Science.gov

Sample records for anrep effect requires

  1. Adaptive right ventricular performance in response to acutely increased afterload in a lamb model of congenital heart disease: evidence for enhanced Anrep effect.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca C; Datar, Sanjeev A; Oishi, Peter E; Bennett, Stephen; Maki, Jun; Sun, Christine; Johengen, Michael; He, Youping; Raff, Gary W; Redington, Andrew N; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-15

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease survive longer with preserved right ventricular (RV) function compared with those with primary pulmonary hypertension. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that superior RV performance can be demonstrated, at baseline and when challenged with increased RV afterload, in lambs with chronic left-to-right cardiac shunts compared with control lambs. A shunt was placed between the pulmonary artery and the aorta in fetal lambs (shunt). RV pressure-volume loops were obtained 4 wk after delivery in shunt and control lambs, before and after increased afterload was applied using pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Baseline stroke volume (8.7 ± 1.8 vs. 15.8 ± 2.7 ml, P = 0.04) and cardiac index (73.0 ± 4.0 vs. 159.2 ± 25.1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), P = 0.02) were greater in shunts. After PAB, there was no difference in the change in cardiac index (relative to baseline) between groups; however, heart rate (HR) was greater in controls (168 ± 7.3 vs. 138 ± 6.6 beats/min, P = 0.01), and end-systolic elastance (Ees) was greater in shunts (2.63 vs. 1.31 × baseline, P = 0.02). Control lambs showed decreased mechanical efficiency (71% baseline) compared with shunts. With acute afterload challenge, both controls and shunts maintained cardiac output; however, this was via maladaptive responses in controls, while shunts maintained mechanical efficiency and increased contractility via a proposed enhanced Anrep effect-the second, slow inotropic response in the biphasic ventricular response to increased afterload, a novel finding in the RV. The mechanisms related to these physiological differences may have important therapeutic implications.

  2. 34 CFR 106.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 106.6 Section 106.6... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 106.6 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal...; 20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682, 1685) (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation...

  3. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, Sandra G

    2007-01-01

    Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork. PMID:17284324

  4. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.05 Effective dates of labeling requirements. All... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05..., on or before the effective date established in the final order for the transfer or addition....

  5. Removing Remediation Requirements: Effectiveness of Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Anne; Duggan, Mickle; Braddy, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of incoming college freshman students is a national concern because remediated students are at higher risk of failing to complete their degrees. Some Oklahoma higher education institutions are working to assist K-12 systems in finding ways to reduce the number of incoming college freshman students requiring remediation. This study…

  6. 24 CFR 200.640 - Effect on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on other requirements. 200.640 Section 200.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Regulations § 200.640 Effect on other requirements. The requirement for compliance with this part is...

  7. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05 Section 1302.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.05 Effective dates of labeling requirements....

  8. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05 Section 1302.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.05 Effective dates of labeling requirements....

  9. Response requirements modulate tactile spatial congruency effects.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Dalton, Polly; Kreukniet, Bas; Spence, Charles

    2008-11-01

    Several recent studies have provided support for the view that tactile stimuli/events are remapped into an abstract spatial frame of reference beyond the initial somatotopic representation present in the primary somatosensory cortex. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the extent to which this remapping of tactile stimuli takes place is dependent upon the particular demands imposed by the task that participants have to perform. Participants in the present study responded to either the elevation (up vs. down) or to the anatomical location (finger vs. thumb) of vibrotactile targets presented to one hand, while trying to ignore distractors presented simultaneously to the other hand. The magnitude and direction of the target-distractor congruency effect was measured as participants adopted one of two different postures with each hand (palm-up or palm-down). When the participants used footpedal responses (toe vs. heel; Experiment 1), congruency effects were determined by the relative elevation of the stimuli in external coordinates (same vs. different elevation), regardless of whether the relevant response feature was defined externally or anatomically. Even when participants responded verbally (Experiment 2), the influence of the relative elevation of the stimuli in external space, albeit attenuated, was still observed. However, when the task involved responding with the stimulated finger (four-alternative forced choice; Experiment 3), congruency effects were virtually eliminated. These findings support the view that tactile events can be remapped according to an abstract frame of reference resulting from multisensory integration, but that the frame of reference that is used while performing a particular task may depend to a large extent on the nature of the task demands. PMID:18709500

  10. 29 CFR 36.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of other requirements. 36.125 Section 36.125 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 36.125 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions....

  11. 7 CFR 15a.5 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.5 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of...); and any other act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local...

  12. 24 CFR 200.121 - Requirements and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Requirements and effectiveness. (a) Multifamily mortgagees, which are required by 24 CFR part 207 to report.... Failure on the part of mortgagees to report this information as required by 24 CFR part 207 and this section may result in HUD's application of the sanctions and surcharges specified in 24 CFR part 207....

  13. 45 CFR 86.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law or other requirement which would render any applicant or... organization, club, athletic or other league, or association which would render any applicant or...

  14. 24 CFR 3.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 3.125 Section 3.125 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  15. 24 CFR 3.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 3.125 Section 3.125 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  16. 24 CFR 3.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 3.125 Section 3.125 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  17. 24 CFR 3.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 3.125 Section 3.125 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  18. 24 CFR 3.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 3.125 Section 3.125 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  19. 24 CFR 200.640 - Effect on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect on other requirements. 200.640 Section 200.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing...

  20. 14 CFR § 1253.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. § 1253.125 Section § 1253.125 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  1. 14 CFR 1253.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1253.125 Section 1253.125 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  2. 14 CFR 1253.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Effect of other requirements. 1253.125 Section 1253.125 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  3. 14 CFR 1253.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1253.125 Section 1253.125 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  4. 14 CFR 1253.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of other requirements. 1253.125 Section 1253.125 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  5. Cost effective dynamic design and test requirements for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Bangs, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study examining current spacecraft dynamic design and test requirements for the cost effective design and development of Shuttle payloads are presented. Dynamic environments, payload configurations, design/test requirements, test levels, assembly level of testing, simulation methods, prototype role, load limiting, test facilities, and flight measurements are discussed as they relate to the development of a cost effective design and test philosophy for Shuttle Spacelab payloads. It is concluded that changes to current design/test practices will minimize long range payload costs. However, changes to current practices need be quantitatively evaluated before an orderly progression to more cost effective methods can be achieved without undue risk of mission failures. Of major importance is optimization of test levels and plans for payloads and payload subsystems which will result in minimum project costs.

  6. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  7. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  8. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  9. What Conditions are Required to Initiate the Lenr Effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    2005-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that previous understanding of the environment in which the Pons-Fleischmann effect occurs is wrong. The environment is not highly loaded β-PdD. Instead, it is a complex alloy that may or may not contain palladium. In addition, the size of the domains in which the nuclear reactions take place is critically important. This new insight requires different explanations and experimental approaches than have been previously used.

  10. Nutritional genomics: defining the dietary requirement and effects of choline.

    PubMed

    Zeisel, Steven H

    2011-03-01

    As it becomes evident that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in humans can create metabolic inefficiencies, it is reasonable to ask if such SNPs influence dietary requirements. Epidemiologic studies that examine SNPs relative to risks for diseases are common, but there are few examples of clinically sized nutrition studies that examine how SNPs influence metabolism. Studies on how SNPs influence the dietary requirement for choline provide a model for how we might begin examining the effects of SNPs on nutritional phenotypes using clinically sized studies (clinical nutrigenomics). Most men and postmenopausal women develop liver or muscle dysfunction when deprived of dietary choline. More than one-half of premenopausal women may be resistant to choline deficiency-induced organ dysfunction, because estrogen induces the gene [phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)] that catalyzes endogenous synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which can subsequently yield choline. Those premenopausal women that do require a dietary source of choline have a SNP in PEMT, making them unresponsive to estrogen induction of PEMT. It is important to recognize differences in dietary requirements for choline in women, because during pregnancy, maternal dietary choline modulates fetal brain development in rodent models. Because choline metabolism and folate metabolism intersect at the methylation of homocysteine, manipulations that limit folate availability also increase the use of choline as a methyl donor. People with a SNPs in MTHFD1 (a gene of folate metabolism that controls the use of folate as a methyl donor) are more likely to develop organ dysfunction when deprived of choline; their dietary requirement is increased because of increased need for choline as a methyl donor. PMID:21270363

  11. Effects of Varying Trait Inconsistency and Response Requirements on the Primacy Effect in Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Clyde; Costantini, Arthur F.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that serial presentation of inconsistent information results in a primacy effect in subjects, and that the experimenter.s response requirements are responsible for any recency effects obtained. The results are interpreted in terms of attention redistribution. (RW)

  12. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentz, John

    project schedule, resulting in greater success during system deployment and operational testing. This dissertation will discuss the data and findings from participant studies, present a literature review of systems engineering and design processes, and test the hypothesis that the prioritization process had no effect on stakeholder sentiment related to the conceptual design. In addition, the "Requirements Rationalization" process will be discussed in detail. Avionics, like many other systems, has transitioned from a discrete electronics engineering, hard engineering discipline to incorporate software engineering as a core process of the technology development cycle. As with other software-based systems, avionics now has significant soft system attributes that must be considered in the design process. The boundless opportunities that exist in software design demand prioritization to focus effort onto the critical functions that the software must provide. This has been a well documented and understood phenomenon in the software development community for many years. This dissertation will attempt to link the effect of software integrated avionics to the benefits of prioritization of requirements in the problem space and demonstrate the sociological and technical benefits of early prioritization practices.

  13. Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    SHIRANI BIDABADI, NAHID; NASR ISFAHANI, AHMMADREZA; ROUHOLLAHI, AMIR; KHALILI, ROYA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors). Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes. Results: According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered) plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors' behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors’ outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors’ operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers’ preparation in education are discussed. Conclusion: In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities should be awarded of

  14. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  15. Active Prospective Control Is Required for Effective Sensorimotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance. PMID:24194891

  16. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhigang; Collu, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  17. Identifying Requirements for Effective Human-Automation Teamwork

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O'Hara; Heather D. Medema; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that poorly designed human-automation collaboration, such as poorly designed communication protocols, often leads to problems for the human operators, such as: lack of vigilance, complacency, and loss of skills. These problems often lead to suboptimal system performance. To address this situation, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to improve human-automation collaboration and to make automation function better as a “team player.” Much of this research is based on an understanding of what it means to be a good team player from the perspective of a human team. However, the research is often based on a simplified view of human teams and teamwork. In this study, we sought to better understand the capabilities and limitations of automation from the standpoint of human teams. We first examined human teams to identify the principles for effective teamwork. We next reviewed the research on integrating automation agents and human agents into mixed agent teams to identify the limitations of automation agents to conform to teamwork principles. This research resulted in insights that can lead to more effective human-automation collaboration by enabling a more realistic set of requirements to be developed based on the strengths and limitations of all agents.

  18. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively.

  19. The Impact on Space Radiation Requirements and Effects on ASIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Johnston, A.; Swift, G.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of highly miniaturized electronic and mechanical systems will be accompanied by new problems and issues regarding the radiation response of these systems in the space environment. In this paper we discuss some of the more prominent radiation problems brought about by miniaturization. For example, autonomous micro-spacecraft will require large amounts of high density memory, most likely in the form of stacked, multichip modules of DRAM's, that must tolerate the radiation environment. However, advanced DRAM's (16 to 256 Mbit) are quite susceptible to radiation, particularly single event effects, and even exhibit new radiation phenomena that were not a problem for older, less dense memory chips. Another important trend in micro-spacecraft electronics is toward the use of low-voltage microelectronic systems that consume less power. However, the reduction in operating voltage also caries with it an increased susceptibility to radiation. In the case of application specific integrated microcircuits (ASIM's), advanced devices of this type, such as high density field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's) exhibit new single event effects (SEE), such as single particle reprogramming of anti-fuse links. New advanced bipolar circuits have been shown recently to degrade more rapidly in the low dose rate space environment than in the typical laboratory total dose radiation test used to qualify such devices. Thus total dose testing of these parts is no longer an appropriately conservative measure to be used for hardness assurance. We also note that the functionality of micromechanical Si-based devices may be altered due to the radiation-induced deposition of charge in the oxide passivation layers.

  20. Effects of Increased GED Score Requirements: The Wisconsin Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1995-01-01

    Wisconsin's General Educational Development score requirements are the highest in the United States. Data from 480 test takers before the raised standards and 480 after show the latter group studied more weeks, received significantly higher scores, and had more postsecondary education and employment opportunities. The failure rate increased by 50%…

  1. 13 CFR 113.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 113.535 Section 113.535 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Prohibited § 113.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements....

  2. 78 FR 44559 - Effective Date of Revised Company Registration Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Register, 78 FR 10,614 (February 14, 2013), requesting public comments by April 15, 2013. DATES: Effective on August 5, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For legal issues: Nicholas Gladd, Office of the... on the day of the filing. As explained in the Commission's February 7, 2013 order,\\1\\ the new...

  3. Butcher, Baker, Candlestick Maker: Skills Required for Effective Multimedia Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hon, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a matrix of skills necessary for multimedia development. Skills are identified in business, artistic, and technical areas. These skills are then applied to the following reasons for multimedia use: to condense time and material; to effect rapid skills transfer; and to manage feedback and evaluation. (MES)

  4. 34 CFR 104.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 104.10 Section 104.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  5. 43 CFR 17.209 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 17.209 Section 17.209 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.209 Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.9 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements, and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements, and effect of employment opportunities. 15b.9 Section 15b.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.9 Effect of State or local law or other requirements, and effect...

  7. 29 CFR 32.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 32.10 Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 32.10 Section 32.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of...

  8. 14 CFR 1251.109 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1251.109 Section 1251.109 Aeronautics and Space...

  9. 38 CFR 18.410 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 18.410 Section 18.410 Pensions... law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated by the existence of any State law or other requirement that,...

  10. Effectively addressing addiction requires changing the language of addiction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2014-02-01

    Public knowledge and attitudes about addiction are largely inconsistent with scientific evidence. The gap between the facts and public and professional perceptions is due in part to the language used to describe the disease and those who have it. A key step in modifying public attitudes and improving how health professionals and policymakers address addiction is to better align the language of addiction with the scientific evidence. Unless we clarify the language, those with the disease will continue to experience the stigma associated with it and attempts to deliver comprehensive and effective evidence-based prevention, treatment, and disease management will be profoundly compromised. PMID:24226552

  11. Clutter effects on airborne tracking resolution requirements for urban vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Aaron L.; Miller, Brian; Richardson, Phillip; Ra, Chun

    2010-04-01

    This paper details the development, experimentation, collected data and the results of research designed to gain an understanding of the effects of clutter on the temporal and spatial image collection guidelines for tracking urban vehicles. More specifically, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between human observer performance and the spatial and temporal resolution is sought. Performance is measured as a function of the number of video frames per second, imager spatial resolution and the ability of the observer to accurately determine the destination of a moving vehicle target as it encounters vehicles with similar infrared signatures. The research is restricted to data and imagery collected from altitudes typical of modern low to mid altitude persistent surveillance platforms using a wide field of view. The ability of the human observer to perform an unaided track of the vehicle was determined by their completion of carefully designed perception experiments. In these experiments, the observers were presented with simulated imagery from Night Vision's EOSim urban terrain simulator. The details of the simulated targets and backgrounds, the design of the experiments and their associated results are included in this treatment.

  12. Effects of exercise on chromium levels. Is supplementation required?

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M

    1997-06-01

    It is estimated that most individuals are not ingesting sufficient amounts of chromium in their diets. Although there is little information on chromium intake in athletes, many athletes ingest more calories than do non-athletes so their chromium intake should be adequate. However, athletes who restrict calories to maintain low bodyweights could compromise their chromium status. Some evidence also shows that exercise may increase chromium loss into the urine. At present, it is not known whether this loss necessitates additional chromium in the diet or whether the body will increase retention in response to the loss. Chromium deficiency is thought to contribute to glucose intolerance and unhealthy blood lipid profiles. The primary function of chromium is to potentiate the effects of insulin, and thereby alter glucose, amino acid and fat metabolism. Chromium supplements have been purported to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat. However, the preponderance of evidence has not supported this claim. There is little information available on the long term use of chromium supplements, but at present, supplements within the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Allowance (ESADDI) level do not appear harmful. The prudent course of action for athletes would be to ingest foods rich in chromium and perhaps take a multivitamin/mineral supplement containing no more than the ESADDI of chromium. PMID:9219318

  13. Excess mutual catalysis is required for effective evolvability.

    PubMed

    Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that autocatalysis constitutes a crucial facet of effective replication and evolution (e.g., in Eigen's hypercycle model). Other models for early evolution (e.g., by Dyson, Gánti, Varela, and Kauffman) invoke catalytic networks, where cross-catalysis is more apparent. A key question is how the balance between auto- (self-) and cross- (mutual) catalysis shapes the behavior of model evolving systems. This is investigated using the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, previously shown to capture essential features of reproduction, mutation, and evolution in compositional molecular assemblies. We have performed numerical simulations of an ensemble of GARD networks, each with a different set of lognormally distributed catalytic values. We asked what is the influence of the catalytic content of such networks on beneficial evolution. Importantly, a clear trend was observed, wherein only networks with high mutual catalysis propensity (p(mc)) allowed for an augmented diversity of composomes, quasi-stationary compositions that exhibit high replication fidelity. We have reexamined a recent analysis that showed meager selection in a single GARD instance and for a few nonstationary target compositions. In contrast, when we focused here on compotypes (clusters of composomes) as targets for selection in populations of compositional assemblies, appreciable selection response was observed for a large portion of the networks simulated. Further, stronger selection response was seen for high p(mc) values. Our simulations thus demonstrate that GARD can help analyze important facets of evolving systems, and indicate that excess mutual catalysis over self-catalysis is likely to be important for the emergence of molecular systems capable of evolutionlike behavior.

  14. 10 CFR 1040.64 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1040.64 Section 1040.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  15. 41 CFR 101-8.304 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 101-8.304 Section 101-8.304 Public... Prohibited on the Basis of Handicap § 101-8.304 Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this subpart is not obviated...

  16. 45 CFR 605.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 605.10 Section 605.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating...

  17. 22 CFR 217.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 217.10 Section 217.10 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.10 Effect of state or local law or other requirements...

  18. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  19. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  20. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  1. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  2. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3 Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. A device included in this part that is classified into... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3 Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. A device included in this part that is classified into... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for...

  4. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  5. 45 CFR 618.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 618.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements. (a)...

  6. Supervised hours requirements in graduated driver licensing: Effectiveness and parental awareness.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Natalie P; Foss, Robert D; Goodwin, Arthur H; Masten, Scott V

    2013-01-01

    Most states require teens to complete a certain number of hours of supervised driving practice to obtain a license to drive unsupervised. Although widely implemented, the effect of requiring supervised practice is largely unknown. Using auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time-series analysis, we found no change in fatal and injury crash involvement of 16-17-year-old drivers in Minnesota following enactment of a 30h supervised driving requirement. To supplement and provide insight into these findings, we conducted telephone interviews with parents of newly licensed teenage drivers in five states with varying amounts of required supervised driving, including Minnesota. Interviews revealed awareness of supervised driving requirements was limited. Only a third of parents (32%) overall could correctly identify the number of hours their state required. In Minnesota only 15% of parents could identify the amount of supervised driving their teen was required to complete. Awareness of the number of hours required was substantially higher (55%) in Maryland. Unlike the other states, Maryland requires submission of a driving log detailing the hours of supervised driving. The findings suggest states need to develop more effective mechanisms to ensure parents are aware of supervised hours requirements.

  7. The Effects of the Elective or Required Status of Courses on Student Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Jenny A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact on a course evaluation of the course being either an elective or a required part of a training programme. Three elective and three required courses were evaluated using both a scaled and an open-ended response form. Many variables were taken into account when examining the effect of course status which other…

  8. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... of any similar requirement imposed by law, order, or regulation. The submission of a statement...

  9. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... of any similar requirement imposed by law, order, or regulation. The submission of a statement...

  10. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... of any similar requirement imposed by law, order, or regulation. The submission of a statement...

  11. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... of any similar requirement imposed by law, order, or regulation. The submission of a statement...

  12. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... of any similar requirement imposed by law, order, or regulation. The submission of a statement...

  13. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in CD-1 Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using outbred (CD-1) mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as threshold responses (i.e., all measured responses). Different force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of threshold responses) that…

  14. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  15. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  16. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  17. On the Compliance of Simbol-X Mirror Roughness with its Effective Area Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-11

    Surface microroughness of X-ray mirrors is a key issue for the angular resolution of Simbol-X to comply with the required one (<20 arcsec at 30 keV). The maximum tolerable microroughness for Simbol-X mirrors, in order to satisfy the required imaging capability, has already been derived in terms of its PSD (Power Spectral Density). However, also the Effective Area of the telescope is affected by the mirror roughness. In this work we will show how the expected effective area of the Simbol-X mirror module can be computed from the roughness PSD tolerance, checking its compliance with the requirements.

  18. 45 CFR 84.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 84.10 Section 84.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 84.10 Effect of State or local law...

  19. 22 CFR 142.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 142.10 Section 142.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.10 Effect of State or local law or...

  20. 15 CFR 8b.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 8b.10 Section 8b.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of... PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.10 Effect of state or local law...

  1. 22 CFR 1203.735-410 - Effect of employees' statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of employees' statements on other... § 1203.735-410 Effect of employees' statements on other requirements. The statements of employment and... conflict of interest prohibitions of 18 U.S.C. 208(a) pursuant to a written advance determination...

  2. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  3. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  4. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  5. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  6. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  7. Effects of Required and Optional Exchange Tasks in Online Language Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandl, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an optional and required (jigsaw) task on learners' quantity and quality of use of language under synchronous and asynchronous conditions. The question raised is: Does performing either of these task types under synchronous conditions cause a compounding effect that either positively or negatively impacts…

  8. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  9. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  10. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  11. 45 CFR 605.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 605.10 Section 605.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...

  12. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  15. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  16. 44 CFR 19.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 19.535 Section 19.535 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN...

  17. 49 CFR 25.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.535 Effect... or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex...

  18. 28 CFR 54.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.535 Effect... or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex...

  19. 38 CFR 23.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 23.535 Section 23.535 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  20. 24 CFR 3.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 3.535 Section 3.535 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS...

  1. 24 CFR 3.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 3.535 Section 3.535 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS...

  2. 24 CFR 3.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 3.535 Section 3.535 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS...

  3. 24 CFR 3.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 3.535 Section 3.535 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS...

  4. 24 CFR 3.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 3.535 Section 3.535 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS...

  5. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or on the last day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or on the last day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the...

  7. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III is...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 872.3 Section 872.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III...

  9. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or on the last day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the...

  10. 21 CFR 886.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 886.3 Section 886.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III...

  11. 21 CFR 882.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 882.3 Section 882.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III is...

  12. 21 CFR 870.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 870.3 Section 870.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III is...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 890.3 Section 890.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III is...

  14. 21 CFR 880.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 880.3 Section 880.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or on the last day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the...

  15. 21 CFR 884.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 884.3 Section 884.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or on the last day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 888.3 Section 888.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... day of the 30th full calendar month after the regulation that classifies the device into class III...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  20. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects. 158.240 Section 158.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... an experimental use permit. No data for nontarget plant protection must be submitted to support...

  1. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects. 158.240 Section 158.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... an experimental use permit. No data for nontarget plant protection must be submitted to support...

  2. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects. 158.240 Section 158.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... an experimental use permit. No data for nontarget plant protection must be submitted to support...

  3. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  7. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1253.535 Section 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  8. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1253.535 Section 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  14. The Competencies Required for Effective Performance in a University e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Mitchell; Reading, Christine; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and rate the importance of the competencies required by students for effective performance in a university e-learning environment mediated by a learning management system. Two expert panels identified 58 e-learning competencies considered to be essential for e-learning. Of these competencies, 22 were related…

  15. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  16. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  1. 42 CFR 422.521 - Effective date of new significant regulatory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements. 422.521 Section 422.521 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.521 Effective date of new...

  2. Aptitude Test Score Validity: No Moderating Effect Due to Job Ability Requirement Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gwen E.; Ree, Malcolm James

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the specificity-generality hypothesis regarding moderation of aptitude test validity by job ability requirement differences using 24,482 Air Force enlistees in 37 jobs. Moderating effects due to job differences were not found, and job ability differences did not moderate the relationship between the amount of "g" measured by a…

  3. 16 CFR 1203.1 - Scope, general requirements, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope, general requirements, and effective date. 1203.1 Section 1203.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.1 Scope,...

  4. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3...

  5. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3...

  6. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3...

  7. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  8. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  9. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  10. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  11. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  12. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1253.535 Section 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  13. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1253.535 Section 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  14. 14 CFR § 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. § 1253.535 Section § 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  15. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3...

  16. The Competencies and Characteristics Required of an Effective Project Manager: A Web-Based Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Bishop, M. J.; Walker, Andrew E.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we explore the competencies required for a project manager to be effective in the workplace. We used a Web-based Delphi method to lead experienced project managers through an anonymous consensus-building process consisting of two rounds of surveys. The Round I analysis of 147 respondents, all with 20 or more years of project…

  17. Development and Assessment of the Effectiveness of an Undergraduate General Education Foreign Language Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; Walther, Ingeborg; Tufts, Clare; Lee, Kunshan Carolyn; Paredes, Liliana; Fellin, Luciana; Andrews, Edna; Serra, Matt; Hill, Jennifer L.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Schlosberg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a faculty-led, multiyear process of formulating learning objectives and assessing the effectiveness of a foreign language requirement for all College of Arts and Sciences undergraduates at a research university. Three interrelated research questions were addressed: (1) What were the levels and patterns of language courses…

  18. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of... other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex that are...

  19. 22 CFR 146.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.535 Effect... law or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one...

  20. 22 CFR 229.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.535 Effect... law or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one...

  1. 17 CFR 201.153 - Filing of papers: Signature requirement and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of papers: Signature requirement and effect. 201.153 Section 201.153 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.153 Filing of papers:...

  2. [Achromatic watercolor effect: about requirement of formation of sumi painting effect].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Midori

    2008-10-01

    The watercolor effect (Pinna, Brelstaff, & Spillmann, 2001) is a new color spreading phenomenon. Pinna et al. (2001) proposed that the watercolor effect is a new Gestalt factor because it determines figure-ground organization more strongly than classical Gestalt factors. We used achroriatic watercolor patterns and varied the lightness of the background and two border lines to study the relationship between the color spreading effect and figure-ground organization. The results demonstrated (a)a bidirectional color spreading phenomenon when the background lightness was between the two border-lines' lightness, and that (b) some patterns elicit only a color spreading effect without organization of figure-ground, while others elicit only figure-ground organization without a color spreading effect.

  3. [Achromatic watercolor effect: about requirement of formation of sumi painting effect].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Midori

    2008-10-01

    The watercolor effect (Pinna, Brelstaff, & Spillmann, 2001) is a new color spreading phenomenon. Pinna et al. (2001) proposed that the watercolor effect is a new Gestalt factor because it determines figure-ground organization more strongly than classical Gestalt factors. We used achroriatic watercolor patterns and varied the lightness of the background and two border lines to study the relationship between the color spreading effect and figure-ground organization. The results demonstrated (a)a bidirectional color spreading phenomenon when the background lightness was between the two border-lines' lightness, and that (b) some patterns elicit only a color spreading effect without organization of figure-ground, while others elicit only figure-ground organization without a color spreading effect. PMID:19069121

  4. The effects of reinforcement frequency and response requirements on the maintenance of behavior.

    PubMed

    Rider, D P; D'Angelo, B J

    1990-01-01

    Six rats responded under fixed-interval and tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules of food reinforcement. Basic fixed-interval schedules alternated over experimental conditions with tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules with the same fixed-interval value. Fixed-interval length was varied within subjects over pairs of experimental conditions; the ratio requirement of the tandem schedules was varied across subjects. For both subjects with a ratio requirement of 10, overall response rates and running response rates typically were higher under the tandem schedules than under the corresponding basic fixed-interval schedules. For all subjects with ratio requirements of 30 or 60, overall response rates and running response rates were higher under the tandem schedules than under the corresponding basic fixed-interval schedules only with relatively short fixed intervals. At longer fixed intervals, higher overall response rates and running rates were maintained by the basic fixed-interval schedules than by the tandem schedules. These findings support Zeiler and Buchman's (1979) reinforcement-theory account of response strength as an increasing monotonic function of both the response requirement and reinforcement frequency. Small response requirements added in tandem to fixed-interval schedules have little effect on reinforcement frequency and so their net effect is to enhance responding. Larger response requirements reduce reinforcement frequency more substantially; therefore their net effect depends on the length of the fixed interval, which limits overall reinforcement frequency. At the longest fixed intervals studied in the present experiment, reinforcement frequency under the tandem schedules was sufficiently low that responding weakened or ceased altogether.

  5. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P < 0.01) of the interaction between protein and energy (P < 0.05) on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was higher (P < 0.0001) in high-energy groups compared to low-energy groups. The CP digestibility increased with the increased CP and ME of the rations. The absorbed N was improved linearly with an increased level of dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations. PMID:26970972

  6. The Effects of Exercise on Synaptic Stripping Require Androgen Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caiyue; Ward, Patricia J.; English, Arthur W.

    2014-01-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, synapses are withdrawn from axotomized motoneurons. Moderate daily treadmill exercise, which promotes axon regeneration of cut peripheral nerves, also influences this synaptic stripping. Different exercise protocols are required to promote axon regeneration in male and female animals, but the sex requirements for an effect of exercise on synaptic stripping are unknown. In male and female C57BL/6 mice, the sciatic nerve was transected in the mid-thigh. Mice were then exercised five days per week for two weeks, beginning on the third post-transection day. Half of the exercised mice were trained by walking slowly (10 M/min) on a level treadmill for one hour per day (continuous training). Other mice were interval trained; four short (two min) sprints at 20 M/min separated by five minute rest periods. A third group was untrained. The extent of synaptic contacts made by structures immunoreactive to vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 onto axotomized motoneurons was studied in confocal images of retrogradely labeled cells. Both types of presumed synaptic contacts were reduced markedly in unexercised mice following nerve transection, relative to intact mice. No significant reduction was found in continuous trained males or interval trained females. Reductions in these contacts in interval trained males and continuous trained females were identical to that observed in untrained mice. Treatments with the anti-androgen, flutamide, blocked the effect of sex-appropriate exercise on synaptic contacts in both males and females. Moderate daily exercise has a potent effect on synaptic inputs to axotomized motoneurons. Successful effects of exercise have different requirements in males and females, but require androgen receptor signaling in both sexes. PMID:24887087

  7. The effect of immunization against GnRF on nutrient requirements of male pigs: a review.

    PubMed

    Dunshea, F R; Allison, J R D; Bertram, M; Boler, D D; Brossard, L; Campbell, R; Crane, J P; Hennessy, D P; Huber, L; de Lange, C; Ferguson, N; Matzat, P; McKeith, F; Moraes, P J U; Mullan, B P; Noblet, J; Quiniou, N; Tokach, M

    2013-11-01

    In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked

  8. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  9. Retrieval effects on ventilation and cooling requirements for a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the regulations promulgated in Title 10, Part 60 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR60) by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an underground repository for spent fuel and high level nuclear waste (HLW) require that it is possible to retrieve waste, for whatever reason, from such a facility for a period of 50 years from initial storage or until the completion of the performance confirmation period, whichever comes first. This paper considers the effects that the retrievability option mandates on ventilation and cooling systems required for normal repository operations. An example is given for a hypothetical repository in salt. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  11. Effect of subacute exposure to NO/sub 2/ on lymphocytes required for antibody responses

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.; Shimizu, F.; Kubota, K.

    1982-12-01

    BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to 0.4 and 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 4 weeks and the effects on lymphocytes which are required for primary and secondary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were examined in vitro. The primary antibody response was significantly suppressed by both concentrations of NO/sub 2/, whereas the secondary antibody response was slightly stimulated by 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/ exposure. In reconstitution experiments no significant differences were observed in the activities of T and B lymphocytes from mice exposed to 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/.

  12. Effectiveness of pressure-immobilization first aid for snakebite requires further study.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J; Canale, Elizabeth; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2008-06-01

    In the prospective Royal Darwin Hospital snakebite study, pressure-immobilization first aid (PI) was used more often than in previous studies. However, bandages were not uncommonly too loose or not applied to the whole limb and immobilization was often neglected. While PI should continue to be promoted as the standard for Australia for the present, prospective multicentre studies of snakebite with quantitative assays for blood venom concentration will hopefully better elucidate the real effectiveness of PI and define the limitations of timing of application and determine the optimum types of bandage materials to use and the pressure required to be maintained.

  13. The Josephson effect and the requirements of causality II. The f-sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, Richard A.

    1988-05-01

    The Josepson effect is characterized by a frequency dependent conductance, σ(ω, φ). This describes the linear response of a junction biased at phase φ to a voltage signal oscillating at frequency ω. We find that the integrated value of the phase dependent part of Re σ(ω, φ) for frequencies greater than ω g, the gap frequency, is only 50% of that required by the f-sum rule. This violation of the sum rule suggests an unphysical feature of the standard tunneling Hamiltonian.

