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Sample records for ans preferred site

  1. Seismic refraction survey of the ANS preferred site

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.K. ); Hopkins, R.A. ); Doll, W.E. )

    1992-02-01

    Between September 19, 1991 and October 8, 1991 personnel from Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Automated Sciences Group, Inc., and Marrich, Inc. performed a seismic refraction survey at the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) preferred site. The purpose of this survey was to provide estimates of top-of-rock topography, based on seismic velocities, and to delineate variations in rock and soil velocities. Forty-four seismic refraction spreads were shot to determine top-of-rock depths at 42 locations. Nine of the seismic spreads were shot with long offsets to provide 216 top-of-rock depths for 4 seismic refraction profiles. The refraction spread locations were based on the grid for the ANS Phase I drilling program. Interpretation of the seismic refraction data supports the assumption that the top-of-rock surface generally follows the local topography. The shallow top-of-rock interface interpreted from the seismic refraction data is also supported by limited drill information at the site. Some zones of anomalous data are present that could be the result of locally variable weathering, a localized variation in shale content, or depth to top-of-rock greater than the site norm.

  2. Site preference and magnetic properties of Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, Sungho; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki

    2015-11-28

    The first-principles density functional theory has been used to study Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}). Based on the calculation of the substitution energy of Ga and In in SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and the formation probability analysis, we conclude that in SrFe{sub 12−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 19} the substituted Ga atoms prefer to occupy the 12k, 2a, and 4f{sub 1} sites, while In atoms in SrFe{sub 12−x}In{sub x}O{sub 19} occupy the 12k, 4f{sub 2}, and 4f{sub 1} sites. We used the site occupation probabilities to calculate the magnetic properties of the substituted SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. It was found that as the fraction of Ga atoms in SrFe{sub 12−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 19} increases, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) as well as magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) decrease, while the anisotropy field (H{sub a}) increases. In the case of SrFe{sub 12−x}In{sub x}O{sub 19}, M{sub s}, MAE, and H{sub a} decrease with an increase of the concentration of In atoms.

  3. Site preference and magnetic properties of Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, Sungho; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki

    2015-11-01

    The first-principles density functional theory has been used to study Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19). Based on the calculation of the substitution energy of Ga and In in SrFe12O19 and the formation probability analysis, we conclude that in SrFe12-xGaxO19 the substituted Ga atoms prefer to occupy the 12k, 2a, and 4f1 sites, while In atoms in SrFe12-xInxO19 occupy the 12k, 4f2, and 4f1 sites. We used the site occupation probabilities to calculate the magnetic properties of the substituted SrFe12O19. It was found that as the fraction of Ga atoms in SrFe12-xGaxO19 increases, the saturation magnetization (Ms) as well as magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) decrease, while the anisotropy field (Ha) increases. In the case of SrFe12-xInxO19, Ms, MAE, and Ha decrease with an increase of the concentration of In atoms.

  4. Migration and habitat preferences of Swainson's Hawks at an autumn stopover site in northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littlefield, Carroll D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most raptors, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) migrates long distances between breeding and wintering ranges, which elevates the importance of stopover sites for foraging. We conducted three years of fall surveys in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Migrant Swainson's Hawks moved through the area mostly between July and mid-October, peaking in September. Subadults tended to migrate earlier than adults, and light morphs before dark morphs. Favored foraging habitats included silage corn, green beans, and alfalfa, but the hawks foraged primarily where ongoing agricultural activities disturbed prey and made them more available.

  5. Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Linksvayer, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to “immunize” the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

  6. Atomistic Modeling of Pd Site Preference in NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of the site subsitution behavior of Pd in NiTi was performed using the BFS method for alloys. Through a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and detailed atom-by-atom energetic analyses of various computational cells, representing compositions of NiTi with up to 10 at% Pd, a detailed understanding of site occupancy of Pd in NiTi was revealed. Pd subsituted at the expense of Ni in a NiTi alloy will prefer the Ni-sites. Pd subsituted at the expense of Ti shows a very weak preference for Ti-sites that diminishes as the amount of Pd in the alloy increases and as the temperature increases.

  7. Dental Students’ Preference with Regard to Tactile or Visual Determination of Injection Site for an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Children: A Crossover Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Iranmanesh, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Instruction of local anesthesia injection in an important part of dental education curricula. This study was performed to compare dental students’ preference with regard to tactile or visual determination of injection site for an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in children. Materials and Methods: This crossover randomized clinical trial was conducted on dental students of Zahedan Dental School who took the first practical course of pediatric dentistry in the first academic semester of 2013–14 (n=42). They were randomly divided into two groups. During the first phase, group I was instructed to find the needle insertion point for an IANB via tactile method and group II was instructed to do it visually. In the second phase, the groups received instructions for the alternate technique. Both instructions were done using live demonstrations by the same instructor and immediately after instruction the learners practiced an IANB using the taught method. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was then filled out by the students. The preference score was determined by calculating the mean of item scores. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Singed Rank tests in SPSS 19 at P=0.05 level of significance. Results: Thirty-eight students completed the study. By using the visual method to perform an IANB, students gained a significantly higher mean preference score (P=0.020). There was a significant difference in the preference of male students (P=0.008). Conclusions: Instruction of IANB by visual identification of needle insertion point is more desirable by students. PMID:27536327

  8. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences

  9. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences.

  10. Valence State Driven Site Preference in the Quaternary Compound Ca5MgAgGe5: An Electron-Deficient Phase with Optimized Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Ponou, Simeon; Lidin, Sven; Zhang, Yuemei; Miller, Gordon J.

    2014-04-18

    The quaternary phase Ca5Mg0.95Ag1.05(1)Ge5 (3) was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state techniques, and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal diffraction methods in the orthorhombic space group Pnma – Wyckoff sequence c12 with a = 23.1481(4) Å, b = 4.4736(1) Å, c = 11.0128(2) Å, V = 1140.43(4) Å3, Z = 4. The crystal structure can be described as linear intergrowths of slabs cut from the CaGe (CrB-type) and the CaMGe (TiNiSi-type; M = Mg, Ag) structures. Hence, 3 is a hettotype of the hitherto missing n = 3 member of the structure series with the general formula R2+nT2X2+n, previously described with n = 1, 2, and 4. The member with n = 3 was predicted in the space group Cmcm – Wyckoff sequence f5c2. The experimental space group Pnma (in the nonstandard setting Pmcn) corresponds to a klassengleiche symmetry reduction of index two of the predicted space group Cmcm. This transition originates from the switching of one Ge and one Ag position in the TiNiSi-related slab, a process that triggers an uncoupling of each of the five 8f sites in Cmcm into two 4c sites in Pnma. The Mg/Ag site preference was investigated using VASP calculations and revealed a remarkable example of an intermetallic compound for which the electrostatic valency principle is a critical structure-directing force. The compound is deficient by one valence electron according to the Zintl concept, but LMTO electronic structure calculations indicate electronic stabilization and overall bonding optimization in the polyanionic network. Other stability factors beyond the Zintl concept that may account for the electronic stabilization are discussed.

  11. Teacher Preferences for Alternative School Site Administrative Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul M.; Denny, George S.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Public school teachers with high leadership potential who stated that they had no interest in being school principals were surveyed on their attitudes about six alternative school site administrative organizational models. Of the 391 teachers surveyed, 53% identified the Co-Principal model as the preferred school site administrative structure. In…

  12. Site Preference of Ternary Alloying Additions to AuTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of several alloying additions, namely. Na, Mg, Al, Si. Sc, V, Cr, Mn. Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr. Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt in B2 TiAu is reported. The 30 elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. Results of large scale simulations are also presented, distinguishing between additions that remain in solution from those that precipitate a second phase.

  13. In vitro evolution of preferred topoisomerase II DNA cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Burden, D A; Osheroff, N

    1999-02-19

    Topoisomerase II is an essential enzyme that is the target for several clinically important anticancer drugs. Although this enzyme must create transient double-stranded breaks in the genetic material in order to carry out its indispensable DNA strand passage reaction, the factors that underlie its nucleotide cleavage specificity remain an enigma. Therefore, to address the critical issue of enzyme specificity, a modified systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) protocol was employed to select/evolve DNA sequences that were preferentially cleaved by Drosophila melanogaster topoisomerase II. Levels of DNA scission rose substantially (from 3 to 20%) over 20 rounds of SELEX. In vitro selection/evolution converged on an alternating purine/pyrmidine sequence that was highly AT-rich (TATATATACATATATATA). The preference for this sequence was more pronounced for Drosophila topoisomerase II over other species and was increased in the presence of DNA cleavage-enhancing anticancer drugs. Enhanced cleavage appeared to be based on higher rates of DNA scission rather than increased binding affinity or decreased religation rates. The preferred sequence for topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage is dramatically overrepresented ( approximately 10,000-fold) in the euchromatic genome of D. melanogaster, implying that it may be a site for the physiological action of this enzyme.

  14. Vole preference of bilberry along gradients of simulated moose density and site productivity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Simen; Andreassen, Harry P; Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Danell, Kjell; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Browsing by large herbivores might either increase or decrease preference for the plant by other herbivores, depending on the plant response. Using a cafeteria test, we studied the preference by root voles (Microtus oeconomus [Pallas, 1776]) for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) previously subjected to 4 levels of simulated moose (Alces alces [Linnaeus, 1758]) density. The different levels of moose density were simulated at population densities relevant for Fennoscandian conditions, in exclosures situated along a site productivity gradient. We expected: (i) voles to prefer bilberry from high productivity sites over low productivity sites; (ii) voles to prefer browsed bilberry, if plants allocate resources to compensatory growth or to avoid browsed bilberry if plants allocate resources to defense; (iii) these effects to increase with increasing simulated moose density; and (iv) the concentration of plant chemicals and the plant morphology to explain vole preference. Specifically, we predicted that voles would prefer: (i) plants with high nitrogen content; (ii) plants with low content of defensive substances; and (iii) tall plants with long shoots. Voles preferred bilberry from the high productivity sites compared to the low productivity sites. We also found an interaction between site productivity and simulated moose density, where voles preferred unbrowsed plants at low productivity sites and intermediate levels of browsing at high productivity sites. There was no effect of plant chemistry or morphology on vole preference. We conclude that moose browsing impacts the food preference of voles. With the current high densities of moose in Fennoscandia, this could potentially influence vole food selection and population dynamics over large geographical areas.

  15. Modeling of Substitutional Site Preference in Ordered Intermetallic Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Honecy, Frank

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the site substitution scheme of specific alloying elements in ordered compounds and the dependence of site occupancy on compound stoichiometry, alloy concentration. This basic knowledge, and the interactions with other alloying additions are necessary in order to predict and understand the effect of various alloying schemes on the physical properties of a material, its response to various temperature treatments, and the resulting mechanical properties. Many theoretical methods can provide useful but limited insight in this area, since most techniques suffer from constraints in the type of elements and the crystallographic structures that can be modeled. With this in mind, the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys was designed to overcome these limitations, with the intent of providing an useful tool for the theoretical prediction of fundamental properties and structure of complex systems. After a brief description of the BFS method, its use for the determination of site substitution schemes for individual as well as collective alloying additions to intermetallic systems is described, including results for the concentration dependence of the lattice parameter. Focusing on B2 NiAl, FeAl and CoAl alloys, the energetics of Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Hf, Ta and W alloying additions are surveyed. The effect of single additions as well as the result of two simultaneous additions, discussing the interaction between additions and their influence on site preference schemes is considered. Finally, the BFS analysis is extended to ternary L1(sub 2) (Heusler phase) alloys. A comparison between experimental and theoretical results for the limited number of cases for which experimental data is available is also included.

  16. Mutational Studies on Resurrected Ancestral Proteins Reveal Conservation of Site-Specific Amino Acid Preferences throughout Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Valeria A.; Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Delgado-Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Barroso-delJesus, Alicia; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Gavira, Jose A.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Local protein interactions (“molecular context” effects) dictate amino acid replacements and can be described in terms of site-specific, energetic preferences for any different amino acid. It has been recently debated whether these preferences remain approximately constant during evolution or whether, due to coevolution of sites, they change strongly. Such research highlights an unresolved and fundamental issue with far-reaching implications for phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution modeling. Here, we take advantage of the recent availability of phenotypically supported laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins and β-lactamases to experimentally address the change of site-specific amino acid preferences over long geological timescales. Extensive mutational analyses support the notion that evolutionary adjustment to a new amino acid may occur, but to a large extent this is insufficient to erase the primitive preference for amino acid replacements. Generally, site-specific amino acid preferences appear to remain conserved throughout evolutionary history despite local sequence divergence. We show such preference conservation to be readily understandable in molecular terms and we provide crystallographic evidence for an intriguing structural-switch mechanism: Energetic preference for an ancestral amino acid in a modern protein can be linked to reorganization upon mutation to the ancestral local structure around the mutated site. Finally, we point out that site-specific preference conservation naturally leads to one plausible evolutionary explanation for the existence of intragenic global suppressor mutations. PMID:25392342

  17. Mutational studies on resurrected ancestral proteins reveal conservation of site-specific amino acid preferences throughout evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Risso, Valeria A; Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Delgado-Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Barroso-delJesus, Alicia; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Gavira, Jose A; Gaucher, Eric A; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2015-02-01

    Local protein interactions ("molecular context" effects) dictate amino acid replacements and can be described in terms of site-specific, energetic preferences for any different amino acid. It has been recently debated whether these preferences remain approximately constant during evolution or whether, due to coevolution of sites, they change strongly. Such research highlights an unresolved and fundamental issue with far-reaching implications for phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution modeling. Here, we take advantage of the recent availability of phenotypically supported laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins and β-lactamases to experimentally address the change of site-specific amino acid preferences over long geological timescales. Extensive mutational analyses support the notion that evolutionary adjustment to a new amino acid may occur, but to a large extent this is insufficient to erase the primitive preference for amino acid replacements. Generally, site-specific amino acid preferences appear to remain conserved throughout evolutionary history despite local sequence divergence. We show such preference conservation to be readily understandable in molecular terms and we provide crystallographic evidence for an intriguing structural-switch mechanism: Energetic preference for an ancestral amino acid in a modern protein can be linked to reorganization upon mutation to the ancestral local structure around the mutated site. Finally, we point out that site-specific preference conservation naturally leads to one plausible evolutionary explanation for the existence of intragenic global suppressor mutations.

  18. Mutational studies on resurrected ancestral proteins reveal conservation of site-specific amino acid preferences throughout evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Risso, Valeria A; Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Delgado-Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Barroso-delJesus, Alicia; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Gavira, Jose A; Gaucher, Eric A; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2015-02-01

    Local protein interactions ("molecular context" effects) dictate amino acid replacements and can be described in terms of site-specific, energetic preferences for any different amino acid. It has been recently debated whether these preferences remain approximately constant during evolution or whether, due to coevolution of sites, they change strongly. Such research highlights an unresolved and fundamental issue with far-reaching implications for phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution modeling. Here, we take advantage of the recent availability of phenotypically supported laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins and β-lactamases to experimentally address the change of site-specific amino acid preferences over long geological timescales. Extensive mutational analyses support the notion that evolutionary adjustment to a new amino acid may occur, but to a large extent this is insufficient to erase the primitive preference for amino acid replacements. Generally, site-specific amino acid preferences appear to remain conserved throughout evolutionary history despite local sequence divergence. We show such preference conservation to be readily understandable in molecular terms and we provide crystallographic evidence for an intriguing structural-switch mechanism: Energetic preference for an ancestral amino acid in a modern protein can be linked to reorganization upon mutation to the ancestral local structure around the mutated site. Finally, we point out that site-specific preference conservation naturally leads to one plausible evolutionary explanation for the existence of intragenic global suppressor mutations. PMID:25392342

  19. Boron site preference in ternary Ta and Nb boron silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Atta U.; Nunes, Carlos A.; Coelho, Gilberto C.; Suzuki, Paulo A.; Grytsiv, Andriy; Bourree, Francoise; Rogl, Peter F.

    2012-06-15

    X-ray single crystal (XSC) and neutron powder diffraction data (NPD) were used to elucidate boron site preference for five ternary phases. Ta{sub 3}Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x} (x=0.112(4)) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type (space group P4{sub 2}/n) with B-atoms sharing the 8g site with Si atoms. Ta{sub 5}Si{sub 3-x} (x=0.03(1); Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}- type) crystallizes with space group I4/mcm, exhibiting a small amount of vacancies on the 4a site. Both, Ta{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.568(3), and Nb{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.59(2), are part of solid solutions of M{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type into the ternary M-Si-B systems (M=Nb or Ta) with B replacing Si on the 8h site. The D8{sub 8}-phase in the Nb-Si-B system crystallizes with the Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type revealing the formula Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292(3)) with B partially filling the voids in the 2b site of the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} parent type. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of a series of compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry revealing details on the boron incorporation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a series of compounds have been solved by X-ray single crystal diffractometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ta{sub 3}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}) (x=0.112) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type, B and Si atoms randomly share the 8g site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292; Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type) was solved from NPD.

  20. Site-preference and valency for rare-earth sites in (R-Ce)2Fe14B magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Mahmud; McCallum, R. W.; Johnson, D. D.

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth (R) permanent magnets of R2Fe14B have technological importance due to their high energy products, and they have two R-sites (Wyckoff 4f and 4g, with four-fold multiplicity) that affect chemistry and valence. Designing magnetic behavior and stability via alloying is technologically relevant to reduce critical (expensive) R-content while retaining key properties; cerium, an abundant (cheap) R-element, offers this potential. We calculate magnetic properties and Ce site preference in (R1-xCex)2Fe14B [R = La,Nd] using density functional theory (DFT) methods—including a DFT + U scheme to treat localized 4f-electrons. Fe moments compare well with neutron data—almost unaffected by Hubbard U, and weakly affected by spin-orbit coupling. In La2Fe14B, Ce alloys for 0≤x≤1 and prefers smaller R(4f) sites, as observed, a trend we find unaffected by valence. Whereas, in Nd2Fe14B, Ce is predicted to have limited alloying (x ≤0.3) with a preference for larger R(4g) sites, resulting in weak partial ordering and segregation. The Curie temperatures versus x for (Nd,Ce) were predicted for a typical sample processing and verified experimentally.

  1. Stimulus Duration Preference at Electrode Sites Yielding Elicited Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    The latency to display eating or drinking during hypothalamic stimulation was compared with the preferred duration of the same stimulus intensity in a self-stimulation situation. All the animals preferred longer stimulus durations than those required to elicit eating or drinking

  2. On the site preferences of ternary additions to triple defect B2 intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, L.M.; Chen, S.L.; Chang, Y.A.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge of the site preference of ternary solute additions is essential to developing an understanding of how these solutes affect the properties of B2 intermetallic compounds. A quasichemical model will be presented which is able to predict the site preferences of dilute solute additions to triple defect B2 compounds. The only parameters required are enthalpies of formation at the stoichiometric composition. General equations are developed which can be used to determine site occupations and defect concentrations for dilute as well as non-dilute solute additions. These equations use atom pair bond enthalpies as the parameters. It is found that the site preferences of dilute additions are not always in agreement with predictions based on the solubility lobes in ternary Gibbs isotherms, Predictions for dilute additions to NiAl and FeAl are compared to experimental results found in the literature. Satisfactory correlation is found between the model and the experimental results. In addition, the predictions from the model on vacancy concentrations in Fe doped NiAl are compared to recent experimental results by the authors.

  3. Differential responses to artificial selection on oviposition site preferences in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans.

    PubMed

    Soto, Eduardo M; Betti, María I L; Hurtado, Juan; Hasson, Esteban

    2015-12-01

    The preference-performance relationship in plant-insect interactions is a central theme in evolutionary ecology. Among many insects, eggs are vulnerable and larvae have limited mobility, making the choice of an appropriate oviposition site one of the most important decisions for a female. We investigated the evolution of oviposition preferences in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and Drosophila simulans Sturtevant by artificially selecting for the preference for 2 natural resources, grape and quince. The main finding of our study is the differential responses of D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Although preferences evolved in the experimental populations of D. melanogaster, responses were not consistent with the selection regimes applied. In contrast, responses in D. simulans were consistent with expectations, demonstrating that this species has selectable genetic variation for the trait. Furthermore, crosses between D. simulans divergent lines showed that the genetic factors involved in grape preference appear to be largely recessive. In summary, our artificial selection study suggests that D. melanogaster and D. simulans possess different genetic architectures for this trait.

  4. Managing for Desired Experiences and Site Preferences: The Case of Fee-Fishing Anglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Michael A.; Pierskalla, Chad D.

    2007-02-01

    Fee-fishing involves paying a fee for the privilege of fishing a body of water where fish populations are enhanced by stocking fish. Past literature on this activity has focused more on the operation of the enterprise and management of the fish than the people and site characteristics. The objectives of the study were to profile anglers and describe their site/management preferences. This study utilized an on-site interview and mail-back questionnaire at fee-fishing establishments in West Virginia ( n = 212). Factor analysis of desired recreation experiences yielded five factors: Experience nature & adventure, Stress release & relaxation, Trophy fishing, Escape, and Family time. Cluster analysis showed that these anglers can be segmented into two distinct clusters, differing by sociodemographic characteristics, fishing behavior, and site/management preferences. The findings from this study provide baseline data to aid public resource managers and fee-fishing business owners in determining how to provide satisfying outdoor experiences and deliver desired services on-site. Future research will be needed from additional fee-fishing sites to obtain more detail about this outdoor recreation cohort and be able to generalize to a larger population of participants.

  5. The distributional preferences of an elite.

    PubMed

    Fisman, Raymond; Jakiela, Pamela; Kariv, Shachar; Markovits, Daniel

    2015-09-18

    We studied the distributional preferences of an elite cadre of Yale Law School students, a group that will assume positions of power in U.S. society. Our experimental design allows us to test whether redistributive decisions are consistent with utility maximization and to decompose underlying preferences into two qualitatively different tradeoffs: fair-mindedness versus self-interest, and equality versus efficiency. Yale Law School subjects are more consistent than subjects drawn from the American Life Panel, a diverse sample of Americans. Relative to the American Life Panel, Yale Law School subjects are also less fair-minded and substantially more efficiency-focused. We further show that our measure of equality-efficiency tradeoffs predicts Yale Law School students' career choices: Equality-minded subjects are more likely to be employed at nonprofit organizations. PMID:26383958

  6. The distributional preferences of an elite.

    PubMed

    Fisman, Raymond; Jakiela, Pamela; Kariv, Shachar; Markovits, Daniel

    2015-09-18

    We studied the distributional preferences of an elite cadre of Yale Law School students, a group that will assume positions of power in U.S. society. Our experimental design allows us to test whether redistributive decisions are consistent with utility maximization and to decompose underlying preferences into two qualitatively different tradeoffs: fair-mindedness versus self-interest, and equality versus efficiency. Yale Law School subjects are more consistent than subjects drawn from the American Life Panel, a diverse sample of Americans. Relative to the American Life Panel, Yale Law School subjects are also less fair-minded and substantially more efficiency-focused. We further show that our measure of equality-efficiency tradeoffs predicts Yale Law School students' career choices: Equality-minded subjects are more likely to be employed at nonprofit organizations.

  7. Initial Findings Using an Alternative Assessment of Body Shape Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryujin, Donald H.; And Others

    Due to concerns that body shape preferences contribute to eating disorders among women, a new method to assess observer preferences for female body shapes was devised. In prior studies women have preferred thin models, but men have preferred models of average weight. In Experiment 1, an underweight female model was photographed in a white top and…

  8. Substitute sweeteners: diverse bacterial oligosaccharyltransferases with unique N-glycosylation site preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ollis, Anne A.; Chai, Yi; Natarajan, Aravind; Perregaux, Emily; Jaroentomeechai, Thapakorn; Guarino, Cassandra; Smith, Jessica; Zhang, Sheng; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    The central enzyme in the Campylobacter jejuni asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway is the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), PglB, which transfers preassembled glycans to specific asparagine residues in target proteins. While C. jejuni PglB (CjPglB) can transfer many diverse glycan structures, the acceptor sites that it recognizes are restricted predominantly to those having a negatively charged residue in the −2 position relative to the asparagine. Here, we investigated the acceptor-site preferences for 23 homologs with natural sequence variation compared to CjPglB. Using an ectopic trans-complementation assay for CjPglB function in glycosylation-competent Escherichia coli, we demonstrated in vivo activity for 16 of the candidate OSTs. Interestingly, the OSTs from Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio gigas, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris, exhibited significantly relaxed specificity towards the −2 position compared to CjPglB. These enzymes glycosylated minimal N-X-T motifs in multiple targets and each followed unique, as yet unknown, rules governing acceptor-site preferences. One notable example is D. gigas PglB, which was the only bacterial OST to glycosylate the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G at its native ‘QYNST’ sequon. Overall, we find that a subset of bacterial OSTs follow their own rules for acceptor-site specificity, thereby expanding the glycoengineering toolbox with previously unavailable biocatalytic diversity. PMID:26482295

  9. Substitute sweeteners: diverse bacterial oligosaccharyltransferases with unique N-glycosylation site preferences.

    PubMed

    Ollis, Anne A; Chai, Yi; Natarajan, Aravind; Perregaux, Emily; Jaroentomeechai, Thapakorn; Guarino, Cassandra; Smith, Jessica; Zhang, Sheng; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    The central enzyme in the Campylobacter jejuni asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway is the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), PglB, which transfers preassembled glycans to specific asparagine residues in target proteins. While C. jejuni PglB (CjPglB) can transfer many diverse glycan structures, the acceptor sites that it recognizes are restricted predominantly to those having a negatively charged residue in the -2 position relative to the asparagine. Here, we investigated the acceptor-site preferences for 23 homologs with natural sequence variation compared to CjPglB. Using an ectopic trans-complementation assay for CjPglB function in glycosylation-competent Escherichia coli, we demonstrated in vivo activity for 16 of the candidate OSTs. Interestingly, the OSTs from Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio gigas, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris, exhibited significantly relaxed specificity towards the -2 position compared to CjPglB. These enzymes glycosylated minimal N-X-T motifs in multiple targets and each followed unique, as yet unknown, rules governing acceptor-site preferences. One notable example is D. gigas PglB, which was the only bacterial OST to glycosylate the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G at its native 'QYNST' sequon. Overall, we find that a subset of bacterial OSTs follow their own rules for acceptor-site specificity, thereby expanding the glycoengineering toolbox with previously unavailable biocatalytic diversity. PMID:26482295

  10. Ontogenetic and sex-based differences in habitat preferences and site fidelity of White's seahorse Hippocampus whitei.

    PubMed

    Harasti, D; Martin-Smith, K; Gladstone, W

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare habitat preferences for male and female adult and juvenile White's seahorse Hippocampus whitei and assess their movements and site fidelity over 4 years. Data were collected from three sites along 1.5 km of estuarine shoreline in Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia, from 2006 to 2009 using H. whitei that had been tagged with visible implant fluorescent elastomer. Relative availability of 12 habitats and habitat preferences of H. whitei was determined, based on the habitat that H. whitei used as a holdfast. Hippocampus whitei occurred in nine different habitats; adults preferred sponge and soft coral Dendronephthya australis habitats with no difference between male and female habitat preferences whilst juveniles preferred gorgonian Euplexaura sp. habitat. There was a significant preference by adults for D. australis colonies with height >40 cm and avoidance of colonies <20 cm. Neither adults nor juveniles used sand or the seagrasses Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni and Halophila ovalis. Hippocampus whitei showed cryptic behaviour with c. 50% of adult sightings cryptic and c. 75% for juveniles with crypsis occurring predominantly in Sargassum sp. for adults and Euplexaura sp. habitat for juveniles. Within sites, females moved significantly longer distances (maximum of 70 m) than males (maximum of 38 m) over 20 months. Strong site fidelity was displayed by H. whitei with males persisting at the same site for up to 56 months and females for 49 months and no H. whitei moved between sites. The longest period that an H. whitei was recorded on the same holdfast was 17 months for a male and 10 months for a female. As this species displays strong site fidelity, specific habitat preferences and has a limited distribution, future management needs to minimize the risk of habitat disturbance as loss of key habitats could have a negative effect on species abundance and distribution.

