? Or could treatment effects be determined by measurement of discharge at intervals, say, once a day or once a week?

  1. 13 CFR 113.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 113.535 Section 113.535 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Prohibited § 113.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The...

  2. 45 CFR 2555.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to comply with §§ 2555.500 through 2555.550 is...

  3. 45 CFR 2555.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to comply with §§ 2555.500 through 2555.550 is...

  4. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for ecological effects. 158.240 Section 158.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Experimental Use Permits § 158.240 Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects. All data for terrestrial nontarget...

  5. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for ecological effects. 158.240 Section 158.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Experimental Use Permits § 158.240 Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects. All data for terrestrial nontarget...

  6. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for ecological effects. 158.240 Section 158.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Experimental Use Permits § 158.240 Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects. All data for terrestrial nontarget...

  7. Cost effective isomerization options for tomorrow's light gasoline processing requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, T.C.; Haizmann, R.J.; Johnson, B.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Light naphtha isomerization has become extremely important in recent years in helping refiners meet their gasoline pool octane demands this is especially true for the modern UOP* Penex* and TIP* technologies because of their octane production efficiency, relatively low capital cost and overall flexibility. Today there are almost 800,000 BPSD of licensed isomerization capacity worldwide; an increase of nearly 550,000 BPSD since 1982. This surge in demand has been the result of lead phase down programs, increased sales of premium gasoline and, in some areas, proposed legislation limiting benzene content of gasoline. The addition of a light naptha isomerization unit can result in a 1.0 to 3.0 octane improvement in the total gasoline pool, depending on feedstock and process configuration. The advantages include reducing reformer severity, increasing the percentage of gasoline sold as premium, or simply meeting the requirements of unleaded gasoline. These advantages are discussed in detail by the authors.

  8. 45 CFR 618.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... U.S.C. 295m, 298b-2); Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect of....125 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...

  9. 31 CFR 28.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S.C. 295m, 298b-2); Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect...

  10. 13 CFR 113.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 295m, 298b-2); Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect...

  11. 14 CFR 1253.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 295m, 298b-2); Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect...

  12. The anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors require the immune system

    PubMed Central

    West, Alison C; Smyth, Mark J; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are known to exert immunomodulatory effects. We have recently demonstrated that the therapeutic efficacy of HDACis against aggressive B-cell lymphoma and colon carcinoma relies on a functional immune system, in particular on the production of interferon γ (IFNγ). Our findings provide a rationale for the combination of HDACis with immunotherapeutic agents in the clinic. PMID:24701376

  13. The Effect of Aortic Compliance on Left Ventricular Power Requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2009-11-01

    Aortic compliance depends on both geometry and mechanical properties of the aorta. Reduction in arterial compliance has been associated with aging, smoking, and multiple cardiovascular diseases. Increased stiffness of the aorta affects the wave dynamics in the aorta by increasing both pulse pressure amplitude and wave speed. We hypothesized that decreased aortic compliance leads to an increased left ventricular power requirement for a fixed cardiac output due to altered pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. We used a computational approach using the finite element method for solid and fluid domains coupled to each other by using the direct coupling method. A nonlinear material model was used for the solid wall. The fluid flow model was considered to be Newtonian, incompressible, and laminar. The simulation was performed for a heart rate of 75 beats per minute for six different compliances while keeping the cardiac output and the peripheral resistance constant. The results show a trend towards increased left ventricular energy expenditure per cycle with decreased compliance. The relevance of these findings to clinical observations will be discussed.

  14. Citizenship documentation requirement for Medicaid eligibility: effects on Oregon children.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Brigit A; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Lapidus, Jodi A; Carlson, Matthew J; Wright, Bill J

    2014-04-01

    The Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005 mandated Medicaid beneficiaries to document citizenship. Using a prospective cohort (n=104,375), we aimed to (1) determine characteristics of affected children, (2) describe effects on health insurance coverage and access to needed health care, and (3) model the causal relationship between this new policy, known determinants of health care access, and receipt of needed health care. We identified a stratified random sample of children shortly after the DRA was implemented and used state records and surveys to compare three groups: children denied Medicaid for inability to document citizenship, children denied for other reasons, and children accepted for coverage. To combat survey nonresponse, we used Medicaid records to identify differences between responders and nonrespondents and created survey weights to account for these differences. Weighted simple and multivariable logistic regression described the complete, originally identified population. Children denied Medicaid for inability to document citizenship were likely to be US citizens, were medically and socially more vulnerable than their peers, and went on to have gaps in health insurance coverage and unmet health care needs. The DRA led to persistent loss of insurance coverage, which decreased access to needed health care. Having a usual source of care was an effect modifier in this relationship. Our findings demonstrate the negative consequences of the DRA and support the use of automated methods of citizenship verification allowed under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  15. Requirements for effective antitumor responses of TCR transduced T cells.

    PubMed

    de Witte, Moniek A; Jorritsma, Annelies; Kaiser, Andrew; van den Boom, Marly D; Dokter, Maarten; Bendle, Gavin M; Haanen, John B A G; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2008-10-01

    Adoptive transfer of TCR gene-modified T cells has been proposed as an attractive approach to target tumors for which it is difficult or impossible to induce strong tumor-specific T cell responses by vaccination. Whereas the feasibility of generating tumor Ag-specific T cells by gene transfer has been demonstrated, the factors that determine the in vivo effectiveness of TCR-modified T cells are largely unknown. We have analyzed the value of a number of clinically feasible strategies to enhance the antitumor potential of TCR modified T cells. These experiments reveal three factors that contribute greatly to the in vivo potency of TCR-modified T cells. First, irradiation-induced host conditioning is superior to vaccine-induced activation of genetically modified T cells. Second, increasing TCR expression through genetic optimization of TCR sequences has a profound effect on in vivo antitumor activity. Third, a high precursor frequency of TCR modified T cells within the graft is essential. Tumors that ultimately progress in animals treated with this optimized regimen for TCR-based adoptive cell transfer invariably display a reduced expression of the target Ag. This suggests TCR gene therapy can achieve a sufficiently strong selective pressure to warrant the simultaneous targeting of multiple Ags. The strategies outlined in this study should be of value to enhance the antitumor activity of TCR-modified T cells in clinical trials.

  16. Excess mutual catalysis is required for effective evolvability.

    PubMed

    Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that autocatalysis constitutes a crucial facet of effective replication and evolution (e.g., in Eigen's hypercycle model). Other models for early evolution (e.g., by Dyson, Gánti, Varela, and Kauffman) invoke catalytic networks, where cross-catalysis is more apparent. A key question is how the balance between auto- (self-) and cross- (mutual) catalysis shapes the behavior of model evolving systems. This is investigated using the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, previously shown to capture essential features of reproduction, mutation, and evolution in compositional molecular assemblies. We have performed numerical simulations of an ensemble of GARD networks, each with a different set of lognormally distributed catalytic values. We asked what is the influence of the catalytic content of such networks on beneficial evolution. Importantly, a clear trend was observed, wherein only networks with high mutual catalysis propensity (p(mc)) allowed for an augmented diversity of composomes, quasi-stationary compositions that exhibit high replication fidelity. We have reexamined a recent analysis that showed meager selection in a single GARD instance and for a few nonstationary target compositions. In contrast, when we focused here on compotypes (clusters of composomes) as targets for selection in populations of compositional assemblies, appreciable selection response was observed for a large portion of the networks simulated. Further, stronger selection response was seen for high p(mc) values. Our simulations thus demonstrate that GARD can help analyze important facets of evolving systems, and indicate that excess mutual catalysis over self-catalysis is likely to be important for the emergence of molecular systems capable of evolutionlike behavior.

  17. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  18. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  19. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  20. 29 CFR 453.25 - Effective date of the bonding requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of the bonding requirement. 453.25 Section... LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE BONDING REQUIREMENTS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Miscellaneous Provisions § 453.25 Effective date of the...

  1. 29 CFR 453.25 - Effective date of the bonding requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effective date of the bonding requirement. 453.25 Section... LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE BONDING REQUIREMENTS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Miscellaneous Provisions § 453.25 Effective date of the...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3 Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. A device included in this part that is classified into... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3 Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. A device included in this part that is classified into... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for...

  4. 29 CFR 4041.6 - Effect of failure to provide required information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of failure to provide required information. 4041.6 Section 4041.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.6 Effect of failure to provide required information. If a...

  5. Effective Electronic Security: Process for the Development and Validation from Requirements to Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Fostering Effective Technology Act SAVER System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders SPF Security Policy Framework UK United Kingdom...the production of Operational Requirements, and they are within the United Kingdom’s Security Policy Framework ( SPF ). These requirements are based

  6. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects. 158.240 Section 158.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Experimental Use Permits § 158.240...

  7. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects. 158.240 Section 158.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Experimental Use Permits § 158.240...

  8. Pathways through High School: Translating the Effects of New Graduation Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gretchen B.; And Others

    The first phase of a study of the effects of new high school graduation requirements in Maryland was conducted in 1986. Interviews were conducted with 182 administrators, teachers, and students about their perspectives on new requirements instituted in 1985. Transcript records were analyzed for 249 students from 5 high schools. Interview data did…

  9. 43 CFR 41.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to comply with §§ 41.500 through 41.550 is not obviated or alleviated by the existence of any State or local law... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or...

  10. 6 CFR 17.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to comply with §§ 17.500 through 17.550 is not obviated or alleviated by the existence of any State or local law... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or...

  11. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in CD-1 Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using outbred (CD-1) mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as threshold responses (i.e., all measured responses). Different force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of threshold responses) that…

  12. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in CD-1 Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using outbred (CD-1) mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as threshold responses (i.e., all measured responses). Different force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of threshold responses) that…

  13. Cross-Cultural Competence: Leader Requirements for Intercultural Effectiveness in the Human Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE: LEADER REQUIREMENTS FOR INTERCULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS IN THE HUMAN DOMAIN A thesis presented to...Intercultural Effectiveness in the Human Domain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Shawn...attributes, and affect/motivation (KSAs) are a greater indicator for cross- cultural effectiveness than language and regional expertise. These KSAs

  14. Nursing Home Staffing Requirements and Input Substitution: Effects on Housekeeping, Food Service, and Activities Staff

    PubMed Central

    Bowblis, John R; Hyer, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of minimum nurse staffing requirements on the subsequent employment of nursing home support staff. Data Sources Nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) System merged with state nurse staffing requirements. Study Design Facility-level housekeeping, food service, and activities staff levels are regressed on nurse staffing requirements and other controls using fixed effect panel regression. Data Extraction Method OSCAR surveys from 1999 to 2004. Principal Findings Increases in state direct care and licensed nurse staffing requirements are associated with decreases in the staffing levels of all types of support staff. Conclusions Increased nursing home nurse staffing requirements lead to input substitution in the form of reduced support staffing levels. PMID:23445455

  15. On the Compliance of Simbol-X Mirror Roughness with its Effective Area Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    Surface microroughness of X-ray mirrors is a key issue for the angular resolution of Simbol-X to comply with the required one (<20 arcsec at 30 keV). The maximum tolerable microroughness for Simbol-X mirrors, in order to satisfy the required imaging capability, has already been derived in terms of its PSD (Power Spectral Density). However, also the Effective Area of the telescope is affected by the mirror roughness. In this work we will show how the expected effective area of the Simbol-X mirror module can be computed from the roughness PSD tolerance, checking its compliance with the requirements.

  16. On the Compliance of Simbol-X Mirror Roughness with its Effective Area Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-11

    Surface microroughness of X-ray mirrors is a key issue for the angular resolution of Simbol-X to comply with the required one (<20 arcsec at 30 keV). The maximum tolerable microroughness for Simbol-X mirrors, in order to satisfy the required imaging capability, has already been derived in terms of its PSD (Power Spectral Density). However, also the Effective Area of the telescope is affected by the mirror roughness. In this work we will show how the expected effective area of the Simbol-X mirror module can be computed from the roughness PSD tolerance, checking its compliance with the requirements.

  17. Effect of drugs on response-duration differentiation VII: response-force requirements.

    PubMed

    McClure, G Y; Hardwick, W C; McMillan, D E

    2000-11-01

    Rats were trained to press a lever for at least 1 s but for less than 1.3 s. The force required to press the lever was then increased or decreased by 10, 15, or 20 g. Increases in the force requirements for lever pressing decreased timing accuracy, but decreases in the force requirement had the opposite effect. Accuracy decreases at increasing force requirements were characterized by an increase in the relative frequency of responses that were too short to meet the reinforcement criterion. In contrast, increases in accuracy when the force requirements were decreased were characterized by increases in response durations that met the reinforcement criterion and decreases in the relative frequency of responses that were too short to produce the reinforcer. Phencyclidine (PCP) and methamphetamine produced dose-dependent decreases in accuracy that were associated primarily with increases in the relative frequency of short response durations, although methamphetamine also produced increases in long response durations at some doses. When the effects of PCP were determined with the force requirement increased by 10 g or decreased by 15 g, the cumulative response-duration distribution shifted toward even shorter response durations. When the effects of methamphetamine were determined with the force requirement on the lever increased by 10 g, the cumulative frequency distribution was shifted toward shorter response durations to about the same extent as it had been before force requirements increased; however, when the force required to press the lever was decreased by 15 g, these shifts toward shorter response durations almost completely disappeared. These results show that increases and decreases in the force requirements for lever pressing have different effects on the accuracy of temporal response differentiation.

  18. 22 CFR 217.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.10 Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated...

  19. 22 CFR 142.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of State or local law or other... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.10 Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part is...

  20. 43 CFR 17.209 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of State or local law or other... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.209 Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this subpart is not obviated or alleviated by...

  1. 14 CFR 1251.109 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated by the existence of any state or local law... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 890.3 Section 890.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES General Provisions § 890.3 Effective dates...

  3. 42 CFR 456.652 - Requirements for an effective utilization control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for an effective utilization control... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Penalty for Failure To Make a Satisfactory Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.652...

  4. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3 Effective...

  5. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3 Effective...

  6. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3 Effective...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3 Effective...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 890.3 Section 890.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES General Provisions § 890.3 Effective...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 890.3 Section 890.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES General Provisions § 890.3 Effective...

  10. 10 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of state or local law or...

  11. 10 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of state or local law or...

  12. 10 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of state or local law or...

  13. 10 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of state or local law or...

  14. 10 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of state or local law or...

  15. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  16. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  17. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  18. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  19. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 872.3 Section 872.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES General Provisions § 872.3 Effective dates of...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 872.3 Section 872.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES General Provisions § 872.3 Effective dates of...

  2. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  3. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates of...

  4. 45 CFR 86.58 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.58 Effect of...

  5. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3 Effective...

  6. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3 Effective...

  7. A preliminary study of the effect of eliminating requirements on clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Dodge, W W; Dale, R A; Hendricson, W D

    1993-09-01

    This study determined the effect of a clinical program driven by patient needs upon students' productivity, attitudes, and academic performance. A group of eight senior students, whose academic and clinical performance profile replicated that of the rest of the class, were chosen to participate in a year-long non-requirement clinic. The students were expected to attend all clinic sessions, and treat their assigned patients. Their performance was compared to that of classmates in the regular requirement-driven curriculum. The non-requirement group had significantly higher academic achievement and significantly outproduced their classmates. Non-requirement students had no state board failures, versus 17 percent in the regular curriculum, and reported significantly lower stress. This study suggests that predoctoral clinical programs can maintain quality and productivity in the absence of unit requirements.

  8. 10 CFR 1040.64 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1040.64 Section 1040.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... grounds of race, color, national origin, sex, age or handicap under any program or activity to which this...

  9. 10 CFR 1040.64 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1040.64 Section 1040.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... grounds of race, color, national origin, sex, age or handicap under any program or activity to which this...

  10. 10 CFR 1040.64 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1040.64 Section 1040.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... grounds of race, color, national origin, sex, age or handicap under any program or activity to which this...

  11. 10 CFR 1040.64 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1040.64 Section 1040.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... grounds of race, color, national origin, sex, age or handicap under any program or activity to which this...

  12. 10 CFR 1040.64 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1040.64 Section 1040.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... grounds of race, color, national origin, sex, age or handicap under any program or activity to which this...

  13. 7 CFR 15b.9 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements, and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements, and effect of employment opportunities. 15b.9 Section 15b.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.9...

  14. 22 CFR 217.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 217.10 Section 217.10 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions...

  15. 45 CFR 84.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 84.10 Section 84.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  16. 22 CFR 142.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 142.10 Section 142.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions...

  17. 38 CFR 18.410 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 18.410 Section 18.410 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 15 CFR 8b.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 8b.10 Section 8b.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  1. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  2. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of...

  3. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of...

  4. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of...

  5. 49 CFR 25.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.535 Effect... or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex...

  6. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  7. 22 CFR 1203.735-410 - Effect of employees' statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effect of employees' statements on other requirements. 1203.735-410 Section 1203.735-410 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests...

  8. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... supplementary statement by an employee does not permit him or any other person to participate in a matter in...

  9. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... supplementary statement by an employee does not permit him or any other person to participate in a matter in...

  10. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... supplementary statement by an employee does not permit him or any other person to participate in a matter in...

  11. 17 CFR 201.153 - Filing of papers: Signature requirement and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of papers: Signature requirement and effect. 201.153 Section 201.153 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.153 Filing of papers: Signature...

  12. The Competencies Required for Effective Performance in a University e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Mitchell; Reading, Christine; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and rate the importance of the competencies required by students for effective performance in a university e-learning environment mediated by a learning management system. Two expert panels identified 58 e-learning competencies considered to be essential for e-learning. Of these competencies, 22 were related…

  13. 22 CFR 1203.735-410 - Effect of employees' statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of employees' statements on other... COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests... financial interests and supplementary statements required for employees are in addition to, and not in...

  14. 26 CFR 1.527-8 - Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions. 1.527-8 Section 1.527-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives §...

  15. 26 CFR 1.527-8 - Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions. 1.527-8 Section 1.527-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives §...

  16. 16 CFR 1203.1 - Scope, general requirements, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... date. 1203.1 Section 1203.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... requirements, and effective date. (a) Scope. The standard in this subpart describes test methods and defines... vision, positional stability, dynamic strength of retention system, and impact-attenuation tests...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions § 878.3...

  18. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of... other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex that are not...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 866.3...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 866.3...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 866.3...

  2. 17 CFR 201.153 - Filing of papers: Signature requirement and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of papers: Signature requirement and effect. 201.153 Section 201.153 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.153 Filing of papers:...

  3. Effects of Requiring Students to Meet High Expectation Levels within an On-Line Homework Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, William J., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    On-line homework is becoming a larger part of mathematics classrooms each year. Thus, ways to maximize the effectiveness of on-line homework for both students and teachers must be investigated. This study sought to provide one possible answer to this aim, by requiring students to achieve at least 50% for any on-line homework assignment in order to…

  4. Aptitude Test Score Validity: No Moderating Effect Due to Job Ability Requirement Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gwen E.; Ree, Malcolm James

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the specificity-generality hypothesis regarding moderation of aptitude test validity by job ability requirement differences using 24,482 Air Force enlistees in 37 jobs. Moderating effects due to job differences were not found, and job ability differences did not moderate the relationship between the amount of "g"…

  5. 22 CFR 229.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.535 Effect... law or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one...

  6. 22 CFR 146.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.535 Effect... law or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one...

  7. 28 CFR 54.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.535 Effect... or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex...

  8. Extent and resolution requirements for the residual terrain effect in gravity gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekeli, C.

    2013-10-01

    Gravity gradiometry, whether from ground or airborne surveys, for geodesy and geophysics typically requires that the gravitational effect of the visible terrain is removed from the measured values. A systematic, algorithmic approach is developed to determine the extent of terrain data needed to maintain a truncation error below a desired level. The algorithm is based on a geostatistical analysis of the topography and applies to gradient differences over a particular size of survey area. It was found that a suitable modification of the kernel of the integral for the terrain effect can reduce the needed extent significantly in some cases. The determination of the needed extent for a given truncation error (standard deviation) and survey area size requires knowing a reasonable amplitude of the power spectral density (PSD) of the local topography, but otherwise is based on the fractal nature of topography, which also assumes that it is stationary. The algorithm is illustrated for ground and airborne cases in both moderate and rough terrain. For example, for an airborne gradiometer survey at 5 km altitude over 50 km of moderate terrain, the algorithm predicts requiring a topographic data extent of about 48 km for 1 Eötvös error (standard deviation) in the terrain effect. This extent can be reduced to 35 km with the kernel modification. In addition, the developed PSD models may be extended to determine the data resolution required for the terrain effect using a simple analytic formula.

  9. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions § 878.3...

  10. 10 CFR 1042.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.535 Effect of... other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex that are...

  11. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.535 Effect... law or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions...

  13. Development and Assessment of the Effectiveness of an Undergraduate General Education Foreign Language Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; Walther, Ingeborg; Tufts, Clare; Lee, Kunshan Carolyn; Paredes, Liliana; Fellin, Luciana; Andrews, Edna; Serra, Matt; Hill, Jennifer L.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Schlosberg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a faculty-led, multiyear process of formulating learning objectives and assessing the effectiveness of a foreign language requirement for all College of Arts and Sciences undergraduates at a research university. Three interrelated research questions were addressed: (1) What were the levels and patterns of language courses…

  14. Using a Multiple Choice Exam in Economics to Satisfy Possible Institutional Effectiveness Requirements: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrowsky, Michael C.

    This essay describes the problems involved in developing a comprehensive multiple choice exam in macroeconomics. It also attempts to promote dialogue about the testing instruments used to satisfy institutional effectiveness requirements. One section briefly compares the advantages and disadvantages of using essays instead of multiple choice exams.…

  15. Effects of Requiring Students to Meet High Expectation Levels within an On-Line Homework Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, William J., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    On-line homework is becoming a larger part of mathematics classrooms each year. Thus, ways to maximize the effectiveness of on-line homework for both students and teachers must be investigated. This study sought to provide one possible answer to this aim, by requiring students to achieve at least 50% for any on-line homework assignment in order to…

  16. 22 CFR 1203.735-410 - Effect of employees' statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Effect of employees' statements on other requirements. 1203.735-410 Section 1203.735-410 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests...

  17. The Competencies Required for Effective Performance in a University e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Mitchell; Reading, Christine; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and rate the importance of the competencies required by students for effective performance in a university e-learning environment mediated by a learning management system. Two expert panels identified 58 e-learning competencies considered to be essential for e-learning. Of these competencies, 22 were related…

  18. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 866.3...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 866.3...

  20. 76 FR 48058 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for... requirement for premarket approval applications or product development protocols for cardiovascular permanent... progress reports and records of the trials conducted under the protocol on the safety and effectiveness...

  1. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  2. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  3. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  4. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  5. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  6. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of... other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex that are...

  7. 22 CFR 229.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.535 Effect... law or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one...

  8. 22 CFR 146.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.535 Effect... law or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one...

  9. 12 CFR 1008.109 - Effective date of state requirements imposed on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individuals. 1008.109 Section 1008.109 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Determination of State Compliance With the S.A.F.E. Act § 1008.109 Effective date of state requirements imposed on...

  10. 12 CFR 1008.109 - Effective date of state requirements imposed on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... individuals. 1008.109 Section 1008.109 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Determination of State Compliance With the S.A.F.E. Act § 1008.109 Effective date of state requirements imposed on...

  11. 12 CFR 1008.109 - Effective date of state requirements imposed on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... individuals. 1008.109 Section 1008.109 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Determination of State Compliance With the S.A.F.E. Act § 1008.109 Effective date of state requirements imposed on...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  15. The effects of reinforcement frequency and response requirements on the maintenance of behavior.

    PubMed

    Rider, D P; D'Angelo, B J

    1990-01-01

    Six rats responded under fixed-interval and tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules of food reinforcement. Basic fixed-interval schedules alternated over experimental conditions with tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules with the same fixed-interval value. Fixed-interval length was varied within subjects over pairs of experimental conditions; the ratio requirement of the tandem schedules was varied across subjects. For both subjects with a ratio requirement of 10, overall response rates and running response rates typically were higher under the tandem schedules than under the corresponding basic fixed-interval schedules. For all subjects with ratio requirements of 30 or 60, overall response rates and running response rates were higher under the tandem schedules than under the corresponding basic fixed-interval schedules only with relatively short fixed intervals. At longer fixed intervals, higher overall response rates and running rates were maintained by the basic fixed-interval schedules than by the tandem schedules. These findings support Zeiler and Buchman's (1979) reinforcement-theory account of response strength as an increasing monotonic function of both the response requirement and reinforcement frequency. Small response requirements added in tandem to fixed-interval schedules have little effect on reinforcement frequency and so their net effect is to enhance responding. Larger response requirements reduce reinforcement frequency more substantially; therefore their net effect depends on the length of the fixed interval, which limits overall reinforcement frequency. At the longest fixed intervals studied in the present experiment, reinforcement frequency under the tandem schedules was sufficiently low that responding weakened or ceased altogether.

  16. Evidence-based programs for schools: relationships between effect sizes and resource requirements.

    PubMed

    Powers, Joelle D; Thompson, Aaron M

    2013-01-01

    Presumably, schools desiring larger effects from an empirically based program might be willing to allocate greater resources for the purchase and implementation of the intervention. However, while it may seem intuitive that more expensive programs generate greater change in student outcomes, there is currently a lack of evidence supporting such a relationship. In this study the authors address this gap in the literature by examining the critical relationship between resource requirements and effect sizes of 51 evidence-based programs that would influence school practitioners' choice of interventions. Through simple calculations of the range and mean resources for programs, analyses surprisingly found higher resource requirements for programs with the smallest effect sizes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  17. [Achromatic watercolor effect: about requirement of formation of sumi painting effect].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Midori

    2008-10-01

    The watercolor effect (Pinna, Brelstaff, & Spillmann, 2001) is a new color spreading phenomenon. Pinna et al. (2001) proposed that the watercolor effect is a new Gestalt factor because it determines figure-ground organization more strongly than classical Gestalt factors. We used achroriatic watercolor patterns and varied the lightness of the background and two border lines to study the relationship between the color spreading effect and figure-ground organization. The results demonstrated (a)a bidirectional color spreading phenomenon when the background lightness was between the two border-lines' lightness, and that (b) some patterns elicit only a color spreading effect without organization of figure-ground, while others elicit only figure-ground organization without a color spreading effect.

  18. Sample Sizes Required to Detect Interactions between Two Binary Fixed-Effects in a Mixed-Effects Linear Regression Model.

    PubMed

    Leon, Andrew C; Heo, Moonseong

    2009-01-15

    Mixed-effects linear regression models have become more widely used for analysis of repeatedly measured outcomes in clinical trials over the past decade. There are formulae and tables for estimating sample sizes required to detect the main effects of treatment and the treatment by time interactions for those models. A formula is proposed to estimate the sample size required to detect an interaction between two binary variables in a factorial design with repeated measures of a continuous outcome. The formula is based, in part, on the fact that the variance of an interaction is fourfold that of the main effect. A simulation study examines the statistical power associated with the resulting sample sizes in a mixed-effects linear regression model with a random intercept. The simulation varies the magnitude (Δ) of the standardized main effects and interactions, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ρ ), and the number (k) of repeated measures within-subject. The results of the simulation study verify that the sample size required to detect a 2 × 2 interaction in a mixed-effects linear regression model is fourfold that to detect a main effect of the same magnitude.

  19. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P < 0.01) of the interaction between protein and energy (P < 0.05) on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was higher (P < 0.0001) in high-energy groups compared to low-energy groups. The CP digestibility increased with the increased CP and ME of the rations. The absorbed N was improved linearly with an increased level of dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations.

  20. Effects of climate change on spring wheat phenophase and water requirement in Heihe River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongmei; Yan, Denghua; Xu, Xinyi; Gao, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has significantly altered the temperature rhythm which is a key factor for the growth and phenophase of the crop. And temperature change further affects crop water requirement and irrigation system. In the north-west of China, one of the most important crop production bases is Heihe River basin where the observed phenological data is scarce. This study thus first adopted accumulated temperature threshold (ATT) method to define the phenological stages of the crop, and analysed the effect of climate change on phenological stages and water requirement of the crop during growing season. The results indicated the ATT was available for the determination of spring wheat phenological stages. The start dates of all phenological stages became earlier and the growing season length (days) was reduced by 7 days under climate change. During the growing season, water requirement without consideration of phenophase change has been increased by 26.1 mm, while that with consideration of phenophase change was featured in the decrease of water requirement by 50 mm. When temperature increased by 1°C on average, the changes were featured in the 2 days early start date of growing season, 2 days decrease of growing season length, and the 1.4 mm increase of water requirement, respectively.

  1. Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2008-06-01

    It is widely recognized that food consumption patterns significantly impact water requirements. The aim of this paper is to quantify how food consumption patterns influence water requirements in China. The findings show that per capita water requirement for food (CWRF) has increased from 255 m3 cap-1y-1 in 1961 to 860 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 2003, largely due to an increase in the consumption of animal products in recent decades. Although steadily increasing, the CWRF of China is still much lower than that of many developed countries. The total water requirement for food (TWRF) has been determined as 1127 km3 y-1 in 2003. Three scenarios are proposed to project future TWRF, representing low, medium, and high levels of modernization (S1, S2, and S3, respectively). Analysis of these three scenarios indicates that TWRF will likely continue to increase in the next three decades. An additional amount of water ranging between 407 and 515 km3 y-1 will be required in 2030 compared to the TWRF in 2003. This will undoubtedly put high pressure on China's already scarce water resources. We conclude that the effect of the food consumption patterns on China's water resources is substantial both in the recent past and in the near future. China will need to strengthen "green water" management and to take advantage of "virtual water" import to meet the additional TWRF.

  2. Effect of the intensity of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation on the postoperative analgesic requirement.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Tang, J; White, P F; Naruse, R; Sloninsky, A; Kariger, R; Gold, J; Wender, R H

    1997-08-01

    Given the inherent side effects associated with both opioid and nonopioid analgesic drugs, a nonpharmacologic therapy that could decrease the need for analgesic medication would be valuable. We designed a sham-controlled study to assess the effect of the intensity of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) on postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) requirement for hydromorphone (HM), the incidence of opioid-related side effects, and the recovery profile after lower abdominal surgery. One hundred one healthy consenting women undergoing lower abdominal procedures with a standardized general anesthetic technique were randomly assigned to one of four postoperative analgesic treatment regimens: Group I (n = 26) PCA only; Group II (n = 25), PCA + sham-TAES (no electrical stimulation); Group III (n = 25), PCA + low-TAES (4-5 mA of electrical stimulation); Group IV (n = 25), PCA + high-TAES (9-12 mA of electrical stimulation). The PCA device was programmed to deliver HM, 0.2-0.4 mg intravenously boluses "on demand," with a minimum lockout interval of 10 min. The TAES skin electrodes were placed at the Hegu acupoint on the nondominant hand and on both sides of the surgical incision. The TAES frequency was set in the dense-and-disperse mode, alternating at 2 Hz and 100 Hz every 3 s, with stimulation of the hand and incision alternated every 6 s. The patients in Groups II-IV were instructed to use TAES every 2 h for 30 min while awake. After discontinuation of PCA, oral pain medications were administered on demand. The postoperative PCA-HM requirement, pain scores, opioid-related side effects, and requirements for antiemetic and antipruritic medication were recorded. High-TAES decreased the HM requirement by 65% and reduced the duration of PCA therapy, as well as the incidence of nausea, dizziness, and pruritus. Low-TAES produced a 34% decrease in the HM requirement compared with only 23% in the "sham" TAES group. We conclude that high-TAES produced a

  3. The effect of immunization against GnRF on nutrient requirements of male pigs: a review.

    PubMed

    Dunshea, F R; Allison, J R D; Bertram, M; Boler, D D; Brossard, L; Campbell, R; Crane, J P; Hennessy, D P; Huber, L; de Lange, C; Ferguson, N; Matzat, P; McKeith, F; Moraes, P J U; Mullan, B P; Noblet, J; Quiniou, N; Tokach, M

    2013-11-01

    In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked

  4. Effects of temperature and force requirements on muscle work and power output.

    PubMed

    Olberding, Jeffrey P; Deban, Stephen M

    2017-03-17

    Performance of muscle-powered movements depends on temperature through its effects on muscle contractile properties. In vitro stimulation of Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) plantaris muscles reveals that interactions between force and temperature affect the mechanical work of muscle. At low temperatures (9 - 17°C), muscle work depends on temperature when shortening at any force, and temperature effects are greater at higher forces. At warmer temperatures (13 - 21°C), muscle work depends on temperature when shortening with intermediate and high forces (≥ 30% P0). Shortening velocity is most strongly affected by temperature at low temperature intervals and high forces. Power is also most strongly affected at low temperature intervals but this effect is minimized at intermediate forces. Effects of temperature on muscle force explain these interactions; force production decreases at lower temperatures, increasing the challenge of moving a constant force relative to the muscle's capacity. These results suggest that animal performance that requires muscles to do work with low forces relative to a muscle's maximum force production will be robust to temperature changes, and this effect should be true whether muscle acts directly or through elastic-recoil mechanisms and whether force is prescribed (i.e. internal) or variable (i.e. external). Conversely, performance requiring muscles to shorten with relatively large forces is expected to be more sensitive to temperature changes.