  14. [Effects of intermittent irrigation on ecological and physiological water requirement of rice in north China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Liang, Wenju; Wen, Dazhong

    2004-10-01

    The ecological and physiological water requirement of rice was studied in a paddy field of north China, and the field experiment was conducted at Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Under continuous flooding irrigation (CSF) and intermittent irrigation (IT) conditions, the evapotranspiration and soil evaporation of paddy fields were measured by non-weighing lysimeters and micro-lysimeters, respectively. The results showed that compared with continuous flooding irrigation, the transpiration under intermittent irrigation condition was not significantly reduced, but 16% and 24% of water amounts were reduced by decreasing the water losses through soil water evaporation and percolation, respectively. The water use efficiency of intermittent irrigation was increased 10%, without any adverse effects on biomass and grain yield of rice. Although the amount of water requirement under IT treatment was reduced significantly compared with CSF treatment, about 60% of total water requirement was still lost through deep percolation. Based on the results obtained, the corresponding countermeasures to reduce the amounts of soil water evaporation and percolation and to increase the water use efficiency were put forward in this paper. PMID:15624834

  15. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for...

  16. Effect of high-dose Ascorbic acid on vasopressor's requirement in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Zabet, Mohadeseh Hosseini; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Ramezani, Masoud; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Effects of ascorbic acid on hemodynamic parameters of septic shock were evaluated in nonsurgical critically ill patients in limited previous studies. In this study, the effect of high-dose ascorbic acid on vasopressor drug requirement was evaluated in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. Methods: Patients with septic shock who required a vasopressor drug to maintain mean arterial pressure >65 mmHg were assigned to receive either 25 mg/kg intravenous ascorbic acid every 6 h or matching placebo for 72 h. Vasopressor dose and duration were considered as the primary outcomes. Duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and 28-day mortality has been defined as secondary outcomes. Findings: During the study period, 28 patients (14 in each group) completed the trial. Mean dose of norepinephrine during the study period (7.44 ± 3.65 vs. 13.79 ± 6.48 mcg/min, P = 0.004) and duration of norepinephrine administration (49.64 ± 25.67 vs. 71.57 ± 1.60 h, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group. No statistically significant difference was detected between the groups regarding the length of ICU stay. However, 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group (14.28% vs. 64.28%, respectively; P = 0.009). Conclusion: High-dose ascorbic acid may be considered as an effective and safe adjuvant therapy in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. The most effective dose of ascorbic acid and the best time for its administration should be determined in future studies. PMID:27162802

  17. Data requirements for simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection, Harrison and Jackson Counties, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Available literature and data were reviewed to quantify data requirements for computer simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection in southeastern Mississippi. Emphasis of each review was placed on quantifying physical properties of current Class I injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. Class I injection zones are zones that are used for injection of hazardous or non-hazardous liquid waste below a formation containing the lowermost underground source of drinking water located within one-quarter of a mile of the injection well. Several mathematical models have been developed to simulate injection effects. The Basic Plume Method was selected because it is commonly used in permit applications, and the Intercomp model was selected because it is generally accepted and used in injection-related research. The input data requirements of the two models were combined into a single data requirement list inclusive of physical properties of injection zones only; injected waste and well properties are not included because such information is site-specific by industry, which is beyond the scope of this report. Results of the reviews of available literature and data indicated that Class I permit applications and standard-reference chemistry and physics texts were the primary sources of information to quantify physical properties of injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. With the exception of a few reports and supplementary data for one injection zone in Jackson County, very little additional information pertaining to physical properties of the injection zones was available in sources other than permit applications and standard-reference texts.

  18. BMP9-Induced Survival Effect in Liver Tumor Cells Requires p38MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvaro, María; Addante, Annalisa; Roncero, Cesáreo; Fernández, Margarita; Fabregat, Isabel; Sánchez, Aránzazu; Herrera, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    The study of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) role in tumorigenic processes, and specifically in the liver, has gathered importance in the last few years. Previous studies have shown that BMP9 is overexpressed in about 40% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In vitro data have also shown evidence that BMP9 has a pro-tumorigenic action, not only by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration, but also by promoting proliferation and survival in liver cancer cells. However, the precise mechanisms driving these effects have not yet been established. In the present work, we deepened our studies into the intracellular mechanisms implicated in the BMP9 proliferative and pro-survival effect on liver tumor cells. In HepG2 cells, BMP9 induces both Smad and non-Smad signaling cascades, specifically PI3K/AKT and p38MAPK. However, only the p38MAPK pathway contributes to the BMP9 growth-promoting effect on these cells. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that p38MAPK activation, although dispensable for the BMP9 proliferative activity, is required for the BMP9 protective effect on serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the BMP9 pro-tumorigenic role in liver tumor cells. PMID:26343646

  19. Relationship between fermentation acid production in the rumen and the requirement for physically effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Allen, M S

    1997-07-01

    The content of ruminally fermented OM in the diet affects the fiber requirement of dairy cattle. Physically effective fiber is the fraction of feed that stimulates chewing activity. Chewing, in turn, stimulates saliva secretion. Bicarbonate and phosphate buffers in saliva neutralize acids produced by fermentation of OM in the rumen. The balance between the production of fermentation acid and buffer secretion is a major determinant of ruminal pH. Low ruminal pH may decrease DMI, fiber digestibility, and microbial yield and thus decrease milk production and increase feed costs. Diets should be formulated to maintain adequate mean ruminal pH, and variation in ruminal pH should be minimized by feeding management. The fraction of OM that is fermented in the rumen varies greatly among diets. This variation affects the amount of fermentation acids produced and directly affects the amount of physically effective fiber that is required to maintain adequate ruminal pH. Acid production in the rumen is due primarily to fermentation of carbohydrates, which represent over 65% of the DM in diets of dairy cows and have the most variable ruminal degradation across diets. The non-fiber carbohydrate content of the diet is often used as a proxy for ruminal fermentability, but this measure is inadequate. Ruminal fermentation of both nonfiber carbohydrate and fiber is extremely variable, and this variability is not related to the nonfiber carbohydrate content of the diet. The interaction of ruminally fermented carbohydrate and physically effective fiber must be considered when diets for dairy cattle are evaluated and formulated.

  20. Heparan sulfate mimetic PG545-mediated antilymphoma effects require TLR9-dependent NK cell activation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Todd V; Lin, Liwen; Brandstadter, Joshua D; Rendell, Victoria R; Dredge, Keith; Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a barrier to tumor invasion and metastasis. Heparanase promotes tumor growth by cleaving HS chains of proteoglycan and releasing HS-bound angiogenic growth factors and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the ECM. HS mimetics, such as PG545, have been developed as antitumor agents and are designed to suppress angiogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting heparanase and competing for the HS-binding domain of angiogenic growth factors. However, how PG545 exerts its antitumor effect remains incompletely defined. Here, using murine models of lymphoma, we determined that the antitumor effects of PG545 are critically dependent on NK cell activation and that NK cell activation by PG545 requires TLR9. We demonstrate that PG545 does not activate TLR9 directly but instead enhances TLR9 activation through the elevation of the TLR9 ligand CpG in DCs. Specifically, PG545 treatment resulted in CpG accumulation in the lysosomal compartment of DCs, leading to enhanced production of IL-12, which is essential for PG545-mediated NK cell activation. Overall, these results reveal that PG545 activates NK cells and that this activation is critical for the antitumor effect of PG545. Moreover, our findings may have important implications for improving NK cell-based antitumor therapies. PMID:26649979

  1. An Assessment of Dust Effects on Planetary Surface Systems to Support Exploration Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Apollo astronauts learned first hand how problems with dust impact lunar surface missions. After three days, lunar dust contamination on EVA suit bearings led to such great difficulty in movement that another EVA would not have been possible. Dust clinging to EVA suits was transported into the Lunar Module. During the return trip to Earth, when micro gravity was reestablished, the dust became airborne and floated through the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust and it irritated their eyes. Some mechanical systems aboard the spacecraft were damaged due to dust contamination. Study results obtained by Robotic Martian missions indicate that Martian surface soil is oxidative and reactive. Exposures to the reactive Martian dust will pose an even greater concern to the crew health and the integrity of the mechanical systems. As NASA embarks on planetary surface missions to support its Exploration Vision, the effects of these extraterrestrial dusts must be well understood and systems must be designed to operate reliably and protect the crew in the dusty environments of the Moon and Mars. The AIM Dust Assessment Team was tasked to identify systems that will be affected by the respective dust, how they will be affected, associated risks of dust exposure, requirements that will need to be developed, identified knowledge gaps, and recommended scientific measurements to obtain information needed to develop requirements, and design and manufacture the surface systems that will support crew habitation in the lunar and Martian outposts.

  2. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  3. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Hines, D J; Schmitt, L I; Hines, R M; Moss, S J; Haydon, P G

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a debilitating condition with a lifetime risk of ten percent. Most treatments take several weeks to achieve clinical efficacy, limiting the ability to bring instant relief needed in psychiatric emergencies. One intervention that rapidly alleviates depressive symptoms is sleep deprivation; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation, raising the possibility that glial signaling mediates antidepressive-like actions of sleep deprivation. Here, we found that astrocytic signaling to adenosine (A1) receptors was required for the robust reduction of depressive-like behaviors following 12 hours of sleep deprivation. As sleep deprivation activates synaptic A1 receptors, we mimicked the effect of sleep deprivation on depression phenotypes by administration of the A1 agonist CCPA. These results provide the first mechanistic insight into how sleep deprivation impacts mood, and provide a novel pathway for rapid antidepressant development by modulation of glial signaling in the brain. PMID:23321809

  4. Modeling Requirements for Simulating the Effects of Extreme Acts of Terrorism: A White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.; Hiebert-Dodd, K.; Marozas, D.; Paananen, O.; Pryor, R.J.; Reinert, R.K.

    1998-10-01

    This white paper presents the initial requirements for developing a new computer model for simulating the effects of extreme acts of terrorism in the United States. General characteristics of the model are proposed and the level of effort to prepare a complete written description of the model, prior to coding, is detailed. The model would simulate the decision processes and interactions of complex U. S. systems engaged in responding to and recovering from four types of terrorist incidents. The incident scenarios span the space of extreme acts of terrorism that have the potential to affect not only the impacted area, but also the entire nation. The model would be useful to decision-makers in assessing and analyzing the vulnerability of the nation's complex infrastructures, in prioritizing resources to reduce risk, and in planning strategies for immediate response and for subsequent recovery from terrorist incidents.

  5. Lowering social security's duration-of-marriage requirement: distributional effects for future female retirees.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Whitman, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A number of alternatives to Social Security's auxiliary benefit system have been proposed in the context of changes in American family and work patterns. This article focuses on one modification therein-lowering the 10-year duration-of-marriage requirement for divorced spouses. Using a powerful microsimulation model (MINT), we examine the distributional effects of extending spouse and survivor benefit eligibility to 5- and 7-year marriages ending in divorce among female retirees in 2030, a population largely comprised of baby boomers. Results show that the options would increase benefits for a small share of female retirees, around 2 to 4%, and would not affect the vast majority of low-income divorced older women. However, of those affected, the options would substantially increase benefits and lower incidence of poverty and near poor. Low-income divorced retirees with marriages between 5 and 9 years in length and a deceased former spouse face the greatest potential gains.

  6. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hines, D J; Schmitt, L I; Hines, R M; Moss, S J; Haydon, P G

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a debilitating condition with a lifetime risk of ten percent. Most treatments take several weeks to achieve clinical efficacy, limiting the ability to bring instant relief needed in psychiatric emergencies. One intervention that rapidly alleviates depressive symptoms is sleep deprivation; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation, raising the possibility that glial signaling mediates antidepressive-like actions of sleep deprivation. Here, we found that astrocytic signaling to adenosine (A1) receptors was required for the robust reduction of depressive-like behaviors following 12 hours of sleep deprivation. As sleep deprivation activates synaptic A1 receptors, we mimicked the effect of sleep deprivation on depression phenotypes by administration of the A1 agonist CCPA. These results provide the first mechanistic insight into how sleep deprivation impacts mood, and provide a novel pathway for rapid antidepressant development by modulation of glial signaling in the brain. PMID:23321809

  7. Effect of Blade Cutout on Power Required by Helicopters Operating at High Tip-Speed Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessow, Alfred; Gustafson, F. B.

    1960-01-01

    A numerical study was made of the effects of blade cutout on the power required by a sample helicopter rotor traveling at tip-speed ratios of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5. The amount of cutout varied from 0 to 0.5 of the rotor radius and the calculations were carried out for a thrust coefficient-solidity ratio of 0.04. In these calculations the blade within the cutout radius was assumed to have zero chord. The effect of such cutout on profile-drag power ranged from almost no effect at a tip-speed ratio of 0.3 to as much as a 60 percent reduction at a tip-speed ratio of 0.5. Optimum cutout was about 0.3 of the rotor radius. Part of the large power reduction at a tip-speed ratio of 0.5 resulted from a reduction in tip-region stall, brought about by cutout. For tip-speed ratios greater than 0.3, cutout also effected a significant increase in the ability of the rotor to overcome helicopter parasite drag. It is thus seen that the adverse trends (at high tip-speed ratios) indicated by the uniform-chord theoretical charts are caused in large measure by the center portion of the rotor. The extent to which a modified-design rotor can actually be made more efficient at high speeds than a uniform-chord rotor will depend in practice on the degree of success in minimizing the blade plan form near the center and on special modifications in center-section profiles. A few suggestions and estimates in regard to such modifications are included herein.

  8. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements

    PubMed Central

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet VDZ; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs. PMID:27382281

  9. Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R.; Mavrogordato, M. N.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Solan, M.

    2014-09-01

    The importance of individual species in mediating ecosystem process and functioning is generally accepted, but categorical descriptors that summarize species-specific contributions to ecosystems tend to reference a limited number of biological traits and underestimate the importance of how organisms interact with their environment. Here, we show how three functionally contrasting sediment-dwelling marine invertebrates affect fluid and particle transport - important processes in mediating nutrient cycling - and use high-resolution reconstructions of burrow geometry to determine the extent and nature of biogenic modification. We find that individual functional effect descriptors fall short of being able to adequately characterize how species mediate the stocks and flows of important ecosystem properties and that, in contrary to common practice and understanding, they are not substitutable with one another because they emphasize different aspects of species activity and behavior. When information derived from these metrics is combined with knowledge of how species behave and modify their environment, however, detailed mechanistic information emerges that increases the likelihood that a species functional standing will be appropriately summarized. Our study provides evidence that more comprehensive functional effect descriptors are required if they are to be of value to those tasked with projecting how altered biodiversity will influence future ecosystems.

  10. Essential Structural Requirements and Additive Effects for Flavonoids to Scavenge Methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xi; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sedighi, Rashin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Sang, Shengmin

    2014-04-01

    Reactive dicarbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal (MGO), are considered as the major precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are believed to be one of the physiological causes of diabetes and its complications. Scavenging of reactive dicarbonyl species using naturally occurring flavonoids has been proposed as an effective way to prevent diabetic complications. To elucidate the structural requirements of flavonoids in scavenging MGO, seven flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, epicatechin, genistein, daidzein, apigenin, and phloretin) and five sub-components of the flavonoids (gallic acid, phloroglucinol, pyrogallol, pyrocatechol, and resorcinol) were examined in this study. Our results showed the following: (1) 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) has higher MGO scavenging activity than 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene and 1,2- and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene, and substitution at position 5 of pyrogallol diminished the scavenging activity, indicating that position 5 is the active site of pyrogallol; (2) the A ring is the active site of flavonoids in contributing the MGO-trapping efficacy, and the hydroxyl group at C-5 on the A ring enhances the trapping efficacy; (3) the double bond between C-2 and C-3 on the C ring could facilitate the trapping efficacy; and (4) the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring does not significantly influence the trapping efficacy. In addition, we found there is an additive effect in MGO trapping by two common flavonoids, quercetin and phloretin, indicating that flavonoid-enriched foods and beverages hold great promise to prevent the development of diabetic complications.

  11. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in C57BL/6J Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using inbred C57BL/6J mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as responses (i.e., all responses above the measurement threshold). Different, higher force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of all…

  12. 30 CFR 250.180 - What am I required to do to keep my lease term in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expires at the end of its primary term unless you are conducting operations on your lease (see 30 CFR part... CONTINENTAL SHELF General Primary Lease Requirements, Lease Term Extensions, and Lease Cancellations § 250.180 What am I required to do to keep my lease term in effect? (a) If your lease is in its primary term:...

  13. 30 CFR 250.180 - What am I required to do to keep my lease term in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary term unless you are conducting operations on your lease (see 30 CFR part 556). For purposes of... Primary Lease Requirements, Lease Term Extensions, and Lease Cancellations § 250.180 What am I required to do to keep my lease term in effect? (a) If your lease is in its primary term: (1) You must submit...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  18. Studies on nutrient requirements and cost-effective supplements for ethanol production by recombinant E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    This article describes a systematic study of the nutritional requirements of a patented recombinant ethanologenic Escherichia coli (11303:pLOI297) and provides cost-effective formulations that are compatible with the production of fuel ethanol in fermentations of lignocellulosic prehydrolysate characterized by high xylose conversion efficiency. A complex and nutrient-rich laboratory medium, Luria broth (LB), provided the benchmark with respect to fermentation performance standard. Xylose fermentation performance was assessed in terms of the target values for operational process parameters established by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-final ethanol concentration (25 g/L), xylose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency (90%), and volumetric productivity (0.52 g/L{center_dot}h). Biomass prehydrolysates that are rich in xylose also contain acetic acid, and in anticipation of a need to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the fermentors were operated with a pH control set-point of 7.0 Growth and fermentation in the minimal defined salts (DS) medium was only about 15% compared to the reference medium. Amendment of the minimal medium containing 6 wt% xylose with both vitamins and amino acids resulted in improved growth, but the volume productivity was still only about 54% of that with LB. Formulations directed at cost reduction through the use of less expensive commercial complex nutritional supplements were within 90% of the NREL process target with respect to yield and provided a productivity at about 80% of the LB medium, but were not economical. Corn steep liquor (CSL) at about 7-8 g/L was shown to be a complete source of nutritional requirements and supported a fermentation performance approaching that of LB. At a cost of CSL of $50/t (dry wt), the economic impact of using this amount CSL as the sole nutritional supplement in a cellulosic ethanol plant was estimated to be about 4 cents/gal of ethanol. 45 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Effects of Unemployment Insurance Work-Search Requirements: The Maryland Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepinger, Daniel H.; Johnson, Terry R.; Joesch, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of changes in Maryland's unemployment insurance (UI) program found that duration and amount of UI receipt were reduced by requiring additional employer contacts or a job-search workshop; these requirements did not affect employment and earnings. However, eliminating employer contact requirements increased UI receipt and subsequent…

  20. Determination of energy and protein requirement for maintenance and growth and evaluation for the effects of gender upon nutrient requirement in Dorper × Hu Crossbred Lambs.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hai Tao; Zhang, Hao; You, Ji Hao; Wang, Feng

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine energy and protein requirement of Dorper × Hu crossbred lambs and further to evaluate the effect of gender upon nutrient requirement parameters. Forty-two female lambs (18.60 ± 1.57 kg) and 42 male lambs (18.30 ± 1.28 kg) were used. In comparative slaughter trial, 30 of animals from each gender group were randomly selected and assigned to ad libitum (AL), low restriction (LR) and high restriction (HR) group, and then were slaughtered when lambs under AL treatment reached target BW of 20, 28, and 35 kg, to determine body energy and nitrogen retained. In digestibility trial, remaining 12 female (18.01 ± 1.66 kg) and 12 male lambs (18.43 ± 1.17 kg) were randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm; 400.61 ± 20.31 vs. 427.24 ± 18.70 kJ kg(-1) of shrunk BW(0.75); SBW(0.75)), partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k m; 0.64 ± 0.02 vs. 0.65 ± 0.03), partial efficiency of ME utilization for growth (k g ; 0.42 ± 0.03 vs. 0.44 ± 0.02), and net protein (NP) requirement for maintenance (NPm; 1.83 ± 0.17 vs. 1.99 ± 0.28 g kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) did not differ (P > 0.05) due to gender; although not statistically different, the mean value of Net energy (NE) requirement for maintenance (NEm) for male lambs (260.62 ± 13.21 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) were 5 % greater than that (274.16 ± 11.99 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) of female lambs. Additionally, rams have greater amounts of NP requirement for growth (NPg, 15.94 to 44.32 g d(-1)) than those of ewes (13.07 to 32.95 g d(-1)) at the similar condition of BW and ADG. In conclusion, we suggested that our results of energy and protein requirement for growth ranged between the NRC

  1. Effect of Spermidine Analogues on Cell Growth of Escherichia coli Polyamine Requiring Mutant MA261

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Taketo; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Terui, Yusuke; Takao, Koichi; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of spermidine analogues [norspermidine (NSPD, 33), spermidine (SPD, 34), homospermidine (HSPD, 44) and aminopropylcadaverine (APCAD, 35)] on cell growth were studied using Escherichia coli polyamine-requiring mutant MA261. Cell growth was compared at 32°C, 37°C, and 42°C. All four analogues were taken up mainly by the PotABCD spermidine-preferential uptake system. The degree of stimulation of cell growth at 32°C and 37°C was NSPD ≥ SPD ≥ HSPD > APCAD, and SPD ≥ HSPD ≥ NSPD > APCAD, respectively. However, at 42°C, it was HSPD » SPD > NSPD > APCAD. One reason for this is HSPD was taken up effectively compared with other triamines. In addition, since natural polyamines (triamines and teteraamines) interact mainly with RNA, and the structure of RNA is more flexible at higher temperatures, HSPD probably stabilized RNA more tightly at 42°C. We have thus far found that 20 kinds of protein syntheses are stimulated by polyamines at the translational level. Among them, synthesis of OppA, RpoE and StpA was more strongly stimulated by HSPD at 42°C than at 37°C. Stabilization of the initiation region of oppA and rpoE mRNA was tighter by HSPD at 42°C than 37°C determined by circular dichroism (CD). The degree of polyamine stimulation of OppA, RpoE and StpA synthesis by NSPD, SPD and APCAD was smaller than that by HSPD at 42°C. Thus, the degree of stimulation of cell growth by spermidine analogues at the different temperatures is dependent on the stimulation of protein synthesis by some components of the polyamine modulon. PMID:27434546

  2. Pharmaceutical strategic purchasing requirements in Iran: Price interventions and the related effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Peivand; Dinarvand, Rasoul; SamadBeik, Mahnaz; Pourmohammadi, Kimia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pharmaceutical access for the poor is an essential factor in developing countries that can be improved through strategic purchasing. This study was conducted to identify the elements affecting price in order to enable insurance organizations to put strategic purchasing into practice. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted through content analysis with an inductive approach applying a five-stage framework analysis (familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, mapping, and interpretation). Data analysis was started right after transcribing each interview applying ATLAS.ti. Data were saturated after 32 semi-structured interviews by experts. These key informants were selected purposefully and through snowball sampling. Findings: Findings showed that there are four main themes as Pharmaceutical Strategic Purchasing Requirements in Iran as follows essential and structural factors, international factors, economical factors, and legal factors. Moreover, totally 14 related sub-themes were extracted in this area as the main effective variables. Conclusion: It seems that paying adequate attention to the four present themes and 14 sub-themes affecting price can enable health system policy-makers of developing countries like Iran to make the best decisions through strategic purchasing of drugs by the main insurers in order to improve access and health in the country. PMID:26985434

  3. Durations required to distinguish noise and tone: Effects of noise bandwidth and frequency.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Armin; Moore, Brian C J; Edler, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Perceptual audio coders exploit the masking properties of the human auditory system to reduce the bit rate in audio recording and transmission systems; it is intended that the quantization noise is just masked by the audio signal. The effectiveness of the audio signal as a masker depends on whether it is tone-like or noise-like. The determination of this, both physically and perceptually, depends on the duration of the stimuli. To gather information that might improve the efficiency of perceptual coders, the duration required to distinguish between a narrowband noise and a tone was measured as a function of center frequency and noise bandwidth. In experiment 1, duration thresholds were measured for isolated noise and tone bursts. In experiment 2, duration thresholds were measured for tone and noise segments embedded within longer tone pulses. In both experiments, center frequencies were 345, 754, 1456, and 2658 Hz and bandwidths were 0.25, 0.5, and 1 times the equivalent rectangular bandwidth of the auditory filter at each center frequency. The duration thresholds decreased with increasing bandwidth and with increasing center frequency up to 1456 Hz. It is argued that the duration thresholds depended mainly on the detection of amplitude fluctuations in the noise bursts. PMID:27250144

  4. [Effect of climate change on rice irrigation water requirement in Songnen Plain, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-gang; Wang, Xiao-li; Xiao, Ye; Yang, Fei; Wang, Chen-xi

    2015-01-01

    Based on meteorological data from China national weather stations and climate scenario grid data through regional climate model provided by National Climate Center, rice water requirement was calculated by using McCloud model and Penman-Monteith model combined with crop coefficient approach. Then the rice irrigation water requirement was estimated by water balance model, and the changes of rice water requirement were analyzed. The results indicated that either in historical period or in climate scenario, rice irrigation water requirement contour lines during the whole growth period and Lmid period decreased along southwest to northeast, and the same irrigation water requirement contour line moved north with decade alternation. Rice irrigation water requirement during the whole growth period increased fluctuantly with decade alternation at 44.2 mm . 10 a-1 in historical period and 19.9 mm . 10 a-1 in climate scenario. The increase in rice irrigation water requirement during the Lmid period with decade alternation was significant in historical period, but not significant in climate scenario. Contribution rate of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement would be fluctuantly increased with decade alternation in climate scenario. Compared with 1970s, contribution rates of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement were 23.6% in 2000s and 34.4% in 2040s, which increased 14.8 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2000s and would increase 21.2 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2040s.

  5. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  6. 29 CFR 2.35 - Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment...; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of Labor Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.35 Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

  7. 29 CFR 2.35 - Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment...; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of Labor Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.35 Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

  8. 29 CFR 2.35 - Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment...; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of Labor Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.35 Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

  9. 19 CFR 200.735-123 - Effect of employees' and special Government employees' statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of employees' and special Government... Employment and Financial Interests § 200.735-123 Effect of employees' and special Government employees... statements required of employees and special Government employees are in addition to, and not in...

  10. 19 CFR 200.735-123 - Effect of employees' and special Government employees' statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of employees' and special Government... Employment and Financial Interests § 200.735-123 Effect of employees' and special Government employees... statements required of employees and special Government employees are in addition to, and not in...

  11. Retention of Flying Skills and Refresher Training Requirements: Effects of Nonflying and Proficiency Flying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert H.

    A questionnaire survey was conducted of Army aviators who had experienced extended periods of nonflying or of flying only the minimum number of hours required by Army regulations to maintain proficiency, in order to determine the loss of flying ability experienced and the refresher training required for combat readiness. Analysis of the data…

  12. Effects of Pre-Trial Response Requirements on Self-Control Choices by Rats and Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined whether the size of a pre-trial ratio requirement would affect choices in a self-control situation. In different conditions, either 1 response or 40 responses were required before each trial. In the first half of each experiment, an adjusting-ratio schedule was used, in which subjects could…

  13. Global warming mitigation by sulphur loading in the atmosphere: Required emissions and possible side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Chernokulsky, A. V.; Karpenko, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    An approach to mitigate the global warming via sulphur loading in the stratosphere (geoengineering) is studied employing a large ensemble of numerical experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS (IAP RAS CM). The model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenical greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860-2100 with an additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere in the 21st century. Different ensemble members were constructed by varying emission intensity, residence time, optical properites, and horizontal distributions of stratospheric sulphates. In addition, starting and ending years of applied emissions are varied between different ensemble members. Given global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, at the global basis, the most efficient latitudinal distribution of geoengineering aerosols is that peaked between 50∘N and 70∘N. Uniform latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates is slightly less efficient. Sulphur emissions in the stratosphere required to stop the global temperature at the level corresponding to the mean value for 2000-2010 amount 5 - 10 TgS/yr in year 2050 and > 10 TgS/yr in year 2100. This is not a small part of the current emissions of tropospheric sulphates. Moreover, even if the global warming is stopped, temperature changes in different regions still occur with a magnitude up to 1 K. Their horizontal pattern depends on implied latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates. If the geoengineering emissions are stopped, their climatic effect is removed within a few decades. In this period, surface air temperture may change with a rate of several Kelvins per decade. The results obtained with the IAP RAS CM are further interpreted by making use of an energy-balance climate model. As a whole, the results obtained with this simpler model support conclusions made on the basis of the IAP RAS CM simulations.

  14. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose- and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected control mosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.-Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase.

  15. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  16. 40 CFR 158.240 - Experimental use permit data requirements for ecological effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Experimental Use Permits § 158.240... an experimental use permit. No data for nontarget plant protection must be submitted to support...

  17. Resolving the controversy of the proportion validity effect: Volitional attention is not required, but may have an effect.

    PubMed

    Lanthier, Sophie N; Wu, David W-L; Chapman, Craig S; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Response time (RT) is facilitated when a target appears at a cued (valid) location versus an uncued (invalid) location. Interestingly, this valid-versus-invalid RT difference increases as the percentage of valid trials increases. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for this proportion valid cueing effect (PVE). The PVE is thought to reflect changes in voluntary attentional allocation, with greater attention being committed endogenously to the cued location as the percentage of valid trials increases. However, recent research has suggested that the PVE may reflect a form of implicit learning between the cue and the target location that is developed outside of awareness, and that this determines how attention is allocated. This lack of convergence may be due to methodological differences in how voluntary processing has been inferred. To test this issue, we generated a method that would allow the measurement of different degrees of volitional attention. In addition, we manipulated whether participants were instructed to attend to the cue-target relationship and determined whether this explicit engagement of attention influenced the PVE. We found that for both peripheral and central cues, volitional control is not required for a PVE; however, volitional control can modulate a PVE that is produced by central cues. Thus, a PVE is not a reliable indicator of volitional control, but its sensitivity to volitional control varies across cues. The present data shed light on the mechanism subserving the PVE and lend support to the theory that different cues engage, to some degree, qualitatively different forms of visuospatial attention.

  18. Effects of Force Requirements on Pinch Force Production in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aisha; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of fine motor control have focused on the ability of participants to match their grip force production to a visually provided template. We investigated differences exhibited in pinch force control during variable force production templates, including sine-, sawtooth-, and square-wave templates. Our results indicate that increased force requirements are associated with increased error rates and a noisier frequency spectrum, consistent with previous studies. Our results also indicate that visual feedback, in the form of template shape, directly affect pinch force production features and motor unit firing patterns, despite the use of consistent baseline force requirements, amplitude changes, and visual signal frequency. This suggests that CNS modulation of motor unit responses can be triggered by basic changes in visual feedback unrelated to force requirements. The potential implications of error compensation based on this study due to aging are also discussed.

  19. High density bit transition requirements versus the effects on BCH error correcting code. [bit synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.; Schoggen, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The design to achieve the required bit transition density for the Space Shuttle high rate multiplexes (HRM) data stream of the Space Laboratory Vehicle is reviewed. It contained a recommended circuit approach, specified the pseudo random (PN) sequence to be used and detailed the properties of the sequence. Calculations showing the probability of failing to meet the required transition density were included. A computer simulation of the data stream and PN cover sequence was provided. All worst case situations were simulated and the bit transition density exceeded that required. The Preliminary Design Review and the critical Design Review are documented. The Cover Sequence Generator (CSG) Encoder/Decoder design was constructed and demonstrated. The demonstrations were successful. All HRM and HRDM units incorporate the CSG encoder or CSG decoder as appropriate.

  20. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  1. 21 CFR 884.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section 515 of the act FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such... regulation classifying the device unless the manufacturer has an approval under section 515 of the act... of the act consists of FDA's issuance of an order approving an application for premarket...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... approving a PMA or declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  3. 21 CFR 886.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... approving a PMA or declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... approving a PMA or declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  5. 21 CFR 870.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section 515(b) of the act... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  6. 21 CFR 882.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section 515(b) of the act... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... approving a PMA or declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  8. 21 CFR 880.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section 515 of the act FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such... regulation classifying the device unless the manufacturer has an approval under section 515 of the act... of the act consists of FDA's issuance of an order approving an application for premarket...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... approving a PMA or declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  10. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section 515(b) of the act... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  11. 21 CFR 886.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as... approving a PMA or declaring completed a PDP for the device. If FDA promulgates a regulation under section... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation...

  12. The Effects of Finite Sampling Corrections on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies (NVS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    States participating in the National Assessment of Educational Progress State Assessment program (state NAEP) are required to sample at least 2,500 students from at least 100 schools per subject assessed. In this ideal situation, 25 students are assessed for a subject in each school selected for that subject. Two problems have arisen: some states…

  13. 76 FR 48058 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... required to be filed. The House Report on the 1976 amendments states that: `` he thirty month grace period... classification of this device along with information submitted in response to the 515(i) order (74 FR 16214... proposed and final rules and notices published in the Federal Register on these dates: (45 FR 7907 at...