  11. Only females in poor condition display a clear preference and prefer males with an average badge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Female condition-dependent variation in mate preference may have important evolutionary implications, not only within the same population but also among populations. There are few experiments, however, on how condition and/or genotype influences female mate preferences. The black throat patch of the male house sparrow, Passer domesticus, is an intensively studied plumage trait. It is often referred to as a 'badge of status' and seems to be involved in female mate choice, but differences exist among populations. Between-population variation in mate preference may occur for condition-dependent mate preferences. We tested the hypothesis that female preference may vary with female quality (body condition). Therefore, we measured female preference for badge size using an aviary two-choice test in which females were presented with two males that had different sizes of badges (enlarged or averaged). Results Overall we did not find a female preference for enlarged or average badges, but low-quality females spent more time near average badge males. Conversely, high-quality females did not show a clear preference. Conclusions Collectively, these results indicate that female preference varies with female quality. Differences in female condition are causes of within-population variation in mating preferences. To our knowledge, our results provide one of the first experimental evidences that variation in preference for a male ornament is associated with female condition. In our study, however, only females of low condition displayed a clear mate preference. Differences observed among populations could be partly explained by differences in female condition. PMID:20799928

  12. Domain Name and Site Hosting Preferences: Empirical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daniel, Thomas; Wai, Chew Kok

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of commercial Web sites that analyzed the correlation between domain names and regional allocation of IP addresses. Explains Internet addresses and names, discusses results which showed that domain names don't always correspond to the location of the host, and offers suggestions for international sampling. (Contains 25…

  13. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in borax

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhananga, T.M.; Matsuo, S.

    1985-01-03

    The total hydrogen involved in borax synthesized at 25/sup 0/C in aqueous solution is enriched in deuterium by 5.3% compared with the mother liquor. There is no change in the value of the D/H fractionation factor between the hydrogen in borax and those in the mother liquor with changes in the degree of supersaturation. The fractionation factor changes slightly with a change in the crystallization temperature of borax in the range from 5 to 25/sup 0/C. The D/H ratio in the different sites of borax was estimated by a fractional dehydration technique. The results show that hydrogen atoms of the polyanionic group (B/sub 4/O/sub 5/(OH)/sub 4/) are much more enriched in deuterium than those of the cationic group (Na/sub 2/ x 8H/sub 2/O). The delta D values, referred to the mother liquor from which the borax was crystallized, for the cationic group (site A) and the polyanionic group (site B) are -35 +/- 3 and 167 +/- 13%, respectively based on the fractional dehydration results obtained at -21/sup 0/C. At -21/sup 0/C, isotopic exchange between different sites during dehydration is assumed not to occur. The mechanism for dehydration of borax is discussed. 48 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Site preferences of actinide cations in [NZP] compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, H. T.; Spearing, D. R.; Smith, D. M.; Hampel, F. G.; Veirs, D. K.; Scheetz, B. E.

    2000-07-01

    Compounds adopting the sodium dizirconium tris(phosphate) (NaZr2(PO4)3) structure type belong to the [NZP] structural family of compounds. [NZP] compounds possess desirable properties that would permit their application as hosts for the actinides. These properties include compositional flexibility (i.e., three structural sites that can accommodate a variety of different cations), high thermal stability, negligible thermal expansion, and resistance to radiation damage. Experimental data indicate that [NZP] compounds resist dissolution and release of constituents over a wide range of experimental conditions. Moreover, [NZP] compounds may be synthesized by both conventional and novel methods and may be heat treated or sintered at modest temperatures (800 °C-1350 °C) in open or restricted systems.

  15. Reasons Underlying Treatment Preference: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Bryan N.; Pruitt, Larry; Fukuda, Seiya; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about what factors influence women's treatment preferences after a sexual assault. To learn more about these factors, data were collected from 273 women who read a standard "if this happened to you, what would you do" scenario describing a sexual assault and subsequent trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. After reading…

  16. Local site preference rationalizes disentangling by DNA topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhirong; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Chan, Hue Sun

    2010-03-01

    To rationalize the disentangling action of type II topoisomerases, an improved wormlike DNA model was used to delineate the degree of unknotting and decatenating achievable by selective segment passage at specific juxtaposition geometries and to determine how these activities were affected by DNA circle size and solution ionic strength. We found that segment passage at hooked geometries can reduce knot populations as dramatically as seen in experiments. Selective segment passage also provided theoretical underpinning for an intriguing empirical scaling relation between unknotting and decatenating potentials.

  17. Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D L; Hanahan, R A

    1996-12-01

    A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy preferences. Surface water and groundwater contamination, desire for public involvement, and potential health risks were found to be the most highly ranked site concerns. Preferred remediation strategies included treatment of contaminated soil and excavation with off-site disposal. Among on-site remediation strategies, only institutional controls that leave the site undisturbed and do not require additional excavation of materials were viewed favorably. Cost of remediation appeared to influence remediation strategy preference; however, no strategy was viewed as a panacea. Respondents were also concerned with protecting future generations, better assessment of risks to health and the environment, and avoiding generation of additional contaminated materials. PMID:9118878

  18. Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D L; Hanahan, R A

    1996-12-01

    A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy preferences. Surface water and groundwater contamination, desire for public involvement, and potential health risks were found to be the most highly ranked site concerns. Preferred remediation strategies included treatment of contaminated soil and excavation with off-site disposal. Among on-site remediation strategies, only institutional controls that leave the site undisturbed and do not require additional excavation of materials were viewed favorably. Cost of remediation appeared to influence remediation strategy preference; however, no strategy was viewed as a panacea. Respondents were also concerned with protecting future generations, better assessment of risks to health and the environment, and avoiding generation of additional contaminated materials.

  19. Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, D L; Hanahan, R A

    1996-01-01

    A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy preferences. Surface water and groundwater contamination, desire for public involvement, and potential health risks were found to be the most highly ranked site concerns. Preferred remediation strategies included treatment of contaminated soil and excavation with off-site disposal. Among on-site remediation strategies, only institutional controls that leave the site undisturbed and do not require additional excavation of materials were viewed favorably. Cost of remediation appeared to influence remediation strategy preference; however, no strategy was viewed as a panacea. Respondents were also concerned with protecting future generations, better assessment of risks to health and the environment, and avoiding generation of additional contaminated materials. PMID:9118878

  20. Bacterially produced calcium phosphate nanobiominerals: sorption capacity, site preferences, and stability of captured radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Handley-Sidhu, S; Hriljac, J A; Cuthbert, M O; Renshaw, J C; Pattrick, R A D; Charnock, J M; Stolpe, B; Lead, J R; Baker, S; Macaskie, L E

    2014-06-17

    A Serratia sp. bacterium manufactures amorphous calcium phosphate nanominerals (BHAP); this material has shown increased sorption capacity for divalent radionuclide capture. When heat-treated (≥450 °C) the cell biomass is removed and the biominerals are transformed to hydroxyapatite (HAP). Using a multimethod approach, we have elucidated both the site preferences and stability of analogue radionuclide incorporation for Sr, Co, Eu, and U. Strontium incorporates within the bulk amorphous inorganic phase of BHAP; however, once temperature modified to crystalline HAP, bonding was consistent with Sr substitution at the Ca(1) and/or Ca(2) sites. Cobalt incorporation occurs within the bulk inorganic amorphous phase of BHAP and within the amorphous grain boundaries of HAP. Europium (an analogue for trivalent actinides) substituted at the Ca(2) and/or the Ca(3) position of tricalcium phosphate, a known component of HAP grain boundaries. Uranium was surface complexed with no secondary minerals detected. With multiple sites for targeted radionuclide incorporation, high loadings, and good stability against remobilization, BHAP is shown to be a potential material for the remediation of aqueous radionuclide in groundwater. PMID:24823240

  1. Ubiquitination site preferences in anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) substrates

    PubMed Central

    Min, Mingwei; Mayor, Ugo; Lindon, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Ordered progression of mitosis requires precise control in abundance of mitotic regulators. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase plays a key role by directing ubiquitin-mediated destruction of targets in a temporally and spatially defined manner. Specificity in APC/C targeting is conferred through recognition of substrate D-box and KEN degrons, while the specificity of ubiquitination sites, as another possible regulated dimension, has not yet been explored. Here, we present the first analysis of ubiquitination sites in the APC/C substrate ubiquitome. We show that KEN is a preferred ubiquitin acceptor in APC/C substrates and that acceptor sites are enriched in predicted disordered regions and flanked by serine residues. Our experimental data confirm a role for the KEN lysine as an ubiquitin acceptor contributing to substrate destruction during mitotic progression. Using Aurora A and Nek2 kinases as examples, we show that phosphorylation on the flanking serine residue could directly regulate ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of substrates. We propose a novel layer of regulation in substrate ubiquitination, via phosphorylation adjacent to the KEN motif, in APC/C-mediated targeting. PMID:24004664

  2. Bacterially produced calcium phosphate nanobiominerals: sorption capacity, site preferences, and stability of captured radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Handley-Sidhu, S; Hriljac, J A; Cuthbert, M O; Renshaw, J C; Pattrick, R A D; Charnock, J M; Stolpe, B; Lead, J R; Baker, S; Macaskie, L E

    2014-06-17

    A Serratia sp. bacterium manufactures amorphous calcium phosphate nanominerals (BHAP); this material has shown increased sorption capacity for divalent radionuclide capture. When heat-treated (≥450 °C) the cell biomass is removed and the biominerals are transformed to hydroxyapatite (HAP). Using a multimethod approach, we have elucidated both the site preferences and stability of analogue radionuclide incorporation for Sr, Co, Eu, and U. Strontium incorporates within the bulk amorphous inorganic phase of BHAP; however, once temperature modified to crystalline HAP, bonding was consistent with Sr substitution at the Ca(1) and/or Ca(2) sites. Cobalt incorporation occurs within the bulk inorganic amorphous phase of BHAP and within the amorphous grain boundaries of HAP. Europium (an analogue for trivalent actinides) substituted at the Ca(2) and/or the Ca(3) position of tricalcium phosphate, a known component of HAP grain boundaries. Uranium was surface complexed with no secondary minerals detected. With multiple sites for targeted radionuclide incorporation, high loadings, and good stability against remobilization, BHAP is shown to be a potential material for the remediation of aqueous radionuclide in groundwater.

  3. Modeling of the Site Preference in Ternary B2-Ordered Ni-Al-Fe Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Khalil, Joseph; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2002-01-01

    The underlying equilibrium structure, site substitution behavior, and lattice parameter of ternary Ni-Fe-Al alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations and analytical calculations using the BFS method for alloys for the energetics. As a result of the theoretical calculations presented, a simple approach based on the energetics of small atomic clusters is introduced to explain the observed site preference schemes.

  4. Site-preference and valency for rare-earth sites in (R-Ce)2Fe14B [R =La,Nd] magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Mahmud; McCallum, R. W.; Johnson, D. D.

    2013-03-01

    Rare-earth (R) permanent magnets of R2Fe14B have technological importance due to their high energy products, and they have two symmetry distinct R-sites (Wyckoff 4f and 4g) that affect chemistry and valence. Designing magnetic behavior and stability via alloying is technologically relevant to reduce critical (expensive) R-content while retaining key properties; cerium, an abundant (cheap) R-element, offers this potential. We calculate magnetic properties and Ce site preference in (R1-xCex)Fe14B [R=La,Nd] using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The Fe moments compare well with neutron scattering data - remain weakly affected by Hubbard U, but improved with spin-orbit coupling. In (La,Ce)2Fe14B, Ce alloys for 0 < x < 1 with a preference for smaller R(4f) sites, as observed, a trend we find unaffected by valence. Whereas in (Nd,Ce)2Fe14B, Ce is predicted to have limited alloying (x < 0.3) with a preference for larger R(4g) sites, resulting in weak partial ordering and segregation. Curie temperatures versus x were predicted for a typical sample processing and verified experimentally. We shall also present some initial results on the critical mixed valency of Ce in related compounds. Work at Ames Laboratory was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, ARPA-E under the REACT program (0472-1526)

  5. Infants Prefer Female Body Phenotypes; Infant Girls Prefer They Have an Hourglass Shape

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.; Hawkins, Laura B.; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3–18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls’ greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls’ later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success

  6. Infants Prefer Female Body Phenotypes; Infant Girls Prefer They Have an Hourglass Shape.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Hawkins, Laura B; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3-18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls' greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls' later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success (e

  7. Acamprosate-responsive brain sites for suppression of ethanol intake and preference

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Allison; Prosser, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Acamprosate suppresses alcohol intake and craving in recovering alcoholics; however, the central sites of its action are unclear. To approach this question, brain regions responsive to acamprosate were mapped using acamprosate microimplants targeted to brain reward and circadian areas implicated in alcohol dependence. mPer2 mutant mice with nonfunctional mPer2, a circadian clock gene that gates endogenous timekeeping, were included, owing to their high levels of ethanol intake and preference. Male wild-type (WT) and mPer2 mutant mice received free-choice (15%) ethanol/water for 3 wk. The ethanol was withdrawn for 3 wk and then reintroduced to facilitate relapse. Four days before ethanol reintroduction, mice received bilateral blank or acamprosate-containing microimplants releasing ∼50 ng/day into reward [ventral tegmental (VTA), peduculopontine tegmentum (PPT), and nucleus accumbens (NA)] and circadian [intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)] areas. The hippocampus was also targeted. Circadian locomotor activity was measured throughout. Ethanol intake and preference were greater in mPer2 mutants than in wild-type (WT) mice (27 g·kg−1·day−1 vs. 13 g·kg−1·day−1 and 70% vs. 50%, respectively; both, P < 0.05). In WTs, acamprosate in all areas, except hippocampus, suppressed ethanol intake and preference (by 40–60%) during ethanol reintroduction. In mPer2 mutants, acamprosate in the VTA, PPT, and SCN suppressed ethanol intake and preference by 20–30%. These data are evidence that acamprosate's suppression of ethanol intake and preference are manifest through actions within major reward and circadian sites. PMID:21697518

  8. Acamprosate-responsive brain sites for suppression of ethanol intake and preference.

    PubMed

    Brager, Allison; Prosser, Rebecca A; Glass, J David

    2011-10-01

    Acamprosate suppresses alcohol intake and craving in recovering alcoholics; however, the central sites of its action are unclear. To approach this question, brain regions responsive to acamprosate were mapped using acamprosate microimplants targeted to brain reward and circadian areas implicated in alcohol dependence. mPer2 mutant mice with nonfunctional mPer2, a circadian clock gene that gates endogenous timekeeping, were included, owing to their high levels of ethanol intake and preference. Male wild-type (WT) and mPer2 mutant mice received free-choice (15%) ethanol/water for 3 wk. The ethanol was withdrawn for 3 wk and then reintroduced to facilitate relapse. Four days before ethanol reintroduction, mice received bilateral blank or acamprosate-containing microimplants releasing ∼50 ng/day into reward [ventral tegmental (VTA), peduculopontine tegmentum (PPT), and nucleus accumbens (NA)] and circadian [intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)] areas. The hippocampus was also targeted. Circadian locomotor activity was measured throughout. Ethanol intake and preference were greater in mPer2 mutants than in wild-type (WT) mice (27 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) vs. 13 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) and 70% vs. 50%, respectively; both, P < 0.05). In WTs, acamprosate in all areas, except hippocampus, suppressed ethanol intake and preference (by 40-60%) during ethanol reintroduction. In mPer2 mutants, acamprosate in the VTA, PPT, and SCN suppressed ethanol intake and preference by 20-30%. These data are evidence that acamprosate's suppression of ethanol intake and preference are manifest through actions within major reward and circadian sites.

  9. Incorporating User Preferences Within an Optimal Traffic Flow Management Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph Lucio; Sheth, Kapil S.; Guiterrez-Nolasco, Sebastian Armardo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of future decision support tools for Traffic Flow Management in the National Airspace System will depend on two major factors: computational burden and collaboration. Previous research has focused separately on these two aspects without consideration of their interaction. In this paper, their explicit combination is examined. It is shown that when user preferences are incorporated with an optimal approach to scheduling, runtime is not adversely affected. A benefit-cost ratio is used to measure the influence of user preferences on an optimal solution. This metric shows user preferences can be accommodated without inordinately, negatively affecting the overall system delay. Specifically, incorporating user preferences will increase delays proportionally to increased user satisfaction.

  10. Premium campground with lake view - pingo remnants as preferred Mesolithic settlement sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüser, Andreas; Enters, Dirk; Wolters, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Pingo remnants are typical but not always easily visible landscape features in northwestern Germany and the Netherlands. Some of them are still small lakes but present-day land-use mostly disguises the existence of formerly water-filled depressions. In addition the circular wall structures have often been leveled by agricultural activities in modern times. However, according to estimates several hundreds pingo remnants bearing witness to Weichselian periglacial conditions can still be found in East Frisia and in the area between the rivers Elbe and Weser. Preliminary paleoecological investigations have shown that the majority of them were water-filled until Neolithic times making them a potential campground of preference for the Mesolithic population. In addition to wind shelter behind wall structures or dunes, Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities could have used here both aquatic and terrestrial food resources. We investigated three of these pingo remnants in northwestern Germany using a multi-proxy approach combining an iterative archaeological site analysis with sediment core studies including geochemical and biological proxies. Our results show that Mesolithic artifacts are often concentrated close to open water bodies. The sediment cores obtained cover the time span from the late Palaeolithic to modern times. Excellent preservation conditions and a moderate sedimentation rate during the Mesolithic enables environmental change to be reconstructed.

  11. An experimental methodology for a fuzzy set preference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    A flexible fuzzy set preference model first requires approximate methodologies for implementation. Fuzzy sets must be defined for each individual consumer using computer software, requiring a minimum of time and expertise on the part of the consumer. The amount of information needed in defining sets must also be established. The model itself must adapt fully to the subject's choice of attributes (vague or precise), attribute levels, and importance weights. The resulting individual-level model should be fully adapted to each consumer. The methodologies needed to develop this model will be equally useful in a new generation of intelligent systems which interact with ordinary consumers, controlling electronic devices through fuzzy expert systems or making recommendations based on a variety of inputs. The power of personal computers and their acceptance by consumers has yet to be fully utilized to create interactive knowledge systems that fully adapt their function to the user. Understanding individual consumer preferences is critical to the design of new products and the estimation of demand (market share) for existing products, which in turn is an input to management systems concerned with production and distribution. The question of what to make, for whom to make it and how much to make requires an understanding of the customer's preferences and the trade-offs that exist between alternatives. Conjoint analysis is a widely used methodology which de-composes an overall preference for an object into a combination of preferences for its constituent parts (attributes such as taste and price), which are combined using an appropriate combination function. Preferences are often expressed using linguistic terms which cannot be represented in conjoint models. Current models are also not implemented an individual level, making it difficult to reach meaningful conclusions about the cause of an individual's behavior from an aggregate model. The combination of complex aggregate

  12. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  13. Protein products obtained by site-preferred partial crosslinking in protein crystals and "liberated" by redissolution.

    PubMed

    Buch, Michal; Wine, Yariv; Dror, Yael; Rosenheck, Sonia; Lebendiker, Mario; Giordano, Rita; Leal, Ricardo M F; Popov, Alexander N; Freeman, Amihay; Frolow, Felix

    2014-07-01

    The use of protein crystals as a source of nanoscale biotemplates has attracted growing interest in recent years owing to their inherent internal order. As these crystals are vulnerable to environmental changes, potential applications require their stabilization by chemical crosslinking. We have previously shown that such intermolecular chemical crosslinking reactions occurring within protein crystals are not random events, but start at preferred crosslinking sites imposed by the alignment of protein molecules and their packing within the crystalline lattice. Here we propose a new working hypothesis and demonstrate its feasibility in enabling us to extricate homogeneous populations of single protein molecules that display chemical point mutations or of dimers that show homogeneous chemical crosslinking, and that have the potential for isolation of higher structures. Characterization of the crosslinking mechanism and its end products opens the way to the potential retrieval of such specific modified/intermolecular crosslinked products simply by effecting partial crosslinking at identified preferred sites, followed by time-controlled arrest of the crosslinking reaction and dissolution of the crystals by medium exchange complemented by chromatographic purification.

  14. MicroRNA modules prefer to bind weak and unconventional target sites

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Li, Xiaoman; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in gene regulation. Although it is well known that multiple miRNAs may work as miRNA modules to synergistically regulate common target mRNAs, the understanding of miRNA modules is still in its infancy. Results: We employed the recently generated high throughput experimental data to study miRNA modules. We predicted 181 miRNA modules and 306 potential miRNA modules. We observed that the target sites of these predicted modules were in general weaker compared with those not bound by miRNA modules. We also discovered that miRNAs in predicted modules preferred to bind unconventional target sites rather than canonical sites. Surprisingly, contrary to a previous study, we found that most adjacent miRNA target sites from the same miRNA modules were not within the range of 10–130 nucleotides. Interestingly, the distance of target sites bound by miRNAs in the same modules was shorter when miRNA modules bound unconventional instead of canonical sites. Our study shed new light on miRNA binding and miRNA target sites, which will likely advance our understanding of miRNA regulation. Availability and implementation: The software miRModule can be freely downloaded at http://hulab.ucf.edu/research/projects/miRNA/miRModule. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: haihu@cs.ucf.edu or xiaoman@mail.ucf.edu. PMID:25527098

  15. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  16. An Articulatory Phonology Account of Preferred Consonant-Vowel Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Giulivi, Sara; Whalen, D. H.; Goldstein, Louis M.; Nam, Hosung; Levitt, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    Certain consonant/vowel combinations (labial/central, coronal/front, velar/back) are more frequent in babbling as well as, to a lesser extent, in adult language, than chance would dictate. The “Frame then Content” (F/C) hypothesis (Davis & MacNeilage, 1994) attributes this pattern to biomechanical vocal-tract biases that change as infants mature. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman and Goldstein 1989) attributes preferences to demands placed on shared articulators. F/C implies that preferences will diminish as articulatory control increases, while AP does not. Here, babbling from children at 6, 9 and 12 months in English, French and Mandarin environments was examined. There was no developmental trend in CV preferences, although older ages exhibited greater articulatory control. A perception test showed no evidence of bias toward hearing the preferred combinations. Modeling using articulatory synthesis found limited support for F/C but more for AP, including data not originally encompassed in F/C. AP thus provides an alternative biomechanical explanation. PMID:23505343

  17. Choosing your network: social preferences in an online health community.

    PubMed

    Centola, Damon; van de Rijt, Arnout

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of online health communities offer individuals the opportunity to receive information, advice, and support from peers. Recent studies have demonstrated that these new online contacts can be important informational resources, and can even exert significant influence on individuals' behavior in various contexts. However little is known about how people select their health contacts in these virtual domains. This is because selection preferences in peer networks are notoriously difficult to detect. In existing networks, unobserved pressures on tie formation--such as common organizational memberships, introductions to friends of friends, or limitations on accessibility--may mistakenly be interpreted as individual preferences for interacting/not interacting with others. We address these issues by adopting a social media approach to studying network formation. We study social selection using an in vivo study within an online exercise program, in which anonymous participants have equal opportunities for initiating relationships with other program members. This design allows us to identify individuals' preferences for health contacts, and to evaluate what these preferences imply for members' access to new kinds of health information, and for the kinds of social influences to which they are exposed. The study was conducted within a goal-oriented fitness competition, in which participation was greatest among a small core of active individuals. Our results show that the active participants displayed indifference to the fitness and exercise profiles of others, disregarding information about others' fitness levels, exercise preferences, and workout experiences, instead selecting partners almost entirely on the basis of similarities on gender, age, and BMI. Interestingly, the findings suggest that rather than expanding and diversifying their sources of health information, participants' choices limited the value of their online resources by selecting contacts

  18. Birds prefer to breed in sites with low radioactivity in Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A

    2007-06-01

    Low-level radioactive contamination may affect choice of breeding site and life-history decisions if (i) radioactivity directly affects body condition or (ii) it affects resource abundance that then secondarily influences reproductive decisions. We tested the effects of radioactive contamination on nest-site choice and reproduction in a community of hole nesting birds by putting up nest boxes in areas differing in levels of background radiation. Great tit Parus major and pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca significantly avoided nest boxes in heavily contaminated areas, with a stronger effect in flycatchers than in tits. These preferences could not be attributed to variation in habitat quality or resource abundance, as determined by analyses of habitat use and the relationship between radiation and life-history characters. Likewise, none of these effects could be attributed to individuals of a specific age breeding in the most contaminated areas. Laying date and clutch size were not significantly related to dose rate in either species. Hatching success was depressed by elevated radioactive contamination, interacting with habitat in the great tit and with laying date in the pied flycatcher. Interspecific differences in effects of radiation on nest-site choice suggest that species respond in a species-specific manner to radiation, perhaps related to differences in migratory habits. We suggest that individual body condition rather than secondary effects of radiation on resource abundance account for the effects on nest box use and hatching success.

  19. Replication forks of Escherichia coli are not the preferred sites for lysogenic integration of bacteriophage Mu.

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, S; Zaritsky, A; Kagan-Zur, V

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether bacteriophage Mu prefers replication forks for lysogenic integration into Escherichia coli chromosomes was tested by using two different systems. In the first, inactivation of genes was scored in synchronized cultures infected by Mu at various times. No increase in the mutation frequency of a gene was found after infection at the time of its replication. In the second, the composition of colonies formed by bacteria lysogenized by Mu was determined; the newly formed lysogens should give rise to mixed colonies (containing lysogenized as well as nonlysogenized bacteria), uniform colonies, or both, depending on the mode of integration. Both types of colonies were found, and the fraction of uniform colonies was proportional to the relative length of the unreplicated segment of an average chromosome in the culture. The results in both systems clearly preclude the possibility that a lysogenizing Mu integrates with high preference at the chromosome replication forks. PMID:2968339

  20. An Analysis of Preference Relative to Teacher Implementation of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LeAnne D.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Symons, Frank J.; Moore, Tara C.; Maggin, Daniel M.; Sutherland, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preference trial as a preliminary test of preference effects on teacher behavior relative to implementation (adoption, adherence, quality). Teachers were randomly assigned to "preference" or "no-preference" groups and then trained to implement the intervention. Direct observation…

  1. Engineering Band Structure via the Site Preference of Pb(2+) in the In(+) Site for Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of In6Se7.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiaolin; Cheng, Min; Wu, Wenchang; Du, Zhengliang; Chao, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Although binary In-Se based alloys have in recent years gained interest as thermoelectric (TE) candidates, little attention has been paid to In6Se7-based compounds. Substituting Pb in In6Se7, preference for Pb(2+) in the In(+) site has been observed, allowing Fermi level (Fr) shift toward the conduction band, where the localized state conduction becomes dominant. Consequently, the Hall carrier concentration (nH) has been significantly enhanced with the highest nH value being about 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that of the Pb-free sample. Meanwhile, the lattice thermal conductivity (κL) tends to be reduced as the nH value increases, owing to an increased phonon scattering on carriers. As a result, a significantly enhanced TE performance has been achieved with the highest TE figure of merit (ZT) of 0.4 at ∼850 K. This ZT value is 27 times that of intrinsic In6Se7 (ZT = 0.015 at 640 K), which proves a successful band structure engineering through site preference of Pb in In6Se7.

  2. Engineering Band Structure via the Site Preference of Pb(2+) in the In(+) Site for Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of In6Se7.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiaolin; Cheng, Min; Wu, Wenchang; Du, Zhengliang; Chao, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Although binary In-Se based alloys have in recent years gained interest as thermoelectric (TE) candidates, little attention has been paid to In6Se7-based compounds. Substituting Pb in In6Se7, preference for Pb(2+) in the In(+) site has been observed, allowing Fermi level (Fr) shift toward the conduction band, where the localized state conduction becomes dominant. Consequently, the Hall carrier concentration (nH) has been significantly enhanced with the highest nH value being about 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that of the Pb-free sample. Meanwhile, the lattice thermal conductivity (κL) tends to be reduced as the nH value increases, owing to an increased phonon scattering on carriers. As a result, a significantly enhanced TE performance has been achieved with the highest TE figure of merit (ZT) of 0.4 at ∼850 K. This ZT value is 27 times that of intrinsic In6Se7 (ZT = 0.015 at 640 K), which proves a successful band structure engineering through site preference of Pb in In6Se7. PMID:27541319

  3. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  4. An Assessment of Childbearing Preferences in Northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Machiyama, Kazuyo; Baschieri, Angela; Dube, Albert; Crampin, Amelia C; Glynn, Judith R; French, Neil; Cleland, John

    2015-06-01

    Fertility preferences are an essential component of family planning program evaluation; however, doubts about their validity in sub-Saharan Africa exist and little methodological assessment has been carried out. This study investigates prospective fertility intentions in terms of their temporal stability, intensity, degree of spousal agreement, and association with future childbearing in northern Malawi. A total of 5,222 married women participated in the three-round study. The odds of having a child or becoming pregnant within 36 months were 4.2 times higher when both wife and husband wanted a child within three years and 2 times higher when both wanted to wait at least three years, compared with the odds when both wanted to cease childbearing. The influence of husbands' and wives' preferences on subsequent fertility was equal. Compared with the intention to stop, the intention to postpone childbearing was less stable, recorded less spousal agreement, and was much less strongly predictive of fertility.