  5. The effect of ambient wind on a road vehicle's aerodynamic work requirement and fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Sovran, G.

    1984-01-01

    A wind factor has been developed to account for the effect of ambient wind on the aerodynamic work required by any road vehicle during any single driving experience. It has been evaluated for a broad range of wind and aerodynamic characteristics for three relevant types of driving. Values substantially larger than unity can be experienced, reaching levels like 5.5 (a 450 percent increase in aerodynamic work over the zero-wind case) on the EPA urban schedule. Adverse wind effect occurs for substantially more than half the possible wind angles relative to the road. A functional form for the effect of wind on fuel consumption has been developed. Wind effect translates to a fractional change in fuel consumption through an influence coefficient which depends on the particular chassis-drivetrain-driving mode combination being considered. This impact on fuel consumption provides additional incentive for reducing the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles.

  6. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  7. Analysis of Measurement Requirements for the Aerosol Indirect Effect: A Synthesis of Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feingold, G.; Previdi, M.; Veron, D. E.

    2003-12-01

    The aerosol indirect effect has been measured for some time now by satellite remote sensors, and more recently by surface-based remote sensors. The indirect effect is often expressed in terms of a relative change in drop size for a relative change in aerosol optical depth or extinction. Here we present some recent results of surface based remote sensing of the indirect effect and assess whether aerosol optical depth or extinction is a suitable proxy for the aerosol affecting drop formation. To do so, we use multiple realizations of a cloud model to investigate the sensitivity of cloud drop effective radius re to aerosol parameters (size distribution and composition) and dynamical parameters (updraft and liquid water content). A breakdown of the individual aerosol terms contributing to drop size change shows that use of aerosol extinction as a proxy for size distribution and composition tends to underestimate the magnitude of the first indirect effect. The use of the aerosol index alleviates this problem somewhat. We show that re is most sensitive to cloud liquid water, a parameter often ignored in indirect effect analyses. The relative importance of the other parameters varies for different conditions but aerosol concentration Na is consistently important. Updraft plays an increasingly important role under high aerosol loadings. Requirements for measuring the indirect effect over polluted continents are shown to be more stringent than those over cleaner, remote oceans. This may influence interpretation of current satellite and surface remote measurements of the indirect effect.

  8. Requirements for effective academic leadership in Iran: a nominal group technique exercise.

    PubMed

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Sohrabi, Zohreh; Masiello, Italo

    2008-04-22

    During the last two decades, medical education in Iran has shifted from elite to mass education, with a considerable increase in number of schools, faculties, and programs. Because of this transformation, it is a good case now to explore academic leadership in a non-western country. The objective of this study was to explore the views on effective academic leadership requirements held by key informants in Iran's medical education system. A nominal group study was conducted by strategic sampling in which participants were requested to discuss and report on requirements for academic leadership, suggestions and barriers. Written notes from the discussions were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. Six themes of effective academic leadership emerged: 1)shared vision, goal, and strategy, 2) teaching and research leadership, 3) fair and efficient management, 4) mutual trust and respect, 5) development and recognition, and 6) transformational leadership. Current Iranian academic leadership suffers from lack of meritocracy, conservative leaders, politicization, bureaucracy, and belief in misconceptions. The structure of the Iranian medical university system is not supportive of effective academic leadership. However, participants' views on effective academic leadership are in line with what is also found in the western literature, that is, if the managers could create the premises for a supportive and transformational leadership, they could generate mutual trust and respect in academia and increase scientific production.

  9. Requirements for effective academic leadership in Iran: A Nominal Group Technique exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Sohrabi, Zohreh; Masiello, Italo

    2008-01-01

    Background During the last two decades, medical education in Iran has shifted from elite to mass education, with a considerable increase in number of schools, faculties, and programs. Because of this transformation, it is a good case now to explore academic leadership in a non-western country. The objective of this study was to explore the views on effective academic leadership requirements held by key informants in Iran's medical education system. Methods A nominal group study was conducted by strategic sampling in which participants were requested to discuss and report on requirements for academic leadership, suggestions and barriers. Written notes from the discussions were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. Results Six themes of effective academic leadership emerged: 1)shared vision, goal, and strategy, 2) teaching and research leadership, 3) fair and efficient management, 4) mutual trust and respect, 5) development and recognition, and 6) transformational leadership. Current Iranian academic leadership suffers from lack of meritocracy, conservative leaders, politicization, bureaucracy, and belief in misconceptions. Conclusion The structure of the Iranian medical university system is not supportive of effective academic leadership. However, participants' views on effective academic leadership are in line with what is also found in the western literature, that is, if the managers could create the premises for a supportive and transformational leadership, they could generate mutual trust and respect in academia and increase scientific production. PMID:18430241

  10. The effect of clonidine on sevoflurane requirements for anaesthesia and hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Katoh, T; Ikeda, K

    1997-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of clonidine given orally on sevoflurane requirements for anaesthesia and hypnosis. Patients received either clonidine (5 micrograms.kg-1) by mouth (n = 21) 90 min before surgery or no premedication (n = 21) by random allocation. MAC was calculated using repeated tetanic nerve stimulation with end-tidal sevoflurane concentration increased or decreased by 0.3 vol.% depending on the previous response. MAC awake was calculated according to the response to verbal command. The mean (SD) MAC in the clonidine-treated patients was 1.53 (0.20)% compared with 1.83 (0.15)% in the control group (p < 0.001). Similarly, MAC awake was reduced in the clonidine group (0.50 (0.08)% compared with 0.60 (0.07)% in the control group) (p < 0.001). We conclude that clonidine 5 micrograms.kg-1 orally administered pre-operatively reduces sevoflurane requirements for anaesthesia and hypnosis.

  11. Retrieval effects on ventilation and cooling requirements for a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the regulations promulgated in Title 10, Part 60 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR60) by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an underground repository for spent fuel and high level nuclear waste (HLW) require that it is possible to retrieve waste, for whatever reason, from such a facility for a period of 50 years from initial storage or until the completion of the performance confirmation period, whichever comes first. This paper considers the effects that the retrievability option mandates on ventilation and cooling systems required for normal repository operations. An example is given for a hypothetical repository in salt. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Thermal requirements and effect of temperature and prey on the development of the predator Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Stathas, George J; Kontodimas, Dimitrios C; Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kampouris, Stavros

    2011-12-01

    Thermal requirements (lower temperature threshold and thermal constant) for the development of each developmental stage of the predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were studied on Aphis fabae Scopoli and Dysaphis crataegi (Kaltenbach) under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C) and prey species was examined on pre-imaginal developmental duration and life cycle (pre-oviposition period included) of the predator. Our results suggest comparable thermal requirements for the development of H. axyridis on the particular prey and when compared with other aphid species. The total preimaginal development of H. axyridis, at 15, 20, and 30°C, and its life cycle, at 15 and 30°C, are shorter on D. crataegi than on A. fabae.

  13. Effect of diet composition on protein requirements of children and adults in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, M N; Valencia, M E; Brown, D S

    1993-01-01

    The overall vegetable and animal protein combinations of the diet in Northern Mexico were determined through a dietary population survey. Vegetable sources made up 45% and animal protein was 55% (45V/55A). Further combinations of up to 100% vegetable protein dietary mixtures (100V) were studied to test the sensibility of the variations on protein requirements of pre-school, school children and adults. Diets were analyzed for amino acid composition and in vivo protein digestibility in rats to estimate true protein requirements according to FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). The effect on the pre-school group showed the widest variation with 1.46 g/kg/day in the 45V/55A to 2.63 in the 100V. For the school-aged children and adults the variations were 1.15-1.79 and 0.94-0.84 g/kg/day respectively.

  14. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  15. SF-1 expression in the hypothalamus is required for beneficial metabolic effects of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Teppei; Castorena, Carlos M; Pearson, Mackenzie; Kusminski, Christine M; Ahmed, Newaz; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, Syann; Hill, Joseph A; Scherer, Philipp E; Holland, William L; Elmquist, Joel K

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has numerous beneficial metabolic effects. The central nervous system (CNS) is critical for regulating energy balance and coordinating whole body metabolism. However, a role for the CNS in the regulation of metabolism in the context of the exercise remains less clear. Here, using genetically engineered mice we assessed the requirement of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) expression in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. We found that VMH-specific deletion of SF-1 blunts (a) the reductions in fat mass, (b) improvements in glycemia, and (c) increases in energy expenditure that are associated with exercise training. Unexpectedly, we found that SF-1 deletion in the VMH attenuates metabolic responses of skeletal muscle to exercise, including induction of PGC-1α expression. Collectively, this evidence suggests that SF-1 expression in VMH neurons is required for the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18206.001 PMID:27874828

  16. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Is Required for the Antinociceptive Effects of Thiamine and Benfotiamine

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Julie K.; Coleman, Jennifer L.; Fitzpatrick, Brendan J.; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Bridges, Arlene S.; Vihko, Pirkko; Zylka, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is an essential vitamin that must be obtained from the diet for proper neurological function. At higher doses, thiamine and benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate, BT)–a phosphorylated derivative of thiamine–have antinociceptive effects in animals and humans, although how these compounds inhibit pain is unknown. Here, we found that Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP) can dephosphorylate BT in vitro, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and in primary-afferent axon terminals in the dorsal spinal cord. The dephosphorylated product S-benzoylthiamine (S-BT) then decomposes to O-benzoylthiamine (O-BT) and to thiamine in a pH-dependent manner, independent of additional enzymes. This unique reaction mechanism reveals that BT only requires a phosphatase for conversion to thiamine. However, we found that the antinociceptive effects of BT, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine–a compound that is not phosphorylated–were entirely dependent on PAP at the spinal level. Moreover, pharmacokinetic studies with wild-type and Pap−/− mice revealed that PAP is not required for the conversion of BT to thiamine in vivo. Taken together, our study highlights an obligatory role for PAP in the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and phosphorylated thiamine analogs, and suggests a novel phosphatase-independent function for PAP. PMID:23119057

  17. Prostatic acid phosphatase is required for the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and benfotiamine.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Julie K; Coleman, Jennifer L; Fitzpatrick, Brendan J; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Bridges, Arlene S; Vihko, Pirkko; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is an essential vitamin that must be obtained from the diet for proper neurological function. At higher doses, thiamine and benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate, BT)-a phosphorylated derivative of thiamine-have antinociceptive effects in animals and humans, although how these compounds inhibit pain is unknown. Here, we found that Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP) can dephosphorylate BT in vitro, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and in primary-afferent axon terminals in the dorsal spinal cord. The dephosphorylated product S-benzoylthiamine (S-BT) then decomposes to O-benzoylthiamine (O-BT) and to thiamine in a pH-dependent manner, independent of additional enzymes. This unique reaction mechanism reveals that BT only requires a phosphatase for conversion to thiamine. However, we found that the antinociceptive effects of BT, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine-a compound that is not phosphorylated-were entirely dependent on PAP at the spinal level. Moreover, pharmacokinetic studies with wild-type and Pap(-/-) mice revealed that PAP is not required for the conversion of BT to thiamine in vivo. Taken together, our study highlights an obligatory role for PAP in the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and phosphorylated thiamine analogs, and suggests a novel phosphatase-independent function for PAP.

  18. Polarity Effects in the Hisg Gene of Salmonella Require a Site within the Coding Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Ciampi, M. S.; Roth, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A single site in the middle of the coding sequence of the hisG gene of Salmonella is required for most of the polar effect of mutations in this gene. Nonsense and insertion mutations mapping upstream of this point in the hisG gene all have strong polar effects on expression of downstream genes in the operon; mutations mapping promotor distal to this site have little or no polar effect. Two previously known hisG mutations, mapping in the region of the polarity site, abolish the polarity effect of insertion mutations mapping upstream of this region. New polarity site mutations have been selected which have lost the polar effect of upstream nonsense mutations. All mutations abolishing the function of the site are small deletions; three are identical, 28-bp deletions which have arisen independently. A fourth mutation is a deletion of 16 base pairs internal to the larger deletion. Several point mutations within this 16-bp region have no effect on the function of the polarity site. We believe that a small number of polarity sites of this type are responsible for polarity in all genes. The site in the hisG gene is more easily detected than most because it appears to be the only such site in the hisG gene and because it maps in the center of the coding sequence. PMID:3282985

  19. Sex effects on net protein and energy requirements for growth of Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Souza, A P; St-Pierre, N R; Fernandes, M H R M; Almeida, A K; Vargas, J A C; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-03-22

    Requirements for growth in the different sexes remain poorly quantified in goats. The objective of this study was to develop equations for estimating net protein (NPG) and net energy (NEG) for growth in Saanen goats of different sexes from 5 to 45 kg of body weight (BW). A data set from 7 comparative slaughter studies (238 individual records) of Saanen goats was used. Allometric equations were developed to determine body protein and energy contents in the empty BW (EBW) as dependent variables and EBW as the allometric predictor. Parameter estimates were obtained using a linearized (log-transformation) expression of the allometric equations using the MIXED procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The model included the random effect of the study and the fixed effects of sex (intact male, castrated male, and female; n = 94, 73, and 71, respectively), EBW, and their interactions. Net requirements for growth were estimated as the first partial derivative of the allometric equations with respect to EBW. Additionally, net requirements for growth were evaluated based on the degree of maturity. Monte Carlo techniques were used to estimate the uncertainty of the calculated net requirement values. Sex affected allometric relationships for protein and energy in Saanen goats. The allometric equation for protein content in the EBW of intact and castrated males was log10 protein (g) = 2.221 (±0.0224) + 1.015 (±0.0165) × log10 EBW (kg). For females, the relationship was log10 protein (g) = 2.277 (±0.0288) + 0.958 (±0.0218) × log10 EBW (kg). Therefore, NPG for males was greater than for females. The allometric equation for the energy content in the EBW of intact males was log10 energy (kcal) = 2.988 (±0.0323) + 1.240 (±0.0238) × log10 EBW (kg); of castrated males, log10 energy (kcal) = 2.873 (±0.0377) + 1.359 (±0.0283) × log10 EBW (kg); and of females, log10 energy (kcal) = 2.820 (±0.0377) + 1.442 (±0.0281) × log10 EBW (kg). The NEG of castrated

  20. Sevoflurane requirement during elective ankle day surgery: the effects of etirocoxib premedication, a prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Ibrahim; Hein, Anette; Jacobson, Eva; Jakobsson, Jan G

    2008-01-01

    Background Anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs, have become an important part of the pain management in day surgery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Coxib premedication on the intra-operative anaesthetic requirements in patients undergoing elective ankle surgery in general anaesthesia. Type of study Prospective, randomized study of the intra-operative anaesthetic-sparing effects of etoricoxib premedication as compared to no NSAID preoperatively. Methods The intra-operative requirement of sevoflurane was studied in forty-four ASA 1–2 patients undergoing elective ankle day surgical in balanced general anaesthesia. Primary study endpoint was end-tidal sevoflurane concentration to maintain Cerebral State Index of 40 – 50 during surgery. Results All anaesthesia and surgery was uneventful, no complications or adverse events were noticed. The mean end-tidal sevoflurane concentration intra-operatively was 1.25 (SD 0.2) and 0.91 (SD 0.2) for the pre and post-operative administered group of patients respectively (p < 0.0001). No other intra-operative differences could be noted. Emergence and recovery was rapid and no difference was noticed in time to discharge-eligible mean 52 minutes in both groups studied. In all 6 patients, 5 in the group receiving etoricoxib post-operatively, after surgery, and one in the pre-operative group required rescue analgesia before discharge from hospital. No difference was seen in pain or need for rescue analgesia, nausea or patients satisfaction during the first 24 postoperative hours. Conclusion Coxib premedication before elective day surgery has an anaesthetic sparing potential. PMID:18786254

  1. Data requirements for simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection, Harrison and Jackson Counties, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Available literature and data were reviewed to quantify data requirements for computer simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection in southeastern Mississippi. Emphasis of each review was placed on quantifying physical properties of current Class I injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. Class I injection zones are zones that are used for injection of hazardous or non-hazardous liquid waste below a formation containing the lowermost underground source of drinking water located within one-quarter of a mile of the injection well. Several mathematical models have been developed to simulate injection effects. The Basic Plume Method was selected because it is commonly used in permit applications, and the Intercomp model was selected because it is generally accepted and used in injection-related research. The input data requirements of the two models were combined into a single data requirement list inclusive of physical properties of injection zones only; injected waste and well properties are not included because such information is site-specific by industry, which is beyond the scope of this report. Results of the reviews of available literature and data indicated that Class I permit applications and standard-reference chemistry and physics texts were the primary sources of information to quantify physical properties of injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. With the exception of a few reports and supplementary data for one injection zone in Jackson County, very little additional information pertaining to physical properties of the injection zones was available in sources other than permit applications and standard-reference texts.

  2. Effect of high-dose Ascorbic acid on vasopressor's requirement in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Zabet, Mohadeseh Hosseini; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Ramezani, Masoud; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Effects of ascorbic acid on hemodynamic parameters of septic shock were evaluated in nonsurgical critically ill patients in limited previous studies. In this study, the effect of high-dose ascorbic acid on vasopressor drug requirement was evaluated in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. Methods: Patients with septic shock who required a vasopressor drug to maintain mean arterial pressure >65 mmHg were assigned to receive either 25 mg/kg intravenous ascorbic acid every 6 h or matching placebo for 72 h. Vasopressor dose and duration were considered as the primary outcomes. Duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and 28-day mortality has been defined as secondary outcomes. Findings: During the study period, 28 patients (14 in each group) completed the trial. Mean dose of norepinephrine during the study period (7.44 ± 3.65 vs. 13.79 ± 6.48 mcg/min, P = 0.004) and duration of norepinephrine administration (49.64 ± 25.67 vs. 71.57 ± 1.60 h, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group. No statistically significant difference was detected between the groups regarding the length of ICU stay. However, 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group (14.28% vs. 64.28%, respectively; P = 0.009). Conclusion: High-dose ascorbic acid may be considered as an effective and safe adjuvant therapy in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. The most effective dose of ascorbic acid and the best time for its administration should be determined in future studies. PMID:27162802

  3. Metamizole (dipyrone) effects on sevoflurane requirements and postoperative hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Daniel; Benito, Javier; Largo, Carlota; Polo, Gonzalo; Canfrán, Susana; Gómez de Segura, Ignacio Alvarez

    2016-09-30

    Unlike non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), metamizole has poor anti-inflammatory effects; and is suitable for models where analgesia, but not anti-inflammatory effects, is desirable. Like opioids, these drugs produce perioperative analgesia while reducing anaesthetic requirements, but it remains unclear whether they may develop tolerance or hyperalgesia, and thus decrease in analgesic efficacy. The aim was to determine whether tolerance or hyperalgesia to metamizole occurred in rats, and whether the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was affected. In a randomized, prospective, controlled study, male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were administered metamizole (300 mg/kg, day 4). Previously, the following treatments were provided: daily metamizole for four days (0-3), morphine (10 mg/kg; positive control, day 0 only) or saline (negative control). The main outcome measures were mechanical (MNT) and warm thermal (WNT) nociceptive quantitative sensory thresholds. The baseline sevoflurane MAC and the reduction produced by the treatments were also determined. The mean (SD) baseline MAC [2.4(0.2)%vol] was decreased by morphine and metamizole by 45(11)% and 33(7)% (P = 0.000, both), respectively. Baseline MNT [35.4(4.5) g] and WNT [13.2(2.4) s] were decreased by morphine and metamizole: MNT reduction of 22(6)% (P = 0.000) and 22(7)% (P = 0.001), respectively and WNT reduction of 34(14)% (P = 0.000) and 24(13)% (P = 0.001). The baseline MAC on day 4 was neither modified by treatments nor the MAC reduction produced by metamizole (days 0 and 4; P > 0.05). In conclusion, repeated metamizole administration may produce hyperalgesia, although it may not modify its anaesthetic sparing effect. The clinical relevance of this effect in painful research models requiring prolonged analgesic therapy warrants further investigation.

  4. Medical regulation and health outcomes: the effect of the physician examination requirement.

    PubMed

    Cotet, Anca M; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2013-04-01

    This article investigates the effect on health outcomes of the regulation prohibiting physicians from prescribing drugs without a prior physical examination. This requirement could improve health by reducing illegal access to prescription drugs. However, it reduces access to health care by making it more difficult for patients and physicians to use many forms of telemedicine. Thus, this regulation generates a trade-off between access and safety. Using matching techniques, we find that the physician examination requirement leads to an increase of 1% in mortality rates from disease, the equivalent of 8.5 more deaths per 100,000 people, and a decrease of 6.7% in injury mortality, the equivalent of 2.5 deaths per 100,000 people. The magnitude of these effects is larger in rural areas and in areas with low physician density and is accompanied by an 18% increase in the number of days lost each month to illness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of dexmedetomidine on sevoflurane requirements and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Kim, So Yeon; Yoon, Hye Jin; Kil, Hae Keum

    2014-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a potent selective α2-adrenergic agonist, produces sedation and analgesia. This study was conducted to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine infusion on sevoflurane requirements, recovery profiles, and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. Forty children undergoing ambulatory hernioplasty or orchiopexy were randomized into two groups. The dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n=20) received dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg, followed by 0.1 μg/kg/h until the end of surgery, whereas the saline group (Group S, n=20) received volume-matched normal saline. Sevoflurane was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and caudal block was performed in all children. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ET-sevo), the incidence of emergence agitation, pain scores, and sedation scores were recorded. Hemodynamic changes and other adverse effects were assessed in the perioperative period. ET-sevo of Group D was significantly reduced in 23.8-67% compared to Group S during surgery. The incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D than in Group S (5% vs. 55%, p=0.001). Postoperative pain was comparable, and discharge time was not different between the groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in Group D during surgery. Intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane requirements and decreased emergence agitation without delaying discharge in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. However, caution should be taken in regard to bradycardia and hypotension.

  6. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Sevoflurane Requirements and Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Young; Kim, So Yeon; Yoon, Hye Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dexmedetomidine, a potent selective α2-adrenergic agonist, produces sedation and analgesia. This study was conducted to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine infusion on sevoflurane requirements, recovery profiles, and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. Materials and Methods Forty children undergoing ambulatory hernioplasty or orchiopexy were randomized into two groups. The dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n=20) received dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg, followed by 0.1 µg/kg/h until the end of surgery, whereas the saline group (Group S, n=20) received volume-matched normal saline. Sevoflurane was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and caudal block was performed in all children. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ET-sevo), the incidence of emergence agitation, pain scores, and sedation scores were recorded. Hemodynamic changes and other adverse effects were assessed in the perioperative period. Results ET-sevo of Group D was significantly reduced in 23.8-67% compared to Group S during surgery. The incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D than in Group S (5% vs. 55%, p=0.001). Postoperative pain was comparable, and discharge time was not different between the groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in Group D during surgery. Conclusion Intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane requirements and decreased emergence agitation without delaying discharge in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. However, caution should be taken in regard to bradycardia and hypotension. PMID:24339309

  7. Effective Depletion of Pre-existing Anti-AAV Antibodies Requires Broad Immune Targeting.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Victoria M; Meadows, Aaron S; Pineda, Ricardo J; Camboni, Marybeth; McCarty, Douglas M; Fu, Haiyan

    2017-03-17

    Pre-existing antibodies (Abs) to AAV pose a critical challenge for the translation of gene therapies. No effective approach is available to overcome pre-existing Abs. Given the complexity of Ab production, overcoming pre-existing Abs will require broad immune targeting. We generated a mouse model of pre-existing AAV9 Abs to test multiple immunosuppressants, including bortezomib, rapamycin, and prednisolone, individually or in combination. We identified an effective approach combining rapamycin and prednisolone, reducing serum AAV9 Abs by 70%-80% at 4 weeks and 85%-93% at 8 weeks of treatment. The rapamycin plus prednisolone treatment resulted in significant decreases in the frequency of B cells, plasma cells, and IgG-secreting and AAV9-specific Ab-producing plasma cells in bone marrow. The rapamycin plus prednisolone treatment also significantly reduced frequencies of IgD(-)IgG(+) class-switched/FAS(+)CL7(+) germinal center B cells, and of activated CD4(+) T cells expressing PD1 and GL7, in spleen. These data suggest that rapamycin plus prednisolone has selective inhibitory effects on both T helper type 2 support of B cell activation in spleen and on bone marrow plasma cell survival, leading to effective AAV9 Abs depletion. This promising immunomodulation approach is highly translatable, and it poses minimal risk in the context of therapeutic benefits promised by gene therapy for severe monogenetic diseases, with a single or possibly a few treatments over a lifetime.

  8. The Behavioral Effects of the Antidepressant Tianeptine Require the Mu Opioid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Nautiyal, Katherine M; Kruegel, Andrew C; Levinstein, Marjorie R; Magalong, Valerie M; Gassaway, Madalee M; Grinnell, Steven G; Han, Jaena; Ansonoff, Michael A; Pintar, John E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sames, Dalibor; Hen, René

    2017-03-17

    Depression is a debilitating chronic illness that affects around 350 million people worldwide. Current treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are not ideal because only a fraction of patients achieve remission. Tianeptine is an effective antidepressant with a previously unknown mechanism of action. We recently reported that tianeptine is a full agonist at the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). Here we demonstrate that the acute and chronic antidepressant-like behavioral effects of tianeptine in mice require MOR. Interestingly, while tianeptine also produces many opiate-like behavioral effects such as analgesia and reward, it does not lead to tolerance or withdrawal. Furthermore, the primary metabolite of tianeptine (MC5), which has a longer half-life, mimics the behavioral effects of tianeptine in a MOR-dependent fashion. These results point to the possibility that MOR and its downstream signaling cascades may be novel targets for antidepressant drug development.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 17 March 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.60.

  9. The hemodynamic effect of an intravenous antispasmodic on propofol requirements during colonoscopy: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pao, Yun-Ying; Chung, Kuan-Chih; Chen, Ju-Pin; Lee, Ko-Chao; Hu, Wan-Hsiang; Juang, Sin-Ei; Lu, Hsiao-Feng; Tan, Ping-Heng; Hung, Kuo-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    Hemodynamic status during induction of anesthesia may modify the amount of propofol needed to induce loss of consciousness (LOC). This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of antispasmodic-induced tachycardia on the concentration of propofol at the effect-site for inducing LOC when deep sedation was executed for colonoscopy. One hundred and sixteen adult patients were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg of the antispasmodic Buscopan intravenously (Buscopan group; n = 58) or normal saline (control group; n = 58) for colonoscopy. After administration of Buscopan, the antispasmodic or normal saline, propofol was given by means of target-controlled infusion to induce LOC. We recorded patient characteristics, hemodynamic profiles, effect-site propofol concentration upon LOC, total propofol dosage for colonoscopy, and colonoscopy outcomes. There were no significant differences in the characteristics between the two groups. Although the patients receiving Buscopan had a higher heart rate than those of the control group (101 ± 15 beats/minute vs. 77 ± 13 beats/minute; p < 0.001), we found no significant difference between two groups in the effect-site propofol concentration for inducing LOC (3.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL vs. 3.8 ± 0.6 μg/mL; p = 0.261) nor total propofol dosage required for colonoscopy (3.2 ± 1.4 mg/kg vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 mg/kg; p = 0.698). Both groups had comparable colonoscopy outcomes, including percentage of patients completing the procedure and total procedure time. The hemodynamic responses to intravenous Buscopan neither affected the effect-site propofol concentration needed to induce LOC, nor the total propofol dosage required for colonoscopy in this study. There is no need to modify the dosage of propofol in patients subject to Buscopan premedication in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. An Assessment of Dust Effects on Planetary Surface Systems to Support Exploration Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Apollo astronauts learned first hand how problems with dust impact lunar surface missions. After three days, lunar dust contamination on EVA suit bearings led to such great difficulty in movement that another EVA would not have been possible. Dust clinging to EVA suits was transported into the Lunar Module. During the return trip to Earth, when micro gravity was reestablished, the dust became airborne and floated through the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust and it irritated their eyes. Some mechanical systems aboard the spacecraft were damaged due to dust contamination. Study results obtained by Robotic Martian missions indicate that Martian surface soil is oxidative and reactive. Exposures to the reactive Martian dust will pose an even greater concern to the crew health and the integrity of the mechanical systems. As NASA embarks on planetary surface missions to support its Exploration Vision, the effects of these extraterrestrial dusts must be well understood and systems must be designed to operate reliably and protect the crew in the dusty environments of the Moon and Mars. The AIM Dust Assessment Team was tasked to identify systems that will be affected by the respective dust, how they will be affected, associated risks of dust exposure, requirements that will need to be developed, identified knowledge gaps, and recommended scientific measurements to obtain information needed to develop requirements, and design and manufacture the surface systems that will support crew habitation in the lunar and Martian outposts.

  11. Effects and costs of requiring child-restraint systems for young children traveling on commercial airplanes.

    PubMed

    Newman, Thomas B; Johnston, Brian D; Grossman, David C

    2003-10-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration is planning a new regulation requiring children younger than 2 years to ride in approved child-restraint seats on airplanes. To estimate the annual number of child air crash deaths that might be prevented by the proposed regulation, the threshold proportion of families switching from air to car travel above which the risks of the policy would exceed its benefits, and the cost per death prevented. Risk and economic analyses. Child-restraint seat use could prevent about 0.4 child air crash deaths per year in the United States. Increased deaths as a result of car travel could exceed deaths prevented by restraint seat use if the proportion of families switching from air to car travel exceeded about 5% to 10%. The estimate for this proportion varied with assumptions about trip distance, driver characteristics, and the effectiveness of child-restraint seats but is unlikely to exceed 15%. Assuming no increase in car travel, for each dollar increase in the cost of implementing the regulation per round trip per family, the cost per death prevented would increase by about $6.4 million. Unless space for young children in restraint seats can be provided at low cost to families, with little or no diversion to automobile travel, a policy requiring restraint seat use could cause a net increase in deaths. Even excluding this possibility, the cost of the proposed policy per death prevented is high.

  12. Effects of oral contraceptives on tryptophan metabolism and vitamin B6 requirements in women.

    PubMed

    Brown, R R; Rose, D P; Leklem, J E; Linkswiler, H M

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral contraceptive usage on the nutritional requirement for vitamin B6, control women and oral contraceptive users were depleted of vitamin B6 for 1 month followed by a month of repletion with 0.8, 2.0, or 20.0 mg of pyridoxine hydrochloride per day. At weekly intervals a number of indices of vitamin B6 nutrition were measured. Marked elevation in excretion of tryptophan metabolites occurred in oral contraceptive users after tryptophan loads. However, other indices of vitamin B6 nutritional state, including urinary 4-pyridoxic acid excretion, urinary cystathionine excretion, plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentrations, and erythrocyte aspartate and alanine aminotransferases were not different between controls and oral contraceptive users. The excretion of metabolites after oral loading doses of L-kynurenine (which bypasses tryptophan oxygenase) was elevated in oral contraceptive users indicating that abnormal metabolism of tryptophan was not due only to induced tryptophan oxygenase. The data indicate that use of oral contraceptives does not generally change the requirement for vitamin B6 but rather produces a specific change in activity of enzymes beyond kynurenine in the pathway of tryptophan metabolism.

  13. Phospholipase D-mTOR requirement for the Warburg effect in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Toschi, Alfredo; Lee, Evan; Thompson, Sebastian; Gadir, Noga; Yellen, Paige; Drain, C Michael; Ohh, Michael; Foster, David A

    2010-12-18

    A characteristic of cancer cells is the generation of lactate from glucose in spite of adequate oxygen for oxidative phosphorylation. This property - known as the "Warburg effect" or aerobic glycolysis - contrasts with anaerobic glycolysis, which is triggered in hypoxic normal cells. The Warburg effect is thought to provide a means for cancer cells to survive under conditions where oxygen is limited and to generate metabolites necessary for cell growth. The shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in response to hypoxia is mediated by the production of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) - a transcription factor family that stimulates the expression of proteins involved in glucose uptake and glycolysis. We reported previously that elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity in renal and breast cancer cells is required for the expression of the α subunits of HIF1 and HIF2. We report here that the aerobic glycolysis observed in human breast and renal cancer cells is dependent on the elevated PLD activity. Intriguingly, the effect of PLD on the Warburg phenotype was dependent on the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the breast cancer cells and on mTORC2 in the renal cancer cells. These data indicate that elevated PLD-mTOR signaling, which is common in human cancer cells, is critical for the metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis.