  14. 77 FR 37573 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for an Implantable Pacemaker Pulse Generator

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... subject to the requirements of premarket approval. In the Federal Register of May 6, 1994 (59 FR 23731... premarket approval. ] In the Federal Register of July 27, 2011 (76 FR 44872) (the July 27, 2011, proposed... submitted in response to the 515(i) Order, (April 9, 2009 (74 FR 16214)), and any additional...

  15. Effect of commercial and military performance requirements for transport category aircraft on space shuttle booster design and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bithell, R. A.; Pence, W. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of two sets of performance requirements, commercial and military, on the design and operation of the space shuttle booster is evaluated. Critical thrust levels are established according to both sets of operating rules for the takeoff, cruise, and go-around flight modes, and the effect on engine requirements determined. Both flyback and ferry operations are considered. The impact of landing rules on potential shuttle flyback and ferry bases is evaluated. Factors affecting reserves are discussed, including winds, temperature, and nonstandard flight operations. Finally, a recommended set of operating rules is proposed for both flyback and ferry operations that allows adequate performance capability and safety margins without compromising design requirements for either flight phase.

  16. The Effect of Required Cooperative Education (Co-Op) on the Pursuit of an Undergraduate Engineering Degree for Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Vickie L.

    2009-01-01

    Female enrollment in engineering has been historically low. Researchers claim chilly classroom environments and societal expectations of gender and work as reasons why so few women pursue engineering. This qualitative study explores the effects of required cooperative education on a female student's choice of and persistence in an undergraduate…

  17. Adequacy of Material Resources Required for Effective Implementation of Upper Basic Education Business Studies Curriculum in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, B. E.; Okorie, Ogbonnaya

    2015-01-01

    This work is a descriptive survey of the adequacy of the material resources required for effective implementation of upper basic education business studies curriculum in Ebonyi State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The entire population of two hundred and forty-one (241) business studies teachers were used for the…

  18. Why Pigeons Say What They Do: Reinforcer Magnitude and Response Requirement Effects on Say Responding in Say-Do Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of reinforcer magnitude and response requirement on pigeons' say choices in an experimental homologue of human say-do correspondence were assessed in two experiments. The procedure was similar to a conditional discrimination procedure except the pigeons chose both a sample stimulus (the say component) and a comparison stimulus that…

  19. Effective date of requirement for premarket approval for automated external defibrillator systems. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing a final order to require the filing of premarket approval applications (PMA) for automated external defibrillator (AED) systems, which consist of an AED and those AED accessories necessary for the AED to detect and interpret an electrocardiogram and deliver an electrical shock (e.g., pad electrodes, batteries, adapters, and hardware keys for pediatric use). PMID:25730922

  20. Effects of various radiation source characteristics on shielding requirements at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.W.; Miller, D.D.; Hill, R.R.

    1992-02-01

    This radiation shielding study provides dose rate information that can be used to estimate required shielding thicknesses for different repository configurations, including various hot cells and vaults in the waste-handling building, the boreholes in the underground emplacement area, and the transfer casks. The study determines gamma and neutron source strengths for various waste types and source geometries representative of conditions at the repository and determines dose rates as a function of shielding thickness for selected materials.

  1. Assessment of Antishivering Medication Requirements During Therapeutic Normothermia: Effect of Cooling Methods.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Andrew; McDaniel, Cara; Szarlej, Dorota; Rincon, Fred

    2016-08-01

    Shivering during targeted temperature management (TTM) should be minimized because it can cause cerebral and metabolic stress. It has been proposed that surface cooling (SC) may result in more shivering than endovascular cooling (EC) methods. The purpose of this study was to compare antishivering medication requirements and degree of shivering in these groups during TTM to Normothermia (NT). This was a retrospective single-center cohort study of patients treated with protocolized TTM through SC and EC methods to achieve NT (37.0-37.5°C). The number of interventions and daily dose of antishivering medications, per institutional protocol, were compared between the two groups. The intensity of shivering was assessed with the Bedside Shivering Assessment Scale. Patients in the EC group (n = 23) had more antishivering interventions per patient day than those in the SC group (n = 43) (3.28 vs. 2.67, p = 0.002). Acetaminophen (81% vs. 59%, p < 0.001), buspirone (75% vs. 53%, p < 0.001), and magnesium infusions (52% vs. 36%, p = 0.012) were used on more patient days in the EC group. Patients treated with SC required more patient days of propofol (35% vs. 19%, p = 0.006) and higher average dexmedetomidine dosing per patient-day (0.70 vs. 0.56 μg/[kg·h], p = 0.03). Dosing of other medications was similar. There were no observed differences in degree or intensity of shivering. In our cohort, patients in EC group required more antishivering interventions, but less sedation, during TTM than patients in SC group. Optimizing nonsedating medications, such as acetaminophen, buspirone, and magnesium infusions, may decrease the requirement for sedatives to control shivering in both SC and EC. PMID:26990844

  2. Effects of Cocaine on Performance under Fixed-Interval Schedules with a Small Tandem Ratio Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2004-01-01

    Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however,…

  3. 24 CFR 3288.215 - Effect on other manufactured home program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on other manufactured home... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM State Dispute Resolution Programs in Non-HUD Administered States § 3288.215 Effect on other manufactured...

  4. 24 CFR 3288.215 - Effect on other manufactured home program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect on other manufactured home... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM State Dispute Resolution Programs in Non-HUD Administered States § 3288.215 Effect on other manufactured...

  5. Melatonin antiproliferative effects require active mitochondrial function in embryonal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Rute; Magalhães-Novais, Silvia; Mesquita, Katia A.; Baldeiras, Ines; Sousa, Isabel S.; Tavares, Ludgero C.; Barbosa, Ines A.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Although melatonin oncostatic and cytotoxic effects have been described in different types of cancer cells, the specific mechanisms leading to its antitumoral effects and their metabolic context specificity are still not completely understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of melatonin in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells (CSCs) and in their differentiated counterparts, cultured in either high glucose medium or in a galactose (glucose-free) medium which leads to glycolytic suppression and increased mitochondrial metabolism. We found that highly glycolytic P19 CSCs were less susceptible to melatonin antitumoral effects while cell populations relying on oxidative metabolism for ATP production were more affected. The observed antiproliferative action of melatonin was associated with an arrest at S-phase, decreased oxygen consumption, down-regulation of BCL-2 expression and an increase in oxidative stress culminating with caspase-3-independent cell death. Interestingly, the combined treatment of melatonin and dichloroacetate had a synergistic effect in cells grown in the galactose medium and resulted in an inhibitory effect in the highly resistant P19 CSCs. Melatonin appears to exert its antiproliferative activity in P19 carcinoma cells through a mitochondrially-mediated action which in turn allows the amplification of the effects of dichloroacetate, even in cells with a more glycolytic phenotype. PMID:26025920

  6. Effective reinforcement learning following cerebellar damage requires a balance between exploration and motor noise.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Amanda S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Bastian, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement and error-based processes are essential for motor learning, with the cerebellum thought to be required only for the error-based mechanism. Here we examined learning and retention of a reaching skill under both processes. Control subjects learned similarly from reinforcement and error-based feedback, but showed much better retention under reinforcement. To apply reinforcement to cerebellar patients, we developed a closed-loop reinforcement schedule in which task difficulty was controlled based on recent performance. This schedule produced substantial learning in cerebellar patients and controls. Cerebellar patients varied in their learning under reinforcement but fully retained what was learned. In contrast, they showed complete lack of retention in error-based learning. We developed a mechanistic model of the reinforcement task and found that learning depended on a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. While the cerebellar and control groups had similar exploration variability, the patients had greater motor noise and hence learned less. Our results suggest that cerebellar damage indirectly impairs reinforcement learning by increasing motor noise, but does not interfere with the reinforcement mechanism itself. Therefore, reinforcement can be used to learn and retain novel skills, but optimal reinforcement learning requires a balance between exploration variability and motor noise.

  7. Performance under dichoptic versus binocular viewing conditions - Effects of attention and task requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Gopher, Daniel; Rubin, Yifat; Raij, David

    1993-01-01

    Three experiments investigated subjects' ability to allocate attention and cope with task requirements under dichoptic versus binocular viewing conditions. Experiments 1 and 2 employed a target detection task in compound and noncompound stimuli, and Experiment 3 employed a relative-proximity judgment task. The tasks were performed in a focused attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimulus presented to one eye or field (under dichoptic and binocular viewing conditions, respectively) while ignoring the stimulus presented to the other eye or field, and in a divided attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimuli presented to both eyes or fields. Subjects' performance was affected by the interaction of attention conditions with task requirements, but it was generally the same under dichoptic and binocular viewing conditions. The more dependent the task was on finer discrimination, the more performance was impaired by divided attention. These results suggest that at least with discrete tasks and relatively short exposure durations, performance when each eye is presented with a separate stimulus is the same as when the entire field of stimulation is viewed by both eyes.

  8. New techniques required to understand the by-stander effect in situ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britten, Richard

    2008-03-01

    The by-stander effect has been known for nearly a century under various names, of which the abscopal effect is probably the most well known. More recently the by-stander effect has received a lot of attention, and various models have been developed to assess the relative importance of the bystander effect in radiation treatment. It is clear that irradiated cells release factors that lead to alterations in the physiology of adjacent irradiated cells, both via inter-cellular junctions and through systemic factors. Most studies that have sought to identify the systemic factors and the cellular mechanisms that are responsible for the bystander effect have by necessity used in vitro systems. The purpose of this presentation is to alert the audience to the various techniques that are available to study the proteomic changes related to the bystander effect in situ. We shall pay attention to the use of MALDI-imaging to track spatial proteomic changes in tissue that have been exposed to microbeams.

  9. The effect of estrogen on bone requires ERα in nonhematopoietic cells but is enhanced by ERα in hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Petra; Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Farman, Helen; Windahl, Sara H.; Carlsten, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The effects of estrogen on bone are mediated mainly via estrogen receptor (ER)α. ERα in osteoclasts (hematopoietic origin) is involved in the trabecular bone-sparing effects of estrogen, but conflicting data are reported on the role of ERα in osteoblast lineage cells (nonhematopoietic origin) for bone metabolism. Because Cre-mediated cell-specific gene inactivation used in previous studies might be confounded by nonspecific and/or incomplete cell-specific ERα deletion, we herein used an alternative approach to determine the relative importance of ERα in hematopoietic (HC) and nonhematopoietic cells (NHC) for bone mass. Chimeric mice with selective inactivation of ERα in HC or NHC were created by bone marrow transplantations of wild-type (WT) and ERα-knockout (ERα−/−) mice. Estradiol treatment increased both trabecular and cortical bone mass in ovariectomized WT/WT (defined as recipient/donor) and WT/ERα−/− mice but not in ERα−/−/WT or ERα−/−/ERα−/− mice. However, estradiol effects on both bone compartments were reduced (∼50%) in WT/ERα−/− mice compared with WT/WT mice. The effects of estradiol on fat mass and B lymphopoiesis required ERα specifically in NHC and HC, respectively. In conclusion, ERα in NHC is required for the effects of estrogen on both trabecular and cortical bone, but these effects are enhanced by ERα in HC. PMID:25117411

  10. Glibenclamide dose response in patients with septic shock: effects on norepinephrine requirements, cardiopulmonary performance, and global oxygen transport.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Andrea; Lange, Matthias; Ertmer, Christian; Broeking, Katrin; Van Aken, Hugo; Orecchioni, Alessandra; Rocco, Monica; Bachetoni, Alessandra; Traber, Daniel L; Landoni, Giovanni; Pietropaoli, Paolo; Westphal, Martin

    2007-11-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels are important regulators of arterial vascular smooth muscle tone and are implicated in the pathophysiology of catecholamine tachyphylaxis in septic shock. The present study was designed as a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, clinical pilot study to determine whether different doses of glibenclamide have any effects on norepinephrine requirements, cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, and global oxygen transport in patients with septic shock. We enrolled 30 patients with septic shock requiring invasive hemodynamic monitoring and norepinephrine infusion of 0.5 microg.kg-1.min-1 or greater to maintain MAP between 65 and 75 mmHg. In addition to standard therapy, patients were randomized to receive either 10, 20, or 30 mg of enteral glibenclamide. Systemic hemodynamics, global oxygen transport including arterial lactate concentrations, gas exchange, plasma glucose concentrations, and electrolytes were determined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 h after administration of the study drug. Glibenclamide decreased plasma glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner but failed to reduce norepinephrine requirements. None of the doses had any effects on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, global oxygen transport, gas exchange, or electrolytes. These data suggest that oral glibenclamide in doses from 10 to 30 mg fails to counteract arterial hypotension and thus to reduce norepinephrine requirements in catecholamine-dependent human septic shock.

  11. Studies on Kochiae Fructus. V. Antipruritic effects of oleanolic acid glycosides and the structure-requirement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Dai, Y; Ido, Y; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kubo, M

    1998-11-01

    We examined the antipruritic effects of various oleanolic acid glycosides from natural medicines such as Kochiae Fructus (the fruit of Kochia scoparia SCHRAD.) and Momordicae Radix (the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG.) using a compound 48/80-induced pruritic model in mice. Oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides showed an antipruritic effect, while oleanolic acid 3,28-O-bisdesmosides and their common sapogenol oleanolic acid lacked the activity. This evidence indicated that the 3-O-glycoside moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were essential for exhibiting the antipruritic effect. Furthermore, it was found that the 3-O-glucuronides showed more potent activity than the corresponding 3-O-glucosides. PMID:9853421

  12. Studies on Kochiae Fructus. V. Antipruritic effects of oleanolic acid glycosides and the structure-requirement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Dai, Y; Ido, Y; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kubo, M

    1998-11-01

    We examined the antipruritic effects of various oleanolic acid glycosides from natural medicines such as Kochiae Fructus (the fruit of Kochia scoparia SCHRAD.) and Momordicae Radix (the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG.) using a compound 48/80-induced pruritic model in mice. Oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides showed an antipruritic effect, while oleanolic acid 3,28-O-bisdesmosides and their common sapogenol oleanolic acid lacked the activity. This evidence indicated that the 3-O-glycoside moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were essential for exhibiting the antipruritic effect. Furthermore, it was found that the 3-O-glucuronides showed more potent activity than the corresponding 3-O-glucosides.

  13. 22 CFR 142.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of State or local law or other... STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.10 Effect of State or local law or...

  14. Understanding Teacher Effectiveness: Significant State Data Capacity Is Required to Measure and Improve Teacher Effectiveness. Data for Action 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    States are increasingly focused on understanding and improving teacher effectiveness. There are several funding opportunities that incentivize states to use data to inform measurements of teacher effectiveness. Local, state, and federal efforts support using data to improve teacher preparation programs. Preparation programs seek "access to data…

  15. 21 CFR 890.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES General Provisions § 890.3 Effective dates... new, not substantially equivalent, device introduced into commercial distribution on or after May 28... distributed unless it is reclassified. If FDA knows that a device being commercially distributed may be a...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES General Provisions § 890.3 Effective dates... new, not substantially equivalent, device introduced into commercial distribution on or after May 28... distributed unless it is reclassified. If FDA knows that a device being commercially distributed may be a...

  17. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  18. 78 FR 66841 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... (78 FR 44878), corrected October 25, 2013 (78 FR 63872), is confirmed. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44878 at 44879), FDA solicited comments concerning the direct... effective date of ``January 16, 2014.'' In the Federal Register of October 25, 2013 (78 FR 63872),...

  19. 45 CFR 86.58 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 86.58 Section 86.58 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.58 Effect...

  20. 45 CFR 86.58 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 86.58 Section 86.58 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.58 Effect...

  1. 45 CFR 86.58 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 86.58 Section 86.58 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.58 Effect...

  2. 45 CFR 86.58 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 86.58 Section 86.58 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.58 Effect...

  3. 45 CFR 86.58 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 86.58 Section 86.58 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.58 Effect...

  4. Effects of cocaine on performance under fixed-interval schedules with a small tandem ratio requirement.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Branch, Marc N

    2004-01-01

    Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however, has not been observed with fixed-interval schedules arranging comparable interreinforcement intervals. This experiment examined the possibility that differences in rate and temporal patterning between the two types of schedule are responsible for the differences in observed patterns of tolerance. Five pigeons were trained to key peck on a three-component multiple (tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio) schedule. The interval values were 10, 30, and 120 s; the tandem ratio was held constant at five responses. Performance appeared more like that observed under fixed-ratio schedules than fixed-interval schedules. Effects of various doses of cocaine given weekly were then determined for each pigeon. A dose that reduced responding was administered prior to each session for 50 days. A reassessment of effects of the range of doses revealed tolerance. The degree of tolerance was similar across components of the multiple schedule. Next, the saline vehicle was administered prior to each session for 50 days to assess the persistence of tolerance. Tolerance diminished in all subjects. Overall, the results suggested that schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance does not depend on the temporal pattern of responding engendered by fixed-ratio schedules. PMID:15693524

  5. Computer-Based Instruction: A Background Paper on its Status, Cost/Effectiveness and Telecommunications Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jai P.; Morgan, Robert P.

    In the slightly over twelve years since its inception, computer-based instruction (CBI) has shown the promise of being more cost-effective than traditional instruction for certain educational applications. Pilot experiments are underway to evaluate various CBI systems. Should these tests prove successful, a major problem confronting advocates of…

  6. Global climatic change effects on irrigation requirements for the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising carbon dioxide and other green house gasses (water vapor, nitrous oxide, methane, etc.) are predicted to have an effect on future climates. These gasses impact crops and global and local weather. The carbon dioxide increase is generally considered to be favorable to agriculture as it increas...

  7. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gina; Clark, James; Aurand, Don

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols.

  8. A platform for effective requirements management and collaboration in nuclear compliance and licensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fechtelkotter, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    Buoyed by its promise as a cost effective and low-carbon-footprint source of electricity, the nuclear industry is in the midst of a world-wide renaissance. However, significant challenges, including responding to increased safety and regulatory mandates, making a smooth transition to next-generation reactor technology, and dealing with the adoption of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems that rely heavily on software must be effectively addressed to ensure the momentum continues. New technology solutions, such as those developed by IBM's Rational business unit, coupled with well codified processes, policies and best practices leveraged across the nuclear ecosystem's participants have been shown to aid in overcoming these obstacles. This paper will highlight some of the compliance and collaboration challenges facing the extended nuclear ecosystem, describe a potential solution that can aid in addressing the challenges, and present several examples of where the solution has been implemented in the nuclear space. (authors)

  9. A Flux Balance of Glucose Metabolism Clarifies the Requirements of the Warburg Effect.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziwei; Shestov, Alexander A; Lai, Luhua; Locasale, Jason W

    2016-09-01

    The Warburg effect, or aerobic glycolysis, is marked by the increased metabolism of glucose to lactate in the presence of oxygen. Despite its widespread prevalence in physiology and cancer biology, the causes and consequences remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that a simple balance of interacting fluxes in glycolysis creates constraints that impose the necessary conditions for glycolytic flux to generate lactate as opposed to entering into the mitochondria. These conditions are determined by cellular redox and energy demands. By analyzing the constraints and sampling the feasible region of the model, we further study how cell proliferation rate and mitochondria-associated NADH oxidizing and ATP producing fluxes are interlinked. Together this analysis illustrates the simplicity of the origins of the Warburg effect by identifying the flux distributions that are necessary for its instantiation. PMID:27602736

  10. Mental Health Services Required after Disasters: Learning from the Lasting Effects of Disasters

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, A. C.; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Disasters test civil administrations' and health services' capacity to act in a flexible but well-coordinated manner because each disaster is unique and poses unusual challenges. The health services required differ markedly according to the nature of the disaster and the geographical spread of those affected. Epidemiology has shown that services need to be equipped to deal with major depressive disorder and grief, not just posttraumatic stress disorder, and not only for victims of the disaster itself but also the emergency service workers. The challenge is for specialist advisers to respect and understand the existing health care and support networks of those affected while also recognizing their limitations. In the initial aftermath of these events, a great deal of effort goes into the development of early support systems but the longer term needs of these populations are often underestimated. These services need to be structured, taking into account the pre-existing psychiatric morbidity within the community. Disasters are an opportunity for improving services for patients with posttraumatic psychopathology in general but can later be utilized for improving services for victims of more common traumas in modern society, such as accidents and interpersonal violence. PMID:22811897

  11. Effect of cold exposure on water requirements on three species of small mammals.

    PubMed

    Deavers, D R; Hudson, J W

    1977-07-01

    Water turnover rate (WTR) was determined from tritiated water (3H2O) loss in the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). When given ad libitum water at Ta of 20 degrees, B. brevicauda, C. gapperi, and P. leucopus turned over 16.2, 13.8, and 6.2 ml/day, respectively; minimum WTR was 9.9, 7.8, and 3.5 ml/day, respectively. When they were given ad libitum water at 5 degrees C, WTR was 1.4 to 1.6 times higher than at 20 degrees C. On minimum water rations, WTR at 5 degrees C was 1.7 to 1.9 times higher than at 20 degrees C. Since increases in VO2 at 5 degrees C and at 20 degrees C were of about the same magnitude, increased metabolic rates may have caused increased water requirements. Total body water (TBW) was calculated from 3H2O dilution. On minimum water rations, the three species at both Ta's showed decreases in TBW and body weight, but percent body H2O increased. PMID:330486

  12. Capturing Safety Requirements to Enable Effective Task Allocation Between Humans and Automaton in Increasingly Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neogi, Natasha A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a current drive towards enabling the deployment of increasingly autonomous systems in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, shifting the traditional roles and responsibilities between humans and automation for safety critical tasks must be managed carefully, otherwise the current emergent safety properties of the NAS may be disrupted. In this paper, a verification activity to assess the emergent safety properties of a clearly defined, safety critical, operational scenario that possesses tasks that can be fluidly allocated between human and automated agents is conducted. Task allocation role sets were proposed for a human-automation team performing a contingency maneuver in a reduced crew context. A safety critical contingency procedure (engine out on takeoff) was modeled in the Soar cognitive architecture, then translated into the Hybrid Input Output formalism. Verification activities were then performed to determine whether or not the safety properties held over the increasingly autonomous system. The verification activities lead to the development of several key insights regarding the implicit assumptions on agent capability. It subsequently illustrated the usefulness of task annotations associated with specialized requirements (e.g., communication, timing etc.), and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  13. Effects of exercise on riboflavin requirements: biological validation in weight reducing women.

    PubMed

    Belko, A Z; Meredith, M P; Kalkwarf, H J; Obarzanek, E; Weinberg, S; Roach, R; McKeon, G; Roe, D A

    1985-02-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate our previous estimates for riboflavin requirement, 0.96 mg/1000 kcal during nonexercise and 1.16 mg/1000 kcal during exercise in overweight women. Two groups of 6 weight reducing women consumed either 1.16 mg riboflavin/1000 kcal (HR) or 0.96 mg/1000 kcal (MR). The study was two, 3 period by 2 treatment (exercise or nonexercise) crossover designs, one design at each level of riboflavin. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficients (AC) significantly increased in both groups from 1.16 +/- .02 to 1.20 +/- .03 in group HR and from 1.31 +/- .04 to 1.36 +/- .02 in the MR group during nonexercise and exercise, respectively. ACs increased in the HR group due to an increase in total enzyme activity while ACs increased in the MR group due to a decrease in basal enzyme activity reflecting decreased flavin availability. There were no differences in aerobic capacity, weight loss, nor change in lean body mass between the two groups. Thus, 0.96 mg/1000 kcal was not adequate during either nonexercise or exercise periods while the 1.16 mg/1000 kcal was adequate.

  14. When vision influences the invisible distractor: tactile response compatibility effects require vision.

    PubMed

    Wesslein, Ann-Katrin; Spence, Charles; Frings, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Research on the nature of crossmodal interactions between vision and touch has shown that even task-irrelevant visual information can support the processing of tactile targets. In the present study, we implemented a tactile variant of the Eriksen flanker task to investigate the influences of vision on the processing of tactile distractors. In particular, we analyzed whether the size of the flanker effect at the level of perceptual congruency and at the level of response compatibility would differ as a function of the availability of vision (Experiments 1 and 2). Tactile distractors were processed up to the level of response selection only if visual information was provided (i.e., no flanker effects were observed at the level of response compatibility for blindfolded participants). In Experiment 3, we manipulated whether the part of the body receiving the tactile target or distractor was visible, while the other body part was occluded from view. Flanker effects at the level of response compatibility were observed in both conditions, meaning that vision of either the body part receiving the tactile target or the body part receiving the tactile distractor was sufficient to further the processing of tactile distractors from the level of perceptual congruency to the level of response selection. Taken together, these results suggest that vision modulates tactile distractor processing because it results in the processing of tactile distractors up to the level of response selection.

  15. Effects of prehospital hypothermia on transfusion requirements and outcomes: a retrospective observatory trial

    PubMed Central

    Klauke, Nora; Gräff, Ingo; Fleischer, Andreas; Boehm, Olaf; Guttenthaler, Vera; Baumgarten, Georg; Meybohm, Patrick; Wittmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prehospital hypothermia is defined as a core temperature <36.0°C and has been shown to be an independent risk factor for early death in patients with trauma. In a retrospective study, a possible correlation between the body temperature at the time of admission to the emergency room and subsequent in-hospital transfusion requirements and the in-hospital mortality rate was explored. Setting This is a retrospective single-centre study at a primary care hospital in Germany. Participants 15 895 patients were included in this study. Patients were classified by admission temperature and transfusion rate. Excluded were ambulant patients and patients with missing data. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome values were length of stay (LOS) in days, in-hospital mortality, the transferred amount of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and admission to an intensive care unit. Secondary influencing variables were the patient's age and the Glasgow Coma Scale. Results In 22.85% of the patients, hypothermia was documented. Hypothermic patients died earlier in the course of their hospital stay than non-hypothermic patients (p<0.001). The administration of 1–3 PRBC increased the LOS significantly (p<0.001) and transfused patients had an increased risk of death (p<0.001). Prehospital hypothermia could be an independent risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR 8.521; p=0.001) and increases the relative risk for transfusion by factor 2.0 (OR 2.007; p=0.002). Conclusions Low body temperature at hospital admission is associated with a higher risk of transfusion and death. Hence, a greater awareness of prehospital temperature management should be established. PMID:27029772

  16. Effects of VKORC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Requirement in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Ma, Kezhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jianqiang

    2015-11-19

    BACKGROUND VKORC1 is reported to be capable of treating several diseases with thrombotic risk, such as cardiac valve replacement. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 are documented to be associated with clinical differences in warfarin maintenance dose. This study explored the correlations of VKORC1-1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G genetic polymorphisms with warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 298 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement were recruited. During follow-up, clinical data were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied to detect VKORC1-1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G polymorphisms, and genotypes were analyzed. RESULTS Correlations between warfarin maintenance dose and baseline characteristics revealed statistical significances of age, gender and operation methods with warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Warfarin maintenance dose in VKORC1-1639 G/A AG + GG carriers was obviously higher than in AA carriers (P<0.001). As compared with patients with TT genotype in VKORC1 1173 C/T, warfarin maintenance dose was apparently higher in patients with CT genotype (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that gender, operation method, method for heart valve replacement, as well as VKORC1-1639 G/A and 1173 C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly related to warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS VKORC1 gene polymorphisms are key genetic factors to affect individual differences in warfarin maintenance dose in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement; meanwhile, gender, operation method and method for heart valve replacement might also be correlate with warfarin maintenance dose.

  17. Effects of VKORC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Requirement in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Ma, Kezhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background VKORC1 is reported to be capable of treating several diseases with thrombotic risk, such as cardiac valve replacement. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 are documented to be associated with clinical differences in warfarin maintenance dose. This study explored the correlations of VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G genetic polymorphisms with warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. Material/Methods A total of 298 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement were recruited. During follow-up, clinical data were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied to detect VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G polymorphisms, and genotypes were analyzed. Results Correlations between warfarin maintenance dose and baseline characteristics revealed statistical significances of age, gender and operation methods with warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Warfarin maintenance dose in VKORC1–1639 G/A AG + GG carriers was obviously higher than in AA carriers (P<0.001). As compared with patients with TT genotype in VKORC1 1173 C/T, warfarin maintenance dose was apparently higher in patients with CT genotype (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that gender, operation method, method for heart valve replacement, as well as VKORC1–1639 G/A and 1173 C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly related to warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Conclusions VKORC1 gene polymorphisms are key genetic factors to affect individual differences in warfarin maintenance dose in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement; meanwhile, gender, operation method and method for heart valve replacement might also be correlate with warfarin maintenance dose. PMID:26583785

  18. Effective chromosome pairing requires chromatin remodeling at the onset of meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Isabelle; Shaw, Peter; Prieto, Pilar; Wanous, Michael; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang; Mago, Rohit; Moore, Graham

    2008-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes (homologues) recognize each other and then intimately associate. Studies exploiting species with large chromosomes reveal that chromatin is remodeled at the onset of meiosis before this intimate association. However, little is known about the effect the remodeling has on pairing. We show here in wheat that chromatin remodeling of homologues can only occur if they are identical or nearly identical. Moreover, a failure to undergo remodeling results in reduced pairing between the homologues. Thus, chromatin remodeling at the onset of meiosis enables the chromosomes to become competent to pair and recombine efficiently. PMID:18417451

  19. [Territory, intersectoriality and stages: requirements for the effectiveness of the sustainable development goals].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Edmundo; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas

    2014-11-01

    The post-2015 development agenda highlights the incorporation of sustainability in approaches developed and/or applied to distinct fields of knowledge and action and the demonstration of the effectiveness of experiences of sustainable and healthy territories. This process results from the confrontation of different viewpoints which seek to address social production vis-à-vis their project, with the possibility of updating the hegemonic mode of production and consumption or the emergence of counter-hegemonic rationales. Health, as one of the SDGs, has the challenge of imposing an intersectorial agenda that addresses its social determinants, in a process of participative governance able to build a hierarchy of priorities based on the needs of the territory and build techno-political solutions based on the ecology of knowledge, constituting a strategic-situational and communicative management process. The consistency in formulation of the agenda and potential challenges to its implementation are analyzed, considering its intersectoriality, its strategic governance and management, and especially an assessment of its effectiveness. Moreover, it tests the evaluative tools used and their ability to analyze the consistency in the formulation of the agenda.

  20. Transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of prostate cancer: effective treatment requiring accurate imaging.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Souchon, Rémi; Salomir, Rarès; Gelet, Albert; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lyonnet, Denis

    2007-09-01

    Transrectal HIFU ablation has become a reasonable option for the treatment of localized prostate cancer in non-surgical patients, with 5-year disease-free survival similar to that of radiation therapy. It is also a promising salvage therapy of local recurrence after radiation therapy. These favourable results are partly due to recent improvements in prostate cancer imaging. However, further improvements are needed in patient selection, pre-operative localization of the tumor foci, assessment of the volume treated and early detection of recurrence. A better knowledge of the factors influencing the HIFU-induced tissue destruction and a better pre-operative assessment of them by imaging techniques should improve treatment outcome. Whereas prostate HIFU ablation is currently performed under transrectal ultrasound guidance, MR guidance with real-time operative monitoring of temperature will be available in the near future. If this technique will give better targeting and more uniform tissue destruction, its cost-effectiveness will have to be carefully evaluated. Finally, a recently reported synergistic effect between HIFU ablation and chemotherapy opens possibilities for treatment in high-risk or clinically advanced tumors.

  1. Child malaria in sub-saharan Africa: effective control and prevention require a health promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Houeto, David; Deccache, Alain

    Malaria remains a vital concern of child survival in sub-Saharan Africa despite the existence of effective curative and preventive measures. It is known that child malaria is underpinned by factors such as socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, and so forth, that must be considered simultaneously in order to effectively control it. This study applied to a rural community in Benin (West Africa) the Health Promotion concept (community participation and empowerment, contextualism, intersectorality, multistrategy, equity, and sustainability) to develop a program in order to control child malaria and close the gap of unsuccessful programs. The study design was a quasi-experimental pre-post conducted over a period of 27 months. As results, 80% of the community members participated in six of the seven sub-projects planned. The prevalence of fever (malaria) was significantly reduced after the intervention (p = 0.008). The recourse to adequate health care has significantly increased after the intervention (chi2 = 48.07, p = 0.000000). All these contributed to a statistically significant reduction of children deaths due to malaria (p = 0.001) in the village. Health Promotion strategies are likely to contribute to sustainable malaria programs' implementation that reduce malaria incidence and deaths in children under five. PMID:18644764

  2. Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Shayan, Parviz; Popper, Bastian; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2016-03-05

    Sirt1 is a NAD⁺-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  3. Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Shayan, Parviz; Popper, Bastian; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Sirt1 is a NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation. PMID:26959057

  4. Orienting attention in visual working memory requires central capacity: Decreased retro-cue effects under dual-task conditions

    PubMed Central

    Berryhill, Marian E.