  5. Altering Entry Site Preference of Lentiviral Vectors into Neuronal Cells by Pseudotyping with Envelope Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenta; Kato, Shigeki; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Takada, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    A lentiviral vector system provides a powerful strategy for gene therapy trials against a variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors with different envelope glycoproteins not only confers the neurotropism to the vectors, but also alters the preference of sites of vector entry into neuronal cells. One major group of lentiviral vectors is a pseudotype with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) that enters preferentially cell body areas (somata/dendrites) of neurons and transduces them. Another group contains lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different sets of rabies virus glycoprotein and VSV-G segments that enter predominantly axon terminals of neurons and are transported through axons retrogradely to their cell bodies, resulting in enhanced retrograde gene transfer. This retrograde gene transfer takes a considerable advantage of delivering the transgene into neuronal cell bodies situated in regions distant from the injection site of the vectors. The rational use of these two vector groups characterized by different entry mechanisms will further extend the strategy for gene therapy of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. An Examination of Learning Style Preferences among Egyptian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sywelem, Mohamed; Dahawy, Bayoumi; Wang, Chih-husan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine teacher students' learning style preferences and to examine the extent gender, seniority and academic major affect the students' preferences. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  7. Student Preferences for Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Student preferences among instructional methods are largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. The algorithmic rigor of courses and the societal culture can influence these preferences. This study explored students' preferences of instructional methods for learning in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differ in algorithmic…

  8. A test of the longevity of impact-induced faults as preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that impact-induced faults have been preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses has been suggested for several planets and satellites. This hypothesis is investigated on earth by examining whether terrestrial impact structures show higher rates of nearby earthquake activity than do surrounding intraplate regions. For 28 of 30 probable impact structures having an original crater 20 km or more in diameter, the rates of nearby seismicity have been no higher than the regional background rates. For two large probable impact structures, Vredefort and Charlevoix, with higher than normal rates of nearby seismicity, factors other than slip on impact-induced faults appear to control the occurrence of earthquakes. It is concluded that impact-induced faults, at least on earth, do not persist as lithospheric 'weak zones' for periods in excess of several million years after the impact event.

  9. The relaxase of the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid shows nic site cis-acting preference.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Lucas, María; Muñoz, Socorro; Herrera-Cervera, José A; Olivares, José; de la Cruz, Fernando; Sanjuán, Juan

    2006-11-01

    Genetic and biochemical characterization of TraA, the relaxase of symbiotic plasmid pRetCFN42d from Rhizobium etli, is described. After purifying the relaxase domain (N265TraA), we demonstrated nic binding and cleavage activity in vitro and thus characterized for the first time the nick site (nic) of a plasmid in the family Rhizobiaceae. We studied the range of N265TraA relaxase specificity in vitro by testing different oligonucleotides in binding and nicking assays. In addition, the ability of pRetCFN42d to mobilize different Rhizobiaceae plasmid origins of transfer (oriT) was examined. Data obtained with these approaches allowed us to establish functional and phylogenetic relationships between different plasmids of this family. Our results suggest novel characteristics of the R. etli pSym relaxase for previously described conjugative systems, with emphasis on the oriT cis-acting preference of this enzyme and its possible biological relevance.

  10. Decomposition of the factors that govern binding site preference in a multiple rotaxane.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Joseph P; Sohlberg, Karl

    2009-06-18

    A particularly interesting class of multiple rotaxanes consists of complexes where one long shaft threads two rings. If the shaft contains three or more potential binding sites for the rings, multiple co-conformations are possible. Such a complex is a molecular topological analogue to an abacus. Here we address the question, how does strength of ring binding to the shaft vary with respect to position on the shaft? Previous studies have found that a shaft with three binding sites exhibits strongest ring binding at the center site. Here a five-binding-site shaft is studied. We employ a novel method to partition the total energy of the system into contributions from intercomponent binding and intracomponent distortion. The method uses the output of quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations to determine fitting parameters in a set of coupled equations. The solution of the equations yields the energy partitioning and reveals the influence of long-range intercomponent interactions.

  11. The Information Architecture of E-Commerce: An Experimental Study on User Performance and Preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Abdul Rahim; Md Noor, Nor Laila; Mehad, Shafie

    Too often, designers of e-commerce web sites use models, concepts, guidelines, and designs that focus on the artifacts while ignoring the context in which the artifacts will be used. Furthermore, the link between culture and usability in web site IA phenomenon is still considered as uncharted area, as it lacks much theoretical consideration. In an effort toward addressing the aforementioned issues, our study provides a theoretical and empirical link between cultural and usability through the application of ‘Venustas' (Delight) drawn from the architectural field and Hofstede's cultural dimensions. We use Islamic culture as the case study and report on the experiment to investigate the effect of the IA designs based on the cultural dimensions on e-commerce web sites. The result provides partial empirical support to the theorized link between culture and usability based on the usability measurement on user performance and preference. In addition, practical web site IA cultural design prescriptions are also provided.

  12. An experiment on simplifying conjoint analysis designs for measuring preferences.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Tara; Phillips, Kathryn A; Reed Johnson, F

    2003-12-01

    In conjoint analysis (CA) studies, choosing between scenarios with multiple health attributes may be demanding for respondents. This study examined whether simplifying the choice task in CA designs, by using a design with more overlap of attribute levels, provides advantages over standard minimal-overlap methods. Two experimental conditions, minimal and increased-overlap discrete choice CA designs, were administered to 353 respondents as part of a larger HIV testing preference survey. In the minimal-overlap survey, all six attribute levels were allowed to vary. In the increased-overlap survey, an average of two attribute levels were the same between each set of scenarios. We hypothesized that the increased-overlap design would reduce cognitive burden, while minimally impacting statistical efficiency. We did not find any significant improvement in consistency, willingness to trade, perceived difficulty, fatigue, or efficiency, although several results were in the expected direction. However, evidence suggested that there were differences in stated preferences. The results increase our understanding of how respondents answer CA questions and how to improve future surveys.

  13. Is there an own-race preference in attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Burke, Darren; Nolan, Caroline; Hayward, William Gordon; Russell, Robert; Sulikowski, Danielle

    2013-08-15

    Even in multicultural nations interracial relationships and marriages are quite rare, one reflection of assortative mating. A relatively unexplored factor that could explain part of this effect is that people may find members of their own racial group more attractive than members of other groups. We tested whether there is an own-race preference in attractiveness judgments, and also examined the effect of familiarity by comparing the attractiveness ratings given by participants of different ancestral and geographic origins to faces of European, East Asian and African origin. We did not find a strong own-race bias in attractiveness judgments, but neither were the data consistent with familiarity, suggesting an important role for other factors determining the patterns of assortative mating observed.

  14. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    PubMed

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research.

  15. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    PubMed

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

  16. Preference Reversal: A New Look at an Old Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shu

    2006-01-01

    A generalized "weak dominance" approach is used to test the documented preference reversal (PR) phenomenon. This approach simply models risky choice behavior in PR as a choice between the best possible outcomes or a choice between the worst possible outcomes by equating smaller paired outcome difference between bets. The preference reversals are…

  17. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  18. An Assessment of Clientele Preferences for Receiving Extension Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John G.

    A research project was conducted to determine the methods of information delivery preferred by targeted clientele of extension offices in North Carolina, and what methods clients might prefer in the future. Eleven North Carolina Cooperative Extension agents representing all areas of the state cooperated in the study. The agents developed…

  19. The alcohol tracker application: an initial evaluation of user preferences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ward, John; Ying, John J B; Pan, Fang; Ho, Roger C M

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders is increasing. Advances in technology have resulted in numerous smartphone applications for this disorder. However, there are still concerns about the evidence base of previously developed alcohol applications. Objective The following study aims to illustrate how the authors have made use of innovative methodologies to overcome the issues relating to the accuracy of tracking the amount of alcohol one has consumed; it also aims to determine user perceptions about the innovative tracker and various other features of an alcohol self-management application among a group of individuals from the general population of a developed country (Canada). Methodology A native alcohol self-management application was developed. In order to determine user perspectives towards this new innovative application, the authors took advantage and made use of crowdsourcing to acquire user perspectives. Results Our results showed that smartphone ownership is highest among the age group of 35–44 years (91%) and lowest for those aged between 55 and 64 (58%). Our analysis also showed that 25–34-year-olds and 35–44-year-olds drink more frequently than the other groups. Results suggest that notification and information were the two most useful functions, with psychotherapy expected to be the least useful. Females indicated that notification service was the most useful function, while males preferred the information component. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how the authors have made use of innovative technologies to overcome the existing concerns pertaining to the utilisation of the blood alcohol concentration levels as a tracker. In addition, the authors have managed to highlight user preferences with regard to an alcohol application. PMID:27019744

  20. Sex preference in South Asia: Sri Lanka an outlier.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A T

    1995-09-01

    At a 1994 symposium on sex preference in Asia, represented countries were grouped as follows: a) rapid fertility decline, strong son preference, and abnormal sex ratio at birth (China, Taiwan, and the Republic of Korea); b) rapid fertility decline, no son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand); and c) slow fertility decline, strong son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan). This article reviews the factors responsible for strong son preference in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan and the reasons for the lack of son preference in Sri Lanka. Abnormal sex ratios are attributed to sex-selective abortions. Sex preference in South Asia results in excessive mortality of female children. Mention is made of a higher mortality risk of daughters in Indian households with more older female children. Bairagi is cited for his evidence that in Bangladesh daughters having older sisters have a higher mortality risk. In Pakistan survey results indicate that sons are preferred. Numerous authors are cited for evidence suggesting that fertility might be lower if son preference were reduced. Rajaretnam and Deshpande are cited for findings that contraceptive prevalence in south India would increase by about 12% in high-prevalence areas and about 25% in low-prevalence areas in the absence of sex preference. Bourne and Walker and Das Gupta are identified as authors providing evidence that increased economic opportunities for women, increased women's status, and increased value placed on women's work would reduce the desire for sons. Cain argues for better old-age security and better access to food and medical care. Abeykoon has shown that weakened son preference in Sri Lanka occurred over a 20-year period as improvements were made in women's status. Parents in Sri Lanka give greater value to the small-family norm than to the sex of the child. A slight preference was found in 1975 and 1992. Discrimination in food

  1. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. Methods UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+). Key Results All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pKa1 values between 2·8 and 4·5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Conclusions Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata. PMID:18977765

  2. A test of the hypothesis that impact-induced fractures are preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    Impact cratering has been an important process in the solar system. The cratering event is generally accompanied by faulting in adjacent terrain. Impact-induced faults are nearly ubiquitous over large areas on the terrestrial planets. The suggestion is made that these fault systems, particularly those associated with the largest impact features are preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses generated by other processes. The evidence is a perceived clustering of orientations of tectonic features either radial or concentric to the crater or basin in question. An opportunity exists to test this suggestion more directly on Earth. The terrestrial continents contain more than 100 known or probable impact craters, with associated geological structures mapped to varying levels of detail. Prime facie evidence for reactivation of crater-induced faults would be the occurrence of earthquakes on these faults in response to the intraplate stress field. Either an alignment of epicenters with mapped fault traces or fault plane solutions indicating slip on a plane approximately coincident with that inferred for a crater-induced fault would be sufficient to demonstrate such an association.

  3. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimentation in this area. Three children who engaged in problem behavior that was maintained by social positive reinforcement (attention, access to tangible items) participated. Results indicated that preference for different magnitudes of social reinforcement may predict reinforcer efficacy and that magnitude effects may be mediated by the schedule requirement. PMID:18595284

  4. Professional Employees' Preference for Upward Mobility: An Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Charles A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    In a recent article Harlow (1973) provided some empirical data regarding the upward mobility aspirations of professional employees. The results reported here test the two hypotheses she investigated and a third hypothesis relating organizational commitment and preference for promotion. (Author)

  5. [Sex preference in Taiwan--an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Yen, E C

    1988-06-01

    The quality of children has mostly been discussed in so far as it can affect fertility. The sex of children is a particularly important subject in this context. Because a child's sex is stochastically determined, Ben-Porath and Welch used the household production approach to identify risky decision points. The purpose of this paper is twofold. One is to simplify Ben-Porath's and Welch's model. The other is to use KAP data in Taiwan to examine the causes of preferring to have at least 1 boy and to test in what direction and the degree to which such preferences affect fertility. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) preferring to have at least 1 boy is significant in Taiwan; 2) the data support both the assumption of inelastic demand and mild learning; 3) concerning the dummy variable for the existence of at least 1 boy preference, it can be shown that the regression coefficients for each of family structure, wife's education, and husband's occupation were statistically significant at the .01 significance level; and 4) when the impact of "at least 1 boy preference" on completed family size is concerned, the regression coefficient for the existence of at least 1 boy preference is positive as expected and also the most significant variable included.

  6. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  7. Site preference of ternary alloying additions to NiTi: Fe, Pt, Pd, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of Pd in NiTi (J. Alloys and Comp. (2004), in press) has been extended to examine the behavior of several other alloying additions, namely, Fe, Pt, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf in this important shape memory alloy. It was found that all elements, to a varying degree, displayed absolute preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. How- ever, the energetics of the different substitutional schemes, coupled with large scale simulations indicate that the general trend in all cases is for the ternary addition to want to form stronger ordered structures with Ti.

  8. The piggyBac transposon displays local and distant reintegration preferences and can cause mutations at noncanonical integration sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng Amy; Pettitt, Stephen J; Eckert, Sabine; Ning, Zemin; Rice, Stephen; Cadiñanos, Juan; Yusa, Kosuke; Conte, Nathalie; Bradley, Allan

    2013-04-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is widely used as a tool in mammalian experimental systems for transgenesis, mutagenesis, and genome engineering. We have characterized genome-wide insertion site preferences of piggyBac by sequencing a large set of integration sites arising from transposition from two separate genomic loci and a plasmid donor in mouse embryonic stem cells. We found that piggyBac preferentially integrates locally to the excision site when mobilized from a chromosomal location and identified other nonlocal regions of the genome with elevated insertion frequencies. piggyBac insertions were associated with expressed genes and markers of open chromatin structure and were excluded from heterochromatin. At the nucleotide level, piggyBac prefers to insert into TA-rich regions within a broader GC-rich context. We also found that piggyBac can insert into sites other than its known TTAA insertion site at a low frequency (2%). Such insertions introduce mismatches that are repaired with signatures of host cell repair pathways. Transposons could be mobilized from plasmids with the observed noncanonical flanking regions, indicating that piggyBac could generate point mutations in the genome. PMID:23358416

  9. A time-stop nonlinear model of cattle site preference in Northwestern Oregon and Western Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle producers of Oregon and Idaho are interested in ensuring the long-term health and productivity of their lands while producing livestock products and maintaining important environmental benefits such as healthy watersheds. In order to do this, producers must know the areas that are preferred ...

  10. Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration.

    PubMed

    Binetti, Nicola; Harrison, Charlotte; Coutrot, Antoine; Johnston, Alan; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period of direct gaze that feels comfortable and examined whether autonomic factors linked to arousal were indicative of people's preferred amount of eye contact. Surprisingly, we find that preferred period of gaze duration is not dependent on fundamental characteristics such as gender, personality traits or attractiveness. However, we do find that subtle pupillary changes, indicative of physiological arousal, correlate with the amount of eye contact people find comfortable. Specifically, people preferring longer durations of eye contact display faster increases in pupil size when viewing another person than those preferring shorter durations. These results reveal that a person's preferred duration of eye contact is signalled by physiological indices (pupil dilation) beyond volitional control that may play a modulatory role in gaze behaviour. PMID:27493767

  11. Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration

    PubMed Central

    Binetti, Nicola; Harrison, Charlotte; Coutrot, Antoine; Johnston, Alan; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period of direct gaze that feels comfortable and examined whether autonomic factors linked to arousal were indicative of people's preferred amount of eye contact. Surprisingly, we find that preferred period of gaze duration is not dependent on fundamental characteristics such as gender, personality traits or attractiveness. However, we do find that subtle pupillary changes, indicative of physiological arousal, correlate with the amount of eye contact people find comfortable. Specifically, people preferring longer durations of eye contact display faster increases in pupil size when viewing another person than those preferring shorter durations. These results reveal that a person's preferred duration of eye contact is signalled by physiological indices (pupil dilation) beyond volitional control that may play a modulatory role in gaze behaviour. PMID:27493767

  12. What's that smell? An ecological approach to understanding preferences for familiar odors.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Goldberger, Carolyn S; Palmer, Stephen E; Levitan, Carmel A

    2015-01-01

    How do odor preferences arise? Following Palmer and Schloss's (2010, PNAS, 107, 8877-8882) ecological valence theory of color preferences, we propose that preference for an odor is determined by preferences for all objects and/or entities associated with that odor. The present results showed that preferences for familiar odors were strongly predicted by average preferences for all things associated with the odors (eg people liked the apple odor which was associated with mostly positive things, such as apples, soap, and candy, but disliked the fish odor, which was associated with mostly negative things, such as dead fish, trash, and vomit). The odor WAVEs (weighted affective valence estimates) performed significantly better than one based on preference for only the namesake object (eg predicting preference for the apple odor based on preference for apples). These results suggest that preferences for familiar odors are based on a summary statistic, coding the valence of previous odor-related experiences. We discuss how this account of odor preferences is consistent with the idea that odor preferences exist to guide organisms to approach beneficial objects and situations and avoid harmful ones. PMID:26489214

  13. Self-generated cognitive fluency as an alternative route to preference formation.

    PubMed

    Constable, Merryn D; Bayliss, Andrew P; Tipper, Steven P; Kritikos, Ada

    2013-03-01

    People tend to prefer fluently processed over harder to process information. In this study we examine two issues concerning fluency and preference. First, previous research has pre-selected fluent and non-fluent materials. We did not take this approach yet show that the fluency of individuals' idiosyncratic on-line interactions with a given stimulus can influence preference formation. Second, while processing fluency influences preference, the opposite also may be true: preferred stimuli could be processed more fluently than non-preferred. Participants performed a visual search task either before or after indicating their preferred images from an array of either paintings by Kandinsky or decorated coffee mugs. Preferred stimuli were associated with fluent processing, reflected in facilitated search times. Critically, this was only the case for participants who gave their preferences after completing the visual search task, not for those stating preferences prior to the visual search task. Our results suggest that the spontaneous and idiosyncratic experience of processing fluency plays a role in forming preference judgments and conversely that our first impressions of preference do not drive response fluency.

  14. A conserved active site tyrosine residue of proline dehydrogenase helps enforce the preference for proline over hydroxyproline as the substrate.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Larson, John D; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Tanner, John J

    2009-02-10

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of l-proline to Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insight into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analogue l-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75, 1.90, and 1.85 A, respectively. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline 3-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of 20 (Y540S) and 50 (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding the substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate.

  15. A Conserved Active Site Tyrosine Residue of Proline Dehydrogenase Helps Enforce the Preference for Proline over Hydroxyproline as the Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, E.L.; Larson, J.D.; Schuermann, J.P.; Tanner, J.J.

    2009-03-02

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to {Delta}-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insight into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analogue L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75, 1.90, and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline 3-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of 20 (Y540S) and 50 (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding the substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate.

  16. Can preference for oviposition sites initiate reproductive isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?

    PubMed

    Rova, Emma; Björklund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact.

  17. Risky Business: An Analysis of Teacher Risk Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Daniel H.; Buck, Stuart; Deck, Cary; Mills, Jonathan N.; Shuls, James V.

    2015-01-01

    A range of proposals aim to reform teacher compensation, recruitment, and retention. Teachers have generally not embraced these policies. One potential explanation for their objections is that teachers are relatively risk averse. We examine this hypothesis using a risk-elicitation task common to experimental economics. By comparing preferences of…

  18. An Investigation of Job-Seeker Preferences Through Multiple Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated job-seeker preferences for selected job factors in a study of 266 students who rated fictitious job descriptions. Results showed adequate pay was relatively more important than factors related to the type of work. Sex, age, grade average, parents' income, experience, and achievement need influenced students' attitudes. (JAC)

  19. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  20. Acylsucrose-Producing Tomato Plants Forces Bemisia tabaci to Shift Its Preferred Settling and Feeding Site

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-López, Maria Jose; Garzo, Elisa; Bonani, Jean Patrick; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) causes dramatic damage to plants by transmitting yield-limiting virus diseases. Previous studies proved that the tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was resistant to B. tabaci, the vector of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). This resistance is based on the presence of type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production. These trichomes deter settling and probing of B. tabaci in ABL 14-8, which reduces primary and secondary spread of TYLCD. Methodology/Principal Findings Whitefly settlement preference was evaluated on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of nearly-isogenic tomato lines with and without B. tabaci-resistance traits, ‘ABL 14-8 and Moneymaker’ respectively, under non-choice and free-choice conditions. In addition, the Electrical Penetration Graph technique was used to study probing and feeding activities of B. tabaci on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the same genotypes. B. tabaci preferred to settle on the abaxial than on the adaxial surface of ‘Moneymaker’ leaves, whereas no such preference was observed on ABL 14-8 tomato plants at the ten-leaf growth stage. Furthermore, B. tabaci preferred to feed on the abaxial than on the adaxial leaf surface of ‘Moneymarker’ susceptible tomato plants as shown by a higher number of sustained phloem feeding ingestion events and a shorter time to reach the phloem. However, B. tabaci standard probing and feeding behavior patterns were altered in ABL 14-8 plants and whiteflies were unable to feed from the phloem and spent more time in non-probing activities when exposed to the abaxial leaf surface. Conclusions/Significance The distorted behavior of B. tabaci on ABL 14-8 protects tomato plants from the transmission of phloem-restricted viruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and forces whiteflies to feed on the adaxial side of leaves where they feed less efficiently and become more vulnerable to natural enemies. PMID:22427950

  1. Insertion site preferences of the P transposable element in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guo-chun; Rehm, E. Jay; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2000-01-01

    We determined the genomic sequence at the site of insertion in 2,266 unselected P element insertion events. Estimating physical properties of the genomic DNA at these insertion sites—such as base composition, bendability, A-philicity, protein-induced deformability, and B-DNA twist—revealed that they differ significantly from average chromosomal DNA. By examining potential hydrogen bonding sites in the major groove, we identified a 14-bp palindromic pattern centered on the 8-bp target site duplication that is generated by P element insertion. Our results suggest that the P-element transposition mechanism has a two-fold dyad symmetry and recognizes a structural feature at insertion sites, rather than a specific sequence motif. PMID:10716700

  2. Space environment induced mutations prefer to occur at polymorphic sites of rice genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Liu, M.; Cheng, Z.; Sun, Y.

    To explore the genomic characteristics of rice mutants induced by space environment, space-induced mutants 971-5, 972-4, and R955, which acquired new traits after space flight such as increased yield, reduced resistance to rice blast, and semi-dwarfism compared with their on-ground controls, 971ck, 972ck, and Bing95-503, respectively, together with other 8 japonica and 3 indica rice varieties, 17 in total, were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. We chose 16 AFLP primer-pairs which generated a total of 1251 sites, of which 745 (59.6%) were polymorphic over all the genotypes. With the 16 pairs of primer combinations, 54 space-induced mutation sites were observed in 971-5, 86 in 972-4, and 5 in R955 compared to their controls, and the mutation rates were 4.3%, 6.9% and 0.4%, respectively. Interestingly, 75.9%, 84.9% and 100% of the mutation sites identified in 971-5, 972-4, and R955 occurred in polymorphic sites. This result suggests that the space environment preferentially induced mutations at polymorphic sites in rice genomes and might share a common mechanism with other types of mutagens. It also implies that polymorphic sites in genomes are potential "hotspots" for mutations induced by the space environment.

  3. Task variation versus task repetition for people with profound developmental disabilities: an assessment of preferences.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; O'Reilly, M F; Campodonico, F; Mantini, M

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of preferences between task variation and task repetition with four adults with profound developmental disabilities was implemented. After participants were exposed to both task variation and task repetition conditions, they were allowed to choose between them. Results showed that all participants had strong preferences; three preferred task variation and one task repetition. Aspects of the assessment and use of assessment data for planning daily work conditions were discussed.

  4. Selection of intervention components in an internet stop smoking participant preference trial: beyond randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Schueller, Stephen M; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2013-01-30

    To address health problems that have a major impact on global health requires research designs that go beyond randomized controlled trials. One such design, the participant preference trial, provides additional information in an ecologically valid manner, once intervention efficacy has been demonstrated. The current study presents illustrative data from a participant preference trial of an internet-based smoking cessation intervention. Participants (N=7763) from 124 countries accessed the intervention and were allowed to choose from nine different site components to aid their quit attempt. Of consenting participants, 36.7% completed at least one follow-up assessment. Individuals with depression were more likely to choose a mood management module and participants who smoked a higher number of cigarettes were more likely to choose a cigarette counter and a nicotine replacement therapy guide. Furthermore, depressed participants selecting the mood management component were more likely to report at least one successful 7 day quit (37.2% vs. 22.2%) in the 12 months following the intervention. Thus, participants with depressive symptoms appear to make choices on the basis of their needs and to benefit from these decisions. This suggests that providing the ability to customize previously validated resources may be a successful way to widely disseminate interventions.

  5. Telecommuting and Learning Style Preference: An Examination of Learning Transfer in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Telecommuting learning style preferences were examined in an effort to determine the impact of learning transfer and if employees could benefit from blended training methodologies (i.e., online, face-to-face). Learning style preferences were examined in an effort to promote learning transfer and retention in the workplace. Employees in higher…

  6. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental...

  7. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental...

  8. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental...

  9. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental...

  10. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental...

  11. Investigation of the site preference in Mn2RuSn using KKR-CPA-LDA calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Liu, Bohua; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the site preference and atomic disorder between the A and C sites in Heusler alloy Mn2RuSn by using the KKR-CPA-LDA method. It is found that, at ground state 0 K, the Hg2CuTi-type (XA) structure is energetically favored, in which one Mn and one Ru occupy the A and C sites, respectively. The ground state energy of Mn2RuSn increases with increasing degree of Mn (A)-Ru (C) atomic disorder. The equilibrium lattice constants also show a similar tendency. The Mn (A)-Ru (C) disorder lower the total spin moment effectively, which is 1.87 μB in the XA structure and only 0.98 μB in the L21B structure. In Mn2RuSn with different degree of Mn (A)-Ru (C) atomic disorder, the total moments are always determined by the antiparallel aligned Mn (A, C) and Mn (B) spin moments. The saturated moment of Mn2RuSn at 5 K is 1.68 μB, which corresponds to ∼11% antisite Mn entering the C site. This Mn (A)-Ru (C) disorder in samples can be related to the contributions from entropy of mixing at elevated temperatures, especially when this sample is quenched from high temperatures.

  12. At-Risk Learner Preference in Engineering/Technical Graphics: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated learner preferences of secondary Career and Technical Education (CTE) Engineering/Technical Graphics students using the VARK Questionnaire. The VARK Questionnaire is an instrument that assists in determining students' dominant preferred learning styles, whether visual, aural, reading, or kinesthetic. This study…

  13. An Analysis of Expressed Cognitive Preferences on Forced-Choice, Multiple-Option and Rating Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandelare, John James

    The purposes of this study were to construct a general science cognitive preference test instrument, construct an alternative form of the Marks Cognitive Preference Test: High School Chemistry, and to determine the extent of agreement between the two instruments. The instruments were administered to 448 chemistry students. Two shortened forms of…

  14. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication.