  14. Lowering social security's duration-of-marriage requirement: distributional effects for future female retirees.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Whitman, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A number of alternatives to Social Security's auxiliary benefit system have been proposed in the context of changes in American family and work patterns. This article focuses on one modification therein-lowering the 10-year duration-of-marriage requirement for divorced spouses. Using a powerful microsimulation model (MINT), we examine the distributional effects of extending spouse and survivor benefit eligibility to 5- and 7-year marriages ending in divorce among female retirees in 2030, a population largely comprised of baby boomers. Results show that the options would increase benefits for a small share of female retirees, around 2 to 4%, and would not affect the vast majority of low-income divorced older women. However, of those affected, the options would substantially increase benefits and lower incidence of poverty and near poor. Low-income divorced retirees with marriages between 5 and 9 years in length and a deceased former spouse face the greatest potential gains.

  15. Removal of 30-day residency requirement for per diem payments. Final rule; confirmation of effective date.

    PubMed

    2013-03-26

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published a direct final rule amending its regulations concerning per diem payments to State homes for the provision of nursing home care to veterans. Specifically, this rule removes the requirement that a veteran must have resided in a State home for 30 consecutive days before VA will pay per diem for that veteran when there is no overnight stay. VA received no significant adverse comments concerning this rule or its companion substantially identical proposed rule published on the same date. This document confirms that the direct final rule became effective on November 26, 2012. In a companion document in this issue of the Federal Register, we are withdrawing as unnecessary the proposed rule.

  16. Modeling Requirements for Simulating the Effects of Extreme Acts of Terrorism: A White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.; Hiebert-Dodd, K.; Marozas, D.; Paananen, O.; Pryor, R.J.; Reinert, R.K.

    1998-10-01

    This white paper presents the initial requirements for developing a new computer model for simulating the effects of extreme acts of terrorism in the United States. General characteristics of the model are proposed and the level of effort to prepare a complete written description of the model, prior to coding, is detailed. The model would simulate the decision processes and interactions of complex U. S. systems engaged in responding to and recovering from four types of terrorist incidents. The incident scenarios span the space of extreme acts of terrorism that have the potential to affect not only the impacted area, but also the entire nation. The model would be useful to decision-makers in assessing and analyzing the vulnerability of the nation's complex infrastructures, in prioritizing resources to reduce risk, and in planning strategies for immediate response and for subsequent recovery from terrorist incidents.

  17. The Effects of information barrier requirements on the trilateral initiative attribute measurement system (AVNG).

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D. W.; Langner, D. C.; Whiteson, R.; Wolford, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the detection techniques used for measuring classified materials are very similar to those used in unclassified measurements, the surrounding packaging is generally very different. If iZ classified item is to be measured, an information barrier is required to protect any classified data acquired. This information barrier must protect the classified information while giving the inspector confidence that the unclassified outputs accurately reflect the classified inputs, Both information barrier and authentication considerations must be considered during all phases of system design and fabrication. One example of such a measurement system is the attribute measurement system (termed the AVNG) designed for the: Trilateral Initiative. We will discuss the integration of information barrier components into this system as well as the effects of an information barrier (including authentication) concerns on the implementation of the detector systems.

  18. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hines, D J; Schmitt, L I; Hines, R M; Moss, S J; Haydon, P G

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a debilitating condition with a lifetime risk of ten percent. Most treatments take several weeks to achieve clinical efficacy, limiting the ability to bring instant relief needed in psychiatric emergencies. One intervention that rapidly alleviates depressive symptoms is sleep deprivation; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation, raising the possibility that glial signaling mediates antidepressive-like actions of sleep deprivation. Here, we found that astrocytic signaling to adenosine (A1) receptors was required for the robust reduction of depressive-like behaviors following 12 hours of sleep deprivation. As sleep deprivation activates synaptic A1 receptors, we mimicked the effect of sleep deprivation on depression phenotypes by administration of the A1 agonist CCPA. These results provide the first mechanistic insight into how sleep deprivation impacts mood, and provide a novel pathway for rapid antidepressant development by modulation of glial signaling in the brain. PMID:23321809

  19. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  20. The Effect of Emergency Medicine Residents on Clinical Efficiency and Staffing Requirements.

    PubMed

    Clinkscales, Jeffrey D; Fesmire, Francis M; Hennings, Jacob R; Severance, Harry W; Seaberg, David C; Patil, Nirav

    2016-01-01

    The effect of emergency medicine (EM) residents on the clinical efficiency of attending physicians is controversial. The authors hypothesized that implementing a new EM residency program would result in an increase in relative value units (RVUs) generated per hour by attending physicians and decrease staffing requirements. This was a retrospective observational analysis of an emergency department before, during, and after the establishment of a new EM residency program. We analyzed the change in RVUs billed, patients seen, and hours worked by attending physicians, midlevel providers (MLPs), and residents, and addressed potential confounding factors. The clinical efficiency of attending physicians increased by 70%, or 4.98 RVUs/hour (from 7.12 [SD ± 1.4] RVUs/hour to 12.1 [SD ± 2.2] RVUs/hour, p < 0.001) with the implementation of an EM residency program. Overall, net department RVU generation rose by 32%, even as attending physician coverage decreased by 6.3% (p < 0.05), and MLP coverage dropped by 60% (p < 0.05). We estimated that the implementation of the residency saved 4,860 hours of attending physician coverage and 5,828 hours of MLP coverage per year. This represents an estimated $1,741,265 in annual staffing savings, comparable to the residency program's annual operating cost of $1,821,108. The implementation of an EM residency program had a positive effect on the clinical efficiency of attending physicians and decreased staffing requirements. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. The effects of fentanyl on sevoflurane requirements for loss of consciousness and skin incision.

    PubMed

    Katoh, T; Ikeda, K

    1998-01-01

    Fentanyl produces a minimal reduction in the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane to prevent response to a verbal command in 50% of patients (MAC[awake]) at low but analgesic plasma concentrations. The reduction in MAC(awake), however, is still unknown at higher fentanyl concentrations. The reduction in the MAC of sevoflurane by fentanyl has not been described accurately. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC(awake) and MAC reduction of sevoflurane by fentanyl. Ninety-two patients were randomly allocated to seven fentanyl concentration groups (target plasma concentrations of 0, 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 10, and 14 ng/ml). Responses to verbal command were observed for MAC(awake) assessment at predetermined sevoflurane concentrations. Thereafter, in patients whose target fentanyl concentration was 0 to 10 ng/ml, responses to skin incision were observed for MAC assessment at new steady-state sevoflurane concentrations. The reduction in the MAC(awake) and MAC of sevoflurane by the measured fentanyl concentration was calculated. There was an initial steep reduction in the MAC of sevoflurane by fentanyl, with 3 ng/ml resulting in a 59% MAC reduction. A ceiling effect was observed, with 10 ng/ml providing only a further 17% reduction in MAC. The initial reduction in MAC(awake) was not as steep as that in MAC. Fentanyl reduced MAC(awake) by approximately 24% at a plasma concentration of 3 ng/ml. Although the reduction curve of MAC(awake) was parabolic, no manifest ceiling effect was observed at concentrations administered in the present study. The reduction in sevoflurane requirements for loss of consciousness and skin incision by fentanyl was determined. Fentanyl reduced both requirements, but the mode of the reduction was not comparable.

  2. Effects of Dietary Methionine Levels on Choline Requirements of Starter White Pekin Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Z. G.; Tang, J.; Xie, M.; Yang, P. L.; Hou, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    A 2×5 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary methionine levels (0.28% and 0.48%) and 5 dietary choline levels (0, 394, 823, 1,239, and 1,743 mg/kg), was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine status on choline requirements of starter white Pekin ducks from 7 to 28 days of age. Four hundred eighty 7-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to ten dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 28 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured and the legs of all ducks from each pen were examined for incidence of perosis. Perosis and growth depression were observed in choline-deficient ducks and supplementation of choline reduced perosis and significantly increased weight gain and feed intake regardless of dietary methionine levels (p<0.05). In addition, significant positive effects of dietary methionine supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were observed at any choline level (p<0.05). Supplementation of 1,743 mg/kg choline in diets alleviated the depression of weight gain and feed intake caused by methionine deficiency at 0.28% methionine level. The interaction between choline and methionine influenced weight gain and feed intake of ducks (p<0.05). At 0.28% methionine level, 1,743 mg/kg choline group caused 4.92% and 3.23% amount of improvement in weight gain and feed intake compared with 1,239 mg/kg choline group, respectively. According to the broken-line regression, the choline requirements of starter Pekin ducks for weight gain and feed intake were 1,472 and 1,424 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 946 and 907 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. It suggested the choline recommendations of starter Pekin ducks on a semi-purified diet were 1448 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 927 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. Compared with the adequate methionine level, menthionine deficiency markedly increased the choline requirements of ducks. PMID

  3. Effect of corn processing on degradable intake protein requirement of finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R J; Milton, C T; Klopfenstein, T J; Jordon, D J

    2002-01-01

    Three finishing trials were conducted to determine effect of corn processing on degradable intake protein requirement (DIP) of feedlot cattle. In Trial 1, 252 steers were fed 90% concentrate, high-moisture corn-based diets that contained 0, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2% urea (DM basis) to provide dietary DIP values of 7.0, 8.2, 9.3, and 10.5% of DM, respectively. Nonlinear analysis predicted maximal feed efficiency at 10.2% dietary DIP (95% confidence interval was 9.9 to 13.3%). In Trial 2, 264 steers were fed 90% concentrate, steam-flaked corn-based diets that contained 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, or 2.0% urea (DM basis) to provide dietary DIP values of 4.7, 5.8, 7.0, 8.2, 9.3, and 10.5% of DM, respectively. Nonlinear analysis predicted maximal feed efficiency at 7.1% dietary DIP (95% confidence interval was 7.0 to 7.2%). In Trial 3, 90 individually-fed steers were fed 90% concentrate, dry-rolled, high-moisture, or steam-flaked corn-based diets. Urea was factored across diets at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% of DM to provide dietary DIP values of 4.8. 6.3, 7.8, 9.2, and 10.7% for dry-rolled, 6.7,8.1,9.6, 11.1, and 12.5% for high-moisture, and 4.7, 6.1, 7.6, 9.0, and 10.5% for steam-flaked corn-based diets, respectively. For the dry-rolled corn-based diet, nonlinear analysis could not predict a requirement because feed efficiency was not improved beyond the first increment of dietary DIP, suggesting that the DIP requirement was met at 6.3% of DM. For the high-moisture corn-based diet, nonlinear analysis predicted maximal feed efficiency at 10.0% dietary DIP (95% confidence interval was 9.2 to 11.3%). For the steam-flaked corn based diet, nonlinear analysis predicted maximal feed efficiency at 9.5% dietary DIP (95% confidence interval was 9.2 to 9.5%). Our estimate of the DIP requirement for dry-rolled corn-based diets (6.3%) agrees well with past research and predicted values. Our estimate of the DIP requirement for high-moisture corn-based diets (10.1%) was very consistent between trials

  4. Hormonal requirements for effective induction of microspore embryogenesis in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm.) anther cultures.

    PubMed

    Żur, Iwona; Dubas, Ewa; Krzewska, Monika; Waligórski, Piotr; Dziurka, Michał; Janowiak, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    Effective microspore embryogenesis in triticale is determined by a specific hormonal homeostasis: low value of IAA/cytokinins, IAA/ABA and cytokinins/ABA ratios as well as proper endogenous/exogenous auxin balance, which favours androgenic structure formation and green plant regeneration ability. The concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs): auxins (Auxs), cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA) was measured in anthers of eight DH lines of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm.), and associated with microspore embryogenesis (ME) responsiveness. The analysis was conducted on anthers excised from control tillers at the phase optimal for ME induction and then after ME-initiating tillers treatment (21 days at 4 °C). In control, IAA predominated among Auxs (11-39 nmol g(-1) DW), with IBA constituting only 1 % of total Auxs content. The prevailing isoforms of CKs were cis isomers of zeatin (121-424 pmol g(-1) DW) and zeatin ryboside (cZR, 146-432 pmol g(-1) DW). Surprisingly, a relatively high level (10-64 pmol g(-1) DW) of kinetin (KIN) was detected. Cold treatment significantly changed the levels of all analysed PGRs. The anthers of 'responsive' DH lines contained higher concentrations of IBA, cis and trans zeatin, cZR and ABA, and lower amount of IAA and KIN in comparison with 'recalcitrant' genotypes. However, the effects of exogenous ABA, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid treatments suggest that none of the studied PGRs acts alone in the acquisition of embryogenic competency, which seems to be an effect of concerted PGRs crosstalk. The initiation of ME required a certain threshold level of ABA. A crucial prerequisite for high ME effectiveness was a specific PGRs homeostasis: lower Auxs level in comparison with CKs and ABA, and lower CKs/ABA ratio. A proper balance between endogenous Auxs in anthers and exogenous Auxs supplied by culture media was also essential.

  5. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements

    PubMed Central

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet VDZ; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs. PMID:27382281

  6. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements.

    PubMed

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet Vdz; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs.

  7. Effect of Blade Cutout on Power Required by Helicopters Operating at High Tip-Speed Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessow, Alfred; Gustafson, F. B.

    1960-01-01

    A numerical study was made of the effects of blade cutout on the power required by a sample helicopter rotor traveling at tip-speed ratios of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5. The amount of cutout varied from 0 to 0.5 of the rotor radius and the calculations were carried out for a thrust coefficient-solidity ratio of 0.04. In these calculations the blade within the cutout radius was assumed to have zero chord. The effect of such cutout on profile-drag power ranged from almost no effect at a tip-speed ratio of 0.3 to as much as a 60 percent reduction at a tip-speed ratio of 0.5. Optimum cutout was about 0.3 of the rotor radius. Part of the large power reduction at a tip-speed ratio of 0.5 resulted from a reduction in tip-region stall, brought about by cutout. For tip-speed ratios greater than 0.3, cutout also effected a significant increase in the ability of the rotor to overcome helicopter parasite drag. It is thus seen that the adverse trends (at high tip-speed ratios) indicated by the uniform-chord theoretical charts are caused in large measure by the center portion of the rotor. The extent to which a modified-design rotor can actually be made more efficient at high speeds than a uniform-chord rotor will depend in practice on the degree of success in minimizing the blade plan form near the center and on special modifications in center-section profiles. A few suggestions and estimates in regard to such modifications are included herein.

  8. Adapting a global cost-effectiveness model to local country requirements: posaconazole case study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, George; Hunt, Sheena; Prasad, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Many countries have various requirements for local economic analyses to assess the value of a new health technology and/or to secure reimbursement. This study presents a case study of an economic model developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole vs standard azole therapy (fluconazole/itraconazole) to prevent invasive fungal infections (IFIs), which was adapted by at least 11 countries. Modeling techniques were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole vs fluconazole/itraconazole as IFI prophylaxis in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. For the core model, the probabilities of experiencing an IFI, IFI-related death, and death from other causes were estimated from clinical trial data. Long-term mortality, drug costs, and IFI treatment costs were obtained from secondary sources. Locally changed parameters were probabilities of long-term death and survival, currency, drug costs, health utility, IFI treatment costs, and discount rate. Locally adapted cost-effective modeling studies indicate that prophylaxis with posaconazole, compared with fluconazole/itraconazole, prolongs survival, and, in most countries, is cost-saving. In all countries, the model predicted that prophylaxis with posaconazole would be associated with an increase in life-years, with increases ranging from 0.016-0.1 life-year saved. In all countries, use of the model led to posaconazole being approved by the appropriate reimbursement authority. The study did not have power to detect differences between posaconazole and fluconazole or itraconazole separately. The risk of death after 100 days was assumed to be equal for those who did and did not develop an IFI, and equal probabilities of IFI-related and other death during the trial period were used for both groups. A core economic model was successfully adapted locally by several countries. The model showed that posaconazole was cost-saving or cost-effective

  9. Conditioned Effects of Heroin on Proinflammatory Mediators Require the Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Szczytkowski, Jennifer L.; Lysle, Donald T.

    2008-01-01

    Heroin administration alters the induction of nitric oxide, a molecule known to play a critical role in immune function. Previous research has shown that these alterations can be conditioned to environmental stimuli that have been associated with drug administration. Little is known about the brain areas that mediate these effects; however, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been implicated in the formation of stimulus-reward associations within models of drug abuse. The present study sought to determine whether inactivation of the BLA would alter heroin's conditioned effects on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, in the rat. The conditioning procedure involved repeated pairing of heroin with placement into a standard conditioning chamber. To test the conditioned response, animals were returned to the previously drug-paired environment six days after the final conditioning session. Prior to testing, animals received intra-BLA microinfusions of a mixture of the GABA agonists, muscimol and baclofen. Following removal from the chambers on test day, all animals received subcutaneous lipopolysaccharide to induce systemic expression of iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1β. Analyses using real-time RT-PCR indicated that inactivation of the BLA blocked the suppressive effect of heroin-associated environmental stimuli on iNOS induction and on the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in spleen and liver tissue. This study is important because it is the first to demonstrate that heroin's conditioned effects on pro-inflammatory mediators require the basolateral amygdala. These findings may have significant implications for the treatment of heroin users. PMID:18973600

  10. Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Hale, R.; Mavrogordato, M. N.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Solan, M.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of individual species in mediating ecosystem process and functioning is generally accepted, but categorical descriptors that summarize species-specific contributions to ecosystems tend to reference a limited number of biological traits and underestimate the importance of how organisms interact with their environment. Here, we show how three functionally contrasting sediment-dwelling marine invertebrates affect fluid and particle transport - important processes in mediating nutrient cycling - and use high-resolution reconstructions of burrow geometry to determine the extent and nature of biogenic modification. We find that individual functional effect descriptors fall short of being able to adequately characterize how species mediate the stocks and flows of important ecosystem properties and that, in contrary to common practice and understanding, they are not substitutable with one another because they emphasize different aspects of species activity and behavior. When information derived from these metrics is combined with knowledge of how species behave and modify their environment, however, detailed mechanistic information emerges that increases the likelihood that a species functional standing will be appropriately summarized. Our study provides evidence that more comprehensive functional effect descriptors are required if they are to be of value to those tasked with projecting how altered biodiversity will influence future ecosystems. PMID:25249055

  11. The effect of ordinances requiring smoke-free restaurants on restaurant sales.

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, S A; Smith, L R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effect on restaurant revenues of local ordinances requiring smoke-free restaurants is an important consideration for restauranteurs themselves and the cities that depend on sales tax revenues to provide services. METHODS: Data were obtained from the California State Board of Equalization and Colorado State Department of Revenue on taxable restaurant sales from 1986 (1982 for Aspen) through 1993 for all 15 cities where ordinances were in force, as well as for 15 similar control communities without smoke-free ordinances during this period. These data were analyzed using multiple regression, including time and a dummy variable for whether an ordinance was in force. Total restaurant sales were analyzed as a fraction of total retail sales and restaurant sales in smoke-free cities vs the comparison cities similar in population, median income, and other factors. RESULTS. Ordinances had no significant effect on the fraction of total retail sales that went to restaurants or on the ratio of restaurant sales in communities with ordinances compared with those in the matched control communities. CONCLUSIONS. Smoke-free restaurant ordinances do not adversely affect restaurant sales. PMID:8017529

  12. Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R.; Mavrogordato, M. N.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Solan, M.

    2014-09-01

    The importance of individual species in mediating ecosystem process and functioning is generally accepted, but categorical descriptors that summarize species-specific contributions to ecosystems tend to reference a limited number of biological traits and underestimate the importance of how organisms interact with their environment. Here, we show how three functionally contrasting sediment-dwelling marine invertebrates affect fluid and particle transport - important processes in mediating nutrient cycling - and use high-resolution reconstructions of burrow geometry to determine the extent and nature of biogenic modification. We find that individual functional effect descriptors fall short of being able to adequately characterize how species mediate the stocks and flows of important ecosystem properties and that, in contrary to common practice and understanding, they are not substitutable with one another because they emphasize different aspects of species activity and behavior. When information derived from these metrics is combined with knowledge of how species behave and modify their environment, however, detailed mechanistic information emerges that increases the likelihood that a species functional standing will be appropriately summarized. Our study provides evidence that more comprehensive functional effect descriptors are required if they are to be of value to those tasked with projecting how altered biodiversity will influence future ecosystems.

  13. Effective use of a horizontally-transferred pathway for dichloromethane catabolism requires post–transfer refinement

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Joshua K; Camargo Neves, Aline A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Bringel, Françoise; Marx, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    When microbes acquire new abilities through horizontal gene transfer, the genes and pathways must function under conditions with which they did not coevolve. If newly-acquired genes burden the host, their utility will depend on further evolutionary refinement of the recombinant strain. We used laboratory evolution to recapitulate this process of transfer and refinement, demonstrating that effective use of an introduced dichloromethane degradation pathway required one of several mutations to the bacterial host that are predicted to increase chloride efflux. We then used this knowledge to identify parallel, beneficial mutations that independently evolved in two natural dichloromethane-degrading strains. Finally, we constructed a synthetic mobile genetic element carrying both the degradation pathway and a chloride exporter, which preempted the adaptive process and directly enabled effective dichloromethane degradation across diverse Methylobacterium environmental isolates. Our results demonstrate the importance of post–transfer refinement in horizontal gene transfer, with potential applications in bioremediation and synthetic biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04279.001 PMID:25418043

  14. Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors.

    PubMed

    Hale, R; Mavrogordato, M N; Tolhurst, T J; Solan, M

    2014-09-24

    The importance of individual species in mediating ecosystem process and functioning is generally accepted, but categorical descriptors that summarize species-specific contributions to ecosystems tend to reference a limited number of biological traits and underestimate the importance of how organisms interact with their environment. Here, we show how three functionally contrasting sediment-dwelling marine invertebrates affect fluid and particle transport - important processes in mediating nutrient cycling - and use high-resolution reconstructions of burrow geometry to determine the extent and nature of biogenic modification. We find that individual functional effect descriptors fall short of being able to adequately characterize how species mediate the stocks and flows of important ecosystem properties and that, in contrary to common practice and understanding, they are not substitutable with one another because they emphasize different aspects of species activity and behavior. When information derived from these metrics is combined with knowledge of how species behave and modify their environment, however, detailed mechanistic information emerges that increases the likelihood that a species functional standing will be appropriately summarized. Our study provides evidence that more comprehensive functional effect descriptors are required if they are to be of value to those tasked with projecting how altered biodiversity will influence future ecosystems.

  15. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will be...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will be...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will be...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will be...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will be...

  20. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in C57BL/6J Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using inbred C57BL/6J mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as responses (i.e., all responses above the measurement threshold). Different, higher force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of all…

  1. 19 CFR 200.735-123 - Effect of employees' and special Government employees' statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' statements on other requirements. The statements of employment and financial interests and supplementary... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of employees' and special Government employees' statements on other requirements. 200.735-123 Section 200.735-123 Customs Duties UNITED STATES...

  2. Determination of energy and protein requirement for maintenance and growth and evaluation for the effects of gender upon nutrient requirement in Dorper × Hu Crossbred Lambs.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hai Tao; Zhang, Hao; You, Ji Hao; Wang, Feng

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine energy and protein requirement of Dorper × Hu crossbred lambs and further to evaluate the effect of gender upon nutrient requirement parameters. Forty-two female lambs (18.60 ± 1.57 kg) and 42 male lambs (18.30 ± 1.28 kg) were used. In comparative slaughter trial, 30 of animals from each gender group were randomly selected and assigned to ad libitum (AL), low restriction (LR) and high restriction (HR) group, and then were slaughtered when lambs under AL treatment reached target BW of 20, 28, and 35 kg, to determine body energy and nitrogen retained. In digestibility trial, remaining 12 female (18.01 ± 1.66 kg) and 12 male lambs (18.43 ± 1.17 kg) were randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm; 400.61 ± 20.31 vs. 427.24 ± 18.70 kJ kg(-1) of shrunk BW(0.75); SBW(0.75)), partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k m; 0.64 ± 0.02 vs. 0.65 ± 0.03), partial efficiency of ME utilization for growth (k g ; 0.42 ± 0.03 vs. 0.44 ± 0.02), and net protein (NP) requirement for maintenance (NPm; 1.83 ± 0.17 vs. 1.99 ± 0.28 g kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) did not differ (P > 0.05) due to gender; although not statistically different, the mean value of Net energy (NE) requirement for maintenance (NEm) for male lambs (260.62 ± 13.21 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) were 5 % greater than that (274.16 ± 11.99 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) of female lambs. Additionally, rams have greater amounts of NP requirement for growth (NPg, 15.94 to 44.32 g d(-1)) than those of ewes (13.07 to 32.95 g d(-1)) at the similar condition of BW and ADG. In conclusion, we suggested that our results of energy and protein requirement for growth ranged between the NRC

  3. Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Xige; Song, Xuesong; Ma, Haichun; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients’ pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p < 0.05). The degrees of injection pain were lower in a COS-pretreated group than in a propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05). COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia. PMID:28009824

  4. Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Xige; Song, Xuesong; Ma, Haichun; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-21

    Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients' pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p < 0.05). The degrees of injection pain were lower in a COS-pretreated group than in a propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05). COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia.

  5. The effect of nitrous oxide on halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane requirements in ventilated dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Duke, T; Caulkett, N A; Tataryn, J M

    2006-11-01

    To examine the effect of 64% nitrous oxide (N2O) on halothane (HAL), isoflurane (ISO) or sevoflurane (SEV) requirements in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Ninety, healthy dogs of (mean +/- SD) body weight 21.2 +/- 10.0 kg and age 17.8 +/- 22.8 months. After premedication with acepromazine, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, anesthesia was induced with thiopental administered to effect. Dogs received one of six inhalant protocols (n = 15 group): HAL; HAL/N2O; ISO; ISO/N2O; SEV; or SEV/N2O. End-tidal CO2 was maintained at 40 +/- 2 mmHg with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Body temperature, heart rate, indirect systemic arterial blood pressures, inspired and end-tidal CO2, volatile agent, N2O and O2 were recorded every 5 minutes. The vaporizer setting was decreased in 0.25-0.5% decrements to elicit a palpebral reflex, and this level maintained. Statistical analysis included two-way anova for repeated measures with Bonferroni's correction factor and statistical significance assumed when p < 0.05. Percentage reduction in end-tidal volatile agent was calculated at 60 minutes after starting study. End-tidal HAL, ISO and SEV decreased when N2O was administered. Percentage reduction: HAL (12.4%); ISO (37.1%) and SEV (21.4%). Diastolic, mean and systolic blood pressures increased in ISO/N2O compared with ISO. Heart rate increased in ISO/N2O and SEV/N2O compared with ISO and SEV, respectively. Systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressures increased in SEV compared with HAL and ISO. Systolic, mean, diastolic blood pressures and heart rate increased in SEV/N2O and ISO/N2O compared with HAL/N2O. N2O reduces HAL, ISO and SEV requirements in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Cardiovascular stimulation occurred when N2O was used with ISO, less so with SEV and not with HAL

  6. Effect of Spermidine Analogues on Cell Growth of Escherichia coli Polyamine Requiring Mutant MA261

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Taketo; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Terui, Yusuke; Takao, Koichi; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of spermidine analogues [norspermidine (NSPD, 33), spermidine (SPD, 34), homospermidine (HSPD, 44) and aminopropylcadaverine (APCAD, 35)] on cell growth were studied using Escherichia coli polyamine-requiring mutant MA261. Cell growth was compared at 32°C, 37°C, and 42°C. All four analogues were taken up mainly by the PotABCD spermidine-preferential uptake system. The degree of stimulation of cell growth at 32°C and 37°C was NSPD ≥ SPD ≥ HSPD > APCAD, and SPD ≥ HSPD ≥ NSPD > APCAD, respectively. However, at 42°C, it was HSPD » SPD > NSPD > APCAD. One reason for this is HSPD was taken up effectively compared with other triamines. In addition, since natural polyamines (triamines and teteraamines) interact mainly with RNA, and the structure of RNA is more flexible at higher temperatures, HSPD probably stabilized RNA more tightly at 42°C. We have thus far found that 20 kinds of protein syntheses are stimulated by polyamines at the translational level. Among them, synthesis of OppA, RpoE and StpA was more strongly stimulated by HSPD at 42°C than at 37°C. Stabilization of the initiation region of oppA and rpoE mRNA was tighter by HSPD at 42°C than 37°C determined by circular dichroism (CD). The degree of polyamine stimulation of OppA, RpoE and StpA synthesis by NSPD, SPD and APCAD was smaller than that by HSPD at 42°C. Thus, the degree of stimulation of cell growth by spermidine analogues at the different temperatures is dependent on the stimulation of protein synthesis by some components of the polyamine modulon. PMID:27434546

  7. Effects of copper on CHO cells: cellular requirements and product quality considerations.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Inn H; Russell, Stephen; Tang, Yun; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Mauger, Jacob B; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Luo, Jun; Gawlitzek, Martin; Joly, John C

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports highlight the impact of copper on lactate metabolism: CHO cell cultures with higher initial copper levels shift to net lactate consumption and yield lower final lactate and higher titers. These studies investigated the effects of copper on metabolite and transcript profiles, but did not measure in detail the dependences of cell culture performance and product quality on copper concentrations. To more thoroughly map these dependences, we explored the effects of various copper treatments on four recombinant CHO cell lines. In the first cell line, when extracellular copper remained above the limit of detection (LOD), cultures shifted to net lactate consumption and yielded comparable performances irrespective of the differences in copper levels; when extracellular copper dropped below LOD (∼13 nM), cultures failed to shift to net lactate consumption, and yielded significantly lower product titers. Across the four cell lines, the ability to grow and consume lactate seemed to depend on the presence of a minimum level of copper, beyond which there were no further gains in culture performance. Although this minimum cellular copper requirement could not be directly quantified, we estimated its probable range for the first cell line by applying several assumptions. Even when different copper concentrations did not affect cell culture performance, they affected product quality profiles: higher initial copper concentrations increased the basic variants in the recombinant IgG1 products. Therefore, in optimizing chemically defined media, it is important to select a copper concentration that is adequate and achieves desired product quality attributes. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Leptin Signaling Is Not Required for Anorexigenic Estradiol Effects in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon S; Rizwan, Mohammed Z; Clegg, Deborah J; Anderson, Greg M

    2016-05-01

    Estradiol and leptin are critical hormones in the regulation of body weight. The aim of this study was to determine whether this cross talk between leptin receptor (LepRb) and estrogen receptor-α (ERα) signaling is critical for estradiol's anorexigenic effects. Leprb-Cre mice were crossed with Cre-dependent Tau-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter, Stat3-flox or Erα-flox mice to generate female mice with GFP expression, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) knockout (KO), or ERα KO, specifically in LepRb-expressing cells. The proportion of Leprb-GFP cells colocalizing ERα was high (∼80%) in the preoptic area but low (∼10%) in the mediobasal hypothalamus, suggesting that intracellular cross talk between these receptors is minimal for metabolic regulation. To test whether estradiol enhanced arcuate leptin sensitivity, ovarectomized mice received varying levels of estradiol replacement. Increasing estrogenic states did not increase the degree of leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. LepRb-specific STAT3 KO mice and controls were ovarectomized and given either chronic estradiol or vehicle treatment to test whether STAT3 is required for estrogen-induced body weight suppression. Both groups of estradiol-treated mice showed an equivalent reduction in body weight and fat content compared with vehicle controls. Finally, mice lacking ERα specifically in LepRb-expressing neurons also showed no increase in body weight or impairments in metabolic function compared with controls, indicating that estradiol acts independently of leptin-responsive cells to regulate body weight. However, fecundity was impaired in in Leprb-ERα KO females. Contrary to the current dogma, we report that estradiol has minimal direct actions on LepRb cells in the mediodasal hypothalamus and that its anorexigenic effects can occur entirely independently of LepRb-STAT3 signaling in female mice.

  9. The iron-sulphur protein Ind1 is required for effective complex I assembly.

    PubMed

    Bych, Katrine; Kerscher, Stefan; Netz, Daili J A; Pierik, Antonio J; Zwicker, Klaus; Huynen, Martijn A; Lill, Roland; Brandt, Ulrich; Balk, Janneke

    2008-06-18

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the mitochondrial inner membrane is a multi-subunit protein complex containing eight iron-sulphur (Fe-S) clusters. Little is known about the assembly of complex I and its Fe-S clusters. Here, we report the identification of a mitochondrial protein with a nucleotide-binding domain, named Ind1, that is required specifically for the effective assembly of complex I. Deletion of the IND1 open reading frame in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica carrying an internal alternative NADH dehydrogenase resulted in slower growth and strongly decreased complex I activity, whereas the activities of other mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes, including aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase, were not affected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in vitro activity tests and electron paramagnetic resonance signals of Fe-S clusters showed that only a minor fraction (approximately 20%) of complex I was assembled in the ind1 deletion mutant. Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we found that Ind1 can bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster that was readily transferred to an acceptor Fe-S protein. Our data suggest that Ind1 facilitates the assembly of Fe-S cofactors and subunits of complex I.