    2014-01-01

    The retro-cue effect (RCE) describes superior working memory performance for validly cued stimulus locations long after encoding has ended. Importantly, this happens with delays beyond the range of iconic memory. In general, the RCE is a stable phenomenon that emerges under varied stimulus configurations and timing parameters. We investigated its susceptibility to dual-task interference to determine the attentional requirements at the time point of cue onset and encoding. In Experiment 1, we compared single- with dual-task conditions. In Experiment 2, we borrowed from the psychological refractory period paradigm and compared conditions with high and low (dual-) task overlap. The secondary task was always binary tone discrimination requiring amanual response. Across both experiments, an RCE was found, but it was diminished in magnitude in the critical dual-task conditions. A previous study did not find evidence that sustained attention is required in the interval between cue offset and test. Our results apparently contradict these findings and point to a critical time period around cue onset and briefly thereafter during which attention is required. PMID:24452383

  5. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-01-01

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the National Synchrotron Light Source) and the effects of these figure errors on two classes of soft x-ray beamlines are presented.

  6. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-10-21

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beam lines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the NSLS) and the effects of these figure errors on a class of soft x-ray beam lines are presented. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Amyloid-β effects on synapses and memory require AMPA receptor subunit GluA3

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Niels R.; Pao, Yvonne; Renner, Maria C.; da Silva-Matos, Carla M.; Lodder, Tessa R.; Malinow, Roberto; Kessels, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a prime suspect for causing cognitive deficits during the early phases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Experiments in AD mouse models have shown that soluble oligomeric clusters of Aβ degrade synapses and impair memory formation. We show that all Aβ-driven effects measured in these mice depend on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA3. Hippocampal neurons that lack GluA3 were resistant against Aβ-mediated synaptic depression and spine loss. In addition, Aβ oligomers blocked long-term synaptic potentiation only in neurons that expressed GluA3. Furthermore, although Aβ-overproducing mice showed significant memory impairment, memories in GluA3-deficient congenics remained unaffected. These experiments indicate that the presence of GluA3-containing AMPARs is critical for Aβ-mediated synaptic and cognitive deficits. PMID:27708157

  8. Cerebrovascular effects of intraarterial CO/sub 2/ in quantities required for diagnostic imaging. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, R.; Quisling, R.G.; Mickle, J.P.; Hawkins, I.F. Jr.; Ballinger, W.B.

    1984-05-01

    The recent development of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has renewed interest in the use of gasses, especially carbon dioxide, as contrast agents. Both early physiologic studies and recent clinical reports suggest that arterial CO/sub 2/-DSA is a safe and useful diagnostic tool in the examination of extremity circulation. The present study examined the neurologic sequelae, pathologic changes, and effects on the blood-brain barrier to intravenous Evans-Blue and horseradish peroxidase of intracarotid CO/sub 2/, in albino rats. As with other forms of cerebral gas embolization, CO/sub 2/produced multifocal ischemic infarctions and disrupted the blood-brain barrier to macromolecular tracers. The site of the barrier lesion is the endothelial cell membrane, although the precise mechanisms of damage remain unknown.

  9. Filamin-A is required to mediate SST2 effects in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Eleonora; Cambiaghi, Valeria; Zerbi, Alessandro; Carnaghi, Carlo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Peverelli, Erika; Spada, Anna; Mantovani, Giovanna; Lania, Andrea G

    2016-03-01

    Somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2) is the main pharmacological target of somatostatin (SS) analogues widely used in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (P-NETs), this treatment being ineffective in a subset of patients. Since it has been demonstrated that Filamin A (FLNA) is involved in mediating GPCR expression, membrane anchoring and signalling, we investigated the role of this cytoskeleton protein in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in human P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line. We demonstrated that FLNA silencing was not able to affect SST2 expression in P-NET cells in basal conditions. Conversely, a significant reduction in SST2 expression (-43 ± 21%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was observed in FLNA silenced QGP1 cells after long term SST2 activation with BIM23120. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of BIM23120 on cyclin D1 expression (-46 ± 18%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), P-ERK1/2 levels (-42 ± 14%; P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), cAMP accumulation (-24 ± 3%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), VEGF expression (-31 ± 5%, P < 0.01 vs untreated cells) and in vitro release (-40 ± 24%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was completely lost after FLNA silencing. Interestingly, BIM23120 promoted cell adhesion (+86 ± 45%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) and inhibited cell migration (-24 ± 2%, P < 0.00001 vs untreated cells) in P-NETs cells and these effects were abolished in FLNA silenced cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FLNA plays a crucial role in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line, suggesting a possible role of FLNA in determining the different responsiveness to SS analogues observed in P-NET patients. PMID:26733502

  10. The effects of noise masking and required accuracy on speech errors, disfluencies, and self-repairs.

    PubMed

    Postma, A; Kolk, H

    1992-06-01

    The covert repair hypothesis views disfluencies as by-products of covert self-repairs applied to internal speech errors. To test this hypothesis we examined effects of noise masking and accuracy emphasis on speech error, disfluency, and self-repair rates. Noise reduced the numbers of disfluencies and self-repairs but did not affect speech error rates significantly. With accuracy emphasis, speech error rates decreased considerably, but disfluency and self-repair rates did not. With respect to these findings, it is argued that subjects monitor errors with less scrutiny under noise and when accuracy of speaking is unimportant. Consequently, covert and overt repair tendencies drop, a fact that is reflected by changes in disfluency and self-repair rates relative to speech error rates. Self-repair occurrence may be additionally reduced under noise because the information available for error detection--that is, the auditory signal--has also decreased. A qualitative analysis of self-repair patterns revealed that phonemic errors were usually repaired immediately after their intrusion. PMID:1608244

  11. The life-extending effect of dietary restriction requires Foxo3 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Isao; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Kim, Sang-Eun; Kawata, Takuya; Park, Seongjoon; Hayashi, Hiroko; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Chiba, Takuya; Mori, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box O (Foxo) transcription factors may be involved in the salutary effect of dietary restriction (DR). This study examined the role of Foxo3 in lifespan extension and cancer suppression in DR mice. Wild-type (WT) and Foxo3-knockout heterozygous (+/–) and homozygous (–/–) mice were subjected to a 30% DR regimen initiated at 12 weeks of age. Control mice were fed ad libitum (AL) throughout the study. In contrast to WT mice, DR did not significantly extend the lifespan of Foxo3+/– or Foxo3–/– mice. However, DR reduced the prevalence of tumors at death in WT, Foxo3+/–, and Foxo3–/– mice. These results indicate the necessity of Foxo3 for lifespan extension but not cancer suppression by DR. The findings in Foxo3+/– mice contrast with those in Foxo1+/– mice reported previously by our laboratory suggest differential regulation of cancer and lifespan by DR via Foxo1 and Foxo3. PMID:25808402

  12. The word-superiority effect does not require a T-scope.

    PubMed

    Prinzmetal, W

    1992-05-01

    Six experiments examined the possibility of obtaining a word-superiority effect (WSE) without the use of brief stimulus exposures or a poststimulus mask. In each experiment, subjects were presented a stimulus string and two alternative strings that differed by a single letter (Reicher, 1969). The alternatives and stimulus remained in view until subjects responded, and subjects were under no pressure to respond quickly. In Experiments 1-3, the stimuli were presented in very small type so that they were difficult to see. Subjects were significantly more accurate with words than with nonwords, letters embedded among digits, or letters embedded among number signs (#s). In Experiments 4 and 5, the stimuli were embedded in a simultaneously present pattern mask. Subjects were significantly more accurate with words than with single letters by themselves. In the final experiment, the stimuli were presented in a mask with specific spatial frequency characteristics, and performance was significantly better with words than with nonwords. The WSE is a more general phenomenon than previously supposed; it is not limited to a tachistoscopic exposure. PMID:1594437

  13. Dual effect of spermine on mast cell secretion exhibits different calcium and temperature requirements.

    PubMed

    Vliagoftis, H; Mak, L; Boucher, W; Theoharides, T C

    1999-09-01

    Mast cells release many biologically active molecules upon stimulation by a variety of molecules such as immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific antigen, anaphylatoxins, as well as a number of cationic compounds which include drugs, kinins and neuropeptides. The effect of the naturally occurring polyamine spermine was studied because, even though it is polycationic, it has been implicated in the modulation of secretory processes in a variety of cells. In particular, it was previously shown that oxidation products of spermine inhibit mast cell secretion. High concentrations of spermine (5 x 10(-3) M) added at 37 degrees C induced mast cell secretion that had similar characteristics with that triggered by compound 48/80 (48/80). However, spermine inhibited mast cell secretion in a dose-dependent manner as long as it was added at 4-10 degrees C for at least 10 min in the absence of Ca++ before warming the cells to 37 degrees C and triggering them with 48/80. These findings were true both for purified rat peritoneal mast cells and for rat skin mast cells in situ. Addition of calcium after the cells had been warmed to 37 degrees C could not reverse this inhibition. The inhibition seen when spermine was added at 4 degrees C was, however, overcome if phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or NaF, which activate PKC and G proteins respectively, were added to mast cells at 37 degrees C together with Ca++. These results indicate that polyamines could be important modulators of the activation state of mast cells and might help further define the biochemical events involved in mast cell secretion.

  14. Effects of Monsoonal Fluctuations on Grains in China. Part II: Crop Water Requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terjung, W. H.; Mearns, L. O.; Todhunter, P. E.; Hayes, J. T.; Ji, H.-Y.

    1989-01-01

    This paper continues the description of the effects of monsoonal variability in regard to crop evapotranspiration (ET) and irrigation needs of rice, maize, and wheat for 16 Chinese stations between 1961 and 1975. For this analysis the previously introduced YIELD model was applied. Two measures of drought were used to examine year-to-year changes: a drought index based on monthly precipitation totals and a relative ET deficit defined as the ratio of actual to potential ET as determined from the model. The correlation between the two drought measures are 0.585, 0.783, and 0.704 for rice, maize and wheat, respectively. Differences can be explained by meteorological conditions for specific years and varying plant responses to drought. The two approaches often identified different dry and wet years. The study determined the probable yearly changes of ET and irrigation on a regional and specific-station basis. Drought episodes were found to be crop-specific. For instance, 1965, 1968, 1972 and 1975 were drought years for maize and wheat, whereas 1963, 1968 and 1969 were drought years for rice. The use of mean meteorological data for a time period, in place of actual year-to-year data, can create considerable errors, varying with crop type and region. According to the annual ET deficit, Peking showed the greatest range for maize and wheat for the 15-yr period. This range was highest for rice at Chengtu (Szechwan) and Nanking (Anhwei). Generally, year-to-year irrigation changes mimicked the ET patterns.

  15. An analysis of UK waste minimization clubs: key requirements for future cost effective developments.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P S; Pratt, R M; Pike, K

    2001-01-01

    The UK waste strategy is based upon use of the best practicable environmental option (BPEO), by those making waste management decisions. BPEO is supported by the use of the waste hierarchy, with its range of preferable options for dealing with waste, and the proximity principle, where waste is treated/disposed of as close to its point of origin as possible. The national waste strategy emphasizes the key role of waste minimization and encourages industry, commerce and the public to move towards sustainable waste management practice for economic and environmental reasons. Waste minimization clubs have been used, since the early 1990s, to demonstrate to industry/commerce that reducing waste production can lead to significant financial savings. There have been around 75 such clubs in the UK and they receive support from a wide range of agencies, including the Environmental Technology Best Practice Program. The early Demonstration Clubs had significant savings to cost ratios, e.g. Aire and Calder at 8.4, but had very high costs, e.g. Aire and Calder at 400,000 pounds. It is acknowledged that the number of clubs will have to be approximately doubled in the next few years so as to have an adequate coverage of the UK. There are at present, marked regional variations in club development and cognizance needs to be taken, by facilitators, of the need for extensive coverage of the UK. Future clubs will probably have to operate in a financially constrained climate and they need to be designed to deliver significant savings and waste reduction at low cost. To aid future club design, final reports of all projects should report in a standard manner so that cost benefit analysis can be used to inform facilitators about the most effective club type. rights reserved.

  16. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    PubMed

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  17. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    PubMed

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  18. The effect of air density on atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from a long airborne object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. P.; Konchakov, A. M.

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  19. The Effect of Air Density on Atmospheric Electric Fields Required for Lightning Initiation from a Long Airborne Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. Pl.; Konchankov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  20. Lysophospholipid receptors LPA1–3 are not required for the inhibitory effects of LPA on mouse retinal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Birgbauer, Eric; Chun, Jerold

    2016-01-01

    One of the major requirements in the development of the visual system is axonal guidance of retinal ganglion cells toward correct targets in the brain. A novel class of extracellular lipid signaling molecules, lysophospholipids, may serve as potential axon guidance cues. They signal through cognate G protein-coupled receptors, at least some of which are expressed in the visual system. Here we show that in the mouse visual system, a lysophospholipid known as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is inhibitory to retinal neurites in vitro when delivered extracellularly, causing growth cone collapse and neurite retraction. This inhibitory effect of LPA is both active in the nanomolar range and specific compared to the related lysophospholipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Knockout mice lacking three of the five known LPA receptors, LPA1–3, continue to display retinal growth cone collapse and neurite retraction in response to LPA, demonstrating that these three receptors are not required for these inhibitory effects and indicating the existence of one or more functional LPA receptors expressed on mouse retinal neurites that can mediate neurite retraction. PMID:26966392

  1. Effects of Requiring Physical Fitness in a Lecture-Based College Course: Students' Attitudes toward Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…

  2. Eligibility Requirements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Eligibility Requirements Printable Version Eligibility Requirements This page uses Javascript. Your browser either doesn' ... donors » Weigh at least 110 lbs. Additional weight requirements apply for donors 18-years-old and younger ...

  3. Different pH requirements are associated with divergent inhibitory effects of chloroquine on human and avian influenza A viruses

    PubMed Central

    Di Trani, Livia; Savarino, Andrea; Campitelli, Laura; Norelli, Sandro; Puzelli, Simona; D'Ostilio, Daniela; Vignolo, Edoardo; Donatelli, Isabella; Cassone, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline previously used in malaria therapy and now becoming an emerging investigational antiviral drug due to its broad spectrum of antiviral activities. To explore whether the low pH-dependency of influenza A viruses might affect the antiviral effects of chloroquine at clinically achievable concentrations, we tested the antiviral effects of this drug on selected human and avian viruses belonging to different subtypes and displaying different pH requirements. Results showed a correlation between the responses to chloroquine and NH4Cl, a lysosomotropic agent known to increase the pH of intracellular vesicles. Time-of-addition experiments showed that the inhibitory effect of chloroquine was maximal when the drug had been added at the time of infection and was lost after 2 h post-infection. This timing approximately corresponds to that of virus/cell fusion. Moreover, there was a clear correlation between the EC50 of chloroquine in vitro and the electrostatic potential of the HA subunit (HA2) mediating the virus/cell fusion process. Overall, the present study highlights the critical importance of a host cell factor such as intravesicular pH in determining the anti-influenza activity of chloroquine and other lysosomotropic agents. PMID:17477867

  4. Association of genetic variation in pharmacodynamic factors with methadone dose required for effective treatment of opioid addiction

    PubMed Central

    Levran, Orna; Peles, Einat; Randesi, Matthew; Shu, Xu; Ott, Jurg; Shen, Pei-Hong; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Aim The interindividual variability in the dose required for effective methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid addiction may be influenced in part by genetic variations in genes encoding pharmacodynamic factors of methadone. This study was conducted to identify some of these variants. Materials & methods This study focused on 11 genes encoding components of the opioidergic (OPRM1, POMC and ARRB2), the dopaminergic (ANKK1 and DRD2) and the glutamatergic pathways (GRIN1 and GRIN2A), as well as the neurotrophin system (NGFB, BDNF, NTRK1 and NTRK2). The study includes 227 Israeli patients undergoing stable MMT. Results Out of the 110 variants analyzed, 12 SNPs (in BDNF, NTRK2, OPRM1, DRD2 and ANKK1) were associated with methadone dose (nominal p < 0.05). Of these SNPs, ANKK1 rs7118900 and DRD2 rs2283265 are known to affect gene expression. Logistic regression of five representative SNPs discriminated between individuals requiring a methadone dose of >120 mg/day and <120 mg/day (p = 0.019), and showed moderate sensitivity and specificity (AUC of 0.63 in receiver operating characteristic analysis). Conclusion This data should stimulate further research on the potential influence and clinical significance of these variants on MMT. PMID:23651024

  5. Low-grade elastic compression regimen for venous leg ulcers--an effective compromise for patients requiring daily dressing changes.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Ganary; Hammerman, Scott; Carson, Polly; Falanga, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) affect millions of patients worldwide and are a tremendous financial burden on our health care system. The hallmark of venous disease of the lower extremities is venous hypertension, and compression is the current mainstay of treatment. However, many patients are non-compliant, partly because of the complexity of the dressings and the difficulties with application and removal. The aim of our study was to test an effective compression dressing regimen for patients with VLUs who require changing the ulcer primary dressing twice daily. We used two layers of a latex-free tubular elastic bandage for compression. The primary endpoint of our study was increased wound-healing rate and our secondary endpoint was complete wound closure. All active study subjects had positive healing rates at week 4 and week 8. Two subjects achieved complete wound closure by week 8. We conclude that compression with a latex-free tubular elastic bandage can be safely used in patients with VLUs requiring frequent dressing changes. This type of compression allows for daily inspection of wounds, dressing changes at home, flexibility in the context of clinical trials, and is a compromise for patients who are intolerant to compression dressings.

  6. Determination of effective factors on power requirement and conveying capacity of a screw conveyor under three paddy grain varieties.

    PubMed

    Askari Asli-Ardeh, Ezzatollah; Mohsenimanesh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of screw speed, inclination angle and variety on the required power, and conveying capacity of a screw conveyor. The experiment was designed with four levels of screw speed (600, 800, 1000, and 1200 rpm), five levels of inclination angle (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80°), and three levels of variety (Alikazemi, Hashemi, and Khazar). The Length, diameter, and pitch of screw were 2, 0.78, and 0.5 m, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block (RCB) with factorial layout. Maximum and minimum power requirements of tested screw conveyor were 99.29 and 81.16 Watt corresponding to conveying capacity of 3.210 and 1.975 ton/hour obtained for khazar and Alikazemi varieties, respectively. The results indicated that as screw inclination angle increased from 0 to 80°, the conveying capacity decreased significantly from 3.581 to 0.932 t/h. It can be concluded that the most conveying capacity was 4.955 t/h at tests with khazar variety and conveyor inclination angle zero degree.

  7. Determination of Effective Factors on Power Requirement and Conveying Capacity of a Screw Conveyor under Three Paddy Grain Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Askari Asli-Ardeh, Ezzatollah; Mohsenimanesh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of screw speed, inclination angle and variety on the required power, and conveying capacity of a screw conveyor. The experiment was designed with four levels of screw speed (600, 800, 1000, and 1200 rpm), five levels of inclination angle (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80°), and three levels of variety (Alikazemi, Hashemi, and Khazar). The Length, diameter, and pitch of screw were 2, 0.78, and 0.5 m, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block (RCB) with factorial layout. Maximum and minimum power requirements of tested screw conveyor were 99.29 and 81.16 Watt corresponding to conveying capacity of 3.210 and 1.975 ton/hour obtained for khazar and Alikazemi varieties, respectively. The results indicated that as screw inclination angle increased from 0 to 80°, the conveying capacity decreased significantly from 3.581 to 0.932 t/h. It can be concluded that the most conveying capacity was 4.955 t/h at tests with khazar variety and conveyor inclination angle zero degree. PMID:22619587

  8. Effect Size, Statistical Power and Sample Size Requirements for the Bootstrap Likelihood Ratio Test in Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Tan, Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Selecting the number of different classes which will be assumed to exist in the population is an important step in latent class analysis (LCA). The bootstrap likelihood ratio test (BLRT) provides a data-driven way to evaluate the relative adequacy of a (K −1)-class model compared to a K-class model. However, very little is known about how to predict the power or the required sample size for the BLRT in LCA. Based on extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we provide practical effect size measures and power curves which can be used to predict power for the BLRT in LCA given a proposed sample size and a set of hypothesized population parameters. Estimated power curves and tables provide guidance for researchers wishing to size a study to have sufficient power to detect hypothesized underlying latent classes. PMID:25328371

  9. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  10. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  11. Seasonal and age effects on energy requirements in domestic short-hair cats (Felis catus) in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, E N; Weidgraaf, K; Hekman, M; Roy, N C; Tavendale, M H; Thomas, D G

    2013-06-01

    There is little information known about the energy requirements of cats in temperature climates. Energy requirement of domestic short-haired cats was determined using three groups of mixed gender - old kept outside (approximately 9.9 years of age; 4.8 kg; n = 9), young kept outside (approximately 3.1 years of age; 3.9 kg; n = 8) or young kept inside (approximately 3.1 years of age; 3.9 kg; n = 8). Cats were housed individually for 5 weeks during summer (18.5 ± 0.5 °C) and winter (8.5 ± 0.4 °C) and were fed a commercially available maintenance diet ad libitum. In both periods, energy expenditure was determined from the rates of (2) H and (18) O elimination for blood H2 O over a 12 day period, from a doubly labelled water bolus (2) H2 O (0.7 g/kg BW) and H2 (18) O (0.13 g/kg BW) administered intravenously. During the summer period, macronutrient digestibility was determined. Older cats had a reduction (p < 0.05) in apparent digestibility of dry matter (approximately 9%), energy (approximately 8%) and protein (6%). There was a significant effect of age and season on energy intake and energy expenditure. While lean mass was affected by age and season, there was no effect of age or season on energy expenditure when expressed as a proportion of lean mass. Possible seasonal differences in nutrient digestibility may explain these results.

  12. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait. PMID:25959329

  13. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait.

  14. Effect of grain constraint on the field requirements for magnetocaloric effect in Ni45Co5Mn40Sn10 melt-spun ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, N. M.; Huang, Y. J.; Dennis, C. L.; Li, J. G.; Shull, R. D.; Ross, J. H.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Karaman, I.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of grain constraint on the magnetic field levels required to complete the isothermal martensitic transformation in magnetic shape memory alloys has been demonstrated for a NiCoMnSn alloy, and the magnetocaloric performance of an optimally heat treated alloy was quantified. Ni45CoxMn45-xSn10 melt spun ribbons with x = 2, 4, 5, and 6 were characterized. The x = 5 sample was determined to exhibit the lowest transformation thermal hysteresis (7 K) and transformation temperature range during transformation from paramagnetic austenite to non-magnetic martensite, as well as a large latent heat of transformation (45 J kg-1 K-1). For this composition, it was found that increasing the grain size to thickness ratio of the ribbons from 0.2 to 1.2, through select heat treatments, resulted in a decrease in the magnetic field required to induce the martensitic transformation by about 3 T due to the corresponding reduction in the martensitic transformation temperature range. This decrease in the field requirement ultimately led to a larger magnetocaloric entropy change achieved under relatively smaller magnetic field levels. The giant inverse magnetocaloric effect of the optimized alloy was measured and showed that up to 25 J kg-1 K-1 was generated by driving the martensitic transition with magnetic fields up to 7 T.

  15. The Effects of the 150-Credit-Hour Requirement for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) Exam On the Career Intentions of Women and Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierstaker, James Lloyd; Howe, Martha A.; Seol, Inshik

    2005-01-01

    In most states, students who sit for the certified public accountant (CPA) examination are now required to have 150 credit hours of college education. In this article, the authors examined the effects of this requirement on the career intentions of women and minorities. The authors collected data from 600 accounting students and the results…

  16. 45 CFR 400.77 - Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate in required services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and... in required services. (a) As a condition of eligibility for refugee cash assistance, an...

  17. 31 CFR 30.17 - Q-17: How do the effective date provisions apply with respect to the requirements under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.17 Q-17: How do the effective date provisions apply with respect to the requirements...

  18. The Effects of Prosthesis Inertial Properties on Prosthetic Knee Moment and Hip Energetics Required to Achieve Able-Bodied Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Narang, Yashraj S; Arelekatti, V N Murthy; Winter, Amos G

    2016-07-01

    There is a major need in the developing world for a low-cost prosthetic knee that enables users to walk with able-bodied kinematics and low energy expenditure. To efficiently design such a knee, the relationship between the inertial properties of a prosthetic leg and joint kinetics and energetics must be determined. In this paper, using inverse dynamics, the theoretical effects of varying the inertial properties of an above-knee prosthesis on the prosthetic knee moment, hip power, and absolute hip work required for walking with able-bodied kinematics were quantified. The effects of independently varying mass and moment of inertia of the prosthesis, as well as independently varying the masses of each prosthesis segment, were also compared. Decreasing prosthesis mass to 25% of physiological leg mass increased peak late-stance knee moment by 43% and decreased peak swing knee moment by 76%. In addition, it reduced peak stance hip power by 26%, average swing hip power by 76%, and absolute hip work by 22%. Decreasing upper leg mass to 25% of its physiological value reduced absolute hip work by just 2%, whereas decreasing lower leg and foot mass reduced work by up to 22%, with foot mass having the greater effect. Results are reported in the form of parametric illustrations that can be utilized by researchers, designers, and prosthetists. The methods and outcomes presented have the potential to improve prosthetic knee component selection, facilitate able-bodied kinematics, and reduce energy expenditure for users of low-cost, passive knees in developing countries, as well as for users of advanced active knees in developed countries. PMID:26186794

  19. Effect of terminal accuracy requirements on temporal gaze-hand coordination during fast discrete and reciprocal pointings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rapid discrete goal-directed movements are characterized by a well known coordination pattern between the gaze and the hand displacements. The gaze always starts prior to the hand movement and reaches the target before hand velocity peak. Surprisingly, the effect of the target size on the temporal gaze-hand coordination has not been directly investigated. Moreover, goal-directed movements are often produced in a reciprocal rather than in a discrete manner. The objectives of this work were to assess the effect of the target size on temporal gaze-hand coordination during fast 1) discrete and 2) reciprocal pointings. Methods Subjects performed fast discrete (experiment 1) and reciprocal (experiment 2) pointings with an amplitude of 50 cm and four target diameters (7.6, 3.8, 1.9 and 0.95 cm) leading to indexes of difficulty (ID = log2[2A/D]) of 3.7, 4.7, 5.7 and 6.7 bits. Gaze and hand displacements were synchronously recorded. Temporal gaze-hand coordination parameters were compared between experiments (discrete and reciprocal pointings) and IDs using analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Results Data showed that the magnitude of the gaze-hand lead pattern was much higher for discrete than for reciprocal pointings. Moreover, while it was constant for discrete pointings, it decreased systematically with an increasing ID for reciprocal pointings because of the longer duration of gaze anchoring on target. Conclusion Overall, the temporal gaze-hand coordination analysis revealed that even for high IDs, fast reciprocal pointings could not be considered as a concatenation of discrete units. Moreover, our data clearly illustrate the smooth adaptation of temporal gaze-hand coordination to terminal accuracy requirements during fast reciprocal pointings. It will be interesting for further researches to investigate if the methodology used in the experiment 2 allows assessing the effect of sensori-motor deficits on gaze-hand coordination. PMID:21320315

  20. Effects of the menstrual cycle on bispectral index and anesthetic requirement in patients with preoperative intravenous dexmedetomidine following propofol induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaomin; Wang, Tingting; Huang, Shaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that the menstrual cycle has the impact on sedation. No previous study has evaluated the effects of the menstrual cycle on sedation level and propofol requirement with preoperative intravenous dexmedetomidine. Sixty-four adult fertile women receiving general anesthesia for elective gynecologic surgery were included in the study. Patients were classified into four groups on the basis of the phase of menstrual cycle and whether infused dexmedetomidine preoperatively: Group FS: the follicular phase (days 8-12) and preoperative intravenous normal saline; Group FD: the follicular phase (days 8-12) and preoperative intravenous dexmedetomidine; Group LS: the luteal phase (days 20-24) and normal saline; Group LD: the luteal phase (days 20-24) and dexmedetomidine. The patients were infused respectively dexmedetomidine at 0, 1.0, 0 and 1.0 μg/kg over 10 min, and then propofol TCI, which was administered with target plasma concentration at 4.0 μg/ml. BIS, heart rate, MAP were recorded until BIS to 50. In the LD group, the descent range of the BIS values was significantly sharpest among the four groups at loss of eyelash reflex. From propofol administered to loss of eyelash reflex and BIS values reach to 50, propofol requirements were significantly least and duration were shortest in the LD group among the four groups. Menstrual cycle phases affect the sedation of propofol induction with preoperative intravenous dexmedetomidine, which is deeper in the luteal phase. We should cautious of excessive sedation by propofol anesthesia with preoperative dexmedetomidine in the luteal phase. PMID:25664087

  1. Induction of Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase in Xanthium Leaf Disks. Photosynthetic Requirement and Effect of Daylength 1

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Milton

    1969-01-01

    A cycloheximide-sensitive increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) occurs in Xanthium leaf disks exposed to light. Radioactive ammonia-lyase has been isolated by means of sucrose density gradient centrifugation and starch gel electrophoresis from disks fed l-isoleucine-U-14C or l-arginine-U-14C. The incorporation of radioactive amino acids into phenylalanine ammonia-lyase together with the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide indicate that the observed increase in enzyme activity involves the induction of lyase synthesis. The light-dependent synthesis of the ammonia-lyase is completely inhibited by 50 μm 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (CMU) indicating that photosynthesis is involved. Only a trace quantity of some photosynthetic product must be needed because half light saturation occurs at very low intensity (ca. 30 ft-c). Exogenous carbohydrate is also required for continuing enzyme synthesis over a 72 hr period. But carbohydrate does not replace the photosynthetic requirement in darkness. Enzyme formed in light disappears rapidly from disks placed in the dark. The decay of ammonia-lyase activity follows first order kinetics. The half-life of the lyase ranged from 6 to 15 hr in leaf material used. Cyoloheximide inhibits the decay of lyase activity. Thus the maintenance of turnover in Xanthium leaf disks requires de novo synthesis of protein. That turnover, i.e., degradation as well as synthesis of lyase protein occurs is suggested by the apparent loss of radioactive ammonia-lyase from leaf disks placed in darkness. Light-induced synthesis coupled with rapid turnover can produce a diurnal fluctuation of ammonia-lyase activity in Xanthium leaf disks. Alternating periods of enzyme synthesis and degradation were observed in disks exposed to 24 hr cycles of light and dark. The average level of enzyme activity maintained in the tissue was directly related to the length of the light period. Induction of lyase synthesis was also observed

  2. The Effects of Androgens on Murine Cortical Bone Do Not Require AR or ERα Signaling in Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Ucer, Serra; Iyer, Srividhya; Bartell, Shoshana M; Martin-Millan, Marta; Han, Li; Kim, Ha-Neui; Weinstein, Robert S; Jilka, Robert L; O'Brien, Charles A; Almeida, Maria; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2015-07-01

    In men, androgens are critical for the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass in both the cortical and cancellous bone compartment. Male mice with targeted deletion of the androgen receptor (AR) in mature osteoblasts or osteocytes have lower cancellous bone mass, but no cortical bone phenotype. We have investigated the possibility that the effects of androgens on the cortical compartment result from AR signaling in osteoprogenitors or cells of the osteoclast lineage; or via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in either or both of these two cell types upon conversion of testosterone to estradiol. To this end, we generated mice with targeted deletion of an AR or an ERα allele in the mesenchymal (AR(f/y);Prx1-Cre or ERα(f/f);Osx1-Cre) or myeloid cell lineage (AR(f/y);LysM-Cre or ERα(f/f);LysM-Cre) and their descendants. Male AR(f/y);Prx1-Cre mice exhibited decreased bone volume and trabecular number, and increased osteoclast number in the cancellous compartment. Moreover, they did not undergo the loss of cancellous bone volume and trabecular number caused by orchidectomy (ORX) in their littermate controls. In contrast, AR(f/y);LysM-Cre, ERα(f/f);Osx1-Cre, or ERα(f/f);LysM-Cre mice had no cancellous bone phenotype at baseline and lost the same amount of cancellous bone as their controls following ORX. Most unexpectedly, adult males of all four models had no discernible cortical bone phenotype at baseline, and lost the same amount of cortical bone as their littermate controls after ORX. Recapitulation of the effects of ORX by AR deletion only in the AR(f/y);Prx1-Cre mice indicates that the effects of androgens on cancellous bone result from AR signaling in osteoblasts-not on osteoclasts or via aromatization. The effects of androgens on cortical bone mass, on the other hand, do not require AR or ERα signaling in any cell type across the osteoblast or osteoclast differentiation lineage. Therefore, androgens must exert their effects indirectly by actions on

  3. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are required for effective T-cell expansion/survival during antiviral immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gentle, Ian E; Moelter, Isabel; Lechler, Nadja; Bambach, Sarah; Vucikuja, Smiljka; Häcker, Georg; Aichele, Peter

    2014-01-30

    Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) were originally described as regulating apoptosis by direct binding to caspases. More recently, IAPs have been identified as important modulators of canonical and noncanonical nuclear factor κB signaling via their ubiquitin-E3 ligase activity. IAPs are therefore, not only gatekeepers of cell death, but are probably also involved in the regulation of inflammation, as well as innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we analyzed the role of IAPs in T-cell immunity during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection by pharmacological targeting with an IAP antagonist/second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase-mimetic. Expansion of virus-specific CD8 T cells was drastically reduced in LCMV-infected mice exposed to IAP antagonists. Accordingly, virus control was substantially impaired, indicated by high virus titres in the spleen and the spread of LCMV to peripheral organs. The profound negative effect of IAP antagonists on T-cell immunity was partially linked to tumor necrosis factor-mediated cell death of activated T cells and required inhibition of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, as well as cellular IAP-1. Thus, IAPs play an important role in T-cell expansion and survival in the context of a highly inflammatory environment such as a virus infection, indicating that IAP antagonists may interfere with immune responses.