  15. Preferred sites of exocytosis and endocytosis colocalize during high but not lower frequency stimulation in mouse motor nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Gaffield, Michael A.; Tabares, Lucia; Betz, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial relationship of exocytosis and endocytosis in motor nerve terminals has been explored, with varied results, mostly in fixed preparations and without direct information on the utilization of each exocytic site. We sought to determine these spatial properties in real time using synaptopHluorin (spH) and FM 4-64. Earlier we showed that nerve stimulation elicits the appearance of spH fluorescence hot spots, which mark preferred sites of exocytosis. Here we show that nerve stimulation in the presence of the styryl dye FM 4-64 evokes hot spots of FM 4-64 fluorescence. Their size, density, and rate of appearance are similar to the spH hot spots, but their rate of disappearance after stimulation was much slower (t½ ∼9 min versus ∼10 s for spH hot spots), consistent with FM 4-64 spots identifying bulk endocytosis and subsequent slow intracellular dispersion of nascent vesicles. Simultaneous imaging of both fluorophores revealed a strong colocalization of spH and FM 4-64 spots, but only during high (100 Hz) stimulation. At 40 Hz stimulation, exo- and endocytic spots did not colocalize. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that hot spots of endocytosis, possibly in the form of bulk uptake, occur at or very near highly active exocytic sites during high frequency stimulation. PMID:19955383

  16. Integration Preferences of Wildtype AAV-2 for Consensus Rep-Binding Sites at Numerous Loci in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hüser, Daniela; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Lutter, Timo; Weger, Stefan; Winter, Kerstin; Hammer, Eva-Maria; Cathomen, Toni; Reinert, Knut; Heilbronn, Regine

    2010-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) is known to establish latency by preferential integration in human chromosome 19q13.42. The AAV non-structural protein Rep appears to target a site called AAVS1 by simultaneously binding to Rep-binding sites (RBS) present on the AAV genome and within AAVS1. In the absence of Rep, as is the case with AAV vectors, chromosomal integration is rare and random. For a genome-wide survey of wildtype AAV integration a linker-selection-mediated (LSM)-PCR strategy was designed to retrieve AAV-chromosomal junctions. DNA sequence determination revealed wildtype AAV integration sites scattered over the entire human genome. The bioinformatic analysis of these integration sites compared to those of rep-deficient AAV vectors revealed a highly significant overrepresentation of integration events near to consensus RBS. Integration hotspots included AAVS1 with 10% of total events. Novel hotspots near consensus RBS were identified on chromosome 5p13.3 denoted AAVS2 and on chromsome 3p24.3 denoted AAVS3. AAVS2 displayed seven independent junctions clustered within only 14 bp of a consensus RBS which proved to bind Rep in vitro similar to the RBS in AAVS3. Expression of Rep in the presence of rep-deficient AAV vectors shifted targeting preferences from random integration back to the neighbourhood of consensus RBS at hotspots and numerous additional sites in the human genome. In summary, targeted AAV integration is not as specific for AAVS1 as previously assumed. Rather, Rep targets AAV to integrate into open chromatin regions in the reach of various, consensus RBS homologues in the human genome. PMID:20628575

  17. Site preferences and effects of X (X = Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) on the properties of NiAl: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongshan; Cao, Yong; Zhou, Shenggang; Zhu, Peixian; Zhu, Jingchuan

    2016-03-01

    The site preference of X (X = Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) in NiAl and its effects on structural, electronic and elastic properties were investigated by performing first-principles calculations using density functional theory (DFT). Formation enthalpy calculations show that adding X increases the formation enthalpy of NiAl, indicating that X addition reduces the stability of system. The site preference was investigated by calculating the transfer energy of NiAl alloys with X. The results further exhibit that Mn, Fe and Cu show no site preference, but Co tends to occupy Ni site. By analyzing electronic density of states, Mulliken population, overlap population and valence charge density, the electronic property and bond characters were discussed. The elastic property calculation shows that only substitution of Ni by Cu increased the plasticity of alloy, while in the other cases the plasticity was decreased.

  18. Atomic site preferences and its effect on magnetic structure in the intermetallic borides M2Fe(Ru0.8T0.2)5B2 (M=Sc, Ti, Zr; T=Ru, Rh, Ir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brgoch, Jakoah; Mahmoud, Yassir A.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2012-12-01

    The site preference for a class of intermetallic borides following the general formula M2Fe(Ru0.8T0.2)5B2 (M=Sc, Ti, Zr; T=Ru, Rh, Ir), has been explored using ab initio and semi-empirical electronic structure calculations. This intermetallic boride series contains two potential sites, the Wyckoff 2c and 8j sites, for Rh or Ir to replace Ru atoms. Since the 8j site is a nearest neighbor to the magnetically active Fe atom, whereas the 2c site is a next nearest neighbor, the substitution pattern should play an important role in the magnetic structure of these compounds. The substitution preference is analyzed based on the site energy and bond energy terms, both of which arise from a tight-binding evaluation of the electronic band energy, and are known to influence the locations of atoms in extended solids. According to these calculations, the valence electron-rich Rh and Ir atoms prefer to occupy the 8j site, a result also corroborated by experimental evidence. Additionally, substitution of Rh or Ir at the 8j site results in a modification of the magnetic structure that ultimately results in larger local magnetic moment on the Fe atoms.

  19. Evaluation of inhaler handling-errors, inhaler perception and preference with Spiromax, Easyhaler and Turbuhaler devices among healthy Finnish volunteers: a single site, single visit crossover study (Finhaler)

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Niklas; Holländer, Jenny; Långström, Disa; Santtila, Pekka; Saukkonen, Anni; Torvinen, Saku

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Correct inhaler technique and device preference are positively correlated with improved adherence and clinical outcomes. This study was designed to investigate inhaler technique mastery and device preference for three different dry powder inhalers, Spiromax, Easyhaler and Turbuhaler. Methods This was a single site, single visit, crossover study assessing device mastery, handling errors and preference using empty Spiromax, Easyhaler and Turbuhaler devices in healthy adult Finnish volunteers. Inhaler naïve adult participants were observed by healthcare professionals (HCPs) to evaluate the proportion of participants achieving device mastery (defined as an absence of HCP observed errors) using a three-step approach: (1) intuitive use (with no instructions), (2) after reading the patient information leaflet and (3) after HCP instruction. HCPs monitored and recorded errors based on device-specific handling error checklists. At the end of the study, participants completed a device preference questionnaire and rated their satisfaction with the three devices. Results Spiromax was correctly used by 37.5% and 93.3% of participants in steps 1 and 2, respectively, compared with 0% and 58.3% with Easyhaler, and 9.2% and 76.7% with Turbuhaler. All three devices showed high mastery (>95%) in step 3. The most common error reported with Spiromax was related to the orientation of the device. Not shaking the device was the most common error with Easyhaler. Errors in priming the device were the most common with Turbuhaler. Spiromax, Easyhaler and Turbuhaler were rated as the ‘easiest device to use’ by 73.1%, 12.6% and 14.3% of participants, respectively. The HCP instructions clearly improved the use of all devices. Conclusion Higher levels of device mastery, including intuitive/ease of use, were reported by naïve users when using Spiromax compared with Easyhaler and Turbuhaler. PMID:27026804

  20. Which Layout Do You Prefer? An Analysis of Readers' Preferences for Different Typographic Layouts of Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James; Sydes, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    Discusses studies involving over 400 participants to investigate reader preferences for typographic settings of the subheadings and overall position and layout of abstracts on a 2-column A4 page. Results suggest readers preferred subheadings in bold capital letters, a line-space above the main headings, and for abstracts to be centered over the…

  1. Do Children Prefer Contingencies? An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Contingent versus Noncontingent Social Reinforcement during Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and…

  2. Do children prefer contingencies? An evaluation of the efficacy of and preference for contingent versus noncontingent social reinforcement during play.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) schedules with typically developing children. Results showed that 7 of the 8 children preferred the DRA schedule; 1 child was indifferent. We also demonstrated a high degree of procedural fidelity, which suggested that preference is influenced by the presence of a contingency under which reinforcement can be obtained. These findings are discussed in terms of (a) the selection of reinforcement schedules in practice, (b) variables that influence children's preferences for contexts, and (c) the selection of experimental control procedures when evaluating the effects of reinforcement.

  3. Recreational rates and future land-use preferences for four Department of Energy sites: consistency despite demographic and geographical differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2004-06-01

    The management of ecosystems has been improved by both a public understanding of ecosystem structure and function and by managers' understanding of public perceptions and attitudes. This is especially true for contaminated lands where there are a variety of remediation, restoration, and future land-use decisions to be made. This paper synthesizes several surveys from four US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the states of South Carolina, Idaho, Nevada, and New York. Although ethnic composition varied among the sites, age and gender did not. The percentage of the study population engaged in hunting ranged from 30% to 41% and that in fishing ranged from 55% to 74%. Average hunting rates ranged from 9 (New York) to 15 (South Carolina) days/year; average fishing rates ranged from 12 (New Mexico) to 38 (New York) days a year. Despite the demographic and recreational rate differences, there was remarkable agreement about future land uses. Maintaining these DOE sites as National Environmental Research Parks and using them for nonconsumptive recreation rated the highest. The lowest rated future land uses were current and additional nuclear waste storage and the building of homes and factories. People who participated in a recreational activity rated those future land uses higher than nonusers. While these data on recreational rates can be used to assess the potential risk to people using contaminated sites and to aid in setting clean-up standards based on potential risk, the information on land-use preferences can be used by managers to determine future use and to plan for such use. This information is particularly relevant to the Department of Energy's "Risk-based End State Vision."

  4. Substrate preferences of epiphytic bromeliads: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Vollrath, Birgit

    2002-05-01

    Based on the known vertical distributions of three epiphyte species we tested the hypothesis that observed interspecific differences are determined at a very early ontogenetic stage. We attached 1296 first-year seedlings of the three species Guzmania monostachya, Tillandsia fasciculata, and Vriesea sanguinolenta (Bromeliaceae) to substrates differing in orientation and relative position within the crown of the host tree, Annona glabra. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differential mortality on different substrate types for any of the three species. Hence, differences in vertical distribution cannot be explained by interspecific differences in site-specific survival at this stage. This suggests that spatial distribution patterns are determined even earlier, probably resulting from species differences in seed dispersal or during germination.

  5. Making Your Web Site an Information Clearinghouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houchin, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    University Web sites now offer a wide range of information, from up-to-date course catalogs and informational brochures to class notes for alumni. This article gives an array of ideas for enhancing the usefulness of a university's Web site. A sidebar discusses the pros and cons of linking the student newspaper to the university Web site. (JM)

  6. Stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow: An example from the Copper Ridge Dolomite in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.; Ketelle, D.

    1987-07-14

    The Copper Ridge Dolomite of the Upper Cambrian Knox Group underlies a site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) for a below ground waste disposal facility. The Copper Ridge was studied for DOE to understand the influence of lithology on deep groundwater flow. Three facies types are distinguished which comprise laterally continuous, 1 to 4 m thick rock units interpreted to represent upward-shallowing depositional cycles having an apparently significant effect on groundwater flow at depth. Rock core observations indicate one of the recurring facies types is characterized by thin to medium-bedded, fine-grained dolostone with planar cryptalgal laminae and thin shaley partings. Distinctive fracturing in this facies type, that may have resulted from regional structural deformation, it considered to be responsible for weathering at depth and the development of stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow. In addition, geophysical data suggest that one occurrence of this weathered facies type coincides with an apparent geochemical interface at depth. Geophysical data also indicate the presence of several fluid invasion horizons, traceable outside the study area, which coincide with the unweathered occurrence of this fine-grained facies type. The subcropping of recurrent zones of preferred groundwater flow at the weathered/unweathered interface may define linear traces of enhanced aquifer recharge paralleling geologic strike. Vertical projection of these zones from the weathered/unweathered rock interface to the ground surface may describe areas of enhanced infiltration. Tests to determine the role of stratigraphic controls on groundwater flow are key components of future investigations on West Chestnut Ridge. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, S.R.; Aday, D.D.; Kwak, T.J.; Gross, K.

    2010-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we investigated cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern USA stream fish. Fish were tested individually and given 24 hours to make a selection from four cover options, including rock, leaf pack, mussel shell, and an artificial cover unit. Among 30 trials, Carolina madtom preferred the artificial cover unit, selecting it 63% of the time. Rock was selected 23% of the time, and leaf pack 13%. Mussel shells were not selected during any trial.

  8. Cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, indemic southeastern stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, S.R.; Aday, D.D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Gross, K.

    2010-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we investigated cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern USA stream fish. Fish were tested individually and given 24 hours to make a selection from four cover options, including rock, leaf pack, mussel shell, and an artificial cover unit. Among 30 trials, Carolina madtom preferred the artificial cover unit, selecting it 63% of the time. Rock was selected 23% of the time, and leaf pack 13%. Mussel shells were not selected during any trial.

  9. Tunable Luminescent Properties and Concentration-Dependent, Site-Preferable Distribution of Eu(2+) Ions in Silicate Glass for White LEDs Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejie; Wang, Jing; Huang, Lin; Pan, Fengjuan; Chen, Yan; Lei, Bingfu; Peng, Mingying; Wu, Mingmei

    2015-05-13

    The design of luminescent materials with widely and continuously tunable excitation and emission is still a challenge in the field of advanced optical applications. In this paper, we reported a Eu(2+)-doped SiO2-Li2O-SrO-Al2O3-K2O-P2O5 (abbreviated as SLSAKP:Eu(2+)) silicate luminescent glass. Interestingly, it can give an intense tunable emission from cyan (474 nm) to yellowish-green (538 nm) simply by changing excitation wavelength and adjusting the concentration of Eu(2+) ions. The absorption spectra, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra, and decay curves reveal that there are rich and distinguishable local cation sites in SLSAKP glasses and that Eu(2+) ions show preferable site distribution at different concentrations, which offer the possibility to engineer the local site environment available for Eu(2+) ions. Luminescent glasses based color and white LED devices were successfully fabricated by combining the as-synthesized glass and a 385 nm n-UV LED or 450 nm blue LED chip, which demonstrates the potential application of the site engineering of luminescent glasses in advanced solid-state lighting in the future. PMID:25897869

  10. Tunable Luminescent Properties and Concentration-Dependent, Site-Preferable Distribution of Eu(2+) Ions in Silicate Glass for White LEDs Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejie; Wang, Jing; Huang, Lin; Pan, Fengjuan; Chen, Yan; Lei, Bingfu; Peng, Mingying; Wu, Mingmei

    2015-05-13

    The design of luminescent materials with widely and continuously tunable excitation and emission is still a challenge in the field of advanced optical applications. In this paper, we reported a Eu(2+)-doped SiO2-Li2O-SrO-Al2O3-K2O-P2O5 (abbreviated as SLSAKP:Eu(2+)) silicate luminescent glass. Interestingly, it can give an intense tunable emission from cyan (474 nm) to yellowish-green (538 nm) simply by changing excitation wavelength and adjusting the concentration of Eu(2+) ions. The absorption spectra, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra, and decay curves reveal that there are rich and distinguishable local cation sites in SLSAKP glasses and that Eu(2+) ions show preferable site distribution at different concentrations, which offer the possibility to engineer the local site environment available for Eu(2+) ions. Luminescent glasses based color and white LED devices were successfully fabricated by combining the as-synthesized glass and a 385 nm n-UV LED or 450 nm blue LED chip, which demonstrates the potential application of the site engineering of luminescent glasses in advanced solid-state lighting in the future.

  11. Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27: Solid-state synthesis, crystal structure and site-preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Beom-Yong; Nam, Gnu; Lee, Dong Woo; Min Ok, Kang; You, Tae-Soo

    2016-04-01

    A novel intermetallic compound of Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27 has been synthesized through the high-temperature solid-state reaction using Nb-ampoules. A batch of well grown block-/short bar-shaped single-crystals has been obtained, and the crystal structure of the title compound has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27 adopts the Ho11Ge10-type structure belonging to the tetragonal space group I4/mmm (Z=4, Pearson symbol tI84) with nine crystallographically unique atomic positions in the asymmetric unit. The lattice parameters are a=12.0163(1) Å and c=16.5396(2) Å. The overall crystal structure can simply be depicted as an assembly of three different types of co-facial cationic polyhedra centered by anions, which is further enclosed by the three-dimensional (3-D) cage-like anionic framework. The extra amount of In is observed in one of three isolated anionic sites resulting in introducing the Ge/In-mixed site at the Wyckoff 4e site. This unique site-preference of In substitution for Ge at the 4e site has been enlightened via the atomic size-aspect which was fully supported and rationalized by the site- and bond-energies analyses using tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) calculations. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), density of states (DOS), crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP), and electron localization function (ELF) analyses for the title compound are also presented. Magnetic susceptibility measurement proves that an antiferromagnetic ordering of Ce atoms at a low temperature with a paramagnetic Curie temperature of -23.2 K.

  12. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  13. Associations between Film Preferences and Risk Factors for Suicide: An Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  14. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  15. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology.

  16. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology. PMID:26912043

  17. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Schmocker, Ryan K; Greenberg, Jacob A

    2016-01-01

    Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication. PMID:27648335

  18. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication. PMID:27648335

  19. An Examination of Academic Advising Style Preference in Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Elizabeth Kendrick

    2010-01-01

    As universities put increasing pressure on student retention and success, academic advising has become an increasingly visible and important part of the university. One of the first examinations of advising contrasted two major styles: prescriptive and developmental (Crookston, 1972). Prescriptive styles are based on the expertise of the advisor.…

  20. An Overview of Rural Child Care Needs and Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitch, Rona

    This report on rural child care in Ontario provides a literature review, a discussion of the term "rural," summaries of related studies, descriptions of program models, and an analysis of statistical data indicating the need for services. The literature review focuses on geographic, economic, and political factors; staffing; rural and urban…

  1. Deriving preference order of post-mining land-uses through MLSA framework: application of an outranking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanmohammadi, Hossein; Osanloo, Morteza; Aghajani Bazzazi, Abbas

    2009-08-01

    This study intends to take advantage of a previously developed framework for mined land suitability analysis (MLSA) consisted of economical, social, technical and mine site factors to achieve a partial and also a complete pre-order of feasible post-mining land-uses. Analysis by an outranking multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) technique, called PROMETHEE (preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation), was taken into consideration because of its clear advantages on the field of MLSA as compared with MADM ranking techniques. Application of the proposed approach on a mined land can be completed through some successive steps. First, performance of the MLSA attributes is scored locally by each individual decision maker (DM). Then the assigned performance scores are normalized and the deviation amplitudes of non-dominated alternatives are calculated. Weights of the attributes are calculated by another MADM technique namely, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in a separate procedure. Using the Gaussian preference function beside the weights, the preference indexes of the land-use alternatives are obtained. Calculation of the outgoing and entering flows of the alternatives and one by one comparison of these values will lead to partial pre-order of them and calculation of the net flows, will lead to a ranked preference for each land-use. At the final step, utilizing the PROMETHEE group decision support system which incorporates judgments of all the DMs, a consensual ranking can be derived. In this paper, preference order of post-mining land-uses for a hypothetical mined land has been derived according to judgments of one DM to reveal applicability of the proposed approach.

  2. Communication about colorectal cancer screening in Britain: public preferences for an expert recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Waller, J; Macedo, A; von Wagner, C; Simon, A E; Jones, C; Hammersley, V; Weller, D; Wardle, J; Campbell, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informed decision-making approaches to cancer screening emphasise the importance of decisions being determined by individuals' own values and preferences. However, advice from a trusted source may also contribute to autonomous decision-making. This study examined preferences regarding a recommendation from the NHS and information provision in the context of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: In face-to-face interviews, a population-based sample of adults across Britain (n=1964; age 50–80 years) indicated their preference between: (1) a strong recommendation to participate in CRC screening, (2) a recommendation alongside advice to make an individual decision, and (3) no recommendation but advice to make an individual decision. Other measures included trust in the NHS and preferences for information on benefits and risks. Results: Most respondents (84%) preferred a recommendation (47% strong recommendation, 37% recommendation plus individual decision-making advice), but the majority also wanted full information on risks (77%) and benefits (78%). Men were more in favour of a recommendation than women (86% vs 81%). Trust in the NHS was high overall, but the minority who expressed low trust were less likely to want a recommendation. Conclusion: Most British adults want full information on risks and benefits of screening but they also want a recommendation from an authoritative source. An ‘expert' view may be an important part of autonomous health decision-making. PMID:23175148

  3. Reversal of an Unconditioned Behavioral Preference for Specific Food Pellets by Intervention of Whisker Sensory Inputs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hannah; Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclase type-5 (AC5) is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum. Recently, we reported that AC5 knockout (KO) mice preferred food pellets carrying an olfactory cue produced by AC5 KO mice during food consumption (AC5 KO pellets) over food pellets that had been taken by wildtype (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left in AC5 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Conversely, whisker trimming on the right but not the left in WT mice induced a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Mice lacking D2 dopamine receptor (D2 KO mice) also showed a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. In D2 mice, whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left blocked a behavioral preference for AC5 KO food pellets. AC5 KO mice had increased level of phospho-CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum, and WT mice with whiskers cut on either side also showed increased p-CaMKIIα level in the dorsal striatum. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum in either the right or the left hemisphere in AC5 KO mice and D2 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. However, behavioral changes induced by this inhibition on each side showed asymmetrical time courses. These results suggest that an unconditioned behavioral preference for specific food pellets can be switched on or off based on the balance of states of neural activity in the dorsal striatum regulated by a signaling pathway centered on AC5 and D2 and the sensory inputs of whiskers from the right side of the face.

  4. Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-05-01

    Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector. PMID:22763126

  5. Using an abstract geometry in virtual reality to explore choice behaviour: visual flicker preferences in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Van De Poll, Matthew N; Zajaczkowski, Esmi L; Taylor, Gavin J; Srinivasan, Mandyam V; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Closed-loop paradigms provide an effective approach for studying visual choice behaviour and attention in small animals. Different flying and walking paradigms have been developed to investigate behavioural and neuronal responses to competing stimuli in insects such as bees and flies. However, the variety of stimulus choices that can be presented over one experiment is often limited. Current choice paradigms are mostly constrained as single binary choice scenarios that are influenced by the linear structure of classical conditioning paradigms. Here, we present a novel behavioural choice paradigm that allows animals to explore a closed geometry of interconnected binary choices by repeatedly selecting among competing objects, thereby revealing stimulus preferences in an historical context. We used our novel paradigm to investigate visual flicker preferences in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and found significant preferences for 20-25 Hz flicker and avoidance of higher (50-100 Hz) and lower (2-4 Hz) flicker frequencies. Similar results were found when bees were presented with three simultaneous choices instead of two, and when they were given the chance to select previously rejected choices. Our results show that honeybees can discriminate among different flicker frequencies and that their visual preferences are persistent even under different experimental conditions. Interestingly, avoided stimuli were more attractive if they were novel, suggesting that novelty salience can override innate preferences. Our recursive virtual reality environment provides a new approach to studying visual discrimination and choice behaviour in animals.

  6. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  7. Learning "Goal Programming" Using an Interactive Multimedia Courseware: Design Factors and Students' Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiong, Kok Boon; Aris, Baharuddin; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Bilal Ali, Mohamad; Harun, Jamalludin; Tasir, Zaidatun

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe a research project related to Form Six students' learning "Goal Programming" using an interactive multimedia (IMM) courseware. The purpose of the study is to determine the suitability of the design in the multimedia courseware for learning "Goal Programming" and students' preferences toward the use of an IMM…

  8. Preferences for benefit packages for community-based health insurance: an exploratory study in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is important that community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes are designed in such a way as to ensure the relevance of the benefit packages to potential clients. Hence, this paper provides an understanding of the preferred benefit packages by different economic status groups as well as urban and rural dwellers for CBHI in Southeast Nigeria. Methods The study took place in rural, urban and semi-urban communities of south-east Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to collect information from 3070 randomly picked household heads. Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data. Data was examined for links between preferences for benefit packages with SES and geographic residence of the respondents. Results Respondents in the rural areas and in the lower SES preferred a comprehensive benefit package which includes all inpatient, outpatient and emergencies services, while those in urban areas as well as those in the higher SES group showed a preference for benefit packages which will cover only basic disease control interventions. Conclusion Equity concerns in preferences for services to be offered by the CBHI scheme should be addressed for CBHI to succeed in different contexts. PMID:20540787

  9. An early sex difference in the relation between mental rotation and object preference

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Jillian E.; Udelson, Hallie B.; Jeon, Sung O.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that males outperform females on mental rotation tasks as early as infancy. Sex differences in object preference have also been shown to emerge early in development and precede sex-typed play in childhood. Although research with adults and older children is suggestive of a relationship between play preferences and visuospatial abilities, including mental rotation, little is known about the developmental origins of this relationship. The present study compared mental rotation ability and object preference in 6- to 13-month-old infants. We used a novel paradigm to examine individual differences in infants’ mental rotation abilities as well as their differential preference for one of two sex-typed objects. A sex difference was found on both tasks, with boys showing an advantage in performance on the mental rotation task and exhibiting greater visual attention to the male-typed object (i.e., a toy truck) than to the female-typed object (i.e., a doll) in comparison to girls. Moreover, we found a relation between mental rotation and object preference that varied by sex. Greater visual interest in the male-typed object was related to greater mental rotation performance in boys, but not in girls. Possible explanations related to perceptual biases, prenatal androgen exposure, and experiential influences for this sex difference are discussed. PMID:26005426

  10. An Evaluation of a Brief Video-Based Multiple-Stimulus Without Replacement Preference Assessment.

    PubMed

    Brodhead, Matthew T; Al-Dubayan, Monerah N; Mates, Meredith; Abel, Emily A; Brouwers, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated a brief multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment conducted in video format with four children with autism. Specifically, we compared the results of a video-based MSWO to the results of a tangible MSWO. Toys identified as highly preferred (HP) in the video-based MSWO were also HP in the tangible MSWO for three of four participants, and correlations between video-based and tangible MSWO assessment results across participants were strong and statistically significant. Therefore, video-based MSWOs may be an accurate compliment to tangible MSWOs for children with autism. PMID:27606245

  11. Irrational decision-making in an amoeboid organism: transitivity and context-dependent preferences.

    PubMed

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2011-01-22

    Most models of animal foraging and consumer choice assume that individuals make choices based on the absolute value of items and are therefore 'economically rational'. However, frequent violations of rationality by animals, including humans, suggest that animals use comparative valuation rules. Are comparative valuation strategies a consequence of the way brains process information, or are they an intrinsic feature of biological decision-making? Here, we examine the principles of rationality in an organism with radically different information-processing mechanisms: the brainless, unicellular, slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We offered P. polycephalum amoebas a choice between food options that varied in food quality and light exposure (P. polycephalum is photophobic). The use of an absolute valuation rule will lead to two properties: transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Transitivity is satisfied if preferences have a consistent, linear ordering, while IIA states that a decision maker's preference for an item should not change if the choice set is expanded. A violation of either of these principles suggests the use of comparative rather than absolute valuation rules. Physarum polycephalum satisfied transitivity by having linear preference rankings. However, P. polycephalum's preference for a focal alternative increased when a third, inferior quality option was added to the choice set, thus violating IIA and suggesting the use of a comparative valuation process. The discovery of comparative valuation rules in a unicellular organism suggests that comparative valuation rules are ubiquitous, if not universal, among biological decision makers.

  12. An Assessment of Teachers' Preference for Lecture Delivery Methods in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seth, Vikas; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Kumar, Virendra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the medical teachers' preference for various lecture delivery methods like the lectures using chalkboard, utilizing transparencies with an overhead projector (OHP) or lectures using a PowerPoint presentation and their frequency of use of teaching aids. The faculty of the medical college was asked to fill in the…

  13. Audio and Written Comments in an Online Undergraduate Composition Class: Student and Instructor Approaches and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Andrew; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' and instructors' approaches and preferences to audio and written comments in an online undergraduate composition class. A mixed-method design was employed utilizing both a survey instrument and interviews for data collection. Forty-nine students and five instructors participated. Students gave more positive…

  14. Consistency across Methods of Observation -- An In-Depth Study of the Cognitive Preference Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, Ehud

    1983-01-01

    Two response formats and request for reason-for-choice on a traditional cognitive preference test (CPT) and an open-ended CPT were used to test for consistency across methods of observation at individual/population levels. Results indicate that validation of CPT constructs has not reached state of unequivocality necessary for their application in…

  15. An Evaluation of Preference for Mode of Instruction Following Variations in Response Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Patrick W.; McCoy, Thomasin E.; Wacker, David P.; Padilla-Dalmau, Yaniz C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated preference for mode of instruction (i.e., visual or vocal) for four children diagnosed with a language-based learning disability. Each participant was an elementary student who was initially referred to a neuropsychology clinic specializing in learning disabilities. As a part of the evaluation, measures of each…

  16. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2008-08-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent's observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent's actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  17. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  18. Preferences for an influences on oral health prevention: perceptions of directors of nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T E; Lange, B M

    1999-01-01

    Directors of Nursing (DONs) from 196 of 206 Nebraska long-term-care (LTC) facilities were sent a pre-tested questionnaire. The aim was to assess available on-site dental services, existing oral health education and prevention programs as well as future needs/preferences, and the influence of 10 factors in assessing and maintaining residents' oral health. Of the 196 DONs contacted, 126 (64%) participated. Only 36% of DON responders reported having on-site dental services. DONs indicated a preference for nursing staff (NS) oral health inservice training over other educational and/or programmatic proposals. When asked to select the five most influential factors in assessing and maintaining residents' oral health in their respective facilities, DONs selected resident factors (mean, 2.8) more often than NS factors (mean, 2.2). DONs most often identified residents' (R') ability to perform oral hygiene (n = 99), R' cooperation with OH assistance (n = 98), R' interest in their oral health (n = 83), NS interest in R' dental health (n = 70), and NS time constraints (n = 69). PMID:10765883

  19. Structural and biochemical characterization of an atypical short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase reveals an unusual cofactor preference.