  10. The iron–sulphur protein Ind1 is required for effective complex I assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bych, Katrine; Kerscher, Stefan; Netz, Daili J A; Pierik, Antonio J; Zwicker, Klaus; Huynen, Martijn A; Lill, Roland; Brandt, Ulrich; Balk, Janneke

    2008-01-01

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the mitochondrial inner membrane is a multi-subunit protein complex containing eight iron–sulphur (Fe–S) clusters. Little is known about the assembly of complex I and its Fe–S clusters. Here, we report the identification of a mitochondrial protein with a nucleotide-binding domain, named Ind1, that is required specifically for the effective assembly of complex I. Deletion of the IND1 open reading frame in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica carrying an internal alternative NADH dehydrogenase resulted in slower growth and strongly decreased complex I activity, whereas the activities of other mitochondrial Fe–S enzymes, including aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase, were not affected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in vitro activity tests and electron paramagnetic resonance signals of Fe–S clusters showed that only a minor fraction (∼20%) of complex I was assembled in the ind1 deletion mutant. Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we found that Ind1 can bind a [4Fe–4S] cluster that was readily transferred to an acceptor Fe–S protein. Our data suggest that Ind1 facilitates the assembly of Fe–S cofactors and subunits of complex I. PMID:18497740

  11. Effect of intratesticular lidocaine on isoflurane requirements in dogs undergoing routine castration.

    PubMed

    McMillan, M W; Seymour, C J; Brearley, J C

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the isoflurane sparing effect of intratesticular lidocaine administration in dogs undergoing castration. Thirty dogs received a standardised anaesthetic regimen including systemic analgesia with intramuscular buprenorphine at a dose of 0·02 mg/kg and intravenous carprofen at a dose of 4 mg/kg. Dogs were randomly assigned to a lidocaine group receiving 1 mg/kg lidocaine into each testis or a control group receiving no lidocaine. Baseline physiological parameters were measured after 10 minutes at an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1·3%. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was altered throughout surgery to maintain these parameters within 10% of baseline and recorded at five time points. T0 was baseline, T1 was the start of surgery, T2 to T3 were clamping of the testicular pedicles and T4 was skin closure. End-tidal isoflurane concentrations were compared using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. Fifteen healthy dogs were included in each study group. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was significantly lower in the lidocaine group compared to the control group at T2 (P<0·01), T3 (P<0·01) and T4 (P<0·01). Intratesticular lidocaine reduces isoflurane requirements in dogs undergoing castration. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Pharmaceutical strategic purchasing requirements in Iran: Price interventions and the related effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Peivand; Dinarvand, Rasoul; SamadBeik, Mahnaz; Pourmohammadi, Kimia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pharmaceutical access for the poor is an essential factor in developing countries that can be improved through strategic purchasing. This study was conducted to identify the elements affecting price in order to enable insurance organizations to put strategic purchasing into practice. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted through content analysis with an inductive approach applying a five-stage framework analysis (familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, mapping, and interpretation). Data analysis was started right after transcribing each interview applying ATLAS.ti. Data were saturated after 32 semi-structured interviews by experts. These key informants were selected purposefully and through snowball sampling. Findings: Findings showed that there are four main themes as Pharmaceutical Strategic Purchasing Requirements in Iran as follows essential and structural factors, international factors, economical factors, and legal factors. Moreover, totally 14 related sub-themes were extracted in this area as the main effective variables. Conclusion: It seems that paying adequate attention to the four present themes and 14 sub-themes affecting price can enable health system policy-makers of developing countries like Iran to make the best decisions through strategic purchasing of drugs by the main insurers in order to improve access and health in the country. PMID:26985434

  13. Is alcohol required for effective pancreatic cyst ablation? The prospective randomized CHARM trial pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Matthew T.; Dye, Charles E.; Sharzehi, Setareh; Ancrile, Brooke; Mathew, Abraham; McGarrity, Thomas J.; Gusani, Niraj; Yee, Nelson; Wong, Joyce; Levenick, John; Dougherty-Hamod, Brandy; Mathers, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: In this study, we aim to determine the safety and feasibility of an alcohol-free approach to pancreatic cyst ablation using a chemotherapeutic ablation cocktail. Patients and methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded pilot study, 10 patients with known mucinous type pancreatic cysts underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration and then lavage with either 80 % ethanol or normal saline. Both groups were then treated with a cocktail of paclitaxel and gemcitabine. Primary outcomes were reduction in cyst volume and rates of complications. Results: At 6 months, patients randomized to the alcohol arm had an 89 % average volume reduction, with a 91 % reduction noted in the alcohol-free arm. Complete ablation was achieved in 67 % of patients in the alcohol-free arm at both 6 and 12 months, whereas the alcohol group recorded complete ablation rates of 50 % and 75 % at 6 and 12 months, respectively. One patient in the alcohol arm developed acute pancreatitis (20 %) with no adverse events in the alcohol-free arm. Conclusions: This study revealed similar ablation rates between the alcohol ablation group and the alcohol-free arm and demonstrates the safety and feasibility of an alcohol-free ablation protocol. This pilot study suggests that alcohol may not be required for effective cyst ablation. PMID:27227122

  14. The effect of transverse shear force on the required coefficient of friction for level walking.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon

    2011-10-01

    An enhanced methodology to extract the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) value was used to investigate the effects of the transverse shear component of the ground reaction force (GRF) on the RCOF. The RCOF is an important indicator for slip incidents. However,the extraction of the RCOF from GRF is not standardized. The transverse shear force is usually ignored in calculating the RCOF value. For this study, 40 participants performed four walking conditions. The RCOF values both with (RCOF2) and without (RCOF1) the transverse shear force were identified from each strike by the use of an enhanced method and were compared. A total of 24,851 strikes were collected. The transverse component increased the RCOF value by more than 10% in 7.2% of the strikes. In 10.4% of the strikes, the RCOF2 occurred at least 20 ms earlier and the RCOF value was on average 8.9% larger than RCOF1. With this method, we were able to successfully identify the RCOF in a significantly large number of strikes across 40 participants. In a portion of the strikes, the transverse shear force increased the RCOF significantly. In a significant portion of the strikes, the RCOF2 occurred much earlier than RCOF1. Better estimates of the RCOF magnitude and instant of occurrence could potentially improve risk assessment and identification of critical instants in gait.

  15. SIRT6 is required for maintenance of telomere position effect in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Tennen, Ruth I.; Bua, Dennis J.; Wright, Woodring E.; Chua, Katrin F.

    2012-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the repressive chromatin environment at telomeres gives rise to telomere position effect (TPE), the epigenetic silencing of telomere-proximal genes. Chromatin-modifying factors that control TPE in yeast have been extensively studied, and among these, the lifespan regulator and silencing protein Sir2 plays a pivotal role. In contrast, the factors that generate and maintain silent telomeric chromatin in human cells remain largely unknown. Here we show that the Sir2 family member SIRT6 is required for maintenance of TPE in human cells. RNAi-mediated depletion of SIRT6 abrogates silencing of both an integrated telomeric transgene and an endogenous telomere-proximal gene. Moreover, enhanced telomeric silencing in response to telomere elongation is associated with increased repressive chromatin marks, and this heterochromatic milieu is lost in SIRT6-deficient cells. Together, these findings establish a new role for SIRT6 in regulating an aging-associated epigenetic silencing process and provide new mechanistic insight into chromatin silencing at telomeres. PMID:21847107

  16. [Effects of manually assisted coughing on respiratory mechanics in patients requiring full ventilatory support].

    PubMed

    Avena, Katia de Miranda; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Cravo, Sergio Luiz Domingues; Sologuren, Maria José Junho; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2008-06-01

    Manually assisted coughing (MAC) consists of a vigorous thrust applied to the chest at the beginning of a spontaneous expiration or of the expiratory phase of mechanical ventilation. Due to routine use of MAC in intensive care units, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of MAC on respiratory system mechanics in patients requiring full ventilatory support. We assessed 16 sedated patients on full ventilatory support (no active participation in ventilation). Respiratory system mechanics and oxyhemoglobin saturation were measured before and after MAC, as well as after endotracheal aspiration. Bilateral MAC was performed ten times on each patient, with three respiratory cycle intervals between each application. Data analysis demonstrated a decrease in resistive pressure and respiratory system resistance, together with an increase in oxyhemoglobin saturation, after MAC combined with endotracheal aspiration. No evidence of alterations in peak pressures, plateau pressures or respiratory system compliance change was observed after MAC. The use of MAC alters respiratory system mechanics, increasing resistive forces by removing secretions. The technique is considered safe and efficacious for postoperative patients. Using MAC in conjunction with endotracheal aspiration provided benefits, achieving the proposed objective: the displacement and removal of airway secretions.

  17. Durations required to distinguish noise and tone: Effects of noise bandwidth and frequency.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Armin; Moore, Brian C J; Edler, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Perceptual audio coders exploit the masking properties of the human auditory system to reduce the bit rate in audio recording and transmission systems; it is intended that the quantization noise is just masked by the audio signal. The effectiveness of the audio signal as a masker depends on whether it is tone-like or noise-like. The determination of this, both physically and perceptually, depends on the duration of the stimuli. To gather information that might improve the efficiency of perceptual coders, the duration required to distinguish between a narrowband noise and a tone was measured as a function of center frequency and noise bandwidth. In experiment 1, duration thresholds were measured for isolated noise and tone bursts. In experiment 2, duration thresholds were measured for tone and noise segments embedded within longer tone pulses. In both experiments, center frequencies were 345, 754, 1456, and 2658 Hz and bandwidths were 0.25, 0.5, and 1 times the equivalent rectangular bandwidth of the auditory filter at each center frequency. The duration thresholds decreased with increasing bandwidth and with increasing center frequency up to 1456 Hz. It is argued that the duration thresholds depended mainly on the detection of amplitude fluctuations in the noise bursts.

  18. Pharmaceutical strategic purchasing requirements in Iran: Price interventions and the related effective factors.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Peivand; Dinarvand, Rasoul; SamadBeik, Mahnaz; Pourmohammadi, Kimia

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical access for the poor is an essential factor in developing countries that can be improved through strategic purchasing. This study was conducted to identify the elements affecting price in order to enable insurance organizations to put strategic purchasing into practice. This was a qualitative study conducted through content analysis with an inductive approach applying a five-stage framework analysis (familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, mapping, and interpretation). Data analysis was started right after transcribing each interview applying ATLAS.ti. Data were saturated after 32 semi-structured interviews by experts. These key informants were selected purposefully and through snowball sampling. Findings showed that there are four main themes as Pharmaceutical Strategic Purchasing Requirements in Iran as follows essential and structural factors, international factors, economical factors, and legal factors. Moreover, totally 14 related sub-themes were extracted in this area as the main effective variables. It seems that paying adequate attention to the four present themes and 14 sub-themes affecting price can enable health system policy-makers of developing countries like Iran to make the best decisions through strategic purchasing of drugs by the main insurers in order to improve access and health in the country.

  19. Increased heat requirement for leaf flushing in temperate woody species over 1980-2012: effects of chilling, precipitation and insolation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yongshuo H; Piao, Shilong; Vitasse, Yann; Zhao, Hongfang; De Boeck, Hans J; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Hui; Weber, Ulrich; Hänninen, Heikki; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-10

    Recent studies have revealed large unexplained variation in heat requirement-based phenology models, resulting in large uncertainty when predicting ecosystem carbon and water balance responses to climate variability. Improving our understanding of the heat requirement for spring phenology is thus urgently needed. In this study, we estimated the species-specific heat requirement for leaf flushing of 13 temperate woody species using long-term phenological observations from Europe and North America. The species were defined as early and late flushing species according to the mean date of leaf flushing across all sites. Partial correlation analyses were applied to determine the temporal correlations between heat requirement and chilling accumulation, precipitation and insolation sum during dormancy. We found that the heat requirement for leaf flushing increased by almost 50% over the study period 1980-2012, with an average of 30 heat units per decade. This temporal increase in heat requirement was observed in all species, but was much larger for late than for early flushing species. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the heat requirement negatively correlates with chilling accumulation. Interestingly, after removing the variation induced by chilling accumulation, a predominantly positive partial correlation exists between heat requirement and precipitation sum, and a predominantly negative correlation between heat requirement and insolation sum. This suggests that besides the well-known effect of chilling, the heat requirement for leaf flushing is also influenced by precipitation and insolation sum during dormancy. However, we hypothesize that the observed precipitation and insolation effects might be artefacts attributable to the inappropriate use of air temperature in the heat requirement quantification. Rather than air temperature, meristem temperature is probably the prominent driver of the leaf flushing process, but these data are not available

  20. [Effect of climate change on rice irrigation water requirement in Songnen Plain, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-gang; Wang, Xiao-li; Xiao, Ye; Yang, Fei; Wang, Chen-xi

    2015-01-01

    Based on meteorological data from China national weather stations and climate scenario grid data through regional climate model provided by National Climate Center, rice water requirement was calculated by using McCloud model and Penman-Monteith model combined with crop coefficient approach. Then the rice irrigation water requirement was estimated by water balance model, and the changes of rice water requirement were analyzed. The results indicated that either in historical period or in climate scenario, rice irrigation water requirement contour lines during the whole growth period and Lmid period decreased along southwest to northeast, and the same irrigation water requirement contour line moved north with decade alternation. Rice irrigation water requirement during the whole growth period increased fluctuantly with decade alternation at 44.2 mm . 10 a-1 in historical period and 19.9 mm . 10 a-1 in climate scenario. The increase in rice irrigation water requirement during the Lmid period with decade alternation was significant in historical period, but not significant in climate scenario. Contribution rate of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement would be fluctuantly increased with decade alternation in climate scenario. Compared with 1970s, contribution rates of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement were 23.6% in 2000s and 34.4% in 2040s, which increased 14.8 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2000s and would increase 21.2 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2040s.

  1. Climatic requirements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The article reviews the effects on several environment factors on the above-ground parts of a blackberry plant, including seasonal changes, the climatic requirements of blackberry plants, and the effects of light and temperature on plant survival and fruit quality. Weather and, to a large extent, t...

  2. TGF-β Effects on Prostate Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion Require FosB.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Cachétne S X; Millena, Ana C; Khan, Shafiq A

    2017-01-01

    decreased after FosB knockdown in PC3 cells. Our data suggest that FosB is required for migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. We also conclude that TGF-β1 effect on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion may be mediated through the induction of FosB. Prostate 77:72-81, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. TGF-β Effects on Prostate Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion Require FosB

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Cachétne S.X.; Millena, Ana C.; Khan, Shafiq A.

    2017-01-01

    were also significantly decreased after FosB knockdown in PC3 cells. CONCLUSION Our data suggest that FosB is required for migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. We also conclude that TGF-β1 effect on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion may be mediated through the induction of FosB. PMID:27604827

  4. Retention of Flying Skills and Refresher Training Requirements: Effects of Nonflying and Proficiency Flying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert H.

    A questionnaire survey was conducted of Army aviators who had experienced extended periods of nonflying or of flying only the minimum number of hours required by Army regulations to maintain proficiency, in order to determine the loss of flying ability experienced and the refresher training required for combat readiness. Analysis of the data…

  5. 77 FR 39924 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... device to meet the statute's approval requirements and the benefits to the public from the use of the... benefit to the public from the use of the device; (3) an opportunity for the submission of comments on the... premarket approval requirements of the FD&C Act, and the benefits to the public from use of the device....

  6. Effects of Pre-Trial Response Requirements on Self-Control Choices by Rats and Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined whether the size of a pre-trial ratio requirement would affect choices in a self-control situation. In different conditions, either 1 response or 40 responses were required before each trial. In the first half of each experiment, an adjusting-ratio schedule was used, in which subjects could…

  7. Effects of Pre-Trial Response Requirements on Self-Control Choices by Rats and Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined whether the size of a pre-trial ratio requirement would affect choices in a self-control situation. In different conditions, either 1 response or 40 responses were required before each trial. In the first half of each experiment, an adjusting-ratio schedule was used, in which subjects could…

  8. A Preliminary Study of the Effect of Eliminating Requirements on Clinical Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, William W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study compared the performance of dental students following the traditional clinical curriculum that requires exposure to a specific range of discipline-oriented procedures with that of eight similar students in a curriculum focused on meeting patient needs but not traditional curriculum-based requirements. The nonrequirement group had higher…

  9. Effect of reproductive rate on minimum habitat requirements of forest-breeding birds

    Treesearch

    Melissa D. Vance; Lenore Fahrig; Curtis H. Flather

    2003-01-01

    A major challenge facing conservation biologists and wildlife managers is to predict how fauna will respond to habitat loss. Different species require different amounts of habitat for population persistence, and species’ reproductive rates have been identified as one of the major factors affecting these habitat-amount requirements. The purpose of this study was to test...

  10. A Preliminary Study of the Effect of Eliminating Requirements on Clinical Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, William W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study compared the performance of dental students following the traditional clinical curriculum that requires exposure to a specific range of discipline-oriented procedures with that of eight similar students in a curriculum focused on meeting patient needs but not traditional curriculum-based requirements. The nonrequirement group had higher…

  11. 45 CFR 400.77 - Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate in required services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Effect of quitting employment or failing or... Employment General Requirements § 400.77 Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate... applicant may not, without good cause, within 30 consecutive calendar days immediately prior to...

  12. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  13. 45 CFR 400.77 - Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate in required services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of quitting employment or failing or... Employment General Requirements § 400.77 Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate... quit employment or have refused to accept an offer of employment determined to be appropriate by the...

  14. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose- and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected control mosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.—Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase. PMID:26310269

  15. Attentional requirements of postural control in people with spinal cord injury: the effect of dual task.

    PubMed

    Tse, C M; Carpenter, M G; Liu-Ambrose, T; Chisholm, A E; Lam, T

    2017-05-16

    Cross-sectional study. To investigate the attentional requirements for maintaining standing balance in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) using a dual-task paradigm and to compare standing balance performance between SCI and able-bodied (AB) controls. LaboratoryMethods:Nine adults with incomplete SCI, who were able to stand unassisted were recruited, along with eight AB controls. Subjects performed a dual task involving counting backwards by 3 s out loud while standing with eyes open or closed. The primary outcome measures were the differences between SCI and control groups for movement reinvestment and the change in performance between single task and dual task for: (i) maximum standing time (STime); (ii) error ratio and total number of words uttered; and (iii) center of pressure measures. Perceptual measures included perceived mental workload, fear and confidence. SCI subjects stood for shorter duration during dual task (stand and count) than single task (stand) compared with controls during eyes closed. Significant differences between groups were observed for movement reinvestment, center of pressure, perceived mental effort, fear and confidence. No significant effects were observed for math-task performance. Total STime during eyes closed is adversely affected by the addition of a math task for SCI subjects. Perceptual measures appear to correspond to increases in postural sway and conscious control of standing in subjects with SCI. Individuals who can stand for >60 s with eyes closed do not appear to be significantly affected by the addition of a concurrent secondary task of minimal mental workload.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 16 May 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.42.

  16. Global warming mitigation by sulphur loading in the atmosphere: Required emissions and possible side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Chernokulsky, A. V.; Karpenko, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    An approach to mitigate the global warming via sulphur loading in the stratosphere (geoengineering) is studied employing a large ensemble of numerical experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS (IAP RAS CM). The model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenical greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860-2100 with an additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere in the 21st century. Different ensemble members were constructed by varying emission intensity, residence time, optical properites, and horizontal distributions of stratospheric sulphates. In addition, starting and ending years of applied emissions are varied between different ensemble members. Given global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, at the global basis, the most efficient latitudinal distribution of geoengineering aerosols is that peaked between 50∘N and 70∘N. Uniform latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates is slightly less efficient. Sulphur emissions in the stratosphere required to stop the global temperature at the level corresponding to the mean value for 2000-2010 amount 5 - 10 TgS/yr in year 2050 and > 10 TgS/yr in year 2100. This is not a small part of the current emissions of tropospheric sulphates. Moreover, even if the global warming is stopped, temperature changes in different regions still occur with a magnitude up to 1 K. Their horizontal pattern depends on implied latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates. If the geoengineering emissions are stopped, their climatic effect is removed within a few decades. In this period, surface air temperture may change with a rate of several Kelvins per decade. The results obtained with the IAP RAS CM are further interpreted by making use of an energy-balance climate model. As a whole, the results obtained with this simpler model support conclusions made on the basis of the IAP RAS CM simulations.

  17. Sri Lankan rice mixed meals: effect on glycaemic index and contribution to daily dietary fibre requirement.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-04-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks starchy foods according to the blood glucose responses following ingestion. When considering commonly consumed Sri Lankan meals, only a few can be categorised as low GI. However, a significant negative correlation between the GI of Sri Lankan meals and fibre content has been observed indicating the potential to reduce the GI of meals by incorporating naturally occurring sources of fibre. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the effect of increased edible quantities of fibre on the GI of rice meals consumed in Sri Lanka. Meal 1 consisted of rice with several meal accompaniments (lentil curry, boiled egg, coconut gravy and Centella asiatica (gotukola) leaves salad). Meal 2 contained similar constituents as meal 1 and a Lasia spinosa (kohila) rhizome salad. The composition of meal 3 was similar to meal 2 but contained Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd) salad instead of Lasia spinosa salad. Meal 3 contained similar fibre contents as meal 1 and similar meal size as meal 2. The glycaemic indices of the three meals were determined with healthy individuals (n=10, age=20-30 yrs, BMI=24 +/- 3 kg/m2) using bread as the standard. Meals 1 and 3 contained total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of 15.2g. Meal 2 contained 16.3g TDF. The GI values of the three meals were 63 +/- 5, 57 +/- 5, 61 +/- 5 respectively and were not significantly different from one another (p>0.05). The GI of the rice mixed meal 2 was reduced by 9% when total edible dietary fibre content of the actual meal was increased by 7.2%. The study results show that the GI of rice mixed meals may be reduced by including naturally occurring sources of fibre with starchy staples while fulfilling daily dietary fibre requirement of an adult at low cost.

  18. Welfare work requirements and child well-being: evidence from the effects on breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Haider, Steven J; Jacknowitz, Alison; Schoeni, Robert F

    2003-08-01

    A central theme of welfare reform is that recipients are required to engage in work activities. In many states, these work requirements apply to mothers whose children are a few months old, which may increase the costs and decrease the prevalence of breast-feeding. Given the substantial benefits of breast-feeding, any reduction represents an important negative consequence of these requirements. Our results suggest that in the absence of welfare reform, the national breast-feeding rate six months after birth would have been 5.5% higher in 2000. Such negative consequences of these policies must be weighed against potential benefits as states refine their welfare programs.

  19. Does adding low doses of oral naltrexone to morphine alter the subsequent opioid requirements and side effects in trauma patients?

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Shervin; Ahmadi, Omid; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the influence of ultra-low doses of opioid antagonists on the analgesic properties of opioids and their side effects. In the present randomized, double-blind controlled trial, the influence of the combination of ultra-low-dose naltrexone and morphine on the total opioid requirement and the frequency of the subsequent side effects was compared with that of morphine alone (added with placebo) in patients with trauma in the upper or lower extremities. Although the morphine and naltrexone group required 0.04 mg more opioids during the study period, there was no significant difference between the opioid requirements of the 2 groups. Nausea was less frequently reported in patients receiving morphine and naltrexone. The combination of ultra-low-dose naltrexone and morphine in extremity trauma does not affect the opioid requirements; it, however, lowers the risk of nausea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  1. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  2. 76 FR 53851 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... proposed to require the filing of a premarket approval application or a notice of completion of a product development protocol for the class III preamendments device: Cardiovascular permanent pacemaker electrode....

  3. Effect of intraperitoneal or incisional bupivacaine on pain and the analgesic requirement after ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Campagnol, Daniela; Teixeira-Neto, Francisco J; Monteiro, Eduardo R; Restitutti, Flávia; Minto, Bruno W

    2012-07-01

    To compare the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) or incisional (INC) bupivacaine on pain and the analgesic requirement after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Prospective, randomized clinical study. Thirty female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Dogs admitted for elective OHE were anesthetized with acepromazine, butorphanol, thiopental and halothane. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 10 per group). The treatments consisted of preincisional infiltration with saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) or bupivacaine with epinephrine and/or IP administration of the same solutions, as follows: INC and IP 0.9% NaCl (control group); INC 0.9% NaCl and IP bupivacaine (5 mg kg(-1), IP group); INC bupivacaine (1 mg kg(-1)) and IP 0.9% NaCl (INC group). Postoperative pain was evaluated by a blinded observer for 24 hours after extubation by means of a visual analog scale (VAS) and a numeric rating scale (NRS). Rescue analgesia (morphine, 0.5 mg kg(-1) , IM) was administered if the VAS was >5/10 or the NRS >10/29. At 1 hour after anesthesia, VAS pain scores were [medians (interquartile range)]: 6.4 (3.1-7.9), 0.3 (0.0-2.6) and 0.0 (0.0-7.0) in control, IP and INC groups, respectively. VAS pain scores were lower in the IP compared to the control group. Over the first 24 hours, rescue analgesia was administered to 7/10, 5/10 and 3/10 dogs of the control, INC and IP groups, respectively. Total number of dogs given rescue analgesia over the first 24 hours did not differ significantly among groups. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine resulted in lower pain scores during the first hour of the postoperative period and there was a trend towards a decreased need for rescue analgesia after OHE in dogs. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  4. Monitoring groundwater: optimising networks to take account of cost effectiveness, legal requirements and enforcement realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Spray, C.

    2013-12-01

    The quality of monitoring networks and modeling in environmental regulation is increasingly important. This is particularly true with respect to groundwater management, where data may be limited, physical processes poorly understood and timescales very long. The powers of regulators may be fatally undermined by poor or non-existent networks, primarily through mismatches between the legal standards that networks must meet, actual capacity and the evidentiary standards of courts. For example, in the second and third implementation reports on the Water Framework Directive, the European Commission drew attention to gaps in the standards of mandatory monitoring networks, where the standard did not meet the reality. In that context, groundwater monitoring networks should provide a reliable picture of groundwater levels and a ';coherent and comprehensive' overview of chemical status so that anthropogenically influenced long-term upward trends in pollutant levels can be tracked. Confidence in this overview should be such that 'the uncertainty from the monitoring process should not add significantly to the uncertainty of controlling the risk', with densities being sufficient to allow assessment of the impact of abstractions and discharges on levels in groundwater bodies at risk. The fact that the legal requirements for the quality of monitoring networks are set out in very vague terms highlights the many variables that can influence the design of monitoring networks. However, the quality of a monitoring network as part of the armory of environmental regulators is potentially of crucial importance. If, as part of enforcement proceedings, a regulator takes an offender to court and relies on conclusions derived from monitoring networks, a defendant may be entitled to question those conclusions. If the credibility, reliability or relevance of a monitoring network can be undermined, because it is too sparse, for example, this could have dramatic consequences on the ability of a

  5. The effect of erythrocyte antigen structure on requirement for T cells*

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, W.; Feldmann, Marc; Palmer, J.

    1974-01-01

    The induction in mice of a humoral immune response to intact sheep erythrocytes, both in vivo and in vitro, requires participation of thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes. In an in vitro system, spleen cells from both neonatally thymectomized and adult thymectomized irradiated bone marrow protected mice were successfully immunized, using washed sonicated sheep erythrocyte membrane fragments as antigen. This obviation of the requirement of T lymphocytes in the immune response, coupled with previous work on macrophage independence, indicates that sonicated membrane fragments were capable of directly immunizing bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes in vitro. These results further confirm the signal importance of antigenic structure in determining the cellular requirements for an immunological response; whereas antigens of particulate or monomeric form require the presence of both T cells and macrophages, polymeric antigens of intermediate size such as polymerized flagellin and sonicated sheep erythrocyte membranes require neither of these accessory cells. The results caution against the use of erythrocytes as models of thymus-dependent antigens. The data further suggest that reports of late antibody responses of relatively normal magnitude in thymectomized animals given larger doses of heterologous erythrocytes may have been due to direct immunization of B lymphocytes by degraded erythrocyte antigen. PMID:4138234

  6. Requiring suspended drunk drivers to install alcohol interlocks to reinstate their licenses: effective?

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, S. Scott; Fisher, Deborah; Grosz, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate a new method being used by some states for motivating interlock installation by requiring it as a prerequisite to reinstatement of the driver’s license. Design The driving records of Florida DWI offenders convicted between July 2002 and June 2008 were analyzed to determine the proportion of offenders subject to the interlock requirement who installed interlocks. Setting Most driving-while-impaired (DWI) offenders succeed in avoiding state laws requiring the installation of a vehicle alcohol interlock. Participants A total of 82 318 Florida DWI offenders. Findings Due to long periods of complete suspension when no driving was permitted and the failure to complete all the requirements imposed by the court, only 21 377 of the 82 318 offenders studied qualified for reinstatement, but 93% of those who qualified did install interlocks to be reinstated. Conclusions Because of the lengthy license suspensions and other barriers that the offenders face in qualifying for reinstatement, it is not clear that requiring a period on the interlock as a prerequisite to reinstating will greatly increase the current installment rate. PMID:20528811

  7. Requiring suspended drunk drivers to install alcohol interlocks to reinstate their licenses: effective?

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Tippetts, S Scott; Fisher, Deborah; Grosz, Milton

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate a new method being used by some states for motivating interlock installation by requiring it as a prerequisite to reinstatement of the driver's license. The driving records of Florida DWI offenders convicted between July 2002 and June 2008 were analyzed to determine the proportion of offenders subject to the interlock requirement who installed interlocks. Most driving-while-impaired (DWI) offenders succeed in avoiding state laws requiring the installation of a vehicle alcohol interlock. A total of 82 318 Florida DWI offenders. Due to long periods of complete suspension when no driving was permitted and the failure to complete all the requirements imposed by the court, only 21 377 of the 82 318 offenders studied qualified for reinstatement, but 93% of those who qualified did install interlocks to be reinstated. Because of the lengthy license suspensions and other barriers that the offenders face in qualifying for reinstatement, it is not clear that requiring a period on the interlock as a prerequisite to reinstating will greatly increase the current installment rate.

  8. Effects of hand termination and accuracy requirements on eye-hand coordination in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Miya K.; Stelmach, George E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how aging compromises the control of saccades and eye-hand coordination when accuracy constraints and termination requirements of hand movement are altered. Seventeen older adults and seventeen young controls performed two-segment aiming movements. The first segment had two target sizes to alter accuracy constraints. Two-segment eye movements were always made to first and second targets, whereas hand movements were varied across three hand-movement types with different termination requirements: 1) stop both at the first and second targets, 2) stop at the first target and discontinue, and 3) move through the first target and discontinue. Compared to the young adults, the older adults produced hypometric primary saccades and delayed gaze fixation to the first target. The older adults also modified eye movements less depending on the hand termination and accuracy requirements. After pointing completion to the first target, the older adults maintained their gaze fixation to that target for a longer duration than young adults. However, this prolonged gaze fixation was minimized when a hand termination was not required. Conversely, the prolongation of gaze fixation was magnified when the hand termination was required at the first target while the eye movement was continuing to the next target. Thus, older adults have difficulties in concurrent control of inhibiting hand movement and initiating eye movement at a target within a sequence. Taken together, it is suggested that aging reduces the ability to modify eye movements to meet various behavioral constraints imposed on manual aiming tasks. PMID:21163306

  9. Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that food consumption patterns significantly impact water requirements. The aim of this paper is to quantify how food consumption patterns influence water requirements in China. The findings show that per capita water requirement for food (CWRF) has increased from 250 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 1961 to 780 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 2003, largely due to an increase in the consumption of animal products in recent decades. Although steadily increasing, the CWRF of China is still much lower than that of many developed countries. The total water requirement for food (TWRF) has been determined as 1023 km3 y-1 in 2003. Three scenarios are proposed to project future TWRF, representing low, medium, and high levels of modernization (S1, S2, and S3, respectively). Analysis of these three scenarios indicates that TWRF will reach a maximum between 2020 and 2025, after which it is expected to decline. According to S2, the shift in food consumption patterns together with population growth may lead to an additional amount of required water of 114 km3 y-1 in 2025, even after taking technological advances into consideration. This will undoubtedly put high pressure on China's already scarce water resources. China needs to strengthen "green water" management and to take advantage of "virtual water" import to meet the additional TWRF.

  10. High density bit transition requirements versus the effects on BCH error correcting code. [bit synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.; Schoggen, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The design to achieve the required bit transition density for the Space Shuttle high rate multiplexes (HRM) data stream of the Space Laboratory Vehicle is reviewed. It contained a recommended circuit approach, specified the pseudo random (PN) sequence to be used and detailed the properties of the sequence. Calculations showing the probability of failing to meet the required transition density were included. A computer simulation of the data stream and PN cover sequence was provided. All worst case situations were simulated and the bit transition density exceeded that required. The Preliminary Design Review and the critical Design Review are documented. The Cover Sequence Generator (CSG) Encoder/Decoder design was constructed and demonstrated. The demonstrations were successful. All HRM and HRDM units incorporate the CSG encoder or CSG decoder as appropriate.