  4. The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, does not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic POMC and CART activities in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2016-10-01

    The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, did not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript activities in mice, although decrease in functional hypothalamic orexin activity might be involved in the acute anorexic effect of liraglutide. PMID:27585115

  5. "Do I Have to Take This Class?" Nontraditional Students' Attitudes toward and Perceptions of a Required Effective Learning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Evelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    This study involves nontraditional students attending a community college in west Texas. The purpose of this study was to report initial attitudes of nontraditional students required to enroll in an Effective Learning/Student Success course. Participants included four nontraditional students from the researchers' Effective Learning/Student…

  6. "PowerUp"!: A Tool for Calculating Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes and Minimum Required Sample Sizes for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This paper and the accompanying tool are intended to complement existing supports for conducting power analysis tools by offering a tool based on the framework of Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes (MDES) formulae that can be used in determining sample size requirements and in estimating minimum detectable effect sizes for a range of individual- and…

  7. 45 CFR 2516.830 - What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of activities are required of... SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.830 What types of activities are... that corrective action is taken when necessary; and submit to the Corporation periodic...

  8. 45 CFR 2516.830 - What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of activities are required of... SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.830 What types of activities are... that corrective action is taken when necessary; and submit to the Corporation periodic...

  9. 45 CFR 2516.830 - What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.830 What types of activities are... § 2516.840. (b) Track program performance in terms of progress toward pre-established objectives; ensure... reports. (c) Collect from programs and submit to the Corporation the descriptive information required...

  10. 45 CFR 2516.830 - What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.830 What types of activities are... § 2516.840. (b) Track program performance in terms of progress toward pre-established objectives; ensure... reports. (c) Collect from programs and submit to the Corporation the descriptive information required...

  11. 45 CFR 2516.830 - What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.830 What types of activities are... § 2516.840. (b) Track program performance in terms of progress toward pre-established objectives; ensure... reports. (c) Collect from programs and submit to the Corporation the descriptive information required...

  12. Effective Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Targeting of Persistent HIV-1 during Antiretroviral Therapy Requires Priming of Naive CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kellie N.; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Piazza, Paolo A.; Fischer, Will; Korber, Bette T.; Fecek, Ronald J.; Ratner, Deena; Gupta, Phalguni; Mullins, James I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Curing HIV-1 infection will require elimination of persistent cellular reservoirs that harbor latent virus in the face of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Proposed immunotherapeutic strategies to cure HIV-1 infection include enhancing lysis of these infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). A major challenge in this strategy is overcoming viral immune escape variants that have evaded host immune control. Here we report that naive CD8+ T cells from chronic HIV-1-infected participants on long-term cART can be primed by dendritic cells (DC). These DC must be mature, produce high levels of interleukin 12p70 (IL-12p70), be responsive to CD40 ligand (CD40L), and be loaded with inactivated, autologous HIV-1. These DC-primed CD8+ T cell responders produced high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to a broad range of both conserved and variable regions of Gag and effectively killed CD4+ T cell targets that were either infected with the autologous latent reservoir-associated virus or loaded with autologous Gag peptides. In contrast, HIV-1-specific memory CD8+ T cells stimulated with autologous HIV-1-loaded DC produced IFN-γ in response to a narrow range of conserved and variable Gag peptides compared to the primed T cells and most notably, displayed significantly lower cytolytic function. Our findings highlight the need to selectively induce new HIV-1-specific CTL from naive precursors while avoiding activation of existing, dysfunctional memory T cells in potential curative immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infection. PMID:27247230

  13. Which imaging modality is most effective for identifying pseudotumours in metal-on-metal hip resurfacings requiring revision

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, G. S.; Mansour, R.; Dada, O.; Ostlere, S.; Pandit, H. G.; Murray, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to compare the diagnostic test characteristics of ultrasound alone, metal artefact reduction sequence MRI (MARS-MRI) alone, and ultrasound combined with MARS-MRI for identifying intra-operative pseudotumours in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) patients undergoing revision surgery. Methods This retrospective diagnostic accuracy study involved 39 patients (40 MoMHRs). The time between imaging modalities was a mean of 14.6 days (0 to 90), with imaging performed at a mean of 5.3 months (0.06 to 12) before revision. The prevalence of intra-operative pseudotumours was 82.5% (n = 33). Results Agreement with the intra-operative findings was 82.5% (n = 33) for ultrasound alone, 87.5% (n = 35) for MARS-MRI alone, and 92.5% (n = 37) for ultrasound and MARS-MRI combined. The diagnostic characteristics for ultrasound alone and MARS-MRI alone reached similar sensitivities (90.9% vs 93.9%) and positive predictive values (PPVs; 88.2% vs 91.2%), but higher specificities (57.1% vs 42.9%) and negative predictive values (NPVs; 66.7% vs 50.0%) were achieved with MARS-MRI. Ultrasound and MARS-MRI combined produced 100% sensitivity and 100% NPV, whilst maintaining both specificity (57.1%) and PPV (91.7%). For the identification of a pseudotumour, which was confirmed at revision surgery, agreement was substantial for ultrasound and MARS-MRI combined (κ = 0.69), moderate for MARS-MRI alone (κ = 0.54), and fair for ultrasound alone (κ = 0.36). Discussion These findings suggest that ultrasound and/or MARS-MRI have a role when assessing patients with a MoMHR, with the choice dependent on local financial constraints and the availability of ultrasound expertise. However in patients with a MoMHR who require revision, combined imaging was most effective. Take home message: Combined imaging with ultrasound and MARS-MRI always identified intra-operative pseudotumours if present. Furthermore, if neither imaging modality showed a pseudotumour, one was not

  14. NK1 receptor antagonism lowers occupancy requirement for antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs in the gerbil forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Wallace-Boone, Tanya L; Taber, Matthew T; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Davis, Carl D; Molski, Thaddeus F; Newberry, Kimberly S; Parker, Michael F; Gillman, Kevin W; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Lodge, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    The known interactions between the serotonergic and neurokinin systems suggest that serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) efficacy may be improved by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonism. In the current studies combination of a subeffective dose of an SSRI (0.3 mg/kg fluoxetine or 0.03 mg/kg citalopram) with a subeffective dose of an NK1R antagonist (0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721) produced efficacy in the gerbil forced swim test (FST). Serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy produced by 1 mg/kg fluoxetine (lowest efficacious dose) was 52 ± 5% and was reduced to 29 ± 4% at 0.3 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious in combination with 0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721; the corresponding NK1R occupancies were 79 ± 4% and 61 ± 4% for aprepitant and CP-122,721, respectively. For citalopram, SERT occupancy at the lowest efficacious dose (0.1 mg/kg) was 50 ± 4% and was reduced to 20 ± 5% at 0.03 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious when combined with aprepitant (0.3 mg/kg). Aprepitant (10 mg/kg) augmented the serotonin elevation produced by fluoxetine (1 or 10 mg/kg) in the gerbil prefrontal cortex; i.e. NK1R antagonism can modulate serotonin responses. A novel orally-available dual-acting NK1R antagonist/SERT inhibitor BMS-795176 is described; gerbil Ki = 1.4 and 1 nM at NK1R and SERT, respectively. BMS-795176 was efficacious in the gerbil FST; efficacy was observed with 35 ± 3% SERT occupancy and 73 ± 3% NK1R occupancy. The interaction between NK1R antagonism and SERT inhibition to lower the SERT occupancy required for antidepressant-like efficacy suggests that BMS-795176 has the potential to improve efficacy with a reduction in SSRI-associated side effects. PMID:23770339

  15. NK1 receptor antagonism lowers occupancy requirement for antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs in the gerbil forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Wallace-Boone, Tanya L; Taber, Matthew T; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Davis, Carl D; Molski, Thaddeus F; Newberry, Kimberly S; Parker, Michael F; Gillman, Kevin W; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Lodge, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    The known interactions between the serotonergic and neurokinin systems suggest that serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) efficacy may be improved by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonism. In the current studies combination of a subeffective dose of an SSRI (0.3 mg/kg fluoxetine or 0.03 mg/kg citalopram) with a subeffective dose of an NK1R antagonist (0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721) produced efficacy in the gerbil forced swim test (FST). Serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy produced by 1 mg/kg fluoxetine (lowest efficacious dose) was 52 ± 5% and was reduced to 29 ± 4% at 0.3 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious in combination with 0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721; the corresponding NK1R occupancies were 79 ± 4% and 61 ± 4% for aprepitant and CP-122,721, respectively. For citalopram, SERT occupancy at the lowest efficacious dose (0.1 mg/kg) was 50 ± 4% and was reduced to 20 ± 5% at 0.03 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious when combined with aprepitant (0.3 mg/kg). Aprepitant (10 mg/kg) augmented the serotonin elevation produced by fluoxetine (1 or 10 mg/kg) in the gerbil prefrontal cortex; i.e. NK1R antagonism can modulate serotonin responses. A novel orally-available dual-acting NK1R antagonist/SERT inhibitor BMS-795176 is described; gerbil Ki = 1.4 and 1 nM at NK1R and SERT, respectively. BMS-795176 was efficacious in the gerbil FST; efficacy was observed with 35 ± 3% SERT occupancy and 73 ± 3% NK1R occupancy. The interaction between NK1R antagonism and SERT inhibition to lower the SERT occupancy required for antidepressant-like efficacy suggests that BMS-795176 has the potential to improve efficacy with a reduction in SSRI-associated side effects.

  16. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg.

    PubMed

    Nie, H T; Wan, Y J; You, J H; Wang, Z Y; Lan, S; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg(0.75) of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg(0.75) of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep.

  17. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg.

    PubMed

    Nie, H T; Wan, Y J; You, J H; Wang, Z Y; Lan, S; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg(0.75) of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg(0.75) of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  18. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg

    PubMed Central

    Nie, H. T.; Wan, Y. J.; You, J. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lan, S.; Fan, Y. X.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg0.75 of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg0.75 of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  19. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  20. Parametric effects of reinforcement frequency, amount of reinforcement, and required response force on sheltered workshop behavior1

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Stephen R.

    1972-01-01

    Three experiments involving parametric manipulation of reinforcement contingencies were performed with retardates in an automated Sheltered Workshop token economy. Experiment I showed that with amount of reinforcement held constant, work rates were positively related to reinforcement rates on fixed-interval schedules and inversely related to reinforcement rates on fixed-ratio schedules. Experiment II demonstrated an interaction between frequency of ratio reinforcement and torque required to complete a work unit: work rates were positively related to reinforcement rates when required response force was high and negatively related to reinforcement rates when required response force was low. Experiment III revealed that, with reinforcement frequency held constant, there was in inverse relationship between amount of reinforcement and work rate. PMID:16795367

  1. How information about the time requirements and legacy effects of treatments influence decision-making in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Laiteerapong, Neda; Fairchild, Paige C; Nathan, Aviva G; Quinn, Michael T; Huang, Elbert S

    2016-01-01

    Objective When deciding about diabetes treatments, patients are typically uninformed about how much time is required before (time requirements), or for how long treatments change outcomes (legacy effects). However, patients may be motivated to adopt treatments with time-related treatment information. We explored whether this information alters a patients' likelihood of starting medications. Research design and methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 60 adults with type 2 diabetes for <10 years and hypertension on oral medications. We measured change in likelihood of starting medications after receiving time requirement (diabetes, 10 years; hypertension, 3 years) and legacy effect (diabetes, 10 additional years; hypertension, none) information. Responses were analyzed for themes about time-related treatment information. Results At baseline, 70% of participants reported being very likely to start a recommended medication. Nearly half (40%) were less likely to start a diabetes medication after being informed of time requirements; but after being informed of legacy effects, 32% reported being more likely. Fewer participants changed likelihoods of starting antihypertensives with time-related information. Many participants expressed that medications' benefits were important to them regardless of time-related information. Participants considered time requirements for diabetes medications too long and compared them to their life expectancy. Many participants were interested in legacy effects of diabetes medications because they looked forward to discontinuing medications, although some expressed doubt that benefits could persist after stopping medications. Conclusions While prolonged time requirements may dissuade patients from adopting treatments, the promise of legacy effects may motivate patients to commit to diabetes treatments. PMID:27158521

  2. RMACS software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Gneiting, B.C.

    1996-10-01

    This document defines the essential user (or functional) requirements of the Requirements Management and Assured Compliance System (RMACS), which is used by the Tank Waste Remediation System program (TWRS). RMACS provides a computer-based environment that TWRS management and systems engineers can use to identify, define, and document requirements. The intent of the system is to manage information supporting definition of the TWRS technical baseline using a structured systems engineering process. RMACS has the capability to effectively manage a complete set of complex requirements and relationships in a manner that satisfactorily assures compliance to the program requirements over the TWRS life-cycle.

  3. Intended and Unintended Effects of State-Mandated High School Science and Mathematics Course Graduation Requirements on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunk, Andrew D.; Tate, William F.; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics and science course graduation requirement (CGR) increases in the 1980s and 1990s might have had both intended and unintended consequences. Using logistic regression with Census and American Community Survey (ACS) data (n = 2,892,444), we modeled CGR exposure on (a) high school dropout, (b) beginning college, and (c) obtaining any…

  4. Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Surgical Mesh for Transvaginal Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing a final order to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for surgical mesh for transvaginal pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair. PMID:26742183

  5. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  6. The Effects of the Chapter 2, ECIA Consolidation on the Administrative and Paperwork Requirements for Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Anne H.; Bartell, Ted

    The purpose of this report is to analyze how the administrative and paperwork requirements with which local school districts must comply have been affected by the consolidation of 28 federal education programs into the Chapter 2, Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) block grant. The information reported is based on interviews with…

  7. Effects of ethanol concentration and fixed-ratio requirement on ethanol self-administration by P rats in a continuous access situation.

    PubMed

    Files, F J; Andrews, C M; Lewis, R S; Samson, H H

    1993-02-01

    Rats, from the alcohol preferring (P) line, were placed in operant chambers in which food pellets, water, and 10% ethanol (v/v) were available continuously for 23 hr/day. During Experiment 1, the effects of changing ethanol concentration and response requirement for ethanol were examined. Ten percent and 20% ethanol (v/v) were available on two fixed ratio (FR) schedules, FR 1 and FR 4, for 2 weeks each. During Experiment 2, the effects of increasing the response requirement for ethanol were investigated. Starting with FR 4, the FR requirement for ethanol doubled during 2-week intervals until FR 32 was in effect. For the final phase of these studies, water was placed in the dipper for 1 week followed by a return to 10% ethanol in the dipper. The results from Experiment 1 indicated that when the FR requirement was decreased from FR 4 to FR 1, ethanol-reinforced responding decreased but total daily intake increased. Lowering the FR requirement did not affect the number of ethanol bouts per day but bout size increased. Ethanol concentration had no effect on bout size but the number of bouts per day decreased when the concentration was increased to 20%. Since bout size was unchanged by increasing the ethanol concentration, intake per bout increased at 20% ethanol. The results from Experiment 2 indicated that increasing the response requirement for ethanol decreases ethanol intake. When water was placed in the dipper, responding decreased to the lowest levels observed in the experiment. When ethanol was returned to the dipper, responding returned to baseline levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. 2 CFR 25.205 - Effect of noncompliance with a requirement to obtain a DUNS number or register in the CCR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of noncompliance with a requirement to obtain a DUNS number or register in the CCR. 25.205 Section 25.205 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS...

  9. External store effects on the stability of fighter and interceptor airplanes. [application to military aircraft mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Some criteria for external carriage of missiles for fighter aircraft intended for aerial combat missions and for fighter-interceptor missions are considered. The mission requirements discussed include the short-range fighter-interceptor, the short-range interceptor, the medium-range interceptor, and the long-range interceptor. Missiles types considered to be compatible with the various point mission designs include the short-range missile, the medium-range missile, and the long-range missile. From the study, it appears that point mission design aircraft can be arranged in such a way that the required external-store arrangement will not impair the stability of the aircraft. An extensive reference list of NASA external store research is included.

  10. Effect of human leukocyte antigen class II genes on Hashimoto's thyroiditis requiring replacement therapy with levothyroxine in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Masahito; Hanakita, Mizuki; Ito, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Mari

    2013-05-01

    Contribution of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) subtype to Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) that requires replacement therapy with levothyroxine remains unclear in the Japanese population. The frequencies of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes were compared between patients with HT requiring levothyroxine replacement therapy and the control individuals. We studied 82 patients with HT requiring levothyroxine replacement therapy. The frequencies of DRB1*08:03-DQB1*06:01 and DRB1*09:01-DQB1*03:03 haplotypes were significantly higher in HT patients, whereas those of DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 and DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotypes were significantly lower in these patients than in the controls. Deduced from known linkage disequilibria, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 and DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotypes share the same DQA1*01:02 allele. Since DQB1*06:02 and DQB1*06:04 molecules differ in the beta chain by 7 residues, these DQB1 genes are very similar. The DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06 (DQB1*06:02 or DQB1*06:04) haplotype might play a pivotal role in the resistance to HT.

  11. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  12. Effective Quality Management Requires a Systematic Approach and a Flexible Organisational Culture: A Qualitative Study among Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the similarities and differences between three teaching departments within Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) in the Netherlands that provide effective and three that provide less effective quality management. What are staff members' conceptions and perceptions of quality, quality management and…

  13. 26 CFR 1.457-9 - Effect on eligible plans when not administered in accordance with eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on eligible plans when not administered... for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.457-9 Effect on eligible plans when not administered in... date on which the Commissioner notifies the State in writing that the plan is being administered in...

  14. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; Chen, Guangsheng; Li, Yong; Zhang, Caixia

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  15. Behavioral economics of concurrent ethanol-sucrose and sucrose reinforcement in the rat: effects of altering variable-ratio requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Petry, N M; Heyman, G M

    1995-01-01

    These experiments examined the own-price and cross-price elasticities of a drug (ethanol mixed with 10% sucrose) and a nondrug (10% sucrose) reinforcer. Rats were presented with ethanol-sucrose and sucrose, both available on concurrent independent variable-ratio (VR) 8 schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, the variable ratio for the ethanol mix was systematically raised to 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, and 30, while the variable ratio for sucrose remained at 8. Five of the 6 rats increased ethanol-reinforced responding at some of the increments and defended baseline levels of ethanol intake. However, the rats eventually ceased ethanol-reinforced responding at the highest variable ratios. Sucrose-reinforced responding was not systematically affected by the changes in variable ratio for ethanol mix. In Experiment 2, the variable ratio for sucrose was systematically increased while the ethanol-sucrose response requirement remained constant. The rats decreased sucrose-reinforced responding and increased ethanol-sucrose-reinforced responding, resulting in a two- to 10-fold increase in ethanol intake. Experiment 3 examined the substitutability of qualitatively identical reinforcers: 10% sucrose versus 10% sucrose. Increases in variable-ratio requirements at the preferred lever resulted in a switch in lever preference. Experiment 4 examined whether 10% ethanol mix substituted for 5% ethanol mix, with increasing variable-ratio requirements of the 5% ethanol. All rats eventually responded predominantly for the 10% ethanol mix, but total amount of ethanol consumed per session did not systematically change. In Experiment 5, the variable-ratio requirements for both ethanol and sucrose were simultaneously raised to VR 120; 7 of 8 rats increased ethanol-reinforced responding while decreasing sucrose-reinforced responding. These data suggest that, within this ethanol-induction procedure and within certain parameters, demand for ethanol-sucrose was relatively inelastic, and sucrose

  16. Gastroprotective effects of phenylpropanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga in rats: structural requirements and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Morikawa, Toshio; Ochi, Momotaro; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2003-06-13

    The effects of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and related phenylpropanoids isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats were examined. Among them, 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate markedly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions (ED(50)=0.61 and ca. 0.90 mg/kg). In addition, 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate inhibited the lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl (ED(50)=0.73 mg/kg) and aspirin (ED(50)=0.69 mg/kg) but it did not show a significant effect on indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and acid output in pylorus-ligated rats at doses of 0.5-5.0 mg/kg. From the gastroprotective effects of various related compounds, the 1'-acetoxyl group of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate was found to be essential for their strong activity. With regard to the mode of action, the gastroprotective effects of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate were attenuated by pretreatment with indomethacin and N-ethylmaleimide, and 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate significantly increased the glutathione levels of gastric mucosa in rats. These findings suggest that endogenous prostaglandins and sulfhydryl compounds are involved in the protective effect of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate.

  17. Intended and Unintended Effects of State-Mandated High School Science and Mathematics Course Graduation Requirements on Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Plunk, Andrew D.; Tate, William F.; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics and science course graduation requirement (CGR) increases in the 1980s and 1990s might have had both intended and unintended consequences. Using logistic regression with Census and American Community Survey (ACS) data (n = 2,892,444), we modeled CGR exposure on (a) high school dropout, (b) beginning college, and (c) obtaining any college degree. Possible between-groups differences were also assessed. We found that higher CGRs were associated with higher odds to drop out of high school, but results for the college-level outcomes varied by group. Some were less likely to enroll, whereas others who began college were more likely to obtain a degree. Increased high school dropout was consistent across the population, but some potential benefit was also observed, primarily for those reporting Hispanic ethnicity. PMID:25541563

  18. Effect of self-similar traffic on the performance and buffer requirements of ATM ABR edge devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dastangoo, S.; Miller, G.J.; Chen, H.; Brandt, J.

    1996-02-05

    Previous studies demonstrated that Ethemet local area network traffic is statistically self-similar and that the commonly used Poisson models are not able to capture the fractal characteristics of Ethemet traffic. This contribution uses simulated self-similar traffic traces from the MITRE Corporation and Sandia`s simulation software to evaluate the ABR performance of an ATM backbone. The ATM backbone interconnects Ethemet LANs via edge devices such as routers and bridges. We evaluate the overall network performance in terms of throughput, response time, fairness, and buffer requirements. Because typical edge devices perform simple forwarding functions, their usual mechanism for signaling network congestion is packet dropping. Therefore, we believe that the proper provisioning of buffer resources in ATM edge devices is crucial to the overall network performance.

  19. Total i.v. anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil: dose requirements for propofol and the effect of premedication with clonidine.

    PubMed

    Richards, M J; Skues, M A; Jarvis, A P; Prys-Roberts, C

    1990-08-01

    We determined in 51 healthy patients undergoing body surface surgery the dose requirements for propofol, as part of a total i.v. anaesthesia technique with an alfentanil infusion. After premedication with temazepam, patients received alfentanil 50 micrograms kg-1 followed by an infusion of 50 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Patients were anaesthetized with a loading dose of propofol followed by a three-stage infusion designed to reach one of five preselected blood concentrations of propofol. The motor response to the initial surgical incision was noted and probit analysis was used to derive the ED50 (2.94 mg kg-1 h-1; 95% confidence limits: 2.35-3.37 mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 (4.98 mg kg-1 h-1; 95% limits: 4.13-8.8 mg kg-1 h-1) for the final propotol infusion rate under these conditions. Whole blood concentration!of propofol at the time of the incision was related linearly to the inf!sion rate and the EC50 and EC95 (probit analysis) were derived as !.44 (95% confidence limits 0.62-1.87) and 4.05 (95% confidence lim!ts 2.78-30.5) micrograms ml-1, respectively. Post-operative recovery was!rapid, uncomplicated and uneventful. In a subgroup of eight patients,!the addition of clonidine 0.6 mg to the premedication significantly decreased the requirement for propofol (P less than 0.05) during surgery, but resulted in prolonged recovery times. PMID:2223330

  20. Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11.

    PubMed

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D; Collar, Nigel J; McGowan, Philip J K; Marsden, Stuart J

    2016-04-01

    Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines' current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines' land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created.

  1. Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11.

    PubMed

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D; Collar, Nigel J; McGowan, Philip J K; Marsden, Stuart J

    2016-04-01

    Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines' current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines' land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created. PMID:26666956

  2. Environmental Requirements Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  3. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1992-12-31

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either {alpha}-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide, however, revealed several interesting and novel findings: (1) Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  4. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1994-05-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects Of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either {alpha}-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide revealed that cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure. (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of MRNA for actin genes; and that cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin MRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. in addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  5. GPRC6a is not Required for the Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Body Weight in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey-Jones, James S; Alamshah, Amin; McGavigan, Anne K; Spreckley, Eleanor; Banks, Katherine; Cereceda Monteoliva, Nicholas; Norton, Mariana; Bewick, Gavin A; Murphy, Kevin G

    2015-01-01

    Objective The G-protein coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) is activated by proteinogenic amino acids and may sense amino acids in the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The study investigated whether GPRC6A was necessary for the effects of low- and high-protein diets on body weight and food intake in mice. Methods The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a low-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a knockout (GPRC6a-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a low-protein diet (6% protein) for 9 days. The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a high-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a-KO and WT mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a high-protein diet (50% protein) for 5 weeks. Results A high-protein diet reduced body weight gain and food intake compared with a control diet in both WT and GPRC6a-KO mice. A low-protein diet decreased body weight gain in GPRC6a-KO mice. Conclusions GPRC6A was not necessary for the effects of a low- or high-protein diet on body weight and likely does not play a role in protein-induced satiety. PMID:25958858

  6. 30 CFR 250.180 - What am I required to do to keep my lease term in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unless you are conducting operations on your lease (see 30 CFR part 256). For purposes of this section... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Primary Lease... lease term in effect? (a) If your lease is in its primary term: (1) You must submit a report to...

  7. Should Instructors Require Discussion in Online Courses? Effects of Online Discussion on Community of Inquiry, Learner Time, Satisfaction, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Tobias, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Online discussion is a commonly used means to promote student understanding of a topic and to facilitate social interaction among students or between students and instructor; however, its effects on student learning in online learning environments have rarely been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of online discussion…

  8. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chin-Mei Chang-Liu

    1995-06-01

    Experiments examined the effects of radiation dose-rate and protein synthesis inhibition expression of cytoskeletal and matrix elements in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Results demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for neutrons when comparing expression of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin genes. Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin-mRNA following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays. Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of actin mRNA. Cycloheximide abrogated induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to radiation. 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP <30%, FP=30 to 59%, FP=60 to 99%, and FP=100%. The MEm for individual cows was calculated from heat production minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention and pregnancy, and kl was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. Increasing FP significantly reduced ME intake and milk energy output, although the differences between the 2 low FP groups were not significant. However, increasing FP significantly increased the ratio of heat production over ME intake and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), with the exception that the increases did not reach significance in heat production/ME intake between FP <30% and FP=30 to 59%, or in MEm between FP=60 to 99% and FP=100%. However, the FP had no significant effect on the kl values, which were similar among the 4 groups of cows. The effect of FP was also evaluated using the linear mixed regression technique relating El(0) to ME intake. The results demonstrated that with a common regression coefficient (slope), the regression constants (intercepts) taken as net energy requirement for maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research

  10. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition is required to effectively impair microenvironment survival signals in mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Rosich, Laia; Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Roldán, Jocabed; Aymerich, Marta; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Sílvia; Campo, Elías; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation contributes to mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) pathogenesis and drug resistance. Antitumor activity has been observed with mTOR inhibitors. However, they have shown limited clinical efficacy in relation to drug activation of feedback loops. Selective PI3K inhibition or dual PI3K/mTOR catalytic inhibition are different therapeutic approaches developed to achieve effective pathway blockage. Here, we have performed a comparative analysis of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus, the pan-PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120 and the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in primary MCL cells. We found NVP-BEZ235 to be more powerful than everolimus or NVP-BKM120 in PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling inhibition, indicating that targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway at multiple levels is likely to be a more effective strategy for the treatment of MCL than single inhibition of these kinases. Among the three drugs, NVP-BEZ235 induced the highest change in gene expression profile. Functional validation demonstrated that NVP-BEZ235 inhibited angiogenesis, migration and tumor invasiveness in MCL cells. NVP-BEZ235 was the only drug able to block IL4 and IL6/STAT3 signaling which compromise the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy in MCL. Our findings support the use of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 as a promising approach to interfere with the microenvironment-related processes in MCL. PMID:25216518

  11. Mucin2 is Required for Probiotic Agents-Mediated Blocking Effects on Meningitic E. coli-Induced Pathogenicities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Yi; He, Xiao-Long; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Peng, Liang; Li, Yan; Wu, Li-Sha; Peng, Wen-Ling; Zhang, Ya; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yao-Yuan; Boddu, Swapna; Long, Min; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2015-10-01

    Mucin2 (MUC2), an important regulatory factor in the immune system, plays an important role in the host defense system against bacterial translocation. Probiotics known to regulate MUC2 gene expression have been widely studied, but the interactions among probiotic, pathogens, and mucin gene are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MUC2 in blocking effects of probiotics on meningitic E. coli-induced pathogenicities. In this study, live combined probiotic tablets containing living Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus were used. MUC2 expression was knocked down in Caco-2 cells by RNA interference. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), which enhances mucin-promoted probiotic effects through inducing production of Sadenosyl- L-methionine (SAMe), was used to up-regulate MUC2 expression in Caco-2 cells. The adhesion to and invasion of meningitic E. coli were detected by competition assays. Our studies showed that probiotic agents could block E. coli-caused intestinal colonization, bacteremia, and meningitis in a neonatal sepsis and meningitis rat model. MUC2 gene expression in the neonatal rats given probiotic agents was obviously higher than that of the infected and uninfected control groups without probiotic treatment. The prohibitive effects of probiotic agents on MUC2-knockdown Caco-2 cells infected with E44 were significantly reduced compared with nontransfected Caco-2 cells. Moreover, the results also showed that 5- Aza-CdR, a drug enhancing the production of SAMe that is a protective agent of probiotics, was able to significantly suppress adhesion and invasion of E44 to Caco-2 cells by upregulation of MUC2 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that probiotic agents can efficiently block meningitic E. coli-induced pathogenicities in a manner dependent on MUC2.

  12. Effect of body mass index on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shohab, Durre; Ayub, Ramsha; Alam, Muhammad Umar; Butt, Amna; Sheikh, Sanam; Assad, Salman; Akhter, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of body mass index (BMI) on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by comparing three BMI groups. Material and methods This is a retrospective analysis of 129 patients who underwent PCNL from January 2010 to August 2013. All the patients underwent PCNL by a standard technique. The patients were divided into three groups: patients having a BMI ≤24 kg/m2 were included in the normal group, those having a BMI of 24.1–30.0 kg/m2 were included in the overweight group, and those having a BMI >30 kg/m2 were included in the obese group. Three groups were compared for operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement. Results A total of 129 patients including 44 females and 85 males were included with a mean age of 45.00±1.44 years. The mean age in the normal group was 43.29±1.69 years, 47.08±1.29 years in the overweight group, and 43.61±1.25 years in the obese group. The mean stone size in the normal group was 25.46±8.92 mm, 28.01±8.40 mm in the overweight group, and 26.84±7.41 mm in the obese group. Our results showed no statistically significant difference with respect to mean operative time, mean hospital stay, and stone clearance in the normal, obese, and overweight patients undergoing PCNL. Postoperative complications and analgesia requirement were also similar in all the three groups. Conclusion There was no effect of BMI on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing PCNL. PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of renal stones in obese patients. PMID:26623145

  13. Superseding the Hourglass Effect Toward the Successful Commercialization of Nanotechnology in the Medical Sciences - We Require a Change in Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Krishnan; Boehm, Frank; Sanhai-Madar, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology and, specifically, nanomedicine has been touted as the next breakthrough technology for medical sciences. Although there are large advances being seen in the preclinical phases of development, there is still a paucity of viable and effective nanomedicine technologies in the clinical setting. We attempt to provide some suggestions as to the stumbling blocks of meaningful translation of this technology from the bench to the bedside. We give due consideration to the role of evidence-based medicine, regulatory pathways, and the commercialization efforts of nanomedicine at various stages in playing key roles in moving this technology into clinical use. PMID:27551650

  14. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Results demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either a-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Cycloheximide, however, repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposures. Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation and that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  15. The effects of direct instruction on the single-word reading skills of children who require augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Karen A; Light, Janice; McNaughton, David; Drager, Kathryn; Hammer, Carol

    2004-12-01

    Current literature suggests a lack of empirically validated strategies for teaching reading skills to children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The current study implemented a single-subject, multiple-probe-across-subjects design to investigate the effects of direct instruction in single-word reading on the performance of students who use AAC. The instructional program targeted the reading skills of 5 participants who had severe speech impairments and ranged in age from 9 to 14 years old. All 5 participants reached criterion for matching targeted written words to corresponding pictures. Three of the 5 participants demonstrated generalization of reading skills to novel-word reading, and 4 of the 5 generalized reading skills to book contexts. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. The effects of amphetamine on recovery of function after cortical damage in the rat depend on the behavioral requirements of the task.