    PubMed

    Buysschaert, Géraldine; Verstraete, Kenneth; Savvides, Savvas N; Vergauwen, Bjorn

    2013-03-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) encompass a large and functionally diverse family of enzymes with representative members in all kingdoms of life. Despite the wealth of reactions catalyzed by SDRs, they operate through a well-conserved and efficient reaction mechanism centered in a conserved catalytic tetrad (Asn-Ser-Tyr-Lys) and the employment of an appropriate cofactor. In recent years, SDRs that lack the signature catalytic tetrad have been identified, thus adding a perplexing twist to SDR functionality. In the present study, we report the crystal structure of SDRvv, an atypical SDR from Vibrio vulnificus devoid of the catalytic tetrad, thereby defining the structural signature of this apparent SDR family outlier. Further structural analysis of SDRvv in complex with its putative cofactor NADPH, site-directed mutagenesis and binding studies via isothermal titration calorimetry, and further biochemical characterization have allowed us to dissect the cofactor preferences of SDRvv. The retained capacity to bind the NADPH cofactor, the conceivable existence of a proton relay and the conservation of the coordination distances between the key residues in the cofactor binding pocket define a first set of rules towards catalytic activity for SDRvv. The findings of the present study set the stage for deriving the identity of the natural substrate of SDRvv and add a new twist to the structure-function landscape for Rossmann-fold-dependent cofactor discrimination.

  20. Quantifying benefit-risk preferences for medical interventions: an overview of a growing empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Brett Hauber, A; Fairchild, Angelyn O; Reed Johnson, F

    2013-08-01

    Decisions regarding the development, regulation, sale, and utilization of pharmaceutical and medical interventions require an evaluation of the balance between benefits and risks. Such evaluations are subject to two fundamental challenges-measuring the clinical effectiveness and harms associated with the treatment, and determining the relative importance of these different types of outcomes. In some ways, determining the willingness to accept treatment-related risks in exchange for treatment benefits is the greater challenge because it involves the individual subjective judgments of many decision makers, and these decision makers may draw different conclusions about the optimal balance between benefits and risks. In response to increasing demand for benefit-risk evaluations, researchers have applied a variety of existing welfare-theoretic preference methods for quantifying the tradeoffs decision makers are willing to accept among expected clinical benefits and risks. The methods used to elicit benefit-risk preferences have evolved from different theoretical backgrounds. To provide some structure to the literature that accommodates the range of approaches, we begin by describing a welfare-theoretic conceptual framework underlying the measurement of benefit-risk preferences in pharmaceutical and medical treatment decisions. We then review the major benefit-risk preference-elicitation methods in the empirical literature and provide a brief overview of the studies using each of these methods. The benefit-risk preference methods described in this overview fall into two broad categories: direct-elicitation methods and conjoint analysis. Rating scales (6 studies), threshold techniques (9 studies), and standard gamble (2 studies) are examples of direct elicitation methods. Conjoint analysis studies are categorized by the question format used in the study, including ranking (1 study), graded pairs (1 study), and discrete choice (21 studies). The number of studies reviewed

  1. An unusual site for a snakebite.

    PubMed

    Ajay Kumar, S; Vinay Kumar, M S; Raghavendra Babu, Y P; Mahadeshwara Prasad, D R

    2016-09-01

    Snakebites are an important cause of death in rural and suburban India. Most of these deaths occur due to envenomation. The incidence of snake bite is highest in developing countries with the most common site of such bites in the lower limbs. Here, we present a case where a 12-year-old boy had been bitten on his face which is an unusual site and as a consequence the treating doctor failed to make the correct diagnosis promptly and the boy died. PMID:27080950

  2. Tautomeric preferences and electron delocalization in biurets, thiobiurets, and dithiobiurets: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adane, Legesse; Bharatam, Prasad V.

    In several literature reports biuret and its sulfur analogs are reported to exist in their diketo form with general formula H2N bond CX bond NH bond CY bond NH2 (X = O, Y = O, biuret; X = Y = S, dithiobiuret; and X = O, Y = S, thiobiuret). On the other hand, recently reported results on the electronic structure of biguanide analogs (X = Y = NH)demonstrated that a form equivalent to diketo is not the preferred structure. Thus, a systematic ab initio study on the tautomeric preferences of biuret and its sulfur analogs (dithiobiuret and thiobiuret) has been carried out. The results indicate that an interplay of conjugative stabilization and intramolecular hydrogen bonding to play a role in tautomeric preferences. Energy and geometric parameters, natural bond orbital analyses have been employed to understand the chemistry of the title compounds. The results indicate that unlike biguanides, these compounds prefer diketo forms containing hydrogen on the bridging nitrogen (N4) and in a trans-arrangement (1a-4a). However, tautomerization of these keto forms to the corresponding enol isomers was also found to be highly probable.

  3. Accommodating student learning styles and preferences in an online occupational therapy course.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Nancy Wolcott; Jacobs, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.

  4. Trichostasis Spinulosa at an Unusual Site

    PubMed Central

    Ramteke, Manjeet Naresh; Bhide, Anuradha Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Trichostasis spinulosa (TS) is very common yet unrecognized disorder of the hair follicle. Usually occurring on the mid-face, especially on the nose, TS occurs more commonly in young, adult dark skinned women. Here, we present a case of TS at an unusual site diagnosed on the basis of history, hair mount, dermoscopy, and histopathology. PMID:27601861

  5. Trichostasis Spinulosa at an Unusual Site.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Manjeet Naresh; Bhide, Anuradha Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Trichostasis spinulosa (TS) is very common yet unrecognized disorder of the hair follicle. Usually occurring on the mid-face, especially on the nose, TS occurs more commonly in young, adult dark skinned women. Here, we present a case of TS at an unusual site diagnosed on the basis of history, hair mount, dermoscopy, and histopathology. PMID:27601861

  6. Trichostasis Spinulosa at an Unusual Site

    PubMed Central

    Ramteke, Manjeet Naresh; Bhide, Anuradha Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Trichostasis spinulosa (TS) is very common yet unrecognized disorder of the hair follicle. Usually occurring on the mid-face, especially on the nose, TS occurs more commonly in young, adult dark skinned women. Here, we present a case of TS at an unusual site diagnosed on the basis of history, hair mount, dermoscopy, and histopathology.

  7. Research Supervision: An Important Site of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, M. Jane; McKee, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Supervision of students engaged in research projects and theses is an important site of teaching. Schon's (1987) well-known framework-educating for reflective practice-proves aptly suited for this teaching forum, offering insights for research supervision at multiple university levels. Conceptually, a research and writing studio where a practicum…

  8. The siting of a polluting facility in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    Siting of a trash incinerator to serve a medium-sized city is analyzed. A model of residential locational choice is developed. In the model, households gather to live in proximity to employment, which is assumed to be concentrated at a central point. Land prices and residential density adjust to reflect this preference for central location. Land prices also reflect variation in environmental characteristics over space, for example the level of ambient air quality at a given location. The question of siting an incinerator is addressed within this framework. Transport of waste is more costly if the incinerator is placed in a remote location while more households are affected by the external impacts of the incinerator if it is placed at a central location. A complication, previously unaddressed in locational analyses, arises from the realization that any incinerator location influences long-run residential locational choices. This work analyzes the impact of siting and related policy questions within a long-run framework, which takes full account of subsequent residential locational patterns. because of the complexity of the model, a computer simulation is designed to allow the solution of a long-run equilibrium.

  9. Temperature preference as an indicator of the chronic toxicity of cupric ions to Mozambique Tilapia

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, T.J.; Stauffer, J.R. Jr.; Morgan, R.P. II )

    1989-11-01

    Evaluation of the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic communities has focused primarily on acute bioassays. These bioassays provide rapid and reproducible concentration response curves based on death as an endpoint. In recent years, however, emphasis has shifted towards monitoring sublethal effects of toxicants. Temperature is an easily quantifiable parameter influencing both the behavior and survival of fishes. As poikilotherms, fish use behavioral responses to help regulate body temperature. Fish thermoregulatory behavior may be altered by various toxic substances. Some researchers found that a 24 hr exposure of sublethal concentrations of copper caused a significant decrease in preferred temperature of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), although the results were confounded due to variations in copper concentrations. In this study, the authors examined the feasibility of using acute temperature preference tests to assess the chronic toxicity of low concentrations of free cupric ions to Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters).

  10. A Conserved Active Site Tyrosine Residue of Proline Dehydrogenase Helps Enforce the Preference for Proline over Hydroxyproline as the Substrate†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Ostrander, Elizabeth L.; Larson, John D.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Tanner, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insights into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analog L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75 Å, 1.90 Å and 1.85 Å. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline three-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of twenty (Y540S) and fifty (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate. PMID:19140736

  11. Identification of Preferred DNA-Binding Sites for the Thermus thermophilus Transcriptional Regulator SbtR by the Combinatorial Approach REPSA

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Matthew D.; Clay, Emily; Hiam, Kamir J.; McMurry, Jonathan L.; Xie, Ying

    2016-01-01

    One of the first steps towards elucidating the biological function of a putative transcriptional regulator is to ascertain its preferred DNA-binding sequences. This may be rapidly and effectively achieved through the application of a combinatorial approach, one involving very large numbers of randomized oligonucleotides and reiterative selection and amplification steps to enrich for high-affinity nucleic acid-binding sequences. Previously, we had developed the novel combinatorial approach Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection and Amplification (REPSA), which relies not on the physical separation of ligand-nucleic acid complexes but instead selects on the basis of ligand-dependent inhibition of enzymatic template inactivation, specifically cleavage by type IIS restriction endonucleases. Thus, no prior knowledge of the ligand is required for REPSA, making it more amenable for discovery purposes. Here we describe using REPSA, massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics to identify the preferred DNA-binding sites for the transcriptional regulator SbtR, encoded by the TTHA0167 gene from the model extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8. From the resulting position weight matrix, we can identify multiple operons potentially regulated by SbtR and postulate a biological role for this protein in regulating extracellular transport processes. Our study provides a proof-of-concept for the application of REPSA for the identification of preferred DNA-binding sites for orphan transcriptional regulators and a first step towards determining their possible biological roles. PMID:27428627

  12. Identification of Preferred DNA-Binding Sites for the Thermus thermophilus Transcriptional Regulator SbtR by the Combinatorial Approach REPSA.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Michael W; Beyer, Matthew D; Clay, Emily; Hiam, Kamir J; McMurry, Jonathan L; Xie, Ying

    2016-01-01

    One of the first steps towards elucidating the biological function of a putative transcriptional regulator is to ascertain its preferred DNA-binding sequences. This may be rapidly and effectively achieved through the application of a combinatorial approach, one involving very large numbers of randomized oligonucleotides and reiterative selection and amplification steps to enrich for high-affinity nucleic acid-binding sequences. Previously, we had developed the novel combinatorial approach Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection and Amplification (REPSA), which relies not on the physical separation of ligand-nucleic acid complexes but instead selects on the basis of ligand-dependent inhibition of enzymatic template inactivation, specifically cleavage by type IIS restriction endonucleases. Thus, no prior knowledge of the ligand is required for REPSA, making it more amenable for discovery purposes. Here we describe using REPSA, massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics to identify the preferred DNA-binding sites for the transcriptional regulator SbtR, encoded by the TTHA0167 gene from the model extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8. From the resulting position weight matrix, we can identify multiple operons potentially regulated by SbtR and postulate a biological role for this protein in regulating extracellular transport processes. Our study provides a proof-of-concept for the application of REPSA for the identification of preferred DNA-binding sites for orphan transcriptional regulators and a first step towards determining their possible biological roles. PMID:27428627

  13. Misleading mollies: The effect of an audience on the expression of mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    An increasing body of literature considers the question of how mate choice is influenced by the social environment of the choosing individual (non-independent mate choice). For example, individuals may copy the mate choice of others. A very simple form of socially influenced mate choice, however, remained comparatively little investigated: choosing individuals may adjust their mate choice to the mere presence of rivals. Recent studies in our groups1-4 have examined this question. Using live bearing fish (mollies, Poecilia spp.) as a model, we could show that (a) males will copy the mate choice of other males,5 (b) males cease expressing mating preferences in the presence of a conspecific rival male,1,2 whereas (c) females copy each other's mate choice, but are otherwise not affected by an audience.3 (d) Most importantly, males, when presented with an audience (potential rival), first approached the previously non-preferred female, suggesting that males attempt to lead the rival away from their preferred mate, thereby exploiting male mate choice copying behavior.4 We discuss that these effects are best explained as male adaptations to reduce the risk of sperm competition in a highly dynamic mating system with frequent multiple mating.

  14. Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Carolyn S.; Baier, Felix; Omondi, Aman B.; Spitzer, Sarabeth A.; Lutomiah, Joel; Sang, Rosemary; Ignell, Rickard; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2014-01-01

    Female mosquitoes are major vectors of human disease and the most dangerous are those that preferentially bite humans. A ‘domestic’ form of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has evolved to specialize in biting humans and is the major worldwide vector of dengue, yellow fever, and Chikungunya viruses. The domestic form coexists with an ancestral, animal-biting ‘forest’ form along the coast of Kenya. We collected the two forms, established laboratory colonies, and document striking divergence in preference for human versus animal odour. We further show that the evolution of preference for human odour in domestic mosquitoes is tightly linked to increases in the expression and ligand-sensitivity of the odorant receptor AaegOr4, which we found recognises a compound present at high levels in human odour. Our results provide a rare example of a gene contributing to behavioural evolution and provide insight into how disease-vectoring mosquitoes came to specialise on humans. PMID:25391959

  15. Large-scale recoding of an arbovirus genome to rebalance its insect versus mammalian preference

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Sam H.; Stauft, Charles B.; Gorbatsevych, Oleksandr; Song, Yutong; Ward, Charles B.; Yurovsky, Alisa; Mueller, Steffen; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-01-01

    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants. These organisms have evolved carefully balanced genomes that can efficiently use the translational machineries of different phyla, even if the phyla belong to different kingdoms. Using dengue virus as an example, we have undone the genome encoding balance and specifically shifted the encoding preference away from mammals. These mammalian-attenuated viruses grow to high titers in insect cells but low titers in mammalian cells, have dramatically increased LD50s in newborn mice, and induce high levels of protective antibodies. Recoded arboviruses with a bias toward phylum-specific expression could form the basis of a new generation of live attenuated vaccine candidates. PMID:25825721

  16. Large-scale recoding of an arbovirus genome to rebalance its insect versus mammalian preference.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sam H; Stauft, Charles B; Gorbatsevych, Oleksandr; Song, Yutong; Ward, Charles B; Yurovsky, Alisa; Mueller, Steffen; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-04-14

    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants. These organisms have evolved carefully balanced genomes that can efficiently use the translational machineries of different phyla, even if the phyla belong to different kingdoms. Using dengue virus as an example, we have undone the genome encoding balance and specifically shifted the encoding preference away from mammals. These mammalian-attenuated viruses grow to high titers in insect cells but low titers in mammalian cells, have dramatically increased LD50s in newborn mice, and induce high levels of protective antibodies. Recoded arboviruses with a bias toward phylum-specific expression could form the basis of a new generation of live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  17. Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (Culicidae) in Wrocław area (Poland): occurrence and breeding site preferences of mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Jawień, Piotr; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Both ornithophilic mosquito species, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Culex torrentium (Martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate Europe. They are presumed to be primary vectors of West Nile and Sindbis viruses. Differentiation of these morphologically similar Culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. Cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as Cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, because only males of both species can be diagnosed reliably by morphology. Thus, knowledge about species abundance, geographical distribution, breeding site preferences and the zoonotic risk assessment is incomplete also in Poland. In Wrocław area (Silesian Lowland), besides typical urban breeding sites, huge sewage irrigation fields provide suitable breeding conditions for Culex species. They are also inhabited by 180 resident and migratory bird species serving as potential virus reservoirs. In this study, morphology of larvae and males as well as species diagnostic enzyme markers, namely adenylate kinase (AK) and 2-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), were used to discriminate Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. torrentium. In a total of 650 Culex larvae from 24 natural and artificial breeding sites, Cx. pipiens s.l. had a proportion of 94.0% and Cx. torrentium only 6.0%. It could be shown that both species are well adapted to various breeding site types like ditches, catch basins, flower pots and buckets with diverse water quality. Cx. torrentium preferred more artificial water containers in urban surrounding (12% species proportion), whereas in semi-natural breeding sites, Cx. torrentium was rare (3%). In 12 of 24 breeding sites, larvae of both species have been found associated.

  18. Nitrogen uptake and preference in a forest understory following invasion by an exotic grass.

    PubMed

    Fraterrigo, Jennifer M; Strickland, Michael S; Keiser, Ashley D; Bradford, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Plant-soil interactions have been proposed as a causative mechanism explaining how invasive plant species impact ecosystem processes. We evaluate whether an invasive plant influences plant and soil-microbe acquisition of nitrogen to elucidate the mechanistic pathways by which invaders might alter N availability. Using a (15)N tracer, we quantify differences in nitrogen uptake and allocation in communities with and without Microstegium vimineum, a shade-tolerant, C(4) grass that is rapidly invading the understories of eastern US deciduous forests. We further investigate if plants or the microbial biomass exhibit preferences for certain nitrogen forms (glycine, nitrate, and ammonium) to gain insight into nitrogen partitioning in invaded communities. Understory native plants and M. vimineum took up similar amounts of added nitrogen but allocated it differently, with native plants allocating primarily to roots and M. vimineum allocating most nitrogen to shoots. Plant nitrogen uptake was higher in invaded communities due primarily to the increase in understory biomass when M. vimineum was present, but for the microbial biomass, nitrogen uptake did not vary with invasion status. This translated to a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the ratio of microbial biomass to plant biomass nitrogen uptake, which suggests that, although the demand for nitrogen has intensified, microbes continue to be effective nitrogen competitors. The microbial biomass exhibited a strong preference for ammonium over glycine and nitrate, regardless of invasion status. By comparison, native plants showed no nitrogen preferences and M. vimineum preferred inorganic nitrogen species. We interpret our findings as evidence that invasion by M. vimineum leads to changes in the partitioning of nitrogen above and belowground in forest understories, and to decreases in the microbial biomass, but it does not affect the outcome of plant-microbe-nitrogen interactions, possibly due to functional shifts in the

  19. When autocratic leaders become an option--uncertainty and self-esteem predict implicit leadership preferences.

    PubMed

    Schoel, Christiane; Bluemke, Matthias; Mueller, Patrick; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the impact of uncertainty on leadership preferences and propose that the conjunction of self-esteem level and stability is an important moderator in this regard. Self-threatening uncertainty is aversive and activates the motivation to regain control. People with high and stable self-esteem should be confident of achieving this goal by self-determined amelioration of the situation and should therefore show a stronger preference for democratic leadership under conditions of uncertainty. By contrast, people with low and unstable self-esteem should place their trust and hope in the abilities of powerful others, resulting in a preference for autocratic leadership. Studies 1a and 1b validate explicit and implicit leadership measures and demonstrate a general prodemocratic default attitude under conditions of certainty. Studies 2 and 3 reveal a democratic reaction for individuals with stable high self-esteem and a submissive reaction for individuals with unstable low self-esteem under conditions of uncertainty. In Study 4, this pattern is cancelled out when individuals evaluate leadership styles from a leader instead of a follower perspective.

  20. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment.

    PubMed

    Cianci, Daniela; Hartemink, Nienke; Zeimes, Caroline B; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Ienco, Annamaria; Caputo, Beniamino

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat preferences of the species is needed for help in successful prevention and control. So far, the habitat preference in urban environments has not been studied in Southern European cities. In this paper, spatial statistical models were used to evaluate the relationship between egg abundances and land cover types on the campus of Sapienza University in Rome, which is taken as an example of a European urban habitat. Predictor variables included land cover types, classified in detail on a high resolution image, as well as solar radiation and month of capture. The models account for repeated measures in the same trap and are adjusted for meteorological circumstances. Vegetation and solar radiation were found to be positively related to the number of eggs. More specifically, trees were positively related to the number of eggs and the relationship with grass was negative. These findings are consistent with the species' known preference for shaded areas. The unexpected positive relationship with solar radiation is amply discussed in the paper. This study represents a first step toward a better understanding of the spatial distribution of Ae. albopictus in urban environments. PMID:26334806

  1. Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor.

    PubMed

    McBride, Carolyn S; Baier, Felix; Omondi, Aman B; Spitzer, Sarabeth A; Lutomiah, Joel; Sang, Rosemary; Ignell, Rickard; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2014-11-13

    Female mosquitoes are major vectors of human disease and the most dangerous are those that preferentially bite humans. A 'domestic' form of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has evolved to specialize in biting humans and is the main worldwide vector of dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses. The domestic form coexists with an ancestral, 'forest' form that prefers to bite non-human animals and is found along the coast of Kenya. We collected the two forms, established laboratory colonies, and document striking divergence in preference for human versus non-human animal odour. We further show that the evolution of preference for human odour in domestic mosquitoes is tightly linked to increases in the expression and ligand-sensitivity of the odorant receptor AaegOr4, which we found recognizes a compound present at high levels in human odour. Our results provide a rare example of a gene contributing to behavioural evolution and provide insight into how disease-vectoring mosquitoes came to specialize on humans.

  2. Valuing improvements to threatened and endangered marine species: an application of stated preference choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2011-07-01

    Non-market valuation research has produced value estimates for over forty threatened and endangered (T&E) species, including mammals, fish, birds, and crustaceans. Increasingly, Stated Preference Choice Experiments (SPCE) are utilized for valuation, as the format offers flexibility for policy analysis and may reduce certain types of response biases relative to the more traditional Contingent Valuation method. Additionally, SPCE formats can allow respondents to make trade-offs among multiple species, providing information on the distinctiveness of preferences for different T&E species. In this paper we present results of an SPCE involving three U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed species: the Puget Sound Chinook salmon, the Hawaiian monk seal, and the smalltooth sawfish. We estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) values for improving each species' ESA listing status and statistically compare these values between the three species using a method of convolutions approach. Our results suggest that respondents have distinct preferences for the three species, and that WTP estimates differ depending on the species and the level of improvement to their ESA status. Our results should be of interest to researchers and policy-makers, as we provide value estimates for three species that have limited, if any, estimates available in the economics literature, as well as new information about the way respondents make trade-offs among three taxonomically different species. PMID:21392881

  3. A comparison of food habits and prey preference of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L; Mukhacheva, Anna S; Matyukhina, Dina S; Salmanova, Elena; Salkina, Galina P; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. Therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. We used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the Russian Far East. We also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. We collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. Similar to previous studies, we found that tigers primarily preyed on medium to large ungulates, with wild boar, roe, sika and red deer collectively comprising 86.7% of total biomass consumed on average. According to Jacobs' index, tigers preferred wild boar, and avoided sika deer. Variation in preference indices derived from these scat analyses compared to indices derived from kill data appear to be due to adjustments in biomass intake when sex-age of a killed individual is known: a component missing from scat data. Pseudoreplication (multiple samples collected from a single kill site) also skewed results derived from scat analyses. Scat analysis still appears useful in providing insight into the diets of carnivores when the full spectrum of prey species needs to be identified, or when sample sizes from kill data are not sufficient. When sample sizes of kill data are large (as is now possible with GPS-collared animals), kill data adjusted by sex-age categories probably provides the most accurate estimates of prey biomass composition. Our results provide further confirmation of the centrality of medium ungulates, in particular wild boar, to Amur tiger diet, and suggest that the protection of this group of species is critical to Amur tiger conservation.

  4. A comparison of food habits and prey preference of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L; Mukhacheva, Anna S; Matyukhina, Dina S; Salmanova, Elena; Salkina, Galina P; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. Therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. We used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the Russian Far East. We also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. We collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. Similar to previous studies, we found that tigers primarily preyed on medium to large ungulates, with wild boar, roe, sika and red deer collectively comprising 86.7% of total biomass consumed on average. According to Jacobs' index, tigers preferred wild boar, and avoided sika deer. Variation in preference indices derived from these scat analyses compared to indices derived from kill data appear to be due to adjustments in biomass intake when sex-age of a killed individual is known: a component missing from scat data. Pseudoreplication (multiple samples collected from a single kill site) also skewed results derived from scat analyses. Scat analysis still appears useful in providing insight into the diets of carnivores when the full spectrum of prey species needs to be identified, or when sample sizes from kill data are not sufficient. When sample sizes of kill data are large (as is now possible with GPS-collared animals), kill data adjusted by sex-age categories probably provides the most accurate estimates of prey biomass composition. Our results provide further confirmation of the centrality of medium ungulates, in particular wild boar, to Amur tiger diet, and suggest that the protection of this group of species is critical to Amur tiger conservation. PMID:25939758

  5. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  6. Insertions of a Novel Class of Transposable Elements with a Strong Target Site Preference at the R Locus of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Walker, E. L.; Eggleston, W. B.; Demopulos, D.; Kermicle, J.; Dellaporta, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The r locus of maize regulates anthocyanin synthesis in various tissues of maize through the production of helix-loop-helix DNA binding proteins capable of inducing expression of structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The complex r variant, R-r:standard (R-r), undergoes frequent mutation through a variety of mechanisms including displaced synapsis and crossing over, and intrachromosomal recombination. Here we report a new mechanism for mutation at the R-r complex: insertion of a novel family of transposable elements. Because the elements were first identified in the R-p gene of the R-r complex, they have been named P Instability Factor (PIF). Two different PIF elements were cloned and found to have identical sequences at their termini but divergent internal sequences. In addition, the PIF elements showed a marked specificity of insertion sites. Six out of seven PIF-containing derivatives examined had an element inserted at an identical location. Two different members of the PIF element family were identified at this position. The seventh PIF-containing derivative examined had the element inserted at a distinct position within r. Even at this location, however, the element inserted into a conserved target sequence. The timing of PIF excision is unusual. Germinal excision rates can range up to several percent of progeny. Yet somatic sectors are rare, even in lines exhibiting high germinal reversion rates. PMID:9178016

  7. Measuring Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences: The Redevelopment of an Instrument to Determine Individual and Collective Preferences--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagorski, Laura; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner. James R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is an area that is gaining momentum. Extension agents are expected to teach production methods that include sustainable agriculture, yet little is known regarding how Extension agents feel about this agricultural paradigm. The research reported here sought to further develop an instrument that could quantitatively measure…

  8. Validation of an auditory sensory reinforcement paradigm: Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) do not prefer consonant over dissonant sounds.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Basile, Muriel; Olivier, Marion; Remeuf, Kevin; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-08-01

    The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies conducted with organisms at different levels of the primate lineage are needed to understand the evolutionary scenario under which this phenomenon emerged. Although previous research found no preference for consonance in a New World monkey species, the question remained opened for Old World monkeys. We used an experimental paradigm based on a sensory reinforcement procedure to test auditory preferences for consonant sounds in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli), an Old World monkey species. Although a systematic preference for soft (70 dB) over loud (90 dB) control white noise was found, Campbell's monkeys showed no preference for either consonant or dissonant sounds. The preference for soft white noise validates our noninvasive experimental paradigm, which can be easily reused in any captive facility to test for auditory preferences. This would suggest that human preference for consonant sounds is not systematically shared with New and Old World monkeys. The sensitivity for harmonic musical intervals emerged probably very late in the primate lineage. PMID:23566027

  9. Acetylene inhibition of N2O reduction in laboratory soil and groundwater denitrification assays: evaluation by 15N tracer and 15N site preference of N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Daniel; Well, Reinhard; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Lena, Rohe

    2013-04-01

    The measurement of denitrification in soils and aquifers is still challenging and often enough associated with considerable experimental effort and high costs. Against this background, the acetylene inhibition technique (AIT) applied in laboratory soil and groundwater denitrification assays is by far the most effective approach. However, this method has been largely criticized, as it is susceptible to underestimate denitrification rates and adds an additional carbon source to the substrates to be investigated. Here we provide evidence that the AIT is not necessarily an inappropriate approach to measure denitrification, that its reliability depends on the drivers governing the process, and that the 15N site preference of N2O (SP) may serve as a tool to assess this reliability. Two laboratory batch experiments were conducted, where sandy aquifer material and a peat soil were incubated as slurries. We established (i) a standard anaerobic treatment by adding KNO3 (10 mg N L-1), (ii) an oxygen treatment by adding KNO3 and O2 (5 mg L-1), and (iii) a glucose treatment by adding KNO3 supplemented with glucose (200 mg C L-1). Both experiments were run under 10 % (v/v) acetylene atmosphere and as 15N tracer treatments using labeled K15NO3 (60 atom % 15N). In the case of the standard anaerobic treatments, we found a very good agreement of denitrification potential obtained by the AIT and 15N tracer methods. SP of N2O of the AIT samples from this treatment ranged between -4.8 and 2.6 ‰ which is indicative for N2O production during bacterial denitrification but not for N2O reduction to N2. In contrast, we observed substantial underestimation of denitrification by AIT for the glucose treatments compared to the 15N method, i.e. denitrification was underestimated by 36 % (sandy aquifer material) and 47 % (peat soil). SP of N2O of the AIT samples from this treatment ranged between 4.5 and 9.6 ‰, which suggests occurrence of bacterial N2O reduction. In the case of the oxygen