  11. Resolving the controversy of the proportion validity effect: Volitional attention is not required, but may have an effect.

    PubMed

    Lanthier, Sophie N; Wu, David W-L; Chapman, Craig S; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Response time (RT) is facilitated when a target appears at a cued (valid) location versus an uncued (invalid) location. Interestingly, this valid-versus-invalid RT difference increases as the percentage of valid trials increases. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for this proportion valid cueing effect (PVE). The PVE is thought to reflect changes in voluntary attentional allocation, with greater attention being committed endogenously to the cued location as the percentage of valid trials increases. However, recent research has suggested that the PVE may reflect a form of implicit learning between the cue and the target location that is developed outside of awareness, and that this determines how attention is allocated. This lack of convergence may be due to methodological differences in how voluntary processing has been inferred. To test this issue, we generated a method that would allow the measurement of different degrees of volitional attention. In addition, we manipulated whether participants were instructed to attend to the cue-target relationship and determined whether this explicit engagement of attention influenced the PVE. We found that for both peripheral and central cues, volitional control is not required for a PVE; however, volitional control can modulate a PVE that is produced by central cues. Thus, a PVE is not a reliable indicator of volitional control, but its sensitivity to volitional control varies across cues. The present data shed light on the mechanism subserving the PVE and lend support to the theory that different cues engage, to some degree, qualitatively different forms of visuospatial attention.

  12. The Effects of Finite Sampling Corrections on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies (NVS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    States participating in the National Assessment of Educational Progress State Assessment program (state NAEP) are required to sample at least 2,500 students from at least 100 schools per subject assessed. In this ideal situation, 25 students are assessed for a subject in each school selected for that subject. Two problems have arisen: some states…

  13. 16 CFR 1203.1 - Scope, general requirements, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.1 Scope, general... minimum performance criteria for all bicycle helmets, as defined in § 1203.4(b). (b) General requirements—(1) Projections. All projections on bicycle helmets must meet the construction requirements of §...

  14. The Equitable Distribution of Effective Teachers: Can States Meet the Research Challenges Required for Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act that has gained prominence as a policy focus only in the last several years is the requirement that poor and minority children be served by highly qualified teachers to no less a degree than other, more affluent children. Under the Obama administration, the focus on "highly qualified"…

  15. 16 CFR 1203.1 - Scope, general requirements, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.1 Scope, general... minimum performance criteria for all bicycle helmets, as defined in § 1203.4(b). (b) General requirements—(1) Projections. All projections on bicycle helmets must meet the construction requirements of § 1203...

  16. 16 CFR 1203.1 - Scope, general requirements, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.1 Scope, general... minimum performance criteria for all bicycle helmets, as defined in § 1203.4(b). (b) General requirements—(1) Projections. All projections on bicycle helmets must meet the construction requirements of § 1203...

  17. 16 CFR 1203.1 - Scope, general requirements, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.1 Scope, general... minimum performance criteria for all bicycle helmets, as defined in § 1203.4(b). (b) General requirements—(1) Projections. All projections on bicycle helmets must meet the construction requirements of § 1203...

  18. The Effect of Violations of the Constant Demand Assumption on the Defense Logistic Agency Requirements Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Defenae Logistica Agency The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is an agency of the Department of Defense. "The National Security Act (NSA) established...classification, requirements and supply control, procurement, quality and reliability assurance, industrial mobilization planning, storage, inventory...Operations Research Analyst, Defense Industrial Supply Center, Philadelphia PA. Telephone interview/Facsimile transmittal. May 1994 Chatterton, Brian

  19. The Effects of Requiring Study Group Participation Associated with Students' Attitudes and Achievements in Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely publicized that student attitudes and achievement in math in the United States require improvement. U.S. students have shown lackluster mathematics achievement scores compared to their international peers in other developed countries. As a former high school math instructor, this author observed that the attitude of many high school…

  20. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  1. 38 CFR 23.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... law or other requirements. 23.535 Section 23.535 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education...

  2. The Effects of Requiring Study Group Participation Associated with Students' Attitudes and Achievements in Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely publicized that student attitudes and achievement in math in the United States require improvement. U.S. students have shown lackluster mathematics achievement scores compared to their international peers in other developed countries. As a former high school math instructor, this author observed that the attitude of many high school…

  3. 21 CFR 888.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirement for premarket approval. A device included in this part that is classified into class III... day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III is..., is classified by statute (section 513(f) of the act) into class III without any grace period and...

  4. 21 CFR 886.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirement for premarket approval. A device included in this part that is classified into class III... day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III is..., is classified by statute (section 513(f) of the act) into class III without any grace period and...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirement for premarket approval. A device included in this part that is classified into class III... day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III is..., is classified by statute (section 513(f) of the act) into class III without any grace period and...

  6. Effects of Various Methods of Assigning and Evaluating Required Reading in One General Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John L., III; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Wiley, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Different approaches to creating out-of-class reading assignments for university general education courses might affect the amount of time students actually spend reading. Five instructors of a required religion/philosophy class used different approaches to assign out-of-class reading. Subsequently, their students (n = 504) were surveyed about…

  7. Effect of commercial and military performance requirements for transport category aircraft on space shuttle booster design and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bithell, R. A.; Pence, W. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of two sets of performance requirements, commercial and military, on the design and operation of the space shuttle booster is evaluated. Critical thrust levels are established according to both sets of operating rules for the takeoff, cruise, and go-around flight modes, and the effect on engine requirements determined. Both flyback and ferry operations are considered. The impact of landing rules on potential shuttle flyback and ferry bases is evaluated. Factors affecting reserves are discussed, including winds, temperature, and nonstandard flight operations. Finally, a recommended set of operating rules is proposed for both flyback and ferry operations that allows adequate performance capability and safety margins without compromising design requirements for either flight phase.

  8. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Glucose Requirements to Maintain Euglycemia During Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vinutha B; Fournier, Paul A; Davey, Raymond J; Retterath, Adam J; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Roby, Heather C; Cooper, Matthew N; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W

    2016-03-01

    No recommendations exist to inform the carbohydrate amount required to prevent hypoglycemia associated with exercise of different intensities in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The relationship between exercise intensity and carbohydrate requirements to maintain stable euglycemia in individuals with T1D remains to be determined. It was predicted that an "inverted-U" relationship exists between exercise intensity and the amount of glucose required to prevent hypoglycemia during exercise at basal insulinemia. Our objective was to investigate this relationship and elucidate the underlying glucoregulatory mechanisms. We subjected nine individuals (mean ± SD age, 21.5 ± 4.0 years; duration of disease, 11.4 ± 6.4 years; glycated hemoglobin, 7.9 ± 0.8% [60 mmol/mol]; body mass index, 25.4 ± 5.5 kg/m(2); VO2peak, 34.8 ± 5.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); and lactate threshold, 59.9 ± 5.9% VO2peak) with T1D to a euglycemic clamp, whereby euglycemia was maintained by infusing basal insulin rates with concomitant infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose for determining glucose kinetics. Glucose was infused to maintain euglycemia during and for 2 hours after exercise of different intensities (35, 50, 65, and 80% VO2peak). The glucose infusion rate (GIR), levels of glucoregulatory hormones, and rates of endogenous glucose appearance and disappearance were compared between conditions. The mean GIR to maintain euglycemia during exercise increased with intensity up to 50% (4.0 ± 1.6 g/h; P < .05) and 65% (4.1 ± 1.7 g/h), but no glucose was required at 80% VO2peak. Glucose rate of appearance and disappearance increased with intensity and, together with plasma catecholamines, reached higher levels at 80% VO2peak. Our findings support the predicted inverted-U relationship between exercise intensity and glucose requirement. However, the relationship between iv and oral glucose requirements needs to be investigated to translate these GIR data to clinical practice.

  9. Adequacy of Material Resources Required for Effective Implementation of Upper Basic Education Business Studies Curriculum in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, B. E.; Okorie, Ogbonnaya

    2015-01-01

    This work is a descriptive survey of the adequacy of the material resources required for effective implementation of upper basic education business studies curriculum in Ebonyi State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The entire population of two hundred and forty-one (241) business studies teachers were used for the…

  10. The Effect of Required Cooperative Education (Co-Op) on the Pursuit of an Undergraduate Engineering Degree for Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Vickie L.

    2009-01-01

    Female enrollment in engineering has been historically low. Researchers claim chilly classroom environments and societal expectations of gender and work as reasons why so few women pursue engineering. This qualitative study explores the effects of required cooperative education on a female student's choice of and persistence in an undergraduate…

  11. Why Pigeons Say What They Do: Reinforcer Magnitude and Response Requirement Effects on Say Responding in Say-Do Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of reinforcer magnitude and response requirement on pigeons' say choices in an experimental homologue of human say-do correspondence were assessed in two experiments. The procedure was similar to a conditional discrimination procedure except the pigeons chose both a sample stimulus (the say component) and a comparison stimulus that…

  12. The Effects of Specifying Job Requirements and Using Explicit Warnings to Decrease Sex Discrimination in Employment Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, William D.

    1982-01-01

    To determine effectiveness of instructions designed to reduce sex discrimination in employment interviews, students were asked to rate resumes for a male and a female applicant under different instructional conditions. Results suggested that: legal warnings may bias ratings in favor of male applicants; and specifying job requirements reduces…

  13. 19 CFR 200.735-123 - Effect of employees' and special Government employees' statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of employees' and special Government employees' statements on other requirements. 200.735-123 Section 200.735-123 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Statements of...

  14. Effect of NLTE Emissivity Models on NIF Ignition Hohlraum Power Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, L.; Rosen, M.; Springer, P.; Haan, S.; Hansen, S.

    2009-09-10

    NLTE atomic physics model can significantly affect the power requirements and plasma conditions in ignition hohlraums. This is because the emissivity is a significant factor in determining the time dependent coronal temperature of the hot blow-off plasma filling ignition hohlraums, which, in turn, determines the total energy stored in that coronal plasma at any instant. Here we present best estimates of NLTE emissivity using the SCRAM model, including the range of uncertainty, and compare them with the emissivity of the model used to design NIF ignition hohlraums and set the NIF pulse shape, XSN NLTE. We then present pulse shapes derived from hohlraum simulations using an atomic physics model that approximates the SCRAM emissivities. We discuss the differences in coronal energetics and show how this affects the pulse shape and, in particular, the peak power requirement.

  15. Effects of various radiation source characteristics on shielding requirements at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.W.; Miller, D.D.; Hill, R.R.

    1992-02-01

    This radiation shielding study provides dose rate information that can be used to estimate required shielding thicknesses for different repository configurations, including various hot cells and vaults in the waste-handling building, the boreholes in the underground emplacement area, and the transfer casks. The study determines gamma and neutron source strengths for various waste types and source geometries representative of conditions at the repository and determines dose rates as a function of shielding thickness for selected materials.

  16. Performance Support Technology to Assess Training Effectiveness: Functional and Test-Bed Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    tests . Journal of Educational Measurement, Fall, 21(3 , 221- 224. This article focuses upon the importance of a minimal level of internal reliability ...An ideal PST would automate construction of items as much as possible, and rely very little on teaching the SME to build them. The test plan feature...MOS multiple choice tests require about 60 items for adequate reliability . This, in fact, is the number suggested by TRADOC guidelines for SDTs. But CRT

  17. Effects of life-history requirements on the distribution of a threatened reptile.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Denise M; Ligon, Day B; Patton, Jason C; Papeş, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Survival and reproduction are the two primary life-history traits essential for species' persistence; however, the environmental conditions that support each of these traits may not be the same. Despite this, reproductive requirements are seldom considered when estimating species' potential distributions. We sought to examine potentially limiting environmental factors influencing the distribution of an oviparous reptile of conservation concern with respect to the species' survival and reproduction and to assess the implications of the species' predicted climatic constraints on current conservation practices. We used ecological niche modeling to predict the probability of environmental suitability for the alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii). We built an annual climate model to examine survival and a nesting climate model to examine reproduction. We combined incubation temperature requirements, products of modeled soil temperature data, and our estimated distributions to determine whether embryonic development constrained the northern distribution of the species. Low annual precipitation constrained the western distribution of alligator snapping turtles, whereas the northern distribution was constrained by thermal requirements during embryonic development. Only a portion of the geographic range predicted to have a high probability of suitability for alligator snapping turtle survival was estimated to be capable of supporting successful embryonic development. Historic occurrence records suggest adult alligator snapping turtles can survive in regions with colder climes than those associated with consistent and successful production of offspring. Estimated egg-incubation requirements indicated that current reintroductions at the northern edge of the species' range are within reproductively viable environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of considering survival and reproduction when estimating species' ecological niches, implicating

  18. When the Patient Seeks Cure: Challenging Chemotherapy and Radiation Side Effects Requiring Creative Solutions.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Aurelie C; Drapek, Lorraine; Fahey, Jean; Rowen, Brenna; Burns-Britton, Betty; Lavadinho-Lemos, Maria; Hultman, Todd

    2016-04-01

    When undergoing concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for anal cancer, patients often experience significant side effects, including grade 1 or 2 radiation dermatitis, pain, exudate, and diarrhea. This case study presents a grade 3 reaction complicated by complex medical conditions. In addition to an evidence-based skin care treatment and side effect management plan that support patients during this intense period, this article offers creative strategies to provide a cost-effective healing option.

  19. Low-versus high-glycemic index diets in women: effects on caloric requirement, substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Clapp, James F; Lopez, Beth

    2007-09-01

    Lowering dietary glycemic index appears to have positive health effects in obese and/or insulin resistant individuals. However, detailed studies in lean young men show no effect. This study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a diet rich in low-glycemic carbohydrate has no effect on lipid profile, caloric requirements, fat oxidation, or insulin sensitivity in adult women when compared to one rich in high-glycemic carbohydrate. The metabolic feeding protocol used was conducted in both a free-living and in-patient setting using a randomized crossover design. Seven women were studied on each of 2 diets in which 60% of the calories were from either high- or low-glycemic carbohydrate sources. Each diet lasted 20 days with measurements of caloric requirement, resting metabolic rate, glucose and insulin responses to diet and activity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile over the last 7 days. Caloric requirement was determined by bomb calorimetry. Other techniques included indirect calorimetry, hydrodensitometry, stable isotope tracers, and the euglycemic clamp. On the low-glycemic index diet the women's caloric requirements were 11% +/- 1% higher, fat oxidation at fasted rest supplied an average of 45% +/- 4% versus 28% +/- 5% of oxidative requirements, average glucose and insulin levels were approximately 40% lower, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and leptin concentrations were lower, and various indices of insulin sensitivity were > 20% higher. In this group of adult women, a diet that lowered glycemic index well below that typically found in western diets increased both daily caloric requirement and fat oxidation, decreased insulin and glucose concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity.

  20. Spark Ignition of Flowing Gases. 2: Effect of Electrode Parameters on Energy Required to Ignite a Propane-Air Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swett, Clyde. C., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of the electrode parameters of spacing, configuration, and material' on the energy required for ignition of a flowing propane-air mixture. In addition, the data were used to indicate the energy distribution along the spark length and to confirm previous observations concerning the effect of spark duration on ignition energy requirements. The data were obtained with a mixture at a fuel-air ratio of 0.0835 (by weight), a pressure of 3 inches of mercury absolute, a temperature of 80 F, and a mixture velocity of 5 feet per second. Results showed that the energy required for ignition decreased as the electrode spacing was increased; a minimum energy occurred at. a spacing of 0.65 inch for large electrodes. For small electrodes, the spacing for minimum energy was not sharply defined. Small-diameter electrodes required less energy than large-diameter electrodes if the spacing was less than the optimum distance of 0.65 inch; at a spacing equal to the optimum distance, no difference was noted. Significant effects of electrode material on ignition energy were ascribed to differences in the type of spark discharges produced; glow discharges required higher energy than the arc-glow discharges. With pure glow discharges, the ignition energy was substantially constant for lead, cadmium, brass, aluminum, and tungsten electrodes. A method is described for determining the energy distribution along a glow discharge. It was found that one-third to one-half of the energy in the spark was concentrated in a small region near the cathode electrode, and the remainder was uniformly distributed across the spark gap. It was impossible to ascertain the dependence of ignition on. this distribution. It was also observed that long-duration (600 microsec) sparks required much less energy for ignition than did short-duration (1 microsec) sparks.

  1. The Army Materiel Requirements Documents: Qualitative Analysis of Efficiency and Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-30

    The JLTV MCDs received the highest score on the efficiency axis and an equal rating with M-ATV on the effectiveness axes. This reveals that the...66 c. 2.  Change: Evolutionary Versus Revolutionary .................... 70  3.  Rating Scheme...Efficiency and Effectiveness, Revolutionary and Evolutionary Change, and Rating Model (Based on Grüter & Boerendans, 2013

  2. 15 CFR 8a.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.535 Effect...

  3. 24 CFR 3288.215 - Effect on other manufactured home program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on other manufactured home... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM State Dispute Resolution Programs in Non-HUD Administered States § 3288.215 Effect on other manufactured home...

  4. 24 CFR 3288.215 - Effect on other manufactured home program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect on other manufactured home... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM State Dispute Resolution Programs in Non-HUD Administered States § 3288.215 Effect on other manufactured home...

  5. Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    engagements would lead to lowered levels of shooting skills over the long term . Option 2a—Shoot One Record Fire and Only Fire a Second Record Fire if...goals required an in-depth understanding of weapon training strat- egies and the factors that underpin them. The high level of support we received from...Captain Dan Wilcox, whose efforts to move “combat shooter” skills to the forefront will provide long - term benefits to the Army. At Fort Eustis, Mark

  6. Melatonin antiproliferative effects require active mitochondrial function in embryonal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Rute; Magalhães-Novais, Silvia; Mesquita, Katia A.; Baldeiras, Ines; Sousa, Isabel S.; Tavares, Ludgero C.; Barbosa, Ines A.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Although melatonin oncostatic and cytotoxic effects have been described in different types of cancer cells, the specific mechanisms leading to its antitumoral effects and their metabolic context specificity are still not completely understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of melatonin in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells (CSCs) and in their differentiated counterparts, cultured in either high glucose medium or in a galactose (glucose-free) medium which leads to glycolytic suppression and increased mitochondrial metabolism. We found that highly glycolytic P19 CSCs were less susceptible to melatonin antitumoral effects while cell populations relying on oxidative metabolism for ATP production were more affected. The observed antiproliferative action of melatonin was associated with an arrest at S-phase, decreased oxygen consumption, down-regulation of BCL-2 expression and an increase in oxidative stress culminating with caspase-3-independent cell death. Interestingly, the combined treatment of melatonin and dichloroacetate had a synergistic effect in cells grown in the galactose medium and resulted in an inhibitory effect in the highly resistant P19 CSCs. Melatonin appears to exert its antiproliferative activity in P19 carcinoma cells through a mitochondrially-mediated action which in turn allows the amplification of the effects of dichloroacetate, even in cells with a more glycolytic phenotype. PMID:26025920

  7. Effective reinforcement learning following cerebellar damage requires a balance between exploration and motor noise.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Amanda S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Bastian, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement and error-based processes are essential for motor learning, with the cerebellum thought to be required only for the error-based mechanism. Here we examined learning and retention of a reaching skill under both processes. Control subjects learned similarly from reinforcement and error-based feedback, but showed much better retention under reinforcement. To apply reinforcement to cerebellar patients, we developed a closed-loop reinforcement schedule in which task difficulty was controlled based on recent performance. This schedule produced substantial learning in cerebellar patients and controls. Cerebellar patients varied in their learning under reinforcement but fully retained what was learned. In contrast, they showed complete lack of retention in error-based learning. We developed a mechanistic model of the reinforcement task and found that learning depended on a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. While the cerebellar and control groups had similar exploration variability, the patients had greater motor noise and hence learned less. Our results suggest that cerebellar damage indirectly impairs reinforcement learning by increasing motor noise, but does not interfere with the reinforcement mechanism itself. Therefore, reinforcement can be used to learn and retain novel skills, but optimal reinforcement learning requires a balance between exploration variability and motor noise.

  8. Performance under dichoptic versus binocular viewing conditions - Effects of attention and task requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Gopher, Daniel; Rubin, Yifat; Raij, David

    1993-01-01

    Three experiments investigated subjects' ability to allocate attention and cope with task requirements under dichoptic versus binocular viewing conditions. Experiments 1 and 2 employed a target detection task in compound and noncompound stimuli, and Experiment 3 employed a relative-proximity judgment task. The tasks were performed in a focused attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimulus presented to one eye or field (under dichoptic and binocular viewing conditions, respectively) while ignoring the stimulus presented to the other eye or field, and in a divided attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimuli presented to both eyes or fields. Subjects' performance was affected by the interaction of attention conditions with task requirements, but it was generally the same under dichoptic and binocular viewing conditions. The more dependent the task was on finer discrimination, the more performance was impaired by divided attention. These results suggest that at least with discrete tasks and relatively short exposure durations, performance when each eye is presented with a separate stimulus is the same as when the entire field of stimulation is viewed by both eyes.

  9. Direct effects of ionizing radiation on integral membrane proteins. Noncovalent energy transfer requires specific interpeptide interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jhun, E.; Jhun, B.H.; Jones, L.R.; Jung, C.Y. )

    1991-05-25

    The 12 transmembrane alpha helices (TMHs) of human erythrocyte glucose transporter were individually cut by pepsin digestion as membrane-bound 2.5-3.5-kDa peptide fragments. Radiation-induced chemical degradation of these fragments showed an average target size of 34 kDa. This is 10-12 x larger than the average size of an individual TMH, demonstrating that a significant energy transfer occurs among these TMHs in the absence of covalent linkage. Heating this TMH preparation at 100{degree}C for 15 min reduced the target size to 5 kDa or less, suggesting that the noncovalent energy transfer requires specific helix-helix interactions. Purified phospholamban, a small (6-kDa) integral membrane protein containing a single TMH, formed a pentameric assembly in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The chemical degradation target size of this phospholamban pentamer was 5-6 kDa, illustrating that not all integral membrane protein assemblies permit intersubunit energy transfer. These findings together with other published observations suggest strongly that significant noncovalent energy transfer can occur within the tertiary and quaternary structure of membrane proteins and that as yet undefined proper molecular interactions are required for such covalent energy transfer. Our results with pepsin-digested glucose transporter also illustrate the importance of the interhelical interaction as a predominating force in maintaining the tertiary structure of a transmembrane protein.

  10. Financial effect of instituting Deficit Reduction Act documentation requirements in family planning clinics in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Angus, Lisa; Elman, Emily; Darney, Philip D; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-06-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the long-term costs for implementing citizenship documentation requirements in a Medicaid expansion program for family planning services in Oregon. A decision-analytic model was developed using two perspectives: the state and society. Our primary outcome was future reproductive health care costs due to pregnancy in the next 5 years. A Markov structure was utilized to capture multiple future pregnancies. Model inputs were retrieved from the existing literature and local hospital and Medicaid data related to reimbursements. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to simultaneously incorporate uncertainty from all of the model inputs. Screening for citizenship results in a loss of $3119 over 5 years ($39,382 vs. $42,501) for the state and $4209 for society ($63,391 compared to $59,182) for adult women. Among adolescents, requiring proof of identity and citizenship results in a loss of $3123 for the state ($39,378 versus $42,501) and $4214 for society ($63,391 instead of $59,177). Screening for citizenship status in publicly funded family planning clinics leads to financial losses for the state and society. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance under dichoptic versus binocular viewing conditions - Effects of attention and task requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Gopher, Daniel; Rubin, Yifat; Raij, David

    1993-01-01

    Three experiments investigated subjects' ability to allocate attention and cope with task requirements under dichoptic versus binocular viewing conditions. Experiments 1 and 2 employed a target detection task in compound and noncompound stimuli, and Experiment 3 employed a relative-proximity judgment task. The tasks were performed in a focused attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimulus presented to one eye or field (under dichoptic and binocular viewing conditions, respectively) while ignoring the stimulus presented to the other eye or field, and in a divided attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimuli presented to both eyes or fields. Subjects' performance was affected by the interaction of attention conditions with task requirements, but it was generally the same under dichoptic and binocular viewing conditions. The more dependent the task was on finer discrimination, the more performance was impaired by divided attention. These results suggest that at least with discrete tasks and relatively short exposure durations, performance when each eye is presented with a separate stimulus is the same as when the entire field of stimulation is viewed by both eyes.

  12. Effective reinforcement learning following cerebellar damage requires a balance between exploration and motor noise

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Amanda S.; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    See Miall and Galea (doi: 10.1093/awv343) for a scientific commentary on this article. Reinforcement and error-based processes are essential for motor learning, with the cerebellum thought to be required only for the error-based mechanism. Here we examined learning and retention of a reaching skill under both processes. Control subjects learned similarly from reinforcement and error-based feedback, but showed much better retention under reinforcement. To apply reinforcement to cerebellar patients, we developed a closed-loop reinforcement schedule in which task difficulty was controlled based on recent performance. This schedule produced substantial learning in cerebellar patients and controls. Cerebellar patients varied in their learning under reinforcement but fully retained what was learned. In contrast, they showed complete lack of retention in error-based learning. We developed a mechanistic model of the reinforcement task and found that learning depended on a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. While the cerebellar and control groups had similar exploration variability, the patients had greater motor noise and hence learned less. Our results suggest that cerebellar damage indirectly impairs reinforcement learning by increasing motor noise, but does not interfere with the reinforcement mechanism itself. Therefore, reinforcement can be used to learn and retain novel skills, but optimal reinforcement learning requires a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. PMID:26626368

  13. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make...

  14. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make...

  15. 77 FR 53819 - Proposed Priorities, Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria-Supporting Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... prepare effective science, technology, engineering, and mathematics teachers; and invest in efforts that... activities. Proposed Priority 4: Promoting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education... advantages; distributive impacts; and equity); (4) To the extent feasible, specify performance...

  16. Forbearance for fluoxetine: do monoaminergic antidepressants require a number of years to reach maximum therapeutic effect in humans?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    It is of high clinical interest to better understand the timecourse through which psychiatric drugs produce their beneficial effects. While a rough estimate of the time lag between initiating monoaminergic antidepressant therapy and the onset of therapeutic effect in depressed subjects is two weeks, much less is known about when these drugs reach maximum effect. This paper briefly examines studies that directly address this question through long-term antidepressant administration to humans, while also putting forth a simple theoretical approach for estimating the time required for monoaminergic antidepressants to reach maximum therapeutic effect in humans. The theory invokes a comparison between speed of antidepressant drug response in humans and in rodents, focusing on the apparently greater speed in rodents. The principal argument is one of proportions, comparing earliest effects of these drugs in rodents and humans, versus their time to reach maximum effect in these organisms. If the proportionality hypothesis is even coarsely accurate, then applying these values or to some degree their ranges to the hypothesis, may suggest that monoaminergic antidepressants require a number of years to reach maximum effect in humans, at least in some individuals.

  17. New techniques required to understand the by-stander effect in situ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britten, Richard

    2008-03-01

    The by-stander effect has been known for nearly a century under various names, of which the abscopal effect is probably the most well known. More recently the by-stander effect has received a lot of attention, and various models have been developed to assess the relative importance of the bystander effect in radiation treatment. It is clear that irradiated cells release factors that lead to alterations in the physiology of adjacent irradiated cells, both via inter-cellular junctions and through systemic factors. Most studies that have sought to identify the systemic factors and the cellular mechanisms that are responsible for the bystander effect have by necessity used in vitro systems. The purpose of this presentation is to alert the audience to the various techniques that are available to study the proteomic changes related to the bystander effect in situ. We shall pay attention to the use of MALDI-imaging to track spatial proteomic changes in tissue that have been exposed to microbeams.

  18. Longitudinal change in energy expenditure and effects on energy requirements of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the longitudinal changes in energy requirements in late life. The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the energy requirements in late life and how they changed during a 7 year time-span, (2) determine whether changes in fat free mass (FFM) were related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), and (3) determine the accuracy of predicted total energy expenditure (TEE) to measured TEE. Methods TEE was assessed via doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in older adults in both 1999 (n = 302; age: 74 ± 2.9 yrs) and again in 2006 (n = 87 age: 82 ± 3.1 yrs). RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry, and body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results The energy requirements in the 9th decade of life were 2208 ± 376 kcal/d for men and 1814 ± 337 kcal/d for women. This was a significant decrease from the energy requirements in the 8th decade of life in men (2482 ± 476 kcal/d vs. 2208 ± 376 kcal/d) but not in women (1892 ± 271 kcal/d vs. 1814 ± 337 kcal/d). In addition to TEE, RMR, and activity EE (AEE) also decreased in men, but not women, while FFM decreased in both men and women. The changes in FFM were correlated with changes in RMR for men (r = 0.49, p < 0.05) but not for women (r = −0.08, ns). Measured TEE was similar to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) predicted TEE for men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2305 ± 35 kcal/d) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 1781 ± 20 kcal/d). However, measured TEE was different than the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted TEE in men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2915 ± 31 kcal/d (p < 0.05)) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 2315 ± 21 kcal/d (p < 0.05)). Conclusions TEE, RMR and AEE decreased in men, but not women, from the 8th to 9th decade of life. The DRI equation to predict TEE was comparable to measured TEE, while the WHO equation over-predicted TEE in our elderly population

  19. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-10) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-10 males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis. PMID:28057769

  20. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-02-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-1(0)) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-1(0) males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-1(0) mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis.

  1. Tissue and external insulation estimates and their effects on prediction of energy requirements and of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2004-05-01

    Published data were used to develop improved equations to predict tissue insulation (TI) and external insulation (EI) and their effects on maintenance requirements of Holstein cattle. These are used to calculate lower critical temperature (LCT), energy cost of exposure to temperatures below LCT, and excess heat accumulating in the body at temperatures above LCT. The National Research Council classifies TI by age groups and body condition score; and in the EI equation air velocity effects are linear and coat insulation values are derived from beef animals in cold climates. These lead to low LCT values, which are not compatible with known effects of environment on the performance of Holsteins in warm climates. Equations were developed to present TI as a function of body weight, improving prediction of TI for animals of similar age but differing in body weight. An equation was developed to predict rate of decrease of TI at ambient temperatures above LCT. Nonlinear equations were developed that account for wind effects as boundary layer insulation effects dependent on body weight and air velocity. Published data were used to develop adjustments for hair coat effects on EI in Holstein cows. While by NRC equations, wind has negligible effects on heat loss, the recalculated effects of air velocity on heat loss were consistent with published effects of forced ventilation on the responses of the Holstein cow. The derived LCT was higher by 10 to 20 degrees C than that calculated by NRC (2001) and accounted for known Holstein performance in temperate and warm climates. These equations pointed to tentative significant effects of cold (-10 degrees C) on energy requirements (7 Mcal/d) further increased by 1 m/s wind (15 Mcal/d), even in high-producing cows. Needs for increased heat dissipation and estimating heat stress development at ambient temperatures above the LCT are predicted. These equations can be used to revise NRC equations for heat exchange.

  2. 78 FR 20268 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Three Class III Preamendments Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... addition to normal breast health routine by visualizing translucent tissue for the diagnosis of cancer... breast, to visualize translucent tissue for the diagnosis of cancer, other conditions, diseases, or... safety and effectiveness of the device for the diagnosis of cancer, other conditions, diseases,...

  3. 77 FR 41697 - Stay of the Effectiveness of Requirements; Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... authority of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) for 90 days. Today's action reflects this stay in the... FIP Rule Pursuant to section 705 of the APA, the EPA hereby stays the effectiveness of the NM FIP Rule... the terms of the NM FIP that arise during the 90 day period. Under section 705 of the APA, ``an...

  4. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  5. 7 CFR 15a.58 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Employment in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.58 Effect of State or local law or other.... 15a.58 Section 15a.58 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... limits upon employment of members of one sex which are not imposed upon members of the other sex....

  6. Global climatic change effects on irrigation requirements for the Central Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rising carbon dioxide and other green house gasses (water vapor, nitrous oxide, methane, etc.) are predicted to have an effect on future climates. These gasses impact crops and global and local weather. The carbon dioxide increase is generally considered to be favorable to agriculture as it increas...