    PubMed

    Schmanke, T D; Avery, R A; Barth, T M

    1996-06-01

    The effects of amphetamine on the recovery of function following unilateral lesions of the rat somatic sensorimotor cortex (SMC) were examined. Rats with large SMC were tested on two measures of locomotor placing: the beam-walking test and the foot-fault test. Amphetamine produced an immediate and enduring facilitation of recovery on the beam-walking test. In contrast, the drug had no effect on the rats' ability to accurately place the forelimbs on the rungs of the elevated grid during locomotion on the foot-fault test. These data suggest that amphetamine may facilitate recovery when the requirements of the task produce a deficit in the initiation of locomotion but not when the animal is required to use somatosensory and proprioceptive cues to guide performance on the task. A second group of rats with smaller SMC lesions was evaluated with tactile-placing tests and the bilateral-tactile stimulation task. The forelimb placing reaction is elicited by unilateral tactile stimulation of the vibrissae or forelimb, whereas the ipsilateral asymmetry observed on the bilateral-tactile stimulation test has been interpreted as an impairment in processing stimuli presented on both sides of the body. On two measures of forelimb placing amphetamine produced a facilitation of recovery, but restoration of function was not observed during the period of drug intoxication. In contrast, amphetamine had no effect on recovery of function on the bilateral-tactile stimulation test. Taken together, these data suggest that the behavioral requirements of the task are an important factor in determining the facilitatory effects of amphetamine on recovery of function. PMID:8835797

  17. Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector’s climatic suitability and virus’ temperature requirements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. Methods The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences. In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. Results European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e

  18. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective.

    PubMed

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Lamers, Sanne M A; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2016-01-01

    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web

  19. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective.

    PubMed

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Lamers, Sanne M A; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2016-01-01

    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web

  20. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective

    PubMed Central

    Trompetter, Hester R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Lamers, Sanne M. A.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.

    2016-01-01

    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web

  1. Inclusivity and dementia: health services planning with individuals with dementia: effective inclusion requires action at multiple levels by individuals with dementia, care partners, service providers and funding organizations.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Kyle; Wismer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Historically, Alzheimer societies have identified the care partners of persons with dementia as their central clients. This focus is broadening to include the person with the disease, as well. This paper presents the results of a Canadian research study addressing organizational considerations related to effective inclusion of persons with dementia in planning and decision-making about health services and programs. Our findings suggest that effective inclusion requires action at multiple levels by individuals with dementia, care partners and friends; service organizations and providers; and funding organizations. Additional research is needed to explore the applicability of these findings to other organizations in different localities and to examine emergent themes further. Of these, one that has received little attention to date concerns the potential risks associated with effective inclusion.

  2. Protein adsorption is required for stealth effect of poly(ethylene glycol)- and poly(phosphoester)-coated nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Schöttler, Susanne; Becker, Greta; Winzen, Svenja; Steinbach, Tobias; Mohr, Kristin; Landfester, Katharina; Mailänder, Volker; Wurm, Frederik R

    2016-04-01

    The current gold standard to reduce non-specific cellular uptake of drug delivery vehicles is by covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). It is thought that PEG can reduce protein adsorption and thereby confer a stealth effect. Here, we show that polystyrene nanocarriers that have been modified with PEG or poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP) and exposed to plasma proteins exhibit a low cellular uptake, whereas those not exposed to plasma proteins show high non-specific uptake. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that exposed nanocarriers formed a protein corona that contains an abundance of clusterin proteins (also known as apolipoprotein J). When the polymer-modified nanocarriers were incubated with clusterin, non-specific cellular uptake could be reduced. Our results show that in addition to reducing protein adsorption, PEG, and now PEEPs, can affect the composition of the protein corona that forms around nanocarriers, and the presence of distinct proteins is necessary to prevent non-specific cellular uptake.

  3. Protein adsorption is required for stealth effect of poly(ethylene glycol)- and poly(phosphoester)-coated nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöttler, Susanne; Becker, Greta; Winzen, Svenja; Steinbach, Tobias; Mohr, Kristin; Landfester, Katharina; Mailänder, Volker; Wurm, Frederik R.

    2016-04-01

    The current gold standard to reduce non-specific cellular uptake of drug delivery vehicles is by covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). It is thought that PEG can reduce protein adsorption and thereby confer a stealth effect. Here, we show that polystyrene nanocarriers that have been modified with PEG or poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP) and exposed to plasma proteins exhibit a low cellular uptake, whereas those not exposed to plasma proteins show high non-specific uptake. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that exposed nanocarriers formed a protein corona that contains an abundance of clusterin proteins (also known as apolipoprotein J). When the polymer-modified nanocarriers were incubated with clusterin, non-specific cellular uptake could be reduced. Our results show that in addition to reducing protein adsorption, PEG, and now PEEPs, can affect the composition of the protein corona that forms around nanocarriers, and the presence of distinct proteins is necessary to prevent non-specific cellular uptake.

  4. Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on water and acid requirements of soybeans grown in a recirculating hydroponic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Lowery, W.; Sager, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Establishing mass budgets of various crop needs, i.e. water and nutrients, in different environments is essential for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The effects of CO2 (500 and 1000 umol mol (exp -1)) on water and acid use (for pH control) by soybeans in a recirculating hydroponic system were examined. Plants of cvs. McCall and Pixie were grown for 90 days using the nutrient film technique (NFT) and a nitrate based nutrient solution. System acid use for both CO2 levels peaked near 4 weeks during a phase of rapid vegetative growth, but acid use decreased more rapidly under 500 compared to 1000 umol mol (exp GR) CO2. Total system water use by 500 and 1000 umol mol (exp -1) plants was similar, leaving off at 5 weeks and declining as plants senesced (ca. 9 weeks). However, single leaf transpiration rates were consistently lower at 1000 umol mol (exp -1). The data suggest that high CO2 concentrations increase system acid (and nutrient) use because of increased vegetative growth, which in turn negates the benefit of reduced water use (lower transpiration rates) per unit leaf area.

  5. The acid-labile subunit is required for full effects of exogenous growth hormone on growth and carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Iori; Giesy, Sarah L; Harvatine, Kevin J; Kim, Jin Wook; Boisclair, Yves R

    2009-07-01

    Normal postnatal growth is dependent in part on overlapping actions of GH and IGF-I. These actions reflect GH stimulation of IGF-I production in liver and extrahepatic tissues, representing respectively the endocrine and autocrine/paracrine arms of the IGF system. Recent experiments in genetically modified mice show that each source of IGF-I can compensate for absence of the other but do not resolve their relative role in postnatal growth. In an effort to address this issue, we studied the GH responsiveness of mice harboring a null mutation of the acid-labile subunit (ALS). Null ALS mice have a substantial reduction in endocrine IGF-I but, unlike other models of plasma IGF-I deficiency, have no obvious additional endocrine defects. Wild type and null ALS mice of both sexes received daily sc injections of saline or recombinant bovine GH between d 35 and 63 of postnatal age. The GH-stimulated body weight gain of null ALS mice was reduced by more than 30% relative to wild type mice, irrespective of sex. Reductions in GH responsiveness were also seen for kidney and linear growth. Absence of ALS eliminated the ability of GH to increase plasma IGF-I despite intact GH-dependent stimulation of IGF-I expression in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. GH treatment was also less efficient in antagonizing insulin action in null ALS mice. Overall, these results suggest that the GH effects mediated by endocrine IGF-I depends on ALS, and accordingly null ALS mice are less responsive to exogenous GH therapy.

  6. Requirements based system risk modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steven; Feather, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The problem that we address in this paper is assessing the expected degree of success of the system or mission based on the degree to which each requirement is satisfied and the relative weight of the requirements. We assume a complete list of the requirements, the relevant risk elements and their probability of occurrence and the quantified effect of the risk elements on the requirements. In order to assess the degree to which each requirement is satisfied, we need to determine the effect of the various risk elements on the requirement.

  7. CKM Gene G (Ncoi-) Allele Has a Positive Effect on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Caucasian Women Practicing Sports Requiring Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gronek, Piotr; Holdys, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Stanisławski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The search for genes with a positive influence on physical fitness is a difficult process. Physical fitness is a trait determined by multiple genes, and its genetic basis is then modified by numerous environmental factors. The present study examines the effects of the polymorphism of creatine kinase (CKM) gene on VO2max – a physiological index of aerobic capacity of high heritability. The study sample consisted of 154 men and 85 women, who were students of the University School of Physical Education in Poznań and athletes practicing various sports, including members of the Polish national team. The study revealed a positive effect of a rare G (NcoI−) allele of the CKM gene on maximal oxygen uptake in Caucasian women practicing sports requiring aerobic and anaerobic exercise metabolism. Also a tendency was noted in individuals with NcoI−/− (GG) and NcoI−/+ (GA) genotypes to reach higher VO2max levels. PMID:24511349

  8. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  9. Performance Requirements to Achieve Cost-Effectiveness of Point-of-Care Tests for Sepsis Among Patients with Febrile Illness in Low-Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Penno, Erin C; Crump, John A; Baird, Sarah J

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial sepsis is an important cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries, yet distinguishing patients with sepsis from those with other illnesses remains a challenge. Currently, management decisions are based on clinical assessment using algorithms such as Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness. Efforts to develop and evaluate point-of-care tests (POCTs) for sepsis to guide decisions on the use of antimicrobials are underway. To establish the minimum performance characteristics of such a test, we varied the characteristics of a hypothetical POCT for sepsis required for it to be cost-effective and applied a decision tree model to a population of febrile patients presenting at the district hospital level in a low-resource setting. We used a case fatality probability of 20% for appropriately treated sepsis and of 50% for inappropriately treated sepsis. On the basis of clinical assessment for sepsis with established sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.62, we found that a POCT for sepsis with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.94 was cost-effective, resulting in parity in survival but costing $1.14 less per live saved. A POCT with accuracy equivalent to the best malaria rapid diagnostic test was cheaper and more effective than clinical assessment. PMID:26195467

  10. Performance Requirements to Achieve Cost-Effectiveness of Point-of-Care Tests for Sepsis among Patients with Febrile Illness in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Penno, Erin C.; Crump, John A.; Baird, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis is an important cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries, yet distinguishing patients with sepsis from those with other illnesses remains a challenge. Currently, management decisions are based on clinical assessment using algorithms such as Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness. Efforts to develop and evaluate point-of-care tests (POCTs) for sepsis to guide decisions on the use of antimicrobials are underway. To establish the minimum performance characteristics of such a test, we varied the characteristics of a hypothetical POCT for sepsis required for it to be cost-effective and applied a decision tree model to a population of febrile patients presenting at the district hospital level in a low-resource setting. We used a case fatality probability of 20% for appropriately treated sepsis and of 50% for inappropriately treated sepsis. On the basis of clinical assessment for sepsis with established sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.62, we found that a POCT for sepsis with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.94 was cost-effective, resulting in parity in survival but costing $1.14 less per live saved. A POCT with accuracy equivalent to the best malaria rapid diagnostic test was cheaper and more effective than clinical assessment. PMID:26195467

  11. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    PubMed

    Dowall, Stuart D; Graham, Victoria A; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Watson, Robert; Taylor, Irene; Rule, Antony; Carroll, Miles W; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  12. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses

    PubMed Central

    Dowall, Stuart D.; Graham, Victoria A.; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Watson, Robert; Taylor, Irene; Rule, Antony; Carroll, Miles W.; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge. PMID:27272940

  13. Sorry, You Can't Have That Information: Data Holder Confusion Regarding Privacy Requirements for Personal Health Information and the Potential Chilling Effect on Health Research.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Daryl; Buehler, Sharon K; Felt, Larry; Gallagher, Katherine; House, Jeannie; Keough, T Montgomery; McDonald, Lucy; Power, Angela; Ryan, Ann

    2009-05-01

    This study, conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador, assessed the level of awareness, perceptions and concerns of healthcare providers, health researchers, data managers and the general public about the collection, use and disclosure of personal health information (PHI) for research purposes. Data collection involved surveys and follow-up focus groups with participants. Results indicate a poor understanding generally with regard to privacy rights and responsibilities. Many professionals are unfamiliar with the legislative environment for PHI, particularly as it pertains to the access and use of PHI for research purposes. Lack of familiarity with basic requirements for patient-based research, coupled with heightened sensitivity to privacy issues owing to various federal and provincial regulatory initiatives, could have a chilling effect on health research. Importantly, our results indicate that the public is much less concerned about the use of their PHI for health research purposes than are professionals who collect, store and share it.

  14. Effects of Music Therapy on Anesthesia Requirements and Anxiety in Women Undergoing Ambulatory Breast Surgery for Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley Palmer, Jaclyn; Lane, Deforia; Mayo, Diane; Schluchter, Mark; Leeming, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of live and recorded perioperative music therapy on anesthesia requirements, anxiety levels, recovery time, and patient satisfaction in women experiencing surgery for diagnosis or treatment of breast cancer. Patients and Methods Between 2012 and 2014, 207 female patients undergoing surgery for potential or known breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive either patient-selected live music (LM) preoperatively with therapist-selected recorded music intraoperatively (n = 69), patient-selected recorded music (RM) preoperatively with therapist-selected recorded music intraoperatively (n = 70), or usual care (UC) preoperatively with noise-blocking earmuffs intraoperatively (n = 68). Results The LM and the RM groups did not differ significantly from the UC group in the amount of propofol required to reach moderate sedation. Compared with the UC group, both the LM and the RM groups had greater reductions (P < .001) in anxiety scores preoperatively (mean changes [and standard deviation: −30.9 [36.3], −26.8 [29.3], and 0.0 [22.7]), respectively. The LM and RM groups did not differ from the UC group with respect to recovery time; however, the LM group had a shorter recovery time compared with the RM group (a difference of 12.4 minutes; 95% CI, 2.2 to 22.5; P = .018). Satisfaction scores for the LM and RM groups did not differ from those of the UC group. Conclusion Including music therapy as a complementary modality with cancer surgery may help manage preoperative anxiety in a way that is safe, effective, time-efficient, and enjoyable. PMID:26282640

  15. Integration of the AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotopic separation) process into the nuclear fuel cycle. [Effect of AVLIS feed requirements on overall fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, R.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Eby, R.S.; Pashley, J.H.; Norman, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    AVLIS RD and D efforts are currently proceeding toward full-scale integrated enrichment demonstrations in the late 1980's and potential plant deployment in the mid 1990's. Since AVLIS requires a uranium metal feed and produces an enriched uranium metal product, some change in current uranium processing practices are necessitated. AVLIS could operate with a UF/sub 6/-in UF/sub 6/-out interface with little effect to the remainder of the fuel cycle. This path, however, does not allow electric utility customers to realize the full potential of low cost AVLIS enrichment. Several alternative processing methods have been identified and evaluated which appear to provide opportunities to make substantial cost savings in the overall fuel cycle. These alternatives involve varying levels of RD and D resources, calendar time, and technical risk to implement and provide these cost reduction opportunities. Both feed conversion contracts and fuel fabricator contracts are long-term entities. Because of these factors, it is not too early to start planning and making decisions on the most advantageous options so that AVLIS can be integrated cost effectively into the fuel cycle. This should offer economic opportunity to all parties involved including DOE, utilities, feed converters, and fuel fabricators. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Simulated effects of dam removal on water temperatures along the Klamath River, Oregon and California, using 2010 Biological Opinion flow requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Brewer, Scott J.; Perry, Russell W.

    2012-01-01

    Computer model simulations were run to determine the effects of dam removal on water temperatures along the Klamath River, located in south-central Oregon and northern California, using flow requirements defined in the 2010 Biological Opinion of the National Marine Fisheries Service. A one-dimensional, daily averaged water temperature model (River Basin Model-10) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 10, Seattle, Washington, was used in the analysis. This model had earlier been configured and calibrated for the Klamath River by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Klamath Secretarial Determination to simulate the effects of dam removal on water temperatures for current (2011) and future climate change scenarios. The analysis for this report was performed outside of the scope of the Klamath Secretarial Determination process at the request of the Bureau of Reclamation Technical Services Office, Denver, Colorado.For this analysis, two dam scenarios were simulated: “dams in” and “dams out.” In the “dams in” scenario, existing dams in the Klamath River were kept in place. In the “dams out” scenario, the river was modeled as a natural stream, without the J.C. Boyle, Copco1, Copco2, and Iron Gate Dams, for the entire simulation period. Output from the two dam scenario simulations included daily water temperatures simulated at 29 locations for a 50-year period along the Klamath River between river mile 253 (downstream of Link River Dam) and the Pacific Ocean. Both simulations used identical flow requirements, formulated in the 2010 Biological Opinion, and identical climate conditions based on the period 1961–2009.Simulated water temperatures from January through June at almost all locations between J.C. Boyle Reservoir and the Pacific Ocean were higher for the “dams out” scenario than for the “dams in” scenario. The simulated mean monthly water temperature increase was highest [1.7–2

  17. Comparative Effects of Ethanol (E85), Gasoline, and Wind-Powered Electric Vehicles on Cancer, Mortality, Climate-Relevant Emissions, and Land requirements in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a nested global-through-urban air pollution/weather forecast model is combined with high- resolution future emission inventories, population data, and health effects data to examine the effect of converting from gasoline to a high-ethanol blend (E85) on cancer, mortality, and hospitalization in the U.S. as a whole and Los Angeles in particular. The effects of both are then compared with those from converting to wind-powered battery-electric vehicles (WBEVs). Under the base-case emission scenario, which accounted for projected improvements in gasoline and E85 vehicle emission controls, complete conversion to E85, which is unlikely due to land-use constraints, was found to increase ozone-related mortality, hospitalization, and asthma by about 9 percent in Los Angeles and 4 percent in the U.S. as a whole relative to 100 percent gasoline. Ozone increases in Los Angeles and the northeast U.S. were partially offset by decreases in the southeast. E85 also increased PAN in the U.S. but was estimated to cause little change in cancer risk relative to gasoline. Both gasoline and ethanol are anticipated to cause at least 10,000-20,000 premature deaths in the U.S. in 2020, which would be eliminated upon conversion to WBEVs. WBEVs require 30 times less land area than corn ethanol and 20 times less land area than cellulosic ethanol for powering the same vehicle fleet. About 70,000-120,000 5 MW wind turbines in average wind speeds exceeding 8 m/s could power all U.S. onroad vehicles, eliminating up to 26 percent of U.S. carbon, compared with a best-case carbon reduction of 0.2 percent for corn-ethanol and 4 percent for cellulosic ethanol, based on recent lifecycle emission data and landuse constraints. In sum, both gasoline and E85 pose public health risks, with E85 causing equal or possibly more damage. The conversion to battery-electric vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles powered by wind or another clean renewable, is a significantly superior solution to

  18. Angiotensin II-induced pro-fibrotic effects require p38MAPK activity and transforming growth factor beta 1 expression in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Morales, María Gabriela; Vazquez, Yaneisi; Acuña, María José; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Simon, Felipe; Salas, José Diego; Alvarez Ruf, Joel; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2012-11-01

    Fibrotic disorders are typically characterised by excessive connective tissue and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition that preclude the normal healing of different tissues. Several skeletal muscle dystrophies are characterised by extensive fibrosis. Among the factors involved in skeletal muscle fibrosis is angiotensin II (Ang-II), a key protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We previously demonstrated that myoblasts responded to Ang-II by increasing the ECM protein levels mediated by AT-1 receptors, implicating an Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent mechanism. In this paper, we show that in myoblasts, Ang-II induced the increase of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression through its AT-1 receptor. This effect is dependent of the NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-induced ROS, as indicated by a decrease of the expression of both pro-fibrotic factors when the ROS production was inhibited via the NOX inhibitor apocynin. The increase in pro-fibrotic factors levels was paralleled by enhanced p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to Ang-II. However, only the p38MAPK activity was critical for the Ang-II-induced fibrotic effects, as indicated by the decrease in the Ang-II-induced TGF-β1 and CTGF expression and fibronectin levels by SB-203580, an inhibitor of the p38MAPK, but not by U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we showed that the Ang-II-dependent p38MAPK activation, but not the ERK1/2 phosphorylation, was necessary for the NOX-derived ROS. In addition, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 expression was required for the Ang-II-induced pro-fibrotic effects evaluated by using SB-431542, an inhibitor of TGF-βRI kinase activity, and by knocking down TGF-β1 levels by shRNA technique. These results strongly suggest that the fibrotic response to Ang-II is mediated by the AT-1 receptor and requires the p38MAPK phosphorylation, NOX-induced ROS, and TGF

  19. Requirements for color technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ronald B., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The requirements for color technology in the general office are reviewed. The two most salient factors driving the requirements for color are the information explosion and the virtually negligible growth in white collar productivity in the recent past. Accordingly, the business requirement upon color technology is that it be utilized in an effective and efficient manner to increase office productivity. Recent research on productivity and growth has moved beyond the classical two factor productivity model of labor and capital to explicitly include knowledge as a third and vital factor. Documents are agents of knowledge in the general office. Documents articulate, express, disseminate, and communicate knowledge. The central question addressed here is how can color, in conjunction with other techniques such as graphics and document design, improve the growth of knowledge? The central thesis is that the effective use of color to convert information into knowledge is one of the most powerful ways to increase office productivity. Material on the value of color is reviewed. This material is related to the role of documents. Document services are the way in which users access and utilize color technology. The requirements for color technology are then defined against the services taxonomy.

  20. X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 Is a Novel Maternal-Effect Gene Required for Left-Right Asymmetry in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Desvignes, Thomas; Nguyen, Thaovi; Chesnel, Franck; Bouleau, Aurélien; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2) gene is responsible for up to 20% of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, a severe heterogeneous genetic disorder resulting in progressive retinal degeneration in humans. In vertebrates, several bodies of evidence have clearly established the role of Rp2 protein in cilia genesis and/or function. Unexpectedly, some observations in zebrafish have suggested the oocyte-predominant expression of the rp2 gene, a typical feature of maternal-effect genes. In the present study, we investigate the maternal inheritance of rp2 gene products in zebrafish eggs in order to address whether rp2 could be a novel maternal-effect gene required for normal development. Although both rp2 mRNA and corresponding protein are expressed during oogenesis, rp2 mRNA is maternally inherited, in contrast to Rp2 protein. A knockdown of the protein transcribed from both rp2 maternal and zygotic mRNA results in delayed epiboly and severe developmental defects, including eye malformations, that were not observed when only the protein from zygotic origin was knocked down. Moreover, the knockdown of maternal and zygotic Rp2 revealed a high incidence of left-right asymmetry establishment defects compared to only zygotic knockdown. Here we show that rp2 is a novel maternal-effect gene exclusively expressed in oocytes within the zebrafish ovary and demonstrate that maternal rp2 mRNA is essential for successful embryonic development and thus contributes to egg developmental competence. Our observations also reveal that Rp2 protein translated from maternal mRNA is important to allow normal heart loop formation, thus providing evidence of a direct maternal contribution to left-right asymmetry establishment.

  1. Antiapoptotic effects of erythropoietin in differentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells require activation of both the STAT5 and AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Um, Moonkyoung; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-01

    The hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) prevents neuronal death during ischemic events in the brain and in neurodegenerative diseases, presumably through its antiapoptotic effects. To explore the role of different signaling pathways in Epo-mediated antiapoptotic effects in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we employed a prolactin receptor (PrlR)/erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) chimera system, in which binding of prolactin (Prl) to the extracellular domain activates EpoR signaling in the cytosol. On induction of apoptosis by staurosporine, Prl supports survival of the SH-SY5Y cells expressing the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera. In these cells Prl treatment strongly activates the STAT5, AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways and induces weak activation of the p65 NF-kappaB factor. Selective mutation of the eight tyrosine residues of the EpoR cytoplasmic domain results in impaired or absent activation of either STAT5 (mutation of Tyr(343)) or AKT (mutation of Tyr(479)) or both (mutation of all eight tyrosine residues). Most interestingly, Prl treatment does not prevent apoptosis in cells expressing mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras in which either the STAT5 or the AKT signaling pathways are not activated. In contrast, ERK 1/2 is fully activated by all mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras, comparable with the level seen with the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera, implying that activation of the MAPK signaling pathway per se is not sufficient for antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, the antiapoptotic effects of Epo in neuronal cells require the combinatorial activation of multiple signaling pathways, including STAT5, AKT, and potentially MAPK as well, in a manner similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells.

  2. Effects of influenza A virus NS1 protein on protein expression: the NS1 protein enhances translation and is not required for shutoff of host protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Mirella; Basler, Christopher F; Parisien, Jean-Patrick; Horvath, Curt M; Bourmakina, Svetlana; Zheng, Hongyong; Muster, Thomas; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2002-02-01

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein, a virus-encoded alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) antagonist, appears to be a key regulator of protein expression in infected cells. We now show that NS1 protein expression results in enhancement of reporter gene activity from transfected plasmids. This effect appears to be mediated at the translational level, and it is reminiscent of the activity of the adenoviral virus-associated I (VAI) RNA, a known inhibitor of the antiviral, IFN-induced, PKR protein. To study the effects of the NS1 protein on viral and cellular protein synthesis during influenza A virus infection, we used recombinant influenza viruses lacking the NS1 gene (delNS1) or expressing truncated NS1 proteins. Our results demonstrate that the NS1 protein is required for efficient viral protein synthesis in COS-7 cells. This activity maps to the amino-terminal domain of the NS1 protein, since cells infected with wild-type virus or with a mutant virus expressing a truncated NS1 protein-lacking approximately half of its carboxy-terminal end-showed similar kinetics of viral and cellular protein expression. Interestingly, no major differences in host cell protein synthesis shutoff or in viral protein expression were found among NS1 mutant viruses in Vero cells. Thus, another viral component(s) different from the NS1 protein is responsible for the inhibition of host protein synthesis during viral infection. In contrast to the earlier proposal suggesting that the NS1 protein regulates the levels of spliced M2 mRNA, no effects on M2 protein accumulation were seen in Vero cells infected with delNS1 virus.

  3. Depletion of Plasma Antioxidants in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients Requiring Parenteral Feeding: Effects of Parenteral Nutrition With or Without Alanyl-Glutamine Dipeptide Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Menghua; Fernandez-Estivariz, Concepcion; Jones, Dean P.; Accardi, Carolyn R.; Alteheld, Birgit; Bazargan, Niloofar; Hao, Li; Griffith, Daniel P.; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Galloway, John R.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Antioxidant depletion is common in critically ill patients. This study was designed to determine the effects of PN, with or without glutamine (Gln) supplementation, on systemic antioxidant status in adult patients after major surgery who required parenteral nutrition (PN) in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) setting. Methods Fifty-nine SICU patients who required PN following pancreatic surgery or cardiac, vascular or colonic (non-pancreatic) surgery were randomized in a double-blind study to receive standard PN (Gln-free) or Gln-supplemented PN (Gln-PN) in which Gln was provided as alanyl-Gln dipeptide. Conventional PN vitamin and mineral doses were administered to all subjects. Plasma concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the anti-oxidant nutrients α-tocopherol, vitamin C and zinc were determined at baseline (initiation of study PN) and again after 7 days of study PN. Data were analyzed for the total study cohort and within the pancreatic surgery and non-pancreatic (cardiac, vascular and colonic) surgery patient subgroups. Results Mean plasma antioxidant concentrations were within or slightly below the normal ranges at baseline. However, a high percentage of patients demonstrated below normal baseline plasma concentrations of GSH (59%), vitamin C (59%) and zinc (68%), respectively. A lower percentage of patients exhibited below normal plasma α-tocopherol levels (21%). Study PN significantly improved plasma zinc levels in the entire study group and each surgical subgroup. Gln-PN significantly improved the change in plasma reduced GSH from baseline to day 7 in the non-pancreatic surgery patients (PN: −0.27 µM vs Gln-PN: +0.26 µM; p<0.03). Conclusions Low plasma levels of key antioxidants were common in this group of SICU patients despite administration of PN containing conventional micronutrients. Compared to standard PN, Gln-supplemented PN improved plasma GSH levels in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular or colonic

  4. Extended acclimatization is required to eliminate stress effects of periodic blood-sampling procedures on vasoactive hormones and blood volume in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, M R; Birmingham, J M; Patel, B; Whelan, G A; Krebs-Brown, A J; Hockings, P D; Osborne, J A

    2002-10-01

    Important in all experimental animal studies is the need to control stress stimuli associated with environmental change and experimental procedures. As the stress response involves alterations in levels of vasoactive hormones, ensuing changes in cardiovascular parameters may confound experimental outcomes. Accordingly, we evaluated the duration required for dogs (n = 4) to acclimatized to frequent blood sampling that involved different procedures. On each sampling occasion during a 6-week period, dogs were removed from their pen to a laboratory area and blood was collected either by venepuncture (days 2, 15, 34, 41) for plasma renin activity (PRA), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine, aldosterone, insulin, and atrial natriuretic peptide, or by cannulation (dogs restrained in slings; days 1, 8, 14, 22, 30, 33, 37, 40) for determination of haematocrit (HCT) alone (days 1 to 22) or HCT with plasma volume (PV; days 30 to 40). PRA was higher on days 2 and 15 compared with days 34 and 41 and had decreased by up to 48% by the end of the study (day 41 vs day 15; mean/SEM: 1.18/0.27 vs 2.88/0.79 ng ANG I/ml/h, respectively). EPI showed a time-related decrease from days 2 to 34, during which mean values had decreased by 51% (mean/SEM: 279/29 vs 134/20.9 pg/ml for days 2 and 34, respectively), but appeared stable from then on. None of the other hormones showed any significant variability throughout the course of the study. HCT was relatively variable between days 1 to 22 but stabilized from day 30, after which all mean values were approximately 6% lower than those between days 1 and 8. We conclude that an acclimatization period of at least 4 weeks is required to eliminate stress-related effects in dogs associated with periodic blood sampling. PMID:12396283

  5. Protein metabolism and requirements.

    PubMed

    Biolo, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adaptation to critical illness includes insulin resistance, accelerated proteolysis, and increased release of glutamine and the other amino acids. Such amino acid efflux from skeletal muscle provides precursors for protein synthesis and energy fuel to the liver and to the rapidly dividing cells of the intestinal mucosa and the immune system. From these adaptation mechanisms, severe muscle wasting, glutamine depletion, and hyperglycemia, with increased patient morbidity and mortality, may ensue. Protein/amino acid nutrition, through either enteral or parenteral routes, plays a pivotal role in treatment of metabolic abnormalities in critical illness. In contrast to energy requirement, which can be accurately assessed by indirect calorimetry, methods to determine individual protein/amino acid needs are not currently available. In critical illness, a decreased ability of protein/amino acid intake to promote body protein synthesis is defined as anabolic resistance. This abnormality leads to increased protein/amino acid requirement and relative inefficiency of nutritional interventions. In addition to stress mediators, immobility and physical inactivity are key determinants of anabolic resistance. The development of mobility protocols in the intensive care unit should be encouraged to enhance the efficacy of nutrition. In critical illness, protein/amino acid requirement has been defined as the intake level associated with the lowest rate of catabolism. The optimal protein-sparing effects in patients receiving adequate energy are achieved when protein/amino acids are administered at rates between 1.3 and 1.5 g/kg/day. Extra glutamine supplementation is required in conditions of severe systemic inflammatory response. Protein requirement increases during hypocaloric feeding and in patients with acute renal failure on continuous renal replacement therapy. Evidence suggests that receiving adequate protein/amino acid intake may be more important than achieving

  6. PCB storage requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  7. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of rRNA genes requires a copy number correction to accurately reflect the effects of management practices on soil nematode community structure.

    PubMed

    Darby, B J; Todd, T C; Herman, M A

    2013-11-01

    Nematodes are abundant consumers in grassland soils, but more sensitive and specific methods of enumeration are needed to improve our understanding of how different nematode species affect, and are affected by, ecosystem processes. High-throughput amplicon sequencing is used to enumerate microbial and invertebrate communities at a high level of taxonomic resolution, but the method requires validation against traditional specimen-based morphological identifications. To investigate the consistency between these approaches, we enumerated nematodes from a 25-year field experiment using both morphological and molecular identification techniques in order to determine the long-term effects of annual burning and nitrogen enrichment on soil nematode communities. Family-level frequencies based on amplicon sequencing were not initially consistent with specimen-based counts, but correction for differences in rRNA gene copy number using a genetic algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. Multivariate analysis of corrected sequence-based abundances of nematode families was consistent with, but not identical to, analysis of specimen-based counts. In both cases, herbivores, fungivores and predator/omnivores generally were more abundant in burned than nonburned plots, while bacterivores generally were more abundant in nonburned or nitrogen-enriched plots. Discriminate analysis of sequence-based abundances identified putative indicator species representing each trophic group. We conclude that high-throughput amplicon sequencing can be a valuable method for characterizing nematode communities at high taxonomic resolution as long as rRNA gene copy number variation is accounted for and accurate sequence databases are available. PMID:24103081

  8. Genes required for and effects of alginate overproduction induced by growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Pseudomonas isolation agar supplemented with ammonium metavanadate.