  10. Preference-Inconsistent Recommendations: An Effective Approach for Reducing Confirmation Bias and Stimulating Divergent Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwind, Christina; Buder, Jurgen; Cress, Ulrike; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2012-01-01

    The Web is a perfect backdrop for opinion formation as a multitude of different opinions is publicly available. However, the different opinions often remain unexploited: Learners prefer preference-consistent over preference-inconsistent information, a phenomenon called confirmation bias. Two experiments were designed to test whether technologies…

  11. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  12. Preference for Course Difficulty and Test Anxiety: An Analysis of Classroom Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Bruce; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A personality construct, preference for course difficulty, was related to test anxiety in a sample of 62 graduate students. Path analysis indicated that trait anxiety directly affects test anxiety and that preference for course difficulty affects test anxiety. The preference for course structure construct was validated. (LMO)

  13. Structural and dynamic effects of cholesterol at preferred sites of interaction with rhodopsin identified from microsecond length molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Khelashvili, George; Grossfield, Alan; Feller, Scott E.; Pitman, Michael C.; Weinstein, Harel

    2014-01-01

    An unresolved question about GPCR function is the role of membrane components in receptor stability and activation. In particular, cholesterol is known to affect the function of membrane proteins, but the details of its effect on GPCRs are still elusive. Here, we describe how cholesterol modulates the behavior of the TM1-TM2-TM7-helix 8(H8) functional network that comprises the highly conserved NPxxY(x)5,6F motif, through specific interactions with the receptor. The inferences are based on the analysis of microsecond length molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of rhodopsin in an explicit membrane environment. Three regions on the rhodopsin exhibit the highest cholesterol density throughout the trajectory: the extracellular end of TM7, a location resembling the high-density sterol area from the electron microscopy data; the intracellular parts of TM1, TM2, and TM4, a region suggested as the cholesterol binding site in the recent X-ray crystallography data on β2-adrenergic GPCR; and the intracellular ends of TM2-TM3, a location that was categorized as the high cholesterol density area in multiple independent 100 ns MD simulations of the same system. We found that cholesterol primarily affects specific local perturbations of the helical TM domains such as the kinks in TM1, TM2, and TM7. These local distortions, in turn, relate to rigid-body motions of the TMs in the TM1-TM2-TM7-H8 bundle. The specificity of the effects stems from the nonuniform distribution of cholesterol around the protein. Through correlation analysis we connect local effects of cholesterol on structural perturbations with a regulatory role of cholesterol in the structural rearrangements involved in GPCR function. PMID:19173312

  14. An improved method for evaluating ideal standards in self-perception and mate preferences.

    PubMed

    Katsena, Lasma; Dimdins, Girts

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the methodology for measuring ideals of self-perception and mate preferences. The Ideal Standards Model (ISM; Fletcher, Simpson, Thomas & Giles, 1999) was used as a basis for development of the scale. It was further modified by adding a number of items from previous studies. Data were collected from 223 participants, aged 19 to 27 years. The results suggested that a modified five-factor version of the ISM is an appropriate method for evaluation of ideal characteristics. The five factors are warmth/ trustworthiness, status/ resources, intelligence, social skills and physical attractiveness. PMID:25580983

  15. An improved method for evaluating ideal standards in self-perception and mate preferences.

    PubMed

    Katsena, Lasma; Dimdins, Girts

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the methodology for measuring ideals of self-perception and mate preferences. The Ideal Standards Model (ISM; Fletcher, Simpson, Thomas & Giles, 1999) was used as a basis for development of the scale. It was further modified by adding a number of items from previous studies. Data were collected from 223 participants, aged 19 to 27 years. The results suggested that a modified five-factor version of the ISM is an appropriate method for evaluation of ideal characteristics. The five factors are warmth/ trustworthiness, status/ resources, intelligence, social skills and physical attractiveness.

  16. Subjective Preference for Sound Sources Located on the Stage and in the Orchestra Pit of AN Opera House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Sakai, H.; Prodi, N.

    2002-11-01

    The present study investigates whether the subjective preference theory can be applied to the sound field in an opera house. Paired-comparison tests were conducted to obtain scale values of subjective preference. As the source locations of the music on the stage and in the orchestra pit were moved, listeners were asked to give their acoustical preference. The acoustical factors at each listening position were obtained from the interaural cross-correlation function and binaural impulse responses measured at each listening position. The relationship between the scale values of subjective preference and orthogonal acoustical factors ( LL, IACC, τIACC, Δt 1 for the pit source, Δt 1 for the stage, T sub for the pit source, and T sub for the stage source) was determined by using factor analysis, which shows that the preference theory is applicable. Total scores obtained from factor analysis and measured scale values are in good agreement.

  17. Prevalence, mean intensity and site preference of Caligus rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933 (Copepoda: Caligidae) on cage cultured crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790) from Bukit Tambun, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leaw, Yoon Yau; Faizah, Shaharom; Anil, Chatterji; Kua, Beng Chu

    2012-07-01

    Snapper had been cultured in Malaysia since 1980 due to the fry availability and the high demand. However, details on the caligids infestation were not properly documented. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, mean intensity and site preference of Caligus rotundigenitalis (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida) a parasitic copepod on cage cultured crimson snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus from Bukit Tambun, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 70 specimens of cultured snapper were examined based on different infestation sites such as head, body as well as operculum. The specimens were separated into three groups according to the size of the fish. C. rotundigenitalis was found to be the only species infesting L. erythropterus with the prevalence and the mean intensity of 81.4% and 5.6±4.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the prevalence of site infestation of the body and inner operculum sites. The prevalence of C. rotundigenitalis was highest on inner operculum of the fish followed by the body and head. However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of C. rotundigenitalis over the different infestation sites derived from the three groups. The information obtained from this study can be used for more effective control measures of ectoparasitic copepod infestation in floating cages.

  18. Lateral preferences in Brazilian adults: an analysis with the Edinburgh Inventory.

    PubMed

    Brito, G N; Brito, L S; Paumgartten, F J; Lins, M F

    1989-09-01

    The lateral preferences of 959 Brazilian adults (471 males and 488 females) were assessed with the abbreviated form of the Edinburgh Inventory using the interview method. The behavioral validity of the inventory was evaluated by asking 36 subjects to perform the activities included in the inventory five months after the interview. The results showed that lateral preferences in Brazilian adults are similar to those reported from other countries. Additionally, effects of sex and age on hand preference were observed. However, area of professional occupation was not related to hand preference. Factor analysis of the Edinburgh Inventory (including items related to foot, eye and ear preference) revealed two factors. Factor I ("Motor-Related Laterality") included all handedness items and the foot-preference item, and Factor II ("Sensory-Related Laterality") included the eye and ear preference items. The Edinburgh Inventory was found to be reliable and valid in this population.

  19. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co, and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In this paper, we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which correspond to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the α sites, while Co and Ni prefer the γ sites of the DO3 lattice. An important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co is added as a ternary element.

  20. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternarymore » alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.« less

  1. Revealed social preference for potable groundwater: An Eastern Iowa case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Forney, W.; Mishra, S.

    2011-12-01

    revealed preference is the concept from economic consumer theory meaning that the observed consumption bundle chosen (e.g. the amounts of crop production, groundwater risk and everything else) is preferred to any other bundle possible (e.g. the bundle including more crop production and the concomitant increase in groundwater risk) given the constraints the consumer faces. This concept was initially applied at the level of an individual consumer, but it also applies by the same logic at the social level of analysis. Using the spatially explicit information provided by Landsat MRLI about land use on the surfaces recharging the aquifers, more efficient regulation can be devised to allow more production on the surface while protecting aquifers to the degree implied by this revealed preference analysis.

  2. Higher Precision in Pointing Movements of the Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Hand Is Associated with an Earlier Occurrence of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR)). Moreover, we analyzed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and anterior deltoid (AD) were more anticipated when movements were performed with the PREF than with the NON-PREF hand (60–70 vs. 20–30 ms). APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (PREF: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; NON-PREF: 16.3 ± 1.7). Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the NON-PREF side. PMID:27486394

  3. Higher Precision in Pointing Movements of the Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Hand Is Associated with an Earlier Occurrence of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR)). Moreover, we analyzed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and anterior deltoid (AD) were more anticipated when movements were performed with the PREF than with the NON-PREF hand (60-70 vs. 20-30 ms). APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (PREF: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; NON-PREF: 16.3 ± 1.7). Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the NON-PREF side. PMID:27486394

  4. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on the Preference for Potential Effect: An Individual Participant Data (IPD) Meta-Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomin; Xu, Dan; Luo, Fang; Wei, Zihan; Wei, Cong; Xue, Gang

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper [Tormala ZL, Jia JS, Norton MI (2012). The preference for potential. Journal of personality and social psychology, 103: 567-583] demonstrated that persons often prefer potential rather than achievement when evaluating others, because information regarding potential evokes greater interest and processing, resulting in more favorable evaluations. This research aimed to expand on this finding by asking two questions: (a) Is the preference for potential effect replicable in other cultures? (b) Is there any other mechanism that accounts for this preference for potential? To answer these two questions, we replicated Tormala et al.’s study in multiple cities (17 studies with 1,128 participants) in China using an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis approach to test our hypothesis. Our results showed that the preference for potential effect found in the US is also robust in China. Moreover, we also found a pro-youth bias behind the preference for potential effect. To be specific, persons prefer a potential-oriented applicant rather than an achievement-oriented applicant, partially because they believe that the former is younger than the latter. PMID:25806521

  5. An experimental study of gender and cultural differences in hue preference.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman S

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of both gender and culture on color preference. Inspection of previous studies of color preference reveals that many of these studies have poor control over the colors that are shown-the chromatic co-ordinates of colors are either not noted or the illuminant that colors are shown under is not controlled. This means that conclusions about color preference are made using subjective terms for hue with little knowledge about the precise colors that were shown. However, recently, a new quantitative approach to investigating color preference has been proposed, where there is no need to summarize color preference using subjective terms for hue (Hurlbert and Ling, 2007; Ling and Hurlbert, 2007). This approach aims to quantitatively summarize hue preference in terms of weights on the two channels or "cardinal axes" underlying color vision. Here I further extend Hurlbert and Ling's (2007) approach to investigating color preference, by replicating their study but with Arabic and English participants, and to answer several questions: First, are there cultural differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Second, are there gender differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Thirty eight British and 71 Saudi Arabian (Arabic) participants were compared. Results revealed that Arabic and English preference curves were found to differ, yet there was greater similarity for Arabic and English males than Arabic and English females. There was also a sex difference that was present for both Arabic and English participants. The male curve is fairly similar for both samples: peak-preference is in the blue-green region, and a preference minimum is in the red-pink/purple region. For Arabic females the preference peak appears to be in the red-pink region, whilst for English females it is shifted toward purple/blue-green.

  6. An Evaluation of a Brief Multiple-stimulus Preference assessment with Adolescents with Emotional-behavioral disorders in an Educational Setting

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Brief multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessments were conducted with 3 adolescent boys with emotional-behavioral disorders in the context of their public school educational program. The reinforcing effects of stimuli identified as high, medium, and low preference were then evaluated using an alternating treatments design in which, following an initial baseline, stimuli were delivered contingent on on-task behavior. High-preference stimuli produced the highest percentages of on-task behavior for all 3 participants. PMID:16270849

  7. Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the Nevada National Security Site Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Ashley V.

    2014-05-30

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are free-roaming descendants of domesticated horses and legally protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, which mandates how feral horses and burros should be managed and protected on federal lands. Using a geographic information system to determine the home range and suitable habitat of feral horses on the federally managed Nevada National Security Site can enable wildlife biologists in making best management practice recommendations. Home range was estimated at 88.1 square kilometers. Site suitability was calculated for elevation, forage, slope, water presence and horse observations. These variables were combined in successive iterations into one polygon. Suitability rankings established that 85 square kilometers are most suitable habitat, with 2,052 square kilometers of good habitat 1,252 square kilometers of fair habitat and 122 square kilometers of least suitable habitat.

  8. Larval settlement preference maximizes genetic mixing in an inbreeding population of a simultaneous hermaphrodite (Bugula stolonifera, Bryozoa).

    PubMed

    Johnson, C H; Woollacott, R M

    2010-12-01

    Conspecific aggregations in terrestrial and aquatic organisms can have a significant effect on an individual's survival, growth and reproductive fitness, particularly if these aggregations are composed of closely related individuals. Such aggregations can form passively, as a consequence of dispersal, or actively, as a consequence of kin recognition. In this study, we investigated the genetic composition of individuals in conspecific aggregations in the simultaneous hermaphroditic marine bryozoan Bugula stolonifera. Conspecific larvae routinely metamorphose on adult colonies; the possibility that larvae select or avoid their maternal colony was investigated utilizing 10 newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci. Adult colonies were collected from Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Massachusetts and inspected for the presence of attached individuals. Adult colonies and their attached individuals were genotyped and compared to assess genetic relatedness within and among these groups relative to the overall genetic variability of the sampling site. Overall, the population of B. stolonifera at this site was found to be outside Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium because of significant levels of inbreeding. No significant genetic differentiation, however, was found between any groups, documenting that a group containing an adult colony and its attached individuals had as much genetic variability as was found for the entire sampling site. Parentage-exclusion analyses showed that the vast majority of attached individuals (>93%) could not have derived from the colony on which they were attached. Kinship analyses showed that the majority of attached individuals (≈63%) shared less than a half-sibling relationship. These results suggest that a colony's nearest neighbours are not composed of siblings, and thus, larval settlement preference can maximize outcrossing in this inbreeding population.

  9. Effects of Viewing an Evidence-Based Video Decision Aid on Patients’ Treatment Preferences for Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Blood, Emily A.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Weinstein, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis within a large clinical trial Objective To evaluate the changes in treatment preference before and after watching a video decision aid as part of an informed consent process. Summary of Background Data A randomized trial with a similar decision aid in herniated disc patients had shown decreased rate of surgery in the video group, but the effect of the video on expressed preferences is not known. Methods Subjects enrolling in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) with intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SPS), or degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) at thirteen multidisciplinary spine centers across the US were given an evidence-based videotape decision aid viewed prior to enrollment as part of informed consent. Results Of the 2505 patients, 86% (n=2151) watched the video and 14% (n=354) did not. Watchers shifted their preference more often than non-watchers(37.9% vs. 20.8%, p < 0.0001) and more often demonstrated a strengthened preference (26.2% vs. 11.1%, p < 0.0001). Among the 806 patients whose preference shifted after watching the video, 55% shifted toward surgery (p=0.003). Among the 617 who started with no preference, after the video 27% preferred non-operative care, 22% preferred surgery, and 51% remained uncertain. Conclusion After watching the evidence-based patient decision aid (video) used in SPORT, patients with specific lumbar spine disorders formed and/or strengthened their treatment preferences in a balanced way that did not appear biased toward or away from surgery. PMID:21358485

  10. Industrial Sites - An Approach to Closure

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Nevada Site Office was created by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address the environmental legacy of contamination resulting from more than 50 years of nuclear weapons research, production and testing. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) is responsible for remediating portions of the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and the Tonopah Test Range, which is within the Nevada Test and Training Range.

  11. Eliciting patients' preferences for cigarette and alcohol cessation: an application of conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Flach, Stephen D; Diener, Alan

    2004-06-01

    The strength and stability of preferences for quitting cigarettes versus alcohol in a population of dual users undergoing treatment was examined using conjoint analysis. Patients at a Veteran's Administration substance abuse treatment center ranked nine vignettes from most to least preferred at baseline and 4 weeks later. The vignettes, using a full factorial design, described health states associated with three levels of substance use. We regressed vignette rankings on the levels of smoking and drinking. A larger regression coefficient indicated a stronger preference for quitting. At baseline and follow-up, the group placed more preference on quitting alcohol than cigarettes (coefficients of 2.23 and 2.35 for alcohol cessation and.51 and.73 for smoking cessation). Some subjects preferred smoking to quitting at baseline (23.9%) and follow-up (23.5%). Over time, 29.4% and 35.3% increased their preference for tobacco and alcohol cessation, while 41.2% and 17.6% decreased their preference for cigarette and alcohol cessation. Preferences for stopping alcohol were stronger than for stopping cigarettes, and many preferences changed after a treatment program.

  12. Experimental manipulation of melanism demonstrates the plasticity of preferred temperature in an agricultural pest (Phaulacridium vittatum).

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key trait of successful pest species, and may increase the ability to cope with higher, more variable temperatures under climate change. We investigate the plasticity of preferred temperature in a widespread agricultural pest, the wingless grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum). Preferred temperature is a measure of thermoregulatory behaviour through habitat selection. It is influenced by melanism, which affects body temperature by determining the amount of radiation absorbed by the body. First we demonstrate that body temperature and preferred temperature in P. vittatum is influenced by melanism, by comparing the preferred temperature of the colour morphs in laboratory thermal gradients and field body temperatures in natural populations. We then test whether preferred temperature changes in response to changes in body temperature, by determining preferred temperature before and after manipulation of melanism by painting. When melanism was manipulated experimentally in live grasshoppers, preferred temperature changed to reflect the thermal qualities of the new colour. The preferred temperature of light grasshoppers increased after they were painted black, and decreased after being painted white. Similarly, dark individuals that were painted white behaved like a light individual, maintaining a lower body temperature. Preferred temperature in P.vittatum is a plastic thermoregulatory response to ambient temperature, mediated by the influence of melanism on body temperature.

  13. Adolescent Female Text Messaging Preferences to Prevent Pregnancy After an Emergency Department Visit: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. Objective The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. Methods We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were “brief,” “professional,” and “nonaccusatory.” Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive “confidential” care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to

  14. The impact of adding an extra dimension to a preference-based measure.

    PubMed

    Brazier, John; Rowen, Donna; Tsuchiya, Aki; Yang, Yaling; Young, Tracy A

    2011-07-01

    The ability to compare incremental changes in Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) generated by different condition-specific preference-based measures (CSPBMs), or indeed between generic measures, is often criticised even where the valuation methods and source of values are the same. A key concern is the impact of excluding key dimensions from a descriptive system. This study examines the impact of adding a generic pain/discomfort dimension to a CSPBM, the AQL-5D (an asthma-specific CSPBM), by valuing samples of states from the AQL-5D with and without the new dimension using an interviewer administered time trade-off with a sample of the U.K. general public. 180 respondents provided 720 valuations for states with and without pain/discomfort. As expected the additional pain/discomfort dimension was found to have a significant and relatively large coefficient. More importantly for comparing changes in QALYs across populations the addition of pain/discomfort significantly impacts on the coefficients of the other dimensions and the degree of impact differs by dimension and severity level. The net effect on the utility value depends on the severity of their state: the addition of pain/discomfort at level 1 (no pain/discomfort) or 2 (moderate pain/discomfort) significantly increased the mean health state values in an asthma patient population; whereas level 3 pain/discomfort (extreme) reduced values. Comparability between measures requires that the impact of different dimensions on preferences is additive, whether or not they are included in the classification system. Our results cast doubt on this assumption, implying that the chosen measure must contain all important and relevant dimensions in its classification system.

  15. Perception, Attitude and Instructional Preferences on Physics in High School Students: An Exploration in an International Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Mini; Gafoor, Abdul

    Questionnaire survey explored perception, attitude and instructional preferences with respect to gender and nationality in high school students of India and USA, a sample of 1101 Indian and 458 US students. Descriptive Statistics techniques were adopted for analysis. Male and female students in USA were at the high and low ends of the spectrum, respectively, in perception and attitude. Preference on instructional strategies was found to be independent of nationality, exposed strategies, opting science, class size and facilities. Responses from both countries indicate preference for an integrated instructional strategy that has strong teacher involvement in a student-centered framework. A thoughtful and properly designed instructional strategy could provide sufficient elements in modifying students' epistemological beliefs. Understanding the nature and process of physics along with a better learning outcome is usually not possible by administering student-centered or teacher-centered strategies alone in their purest form. This study provides adequate support in obtaining two equally significant but contrasting goals in Physics Education Research, to gain conceptual development with increased interest and attainment in learners, through integration.

  16. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand.

  17. An economic experiment reveals that humans prefer pool punishment to maintain the commons

    PubMed Central

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Punishment can stabilize costly cooperation and ensure the success of a common project that is threatened by free-riders. Punishment mechanisms can be classified into pool punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by a paid third party, (e.g. a police system or a sheriff), and peer punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by peers. Which punishment mechanism is preferred when both are concurrently available within a society? In an economic experiment, we show that the majority of subjects choose pool punishment, despite being costly even in the absence of defectors, when second-order free-riders, cooperators that do not punish, are also punished. Pool punishers are mutually enforcing their support for the punishment organization, stably trapping each other. Our experimental results show how organized punishment could have displaced individual punishment in human societies. PMID:22764167

  18. An inkblot for sexual preference: a semantic variant of the Affect Misattribution Procedure.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F; Bernhardt, Johanna; Dierksmeier, Andreas; Banse, Rainer

    2011-06-01

    A newly developed Semantic Misattribution Procedure (SMP), a semantic variant of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), was used in three studies as an indirect measure of sexual interest. Using a known-group approach, homosexual men (Studies 1 and 2), heterosexual men (Studies 1 to 3) and heterosexual women (Study 3) were asked to guess the meaning of briefly presented Chinese ideographs as "sexual" or "not sexual". The ideographs were preceded by briefly presented primes depicting male and female individuals of varying sexual maturity. As hypothesised, the frequency of "sexual" responses increased after priming with pictures of individuals of the preferred sex and increasing sexual maturation. The SMP showed satisfactory reliability and convergent validity as indicated by correlations with direct and two indirect measures of sexual interest. In two further studies, the hypothesised pattern was replicated whereas a standard AMP with the identical prime stimuli did not produce this result. The potential usefulness of semantic variants of the AMP is discussed.

  19. An economic experiment reveals that humans prefer pool punishment to maintain the commons.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-09-22

    Punishment can stabilize costly cooperation and ensure the success of a common project that is threatened by free-riders. Punishment mechanisms can be classified into pool punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by a paid third party, (e.g. a police system or a sheriff), and peer punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by peers. Which punishment mechanism is preferred when both are concurrently available within a society? In an economic experiment, we show that the majority of subjects choose pool punishment, despite being costly even in the absence of defectors, when second-order free-riders, cooperators that do not punish, are also punished. Pool punishers are mutually enforcing their support for the punishment organization, stably trapping each other. Our experimental results show how organized punishment could have displaced individual punishment in human societies.

  20. Learning Style Preferences and Course Performance in an Undergraduate Physiology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Learning styles may be classified according to the sensory modality that one most prefers to use when internalizing information. The four major sensory modalities are visual, aural or auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between preferred learning style, gender, and course scores in…

  1. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces…

  2. An Evaluation of Modality Preference Using a "Morse Code" Recall Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Louise; Cottrell, David

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of modality preference posit that individuals have a dominant sense and that when new material is presented in this preferred modality, learning is enhanced. Despite the widespread belief in this position, there is little supporting evidence. In the present study, the authors implemented a Morse code-like recall task to examine whether…

  3. An Examination of Learning Preferences of U.S. and International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Kristin; Clinebell, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Learning styles and preferences are often discussed topics in educational psychology, but are less prevalent in business education. International students are another understudied segment of business education. This article reviews literature regarding learning styles and preferences and examines whether U.S. and international students have…

  4. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, John K.; Hargett, Charles W.; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: “readers” prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; “social-auditory learners” prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and “visual learners” prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. PMID:26330030

  5. An Examination of Behavioral History Effects on Preference for Choice in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberlin, Alayna T.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the effects of behavioral history on elementary students' preference for making a choice in two studies. Previous research on choice has focused on the arrangement of current contingencies and has not accounted for the effects of behavioral history. Study 1 examined participants' preference for two options (i.e.,…

  6. Preferred Leadership Style of Agricultural Education Teachers: An Expression of Epistemological Beliefs about Youth Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiman, Bradley C.; Addington, Leah S.; Larson, Timothy G.; Olander, Keith R.

    2007-01-01

    Supported by Bandura's social cognitive theory, this study examined the preferred leadership style of agricultural education teachers, and determined if preferred leadership style and leadership factors differed on selected personal characteristics. The accessible sample consisted of agricultural education teachers (N = 234) who taught in…

  7. Counselor Interpersonal Power Base Preference: An Examination of Counselor and Client Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinee, James P.; Tracey, Terence J.

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 40 counseling students' power base preferences--expert, referent, and legitimate. Results indicate that counseling students do not vary in their endorsement of the different power bases as a function of experience level. All students preferred legitimate power more than referent power and referent power more than expert power. (RJM)

  8. An Analogue Evaluation of Environmental Enrichment: The Role of Stimulus Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringdahl, Joel E.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Marcus, Bethany A.; Roane, Henry S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of three children (ages 3-5) with developmental disabilities evaluated the effects of environmental enrichment on self-injurious behavior. Each child participated in a free-operate preference assessment to identify relative preferences for aberrant behavior. This assessment correctly predicted the success of environmental enrichment to…

  9. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John K; Hargett, Charles W; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma; Lehrich, Ruediger W

    2015-09-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: "readers" prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; "social-auditory learners" prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and "visual learners" prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. PMID:26330030

  10. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    PubMed

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  11. The prevalence and the weakness of an early name mapping preference.

    PubMed

    Evey, J A; Merriman, W E

    1998-02-01

    An empirical puzzle regarding toddlers' fast mapping motivated the current investigation. Whereas children between 1;10 and 2;1 have shown only a modest rate of mapping novel nouns onto unfamiliar rather than familiar objects, a very high rate has been observed in those between 1;4 and 1;8 (Mervis & Bertrand, 1991). Study 1 examined whether young two-year-olds (N = 40, mean age = 2;1) might map at a higher rate when tested with procedures unique to Mervis & Bertrand's assessment--strong corrective feedback rather than mild positive non-contingent feedback; large sets of test objects rather than pairs; presentation of easier tests first. Only the first variable affected performance in a manner that could solve the puzzle. Unfamiliar kinds were selected at a much higher rate under corrective (0.86) than non-contingent (0.57) feedback. Although nearly every child in the non-contingent group chose correctly on the first trial, many failed to do so thereafter. In Study 2, rather than presenting a test word to the children (N = 16, mean age = 2;2), the experimenter merely asked for 'the one I want'. Unfamiliar kinds were selected much less often than in Study 1, suggesting that at least one lexical principle proposed in the literature underlies the noun mapping preference. Changes over trials in the two studies indicated that the noun mapping preference is quite prevalent, but unless initial choices are strongly reinforced, an increase in the salience of familiar kinds after the first trial lures some children into error. Consistent with this analysis, toddlers in Study 3 (N = 24, mean age = 2:1) who received non-contingent strong acceptance for their noun mapping decisions, selected unfamiliar kinds more often than those who had received non-contingent mild acceptance in Study 1. PMID:9604571

  12. Site preferences of Ni/2+/ and Co/2+/ in clinopyroxene and olivine - Limitations of the statistical approach.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Criticism of a statistical approach used by Dasgupta (1972) in analyzing Snyder's (1959) chemical data for minerals from the Duluth Complex in Minnesota. Apart from obvious mathematical objections to citing correlation coefficients to four significant figures from Snyder's relatively inaccurate analytical data, several more fundamental criticisms are leveled at the statistical approach of Dasgupta. These relate to compositional zoning and disequilibrium in the minerals, inhomogeneities of the samples caused by inclusions and exsolved phases, measured site population data for the major cations in olivines and pyroxenes, and the importance of coupled substitutions in the crystal structures. It is concluded that the crystal field predictions of relative enrichments of Ni(2+) and Co(2+) ions in olivine and pyroxene structures have not been disproved by Dasgupta's statistical approach.