  7. Effects of cocaine on performance under fixed-interval schedules with a small tandem ratio requirement.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Branch, Marc N

    2004-01-01

    Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however, has not been observed with fixed-interval schedules arranging comparable interreinforcement intervals. This experiment examined the possibility that differences in rate and temporal patterning between the two types of schedule are responsible for the differences in observed patterns of tolerance. Five pigeons were trained to key peck on a three-component multiple (tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio) schedule. The interval values were 10, 30, and 120 s; the tandem ratio was held constant at five responses. Performance appeared more like that observed under fixed-ratio schedules than fixed-interval schedules. Effects of various doses of cocaine given weekly were then determined for each pigeon. A dose that reduced responding was administered prior to each session for 50 days. A reassessment of effects of the range of doses revealed tolerance. The degree of tolerance was similar across components of the multiple schedule. Next, the saline vehicle was administered prior to each session for 50 days to assess the persistence of tolerance. Tolerance diminished in all subjects. Overall, the results suggested that schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance does not depend on the temporal pattern of responding engendered by fixed-ratio schedules. PMID:15693524

  8. Translational researches require effective protocols for knowledge and technology transfer and integration.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Yadollah

    2011-01-01

    Integration of several disciplines (nonclinical, preclinical and clinical researches) during drug discovery and development through learning and confirmation process needs a dynamic process; "translational medicine" (TM) to give a holistic understanding of the entire process. To achieve the highest impacts, however, effective standard protocols need to be performed.

  9. Effect of a mandatory research requirement on categorical resident academic productivity in a university-based general surgery residency.

    PubMed

    Papasavas, Pavlos; Filippa, Dawn; Reilly, Patricia; Chandawarkar, Rajiv; Kirton, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Our general surgery residency (46 residents, graduating 6 categoricals per year) offers the opportunity for 2 categorical residents at the end of their second year to choose a 2-year research track. Academic productivity for the remaining categorical residents was dependent on personal interest and time investment. To increase academic productivity within the residency, a mandatory research requirement was implemented in July 2010. We sought to examine the effect of this annual individual requirement. The research requirement consisted of several components: a curriculum of monthly research meetings and lectures, assigned faculty to act as research mentors, an online repository of research projects and ideas, statistical support, and a faculty member appointed Director of Research. In July 2010, the requirement was applied to all categorical postgraduate year 1-3 residents and expanded to postgraduate year 1-4 in 2011. The research requirement culminated in an annual research day at the end of the academic year. We compared the number of abstract presentations in local, national, and international meetings between the first 2 years of the research program and the 2 years before it. We also compared the total number of publications between the 2 periods, acknowledging that any differences at this point do not necessarily reflect an effect of the research requirement. From July 2008 to June 2010 (Period A), there were 18 podium and poster presentations in local, national, and international meetings, and 30 publications in peer-reviewed journals, whereas between July 2010 and June 2012 (Period B), there were 58 presentations and 32 publications. In Period A 9 of 60 (15%) categorical residents had a podium or poster presentation in comparison with Period B when 23 of 58 (40%) categorical residents had a podium or poster presentation (p < 0.01). The institution of a mandatory research requirement resulted in a 3-fold increase in scientific presentations in our surgical

  10. Mental Health Services Required after Disasters: Learning from the Lasting Effects of Disasters

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, A. C.; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Disasters test civil administrations' and health services' capacity to act in a flexible but well-coordinated manner because each disaster is unique and poses unusual challenges. The health services required differ markedly according to the nature of the disaster and the geographical spread of those affected. Epidemiology has shown that services need to be equipped to deal with major depressive disorder and grief, not just posttraumatic stress disorder, and not only for victims of the disaster itself but also the emergency service workers. The challenge is for specialist advisers to respect and understand the existing health care and support networks of those affected while also recognizing their limitations. In the initial aftermath of these events, a great deal of effort goes into the development of early support systems but the longer term needs of these populations are often underestimated. These services need to be structured, taking into account the pre-existing psychiatric morbidity within the community. Disasters are an opportunity for improving services for patients with posttraumatic psychopathology in general but can later be utilized for improving services for victims of more common traumas in modern society, such as accidents and interpersonal violence. PMID:22811897

  11. The effect of hair colour on anaesthetic requirements and recovery time after surgery.

    PubMed

    Myles, P S; Buchanan, F F; Bain, C R

    2012-07-01

    Patients with red hair are much more likely to have a variant of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene and this may affect sensitivity to general anaesthetics and pain response. We did a prospective, matched cohort study of 468 healthy adult patients undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery. All patients received an inhalational general anaesthetic. Anaesthetic drugs and doses used, hypnotic depth, recovery times, pain scores and quality of recovery scores were recorded. More men than women had red hair, so we did subgroup and multivariable analyses to account for this imbalance. There was no significant difference in recovery times, pain scores or quality of recovery scores in those with red hair. After adjusting for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status and duration of surgery, the recovery ratio for time to eye-opening in redheads was comparable to those with black or brown hair, 0.82 (0.57-1.19), P=0.30. We found no evidence that patient hair colour affects anaesthetic requirements or recovery characteristics in a broad range of surgical procedures.

  12. Capturing Safety Requirements to Enable Effective Task Allocation Between Humans and Automaton in Increasingly Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neogi, Natasha A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a current drive towards enabling the deployment of increasingly autonomous systems in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, shifting the traditional roles and responsibilities between humans and automation for safety critical tasks must be managed carefully, otherwise the current emergent safety properties of the NAS may be disrupted. In this paper, a verification activity to assess the emergent safety properties of a clearly defined, safety critical, operational scenario that possesses tasks that can be fluidly allocated between human and automated agents is conducted. Task allocation role sets were proposed for a human-automation team performing a contingency maneuver in a reduced crew context. A safety critical contingency procedure (engine out on takeoff) was modeled in the Soar cognitive architecture, then translated into the Hybrid Input Output formalism. Verification activities were then performed to determine whether or not the safety properties held over the increasingly autonomous system. The verification activities lead to the development of several key insights regarding the implicit assumptions on agent capability. It subsequently illustrated the usefulness of task annotations associated with specialized requirements (e.g., communication, timing etc.), and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  13. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gina; Clark, James; Aurand, Don

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols.

  14. [Structural requirements and conditions for effective microbiological diagnostics in disease outbreak].

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F

    2013-01-01

    After the International Health Regulations of 2005, 194 states agreed to minimal standards to assure health; accordingly, the obligation for safeguarding appropriate laboratory diagnostic capacities has existed under international law since 15 June 2007. Basically, developing and optimizing faster and more innovative testing methods should be the main aim of public health reference laboratories in order to guarantee optimal outbreak detection, control measures, and patient management. All these measures can only be successfully implemented if microbiological primary diagnostics remain comprehensive and do not fall victim to apparent budgetary restrictions. Effective microbiological diagnostics not only help the patient who is directly affected, but also have an effect on the efforts of public health services in controlling infectious disease. In this respect, microbiological routine diagnostics differ substantially from medical-chemical laboratory diagnostics.

  15. A platform for effective requirements management and collaboration in nuclear compliance and licensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fechtelkotter, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    Buoyed by its promise as a cost effective and low-carbon-footprint source of electricity, the nuclear industry is in the midst of a world-wide renaissance. However, significant challenges, including responding to increased safety and regulatory mandates, making a smooth transition to next-generation reactor technology, and dealing with the adoption of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems that rely heavily on software must be effectively addressed to ensure the momentum continues. New technology solutions, such as those developed by IBM's Rational business unit, coupled with well codified processes, policies and best practices leveraged across the nuclear ecosystem's participants have been shown to aid in overcoming these obstacles. This paper will highlight some of the compliance and collaboration challenges facing the extended nuclear ecosystem, describe a potential solution that can aid in addressing the challenges, and present several examples of where the solution has been implemented in the nuclear space. (authors)

  16. Department of Defense Interface Standard Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Requirements for Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-19

    is a radio frequency (RF) resonance effect that occurs only in a high vacuum where RF field accelerates free electrons resulting in collisions with...Facilities MIL-STD-188-125-2 High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection for Ground-Based C4I Facilities Performing Critical, Time-Urgent...Systems MIL-STD-1605 Procedures for Conducting a Shipboard Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Survey ( Surface Ships) MIL-STD-2169 High Altitude

  17. An Analysis of the Army Service Acquisition Review Requirements and the Perceived Effectiveness on Intended Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    effective questionnaires and survey procedures for program evaluation & research [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs...CREATING THE SURVEY The survey was created using design approaches identified during the research phase. The instrument was constructed to help... design will help assess each individual’s perceptions on the five primary research questions. D. PILOT TESTING After creating the survey , it’s

  18. The Effects of Caffeine on Sleep in Drosophila Require PKA Activity, but not the Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mark N.; Ho, Karen; Crocker, Amanda; Yue, Zhifeng; Koh, Kyunghee; Sehgal, Amita

    2009-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed stimulants in the world and has been proposed to promote wakefulness by antagonizing function of the adenosine A2A receptor. Here, we show that chronic administration of caffeine reduces and fragments sleep in Drosophila and also lengthens circadian period. To identify the mechanisms underlying these effects of caffeine, we first generated mutants of the only known adenosine receptor in flies (dAdoR), which by sequence is most similar to the mammalian A2A receptor. Mutants lacking dAdoR have normal amounts of baseline sleep, as well as normal homeostatic responses to sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, these mutants respond normally to caffeine. On the other hand, the effects of caffeine on sleep and circadian rhythms are mimicked by a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine). Using in vivo FRET imaging, we find that caffeine induces widespread increase in cAMP levels throughout the brain. Finally, the effects of caffeine on sleep are blocked in flies that have reduced neuronal PKA activity. We suggest that chronic administration of caffeine promotes wakefulness in Drosophila, at least in part, by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase activity. PMID:19726661

  19. The effects of caffeine on sleep in Drosophila require PKA activity, but not the adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mark N; Ho, Karen; Crocker, Amanda; Yue, Zhifeng; Koh, Kyunghee; Sehgal, Amita

    2009-09-02

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed stimulants in the world and has been proposed to promote wakefulness by antagonizing function of the adenosine A2A receptor. Here, we show that chronic administration of caffeine reduces and fragments sleep in Drosophila and also lengthens circadian period. To identify the mechanisms underlying these effects of caffeine, we first generated mutants of the only known adenosine receptor in flies (dAdoR), which by sequence is most similar to the mammalian A2A receptor. Mutants lacking dAdoR have normal amounts of baseline sleep, as well as normal homeostatic responses to sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, these mutants respond normally to caffeine. On the other hand, the effects of caffeine on sleep and circadian rhythms are mimicked by a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine). Using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we find that caffeine induces widespread increase in cAMP levels throughout the brain. Finally, the effects of caffeine on sleep are blocked in flies that have reduced neuronal PKA activity. We suggest that chronic administration of caffeine promotes wakefulness in Drosophila, at least in part, by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase activity.

  20. Understanding Teacher Effectiveness: Significant State Data Capacity Is Required to Measure and Improve Teacher Effectiveness. Data for Action 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    States are increasingly focused on understanding and improving teacher effectiveness. There are several funding opportunities that incentivize states to use data to inform measurements of teacher effectiveness. Local, state, and federal efforts support using data to improve teacher preparation programs. Preparation programs seek "access to data…

  1. The effects of clonidine premedication on sevoflurane requirements and anesthetic induction time.

    PubMed

    Inomata, S; Yaguchi, Y; Toyooka, H

    1999-07-01

    We assessed the effects of oral clonidine preanesthetic medication (4.5 microg/kg) on the vital capacity rapid-inhalation anesthetic induction time (VCRII time) and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) to prevent a response to a verbal command in 50% of patients (MAC-Awake) by its hypnotic effect, and on MAC-Skin incision for the analgesic effect in patients anesthetized with sevoflurane. We studied 104 adult patients (control group: n = 52, clonidine group: n = 52) aged 30-48 yr scheduled to undergo general anesthesia. Fifty-two patients received oral clonidine 4.5 microg/kg 1.5 h before arrival in the operating room (clonidine group). The patients exhaled to residual volume and took three vital capacity breaths of 5% sevoflurane in oxygen. The VCRII time was defined as the time interval between the initiation of the VCRII and the disappearance of the response to verbal command. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen and air. The end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration reached a predetermined value, then the ratio of predetermined ET to inspiratory concentration was maintained at > or =0.95 for at least 15 min before skin incision. After skin incision, the patients were observed for gross purposeful muscular movements. MAC was defined as the average of the cross-over midpoints in each cross-over. After maintaining the ET sevoflurane concentration for 15 min, patients were judged to be awake or asleep. Average times for VCRII using 5% sevoflurane were achieved in 44+/-11 s (mean +/- SD) and 27+/-6 s in the control and clonidine groups, respectively (P = 0.0001). MAC-Awake values of sevoflurane were 0.66%+/-0.03% and 0.35%+/-0.02% (P = 0.0001), and MAC-Skin incision values were 1.97%+/-0.19% and 1.29%+/-0.13% (P = 0.0001) in the control and clonidine groups, respectively. These results suggest that clonidine may have a more potent hypnotic effect than analgesic effect. Oral clonidine preanesthetic medication (4.5 microg/kg) significantly

  2. Effects of prehospital hypothermia on transfusion requirements and outcomes: a retrospective observatory trial

    PubMed Central

    Klauke, Nora; Gräff, Ingo; Fleischer, Andreas; Boehm, Olaf; Guttenthaler, Vera; Baumgarten, Georg; Meybohm, Patrick; Wittmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prehospital hypothermia is defined as a core temperature <36.0°C and has been shown to be an independent risk factor for early death in patients with trauma. In a retrospective study, a possible correlation between the body temperature at the time of admission to the emergency room and subsequent in-hospital transfusion requirements and the in-hospital mortality rate was explored. Setting This is a retrospective single-centre study at a primary care hospital in Germany. Participants 15 895 patients were included in this study. Patients were classified by admission temperature and transfusion rate. Excluded were ambulant patients and patients with missing data. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome values were length of stay (LOS) in days, in-hospital mortality, the transferred amount of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and admission to an intensive care unit. Secondary influencing variables were the patient's age and the Glasgow Coma Scale. Results In 22.85% of the patients, hypothermia was documented. Hypothermic patients died earlier in the course of their hospital stay than non-hypothermic patients (p<0.001). The administration of 1–3 PRBC increased the LOS significantly (p<0.001) and transfused patients had an increased risk of death (p<0.001). Prehospital hypothermia could be an independent risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR 8.521; p=0.001) and increases the relative risk for transfusion by factor 2.0 (OR 2.007; p=0.002). Conclusions Low body temperature at hospital admission is associated with a higher risk of transfusion and death. Hence, a greater awareness of prehospital temperature management should be established. PMID:27029772

  3. Effects of VKORC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Requirement in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Ma, Kezhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background VKORC1 is reported to be capable of treating several diseases with thrombotic risk, such as cardiac valve replacement. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 are documented to be associated with clinical differences in warfarin maintenance dose. This study explored the correlations of VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G genetic polymorphisms with warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. Material/Methods A total of 298 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement were recruited. During follow-up, clinical data were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied to detect VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G polymorphisms, and genotypes were analyzed. Results Correlations between warfarin maintenance dose and baseline characteristics revealed statistical significances of age, gender and operation methods with warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Warfarin maintenance dose in VKORC1–1639 G/A AG + GG carriers was obviously higher than in AA carriers (P<0.001). As compared with patients with TT genotype in VKORC1 1173 C/T, warfarin maintenance dose was apparently higher in patients with CT genotype (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that gender, operation method, method for heart valve replacement, as well as VKORC1–1639 G/A and 1173 C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly related to warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Conclusions VKORC1 gene polymorphisms are key genetic factors to affect individual differences in warfarin maintenance dose in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement; meanwhile, gender, operation method and method for heart valve replacement might also be correlate with warfarin maintenance dose. PMID:26583785

  4. Effects of VKORC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Requirement in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Ma, Kezhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jianqiang

    2015-11-19

    BACKGROUND VKORC1 is reported to be capable of treating several diseases with thrombotic risk, such as cardiac valve replacement. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 are documented to be associated with clinical differences in warfarin maintenance dose. This study explored the correlations of VKORC1-1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G genetic polymorphisms with warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 298 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement were recruited. During follow-up, clinical data were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied to detect VKORC1-1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G polymorphisms, and genotypes were analyzed. RESULTS Correlations between warfarin maintenance dose and baseline characteristics revealed statistical significances of age, gender and operation methods with warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Warfarin maintenance dose in VKORC1-1639 G/A AG + GG carriers was obviously higher than in AA carriers (P<0.001). As compared with patients with TT genotype in VKORC1 1173 C/T, warfarin maintenance dose was apparently higher in patients with CT genotype (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that gender, operation method, method for heart valve replacement, as well as VKORC1-1639 G/A and 1173 C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly related to warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS VKORC1 gene polymorphisms are key genetic factors to affect individual differences in warfarin maintenance dose in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement; meanwhile, gender, operation method and method for heart valve replacement might also be correlate with warfarin maintenance dose.

  5. The cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly Australians: an exploratory analysis of the vaccine efficacy required.

    PubMed

    Newall, Anthony T; Dehollain, Juan Pablo

    2014-03-10

    It is important to consider the value for money offered by existing elderly influenza vaccination programs, particularly as doubts persist about the magnitude of the effectiveness of such programs. An informative approach to explore the value of vaccination is to consider what vaccine efficacy would be required for a program to be considered cost-effective. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the current elderly (65+ years) influenza vaccination program in Australia, we modelled how the hypothetical removal of vaccination would increase current disease burden estimates depending on alternative vaccine efficacy assumptions. The base-case results of the analysis found that the existing elderly vaccination program is likely to be cost-effective (under A$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) if the vaccine efficacy is above ∼30%. This study offers reassurance that the influenza vaccination of elderly Australians is likely to offer value for money.

  6. Behavioral Sensitization to the Disinhibition Effect of Ethanol Requires the Dopamine/Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Gissel P; Hinojos, Samantha J; Sabandal, Paul R; Evans, Peter D; Han, Kyung-An

    2017-01-01

    Male flies under the influence of ethanol display disinhibited courtship, which is augmented with repeated ethanol exposures. We have previously shown that dopamine is important for this type of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we report that DopEcR, an insect G-protein coupled receptor that binds to dopamine and steroid hormone ecdysone, is a major receptor mediating courtship sensitization. Upon daily ethanol administration, dumb and damb mutant males defective in D1 (dDA1/DopR1) and D5 (DAMB/DopR2) dopamine receptors, respectively, showed normal courtship sensitization; however, the DopEcR-deficient der males exhibited greatly diminished sensitization. der mutant males nevertheless developed normal tolerance to the sedative effect of ethanol, indicating a selective function of DopEcR in chronic ethanol-associated behavioral plasticity. DopEcR plays a physiological role in behavioral sensitization since courtship sensitization in der males was reinstated when DopEcR expression was induced during adulthood but not during development. When examined for the DopEcR's functional site, the der mutant's sensitization phenotype was fully rescued by restored DopEcR expression in the mushroom body (MB) αβ and γ neurons. Consistently, we observed DopEcR immunoreactivity in the MB calyx and lobes in the wild-type Canton-S brain, which was barely detectable in the der brain. Behavioral sensitization to the locomotor-stimulant effect has been serving as a model for ethanol abuse and addiction. This is the first report elucidating the mechanism underlying behavioral sensitization to another stimulant effect of ethanol.

  7. Deconstructing Antiobesity Compound Action: Requirement of Serotonin 5-HT2B Receptors for Dexfenfluramine Anorectic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Sophie M; Doly, Stéphane; Boutourlinsky, Katia; Diaz, Silvina L; Belmer, Arnauld; Callebert, Jacques; Collet, Corinne; Launay, Jean-Marie; Maroteaux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The now-banned anorectic molecule, dexfenfluramine, promotes serotonin release through a serotonin transporter-dependent mechanism, and it has been widely prescribed for the treatment of obesity. Previous studies have identified that 5-HT2B receptors have important roles in dexfenfluramine side effects, that is, pulmonary hypertension, plasma serotonin level regulation, and valvulopathy. We thus investigated a putative contribution of 5-HT2B receptors in dexfenfluramine-dependent feeding behavior in mice. Interestingly, the hypophagic response to dexfenfluramine (3–10 mg/kg) observed in wild-type mice (1–4 h) was eliminated in mice lacking 5-HT2B receptors (5-HT2B−/−). These findings were further validated by the lack of hypophagic response to dexfenfluramine in wild-type mice treated with RS127445, a highly selective and potent antagonist (pKi=8.22±0.24). Using microdialysis, we observed that in 5-HT2B−/− awake mice, the dexfenfluramine-induced hypothalamic peak of serotonin release (1 h) was strongly reduced (fourfold) compared with wild type. Moreover, using hypothalamic synaptosomes, we established the serotonergic neuron autonomous properties of this effect: a strong serotonin release was observed upon dexfenfluramine stimulation of synaptosome preparation from wild type but not from mice lacking active 5-HT2B receptors. These findings strongly suggest that activation of presynaptic 5-HT2B receptors is a limiting step in the serotonin transporter dependant-releasing effect of dexfenfluramine, whereas other serotonin receptors act downstream with respect to feeding behavior. PMID:20927048

  8. Effect of flumazenil on sevoflurane requirements for minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-awake and recovery status.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Kai-Yu; Guo, Li-Juan; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    It is controversial that whether the GABA receptors contribute to the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics. This study was to detect the effect of GABA receptors on the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics by evaluation of the effect of intravenous flumazenil on sevoflurane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-awake (MAC-Awake) and emergence mental status. This study included two steps. Firstly, 49 healthy patients, aged 20-40 years scheduled for elective surgeries, were randomly assigned to two groups, a flumazenil group (n=24) and a saline group (n=25). The flumazenil group received 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline 20 min before induction. The flumazenil group and the control group were compared with regard to MAC-Awake (anesthetic concentration achieving 50% probability of eye opening in response to a verbal command). We used the mask inhalation to measure the MAC-Awake by up-and-down method. The second steps, 60 patients undergoing lower abdomen surgeries were randomly divided into two groups, a experimental group (n=30) and a saline group (n=30). All patients were anesthetized with sevoflurane/sulfentanil. The experimental group received flumazenil at 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline at the end of surgery. We recorded the time to awake and extubation. After extubation, the patients' recovery status was scored with the Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) system in post anesthesia care unit (PACU). The MAC-Awake was 0.65% in the control group and 0.82% in the flumazenil group (p=0.34). After extubation, the recovery time and time to extubation showed no difference between the flumazenil group and the saline group (p>0.05). But the 10 min and 15 min MMSE scores after extubation were better in the flumazenil group than those in the saline group (p<0.05). There was no difference for MMSE scores after 30 min between two groups. We found that an IV flumazenil (0.006 mg/Kg) has

  9. Effect of flumazenil on sevoflurane requirements for minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-awake and recovery status

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peng; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Kai-Yu; Guo, Li-Juan; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is controversial that whether the GABA receptors contribute to the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics. This study was to detect the effect of GABA receptors on the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics by evaluation of the effect of intravenous flumazenil on sevoflurane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration–awake (MAC-Awake) and emergence mental status. Methods: This study included two steps. Firstly, 49 healthy patients, aged 20-40 years scheduled for elective surgeries, were randomly assigned to two groups, a flumazenil group (n=24) and a saline group (n=25). The flumazenil group received 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline 20 min before induction. The flumazenil group and the control group were compared with regard to MAC-Awake (anesthetic concentration achieving 50% probability of eye opening in response to a verbal command). We used the mask inhalation to measure the MAC-Awake by up-and-down method. The second steps, 60 patients undergoing lower abdomen surgeries were randomly divided into two groups, a experimental group (n=30) and a saline group (n=30). All patients were anesthetized with sevoflurane/sulfentanil. The experimental group received flumazenil at 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline at the end of surgery. We recorded the time to awake and extubation. After extubation, the patients’ recovery status was scored with the Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) system in post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Results: The MAC-Awake was 0.65% in the control group and 0.82% in the flumazenil group (p=0.34). After extubation, the recovery time and time to extubation showed no difference between the flumazenil group and the saline group (p>0.05). But the 10 min and 15 min MMSE scores after extubation were better in the flumazenil group than those in the saline group (p<0.05). There was no difference for MMSE scores after 30 min between two groups. Conclusion: We

  10. Helping professionals and Border Force secrecy: effective asylum-seeker healthcare requires independence from callous policies.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To examine the Australian Border Force Act (BFA) and its context, its implications for asylum-seeker healthcare and professionals, and contemporary and historical parallels. Prolonged immigration detention and policies aiming to deter irregular migration cause maritime asylum-seekers undeniable, well-publicised harms and (notwithstanding claims about preventing drownings) show reckless indifference and calculated cruelty. Service personnel may be harmed. Such policies misuse helping professionals to underwrite state abuses and promote public numbing and indifference, resembling other state abuses in the 'war on terror' and (with qualification) historical counterparts, e.g. Nazi Germany. Human service practitioners and organisations recently denounced the BFA that forbids disclosure about these matters.Continuing asylum-seeker healthcare balances the likelihood of effective care and monitoring with lending credibility to abuses. Boycotting it might sacrifice scrutiny and care, fail to compel professionals and affect temporary overseas workers. Entirely transferring healthcare from immigration to Federal and/or State health departments, with resources augmented to adequate standard, would strengthen clinical independence and quality, minimise healthcare's being securitised and politicised, and uphold ethical codes. Such measures will not resolve detention's problems, but coupled with independent auditing, would expose and moderate detention's worst effects, promoting changes in national conversation and policy-making. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  11. Effects of quantum noise and binocular summation on dose requirements in stereoradiography.

    PubMed

    Maidment, Andrew D A; Bakic, Predrag R; Albert, Michael

    2003-12-01

    In the case of a quantum-noise limited detector, signal detection theory suggests that stereoradiographic images can be acquired with one half of the per-image dose needed for a standard radiographic projection, as information from the two stereo images can be combined. Previously, film-screen stereoradiography has been performed using the same per-image dose as in projection radiography, i.e., doubling the total dose. In this paper, the assumption of a possible decrease in dose for stereoradiography was tested by a series of contrast-detail experiments, using phantom images acquired over a range of exposures. The number of visible details, the effective reduction of the dose, and the effective decrease in the threshold signal-to-noise ratio were determined using human observers under several display and viewing conditions. These results were averaged over five observers and compared with multiple readings by a single observer and with the results of an additional observer with limited stereoscopic acuity. Experimental results show that the total dose needed to produce a stereoradiographic image pair is approximately 1.1 times the dose needed for a single projection in standard radiography, indicating that under these conditions the human visual system demonstrates almost ideal binocular summation.

  12. Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Shayan, Parviz; Popper, Bastian; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2016-03-05

    Sirt1 is a NAD⁺-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  13. Transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of prostate cancer: effective treatment requiring accurate imaging.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Souchon, Rémi; Salomir, Rarès; Gelet, Albert; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lyonnet, Denis

    2007-09-01

    Transrectal HIFU ablation has become a reasonable option for the treatment of localized prostate cancer in non-surgical patients, with 5-year disease-free survival similar to that of radiation therapy. It is also a promising salvage therapy of local recurrence after radiation therapy. These favourable results are partly due to recent improvements in prostate cancer imaging. However, further improvements are needed in patient selection, pre-operative localization of the tumor foci, assessment of the volume treated and early detection of recurrence. A better knowledge of the factors influencing the HIFU-induced tissue destruction and a better pre-operative assessment of them by imaging techniques should improve treatment outcome. Whereas prostate HIFU ablation is currently performed under transrectal ultrasound guidance, MR guidance with real-time operative monitoring of temperature will be available in the near future. If this technique will give better targeting and more uniform tissue destruction, its cost-effectiveness will have to be carefully evaluated. Finally, a recently reported synergistic effect between HIFU ablation and chemotherapy opens possibilities for treatment in high-risk or clinically advanced tumors.

  14. Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Shayan, Parviz; Popper, Bastian; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Sirt1 is a NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation. PMID:26959057

  15. [Territory, intersectoriality and stages: requirements for the effectiveness of the sustainable development goals].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Edmundo; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas

    2014-11-01

    The post-2015 development agenda highlights the incorporation of sustainability in approaches developed and/or applied to distinct fields of knowledge and action and the demonstration of the effectiveness of experiences of sustainable and healthy territories. This process results from the confrontation of different viewpoints which seek to address social production vis-à-vis their project, with the possibility of updating the hegemonic mode of production and consumption or the emergence of counter-hegemonic rationales. Health, as one of the SDGs, has the challenge of imposing an intersectorial agenda that addresses its social determinants, in a process of participative governance able to build a hierarchy of priorities based on the needs of the territory and build techno-political solutions based on the ecology of knowledge, constituting a strategic-situational and communicative management process. The consistency in formulation of the agenda and potential challenges to its implementation are analyzed, considering its intersectoriality, its strategic governance and management, and especially an assessment of its effectiveness. Moreover, it tests the evaluative tools used and their ability to analyze the consistency in the formulation of the agenda.

  16. Intubated Trauma Patients Do Not Require Full Trauma Team Activation when Effectively Triaged.

    PubMed

    Harbrecht, Brian G; Franklin, Glen A; Smith, Jason W; Benns, Matthew V; Miller, Keith R; Nash, Nicholas A; Bozeman, Matthew C; Coleman, Royce; O'Brien, Dan; Richardson, J David

    2016-04-01

    Full trauma team activation in evaluating injured patients is based on triage criteria and associated with significant costs and resources that should be focused on patients who truly need them. Overtriage leads to inefficient care, particularly when resources are finite, and it diverts care from other vital areas. Although shock and gunshot wounds to the abdomen are accepted indicators for full trauma activation, intubation as the sole criterion is controversial. We evaluated our experience to assess if intubation alone merited the highest level of trauma activation. All trauma patients from 2012 to 2013 were assessed for level of activation, injury characteristics, presence of intubation, and outcomes. Of 5,881 patients, 646 (11%) were level 1 (full) and 2,823 (48%) were level 2 (partial) activations. Level 1 patients were younger (40 ± 17 vs 45 ± 20 years), had more penetrating injuries (42% vs 9%), and had higher mortality (26% vs 8%)(p < 0.001). Intubated level 2 patients (n = 513), compared with intubated level 1 patients (n = 320), had higher systolic blood pressure (133 ± 44 vs 90 ± 58 mmHg), lower Injury Severity Score (21 ± 13 vs 25 ± 16), more falls (25% vs 3%), fewer penetrating injuries (11% vs 23%), and lower mortality (31% vs 48%)(p < 0.01). Fewer intubated level patients went directly to the operating room from the emergency department (ED)(16% vs 33%), and most who did had a craniotomy (63% vs 13%). Only 3% of intubated level 2 patients underwent laparotomy compared with 20% of intubated level 1 patients (p < 0.001). The ED lengths of stay before obtaining a head CT (47 ± 26 vs 48 ± 31 minutes) and craniotomy (109 ± 61 vs 102 ± 46 minutes) were similar. Deaths in intubated level 2 patients were primarily from fatal brain injuries. When appropriately triaged, selected intubated trauma patients do not require full trauma activation to receive timely, efficient care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  17. Effect of music on labor pain relief, anxiety level and postpartum analgesic requirement: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Simavli, Serap; Gumus, Ilknur; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Yildirim, Melahat; Usluogullari, Betul; Kafali, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The control of labor pain and the prevention of suffering are major concerns of clinicians and their patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of music on labor pain and anxiety, maternal hemodynamics, fetal-neonatal parameters and postpartum analgesic requirement in primiparous women. Overall, 156 primiparous women who expected vaginal delivery were recruited and randomly assigned to a music group (n = 77) or a control group (n = 79). Women in the music group listened to music during labor. Pain intensity and anxiety level were measured using a visual analogue scale (0-10 cm). The two groups were compared in terms of pain severity, anxiety level, maternal hemodynamics, fetal-neonatal parameters and postpartum analgesic requirement. Mothers in the music therapy group had a lower level of pain and anxiety compared with those in the control group at all stages of labor (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart rate after intervention (p < 0.01). Postpartum analgesic requirement significantly decreased in the music therapy group (p < 0.01). Listening to music during labor has a positive impact on labor pain and anxiety, maternal-fetal parameters and analgesic requirement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effective Global Action on Antibiotic Resistance Requires Careful Consideration of Convening Forums.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Zain; Hoffman, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Global collective action is needed to address the growing transnational threat of antibiotic resistance (ABR). Some commentators have recommended an international legal agreement as the most promising mechanism for coordinating such action. While much has been said about what must be done to address ABR, far less work has analyzed how or where such collective action should be facilitated - even though the success of any international agreement depends greatly on where it is negotiated and implemented. This article evaluates four different forums that states may use to develop an international legal agreement for antibiotic resistance: (1) a self-organized venue; (2) the World Health Organization; (3) the World Trade Organization; and (4) the United Nations General Assembly. The need for a multisectoral approach and the diverse institutional landscape suggest that an effective response may best be coordinated through linked action pursued through multiple forums.