    PubMed

    Damron, F Heath; Barbier, Mariette; McKenney, Elizabeth S; Schurr, Michael J; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2013-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can adapt to changing environments and can secrete an exopolysaccharide known as alginate as a protection response, resulting in a colony morphology and phenotype referred to as mucoid. However, how P. aeruginosa senses its environment and activates alginate overproduction is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that Pseudomonas isolation agar supplemented with ammonium metavanadate (PIAAMV) induces P. aeruginosa to overproduce alginate. Vanadate is a phosphate mimic and causes protein misfolding by disruption of disulfide bonds. Here we used PIAAMV to characterize the pathways involved in inducible alginate production and tested the global effects of P. aeruginosa growth on PIAAMV by a mutant library screen, by transcriptomics, and in a murine acute virulence model. The PA14 nonredundant mutant library was screened on PIAAMV to identify new genes that are required for the inducible alginate stress response. A functionally diverse set of genes encoding products involved in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodeling, uptake of phosphate and iron, phenazine biosynthesis, and other processes were identified as positive regulators of the mucoid phenotype on PIAAMV. Transcriptome analysis of P. aeruginosa cultures growing in the presence of vanadate showed differential expression of genes involved in virulence, envelope biogenesis, and cell stress pathways. In this study, it was observed that growth on PIAAMV attenuates P. aeruginosa in a mouse pneumonia model. Induction of alginate overproduction occurs as a stress response to protect P. aeruginosa, but it may be possible to modulate and inhibit these pathways based on the new genes identified in this study.

  9. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of rRNA genes requires a copy number correction to accurately reflect the effects of management practices on soil nematode community structure.

    PubMed

    Darby, B J; Todd, T C; Herman, M A

    2013-11-01

    Nematodes are abundant consumers in grassland soils, but more sensitive and specific methods of enumeration are needed to improve our understanding of how different nematode species affect, and are affected by, ecosystem processes. High-throughput amplicon sequencing is used to enumerate microbial and invertebrate communities at a high level of taxonomic resolution, but the method requires validation against traditional specimen-based morphological identifications. To investigate the consistency between these approaches, we enumerated nematodes from a 25-year field experiment using both morphological and molecular identification techniques in order to determine the long-term effects of annual burning and nitrogen enrichment on soil nematode communities. Family-level frequencies based on amplicon sequencing were not initially consistent with specimen-based counts, but correction for differences in rRNA gene copy number using a genetic algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. Multivariate analysis of corrected sequence-based abundances of nematode families was consistent with, but not identical to, analysis of specimen-based counts. In both cases, herbivores, fungivores and predator/omnivores generally were more abundant in burned than nonburned plots, while bacterivores generally were more abundant in nonburned or nitrogen-enriched plots. Discriminate analysis of sequence-based abundances identified putative indicator species representing each trophic group. We conclude that high-throughput amplicon sequencing can be a valuable method for characterizing nematode communities at high taxonomic resolution as long as rRNA gene copy number variation is accounted for and accurate sequence databases are available.

  10. Preanalytical requirements of urinalysis

    PubMed Central

    Delanghe, Joris; Speeckaert, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Urine may be a waste product, but it contains an enormous amount of information. Well-standardized procedures for collection, transport, sample preparation and analysis should become the basis of an effective diagnostic strategy for urinalysis. As reproducibility of urinalysis has been greatly improved due to recent technological progress, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis have gained importance and have become stricter. Since the patients themselves often sample urine specimens, urinalysis is very susceptible to preanalytical issues. Various sampling methods and inappropriate specimen transport can cause important preanalytical errors. The use of preservatives may be helpful for particular analytes. Unfortunately, a universal preservative that allows a complete urinalysis does not (yet) exist. The preanalytical aspects are also of major importance for newer applications (e.g. metabolomics). The present review deals with the current preanalytical problems and requirements for the most common urinary analytes. PMID:24627718

  11. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  12. A Non-Classical LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator PA2206 Is Required for an Effective Oxidative Stress Response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Mooij, Marlies J.; O'Gara, Fergal

    2013-01-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) are emerging as key circuit components in regulating microbial stress responses and are implicated in modulating oxidative stress in the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The oxidative stress response encapsulates several strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. However, many of the regulatory components and associated molecular mechanisms underpinning this key adaptive response remain to be characterised. Comparative analysis of publically available transcriptomic datasets led to the identification of a novel LTTR, PA2206, whose expression was altered in response to a range of host signals in addition to oxidative stress. PA2206 was found to be required for tolerance to H2O2 in vitro and lethality in vivo in the Zebrafish embryo model of infection. Transcriptomic analysis in the presence of H2O2 showed that PA2206 altered the expression of 58 genes, including a large repertoire of oxidative stress and iron responsive genes, independent of the master regulator of oxidative stress, OxyR. Contrary to the classic mechanism of LysR regulation, PA2206 did not autoregulate its own expression and did not influence expression of adjacent or divergently transcribed genes. The PA2214-15 operon was identified as a direct target of PA2206 with truncated promoter fragments revealing binding to the 5′-ATTGCCTGGGGTTAT-3′ LysR box adjacent to the predicted −35 region. PA2206 also interacted with the pvdS promoter suggesting a global dimension to the PA2206 regulon, and suggests PA2206 is an important regulatory component of P. aeruginosa adaptation during oxidative stress. PMID:23382903

  13. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  14. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  15. NIRVANA network requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.J.

    1990-08-01

    NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper proposes a design and outlines the requirements for a network to support the NIRVANA project. The author proposes a near-term network design, describes the security profile and caveats of this design, and proposes a long-term networking strategy for NIRVANA. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Report and Recommendations on Intercollegiate Athletics: Effect of 2.0 GPA Requirements, Status of Women's Athletic Programs, Impact of Part-Time Coaches, Types of Units Used To Satisfy Transfer Requirements. Community College Issues, Volume 1, Number 5, April 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    In 1987-88, the Commission on Athletics' Research Committee of the California Association of Community Colleges undertook a study of the effects of the requirement that college athletes maintain a 2.0 grade point average (GPA), the status of women's sports, the use of part-time coaches, and the types of courses used to satisfy transfer…

  17. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 2 : macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M

    2006-01-01

    Among polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) provided the first coherent multidisciplinary experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (one of its major macronutrient) on the structure, the biochemistry, the physiology and thus the function of the brain. In fact, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is one for the major building structures of membrane phospholipids of brain and absolute necessary of neuronal function. It was first demonstrated that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only ALA, but also the very long polyunsaturated omega-3 (DHA) and omega-6 carbon chains. Then, it was found that ALA acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, as well as sub cellular particles such as myelin, nerve endings (synaptosomes) and mitochondria. These alterations induce physicochemical modifications in membranes, lead to biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset. Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3, ALA and DHA) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual, neurological and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids are involved in the prevention of some aspects of ischemic cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The implication of omega-3 fatty acids in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness) is under evaluation. Their dietary deficiency (and altered hepatic metabolism) can prevent the renewal of membranes and consequently accelerate cerebral ageing; nonetheless, the respective roles of the vascular component on one hand and the cerebral parenchyma itself

  18. Standards applicable to owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; liability coverage requirements--Environmental Protection Agency. Final rule and notice of extension of effective date.

    PubMed

    1982-07-13

    The effective date for qualifications of insurers providing liability insurance used to satisfy liability coverage requirements applicable to owners or operators of hazardous waste management facilities, as such requirements are included in 40 CFR Parts 264 and 265, is extended from July 15, 1982, to October 16, 1982. The effective date for the rest of the liability coverage requirements remains July 15, 1982. This extension is being provided to allow 6 months between the date of promulgation and the effective date for the insurer qualification provision, in accordance with Section 3010(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended. During the period between July 15 and October 16, 1982, owners or operators may use certificates of insurance or policy endorsements that do not certify to the qualifications of the insurer.

  19. Temperature requirements of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus: predicting the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J M; Elliott, J A

    2010-11-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta (including the anadromous form, sea trout) and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (including anadromous fish) provide important commercial and sports fisheries in Western Europe. As water temperature increases as a result of climate change, quantitative information on the thermal requirements of these three species is essential so that potential problems can be anticipated by those responsible for the conservation and sustainable management of the fisheries and the maintenance of biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Part I compares the temperature limits for survival, feeding and growth. Salmo salar has the highest temperature tolerance, followed by S. trutta and finally S. alpinus. For all three species, the temperature tolerance for alevins is slightly lower than that for parr and smolts, and the eggs have the lowest tolerance; this being the most vulnerable life stage to any temperature increase, especially for eggs of S. alpinus in shallow water. There was little evidence to support local thermal adaptation, except in very cold rivers (mean annual temperature <6·5° C). Part II illustrates the importance of developing predictive models, using data from a long-term study (1967-2000) of a juvenile anadromous S. trutta population. Individual-based models predicted the emergence period for the fry. Mean values over 34 years revealed a large variation in the timing of emergence with c. 2 months between extreme values. The emergence time correlated significantly with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, indicating that interannual variations in emergence were linked to more general changes in climate. Mean stream temperatures increased significantly in winter and spring at a rate of 0·37° C per decade, but not in summer and autumn, and led to an increase in the mean mass of pre-smolts. A growth model for S. trutta was validated by growth data from the long-term study and predicted growth under possible future

  20. Effects of climate change on water requirements and phenological period of major crops in Heihe River basin, China - Based on the accumulated temperature threshold method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongmei; Xu, Xinyi; Yan, Denghua

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, global climate change has significantly caused a serious crisis of water resources throughout the world. However, mainly through variations in temperature, climate change will affect water requirements of crop. It is obvious that the rise of temperature affects growing period and phenological period of crop directly, then changes the water demand quota of crop. Methods including accumulated temperature threshold and climatic tendency rate were adopted, which made up for the weakness of phenological observations, to reveal the response of crop phenological change during the growing period. Then using Penman-Menteith model and crop coefficients from the United Nations Food& Agriculture Organization (FAO), the paper firstly explored crop water requirements in different growth periods, and further forecasted quantitatively crop water requirements in Heihe River Basin, China under different climate change scenarios. Results indicate that: (i) The results of crop phenological change established in the method of accumulated temperature threshold were in agreement with measured results, and (ii) there were many differences in impacts of climate warming on water requirement of different crops. The growth periods of wheat and corn had tendency of shortening as well as the length of growth periods. (ii)Results of crop water requirements under different climate change scenarios showed: when temperature increased by 1°C, the start time of wheat growth period changed, 2 days earlier than before, and the length of total growth period shortened 2 days. Wheat water requirements increased by 1.4mm. However, corn water requirements decreased by almost 0.9mm due to the increasing temperature of 1°C. And the start time of corn growth period become 3 days ahead, and the length of total growth period shortened 4 days. Therefore, the contradiction between water supply and water demands are more obvious under the future climate warming in Heihe River Basin, China.

  1. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  2. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  3. Requirements and Waivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Good requirements are the first step for good communications, and good communications are central to insure an understanding between the customer and contractor. Failure to generate good requirements is unfortunately commonplace and repeated. Waivers to requirements are discussed from a risk based point of view. The assumption that every requirement will eventually be waived is used to establish a critical review of a draft safety requirement. Validation methods of requirements are addressed. Value added that safety requirements contribute to the Project is estimated to further our critical review of draft requirements.

  4. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness and Influence of Required Supplemental Video Teaching upon Students' Grades, Course Completion, Visualization Proficiency, and Course Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Wall, William J.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental group of students from an introductory engineering graphics class was required to watch 30 videotapes that presented basic concepts of engineering graphics, whereas a control group had no access to the videotapes. No differences were established between the groups. (JJK)

  5. The Effect of Requiring Private Employers to Extend Health Benefit Eligibility to Same-Sex Partners of Employees: Evidence from California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmueller, Thomas C.; Carpenter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Health disparities related to sexual orientation are well documented and may be due to unequal access to a partner's employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). We provide the literature's first evaluation of legislation enacted by California in 2005 that required private employers within the state to treat employees in committed same-sex relationships in…

  6. 40 CFR 266.260 - Do closure requirements apply to units that stored LLMW prior to the effective date of Subpart N?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Exemption for Low-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal. Storage Unit Closure... this subpart N, are not subject to the closure requirements of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265. Storage units (or portions of units) that have been used to store both LLMW and non-mixed hazardous waste prior...

  7. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  8. Requirements management system browser software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the essential user requirements for the Requirements Management System Browser (RMSB) application. This includes specifications for the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the supporting database structures. The RMSB application is needed to provide an easy to use PC-based interface to browse system engineering data stored and managed in a UNIX software application. The system engineering data include functions, requirements, and architectures that make up the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) technical baseline. This document also covers the requirements for a software application titled ``RMSB Data Loader (RMSB- DL)``, referred to as the ``Parser.`` The Parser is needed to read and parse a data file and load the data structure supporting the Browser.

  9. Siphon breaker design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, D.T.; Stephens, A.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Siphon Breaker Design Requirements Project was intended to provide experimental data on siphon flow effects. In addition, the experimental system was to be modeled with the RELAP code and the predicted and measured performances compared. This report describes the design and operation of the siphon breaker experimental equipment from 1989 to 1991. In addition the test results for all the experimental runs made in 1990 and 1991 are presented and described. Unfortunately, we have not been able to obtain useful results from a RELAP 5 model of the siphon system; consequently, we are unable to present any predictive calculations for comparison with the data presented. We have had lots of expert advice from several sources on using the RELAP code but to date our efforts have remained unsuccessful. After an extra year of effort, admittedly part-time but a lot of that, we choose to abandon the modeling efforts and produce this report describing the experimental equipment and test results.

  10. Siphon breaker design requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, D. T.; Stephens, A. G.

    1993-03-01

    The Siphon Breaker Design Requirements Project was intended to provide experimental data on siphon flow effects. In addition, the experimental system was to be modeled with the RELAP code and the predicted and measured performances compared. The design and operation of the siphon breaker experimental equipment from 1989 to 1991 are described. In addition the test results for all the experimental runs made in 1990 and 1991 are presented and described. Unfortunately, useful results were not obtained from a RELAP 5 model of the siphon system; consequently, we are unable to present any predictive calculations for comparison with the data presented. We have had lots of expert advice from several sources on using the RELAP code but to date our efforts have remained unsuccessful. After an extra year of effort, admittedly part-time but a lot of that, the modeling efforts was abandoned and the experimental equipment and test results are described.

  11. Development of transportation operations requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, S.T.; Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Peterson, R.W. ); Pope, R.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Transport conditions at various utility sties vary dramatically in terms of characteristics at and near the site, requirements, administrative procedures, and other factors. Continuation of design efforts for the OCRWM transportation operations system requires that the operating requirements for the transportation system -- quantity of fuel per unit time per site -- be identified so that the effect the variations have on the system can be accommodated. The approach outlined in this paper provides for an identification of specific sites, evaluation of shipment capabilities at each site, and integration of the sites into multi-site shipping campaigns to scope the logistics management problem for the transportation operations system. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. The Effects of Reducing the Structural Mass of the Transit Habitat on the Cryogenic Propellant Required for a Human Phobos Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A technique for rapidly determining the relationship between the pressurized volume, structural mass and the cryogenic propellant required to be delivered to Earth orbit for a Mars Transit Habitat is provided. This technique is based on assumptions for the required delta-V's, the Exploration Upper Stage performance and the historical structural masses for human spacecraft from Mercury Program through the International Space Station. If the Mars Transit Habitat is constructed from aluminum, structural mass estimates based on the habitat pressurized volume are accurate to within 15%. Other structural material options for the Mars Transit Habitat are also evaluated. The results show that small, achievable reductions in the structural mass of the Transit Habitat can save tens of thousands of pounds of cryogenic propellant that need to be delivered to Earth orbit for a human Phobos Mission.

  13. The Effects of Reducing the Structural Mass of the Transit Habitat on the Cryogenic Propellant Required for a Human Phobos Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A technique for rapidly determining the relationship between the pressurized volume, structural mass and the cryogenic propellant required to be delivered to Earth orbit for a Mars Transit Habitat is provided. This technique is based on assumptions for the required delta-V's, the Exploration Upper Stage performance and the historical structural masses for human spacecraft from Mercury Program through the International Space Station. If the Mars Transit Habitat is constructed from aluminum, structural mass estimates based on the habitat pressurized volume are accurate to within 15 percent. Other structural material options for the Mars Transit Habitat are also evaluated. The results show that small, achievable reductions in the structural mass of the Transit Habitat can save tens of thousands of pounds of cryogenic propellant that need to be delivered to Earth orbit for a human Phobos Mission.

  14. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  15. Requirements Management Database

    2009-08-13

    This application is a simplified and customized version of the RBA and CTS databases to capture federal, site, and facility requirements, link to actions that must be performed to maintain compliance with their contractual and other requirements.

  16. Switching Patients with Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease from Oral Iron to Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose: Effects on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Requirements, Costs, Hemoglobin and Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Di Gennaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) often receive an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and oral iron treatment. This study evaluated whether a switch from oral iron to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose can reduce ESA requirements and improve iron status and hemoglobin in patients with ND-CKD. Methods This prospective, single arm and single-center study included adult patients with ND-CKD (creatinine clearance ≤40 mL/min), hemoglobin 11–12 g/dL and iron deficiency (ferritin <100 μg/L or transferrin saturation <20%), who were regularly treated with oral iron and ESA during 6 months prior to inclusion. Study patients received an intravenous ferric carboxymaltose dose of 1,000 mg iron, followed by a 6-months ESA/ ferric carboxymaltose maintenance regimen (target: hemoglobin 12 g/dL, transferrin saturation >20%). Outcome measures were ESA dose requirements during the observation period after initial ferric carboxymaltose treatment (primary endpoint); number of hospitalizations and transfusions, renal function before and after ferric carboxymaltose administration, number of adverse reactions (secondary endpoints). Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin and transferrin saturation were measured monthly from baseline until end of study. Creatinine clearance, proteinuria, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase bimonthly from baseline until end of study. Results Thirty patients were enrolled (age 70.1±11.4 years; mean±SD). Mean ESA consumption was significantly reduced by 83.2±10.9% (from 41,839±3,668 IU/patient to 6,879±4,271 IU/patient; p<0.01). Hemoglobin increased by 0.7±0.3 g/dL, ferritin by 196.0±38.7 μg/L and transferrin saturation by 5.3±2.9% (month 6 vs. baseline; all p<0.01). No ferric carboxymaltose-related adverse events were reported and no patient withdrew or required transfusions during the study. Conclusion Among patients with ND

  17. U.S. aerospace industry opinion of the effect of computer-aided prediction-design technology on future wind-tunnel test requirements for aircraft development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treon, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the U.S. aerospace industry in late 1977 suggests that there will be an increasing use of computer-aided prediction-design technology (CPD Tech) in the aircraft development process but that, overall, only a modest reduction in wind-tunnel test requirements from the current level is expected in the period through 1995. Opinions were received from key spokesmen in 23 of the 26 solicited major companies or corporate divisions involved in the design and manufacture of nonrotary wing aircraft. Development programs for nine types of aircraft related to test phases and wind-tunnel size and speed range were considered.

  18. Intact insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling is required for growth hormone effects on skeletal muscle growth and function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Barton, Elisabeth; Muja, Naser; Yakar, Shoshana; Pennisi, Patricia; Leroith, Derek

    2005-04-01

    GH and IGF-I are potent regulators of muscle growth and function. Although IGF-I is known to mediate many of the effects of GH, it is not yet clear whether all effects of GH are completely dependent on the IGF-I system. To evaluate the biological effects of the GH/IGF-I axis on muscle growth, we administrated recombinant human GH to mice, which lack IGF-I function specifically in skeletal muscle, due to the overexpression of a dominant-negative IGF-I receptor in this tissue (MKR mice). GH treatment significantly increased the levels of hepatic IGF-I mRNA and serum IGF-I levels in both wild-type (WT) and MKR mice. These GH-induced effects were paralleled by increases in body weight and in the weights of most GH-responsive organs in both groups of mice. Interestingly, unlike WT mice, GH treatment had no effect on skeletal muscle weight in MKR mice. GH treatment failed to reverse the impaired muscle function in MKR mice. Furthermore, MKR mice exhibited no effects of GH on the cross-sectional area of myofibers and the proliferation of satellite cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the in vivo effects of GH on muscle mass and strength are primarily mediated by activation of the IGF-I receptor.

  19. Closed Loop Requirements and Analysis Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, Michael; Verhoef, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Effective systems engineering involves the use of analysis in the derivation of requirements and verification of designs against those requirements. The initial development of requirements often depends on analysis for the technical definition of specific aspects of a product. Following the allocation of system-level requirements to a product's components, the closure of those requirements often involves analytical approaches to verify that the requirement criteria have been satisfied. Meanwhile, changes that occur in between these two processes need to be managed in order to achieve a closed-loop requirement derivation/verification process. Herein are presented concepts for employing emerging Team center capabilities to jointly manage requirements and analysis data such that analytical techniques are utilized to effectively derive and allocate requirements, analyses are consulted and updated during the change evaluation processes, and analyses are leveraged during the design verification process. Recommendations on concept validation case studies are also discussed.

  20. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  1. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  2. State of competition in gasoline marketing. The effects of refiner operation at retail (a study required by Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.B.; Fenili, R.N.

    1980-05-01

    Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act requires the Secretary of Energy to report to the Congress on the extent to which producers, refiners, and other suppliers of motor fuel subsidize the sale of such fuel at retail or wholesale with profits obtained from other operations. This is Part I of the report required under that Title. It addresses a number of questions relating to the central issue - the state of competition in the gasoline marketing industry. Part II of the report, to be issued this fall, will discuss the subpoenaed documents of nine integrated companies, and will contain recommendations for action, if deemed necessary. The basic thrust of Part I is an examination of three issues: (1) Are integrated refiners subsidizing their company operated gasoline retail outlets; (2) Are integrated refiners moving gasoline away from their branded dealer network into their own retail outlets; and (3) Are integrated refiners manipulating the allocation system in favor of their own retail outlets to the detriment of other gasoline marketers. At a series of regional hearings, independent marketers charged that integrated refiners were engaging in each of these practices. In essence, integrated refiners were portrayed as using unfair or illegal competitive practices which would ultimately lead to their domination of retail gasoline markets. This report addresses each allegation, after providing a historical and theoretical framework for today's debate.

  3. Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Shimoda, H; Uemura, T; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-09-20

    The methanolic extract from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel) potently inhibited the elevation of blood ethanol level in ethanol-loaded rat. Through bioassay-guided separation, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, and santamarine were isolated as the active constituents and the alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone structure was found to be essential for the preventive effect on ethanol absorption. In addition, the retardation of gastric emptying seemed to be partially involved in the preventive effects.

  4. 40 CFR 61.95 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements. All facilities must maintain records documenting the source of input parameters including the... derive values for input parameters, and the procedure used to determine effective dose equivalent....

  5. mTOR activation is required for the anti-alcohol effect of ketamine, but not memantine, in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Valentina; Narayan, Aditi R; Zeric, Tamara; Steardo, Luca; Cottone, Pietro

    2013-06-15

    Glutamate NMDA receptors mediate many molecular and behavioral effects of alcohol, and they play a key role in the development of excessive drinking. Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists may, therefore, have therapeutic potential for alcoholism. The first aim was to compare the effects of the NMDA antagonists memantine and ketamine on ethanol and saccharin drinking in alcohol-preferring rats. The second aim was to determine whether the effects of the two NMDA receptor antagonists were mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). TSRI Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats were allowed to self-administer either 10% w/v ethanol or 0.08% w/v saccharin, and water. Operant responding and motor activity were assessed following administration of either memantine (0-10mg/kg) or ketamine (0-20mg/kg). Finally, ethanol self-administration was assessed in rats administered with either memantine or ketamine but pretreated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (2.5mg/kg). The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists memantine and ketamine dose-dependently reduced ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats; while memantine had a preferential effect on alcohol over saccharin, ketamine reduced responding for both solutions. Neither antagonist induced malaise, as shown by the lack of effect on water intake and motor activity. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin blocked the effects of ketamine, but not those of memantine. Memantine and ketamine both reduce alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, but only memantine is selective for alcohol. The effects of ketamine, but not memantine, are mediated by mTOR. The results support the therapeutic potential of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, especially memantine, in alcohol addiction.

  6. Effects of lipid-lowering therapy on reduction of cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Joel C; Saseen, Joseph J

    2010-08-01

    In the general population, dyslipidemia is an established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), comorbid cardiovascular disease is present at alarming rates, and those who require hemodialysis and have cardiovascular disease continue to have a high mortality rate. Lipid abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) vary depending on the stage of disease (stages 1-5), but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) has been established as the primary lipid treatment target. Guidelines support an LDL level of less than 100 mg/dl in patients with all stages of CKD, except when the triglyceride level is above 500 mg/dl. As patients progress to stage 5 CKD (ESRD with hemodialysis), the high triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased lipoprotein(a) levels of the early stages become more pronounced, with increases in small dense LDL particles; however, total cholesterol and LDL values remain normal or decrease. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, lipid abnormalities are driven by an increase in hepatic secretion and delayed catabolism of very low-density lipoproteins, as well as a reduction in lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase. Epidemiologic data support the role of cholesterol lowering as a means to lower cardiovascular events in the hemodialysis population. We conducted a literature search of various databases (1966-September 2009) to identify relevant clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of multiple lipid-lowering agents for the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with ESRD requiring hemodialysis. Only those trials that used clinical primary end points of coronary heart disease (e.g., cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) were included in this review. Evidence demonstrates that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy (i.e., atorvastatin and rosuvastatin) significantly reduces surrogate

  7. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  8. New Hippocampal Neurons Mature Rapidly in Response to Ketamine But Are Not Required for Its Acute Antidepressant Effects on Neophagia in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Soumier, Amelie; Carter, Rayna M.; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Virtually all antidepressant agents increase the birth of granule neurons in the adult dentate gyrus in rodents, providing a key basis for the neurogenesis hypothesis of antidepressant action. The novel antidepressant ketamine, however, shows antidepressant activity in humans within hours, far too rapid for a mechanism involving neuronal birth. Ketamine could potentially act more rapidly by enhancing maturation of new neurons born weeks earlier. To test this possibility, we assessed the effects of S-ketamine (S-(+)-ketamine hydrochloride) injection on maturation, as well as birth and survival, of new dentate gyrus granule neurons in rats, using the immediate-early gene zif268, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and BrdU, respectively. We show that S-ketamine has rapid effects on new neurons, increasing the proportion of functionally mature young granule neurons within 2 h. A single injection of S-ketamine also increased cell proliferation and functional maturation, and decreased depressive-like behavior, for at least 4 weeks in rats treated with long-term corticosterone administration (a depression model) and controls. However, the behavioral effects of S-ketamine on neophagia were unaffected by elimination of adult neurogenesis. Together, these results indicate that ketamine has surprisingly rapid and long-lasting effects on the recruitment of young neurons into hippocampal networks, but that ketamine has antidepressant-like effects that are independent of adult neurogenesis. PMID:27066531

  9. Measurement of Nursing's Complex Health Care Work: Evolution of the Science For Determining the Required Staffing For Safe and Effective Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Malloch, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The availability of technology to monitor and manage data increases our ability to better understand the processes and outcomes needed for patient care. It is important to remember this work requires not only the science of data management, but also the art of integrating the multiple variables involved in the dynamic of safe staffing. Fasoli and Haddock (2010) provided an excellent summary of the literature. Nurse leaders must be open to new additions to this work and the possibility that the essential ingredient of the gold standard for patient classification systems (PCS) might still be missing. The goal of a new approach to determine time for nurse work was to advance the science of PCS from the perspective of the characteristics identified by Fasoli and Haddock.

  10. Ways of improvement of methodological approaches to the assessment of the effectiveness of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities in consideration of modern requirements and threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasenko, E. A.; Nikienko, A. V.; Demyanuk, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Methodological approaches to the assessment of the effectiveness of physical protection systems developed by Russian and foreign researchers are reviewed. Some ways of improvement of these approaches are offered. They consider tactics overview, application of two-person rule, aspects of inherent safety of nuclear materials, proposals on the use of test reliability data.

  11. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Four-Year Industrial Technology Programs In Preparing Industrial Electronic Technicians to Meet the Requirements of Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Roger W.

    To determine the effectiveness of the 4-year industrial technology programs in preparing industrial electronic technicians for employment in industry, data were obtained through an opinionnaire, which was sent to the higher education institutions offering a 4-year electronic technician program and to selected industrial representatives located in…

  12. 76 FR 17032 - Forbearance Petition Filing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... FR 39219, August 6, 2009, is effective March 28, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jonathan Reel... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Forbearance Petition Filing Requirements AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... requirements. OMB approved those information collection requirements on April 5, 2010, under OMB Control...

  13. 21 CFR 814.82 - Postapproval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements. (a) FDA may impose postapproval requirements in a PMA approval order or by regulation at the time of approval of the PMA or by regulation subsequent to approval. Postapproval requirements may include... periodic reporting on the safety, effectiveness, and reliability of the device for its intended use....

  14. 21 CFR 814.82 - Postapproval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements. (a) FDA may impose postapproval requirements in a PMA approval order or by regulation at the time of approval of the PMA or by regulation subsequent to approval. Postapproval requirements may include... periodic reporting on the safety, effectiveness, and reliability of the device for its intended use....

  15. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  16. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  17. A comparative study of the effect of rofecoxib (a COX 2 inhibitor) and naproxen sodium on analgesic requirements after abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Celik, Jale Bengi; Tuncer, Sema; Reisli, Ruhiye; Sarkilar, Gamze; Celik, Cetin; Akyürek, Cemalettin

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the analgesic efficacy of administering preoperatively rofecoxib or naproxen sodium to patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. A randomized, double-blinded prospective study was conducted with 60 women undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into one of three equally sized groups. Patients in the first group received rofecoxib 50 mg 1 h before operation (group R), patient in the second group received naproxen sodium 550 mg 1 h before surgery (group N) and patients in the third group received a placebo tablet in the same time (group P). Total amount of used morphine mixture was higher in placebo group (93+/-6 ml) than in the group R (50+/-4 ml) and group N (64+/-6 ml). There were significant difference for total amount of used morphine mixture between group P and other two groups. There was significant difference in the volumes of morphine mixture used in the first 12 h in group P and other two groups. The occurrence of side effects such as, dyspepsia, epigastric discomfort, heartburn, were similar in group R and group P. However, this side effects were increased in group N. Rofecoxib receiving preoperatively was provided clinical efficacy for postoperative pain control and well tolerated for gastrointestinal side effects comparable with naproxen sodium.

  18. Basic Hitchhiker Payload Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    This document lists the requirements for the NMSU Hitchhiker experiment payload that were developed as part of the EE 498/499 Capstone Design class during the 1999-2000 academic year. This document is used to describe the system needs as described in the mission document. The requirements listed here are those primarily used to generate the basic electronic and data processing requirements developed in the class design document. The needs of the experiment components are more fully described in the draft NASA hitchhiker customer requirements document. Many of the details for the overall payload are given in full detail in the NASA hitchhiker documentation.

  19. Alignment of Homologous Chromosomes and Effective Repair of Programmed DNA Double-Strand Breaks during Mouse Meiosis Require the Minichromosome Maintenance Domain Containing 2 (MCMDC2) Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranathan, Ramya; Dereli, Ihsan; Stanzione, Marcello; Tóth, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Orderly chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division requires meiotic recombination to form crossovers between homologous chromosomes (homologues). Members of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase family have been implicated in meiotic recombination. In addition, they have roles in initiation of DNA replication, DNA mismatch repair and mitotic DNA double-strand break repair. Here, we addressed the function of MCMDC2, an atypical yet conserved MCM protein, whose function in vertebrates has not been reported. While we did not find an important role for MCMDC2 in mitotically dividing cells, our work revealed that MCMDC2 is essential for fertility in both sexes due to a crucial function in meiotic recombination. Meiotic recombination begins with the introduction of DNA double-strand breaks into the genome. DNA ends at break sites are resected. The resultant 3-prime single-stranded DNA overhangs recruit RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases that promote the invasion of homologous duplex DNAs by the resected DNA ends. Multiple strand invasions on each chromosome promote the alignment of homologous chromosomes, which is a prerequisite for inter-homologue crossover formation during meiosis. We found that although DNA ends at break sites were evidently resected, and they recruited RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases, these recombinases were ineffective in promoting alignment of homologous chromosomes in the absence of MCMDC2. Consequently, RAD51 and DMC1 foci, which are thought to mark early recombination intermediates, were abnormally persistent in Mcmdc2-/- meiocytes. Importantly, the strand invasion stabilizing MSH4 protein, which marks more advanced recombination intermediates, did not efficiently form foci in Mcmdc2-/- meiocytes. Thus, our work suggests that MCMDC2 plays an important role in either the formation, or the stabilization, of DNA strand invasion events that promote homologue alignment and provide the basis for inter-homologue crossover formation during

  20. Effects of dialysis modality on blood loss, bleeding complications and transfusion requirements in critically ill patients with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Pschowski, R; Briegel, S; Von Haehling, S; Doehner, W; Bender, T O; Pape, U F; Hasper, D; Jörress, A; Schefold, J C

    2015-11-01

    Blood loss and bleeding complications may often be observed in critically ill patients on renal replacement therapies (RRT). Here we investigate procedural (i.e. RRT-related) and non-procedural blood loss as well as transfusion requirements in regard to the chosen mode of dialysis (i.e. intermittent haemodialysis [IHD] versus continuous veno-venous haemofiltration [CVVH]). Two hundred and fifty-two patients (122 CVVH, 159 male; aged 61.5±13.9 years) with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure were analysed in a sub-analysis of the prospective randomised controlled clinical trial-CONVINT-comparing IHD and CVVH. Bleeding complications including severity of bleeding and RRT-related blood loss were assessed. We observed that 3.6% of patients died related to severe bleeding episodes (between group P=0.94). Major all-cause bleeding complications were observed in 23% IHD versus 26% of CVVH group patients (P=0.95). Under CVVH, the rate of RRT-related blood loss events (57.4% versus 30.4%, P=0.01) and mean total blood volume lost was increased (222.3±291.9 versus 112.5±222.7 ml per patient, P <0.001). Overall, transfusion rates did not differ between the study groups. In patients with sepsis, transfusion rates of all blood products were significantly higher when compared to cardiogenic shock (all P <0.01) or other conditions. In conclusion, procedural and non-procedural blood loss may often be observed in critically ill patients on RRT. In CVVH-treated patients, procedural blood loss was increased but overall transfusion rates remained unchanged. Our data show that IHD and CVVH may be regarded as equivalent approaches in critically ill patients with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure in this regard.