  13. An exploration of parents’ preferences for foot care in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a possible role for the discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increased awareness of patients’ and parents’ care preferences regarding foot care is desirable from a clinical perspective as such information may be utilised to optimise care delivery. The aim of this study was to examine parents’ preferences for, and valuations of foot care and foot-related outcomes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) incorporating willingness-to-pay (WTP) questions was conducted by surveying 42 parents of children with JIA who were enrolled in a randomised-controlled trial of multidisciplinary foot care at a single UK paediatric rheumatology outpatients department. Attributes explored were: levels of pain; mobility; ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL); waiting time; referral route; and footwear. The DCE was administered at trial baseline. DCE data were analysed using a multinomial-logit-regression model to estimate preferences and relative importance of attributes of foot care. A stated-preference WTP question was presented to estimate parents’ monetary valuation of health and service improvements. Results Every attribute in the DCE was statistically significant (p < 0.01) except that of cost (p = 0.118), suggesting that all attributes, except cost, have an impact on parents’ preferences for foot care for their child. The magnitudes of the coefficients indicate that the strength of preference for each attribute was (in descending order): improved ability to perform ADL, reductions in foot pain, improved mobility, improved ability to wear desired footwear, multidisciplinary foot care route, and reduced waiting time. Parents’ estimated mean annual WTP for a multidisciplinary foot care service was £1,119.05. Conclusions In terms of foot care service provision for children with JIA, parents appear to prefer improvements in health outcomes over non-health outcomes and service process attributes. Cost was relatively less important than other attributes

  14. Sweet taste preferences before and after an intensive medical weight loss intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, A. E.; Arcori, L.; Kaur, M.; Fowler, C. E.; Herman, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Medical weight loss could change sweet taste threshold and preferences. The decrease in sweet taste preferences may, in turn, help in the maintenance of weight loss. This study examined the association between sweet taste preferences at baseline and weight change during a medical weight management programme and the impact of diet‐induced weight loss on sweet taste preferences. Methods Adult patients with body mass index ≥32 kg m−2 were recruited from a medical weight management clinic. Sweet taste preference was assessed using a forced‐choice, paired‐comparison tracking method before and after a very‐low‐calorie diet (VLCD). Results Twenty participants were included in the analysis: mean age was 53.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 11.4) years, and 14 were female. The mean body mass index was 41.4 (SD: 7.5) kg m−2. The median preferred sucrose concentration before VLCD was 0.45 M. Following VLCD, mean change in weight was −13.3 (SD: 6.6) kg, and percentage weight change was −11.3% (SD: 5.9%). Based on mixed models with and without adjustment for demographic factors, diabetes status and smoking history, preferred sucrose concentration at baseline did not predict change in longer‐term body weight. The change of preferred sucrose concentration following 12 weeks of VLCD was not significant (P‐value 0.95). Conclusions Change in weight during and after VLCD was not associated with sweet taste preferences at baseline. After diet‐induced weight loss, sweet taste preferences did not change. PMID:27812384

  15. Implicit letter preferences in job choice: an experimental test of the role of cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Anseel, Frederik; Duyck, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Research has shown that people prefer the letters in their names to letters that are not in their names. This name-letter effect seems to influence important life decision such as where one chooses to live or whom one chooses to marry. The authors' laboratory study investigated whether this effect generalizes to individuals' job-choice intentions under specific conditions. Furthermore, the authors hypothesized that name-letter preferences in job-choice intentions would be stronger under conditions of high cognitive load than under conditions of low cognitive load. Two experiments with final-year students attending a university in Belgium showed support for name-letter preferences in job-choice intentions. There was no support for the hypothesized moderating role of cognitive load. The authors discuss the implications of these results for theory and research on name-letter preferences and job choice.

  16. What do women's advertised mate preferences reveal? An analysis of video dating profiles.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Cari D

    2013-01-01

    This study examined women's video dating profiles to determine what their advertised mate preferences revealed about their mate value and relationship interests. Women created a one-minute long video dating profile for a hypothetical dating website. The videos were content analyzed into four categories of stated mate preferences: 1) "good genes" indicators 2) good resource investment potential indicators 3) good parenting indicators and 4) good partner indicators. Long-term mating interest was positively correlated with describing good partner indicators and self-perceived mate value was positively correlated with describing good genes indicators. Short-term mating interest was negatively correlated with describing any mate preferences while attractiveness was positively correlated with doing so. Results suggest that women's advertised mate preferences provide clues to their underlying relationship interests and mate value. PMID:23718946

  17. The Relationship between PROP and Ethanol Preferences: An Evaluation of 4 Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    White, Theresa L.; Dishaw, Laura V.; Sheehe, Paul R.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol’s taste attributes undoubtedly contribute to the development of drug preference. Ethanol’s taste is both sweet and bitter. Taster status for bitter 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been proposed as a genetic marker for alcoholism; however, human results are conflicting. We collected preference scores for both tastants in 4 mouse strains selected on the basis of previously reported taste preference, with the generally accepted idea that inbred mice show minimal within-strain variation. Eighty-eight male mice (22 per strain) participated. The strains were as follows: C57BL/6J, ethanol preferring; BALB/cJ, ethanol avoiding; SWR/J, PROP avoiding; and C3HeB/FeJ, PROP neutral. Using a brief-access (1-min trials) 2-bottle preference test, we assessed the taste response of each strain to PROP and ethanol on separate days. Although PROP avoiding versus neutral mice could be segregated into significantly different populations, this was not the case for ethanol avoiding versus preferring mice, and all strains showed high variability. On average, only BALB/cJ, SWR/J, and C3HeB/FeJ mice conformed to their literature-reported preferences; nonetheless, there were a substantial number of discordant animals. C57BL/6J did not conform to previous results, indicating that they are ethanol preferring. Finally, we did not observe a significant relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences across strains. The high variability per strain and the number of animals in disagreement with their respective literature-reported preference raise concerns regarding their utility for investigations underlying mechanisms of taste-mediated ingestive responses. Absent postingestive consequences, the brief-access results suggest a possible degree of previously masked polymorphisms in taste preferences or a more recent drift in underlying genetic factors. The absence of a relationship between PROP and ethanol indicates that the bitter quality in ethanol may be more highly related to other

  18. Making Your School Site an Environmental Smorgasboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Describes ways to enhance a school's outdoor facilities to provide more educational opportunities: nesting boxes, ground water monitoring holes, nature's "swamp shop," soil studies, weather stations, wildlife habitat improvement, forestry practices, aquatic resources, archaeological dig sites, horticulture demonstration areas, outdoor seating…

  19. Evaluating preferred direction tropical cyclone track variability in an operational global ensemble prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elless, Travis J.

    Ensemble forecasts of Tropical Storm Debby and Hurricane Sandy (2012) highlight instances where variability in tropical cyclone (TC) position forecasts are stretched along a preferred direction. The goal of this thesis is to analyze this stretching of variability in a global ensemble prediction system, particularly the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), to determine how often and under what conditions does variability stretching occur, and ultimately what feature(s) are responsible for generating this variability. This study defines and evaluates preferred direction variability through a 2008--2012 global climatology of ECMWF TC position variability. A basin by basin comparison found stretching of the variability tends to occur most frequently in the West Pacific and least frequently in the Atlantic. Other forecast characteristics such as location, motion, and intensity are examined in each basin, and highlight midlatitude effects being associated with preferred direction variability. However, other features unique to each basin could also be playing a role in generating preferred direction variability. Possible sources of preferred direction variability are examined through a case study of ECMWF ensemble forecast initialized at 0000 UTC 24 June 2012 for Tropical Storm Debby. Zonal magnitude differences in Debby's steering layer wind are identified as the source for generating the associated variability stretching. Further evaluation however, cannot relate these differences to one feature, suggesting multiple processes are in play in generating preferred direction variability.

  20. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species. PMID

  1. An Objective Approach to Determining the Weight Ranges of Prey Preferred by and Accessible to the Five Large African Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Hayley S.; Tambling, Craig J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed “accessible prey”. Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14–135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1–45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32–632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15–1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10–289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore

  2. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.

  3. An Exploration into Framing Effects and Information Preferences: Implications for the Design of Energy Feedback Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Brown, Peter

    A recent topic in the energy industry involves developing strategies to reduce the necessary peak production capacity of our future electricity infrastructure. One of these strategies is promoting behavioral change among individual energy consumers. An inherent problem with electricity consumption is that electricity is invisible, intangible, and abstract. Interfaces that provide people with useful feedback on their usage can help with understanding and reduction of consumption. These interfaces intend to empower individuals with ability to adopt less wasteful energy consumption behaviors. Skillful HCI design will include attention to informational preferences, and framing effects due to presentation choices. An online questionnaire was utilized to explore this domain, and the results identified design requirements for a home feedback interface. The final dataset contained responses from 36 male and 49 female United States residents. Cost () was perceived as the most useful metric and kW as the least useful. Respondent preference was expressed for lower levels of automation, which was not attributable to distrust of automation. Further, a test of framings effects showed a higher likelihood to change behavior to save 100 dollars per year than 2 per week (U=1248.5, p=0.001). A feedback interface design based on the questionnaire results was used in the second phase of the research. A 2x2x2 factorial design compared the effects of goal-type (specific vs. open-ended), metric-use ( vs. kWh), and visualization (graphical vs. text-only) on user experience, learning and behavior during a consumption reduction task. Results showed that goal-type affects the amount of diagnostic behavior conducted by participants (U=351.0, p=0.001). Goal-type and metric-use independently affect participant belief that they could reduce their consumption in their real home with the same feedback shown in the task, F(df=1,39)=24.77, p=0.001; F(df=1,39)=5.55, p=0.05. In addition, visualization

  4. Growth trajectory influences temperature preference in fish through an effect on metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Shaun S

    2014-01-01

    Most animals experience temperature variations as they move through the environment. For ectotherms, in particular, temperature has a strong influence on habitat choice. While well studied at the species level, less is known about factors affecting the preferred temperature of individuals; especially lacking is information on how physiological traits are linked to thermal preference and whether such relationships are affected by factors such feeding history and growth trajectory. This study examined these issues in the common minnow Phoxinus phoxinus, to determine the extent to which feeding history, standard metabolic rate (SMR) and aerobic scope (AS), interact to affect temperature preference. Individuals were either: 1) food deprived (FD) for 21 days, then fed ad libitum for the next 74 days; or 2) fed ad libitum throughout the entire period. All animals were then allowed to select preferred temperatures using a shuttle-box, and then measured for SMR and AS at 10 °C, estimated by rates of oxygen uptake. Activity within the shuttle-box under a constant temperature regime was also measured. In both FD and control fish, SMR was negatively correlated with preferred temperature. The SMR of the FD fish was increased compared with the controls, probably due to the effects of compensatory growth, and so these growth-compensated fish preferred temperatures that were on average 2·85 °C cooler than controls fed a maintenance ration throughout the study. Fish experiencing compensatory growth also displayed a large reduction in activity. In growth-compensated fish and controls, activity measured at 10 °C was positively correlated with preferred temperature. Individual fish prefer temperatures that vary predictably with SMR and activity level, which are both plastic in response to feeding history and growth trajectories. Cooler temperatures probably allow individuals to reduce maintenance costs and divert more energy towards growth. A reduction in SMR at cooler

  5. Growth trajectory influences temperature preference in fish through an effect on metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S

    2014-11-01

    Most animals experience temperature variations as they move through the environment. For ectotherms, in particular, temperature has a strong influence on habitat choice. While well studied at the species level, less is known about factors affecting the preferred temperature of individuals; especially lacking is information on how physiological traits are linked to thermal preference and whether such relationships are affected by factors such feeding history and growth trajectory. This study examined these issues in the common minnow Phoxinus phoxinus, to determine the extent to which feeding history, standard metabolic rate (SMR) and aerobic scope (AS), interact to affect temperature preference. Individuals were either: 1) food deprived (FD) for 21 days, then fed ad libitum for the next 74 days; or 2) fed ad libitum throughout the entire period. All animals were then allowed to select preferred temperatures using a shuttle-box, and then measured for SMR and AS at 10 °C, estimated by rates of oxygen uptake. Activity within the shuttle-box under a constant temperature regime was also measured. In both FD and control fish, SMR was negatively correlated with preferred temperature. The SMR of the FD fish was increased compared with the controls, probably due to the effects of compensatory growth, and so these growth-compensated fish preferred temperatures that were on average 2.85 °C cooler than controls fed a maintenance ration throughout the study. Fish experiencing compensatory growth also displayed a large reduction in activity. In growth-compensated fish and controls, activity measured at 10 °C was positively correlated with preferred temperature. Individual fish prefer temperatures that vary predictably with SMR and activity level, which are both plastic in response to feeding history and growth trajectories. Cooler temperatures probably allow individuals to reduce maintenance costs and divert more energy towards growth. A reduction in SMR at cooler

  6. Residential Preferences for River Network Improvement: An Exploration of Choice Experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.

  7. Does an early socialization into a food culture condition lifelong food preferences? Evidence from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Scrob, Mircea-Lucian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of early formed dietary practices on food choices and preferences during adulthood has often been assumed but rarely adequately demonstrated given the difficulty of studying the subject matter with conventional laboratory or observational research designs. This article examines this assumption by analyzing the information from 31 structured interviews on the respondents' current preferences for combinations of six side dishes with bread or mămăligă (boiled cornmeal mush, similar to polenta). All the respondents had consumed mămăligă in their childhood but in their adulthood had switched to bread following the social and economic upheavals from 1960s Romania. The results show that a) for specific combinations, physiological factors and/or cultural norms that defined bread as a 'prestigious' food have been capable of overriding the effects of early socialization with mămăligă as the accompanying food and b) that consumers continue to prefer certain side dishes with mămăligă even after decades of predominant consumption of bread although confounding factors might account for such preferences. These findings qualify the expectation that an early familiarization with healthy eating habits will promote this desired lifestyle during adulthood by showing that physiological and socio-cultural factors are capable of overriding its effects on hedonic preferences. PMID:26921489

  8. Does an early socialization into a food culture condition lifelong food preferences? Evidence from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Scrob, Mircea-Lucian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of early formed dietary practices on food choices and preferences during adulthood has often been assumed but rarely adequately demonstrated given the difficulty of studying the subject matter with conventional laboratory or observational research designs. This article examines this assumption by analyzing the information from 31 structured interviews on the respondents' current preferences for combinations of six side dishes with bread or mămăligă (boiled cornmeal mush, similar to polenta). All the respondents had consumed mămăligă in their childhood but in their adulthood had switched to bread following the social and economic upheavals from 1960s Romania. The results show that a) for specific combinations, physiological factors and/or cultural norms that defined bread as a 'prestigious' food have been capable of overriding the effects of early socialization with mămăligă as the accompanying food and b) that consumers continue to prefer certain side dishes with mămăligă even after decades of predominant consumption of bread although confounding factors might account for such preferences. These findings qualify the expectation that an early familiarization with healthy eating habits will promote this desired lifestyle during adulthood by showing that physiological and socio-cultural factors are capable of overriding its effects on hedonic preferences.

  9. Quartz c-axis preferred orientations in an experimental shear zone

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Angelo, L.

    1985-01-01

    Natural rocks which have deformed by simple shear commonly exhibits an asymmetric quartz c-axis fabric which can be a useful kinematic indicator. Although there is some controversy on the sense of asymmetry from theoretical models, fabrics measured from natural rocks generally exhibit an asymmetry with maxima inclined in the direction of shear. The authors have deformed a fine grained quartzite in simple shear in order to determine the relationship of the c-axis fabric to the sense of shear, the foliation and the shear zone boundary. The sample was deformed at 800/sup 0/C, 15 kb and 10/sup -6//sec, where previous axial compression experiments produce small circle girdles symmetrical about sigma/sub 1/ due to basal and prism slip. Original grains are flattened with only a minor amount of recrystallization. A thin sample (.1'' thick) was cut from a right cylinder at 45/sup 0/ to the core axis and placed between two ZrO/sub 2/ pistons with matching 45/sup 0/ faces. In the sheared sample, measurements of grain aspect ratios in vertical sections parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction as well as the angle between the shear zone boundary and the foliation (18/sup 0/) indicate that the deformation has been dominantly simple shear (maximum of 2.8) with only a minor component of pure shear. The preferred orientation pattern is an asymmetric type I crossed girdle which is characterized by two girdles connected through the intermediate strain axis by a single girdle. The asymmetry is defined by stronger maxima inclined in the direction of shear.

  10. Biperiden (an M1 antagonist) reduces memory consolidation of cocaine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Marina S; Ramos, Anna C; Alves, Danielle R; Galduróz, José C F

    2012-04-01

    It is well-known that cocaine dependence is a public health issue, and several studies stress the need to look for new and more effective treatments. Although the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projects to several forebrain structures, is known to be critically involved in the neurobiology of cocaine dependence, acetylcholine (ACh) has also been shown to play an important role in cocaine dependence via its action on this reward system. ACh is also important in the formation of hippocampal memory associated with appetitive behavior. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biperiden, an ACh antagonist with high affinity for muscarinic M1 type receptors, on the acquisition of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. The cocaine and biperiden were dissolved in sterile saline and were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 10mg/kg. The conditioning regime was 8 days long, and the cholinergic antagonist was given immediately at the end of each conditioning session. The test for CPP occurred 24h after the last session. The results showed that animals treated with biperiden spent significantly less time in the cocaine-paired compartment than did the ones treated with saline. This finding represents a reduction in the consolidation of cocaine-induced CPP. One hypothesis that could explain this outcome focuses on the action of cholinergic antagonists on the consolidation of contextual memories. The amnesic effect of M1 antagonists on aversive tasks and on morphine CPP has been demonstrated when administered before the training or the conditioning session. The present study highlights the possibility of impairment in the acquisition of an appetitive memory, even when the cholinergic drug is administered after the conditioning session. This protocol also rejects the possibility of performance disturbance and suggests a possible pharmacological tool in the treatment of cocaine

  11. An evaluation of simultaneous and sequential presentation of preferred and nonpreferred food to treat food selectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Santana, Christine M; Goh, Han Leong; Delia, Michael D; Lancaster, Blake M

    2002-01-01

    In the current investigation, we compared two methods of food presentation (simultaneous vs. sequential) to increase consumption of nonpreferred food for 3 children with food selectivity. In the simultaneous condition, preferred foods were presented at the same time as nonpreferred food (e.g., a piece of broccoli was presented on a chip). In the sequential condition, acceptance of the nonpreferred food resulted in presentation of the preferred food. Increases in consumption occurred immediately during the simultaneous condition for 2 of the 3 participants. For 1 participant, increases in consumption occurred in the simultaneous condition relative to the sequential condition, but only after physical guidance and re-presentation were added to treatment. Finally, consumption increased for 1 participant in the sequential condition, but only after several sessions. These results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms that may alter preferences for food (i.e., establishing operations, flavor-flavor conditioning). PMID:12365739

  12. An architecture for the autonomous generation of preference-based trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Jamie

    Numerous techniques exist to optimize aircraft and spacecraft trajectories over cost functions that include terms such as fuel, time, and separation from obstacles. Relative weighting factors can dramatically alter solution characteristics, and engineers often must manually adjust either cost weights or the trajectory itself to obtain desirable solutions. Further, when humans and robots work together, or when humans task robots, they may express their performance expectations in a "fuzzy" natural language fashion, or else as an uncertain range of more or less acceptable values. This work describes a software architecture which accepts both fuzzy linguistic and hard numeric constraints on trajectory performance and, using a trajectory generator provided by the user, automatically constructs trajectories to meet these specifications as closely as possible. The system respects hard constraints imposed by system dynamics or by the user, and will not let the user's preferences interfere with the system and user needs. The architecture's evaluation agent translates these requirements into cost functional weights expected to produce the desired motion characteristics. The quality of the resulting full-state trajectory is then evaluated based on a set of computed trajectory features compared to the specified constraints. If constraints are not met, the cost functional weights are adjusted according to precomputed heuristic equations. Heuristics are not generated in an ad hoc fashion, but are instead the result of a systematic testing of the simulated system under a range of simple conditions. The system is tested in a 2DOF linear and a 6DOF nonlinear domain with a variety of constraints and in the presence of obstacles. Results show that the system consistently meets all hard numeric constraints placed on the trajectory. Desired characteristics are often attainable or else, in those cases where they are discounted in favor of the hard constraints, failed by small margins

  13. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  14. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.

  15. Regulation of the substrate preference of p190RhoGAP by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of a phospholipid binding site.

    PubMed

    Lévay, Magdolna; Settleman, Jeffrey; Ligeti, Erzsébet

    2009-09-15

    The Rho family GTPases are stringently regulated through the action of a large family of GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that stimulate their relatively weak intrinsic GTP hydrolyzing activity. The p190RhoGAPs, which include the p190A and p190B proteins, are potent and widely expressed GAPs acting on both Rho and Rac GTPases. We have observed that several acidic phospholipids inhibit the RhoGAP activity and promote the RacGAP activity of p190 proteins. In liposome binding assays we have demonstrated that binding of p190A to phospholipids is controlled by electrostatic interactions. Using mapping techniques, we determined that a small polybasic peptide stretch within p190A is a common site for both the phospholipid binding and PKC phosphorylation. Moreover, PKC-mediated phosphorylation of two amino acids (serine-1221 and threonine-1226) within this region of p190A prevents the binding and substrate specificity regulation by phospholipids. Transfection of COS-7 cells with mutant forms of p190A either unable to bind to phospholipids or unable to become phosphorylated induced distinct morphological changes. Together, these findings reveal a novel GAP regulatory mechanism in which phosphorylation indirectly alters GTPase substrate preference by affecting the interaction with acidic phospholipids. Our observations provide a potential mechanism of Rac/Rho antagonism described in several cellular functions.

  16. Children's Feedback Preferences in Response to an Experimentally Manipulated Peer Evaluation Outcome: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children's depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n = 142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television…

  17. The Impact and Evaluation of Two School-Based Interventions on Intention to Register an Organ Donation Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…

  18. Development of an Instrument for Assessing Senior High School Students' Preferred and Perceived Laboratory Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Wu, Ying-Tien; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wong, Terrence William; Fu, Hsieh-Hai; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chung-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an instrument, named the inquiry-based laboratory classroom environment instrument (ILEI), for assessing senior high-school science students' preferred and perceived laboratory environment. A total of 262 second-year students, from a senior-high school in Taiwan, were recruited for this study. Four stages were…

  19. Influencing Preschoolers' Free-Play Activity Preferences: An Evaluation of Satiation and Embedded Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Gregory P.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Cammilleri, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of classwide satiation and embedded reinforcement procedures on preschoolers' activity preferences during scheduled free-play periods. The goal of the study was to increase time allocation to originally nonpreferred, but important, activities (instructional zone, library, and science) while continuing to…

  20. Learners' Preferences of Oral Corrective Feedback: An Example of Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidan, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the oral corrective feedback (OCF) preferences of learners of Turkish as a foreign language (TFL) in order to understand whether they would like their errors to be corrected and, if so, when, which of them, how and by whom they would like to be corrected in the classroom environment. A questionnaire with…

  1. An Analysis of the Educational Preferences among Adult Residents of Arapahoe Community College's Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.; Hart, Sharon

    In May 1985, a study was conducted by Arapahoe Community College (ACC) to determine the preferences of service area adults for educational opportunities. Questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected households and distributed by local libraries, recreation centers, and other nonprofit organizations, soliciting information on interest in…

  2. Marriage Form and Son Preference in Rural China: An Investigation in Three Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from two surveys in three counties among which the prevalence of uxorilocal marriage varies greatly, this paper analyzes effects of marriage form, as well as individual, family, and social factors on son preference in the context of strict birth control in rural China. It is shown that, under the Chinese patrilineal joint family system,…

  3. Locomotor preferences in terrestrial vertebrates: An online crowdsourcing approach to data collection

    PubMed Central

    Lees, John; Gardiner, James; Usherwood, James; Nudds, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals move within their environment is a burgeoning field of research. Despite this, relatively basic data, such as the locomotor speeds that animals choose to walk at in the wild, are sparse. If animals choose to walk with dynamic similarity, they will move at equal dimensionless speeds, represented by Froude number (Fr). Fr may be interpreted from simple limb kinematics obtained from video data. Here, using Internet videos, limb kinematics were measured in 112 bird and mammal species weighing between 0.61 and 5400 kg. This novel method of data collection enabled the determination of kinematics for animals walking at their self-selected speeds without the need for exhaustive fieldwork. At larger sizes, both birds and mammals prefer to walk at slower relative speeds and relative stride frequencies, as preferred Fr decreased in larger species, indicating that Fr may not be a good predictor of preferred locomotor speeds. This may result from the observation that the minimum cost of transport is approached at lower Fr in larger species. Birds walk with higher duty factors, lower stride frequencies and longer stance times compared to mammals at self-selected speeds. The trend towards lower preferred Fr is also apparent in extinct vertebrate species. PMID:27381514

  4. Strategy and Linguistic Preference of Requests by Cantonese Learners of English: An Interlanguage and Crosscultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Extending Lee's (Pragmatics 15: 395-422, 2005) work, the researcher further investigates the requestive behaviour of a group of Cantonese learners of English (CLEs) in Hong Kong in terms of their strategy and linguistic preference. The data were collected from a discourse completion test (DCT). Their requestive behaviour is studied in three…

  5. An Investigation of Graduate Students' Help-Seeking Experiences, Preferences and Attitudes in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Selma; Liu, Xiongyi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored graduate students' help-seeking preferences, attitudes and experiences based on the online classes they took at a Midwestern higher education institution. The findings indicated that the majority of the students used self-regulatory strategies in their help-seeking process striving for independent mastery of learning. Thematic…

  6. "Why Does Rain Fall?": Children Prefer to Learn from an Informant Who Uses Noncircular Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Kurkul, Katelyn E.

    2014-01-01

    These two studies explored 3- and 5-year-olds' evaluation of noncircular and circular explanations, and their use of such explanations to determine informant credibility. Although 5-year-olds demonstrated a selective preference for noncircular over circular explanations (Experiment 1: Long Explanations; Experiment 2: Short Explanations),…

  7. An Examination of Student Situational Interest and Contextual Variable Preference in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Rachel Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify elements of the learning environment that students prefer to assist teachers in planning learning experiences that are motivating for their learners. Because some students may need additional motivation to participate in physical education the purpose of this study was to examine 4th grade student's…

  8. Personal Space and User Preference for Patterns of Carrel Arrangement in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larason, Larry; DiCarlo, Rebecca

    Based on a series of six field experiments conducted from 1978 through 1981 at Northeast Louisiana University's Sandel Library, this report examines user preferences related to library carrel arrangement in the context of personal space theory. A brief review of research on personal space requirements and a description of Sandel Library and its…

  9. Brownfields Redevelopment, Preferences and Public Involvement: A Case Study of an Ethnically Mixed Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael; Lewis, M. Jane

    2000-01-01

    A survey of over 200 residents of a largely Hispanic census tract in Perth Amboy, NJ found that residents preferred recreation, cultural, and other community facilities be the aim of brownfield re-development. They were less interested in industry and business, the promoted aim of such re-development. Three-quarters of respondents indicated a…

  10. Exploring Student Preferences with a Q-Sort: The Development of an Individualized Renal Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John K.; Hargett, Charles W.; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma; Lehrich, Ruediger W.

    2015-01-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students…

  11. Film and Interest: An Analysis of Elementary School Childrens' Preferences for the Liveliest Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carole A.

    This study sought to: (1) identify and describe the interest patterns of fourth and fifth grade children as they pertain to the content and form of the short art film, based on preferences expressed by the children themselves after actually viewing the films; (2) compare the interest patterns of children according to sex and race/socioeconomic…

  12. Spatial Preference Modelling for equitable infrastructure provision: an application of Sen's Capability Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismadi, Arif; Zuidgeest, Mark; Brussel, Mark; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether the inclusion of spatial neighbourhood comparison factors in Preference Modelling allows spatial decision support systems (SDSSs) to better address spatial equity, we introduce Spatial Preference Modelling (SPM). To evaluate the effectiveness of this model in addressing equity, various standardisation functions in both Non-Spatial Preference Modelling and SPM are compared. The evaluation involves applying the model to a resource location-allocation problem for transport infrastructure in the Special Province of Yogyakarta in Indonesia. We apply Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to define opportunity to mobility as a non-income indicator. Using the extended Moran's I interpretation for spatial equity, we evaluate the distribution output regarding, first, `the spatial distribution patterns of priority targeting for allocation' (SPT) and, second, `the effect of new distribution patterns after location-allocation' (ELA). The Moran's I index of the initial map and its comparison with six patterns for SPT as well as ELA consistently indicates that the SPM is more effective for addressing spatial equity. We conclude that the inclusion of spatial neighbourhood comparison factors in Preference Modelling improves the capability of SDSS to address spatial equity. This study thus proposes a new formal method for SDSS with specific attention on resource location-allocation to address spatial equity.