  19. Amyloid-β effects on synapses and memory require AMPA receptor subunit GluA3

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Niels R.; Pao, Yvonne; Renner, Maria C.; da Silva-Matos, Carla M.; Lodder, Tessa R.; Malinow, Roberto; Kessels, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a prime suspect for causing cognitive deficits during the early phases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Experiments in AD mouse models have shown that soluble oligomeric clusters of Aβ degrade synapses and impair memory formation. We show that all Aβ-driven effects measured in these mice depend on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA3. Hippocampal neurons that lack GluA3 were resistant against Aβ-mediated synaptic depression and spine loss. In addition, Aβ oligomers blocked long-term synaptic potentiation only in neurons that expressed GluA3. Furthermore, although Aβ-overproducing mice showed significant memory impairment, memories in GluA3-deficient congenics remained unaffected. These experiments indicate that the presence of GluA3-containing AMPARs is critical for Aβ-mediated synaptic and cognitive deficits. PMID:27708157

  20. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-10-21

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beam lines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the NSLS) and the effects of these figure errors on a class of soft x-ray beam lines are presented. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-01-01

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the National Synchrotron Light Source) and the effects of these figure errors on two classes of soft x-ray beamlines are presented.

  2. STAT3 activation is required for the antiapoptotic effects of prolactin in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ramírez de Arellano, Adrián; Lopez-Pulido, Edgar I; Martínez-Neri, Priscila A; Estrada Chávez, Ciro; González Lucano, Renee; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Aguilar-Lemarroy, A; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in the development of different types of cancer. However, signaling pathways might be activated depending on various forms of prolactin receptor (PRLR). JAK/STAT is an important pathway associated with PRL effects. The activation of JAK/STAT pathway might activate antiapoptotic genes that could importantly lead to progression of tumorigenesis. Recently, we have reported that PRL is associated with cell survival by inhibition of apoptosis and the precise activated signaling pathways for this process are still questioned. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activation of different signaling pathways in response to PRL as well as to identify the induction of antiapoptotic genes. Cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa and C-33 A were stimulated with PRL (200 ng/mL) for 30 and 60 min and non stimulated cells were used to measure basal protein expression. Inhibition assays were performed by using Jak2 specific inhibitor AG490, either alone or in combination with PRL for 48 h. Western blot were carried out to evaluate protein induction of the different signaling pathways and antiapoptotic proteins. Significant effects were determined by using ANOVA test. STAT3 was significantly activated in cervical cancer lines in comparison with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes HaCaT. No significant differences were found when analyzing MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways. An increase of antiapoptotic genes Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, survivin and Mcl-1 was observed after stimulus with PRL; however, after inhibition with AG490, the induction of antiapoptotic genes was decreased. Our data suggests that STAT3 is an important signaling pathway activated by PRL in cervical cancer cells and it modulates the induction of antiapoptotic genes. Blocking STAT3 could represent a possible therapeutic strategy in cervical cancer.

  3. Glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval require concurrent noradrenergic activity in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Roozendaal, Benno; Hahn, Emily L; Nathan, Sheila V; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; McGaugh, James L

    2004-09-15

    Previous findings indicate that administration of abeta-adrenoceptor antagonist systemically blocks glucocorticoid impairment of memory retrieval. Here, we report that beta-adrenoceptor activation in the hippocampus and the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is implicated in the impairing effects of glucocorticoids on memory retrieval. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist 11beta,17beta-dihydroxy-6,21-dimethyl-17alpha-pregna-4,6-trien-20yn-3-one (RU 28362) (15 ng) infused into the hippocampus of male Sprague Dawley rats 60 min before water maze retention testing, 24 hr after training, impaired probe trial retention performance, as assessed by quadrant search time and initial latency to cross the platform location. Because we found previously that RU 28362 infused into the hippocampus does not affect water maze acquisition or immediate recall, the findings suggest that the GR agonist-induced retention impairment was attributable to a selective influence on long-term memory retrieval. Likewise, systemic injections of the beta1-adrenoceptor partial agonist xamoterol (3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) 60 min before the probe trial dose-dependently impaired retention performance. The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (2.0 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously before retention testing did not affect retention performance alone, but blocked the memory retrieval impairment induced by concurrent intrahippocampal infusions of RU 28362. Pretest infusions of the beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol into either the hippocampus (1.25 microg in 0.5 microl) or the BLA (0.5 microg in 0.2 microl) also prevented the GR agonist-induced memory retrieval impairment. These findings suggest that glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory by facilitating noradrenergic mechanisms in the hippocampus, and additionally, that norepinephrine-mediated BLA activity is critical in enabling hippocampal glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval.

  4. Resuscitation with Lipid Emulsion: Dose-dependent Recovery from Cardiac Pharmacotoxicity Requires a Cardiotonic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Fettiplace, Michael R.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Ripper, Richard; Zider, Brian; Lang, Jason; Rubinstein, Israel; Weinberg, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent publications have questioned the validity of the “lipid sink” theory of lipid resuscitation while others have identified sink-independent effects and posed alternative mechanisms like hemodilution. To address these issues, we tested the dose-dependent response to intravenous lipid emulsion during reversal of bupivacaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity in vivo. Subsequently, we modeled the relative contribution of volume resuscitation, drug sequestration, inotropy and combined drug sequestration and inotropy to this response using an in silico model. Methods Rats were surgically prepared to monitor cardiovascular metrics and deliver drugs. Following catheterization and instrumentation, animals received a nonlethal dose of bupivacaine to produce transient cardiovascular toxicity, then were randomized to receive one of four treatments: 30% or 20% intravenous lipid emulsion, intravenous saline or no treatment (n = 7 per condition; 28 total animals). Recovery responses were compared to the predictions of a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model parameterized using previously published laboratory data. Results Rats treated with lipid emulsions recovered faster than did rats treated with saline or no treatment. Intravenous lipid emulsion of 30% elicited the fastest hemodynamic recovery followed in order by 20% intravenous lipid emulsion, saline, and no-treatment. An increase in arterial blood pressure underlay the recovery in both lipid-emulsion treated groups. Heart rates remained depressed in all four groups throughout the observation period. Model predictions mirrored the experimental recovery and the model that combined volume, sequestration and inotropy predicted in vivo results most accurately. Conclusion Intravenous lipid emulsion accelerates cardiovascular recovery from bupivacaine toxicity in a dose-dependent manner, driven by a cardiotonic response that complements the previously reported sequestration effect. PMID:24496123

  5. Bupivacaine-soaked absorbable gelatin sponges in caesarean section wounds: effect on postoperative pain, analgesic requirement and haemodynamic profile.

    PubMed

    Simavli, S; Kaygusuz, I; Kinay, T; Akinci Baylan, A; Kafali, H

    2014-11-01

    Pain is a common distressing adverse effect in the early postoperative period following caesarean section. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on postoperative pain, analgesic requirement and haemodynamic profile of placing a suprafacial bupivacaine-soaked absorbable gelatin sponge in the caesarean section wound. A total of 164 healthy patients scheduled to undergo general anaesthesia for elective caesarean section were randomised to a study group (n=81) or a control group (n=83). In the study group, a bupivacaine-soaked absorbable gelatin sponge was placed subcutaneously in the caesarean section wound. Intramuscular diclofenac 75 mg was given to all patients at 8-h intervals during the first 24h. Postoperatively, visual analogue scale pain scores, requirement for pethidine and diclofenac and changes in blood pressure and heart rate were compared between groups. Pain scores were lower in the study group compared to the control group at all assessments (P<0.001). During the first eight hours after surgery, fewer patients in the study group required rescue pethidine compared with the control group (4 vs. 33, P<0.001). In the study group, total opioid and diclofenac consumption was lower (P<0.001), and blood pressure and heart rate were lower (P<0.001) compared to the control group. Suprafascial wound placement of a bupivacaine-soaked absorbable gelatin sponge improved postoperative analgesia and decreased opioid consumption following caesarean section. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Skills Assessment: The Effects of Moving Certification Requirements Into Neurology, Child Neurology, and Psychiatry Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Dorthea; Brooks, Beth Ann; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Jibson, Michael; Faulkner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background A few years ago, when the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology decided to phase out the patient-based oral examinations in its 3 primary specialties, requirements for assessing clinical skills during residency training were instituted. Objective The purpose of this report is to describe the experiences of training program directors and graduates with these new credentialing requirements (labeled CSEs) as well as other effects on the specialties. Methods Surveys were administered electronically in 2012 to all current neurology, child neurology, and psychiatry program directors, and to a convenience sample of graduates who applied for the 2012 certification examinations. Results Response rates for graduates were similar across the 3 specialties but low (28%–33%). Response rates were higher for program directors (53%–62%) and were similar across the 3 specialties. The results indicated that the CSEs were usually administered early in training, were completed toward the end, were often passed on first attempt, generally took place during routine clinical assignments, were used to assess additional competencies, almost always included feedback to the residents, and did not often lead to remediation. Furthermore, the CSEs were perceived to be useful components in the assessment of clinical skills. Conclusions The results obtained from the early implementation of the CSEs suggest that they provide an opportunity to assess clinical skills with the additional benefit of feedback to trainees. Other effects included eventual incorporation into training program requirements, milestones, and related faculty development and research efforts. PMID:26217432

  7. Influence of Hospital Volume Effects and Minimum Caseload Requirements on Quality of Care in Pancreatic Surgery in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krautz, Christian; Denz, Axel; Weber, Georg F; Grützmann, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Numerous international studies have identified hospital volume as significant independent variable of death following pancreatic surgery. Most of these studies were limited to regions of countries or portions of a national population and did not include data on volume-outcome effects in Germany. The Medline database was systematically searched to identify studies that analyzed volume-outcome relationships and effects of minimum caseload requirements on outcomes of pancreatic surgery in Germany. Recent observational studies utilizing German hospital discharge data confirmed that patients undergoing pancreatic surgery in Germany also have better outcomes when treated in facilities with high annual caseloads. Besides a decreased risk of in-hospital mortality, there is also a reduced risk of 1-year mortality in high-volume hospitals. In addition, there is evidence that adherence to already existing minimum caseload requirements reduces morbidity and mortality of pancreatic surgery in Germany. As a result of an insufficient centralization in the recent past, however, a large proportion of hospitals that perform pancreatic surgery still do not meet minimum caseload requirements. Specific measures (i.e. sanctions for failure to achieve minimum volumes) that initiate a sufficient centralization process without threatening patient access to surgical care are needed.

  8. The effect of spinal versus general anesthesia on postoperative pain and analgesic requirements in patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Nesek-Adam, Visnja; Rasić, Zarko; Schwarz, Dragan; Grizelj-Stojcić, Elvira; Rasić, Domagoj; Krstonijević, Zoran; Markić, Ana; Kovacević, Marko

    2012-12-01

    The optimal anesthetic technique for peripheral vascular surgery remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spinal versus general anesthesia on postoperative pain, analgesic requirements and postoperative comfort in patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery. A total of 40 patients scheduled for peripheral vascular surgery were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 patients each to receive general anesthesia (GA) or spinal anesthesia (SA). In GA group, anesthesia was induced using thiopental and fentanyl. Vecuronium was used for muscle relaxation. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide. In the SA group, hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine was injected into the subarachnoid space. Postoperative pain was assessed for 24 hours by a visual analog scale during three assessment periods: 0-4, 4-12 and 12-24 h as well as analgesic requirements. Patients were also asked to assess their postoperative state as satisfactory or unsatisfactory with regard to the pain, side effects and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was significantly lower in the group SA compared with group GA. This effect was mainly due to the lower pain score during the first study period. The patients received general anesthesia also reported a significantly higher rate of unsatisfactory postoperative comfort than those receiving spinal anesthesia. We conclude that spinal anesthesia is superior to general anesthesia when considering patients' satisfaction, side effects and early postoperative analgesic management.

  9. Hippocampal cAMP/PKA/CREB is required for neuroprotective effect of acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Li, Zhao-Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; He, Tian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Li-Ying; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Acupuncture has beneficial effects in vascular dementia (VaD) patients. The underlying mechanism, however, remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate whether the cAMP/PKA/CREB cascade is involved in the mechanism of acupuncture in cerebral multi-infarction rats. In this study, cerebral multi-infarction was modeled in adult Wistar rats by homologous blood clot emboli. After a two-week acupuncture treatment at Zusanli (ST36), hippocampal-dependent memory was tested by employing a radial arm maze test. The hippocampus was isolated for analyses of cAMP concentration, phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and CREB/pCREB and ERK/pERK expressions. The Morris water maze (MWM) task and CREB phosphorylation were evaluated in the presence of PKA-selective peptide inhibitor (H89). The radial arm maze test results demonstrated that acupuncture treatment at ST36 reversed hippocampal-dependent memory in impaired animals. Compared to those of the impaired group, cAMP concentration, PKA activity and pCREB and pERK expressions were increased following acupuncture therapy. Finally, the blockade of PKA reversed the increase in CREB phosphorylation and the improvement in recognitive function induced by acupuncture treatment. These results suggest that acupuncture could improve hippocampus function by modulating the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, which represents a molecular mechanism of acupuncture for recognitive function in cerebral multi-infarction rats.

  10. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nathan L.; Gomes, Ana P.; Ling, Alvin J.Y.; Duarte, Filipe V.; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; North, Brian J.; Agarwal, Beamon; Ye, Lan; Ramadori, Giorgio; Teodoro, Joao S.; Hubbard, Basil P.; Varela, Ana T.; Davis, James G.; Varamini, Behzad; Hafner, Angela; Moaddel, Ruin; Rolo, Anabela P.; Coppari, Roberto; Palmeira, Carlos M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A.; Sinclair, David A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects against metabolic decline but whether SIRT1 mediates these benefits is the subject of debate. To circumvent the developmental defects of germ-line SIRT1 knockouts, we have developed the first inducible system that permits whole-body deletion of SIRT1 in adult mice. Mice treated with a moderate dose of resveratrol showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, AMPK activation and increased NAD+ levels in skeletal muscle, whereas SIRT1 knockouts displayed none of these benefits. A mouse overexpressing SIRT1 mimicked these effects. A high dose of resveratrol activated AMPK in a SIRT1-independent manner, demonstrating that resveratrol dosage is a critical factor. Importantly, at both doses of resveratrol no improvements in mitochondrial function were observed in animals lacking SIRT1. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 plays an essential role in the ability of moderate doses of resveratrol to stimulate AMPK and improve mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22560220

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of ceiling fans for reducing heating requirements in Army facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Many claims have been made for ceiling fans as energy-saving devices. Fans destratify the air in a building; that is, they reduce the temperature differences between floor and ceiling. Depending on outside conditions, this can reduce heat loss. To quantify the effectiveness of fans during the heating season, USA-CERL, funded through a Facilities Engineering Applications Program (formerly FTAT) project, collected vertical thermal stratification measurements in Army buildings that had been equipped with ceiling fans. The buildings were located at Fort Carson, CO and Fort McClellan, AL. By analyzing how much the key building temperatures (ceiling, floor, and mean indoor) changed when ceiling fans were used, the USA-CERL engineers estimated the energy savings associated with fans. The results showed that, in general, the buildings with the greatest initial stratification showed the greatest savings. In addition, the degree of thermal stratification was determined to be a linear function of outside air temperature. However, more research is needed to determine the relationship between stratification and building characteristics. Thus, the degree of stratification in a building and possible factors affecting it should be evaluated carefully before installing ceiling fans.

  12. Effects of emotional valence on sense of agency require a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Michiko; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-08-18

    Sense of agency (SoA), a feeling that one's voluntary actions produce events in the external world, is a key factor behind every goal-directed human behaviour. Recent studies have demonstrated that SoA is reduced when one's voluntary action causes negative outcomes, compared to when it causes positive outcomes. It is yet unclear whether this emotional modulation of SoA is caused by predicting the outcome valence (prediction hypothesis) or by retrospectively interpreting the outcome (postdiction hypothesis). To address this, we emulated a social situation where one's voluntary action was followed by either another's negative emotional vocalisation or positive emotional vocalisation. Crucially, the relation between an action and the emotional valence of its outcome was predictable in some blocks of trials, but unpredictable in other blocks. Quantitative, implicit measures of SoA based on the intentional binding effect supported the prediction hypothesis. Our findings imply that the social-emotional modulation of SoA is based on predicting the emotional valence of action outcomes.

  13. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Price, Nathan L; Gomes, Ana P; Ling, Alvin J Y; Duarte, Filipe V; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; North, Brian J; Agarwal, Beamon; Ye, Lan; Ramadori, Giorgio; Teodoro, Joao S; Hubbard, Basil P; Varela, Ana T; Davis, James G; Varamini, Behzad; Hafner, Angela; Moaddel, Ruin; Rolo, Anabela P; Coppari, Roberto; Palmeira, Carlos M; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A; Sinclair, David A

    2012-05-02

    Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects against metabolic decline, but whether SIRT1 mediates these benefits is the subject of debate. To circumvent the developmental defects of germline SIRT1 knockouts, we have developed an inducible system that permits whole-body deletion of SIRT1 in adult mice. Mice treated with a moderate dose of resveratrol showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, AMPK activation, and increased NAD(+) levels in skeletal muscle, whereas SIRT1 knockouts displayed none of these benefits. A mouse overexpressing SIRT1 mimicked these effects. A high dose of resveratrol activated AMPK in a SIRT1-independent manner, demonstrating that resveratrol dosage is a critical factor. Importantly, at both doses of resveratrol no improvements in mitochondrial function were observed in animals lacking SIRT1. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 plays an essential role in the ability of moderate doses of resveratrol to stimulate AMPK and improve mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of citric acid on the calcium and phosphorus requirements of chicks fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Boling-Frankenbach, S D; Snow, J L; Parsons, C M; Baker, D H

    2001-06-01

    Data previously reported from our laboratory indicated that supplementation of a corn-soybean meal diet with citric acid improves P utilization in chicks. The four experiments reported herein were conducted to further evaluate the effects of citric acid on Ca and P utilization for chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Diets in all experiments were fed to chicks from 8 to 21 or 22 d of age. The first experiment evaluated the effect of 6% citric acid on the Ca requirement of chicks. A Ca-deficient basal diet [23% CP, 0.54% Ca, 0.45% available P (AP)] containing 0 to 0.7% supplemental Ca in 0.1% increments was fed with or without 6% citric acid. The results indicated that citric acid did not significantly affect the Ca requirement. A second experiment evaluated different levels of citric acid (0, 2, 4, or 6%) on P utilization, and results indicated that 4 and 6% citric acid produced the largest responses in growth and tibia ash. Experiments 3 and 4 were then conducted to determine whether 4 or 6% citric acid would reduce the level of supplemental P required. Dietary treatments were a P-deficient basal diet (23% CP, 1.0 or 1.3% Ca, 0.20% AP) supplemented with 0 to 0.25% inorganic P with or without 4 or 6% citric acid. When diets contained citric acid, weight gain and tibia ash were maximized at lower AP levels than when diets contained no citric acid. The results of this study indicate that citric acid increases P utilization in corn-soybean meal diets and reduces the AP requirement by approximately 0.10% of the diet.

  15. Effect of pregnancy on insulin requirements differs between type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A cohort study of 222 pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Suja; Jiang, Shan; Mclean, Mark; Cheung, N Wah

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge about expected insulin requirements during pregnancy, in women with pre-existing diabetes may assist clinicians to effectively respond to gestation-specific changes in glycemic pattern. Few studies have examined differences between type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To compare patterns of insulin requirements in pregnancy for women with pre-existing T1DM and T2DM. A retrospective cohort study of 222 pregnancies was conducted in women with pre-existing diabetes, (67 with T1DM, 155 with T2DM). Total daily insulin dose (TID) at the end of each trimester, recorded as units and units per kilogram (median, 25th-75th percentile) as well as percentage increase in insulin dose per trimester were compared. Women with T1DM had higher insulin requirements in the first two trimesters than those with T2DM (0.69 (0.58-0.85) vs 0.36 (0.0-0.7) units/kg in first trimester; 0.80 (0.62-0.95) vs 0.61 (0.27-0.95) units/kg, P < 0.005) in second trimester), but requirements in late pregnancy were similar (0.97 (0.69-1.29) vs 0.95 (0.53-1.32) units/kg, P = 0.54). Women with T2DM needed much greater increases in insulin per trimester compared to T1DM (P < 0.001). Women with T1DM had a net fall in insulin requirements (3.7% in the first trimester and 4.1% in the late third trimester) while those with T2DM did not. This is the largest comparison study of insulin requirements in women with pre-existing diabetes, highlighting important trimester-specific differences between T1DM and T2DM to guide insulin titration during pregnancy. Our findings suggest a differential effect of pregnancy-mediated insulin resistance by type of diabetes. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Effects of seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations requiring emergency visits in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Tosukhowong, Apiwat; Chaiwong, Warawut; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Inchai, Juthamas

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal smog produces particulate matters that are less than 10 microns in diameter (PM₁₀), which are known to have several impacts on the respiratory system. This study was to determine the association of an increased PM10 level due to seasonal smog in Chiang Mai and emergency visits for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of January and March from 2006 until 2009. The association of an increased PM₁₀ level and the daily number of asthma and COPD exacerbations were analyzed using a generalized linear model; a Poisson regression model was fit to the number of daily emergency visits using predictor variables: lags of PM10, day of the week, and time. There were a total of 917 emergency visits for acute exacerbations of asthma and COPD, with a median of 2 visits per day (range 0-10). The median PM₁₀ level during the same interval was 64.5 microgram per cubic meter (μg/m3) (16-304). For every 10 μg/m3 rise in PM10 concentration, there was a lag time of 6 days for asthma exacerbations [Adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.020; 95% confident interval (CI), 1.001-1.040; (p=0.014)], 7 days for COPD exacerbations [RR=1.030; 95%CI, 1.010-1.050 (p=0.024)] and 7 days for all exacerbations [RR=1.030 95%CI, 1.010-1.040 (p<0.001)]. This study confirms the effect of increasing PM₁₀ concentrations from seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations. However, there was an approximately 1 week lag time between the elevated PM₁₀ levels and time to emergency visits due to disease exacerbation.

  17. Polarity effects in the hisG gene of salmonella require a site within the coding sequence.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, M S; Roth, J R

    1988-02-01

    A single site in the middle of the coding sequence of the hisG gene of Salmonella is required for most of the polar effect of mutations in this gene. Nonsense and insertion mutations mapping upstream of this point in the hisG gene all have strong polar effects on expression of downstream genes in the operon; mutations mapping promotor distal to this site have little or no polar effect. Two previously known hisG mutations, mapping in the region of the polarity site, abolish the polarity effect of insertion mutations mapping upstream of this region. New polarity site mutations have been selected which have lost the polar effect of upstream nonsense mutations. All mutations abolishing the function of the site are small deletions; three are identical, 28-bp deletions which have arisen independently. A fourth mutation is a deletion of 16 base pairs internal to the larger deletion. Several point mutations within this 16-bp region have no effect on the function of the polarity site. We believe that a small number of polarity sites of this type are responsible for polarity in all genes. The site in the hisG gene is more easily detected than most because it appears to be the only such site in the hisG gene and because it maps in the center of the coding sequence.

  18. Trace Metal Requirement of the Coral Symbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii: the Interactive Effects of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, I. B.; Ho, T. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are ecologically and economically important but these ecosystems are increasingly threatened by coral bleaching, the discoloration caused by decline in population of the endosymbiotic algae Symbiodinium from the coral endoderm or loss of photosynthetic pigments in the symbiont. Survival of the coral-algal symbiosis in an environment susceptible to fluctuating stress is dependent on its capacity to mount antioxidative defenses, which includes antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalases, and peroxidases. We studied the effect of trace metals, which are cofactors of different antioxidative ensymes, on S. kawagutii growth when the dinoflagellate is grown in 600 µE m-2 s-1 and 27 °C. We found that S. kawagutii requires trace metals as follows: Fe >> Cu/Zn > Mn >> Ni. We also observed that intracellular Mn and Co quotas in S. kawagutii were elevated at low Cu/Zn treatments and that the dinoflagellate required higher Fe when the other metals were not supplied in the growth medium. These results indicate that the dinoflagellate utilizes the different metals preferentially and suggest that Mn or Co may replace Cu or Zn when these are lacking supply in the growth medium. Our results represent the baseline study about the trace metal requirement for the growth of Symbiodinium and these could lead to a better understanding about the role of trace metals in the survival of corals in an environment largely influenced by anthropogenic activities.

  19. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    PubMed

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  20. A study of the effect of caudal epidural block on bispectral index targeted propofol requirement in children: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Das, Bibhukalyani; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Khanra, Moushumi

    2015-01-01

    Caudal epidural block is one of the most commonly performed neuraxial block techniques with reliable peri-operative and post-operative analgesia in pediatric patients. In our randomized, prospective, double-blinded, open level, parallel group study, we have established the effect of caudal epidural block on maintenance requirement of intravenous (IV) propofol in targeted bispectral (BIS) monitored patients. Context: Neuraxial anesthesia exhibits sedative properties that may reduce the requirement for general anesthesia. TIVA with propofol has been administered as an established method of maintaining general anesthesia in children. Caudal analgesia being a type of neuraxial block, also seems to reduce the requirement of sedative hypnotics in pediatric patients. Numerous studies show that for patients, administered with caudal epidural block, they require reduced intra-operative volatile inhalation anesthetics. In the present study, we have established the anesthetic sparing effect of Caudal Epidural Analgesia in children undergoing infra-umbilical surgical procedure and calculated the efficacy of propofol-infusion in maintaining adequate depth of anesthesia. Aims: (1) To study and compare the dose requirements of propofol using caudal epidural analgesia. (2) To calculate the efficacy of propofol as maintenance anesthetic agent in both groups and to compare hemodynamic stability of patients in both the techniques. Settings and Design: In our study, after administering general anesthesia to pediatric patients, we have administered caudal analgesia and IV analgesia to monitor the requirement of intra-operative propofol infusion using BIS monitor with a target value of 40-60 in both groups. Materials and Methods: 82 patients (aged between 3 and 6 years) have been selected undergoing infra-umbilical surgery and randomly allocated into two groups containing 41 patients in each group. Both the groups group B and group A then intubated with glycopyrrolate, 2 mg/kg injection

  1. Effects of preoperative administration of ketoprofen on anesthetic requirements and signs of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Kip A; Runyon, Caroline L; Horney, Barbara S

    2002-11-01

    To determine the effects of preoperative administration of ketoprofen on anesthetic requirements and signs of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. 22 clinically normal client-owned dogs. 60 minutes before induction of anesthesia, 11 dogs were given ketoprofen (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], i.m.), and the other 11 were given saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Dogs were premedicated with glycopyrrolate, acepromazine, and butorphanol and anesthetized with thiopental; anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. Ovariohysterectomy was performed by an experienced surgeon, and butorphanol was given 15 minutes before completion of the procedure. Objective behavioral scores and numerical pain scores at rest and with movement were recorded every 2 hours for 12 hours after surgery and then every 4 hours for an additional 12 hours. Preoperative administration of ketoprofen did not reduce the dose of thiopental required to induce anesthesia or the end-tidal concentration of isoflurane required to maintain anesthesia. Activity levels and median objective behavioral scores were significantly higher 4 and 6 hours after surgery in dogs given ketoprofen than in dogs given saline solution. However, mean numerical pain scores in dogs given ketoprofen were not significantly different from scores for dogs given saline solution at any time. Results suggest that preoperative administration of ketoprofen does not reduce anesthetic requirements in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy but may reduce signs of pain after surgery. Results also suggest that the objective behavioral score may be a more sensitive measure of acute postoperative pain than traditional numerical pain scores.

  2. The use of multiple respiratory inhalers requiring different inhalation techniques has an adverse effect on COPD outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Chrystyn, Henry; Costello, Richard W; Dolovich, Myrna B; Fletcher, Monica J; Lavorini, Federico; Rodríguez-Roisin, Roberto; Ryan, Dermot; Wan Yau Ming, Simon; Price, David B

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with COPD may be prescribed multiple inhalers as part of their treatment regimen, which require different inhalation techniques. Previous literature has shown that the effectiveness of inhaled treatment can be adversely affected by incorrect inhaler technique. Prescribing a range of device types could worsen this problem, leading to poorer outcomes in COPD patients, but the impact is not yet known. Aims To compare clinical outcomes of COPD patients who use devices requiring similar inhalation technique with those who use devices with mixed techniques. Methods A matched cohort design was used, with 2 years of data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database. Matching variables were established from a baseline year of follow-up data, and two cohorts were formed: a “similar-devices cohort” and a “mixed-devices cohort”. COPD-related events were recorded during an outcome year of follow-up. The primary outcome measure was an incidence rate ratio (IRR) comparing the rate of exacerbations between study cohorts. A secondary outcome compared average daily use of short-acting beta agonist (SABA). Results The final study sample contained 8,225 patients in each cohort (mean age 67 [SD, 10], 57% males, 37% current smokers). Patients in the similar-devices cohort had a lower rate of exacerbations compared with those in the mixed-devices cohort (adjusted IRR 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80–0.84) and were less likely to be in a higher-dose SABA group (adjusted proportional odds ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.51–0.57). Conclusion COPD patients who were prescribed one or more additional inhaler devices requiring similar inhalation techniques to their previous device(s) showed better outcomes than those who were prescribed devices requiring different techniques. PMID:28053517

  3. Effects of Intraoperative Magnesium Sulfate Administration on Postoperative Tramadol Requirement in Liver Transplantation: A Prospective, Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Gucyetmez, B; Atalan, H K; Aslan, S; Yazar, S; Polat, K Y

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium is an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker and is known to have analgesic effect. Hypomagnesemia can often be seen in liver transplantation and may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intraoperative magnesium sulfate administration on postoperative tramadol requirement in liver transplant patients. Liver transplant patients >18 years of age were screened prospectively from October 2014 to April 2015. Of these, 35 randomly selected patients with normal blood magnesium level (≥1.8 mmol/L) were included in a control group and another 35 randomly selected patients with low magnesium level (<1.8 mmol/L) were given 50 mg/kg intravenous magnesium sulfate replacement in the last 30 minutes of the operation. All patients received standard anesthesia induction and maintenance. Patient's age, sex, body mass index, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, 24-hour tramadol requirement, mechanical ventilation duration, and time of 1st tramadol need were recorded. In the magnesium group, mean 24-hour total tramadol requirement (3.7 mg/kg/d) and duration of mechanical ventilation (6.3 h) were significantly lower and time of 1st tramadol need (17.5 h) was significantly higher than in the control group (P < .001 for each). In the multivariate analysis, duration of mechanical ventilation was decreased by the usage of magnesium sulfate (P < .001). Intraoperative use of magnesium sulfate in liver transplantation reduces the need for postoperative tramadol and duration of mechanical ventilation and therefore it is a candidate to be adjuvant agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of intravenous lidocaine on propofol requirements during total intravenous anaesthesia as measured by bispectral index.

    PubMed

    Altermatt, F R; Bugedo, D A; Delfino, A E; Solari, S; Guerra, I; Muñoz, H R; Cortínez, L I

    2012-06-01

    I.V. lidocaine is increasingly used as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of i.v. lidocaine in reducing propofol anaesthetic requirements during total i.v. anaesthesia (TIVA) maintenance and to evaluate its effect on early recovery from anaesthesia. Forty adult patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under TIVA were randomly allocated into the lidocaine group (administered 1.5 mg kg(-1) i.v. lidocaine over 5 min followed by 2 mg kg(-1) h(-1)) and the control group (administered an equal volume of saline). Propofol was administered using a target-controlled infusion to maintain the bispectral index values between 40 and 60. After surgery, all infusions were discontinued and the time to extubation was recorded. Serial arterial blood samples were drawn to assess drug plasma levels. The maintenance dose of propofol was significantly lower in the lidocaine group [6.00 (0.97) mg kg(-1) h(-1)] vs the control group [7.25 (1.13) mg kg(-1) h(-1); P=0.01]. Propofol plasma levels measured at the end of the infusion were 3.71 (0.89) μg ml(-1) in the lidocaine group and 3.67 (1.28) μg ml(-1) in the control group (P=0.91). The median time to extubation was longer (11.0 min; range: 10.0-21.0) in the lidocaine group vs the control group (8.3 min; range: 5.5-12.5; P=0.02). I.V. lidocaine reduces propofol requirements during the maintenance phase of TIVA, particularly during surgical stimulation. This sparing effect is associated with an increased time to extubation. Owing to its effect on early recovery from anaesthesia, i.v. lidocaine should be taken into account when used as a component of i.v. anaesthesia.