  1. Effects of diet and Aspergillus oryzae extract or Saccharomyces cervisiae on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and steers fed to meet requirements of natural markets.

    PubMed

    Zerby, H N; Bard, J L; Loerch, S C; Kuber, P S; Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L

    2011-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets.

  2. Effects of diet and Aspergillus oryzae extract or Saccharomyces cervisiae on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and steers fed to meet requirements of natural markets.

    PubMed

    Zerby, H N; Bard, J L; Loerch, S C; Kuber, P S; Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L

    2011-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets. PMID:21317341

  3. Pharmacological stress is required for the anti-alcohol effect of the α3β4* nAChR partial agonist AT-1001.

    PubMed

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Brunori, Gloria; Gaiolini, Kelly A; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often taken together. The mechanisms underlying this frequent co-abuse are not well known. Genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 and β4 subunits play a role in alcohol as well as nicotine addiction. AT-1001 is a high affinity α3β4 nAChR partial agonist recently found to block nicotine self-administration and relapse-like behavior in rats. Here, to study the involvement of α3β4 nAChRs in the mechanisms that regulate alcohol abuse we evaluated the effects of AT-1001 on alcohol taking and seeking in Sprague-Dawley rats. AT-1001 reduced operant alcohol self-administration at the highest dose examined (3.0 mg/kg), an effect also observed for food self-administration. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg AT-1001, which had no effect on alcohol or food self-administration, essentially eliminated reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by yohimbine (0.625 mg/kg) whereas, reinstatement induced by alcohol-associated cues was not altered, nor did AT-1001 induce reinstatement of extinguished self-administration on its own. Finally, AT-1001 showed an anxiolytic activity when measured in the presence or absence of yohimbine stress in the elevated plus maze paradigm. Together, these observations do not support a specific involvement of the α3β4 nAChR in mediating alcohol reward or cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking but rather indicate that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonism may constitute an attractive approach for treating alcohol use disorders exacerbated by elevated stress response.

  4. Superseding the Hourglass Effect Toward the Successful Commercialization of Nanotechnology in the Medical Sciences – We Require a Change in Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Frank; Sanhai-Madar, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology and, specifically, nanomedicine has been touted as the next breakthrough technology for medical sciences. Although there are large advances being seen in the preclinical phases of development, there is still a paucity of viable and effective nanomedicine technologies in the clinical setting. We attempt to provide some suggestions as to the stumbling blocks of meaningful translation of this technology from the bench to the bedside. We give due consideration to the role of evidence-based medicine, regulatory pathways, and the commercialization efforts of nanomedicine at various stages in playing key roles in moving this technology into clinical use.    PMID:27551650

  5. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the cell cycle modulation and required for effective human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Germini, Diego; Rodighiero, Isabella; Mirandola, Prisco; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina; Gatti, Rita; Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana

    2013-05-25

    Suitable host cell metabolic conditions are fundamental for the effective development of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic cycle. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus to interfere with cell cycle regulation, mainly by blocking proliferating cells in G1 or G1/S. In the present study, we demonstrate that HCMV deregulates the cell cycle of THP-1 macrophages (a cell line irreversibly arrested in G0) by pushing them into S and G2 phases. Moreover, we show that HCMV infection of THP-1 macrophages leads to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Since various studies have indicated TLR4 to be involved in promoting cell proliferation, here we investigate the possible role of TLR4 in the observed HCMV-induced cell cycle perturbation. Our data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of HCMV-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle. - Highlights: ► We studied HCMV infection impact on THP-1 macrophage cell cycle. ► We analysed the role played by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upon HCMV infection. ► HCMV pushes THP-1 macrophages (i.e. resting cells) to re-enter the cell cycle. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition strongly affects the effectiveness of HCMV replication. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition significantly decreases HCMV-induced cell cycle re-entry.

  6. OCCUPATION EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIEST, JEANNE; MORSCH, WILLIAM C.

    THE OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS (OERA) SYSTEM IS A RESEARCH EFFORT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A FEASIBLE METHOD OF PROJECTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS THAT WILL SATISFY LABOR MARKET NEEDS. THE OUTPUTS OF THE OERA WILL BE ANNUAL PROJECTIONS OF EMPLOYMENT DEMANDS IN OCCUPATIONS CLASSIFIED BY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THESE…

  7. Writing testable software requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Knirk, D.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  8. Customer requirements process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Yvonne; Falsetti, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    Customer requirements are presented through three viewgraphs. One graph presents the range of services, which include requirements management, network engineering, operations, and applications support. Another viewgraph presents the project planning process. The third viewgraph presents the programs and/or projects actively supported including life sciences, earth science and applications, solar system exploration, shuttle flight engineering, microgravity science, space physics, and astrophysics.

  9. Effects of supplementation of organic and inorganic combinations of copper, cobalt, manganese, and zinc above nutrient requirement levels on postpartum two-year-old cows.

    PubMed

    Olson, P A; Brink, D R; Hickok, D T; Carlson, M P; Schneider, N R; Deutscher, G H; Adams, D C; Colburn, D J; Johnson, A B

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn in an organic or inorganic form fed at higher than nutrient recommendations for 2-yr-old cows from calving to breeding would affect pregnancy rate, calving date, calf performance, and cow liver and serum mineral concentrations. Crossbred 2-yr-old cows were used after calving in 1994 (n = 127) and 1995 (n = 109). Cows were blocked by calving date to one of three treatments: 1) no supplemental minerals (CTL), 2) organic minerals (ORG), or 3) inorganic minerals (ING). Minerals were fed for the same daily intake for both organic and inorganic treatments: Cu (125 mg), Co (25 mg), Mn (200 mg), and Zn (360 mg). Cows were individually fed a mineral-protein supplement with grass hay from calving (February-March) to before breeding (May 15). Hay intakes were calculated using chromium oxide boluses to determine fecal output. Fecal excretion of minerals was calculated following trace element analysis of feces. Liver biopsies were obtained before calving, after calving (start of supplementation), at the end of supplementation, and in midsummer. Over 2 yr, more cows did not become pregnant (P < .01) in ORG (11/78) and ING (11/78) treatments than in CTL (0/80) treatments. A treatment x year interaction was found for day of conception. Cows in the ORG group conceived later (P < .01) than cows in the ING or CTL groups in 1994. In 1995, there was no difference (P > .10) in day of conception among groups. Liver Zn and Mn concentrations were not different (P > .10) and Cu concentrations increased (P < .01) for the ORG and ING groups. Cows in the ORG and ING groups had higher (P < .01) concentrations of Cu, Mn, and Zn in the feces than the CTL cows. Trace elements in the feces did not differ for ORG and ING groups. Results indicate that combinations of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn fed at higher levels than are required reduced reproductive performance.

  10. Distributive Computer Networking: Making It Work on a Regional Basis: Effective sharing through a network requires new management and resource distribution techniques.

    PubMed

    Cornew, R W; Morse, P M

    1975-08-15

    -indicate that such networks are best structured in a hierarchical form. This suggests that national networking should be based in part on the more than 30 existing state and regional networks (15). With the groundwork now laid, we expect to see links among existing regional networks to complement development efforts now occurring at the national level. With Greenberger and others, we believe that one or more networking organizations devoted to the management issues discussed in this article will be required to facilitate resource sharing on a national scale. Because of their experience with these problems and their ability to provide service in many areas of the country through existing facilities, regional networks have a major role to play. PMID:17798292

  11. Jejunal linoleic acid infusions require GLP-1 receptor signaling to inhibit food intake: implications for the effectiveness of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Alexander A.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2011-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery results in sustained decreases in food intake and weight loss. A key component is likely the direct delivery of nutrients to the jejunum and resulting changes in levels of gut peptide secretion. Prior work modeling this aspect of the surgery has shown that small-volume, prolonged jejunal infusions of linoleic acid (LA) produce sustained decreases in food intake and weight loss. LA infusions also significantly elevate plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. To assess a role for the increased circulating GLP-1 in the feeding suppression, we examined the effect of prolonged peripheral minipump administration of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9–39 (Ex 9) on the feeding suppression produced by jejunal LA. Using a 2 × 2 design, we infused either saline or LA in the jejunum (7 h/day, 11.4 kcal) for 5 days with a subset of animals from each group receiving either saline or Ex 9 (25 pmol·kg−1·min−1) continuously via a minipump. The antagonist alone had no effect on food intake. LA reduced daily food intake greatly in excess of the kilocalories infused. Ex 9 completely blocked the feeding suppression produced by the jejunal LA infusion. Ex 9 also attenuated the increase in plasma GLP-1 induced by jejunal LA infusions. These data demonstrate that endogenous GLP-1 receptor signaling is necessary for the reduction in food intake produced by jejunal LA infusions. Whether increased secretion of additional gut peptides is also necessary for such suppressions remains to be determined. PMID:21917638

  12. Fgfr4 is required for effective muscle regeneration in vivo: Delineation of a MyoD-Tead2-Fgfr4 transcriptional pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Po; Caretti, Giuseppina; Mitchell, Stephanie; McKeehan, Wallace L; Boskey, Adele L.; Pachman, Lauren M.; Sartorelli, Vittorio

    2005-01-01

    Fgfr4 has been shown to be important for appropriate muscle development in chick limb buds, however, Fgfr4 null mice show no phenotype. Here, we show that staged induction of muscle regeneration in Fgfr4 null mice becomes highly abnormal at the time point when Fgfr4 is normally expressed. By 7 days of regeneration, differentiation of myotubes became poorly coordinated and delayed by both histology and embryonic myosin heavy chain staining. By 14 days, much of the muscle was replaced by fat and calcifications. To begin to dissect the molecular pathways involving Fgfr4, we queried the promoter sequences for transcriptional factor binding sites, and tested candidate regulators in a 27 time point regeneration series. The Fgfr4 promoter region contained a Tead protein binding site (M-CAT 5′-CATTCCT-3′), and Tead2 showed induction during regeneration commensurate with Fgfr4 regulation. Co-transfection of Tead2 and Fgfr4 promoter reporter constructs into C2C12 myotubes showed Tead2 to activate Fgfr4, and mutation of the M-CAT motif in the Fgfr4 promoter abolished these effects. Immunostaining for Tead2 showed timed expression in myotube nuclei consistent with the mRNA data. Query of the expression timing and genomic sequences of Tead2 suggested direct regulation by MyoD, and, consistent with this, MyoD directly bound to two strong E-boxes in the first intron of Tead2 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, co-transfection of MyoD and Tead2 intron reporter constructs into 10T1/2 cells activated reporter activity in a dose dependent manner. This activation was greatly reduced when the two E-boxes were mutated. Our data suggest a novel MyoD-Tead2-Fgfr4 pathway important for effective muscle regeneration. PMID:16267055

  13. Verifying performance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Today, it is impossible to verify performance requirements on Ada software, except in a very approximate sense. There are several reasons for this difficulty, of which the main reason is the lack of use of information on the mapping of the program onto the target machine. An approach to a partial solution to the verification of performance requirements on Ada software is proposed, called the rule based verification approach. This approach is suitable when the target machine is well defined and when additional effort and expense are justified in order to guarantee that the performance requirements will be met by the final system.

  14. Effective treatment of glioblastoma requires crossing the blood-brain barrier and targeting tumors including cancer stem cells: The promise of nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Harford, Joe B; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Chang, Esther H

    2015-12-18

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal type of brain tumor. Both therapeutic resistance and restricted permeation of drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) play a major role in the poor prognosis of GBM patients. Accumulated evidence suggests that in many human cancers, including GBM, therapeutic resistance can be attributed to a small fraction of cancer cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been shown to have stem cell-like properties that enable them to evade traditional cytotoxic therapies, and so new CSC-directed anti-cancer therapies are needed. Nanoparticles have been designed to selectively deliver payloads to relevant target cells in the body, and there is considerable interest in the use of nanoparticles for CSC-directed anti-cancer therapies. Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine offer new possibilities for overcoming CSC-mediated therapeutic resistance and thus significantly improving management of GBM. In this review, we will examine the current nanomedicine approaches for targeting CSCs and their therapeutic implications. The inhibitory effect of various nanoparticle-based drug delivery system towards CSCs in GBM tumors is the primary focus of this review.

  15. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this update is to give an overview of the effects of dietary nutrients on the structure and certain functions of the brain. As any other organ, the brain is elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively, for vitamins, minerals, essential amino-acids and essential fatty acids, including omega- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). However, for long it was not fully accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function, including cognitive and intellectuals. In fact, most micronutrients (vitamins and trace-elements) have been directly evaluated in the setting of cerebral functioning. For instance, to produce energy, the use of glucose by nervous tissue implies the presence of vitamin B1; this vitamin modulates cognitive performance, especially in the elderly. Vitamin B9 preserves brain during its development and memory during ageing. Vitamin B6 is likely to benefit in treating premenstrual depression. Vitamins B6 and B12, among others, are directly involved in the synthesis of some neurotransmitters. Vitamin B12 delays the onset of signs of dementia (and blood abnormalities), provided it is administered in a precise clinical timing window, before the onset of the first symptoms. Supplementation with cobalamin improves cerebral and cognitive functions in the elderly; it frequently improves the functioning of factors related to the frontal lobe, as well as the language function of those with cognitive disorders. Adolescents who have a borderline level of vitamin B12 develop signs of cognitive changes. In the brain, the nerve endings contain the highest concentrations of vitamin C in the human body (after the suprarenal glands). Vitamin D (or certain of its analogues) could be of interest in the prevention of various aspects of neurodegenerative or neuroimmune diseases. Among the various vitamin E components (tocopherols and tocotrienols), only alpha-tocopherol is actively uptaken by the brain and is

  16. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this update is to give an overview of the effects of dietary nutrients on the structure and certain functions of the brain. As any other organ, the brain is elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively, for vitamins, minerals, essential amino-acids and essential fatty acids, including omega- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). However, for long it was not fully accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function, including cognitive and intellectuals. In fact, most micronutrients (vitamins and trace-elements) have been directly evaluated in the setting of cerebral functioning. For instance, to produce energy, the use of glucose by nervous tissue implies the presence of vitamin B1; this vitamin modulates cognitive performance, especially in the elderly. Vitamin B9 preserves brain during its development and memory during ageing. Vitamin B6 is likely to benefit in treating premenstrual depression. Vitamins B6 and B12, among others, are directly involved in the synthesis of some neurotransmitters. Vitamin B12 delays the onset of signs of dementia (and blood abnormalities), provided it is administered in a precise clinical timing window, before the onset of the first symptoms. Supplementation with cobalamin improves cerebral and cognitive functions in the elderly; it frequently improves the functioning of factors related to the frontal lobe, as well as the language function of those with cognitive disorders. Adolescents who have a borderline level of vitamin B12 develop signs of cognitive changes. In the brain, the nerve endings contain the highest concentrations of vitamin C in the human body (after the suprarenal glands). Vitamin D (or certain of its analogues) could be of interest in the prevention of various aspects of neurodegenerative or neuroimmune diseases. Among the various vitamin E components (tocopherols and tocotrienols), only alpha-tocopherol is actively uptaken by the brain and is

  17. Activation of AMPKα2 is not crucial for mitochondrial uncoupling-induced metabolic effects but required to maintain skeletal muscle integrity.

    PubMed

    Ost, Mario; Werner, Franziska; Dokas, Janine; Klaus, Susanne; Voigt, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic (UCP1-TG) mice with ectopic expression of UCP1 in skeletal muscle (SM) show a phenotype of increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance and increase substrate metabolism in SM. To investigate the potential role of skeletal muscle AMPKα2 activation in the metabolic phenotype of UCP1-TG mice we generated double transgenic (DTG) mice, by crossing of UCP1-TG mice with DN-AMPKα2 mice overexpressing a dominant negative α2 subunit of AMPK in SM which resulted in an impaired AMPKα2 activity by 90±9% in SM of DTG mice. Biometric analysis of young male mice showed decreased body weight, lean and fat mass for both UCP1-TG and DTG compared to WT and DN-AMPKα2 mice. Energy intake and weight-specific total energy expenditure were increased, both in UCP1-TG and DTG mice. Moreover, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation were not altered in DTG compared to UCP1-TG. Also uncoupling induced induction and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from SM was preserved in DTG mice. However, voluntary physical cage activity as well as ad libitum running wheel access during night uncovered a severe activity intolerance of DTG mice. Histological analysis showed a progressive degenerative morphology in SM of DTG mice which was not observed in SM of UCP1-TG mice. Moreover, ATP-depletion related cellular stress response via heat shock protein 70 was highly induced, whereas capillarization regulator VEGF was suppressed in DTG muscle. In addition, AMPKα2-mediated induction of mitophagy regulator ULK1 was suppressed in DTG mice, as well as mitochondrial respiratory capacity and content. In conclusion, we demonstrate that AMPKα2 is dispensable for SM mitochondrial uncoupling induced metabolic effects on whole body energy balance, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. But strikingly, activation of AMPKα2 seems crucial for maintaining SM function, integrity and the ability to compensate chronic metabolic stress induced by SM

  18. Climate Tolerances and Habitat Requirements Jointly Shape the Elevational Distribution of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps), with Implications for Climate Change Effects.

    PubMed

    Yandow, Leah H; Chalfoun, Anna D; Doak, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most compelling examples of ecological responses to climate change are elevational range shifts of individual species, which have been observed throughout the world. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests substantial mediation of simple range shifts due to climate change by other limiting factors. Understanding limiting factors for a species within different contexts, therefore, is critical for predicting responses to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is an ideal species for investigating distributions in relation to climate because of their unusual and well-understood natural history as well as observed shifts to higher elevation in parts of their range. We tested three hypotheses for the climatic or habitat characteristics that may limit pika presence and abundance: summer heat, winter snowpack, and forage availability. We performed these tests using an index of pika abundance gathered in a region where environmental influences on pika distribution have not been well-characterized. We estimated relative pika abundance via scat surveys and quantified climatic and habitat characteristics across two North-Central Rocky Mountain Ranges, the Wind River and Bighorn ranges in Wyoming, USA. Pika scat density was highest at mid-elevations and increased linearly with forage availability in both ranges. Scat density also increased with temperatures conducive to forage plant growth, and showed a unimodal relationship with the number of days below -5°C, which is modulated by insulating snowpack. Our results provide support for both the forage availability and winter snowpack hypotheses. Especially in montane systems, considering the context-dependent nature of climate effects across regions and elevations as well as interactions between climatic and other critical habitat characteristics, will be essential for predicting future species distributions.

  19. Climate Tolerances and Habitat Requirements Jointly Shape the Elevational Distribution of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps), with Implications for Climate Change Effects.

    PubMed

    Yandow, Leah H; Chalfoun, Anna D; Doak, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most compelling examples of ecological responses to climate change are elevational range shifts of individual species, which have been observed throughout the world. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests substantial mediation of simple range shifts due to climate change by other limiting factors. Understanding limiting factors for a species within different contexts, therefore, is critical for predicting responses to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is an ideal species for investigating distributions in relation to climate because of their unusual and well-understood natural history as well as observed shifts to higher elevation in parts of their range. We tested three hypotheses for the climatic or habitat characteristics that may limit pika presence and abundance: summer heat, winter snowpack, and forage availability. We performed these tests using an index of pika abundance gathered in a region where environmental influences on pika distribution have not been well-characterized. We estimated relative pika abundance via scat surveys and quantified climatic and habitat characteristics across two North-Central Rocky Mountain Ranges, the Wind River and Bighorn ranges in Wyoming, USA. Pika scat density was highest at mid-elevations and increased linearly with forage availability in both ranges. Scat density also increased with temperatures conducive to forage plant growth, and showed a unimodal relationship with the number of days below -5°C, which is modulated by insulating snowpack. Our results provide support for both the forage availability and winter snowpack hypotheses. Especially in montane systems, considering the context-dependent nature of climate effects across regions and elevations as well as interactions between climatic and other critical habitat characteristics, will be essential for predicting future species distributions. PMID:26244851

  20. The nebulin SH3 domain is dispensable for normal skeletal muscle structure but is required for effective active load bearing in mouse.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daniel L; Vitiello, Carmen; Zhang, Jianlin; Gokhin, David S; Castaldi, Alessandra; Coulis, Gerald; Piaser, Fabio; Filomena, Maria Carmela; Eggenhuizen, Peter J; Kunderfranco, Paolo; Camerini, Serena; Takano, Kazunori; Endo, Takeshi; Crescenzi, Marco; Luther, Pradeep K L; Lieber, Richard L; Chen, Ju; Bang, Marie-Louise

    2013-12-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a congenital myopathy with an estimated incidence of 150,000 live births. It is caused by mutations in thin filament components, including nebulin, which accounts for about 50% of the cases. The identification of NM cases with nonsense mutations resulting in loss of the extreme C-terminal SH3 domain of nebulin suggests an important role of the nebulin SH3 domain, which is further supported by the recent demonstration of its role in IGF-1-induced sarcomeric actin filament formation through targeting of N-WASP to the Z-line. To provide further insights into the functional significance of the nebulin SH3 domain in the Z-disk and to understand the mechanisms by which truncations of nebulin lead to NM, we took two approaches: (1) an affinity-based proteomic screening to identify novel interaction partners of the nebulin SH3 domain; and (2) generation and characterization of a novel knockin mouse model with a premature stop codon in the nebulin gene, eliminating its C-terminal SH3 domain (NebΔSH3 mouse). Surprisingly, detailed analyses of NebΔSH3 mice revealed no structural or histological skeletal muscle abnormalities and no changes in gene expression or localization of interaction partners of the nebulin SH3 domain, including myopalladin, palladin, zyxin and N-WASP. Also, no significant effect on peak isometric stress production, passive tensile stress or Young's modulus was found. However, NebΔSH3 muscle displayed a slightly altered force-frequency relationship and was significantly more susceptible to eccentric contraction-induced injury, suggesting that the nebulin SH3 domain protects against eccentric contraction-induced injury and possibly plays a role in fine-tuning the excitation-contraction coupling mechanism. PMID:24046450

  1. Climate Tolerances and Habitat Requirements Jointly Shape the Elevational Distribution of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps), with Implications for Climate Change Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yandow, Leah H.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Doak, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most compelling examples of ecological responses to climate change are elevational range shifts of individual species, which have been observed throughout the world. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests substantial mediation of simple range shifts due to climate change by other limiting factors. Understanding limiting factors for a species within different contexts, therefore, is critical for predicting responses to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is an ideal species for investigating distributions in relation to climate because of their unusual and well-understood natural history as well as observed shifts to higher elevation in parts of their range. We tested three hypotheses for the climatic or habitat characteristics that may limit pika presence and abundance: summer heat, winter snowpack, and forage availability. We performed these tests using an index of pika abundance gathered in a region where environmental influences on pika distribution have not been well-characterized. We estimated relative pika abundance via scat surveys and quantified climatic and habitat characteristics across two North-Central Rocky Mountain Ranges, the Wind River and Bighorn ranges in Wyoming, USA. Pika scat density was highest at mid-elevations and increased linearly with forage availability in both ranges. Scat density also increased with temperatures conducive to forage plant growth, and showed a unimodal relationship with the number of days below -5°C, which is modulated by insulating snowpack. Our results provide support for both the forage availability and winter snowpack hypotheses. Especially in montane systems, considering the context-dependent nature of climate effects across regions and elevations as well as interactions between climatic and other critical habitat characteristics, will be essential for predicting future species distributions. PMID:26244851

  2. The radiosensitizing effect of immunoadjuvant OM-174 requires cooperation between immune and tumor cells through interferon-gamma and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Ridder, Mark de . E-mail: Mark.De.Ridder@vub.ac.be; Verovski, Valeri N.; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Berge, Dirk L. van den; Monsaert, Christinne; Law, Kalun; Storme, Guy A.

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To explore whether antitumor immunoadjuvant OM-174 can stimulate immune cells to produce interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) and thereby radiosensitize tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Splenocytes from BALB/c mice were stimulated by OM-174 at plasma-achievable concentrations (0.03-3 {mu}g/mL), and afterward analyzed for the expression and secretion of IFN-{gamma} by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Stimulated splenocytes were used as a source of IFN-{gamma} to radiosensitize hypoxic EMT-6 tumor cells through the cytokine-inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Results: OM-174 activated the production of IFN-{gamma} at high levels that reached 70 ng/mL in normoxia (21% oxygen) and 27 ng/mL in tumor-relevant hypoxia (1% oxygen). This caused up to 2.1-fold radiosensitization of EMT-6 tumor cells, which was associated with the iNOS-mediated production of the radiosensitizing molecule nitric oxide, as confirmed by accumulation of its oxidative metabolite nitrite, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Both iNOS activation and radiosensitization were counteracted by neutralizing antibodies against IFN-{gamma}. The same mechanism of radiosensitization through the IFN-{gamma} secretion pathway was identified for IL-12 + IL-18, which are known to mediate IFN-{gamma} responses. Hypoxia displayed a dual effect on the immune-tumor cell interaction, by downregulating the expression of the IFN-{gamma} gene while upregulating iNOS at transcriptional level. Conclusion: Immunoadjuvant OM-174 is an efficient radiosensitizer of tumor cells through activation of the IFN-{gamma} secretion pathway in immune cells. This finding indicates a rationale for combining immunostimulatory and radiosensitizing strategies and extends the potential therapeutic applications of OM-174.

  3. Requirements management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenburg, L.

    2001-01-01

    Requirements have always been acknowledged as the backbone of any system. However, in many past development efforts, requirements were paid little heed. At NASA, in recent years, the hue and cry for project development has been "Faster, Better, Cheaper and Safer". This has impacted the way we develop software; it has increased the risks to quality, safety and reliability. At NASA, the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is working with projects to emphasize the criticality of requirements throughout development, not just in the initial phases. This emphasis is on requirements relationship to all aspects of quality, including reliability and safety. In this presentation, we will look at some of these relationships through the eyes of quality.

  4. Requirements management and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Red

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for thermal nuclear propulsion requirements and configuration definition is described in outline and graphic form. Functional analysis and mission attributes for a Mars exploration mission are also addressed.

  5. Extrusion energy and pressure requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Hanna, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Corn gluten meal samples at moisture contents of 14, 20 and 26% dry basis were extruded at barrel temperatures of 120, 145 and 170/sup 0/C with screw speeds of 100, 150 and 200 rpm. The specific energy requirements and specific operating pressure decreases as the moisture content and temperature were increased. The effect of screw speed on specific energy and pressure was inconclusive.

  6. MKP1 repression is required for the chemosensitizing effects of NF-kappaB and PI3K inhibitors to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Sempere, María; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Rovira, Ana; Rodriguez-Fanjul, Vanessa; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Tapia, Marian; Cejas, Paloma; Machado-Pinilla, Rosario; Manguan-García, Cristina; Sánchez-Pérez, Isabel; Nistal, Manuel; Moratilla, Carmen; de Castro-Carpeño, Javier; Gonzalez-Barón, Manuel; Albanell, Joan; Perona, Rosario

    2009-12-28

    Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with cisplatin has a level of antitumor activity still modest. We have shown previously that MKP1/DUSP1 inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells and is overexpressed in tumors from most patients with stage I-II NSCLC. Here, using different NSCLC cell lines we found that MKP1 and NF-kappaB are differentially expressed. We studied whether targeting MKP1, NF-kappaB or both affects cisplatin-induced cell death. MKP1 is expressed in H460 and H727 cells. H727 and H1299 cells showed constitutive phosphorylation of Akt and increased NF-kappaB activity than did H460 cells. H460-MKP1-siRNA-expressing cells (but not H727-MKP1-siRNA or H1299-MKP1-siRNA cells) exhibit a marked increase in cisplatin response compared with parental cells. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or the NF-kappaB inhibitor BAY11-7082 enhanced cisplatin antitumor activity in parental H1299 cells but only weakly affected responses of H727 and H460 cells. MKP1-siRNA expression enhanced the chemosensitization effect of LY294002 and BAY11-7082 on H727 and H460 cells. Additionally, NSCLC cell lines with higher NF-kappaB-constitutive activation were the most sensitive to PS-341 (Bortezomib), a non-specific NF-kappaB inhibitor. This finding suggests the proteasome as a suitable strategy in treating NSCLC tumors with high constitutive NF-kappaB activity. Altogether, these results showed that either an activated PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathway and/or high MKP1 was linked to reduced sensitivity to cisplatin in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of NF-kappaB or PI3K potently enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in cells with endogenous or genetically induced low MKP1 levels. These findings support the potential improvement in cisplatin responses by co-targeting NF-kappaB or Akt and MKP1.

  7. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P < 0.05) on balance and plasma Cr (ppb) levels without affecting (P > 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals. PMID:23963742

  8. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  9. Evidence that maturation of the N-linked glycans of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) glycoproteins is required for virus-mediated cell fusion: The effect of {alpha}-mannosidase inhibitors on RSV infectivity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Terence P.; Jeffree, Chris E.; Li, Ping; Rixon, Helen W. McL.; Brown, Gaie; Aitken, James D.; MacLellan, Kirsty; Sugrue, Richard J. . E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg

    2006-07-05

    Glycan heterogeneity of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein was demonstrated by proteomics. The effect of maturation of the virus glycoproteins-associated glycans on virus infectivity was therefore examined using the {alpha}-mannosidase inhibitors deoxymannojirimycin (DMJ) and swainsonine (SW). In the presence of SW the N-linked glycans on the F protein appeared in a partially mature form, whereas in the presence of DMJ no maturation of the glycans was observed. Neither inhibitor had a significant effect on G protein processing or on the formation of progeny virus. Although the level of infectious virus and syncytia formation was not significantly affected by SW-treatment, DMJ-treatment correlated with a one hundred-fold reduction in virus infectivity. Our data suggest that glycan maturation of the RSV glycoproteins, in particular those on the F protein, is an important step in virus maturation and is required for virus infectivity.

  10. NP Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Rotman, Lauren; Tierney, Brian

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  11. Donepezil, an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, and ABT-239, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, require the integrity of brain histamine system to exert biochemical and procognitive effects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Provensi, Gustavo; Costa, Alessia; Passani, M Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio

    2016-10-01

    Histaminergic H3 receptors (H3R) antagonists enhance cognition in preclinical models and modulate neurotransmission, in particular acetylcholine (ACh) release in the cortex and hippocampus, two brain areas involved in memory processing. The cognitive deficits seen in aging and Alzheimer's disease have been associated with brain cholinergic deficits. Donepezil is one of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor approved for use across the full spectrum of these cognitive disorders. We addressed the question if H3R antagonists and donepezil require an intact histamine neuronal system to exert their procognitive effects. The effect of the H3R antagonist ABT-239 and donepezil were evaluated in the object recognition test (ORT), and on the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) phosphorylation in normal and histamine-depleted mice. Systemic administration of ABT-239 or donepezil ameliorated the cognitive performance in the ORT. However, these compounds were ineffective in either genetically (histidine decarboxylase knock-out, HDC-KO) or pharmacologically, by means of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the HDC irreversible inhibitor a-fluoromethylhistidine (a-FMHis), histamine-deficient mice. Western blot analysis revealed that ABT-239 or donepezil systemic treatments increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in cortical and hippocampal homogenates of normal, but not of histamine-depleted mice. Furthermore, administration of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 that blocks GSK-3β phosphorylation, prevented the procognitive effects of both drugs in normal mice. Our results indicate that both donepezil and ABT-239 require the integrity of the brain histaminergic system to exert their procognitive effects and strongly suggest that impairments of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β intracellular pathway activation is responsible for the inefficacy of both drugs in histamine-deficient animals. PMID:27291828

  12. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  13. Future Spacelift Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses future space applications and the derived requirements these potential applications will have on future spacelift systems. This NASA sponsored activity is a comprehensive study of potential missions including those of the military, civil, and commercial users. The study objectively evaluated the key architectural requirements for future launch systems. The results of this study are technical, economic, and policy analyses of future spacelift systems. It is intended to assist NASA and DOD decision-makers in planning technical investments and establishing policy for future U.S. spacelift systems.

  14. Capturing security requirements for software systems

    PubMed Central

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way. PMID:25685514

  15. Capturing security requirements for software systems.

    PubMed

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way.

  16. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Shoshani, Arie; Plata, Charity

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  17. Lunar base construction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  18. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  19. Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

    It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

  20. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.