  5. The Effect of Air Density on Atmospheric Electric Fields Required for Lightning Initiation from a Long Airborne Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. Pl.; Konchankov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  6. Effects of Intervention with To-balance Exercise on the Elderly Requiring Assistance and Lower Levels of Care

    PubMed Central

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of intervention combining individualized and group rhythm (To-balance) exercises on the mental and physical functions of the elderly requiring low level care. [Subjects] A total of 29 elderly persons requiring level 2 assistance to level 2 who were and using outpatient care services participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: To-balance, and Sitting. The former group performed individualized and To-balance group exercises, while the latter group performed individualized exercise, as well as group exercise while sitting on a chair. The effects were evaluated through somatometric, physical fitness, and mental function measurements before and 3, 6, and 9 months after the initiation of the intervention. [Results] The lower-limb muscle strength and mental function significantly improved in both groups. Particularly, in the To-balance group, early improvement in balance and gait ability were observed. [Conclusion] The To-balance exercise may be useful for quickly improving the elderly’s static balance ability. PMID:25202176

  7. Effects of Intervention with To-balance Exercise on the Elderly Requiring Assistance and Lower Levels of Care.

    PubMed

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of intervention combining individualized and group rhythm (To-balance) exercises on the mental and physical functions of the elderly requiring low level care. [Subjects] A total of 29 elderly persons requiring level 2 assistance to level 2 who were and using outpatient care services participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: To-balance, and Sitting. The former group performed individualized and To-balance group exercises, while the latter group performed individualized exercise, as well as group exercise while sitting on a chair. The effects were evaluated through somatometric, physical fitness, and mental function measurements before and 3, 6, and 9 months after the initiation of the intervention. [Results] The lower-limb muscle strength and mental function significantly improved in both groups. Particularly, in the To-balance group, early improvement in balance and gait ability were observed. [Conclusion] The To-balance exercise may be useful for quickly improving the elderly's static balance ability.

  8. The effects of preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirement in patients undergoing laparatomy

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Senniye Ulgen; Saracoglu, Ayten; Eti, Zeynep; Umuroglu, Tumay; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the effects of preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirement, adverse effects, patients’ satisfaction, mobilization, time to first defecation and time to discharge in patients undergoing laparotomy. METHODS: Eighty patients (18 to 65 years of age) undergoing elective laparotomy were randomly divided into four groups (n=20 in each group): group C, placebo capsules and normal saline infusion perioperatively (control); group L, placebo capsules and lidocaine 1 mg/kg intravenous bolus dose followed by 2 mg/kg/h infusion until skin closure; group P, 150 mg oral pregabalin and normal saline infusion perioperatively; and group PL, 150 mg oral pregabalin and lidocaine 2 mg/kg/h infusion until skin closure. Hemodynamic parameters, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, analgesic consumption, side effects, time to mobilization, time to first defecation, time to discharge and patients’ satisfaction were recorded. RESULTS: VAS scores of group L, group P and group PL were lower than group C (P<0.05). Morphine consumption of group P and group PL was lower than group C (P<0.05). Incidence of nausea in group C was higher than group L and group PL. Time to first defecation and mobilization were shorter in group L and group PL compared with group C (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion decreased postoperative VAS scores. Preoperative oral pregabalin decreased morphine requirement and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion hastened gastrointestinal motility and mobilization, and decreased the incidence of nausea in patients undergoing laparotomy. Therefore, preoperative pregabalin with or without lidocaine provides superior pain relief in patients undergoing laparatomy. PMID:25950425

  9. Effects of Requiring Physical Fitness in a Lecture-Based College Course: Students' Attitudes toward Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…

  10. Effects of Requiring Physical Fitness in a Lecture-Based College Course: Students' Attitudes toward Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…

  11. Effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on hemodynamic changes, analgesic requirement, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serpil Dagdelen; Ustun, Faik Emre; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Kaya, Cengiz; Ozkan, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. The first group (n=30) received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5mg/kg/min and the second group (n=30) received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery characteristics were evaluated. In the lidocaine group, systolic arterial blood pressures values were lower after the induction of anesthesia and at 20min following surgical incision (p<0.05). Awakening time was shorter in the esmolol group (p<0.001); Ramsay Sedation Scale scores at 10min after extubation were lower in the esmolol group (p<0.05). The modified Aldrete scores at all measurement time points during the recovery period were relatively lower in the lidocaine group (p<0.05). The time to attain a modified Aldrete score of ≥9 points was prolonged in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). Postoperative resting and dynamic VAS scores were higher in the lidocaine group at 10 and 20min after extubation (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). Analgesic supplements were less frequently required in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). In laparoscopic cholecystectomies, lidocaine infusion had superiorities over esmolol infusions regarding the suppression of responses to tracheal extubation and postoperative need for additional analgesic agents in the long run, while esmolol was more advantageous with respect to rapid recovery from anesthesia, attenuation of early postoperative pain, and modified Aldrete recovery (MAR) scores and time to reach MAR score of 9 points. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on hemodynamic changes, analgesic requirement, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serpil Dagdelen; Ustun, Faik Emre; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Kaya, Cengiz; Ozkan, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. The first group (n=30) received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5mg/kg/min and the second group (n=30) received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery characteristics were evaluated. In the lidocaine group, systolic arterial blood pressures values were lower after the induction of anesthesia and at 20min following surgical incision (p<0.05). Awakening time was shorter in the esmolol group (p<0.001); Ramsay Sedation Scale scores at 10min after extubation were lower in the esmolol group (p<0.05). The modified Aldrete scores at all measurement time points during the recovery period were relatively lower in the lidocaine group (p<0.05). The time to attain a modified Aldrete score of ≥9 points was prolonged in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). Postoperative resting and dynamic VAS scores were higher in the lidocaine group at 10 and 20min after extubation (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). Analgesic supplements were less frequently required in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). In laparoscopic cholecystectomies, lidocaine infusion had superiorities over esmolol infusions regarding the suppression of responses to tracheal extubation and postoperative need for additional analgesic agents in the long run, while esmolol was more advantageous with respect to rapid recovery from anesthesia, attenuation of early postoperative pain, and modified Aldrete recovery (MAR) scores and time to reach MAR score of 9 points. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  13. Brain P450 Epoxygenase Activity is Required for the Antinociceptive Effects of Improgan, a Non-Opioid Analgesic

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Lindsay B.; Nalwalk, Julia W.; Yang, Jun; Conroy, Jennie L.; VanAlstine, Melissa A.; Yang, Weizhu; Gargano, Joseph; Shan, Zhixing; Zhang, Shao-Zhong; Wentland, Mark P; Phillips, James G.; Knapp, Brian I.; Bidlack, Jean M.; Zuiderveld, Obbe P.; Leurs, Rob; Ding, Xinxin

    2011-01-01

    The search for the mechanism of action of improgan (a non-opioid analgesic) led to the recent discovery of CC12, a compound which blocks improgan antinociception. Since CC12 is a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, and brain P450 mechanisms were recently shown to be required in opioid analgesic signaling, pharmacological and transgenic studies were performed in rodents to test the hypothesis that improgan antinociception requires brain P450 epoxygenase activity. Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the P450 inhibitors miconazole and fluconazole, and the arachidonic acid (AA) epoxygenase inhibitor N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH) potently inhibited improgan antinociception in rats at doses which were inactive alone. MW06-25, a new P450 inhibitor which combines chemical features of CC12 and miconazole, also potently blocked improgan antinociception. Although miconazole and CC12 were weakly active at opioid and histamine H3 receptors, MW06-25 showed no activity at these sites, yet retained potent P450-inhibiting properties. The P450 hypothesis was also tested in Cprlow mice, a viable knock-in model with dramatically reduced brain P450 activity. Improgan (145 nmol, icv) antinociception was reduced by 37-59% in Cprlow mice, as compared with control mice. Moreover, CC12 pretreatment (200 nmol, icv) abolished improgan action (70-91%) in control mice, but had no significant effect in Cprlow mice. Thus, improgan’s activation of bulbospinal non-opioid analgesic circuits requires brain P450 epoxygenase activity. A model is proposed in which 1) improgan activates an unknown receptor to trigger downstream P450 activity, and 2) brainstem epoxygenase activity is a point of convergence for opioid and non-opioid analgesic signaling. PMID:21316152

  14. Vitamin E requirements of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and effects on non-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Shiau, Shi-Yen

    2004-04-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, dl-alpha-TOA) requirement and its effect on the non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 400 mg vitamin E kg diet-1) of supplemental dl-alpha-TOA were fed to P. monodon (mean initial weight 0.29 +/- 0.01 g) for eight weeks. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Weight gains and total haemocyte count (THC) were higher (P < 0.05) in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 75 and 100 mg vitamin E kg diet-1 than in shrimp fed diets supplemented with required for maximal growth and non-specific immune responses of P. monodon and that 179 mg vitamin E kg diet-1 is required to maximise tissue vitamin E concentration.

  15. Effects of a constant rate infusion of detomidine on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses.

    PubMed

    Schauvliege, Stijn; Marcilla, Miguel Gozalo; Verryken, Kirsten; Duchateau, Luc; Devisscher, Lindsey; Gasthuys, Frank

    2011-11-01

    To examine the influence of a detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses undergoing elective surgery. Prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial. Twenty adult healthy horses. After sedation (detomidine, 10 μg kg(-1) intravenously [IV]) and induction of anaesthesia (midazolam 0.06 mg kg(-1) , ketamine 2.2 mg kg(-1) IV), anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen/air (inspiratory oxygen fraction 55%). When indicated, the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Dobutamine was administered when MAP<70 mmHg. The horses were randomly allocated to one of two groups and throughout anaesthesia, received either a detomidine (5 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) (D) or saline (S) CRI, with the anaesthetist unaware of the treatment. Monitoring included end-tidal isoflurane concentration, arterial pH, PaCO(2) , PaO(2) , dobutamine administration rate, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index and oxygen delivery index (ḊO(2) I). For recovery from anaesthesia, all horses received 2.5 μg kg(-1) detomidine IV. Recovery quality and duration were recorded in each horse. For statistical analysis, anova, Pearson chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used as relevant. Heart rate (p=0.0176) and ḊO(2) I (p= 0.0084) were lower and SVR higher (p=0.0126) in group D, compared to group S. Heart rate (p=0.0011) and pH (p=0.0187) increased over time. Significant differences in isoflurane requirements were not detected. Recovery quality and duration were comparable between treatments. A detomidine CRI produced cardiovascular effects typical for α(2) -agonists, without affecting isoflurane requirements, recovery duration or recovery quality. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  16. CYP2B6 SNPs are associated with methadone dose required for effective treatment of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Levran, Orna; Peles, Einat; Hamon, Sara; Randesi, Matthew; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-07-01

    Adequate methadone dosing in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid addiction is critical for therapeutic success. One of the challenges in dose determination is the inter-individual variability in dose-response. Methadone metabolism is attributed primarily to cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6. The CYP2B6*6 allele [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 785A>G (rs2279343) and 516G>T (rs3745274)] was associated with slow methadone metabolism. To explore the effects of CYP2B6*6 allele on methadone dose requirement, it was genotyped in a well-characterized sample of 74 Israeli former heroin addicts in MMT. The sample is primarily of Middle Eastern/European ancestry, based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Only patients with no major co-medication that may affect methadone metabolism were included. The stabilizing daily methadone dose in this sample ranges between 13 and 260mg (mean 140±52mg). The mean methadone doses required by subjects homozygous for the variant alleles of the CYP2B6 SNPs 785A>G and 516G>T (88, 96mg, respectively) were significantly lower than those of the heterozygotes (133, 129mg, respectively) and the non-carriers (150, 151mg, respectively) (nominal P=0.012, 0.048, respectively). The results remain significant after controlling for age, sex and the ABCB1 SNP 1236C>T (rs1128503), which was previously shown to be associated with high methadone dose requirement in this population (P=0.006, 0.030, respectively). An additional 77 CYP2B6, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 SNPs were genotyped. Of these, 24 SNPs were polymorphic and none showed significant association with methadone dose. Further studies are necessary to replicate these preliminary findings in additional subjects and other populations.

  17. Effect of parecoxib, a novel intravenous cyclooxygenase type-2 inhibitor, on the postoperative opioid requirement and quality of pain control.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Li, Shitong; White, Paul F; Chen, Xiaoguang; Wender, Ronald H; Quon, Raymond; Sloninsky, Alexander; Naruse, Robert; Kariger, Robert; Webb, Tom; Norel, Eve

    2002-06-01

    The analgesic efficacy and side effect profile of intravenous parecoxib, a novel cyclooxygenase type-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, was assessed in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study involving patients undergoing major gynecologic surgical procedures. After Institutional Review Board approval, 60 consenting women, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-III, undergoing lower abdominal surgery with a standardized general anesthetic technique were randomly assigned to receive one of three study medications: group 1 (control) received normal saline; group 2 received intravenous parecoxib, 20 mg; and group 3 received intravenous parecoxib, 40 mg. The initial dose of study medication was administered when the patient first requested pain medication after surgery. All patients had access to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine, 1 or 2 mg, with a 6-min lockout period. Subsequent doses of the same study medication were administered at 12-h and 24-h intervals after the initial dose. The postoperative opioid analgesic requirement (PCA morphine usage), pain scores, pain relief scores, side effects, and need for supplemental medications (e.g., antiemetics, antipruritics, laxatives) were recorded. Compared with saline, intravenous parecoxib, 20 mg and 40 mg every 12 h, significantly decreased the PCA morphine usage during the first 6 h postoperatively (group 1, 25 +/- 13 mg; group 2, 16 +/- 11 mg; group 3, 17 +/- 10 mg) and at 12 h (group 1, 34 +/- 18 mg; group 2, 24 +/- 14 mg; group 3, 23 +/- 13 mg) and 24 h (group 1, 51 +/- 27 mg; group 2, 34 +/- 20 mg; group 3, 33 +/- 21 mg) after surgery. However, there were no significant differences in the patients' global evaluation of the study medications at 12 h and 24 h between those who received intravenous parecoxib (20 or 40 mg) and saline. Moreover, the postoperative pain scores and side effect profiles were similar in the three treatment groups. Intravenous parecoxib (20 or 40 mg) was

  18. Low Grade Elastic Compression Regimen for Venous Leg Ulcers-An Effective Compromise for Patients Requiring Daily Dressing Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Ganary; Hammerman, Scott; Falanga, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers affect millions of patients worldwide and are a tremendous financial burden on our healthcare system. The hallmark of venous disease of the lower extremities is venous hypertension, and compression is the current mainstay of treatment. However, many patients are noncompliant, in part because of the complexity of the dressings and the difficulties with application and removal. The aim of our study was to determine an effective compression dressing regimen for patients with venous leg ulcers who require changing the ulcer primary dressing twice daily. We used two layers of a latex free tubular elastic bandage for compression. The primary endpoint of our study was increased wound healing rate and our secondary endpoint was complete wound closure. All active study subjects had positive healing rates at week 4 and week 8. Two subjects achieved complete wound closure by week 8. We conclude that compression with a latex-free tubular elastic bandage can be safely used in patients with venous leg ulcers requiring frequent dressing changes. This type of compression allows for daily inspection of wounds, dressing changes at home, flexibility in the context of clinical trials, and is a compromise for patients that are intolerant to compression dressings. PMID:24267477

  19. Determination of Effective Factors on Power Requirement and Conveying Capacity of a Screw Conveyor under Three Paddy Grain Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Askari Asli-Ardeh, Ezzatollah; Mohsenimanesh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of screw speed, inclination angle and variety on the required power, and conveying capacity of a screw conveyor. The experiment was designed with four levels of screw speed (600, 800, 1000, and 1200 rpm), five levels of inclination angle (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80°), and three levels of variety (Alikazemi, Hashemi, and Khazar). The Length, diameter, and pitch of screw were 2, 0.78, and 0.5 m, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block (RCB) with factorial layout. Maximum and minimum power requirements of tested screw conveyor were 99.29 and 81.16 Watt corresponding to conveying capacity of 3.210 and 1.975 ton/hour obtained for khazar and Alikazemi varieties, respectively. The results indicated that as screw inclination angle increased from 0 to 80°, the conveying capacity decreased significantly from 3.581 to 0.932 t/h. It can be concluded that the most conveying capacity was 4.955 t/h at tests with khazar variety and conveyor inclination angle zero degree. PMID:22619587

  20. Low-grade elastic compression regimen for venous leg ulcers--an effective compromise for patients requiring daily dressing changes.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Ganary; Hammerman, Scott; Carson, Polly; Falanga, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) affect millions of patients worldwide and are a tremendous financial burden on our health care system. The hallmark of venous disease of the lower extremities is venous hypertension, and compression is the current mainstay of treatment. However, many patients are non-compliant, partly because of the complexity of the dressings and the difficulties with application and removal. The aim of our study was to test an effective compression dressing regimen for patients with VLUs who require changing the ulcer primary dressing twice daily. We used two layers of a latex-free tubular elastic bandage for compression. The primary endpoint of our study was increased wound-healing rate and our secondary endpoint was complete wound closure. All active study subjects had positive healing rates at week 4 and week 8. Two subjects achieved complete wound closure by week 8. We conclude that compression with a latex-free tubular elastic bandage can be safely used in patients with VLUs requiring frequent dressing changes. This type of compression allows for daily inspection of wounds, dressing changes at home, flexibility in the context of clinical trials, and is a compromise for patients who are intolerant to compression dressings.

  1. Determination of effective factors on power requirement and conveying capacity of a screw conveyor under three paddy grain varieties.

    PubMed

    Askari Asli-Ardeh, Ezzatollah; Mohsenimanesh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of screw speed, inclination angle and variety on the required power, and conveying capacity of a screw conveyor. The experiment was designed with four levels of screw speed (600, 800, 1000, and 1200 rpm), five levels of inclination angle (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80°), and three levels of variety (Alikazemi, Hashemi, and Khazar). The Length, diameter, and pitch of screw were 2, 0.78, and 0.5 m, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block (RCB) with factorial layout. Maximum and minimum power requirements of tested screw conveyor were 99.29 and 81.16 Watt corresponding to conveying capacity of 3.210 and 1.975 ton/hour obtained for khazar and Alikazemi varieties, respectively. The results indicated that as screw inclination angle increased from 0 to 80°, the conveying capacity decreased significantly from 3.581 to 0.932 t/h. It can be concluded that the most conveying capacity was 4.955 t/h at tests with khazar variety and conveyor inclination angle zero degree.

  2. SIRT1 is required for the effects of rapamycin on high glucose-inducing mesangial cells senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sifang; Cai, Guangyan; Fu, Bo; Feng, Zhe; Ding, Rui; Bai, Xueyuan; Liu, Weiping; Zhuo, Li; Sun, Lin; Liu, Fuyou; Chen, Xiangmei

    2012-06-01

    The mTOR deregulation has a role in chronic kidney disease including diabetic nephropathy. SIRT1 is an important participant in renal cytoprotective responses to aging and stress. However, whether both mTOR and SIRT1 are involved in high glucose-inducing mesangial cells (MCs) senescence still remains to be explored. Hence we investigate the potential functional interrelationship between these two proteins in high glucose-inducing MCs senescence. High glucose increased mTOR expression and activity, but decreased SIRT1 expression and activity. The level of mTOR was increased significantly, while the SIRT1 expression and activity was declined significantly with serial cell culture passage. The siRNA-SIRT1 and nicotinamide promoted MCs senescence. NAD or resveratrol arrested high glucose-inducing MCs senescence. Meanwhile, the effects of NAD or resveratrol on high glucose-inducing MCs senescence were also completely blocked by SiRNA-SIRT1. Rapamycin arrested MCs senescence induced by high glucose and prevented MCs senescence with serial cell culture passage, and meanwhile increased the SIRT1 expression and activity. Moreover, the effects of rapamycin on MCs senescence induced by high glucose were also completely blocked by treating cells with niacinamide or siRNA-SIRT1. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that SIRT1 is required for the effects of rapamycin on high glucose-inducing MCs senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-321,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Marina; Guiot, Elvire; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Longueville, Sophie; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Valjent, Emmanuel; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Paupardin-Tritsch, Danièle; Castro, Liliana R. V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Type 10A phosphodiesterase (PDE10A) is highly expressed in the striatum, in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, respectively. PDE10A inhibitors have pharmacological and behavioral effects suggesting an antipsychotic profile, but the cellular bases of these effects are unclear. We analyzed the effects of PDE10A inhibition in vivo by immunohistochemistry, and imaged cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), and cGMP signals with biosensors in mouse brain slices. PDE10A inhibition in mouse striatal slices produced a steady-state increase in intracellular cAMP concentration in D1 and D2 MSNs, demonstrating that PDE10A regulates basal cAMP levels. Surprisingly, the PKA-dependent AKAR3 phosphorylation signal was strong in D2 MSNs, whereas D1 MSNs remained unresponsive. This effect was also observed in adult mice in vivo since PDE10A inhibition increased phospho-histone H3 immunoreactivity selectively in D2 MSNs in the dorsomedial striatum. The PKA-dependent effects in D2 MSNs were prevented in brain slices and in vivo by mutation of the PKA-regulated phosphorylation site of 32 kDa dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32), which is required for protein phosphatase-1 inhibition. These data highlight differences in the integration of the cAMP signal in D1 and D2 MSNs, resulting from stronger inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 by DARPP-32 in D2 MSNs than in D1 MSNs. This study shows that PDE10A inhibitors share with antipsychotic medications the property of activating preferentially PKA-dependent signaling in D2 MSNs. PMID:26465004

  4. Effect Size, Statistical Power and Sample Size Requirements for the Bootstrap Likelihood Ratio Test in Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Tan, Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Selecting the number of different classes which will be assumed to exist in the population is an important step in latent class analysis (LCA). The bootstrap likelihood ratio test (BLRT) provides a data-driven way to evaluate the relative adequacy of a (K −1)-class model compared to a K-class model. However, very little is known about how to predict the power or the required sample size for the BLRT in LCA. Based on extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we provide practical effect size measures and power curves which can be used to predict power for the BLRT in LCA given a proposed sample size and a set of hypothesized population parameters. Estimated power curves and tables provide guidance for researchers wishing to size a study to have sufficient power to detect hypothesized underlying latent classes. PMID:25328371

  5. Effect of substrate and cation requirement on anaerobic volatile fatty acid conversion rates at elevated biogas pressure.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Ralph E F; Ferrer, Ivet; Weijma, Jan; van Lier, Jules B

    2013-12-01

    This work studied the anaerobic conversion of neutralized volatile fatty acids (VFA) into biogas under Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) conditions. The effects of the operating conditions on the biogas quality, and the substrate utilisation rates were evaluated using 3 AHPD reactors (0.6 L); feeding a concentration of acetate and VFA (1-10 g COD/L) corresponding to an expected pressure increase of 1-20 bar. The biogas composition improved with pressure up to 4.5 bar (>93% CH4), and stabilized at 10 and 20 bar. Both, acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity was observed. Substrate utilisation rates of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 g CODCH4/g VSS/d for acetate, propionate and butyrate were found to decrease by up to 50% with increasing final pressure. Most likely increased Na(+)-requirement to achieve CO2 sequestration at higher pressure rather than end-product inhibition was responsible.

  6. Effect Size, Statistical Power and Sample Size Requirements for the Bootstrap Likelihood Ratio Test in Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dziak, John J; Lanza, Stephanie T; Tan, Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Selecting the number of different classes which will be assumed to exist in the population is an important step in latent class analysis (LCA). The bootstrap likelihood ratio test (BLRT) provides a data-driven way to evaluate the relative adequacy of a (K -1)-class model compared to a K-class model. However, very little is known about how to predict the power or the required sample size for the BLRT in LCA. Based on extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we provide practical effect size measures and power curves which can be used to predict power for the BLRT in LCA given a proposed sample size and a set of hypothesized population parameters. Estimated power curves and tables provide guidance for researchers wishing to size a study to have sufficient power to detect hypothesized underlying latent classes.

  7. Seasonal and age effects on energy requirements in domestic short-hair cats (Felis catus) in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, E N; Weidgraaf, K; Hekman, M; Roy, N C; Tavendale, M H; Thomas, D G

    2013-06-01

    There is little information known about the energy requirements of cats in temperature climates. Energy requirement of domestic short-haired cats was determined using three groups of mixed gender - old kept outside (approximately 9.9 years of age; 4.8 kg; n = 9), young kept outside (approximately 3.1 years of age; 3.9 kg; n = 8) or young kept inside (approximately 3.1 years of age; 3.9 kg; n = 8). Cats were housed individually for 5 weeks during summer (18.5 ± 0.5 °C) and winter (8.5 ± 0.4 °C) and were fed a commercially available maintenance diet ad libitum. In both periods, energy expenditure was determined from the rates of (2) H and (18) O elimination for blood H2 O over a 12 day period, from a doubly labelled water bolus (2) H2 O (0.7 g/kg BW) and H2 (18) O (0.13 g/kg BW) administered intravenously. During the summer period, macronutrient digestibility was determined. Older cats had a reduction (p < 0.05) in apparent digestibility of dry matter (approximately 9%), energy (approximately 8%) and protein (6%). There was a significant effect of age and season on energy intake and energy expenditure. While lean mass was affected by age and season, there was no effect of age or season on energy expenditure when expressed as a proportion of lean mass. Possible seasonal differences in nutrient digestibility may explain these results. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  9. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  10. 45 CFR 400.77 - Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate in required services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and... in required services. (a) As a condition of eligibility for refugee cash assistance, an...

  11. 45 CFR 400.77 - Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate in required services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and... in required services. (a) As a condition of eligibility for refugee cash assistance, an employable...

  12. 45 CFR 400.77 - Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate in required services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and... in required services. (a) As a condition of eligibility for refugee cash assistance, an...

  13. Current-use pesticides in stream water and suspended particles following runoff: exposure, effects, and mitigation requirements.

    PubMed

    Bereswill, Renja; Streloke, Martin; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    The European Union's directive for sustainable use of pesticides requires implementing risk mitigation measures at streams threatened by pesticide entries. The need for mitigation measures was investigated at 10 stream sites within an intensively used arable region in central Germany by characterizing pesticide exposure following edge-of-field runoff and effects on the aquatic macroinvertebrates. Moreover, the influence of riparian buffer strip width (as a mitigation measure) at the sampling sites was considered. Generally, invertebrate fauna was dominated by pesticide-tolerant species, suggesting a high pesticide exposure at almost all sites. This result is also reflected by the elevated levels of suspended particle contamination in terms of toxic units (logTUMax  > -2), corresponding to one-hundredth of the median lethal concentration (LC50) to Daphnia magna. At two sites that received high aqueous-phase entries of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (logTUMax  > -0.6), the abundance and number of sensitive species in terms of the species at risk index decreased during the pesticide application period. In contrast, no acute significant negative effects on macroinvertebrates were observed at sites characterised by low water-phase toxicity (logTUMax  < -3.5). An influence of riparian buffer strip width on pesticide exposure was not observed, supposedly because of the presence of erosion rills and ephemeral ditches. In conclusion, results show that mitigation measures (such as the improvement of currently present riparian buffer strips) are needed in the study area.

  14. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. The anti-adipogenic effect of macrophage-conditioned medium requires the IKKβ/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yarmo, M N; Gagnon, A; Sorisky, A

    2010-11-01

    Macrophage-secreted factors inhibit adipogenesis, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Our objective was to determine if anti-adipogenic signaling pathways in human preadipocytes are activated by macrophage-conditioned medium (MacCM). Human abdominal subcutaneous stromal preadipocytes were treated with adipogenic inducers in either standard medium or medium conditioned by human THP-1 macrophages. THP-1-MacCM increased inhibitor of κB kinase β (IKKβ) phosphorylation, inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) degradation, and NF-κB activity in human preadipocytes in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant treatment of human abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes with sc-514, a selective inhibitor of IKKβ, prevented the inhibitory effect of THP-1-MacCM on lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers. Our data indicate that activation of the preadipocyte IKKβ/NF-κB pathway is required for the anti-adipogenic effect of THP-1-MacCM on human adipogenesis.

  16. Antimicrobial growth promoter use in livestock: a requirement to understand their modes of action to develop effective alternatives.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kirsty; Uwiera, Richard R E; Kalmokoff, Martin L; Brooks, Steve P J; Inglis, G Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents (AMAs) have been used in agriculture since the 1950s as growth-promoting agents [antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs)]. They have provided benefits to the agricultural industry by increasing production efficiencies and maximising livestock health, yet the potential risks surrounding resistance to AMAs in medically important pathogenic bacteria have enhanced public and government scrutiny regarding AMA use in agriculture. Although it is recognised that AGP administration can select for resistance to AMAs in enteric bacteria of livestock, conclusive evidence showing a link between resistant bacteria from livestock and human health is lacking (e.g. transmission of resistant zoonotic pathogens). Livestock production output must be increased significantly due to the increase in global population, and thus the identification of non-AMA alternatives to AGP use is required. One strategy employed to identify alternatives to AGPs is an observational empirical methodology, but this approach has failed to deliver effective alternatives. A second approach is aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in AGP function and developing alternatives that mimic the physiological responses to AGPs. New evidence indicates that AGP function is more complex than merely affecting enteric bacterial populations, and AGPs likely function by directly or indirectly modulating host responses such as the immune system. As such, a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms associated with AMA function as AGPs will facilitate the development of effective alternatives.

  17. The Effects of the 150-Credit-Hour Requirement for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) Exam On the Career Intentions of Women and Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierstaker, James Lloyd; Howe, Martha A.; Seol, Inshik

    2005-01-01

    In most states, students who sit for the certified public accountant (CPA) examination are now required to have 150 credit hours of college education. In this article, the authors examined the effects of this requirement on the career intentions of women and minorities. The authors collected data from 600 accounting students and the results…

  18. Passing through Science: The Effects of Raising Graduation Requirements in Science on Course-Taking and Academic Achievement in Chicago. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Nicholas; Allensworth, Elaine M.

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the effects of increasing science course-taking requirements in the Chicago Public Schools. CPS has been at the forefront of the national movement to require a college-preparatory curriculum for all high school students. In 1997, CPS mandated that all entering ninth-graders take a college-preparatory curriculum in high school,…

  19. The effects of diazepam or midazolam on the dose of propofol required to induce anaesthesia in cats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Rebecca; Borer-Weir, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Assess effects of benzodiazepine administration on the propofol dose required to induce anaesthesia in healthy cats, investigate differences between midazolam and diazepam, and determine an optimal benzodiazepine dose for co-induction. Prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ninety client-owned cats (ASA I and II) with a median (interquartile range) body mass of 4.0 (3.4-4.9) kg. All cats received 0.01 mg kg(-1) acepromazine and 0.2 mg kg(-1) methadone intravenously (IV). Fifteen minutes later, sedation was scored on a scale of 1-5, with 5 indicating greatest sedation. Propofol, 2 mg kg(-1) , administered IV, was followed by either midazolam or diazepam at 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 mg kg(-1) or saline 0.1 mL kg(-1) . Further propofol was administered until endotracheal intubation was possible. Patient signalment, sedation score, propofol dosage and adverse reactions were recorded. Midazolam and diazepam (all doses) significantly reduced the propofol dose required compared with saline (p < 0.001). There was no difference between midazolam and diazepam in propofol dose reduction (p = 0.488). All individual doses of midazolam reduced propofol requirement compared with saline (0.2 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.028; 0.3 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.006; 0.4 mg kg(-1) , p < 0.001; 0.5 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.009). Diazepam 0.2 mg kg(-1) did not reduce the propofol dose compared with saline (p = 0.087), but the remaining doses did (0.3 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.001; 0.4 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.032; 0.5 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.041). Cats with sedation scores of 3 required less propofol than cats with scores of 2 (p = 0.008). There was no difference between groups in adverse events. Midazolam (0.2-0.5 mg kg(-1) ) and diazepam (0.3-0.5 mg kg(-1) ) administered IV after 2 mg kg(-1) propofol significantly reduced the propofol dose required for tracheal intubation. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of

  20. Effects of the menstrual cycle on bispectral index and anesthetic requirement in patients with preoperative intravenous dexmedetomidine following propofol induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaomin; Wang, Tingting; Huang, Shaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that the menstrual cycle has the impact on sedation. No previous study has evaluated the effects of the menstrual cycle on sedation level and propofol requirement with preoperative intravenous dexmedetomidine. Sixty-four adult fertile women receiving general anesthesia for elective gynecologic surgery were included in the study. Patients were classified into four groups on the basis of the phase of menstrual cycle and whether infused dexmedetomidine preoperatively: Group FS: the follicular phase (days 8-12) and preoperative intravenous normal saline; Group FD: the follicular phase (days 8-12) and preoperative intravenous dexmedetomidine; Group LS: the luteal phase (days 20-24) and normal saline; Group LD: the luteal phase (days 20-24) and dexmedetomidine. The patients were infused respectively dexmedetomidine at 0, 1.0, 0 and 1.0 μg/kg over 10 min, and then propofol TCI, which was administered with target plasma concentration at 4.0 μg/ml. BIS, heart rate, MAP were recorded until BIS to 50. In the LD group, the descent range of the BIS values was significantly sharpest among the four groups at loss of eyelash reflex. From propofol administered to loss of eyelash reflex and BIS values reach to 50, propofol requirements were significantly least and duration were shortest in the LD group among the four groups. Menstrual cycle phases affect the sedation of propofol induction with preoperative intravenous dexmedetomidine, which is deeper in the luteal phase. We should cautious of excessive sedation by propofol anesthesia with preoperative dexmedetomidine in the luteal phase. PMID:25664087