  13. Spatial Preference Modelling for equitable infrastructure provision: an application of Sen's Capability Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismadi, Arif; Zuidgeest, Mark; Brussel, Mark; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the inclusion of spatial neighbourhood comparison factors in Preference Modelling allows spatial decision support systems (SDSSs) to better address spatial equity, we introduce Spatial Preference Modelling (SPM). To evaluate the effectiveness of this model in addressing equity, various standardisation functions in both Non-Spatial Preference Modelling and SPM are compared. The evaluation involves applying the model to a resource location-allocation problem for transport infrastructure in the Special Province of Yogyakarta in Indonesia. We apply Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to define opportunity to mobility as a non-income indicator. Using the extended Moran's I interpretation for spatial equity, we evaluate the distribution output regarding, first, `the spatial distribution patterns of priority targeting for allocation' (SPT) and, second, `the effect of new distribution patterns after location-allocation' (ELA). The Moran's I index of the initial map and its comparison with six patterns for SPT as well as ELA consistently indicates that the SPM is more effective for addressing spatial equity. We conclude that the inclusion of spatial neighbourhood comparison factors in Preference Modelling improves the capability of SDSS to address spatial equity. This study thus proposes a new formal method for SDSS with specific attention on resource location-allocation to address spatial equity.

  14. Changing Preference from Tangible to Social Activities through an Observation Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Alcalay, Aditt; Milne, Christine; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Ronald; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have qualitative impairments in social interaction and often prefer food or tangible reinforcement to social reinforcement. Thus, therapists who work with children with ASD often use food or tangible items as reinforcers to increase appropriate behaviors or decrease problem behaviors. The goal of the…

  15. An Evaluation of Choice on Instructional Efficacy and Individual Preferences among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Kodak, Tiffany; Vladescu, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study compared the differential effects of choice and no-choice reinforcement conditions on skill acquisition. In addition, we assessed preference for choice-making opportunities with 3 children with autism, using a modified concurrent-chains procedure. We replicated the experiment with 2 participants. The results indicated that…

  16. The Utility of a Paired-Choice Preference Assessment in Predicting Reinforcer Effectiveness for an Infant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Karena S.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Lieblein, Tara L.; Chin, Michelle D.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the utility of a paired-choice preference assessment in predicting reinforcer efficacy for a 13-month old with a history of prenatal drug exposure. First, two paired-choice assessments were conducted one week apart, using the same items. A high level of correspondence between the two assessments was observed. Next, a reinforcer…

  17. An Evaluation of a Stimulus Preference Assessment of Auditory Stimuli for Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrocks, Erin; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous researchers have used stimulus preference assessment (SPA) methods to identify salient reinforcers for individuals with developmental disabilities including tangible, leisure, edible and olfactory stimuli. In the present study, SPA procedures were used to identify potential auditory reinforcers and determine the reinforcement value of…

  18. Effects of and Preference for Pay for Performance: An Analogue Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Robert D., III; Wilder, David A.; Betz, Alison; Dutta, Ami

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of 2 payment systems on the rate of check processing and time spent on task by participants in a simulated work setting. Three participants experienced individual pay-for-performance (PFP) without base pay and pay-for-time (PFT) conditions. In the last phase, we asked participants to choose which system they preferred. For…

  19. Incorporating Learning Style and Personality Preferences into an Oral Communication Course Syllabus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadas, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Individual difference factors of personality typology and learning style preference and their effect on second language acquisition have been the focus of several prominent SLA theorists over the past twenty-five years. However, few articles have demonstrated how individual learner difference research can be applied within a classroom by second…

  20. Assessing Work Task Preferences among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: An Integrative Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobigo, Virginie; Morin, Diane; Lachapelle, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life and self-determination are important values in the field of intellectual disabilities however they may be difficult to facilitate with persons who have limited communication skills. In fact, many studies provide evidence that these persons have less opportunity to make choices and express their preferences. To help practitioners…

  1. End-of-Life Treatment Preferences Among Older Adults: An Assessment of Psychosocial Influences1

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Deborah; Moorman, Sara M.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the content and correlates of older adults’ end-of-life treatment preferences in two hypothetical terminal illness scenarios: severe physical pain with no cognitive impairment, and severe cognitive impairment with no physical pain. For each scenario, we assess whether participants would reject life-prolonging treatment, accept treatment, or do not know their preferences. Using data from the 2004 wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 5,106), we estimate multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate whether treatment preferences are associated with direct experience with end-of-life issues, personal beliefs, health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Persons who have made formal end-of-life preparations, persons with no religious affiliation, mainline Protestants, and persons who are pessimistic about their own life expectancy are more likely to reject treatment in both scenarios. Women and persons who witnessed the painful death of a loved one are more likely to reject treatment in the cognitive impairment scenario only. Consistent with rational choice perspectives, our results suggest that individuals prefer treatments that they perceive to have highly probable desirable consequences for both self and family. PMID:21057589

  2. Responses to an intense sweetener in humans: immediate preference and delayed effects on intake.

    PubMed

    Monneuse, M O; Bellisle, F; Louis-Sylverstre, J

    1991-02-01

    Preferences for five aspartame concentrations (0.008, 0.028, 0.094, 0.235 and 0.627%) in a dairy product were assessed in men and women by 1) brief-exposure sensory evaluation tests and 2) intake tests. Sensory evaluation gave different preferred concentrations as compared to actual intake. In sensory evaluation tests, the lowest three intensities were preferred by most subjects; in intake tests, 0.028% was clearly preferred. The 24-h spontaneous food intake after intake test sessions was recorded. A peak of 24-h energy intake was observed after intake of 0.028% aspartame yogurt. This peak was 400 kcal higher than the 24-h caloric intake observed after tests of the sweetest yogurt (p less than 0.01), much more than accounted for by differences in yogurt intake. So the intake of yogurt plus aspartame exerted strong delayed effects. These effects are likely dependent on sensory factors (concentration) rather than postingestive mechanisms (dose).

  3. Locomotor preferences in terrestrial vertebrates: An online crowdsourcing approach to data collection.

    PubMed

    Lees, John; Gardiner, James; Usherwood, James; Nudds, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals move within their environment is a burgeoning field of research. Despite this, relatively basic data, such as the locomotor speeds that animals choose to walk at in the wild, are sparse. If animals choose to walk with dynamic similarity, they will move at equal dimensionless speeds, represented by Froude number (Fr). Fr may be interpreted from simple limb kinematics obtained from video data. Here, using Internet videos, limb kinematics were measured in 112 bird and mammal species weighing between 0.61 and 5400 kg. This novel method of data collection enabled the determination of kinematics for animals walking at their self-selected speeds without the need for exhaustive fieldwork. At larger sizes, both birds and mammals prefer to walk at slower relative speeds and relative stride frequencies, as preferred Fr decreased in larger species, indicating that Fr may not be a good predictor of preferred locomotor speeds. This may result from the observation that the minimum cost of transport is approached at lower Fr in larger species. Birds walk with higher duty factors, lower stride frequencies and longer stance times compared to mammals at self-selected speeds. The trend towards lower preferred Fr is also apparent in extinct vertebrate species. PMID:27381514

  4. An Evaluation of Video Modeling with Embedded Instructions to Teach Implementation of Stimulus Preference Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Rocío; Gongola, Leah; Homlitas, Christa

    2015-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of video modeling with embedded instructions on training teachers to implement 3 preference assessments. Each assessment was conducted with a confederate learner or a child with autism during generalization probes. All teachers met the predetermined mastery criterion,…

  5. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford`s early reactors were crucial to the sites`s history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO{sub 3} plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site`s Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon.

  6. Determining the Performance of an Arid Zone Radioactive Waste Site Through Site Characterization, Modeling, and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    B. L. Dozier; D. G. Levitt; M. J. Sully; and C. F. Lohrstorfer

    1999-03-09

    A strategy of site characterization, modeling, and monitoring are used to evaluate the performance of an interim cover at a low-level radioactive waste management site. The soil water migration papthway must be evaluated to assure the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive waste. Water balance studies using precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted for five years near the radioactive waste site ath the Nevada Test Site. The numerical flow models UNSAT-H and HYDRUS-2D were tested using the weighing lysimeter data and then used to evaluate various cover design issues including cover thickness, presence of vegetation, and monitoring system design.

  7. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A

    2003-11-11

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.

  8. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  9. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  10. Fog chemistry at an urban midwestern site

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.S.; Wade, K.A.; Carter, B.H.; Armentano, T.V.; Pribush, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    The Holcomb Research Institute is monitoring fog chemistry in Indianapolis, Indiana and at sites in and near the heavily industrialized Ohio River Valley. Results reported here indicate that fogs in this area can be strongly acidic, and that further studies are warranted. We report 1) the ionic composition of three fog events, samples collected in Indianapolis between December 1985 and February 1986, and 2) the pH of three additional events, samples collected between November 1985 and February 1986. (The volume of fog collected during the latter three events was insufficient for chemical analysis other than pH.) The pH of the fog samples ranged from 2.85 to 4.06; some of this fell within the range known to damage foliage and yield of some plant species. It has been demonstrated that even one exposure to highly acidic mists (pH par. delta 2.5) can damage certain crop species; hence, it is important to document the occurrence of any events having acidity near this level.

  11. Engineering cofactor preference of ketone reducing biocatalysts: A mutagenesis study on a γ-diketone reductase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serving as an example.

    PubMed

    Katzberg, Michael; Skorupa-Parachin, Nàdia; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie-Françoise; Bertau, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of pharmaceuticals and catalysts more and more relies on enantiopure chiral building blocks. These can be produced in an environmentally benign and efficient way via bioreduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by dehydrogenases. A productive source of these biocatalysts is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose genome also encodes a reductase catalyzing the sequential reduction of the gamma-diketone 2,5-hexanedione furnishing the diol (2S,5S)-hexanediol and the gamma-hydroxyketone (5S)-hydroxy-2-hexanone in high enantio- as well as diastereoselectivity (ee and de >99.5%). This enzyme prefers NADPH as the hydrogen donating cofactor. As NADH is more stable and cheaper than NADPH it would be more effective if NADH could be used in cell-free bioreduction systems. To achieve this, the cofactor binding site of the dehydrogenase was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the rational approach based on a homology model of the enzyme allowed us to generate a mutant enzyme having a relaxed cofactor preference and thus is able to use both NADPH and NADH. Results obtained from other mutants are discussed and point towards the limits of rationally designed mutants.

  12. One site`s junk is another site`s jewel (converting an RTR system to a DR system)

    SciTech Connect

    Poland, R.W.; Howard, B.D.; Meers, B.Z. III

    1995-12-31

    In late 1994 the Savannah River Site became the {open_quotes}proud owners{close_quotes} of two real-time radiography (RTR) systems that had been stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for several years. one of the RTR systems was designed to evaluate the contents of transuranic (TRU) waste drums and the second was to examine boxed waste. The two RTR systems had been productively utilized at the Nevada Test Site from 1987 to 1990. For a variety of reasons the RTR systems were never operated at INEL. Westinghouse Savannah River Company engineers and Raytheon specialists have converted the drum inspection system from real-time radiography to lens-coupled digital radiography (DR). Rather innovative modifications were required in order to acquire digital radiograms on drum seal welds of a drum filled with moderator water; however, ultimately film quality radiographs are being produced to determine the condition of in-service drum seal welds. Additional applications of the Automated Digital Radiography Inspection System (ADRIS) include the evaluation of welds on recently purchased stainless steel drums in which tritiated moderator will be stored, and the evaluation of TRU waste drum contents. Considerable cost savings are expected to be realized by the Department of Energy through the application of ADRIS.

  13. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J; Woodson, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA-protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension.

  14. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA•protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension. PMID:22736006

  15. An evaluation of authentication methods for smartphone based on users’ preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, P. K.; Ratnasari, G. S.; Prasetio, A.

    2016-04-01

    This study discusses about smartphone screen lock preferences using some types of authentication methods. The purpose is to determine the user behaviours based on the perceived security and convenience, as well as the preferences for different types of authentication methods. Variables used are the considerations for locking the screens and the types of authentication methods. The population consists of the smartphone users with the total samples of 400 respondents within a nonprobability sampling method. Data analysis method used is the descriptive analysis. The results showed that the convenience factor is still the major consideration for locking the smartphone screens. Majority of the users chose the pattern unlock as the most convenient method to use. Meanwhile, fingerprint unlock becomes the most secure method in the users’ perceptions and as the method chosen to be used in the future.

  16. Public preferences over efficiency, equity and autonomy in vaccination policy: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Jeroen; Dorgali, Veronica; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination programs increasingly have to comply with standards of evidence-based decision making. However, such a framework tends to ignore social and ethical sensitivities, risking policy choices that lack crucial public support. Research is needed under which circumstances and to which extent equity and autonomy should prevail over effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in matters of infectious disease prevention. We report on a study investigating public preferences over various vaccination policy options, based on a population survey held in Flanders, Belgium (N = 1049) between March and July 2011. We found (1) that public support varied considerably between policies that were equally efficient in preventing disease but differed according to target group or incentives to improve uptake and (2) that preferences over the use of legal compulsion, financial accountability or the offering of rewards appear to be driven by individuals' social orientation.

  17. Children’s Feedback Preferences in Response to an Experimentally Manipulated Peer Evaluation Outcome: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children’s depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n = 142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television show Survivor and were randomized to either a peer rejection (i.e., receiving the lowest total ‘likeability’ score from a group of peer-judges), a peer success (i.e., receiving the highest score), or a control peer evaluation condition. Children’s self-reported feedback preferences were then assessed. Results revealed that participants assigned to the negative evaluation outcome, relative to either the success or the control outcome, showed a significantly higher subsequent preference for negatively tuned feedback. Contrary to previous work and predictions derived from self-verification theory, children higher in depressive symptoms were only more likely to prefer negative feedback in response to the negative peer evaluation outcome. These effects for depression were not accounted for by either state mood at baseline or mood change in response to the feedback manipulation. PMID:17279340

  18. Temporal stability of pollinator preference in an alpine plant community and its implications for the evolution of floral traits.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan-Bing; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2011-07-01

    A traditional view of diverse floral traits is that they reflect differences in foraging preferences of pollinators. The role of pollinators in the evolution of floral traits has been questioned recently by broad community surveys, especially studies concerning variation in pollinator assemblages and visitation frequency, which suggest a diminished role of pollinators in floral evolution. Here, we investigate the relationships between six categories of floral traits of 29 species and 10 pollinator functional groups in an alpine meadow in the Hengduan Mountains of China, over three consecutive years. Simpson's diversity index was used to estimate the level of pollinator generalization of each plant species by considering both pollinator groups and their relative visitation frequencies. Multivariate analyses indicated that eight of the ten pollinator groups showed constant preferences for at least two floral traits, leading to a relatively stable level of ecological generalization for most floral traits (two out of three categories), despite the fact that the level of generalization of the entire community varied across years. Shape preferences of butterflies, honeybees and beeflies varied such that open flowers exhibited a lower level of ecological generalization in 2007 than closed flowers, in contrast with the other 2 years. These results suggest that temporally stabilized preferences of diverse pollinators may contribute to the evolution of specialized versus generalized floral traits; however, their role may be moderated by variation in community structure, including both the composition and abundance of plants and pollinators.

  19. Communication preferences of chronically ill adolescents: development of an assessment instrument.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Matthias G; Farin, Erik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a patient-oriented, theory-based questionnaire to capture the communication preferences of chronically ill adolescents in provider-patient interaction. In a qualitative prestudy, patients were asked to express their preferences in focus groups. From those results and relying on previous research findings, we generated questionnaire items and in a second pretest, examined them in 1-to-1 cognitive interviews for comprehensibility and acceptance. The resultant questionnaire was then psychometrically tested in the main study on 423 chronically ill inpatient adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in 14 rehabilitation clinics in Germany. Numerous preferences were extractable from the focus-group interviews and transferred into 106 Items. Psychometric testing of the questionnaire resulted in 3 scales encompassing 27 items. These we describe as the emotional-affective communication component (EAC), instrumental communication component (IC), and adolescent-specific communication component (ASC). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the scales EAC und IC to be good to very good, and the ASC scale as satisfactory regarding unidimensionality. The participants gave the questionnaire high marks for comprehensibility, acceptance, and relevance. The 3 scales' Cronbach's alpha falls between .78 and .92. A questionnaire with 27 items is now available for application as a psychometrically tested and simple-to-use measuring instrument. Research is still needed concerning the generalizability to other patient groups (e.g., the acutely ill or outpatients) and whether it can be tailored for use by different types of care providers or to accommodate the communication preferences of parents.

  20. Illumination preference, illumination constancy and colour discrimination by bumblebees in an environment with patchy light.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Sarah E J; Chittka, Lars

    2012-07-01

    Patchy illumination presents foraging animals with a challenge, as the targets being sought may appear to vary in colour depending on the illumination, compromising target identification. We sought to explore how the bumblebee Bombus terrestris copes with tasks involving flower colour discrimination under patchy illumination. Light patches varied between unobscured daylight and leaf-shade, as a bee might encounter in and around woodland. Using a flight arena and coloured filters, as well as one or two different colours of artificial flower, we quantified how bees chose to forage when presented with foraging tasks under patchy illumination. Bees were better at discriminating a pair of similar colours under simulated unobscured daylight illumination than when foraging under leaf-shade illumination. Accordingly, we found that bees with prior experience of simulated daylight but not leaf-shade illumination initially preferred to forage in simulated daylight when all artificial flowers contained rewards as well as when only one colour was rewarding, whereas bees with prior experience of both illuminants did not exhibit this preference. Bees also switched between illuminants less than expected by chance. This means that bees prefer illumination conditions with which they are familiar, and in which rewarding flower colours are easily distinguishable from unrewarding ones. Under patchy illumination, colour discrimination performance was substantially poorer than in homogenous light. The bees' abilities at coping with patchy light may therefore impact on foraging behaviour in the wild, particularly in woodlands, where illumination can change over short spatial scales.

  1. Preferences for tap water attributes within couples: An exploration of alternative mixed logit parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Thiene, Mara; Hensher, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Preferences for attributes of complex goods may differ substantially among members of households. Some of these goods, such as tap water, are jointly supplied at the household level. This issue of jointness poses a series of theoretical and empirical challenges to economists engaged in empirical nonmarket valuation studies. While a series of results have already been obtained in the literature, the issue of how to empirically measure these differences, and how sensitive the results are to choice of model specification from the same data, is yet to be clearly understood. In this paper we use data from a widely employed form of stated preference survey for multiattribute goods, namely choice experiments. The salient feature of the data collection is that the same choice experiment was applied to both partners of established couples. The analysis focuses on models that simultaneously handle scale as well as preference heterogeneity in marginal rates of substitution (MRS), thereby isolating true differences between members of couples in their MRS, by removing interpersonal variation in scale. The models employed are different parameterizations of the mixed logit model, including the willingness to pay (WTP)-space model and the generalized multinomial logit model. We find that in this sample there is some evidence of significant statistical differences in values between women and men, but these are of small magnitude and only apply to a few attributes.

  2. Teacher Participation in an Art Curriculum Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ArtsNetMN--an art curriculum site developed by four Minnesota museums. Discusses design features on the ArtsNetMN site; collaboration as a key to ArtsNetMN's success as an online Learning Museum; the change from use of a listserv to a software product called Web Board; feedback from teachers; and implications for the classroom.…

  3. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p <= 0.05). Females scored higher in the preference elements of (a) light, (b) temperature (warmth), (c) authority and (d) auditory (p <= 0.05). Significant differences were found for the elements of sound, warmth, motivation, several ways, and intake between the students with no prior science coursework and those who completed more than one (p <= 0.05). No significant learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The

  4. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

    1984-04-01

    Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references.

  5. The impact and evaluation of two school-based interventions on intention to register an organ donation preference.

    PubMed

    Reubsaet, A; Brug, J; Kitslaar, J; van Hooff, J P; van den Borne, H W

    2004-08-01

    The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components-a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program-in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a positive impact on the intention to register an organ donation preference as well as on the intention to register as a posthumous organ donor. The computer-tailored program had no surplus value when compared to reading an extensive brochure with general information on organ donation. However, participants appreciated the tailored information more than the brochure. It may be that having provided general information before exposure to the tailored program, the tailored intervention will be more effective. This needs to be tested in a further experiment. PMID:15155591

  6. Site and soil characterization of hazardous waste sites using an expert system guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Roy E.

    1993-03-01

    An expert system guide (knowledge book) has been devised to assist field personnel who must identify, describe, sample, and interpret size and soil characteristics of hazardous waste sites. The guide takes an approach that will be unfamiliar to most soil and environmental scientists and is directed to on-scene coordinators and project managers and others who may have little soil science training. It meets the need of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for standard procedures, guidelines, or protocols that address soil and site contamination, particularly heavy metals. The guide is organized to include: (1) general considerations and processes for collecting and using site and soils data, (2) detailed knowledge frames (descriptive profiles) of likely site and soil conditions, (3) a citation of references, (4) an appendix listing common sources of characterization data, and (5) a glossary of more than 900 general definitions.

  7. Site action, environmental justice and an urban community: A unique approach at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Seppi, P.K.; Richman, L.R.; Wireman, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) project at the Diamond Alkali Superfund Site is an example of how technical, environmental justice, and community relations issues all affect actions at a Superfund Site. The Diamond Alkali Superfund Site is divided into two operable units. The site consists of the former pesticides manufacturing facility at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, and the adjoining six mile reach of the Passaic River known as the ``Passaic River Study Area``. EPA has negotiated Consent Orders with the Potentially Responsible Party (PRP) to design and construct the selected containment remedy at the land-based properties, and to conduct the Remedial Investigation (RI) of the river under EPA oversight. Pesticides, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals and other hazardous substances have been found at the Site. Evidence indicates that the ecology of the Passaic River has been adversely impacted by the presence of these hazardous substances. The State of New Jersey issued a ban on the consumption of fish and crabs from affected sections of the Passaic River; yet reportedly, many residents still consume seafood from the river. Community relations at the Site had deteriorated because of the community`s lack of trust and loss of confidence in EPA. To address these issues, EPA has implemented an innovative public outreach program to improve how it communicates with racial minority and low-income communities living in the vicinity of the Site, and to involve them in the decision-making process.

  8. An expansion of glider observation strategies to systematically transmit and analyze preferred waypoints of underwater gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedstad, Lucy F.; Barron, Charlie N.; Bourg, Rachel N.; Brooking, Michael W.; Bryant, Danielle A.; Carr, Robert J.; Heaney, Kevin D.; Holmberg, Edward A.; Mask, Andrea C.; Mensi, Bryan L.

    2015-05-01

    The Glider Observation STrategies (GOST) system provides real-time assistance to ocean glider pilots by suggesting preferred ocean glider waypoints based on ocean forecasts and their uncertainties. Restrictions on waterspace, preferred operational areas, and other glider trajectories are also taken into account. Using existing operational regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (RNCOM) output, demonstrations of glider waypoint calculation are ongoing in Navy operational areas. After the ocean forecast models and GOST components run at the Navy DoD Supercomputing Resource Center (Navy DSRC), GOST-suggested glider paths are transferred to the Glider Operations Center (GOC). The glider pilots at the GOC import this information into their Unmanned Systems Interface (USI), developed at the University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL-UW) to evaluate the suggested glider paths, make adjustments, and update waypoints for the gliders. The waypoints being sent are visualized and analyzed using graphic capabilities to convey guidance uncertainty developed under a grant to the University of New Orleans (UNO) and added under the Environmental Measurements Path Planner (EMPath) system within GOST. USI forwards automatic messages from the gliders with recent glider location, speed, and depth to GOST for the next cycle. Over the course of these demonstrations, capabilities were added or modified including use of initial glider bearing, preferred path, refinement of glider turn frequency, correction of glider speed, and introduction of glider rendezvous locations. Automation has been added with help from the modeling group at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). GOST supports NAVOCEANO's ongoing efforts to direct and recover gliders, to safely navigate in changing ocean conditions, and to provide feedback to improve ocean model prediction.

  9. Needs and preferences for receiving mental health information in an African American focus group sample.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Lucksted, Alicia; Gioia, Deborah; Barnet, Beth; Baquet, Claudia R

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the mental health/illness information and service delivery preferences among African American residents of Baltimore. We conducted four focus groups (n = 42) among African American adults currently unconnected with the mental health system. Participants expressed fear of stigma and perceptions of racism as major barriers to seeking information and/or services and discussed some normalizing strategies to address these barriers. African Americans harbor cultural and traditional beliefs regarding mental illness which could also act as barriers. Findings have implications for imparting acceptable and culturally sensitive mental health education and service delivery programs in community settings.

  10. Needs and Preferences for Receiving Mental Health Information in an African American Focus Group Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Lucksted, Alicia; Gioia, Deborah; Barnet, Beth; Baquet, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the mental health/illness information and service delivery preferences among African American residents of Baltimore. We conducted four focus groups (n=42) among African American adults currently unconnected with the mental health system. Participants expressed fear of stigma and perceptions of racism as major barriers to seeking information and/or services and discussed some normalizing strategies to address these barriers. African Americans harbor cultural and traditional beliefs regarding mental illness which could also act as barriers. Findings have implications for imparting acceptable and culturally-sensitive mental health education and service delivery programs in community settings. PMID:18633704

  11. How the public perceives the visual effects of timber harvesting: an evaluation of interest group preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCool, Stephen F.; Benson, Robert E.; Ashor, Joseph L.

    1986-05-01

    A total of 25 scenes representing the five visual quality objectives in the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service visual management system were presented to 18 professional and public interest groups in western Montana. The results indicate that nearly all the groups have similar rank orderings of the scenes in terms of visual preference. However, the groups differ according to the absolute values of their ratings. Most groups were unable, in a statistical sense, to differentiate the scenic quality of areas in the preservation and retention visual quality objectives. Landscape architects tended to rate scenes in a way similar to professional forest management groups.

  12. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment: an observational study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Wen-Fu; Yip, Bak-Sau; Yang, Yu-Wan; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Tsai, Shih-Jei; Liao, Yi-Chu; Pai, Ming-Chyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Among the medications approved for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), rivastigmine is the only one available as transdermal patch. The aim of this study was to evaluate compliance and caregivers’ preference with oral and transdermal (rivastigmine) monotherapy in patients with mild-to-moderate AD from Taiwan. Methods Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment (RECAP) in Taiwan was a prospective, noninterventional, observational study with a 24-week (±8 weeks) observational period for each participant. Eligible patients were grouped into one of the two treatment cohorts based on the baseline AD therapy: oral (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, or memantine) or transdermal (rivastigmine patch). The primary end points were caregiver preference and caregiver assessment of patients’ compliance to the current medication (oral or transdermal medication) at Week 24 (end of the study). Safety was assessed by recording any adverse events. Results A total of 301 patients (age: 77.6±7.19 years) were enrolled from nine centers in Taiwan, of whom 138 (45.8%) patients were in the transdermal monotherapy cohort. Caregivers of patients who were exposed to both forms of therapies demonstrated a higher preference for transdermal rivastigmine monotherapy than the oral monotherapy (82.4% [n=61] versus 17.6% [n=13], P<0.0001); for patients treated with only one therapy, the caregivers’ preference was significantly in favor of the treatment to which the patient was exposed (both P<0.0001). In both cohorts, patients showed good compliance, with an overall score of 8.65±1.38 on an 11-point scale. Of 301 enrolled patients, 102 (33.9%) reported at least one adverse event during the study (51 patients each in the two cohorts). Conclusion With the higher caregiver preference and a good patient compliance, the trans-dermal rivastigmine patch is a suitable treatment choice for patients with mild-to-moderate AD, especially for patients

  13. Use of an Academic Library Web Site Search Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes an analysis of the search engine logs of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale's library to determine how patrons used the site search. Discusses results that showed patrons did not understand the function of the search and explains improvements that were made in the Web site and in online reference services. (Author/LRW)

  14. Digital Discernment: An E-Commerce Web Site Evaluation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Betsy Page; Boston, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Students entering the business workforce today may well share some responsibility for developing, revising, or evaluating their company's Web site. They may lack the experience, however, to critique their employer's Web presence effectively. The purpose of developing Digital Discernment, an e-commerce Web site evaluation tool, was to prepare…

  15. An Innovative Approach to Resident Scheduling: Use of a Point-Based System to Account for Resident Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Robert Tao-Ping; Tamhane, Shrikant; Zhang, Manling; Fisher, Lori-Ann; Yoon, Jenni; Sehgal, Sameep; Lumbres, Madel; Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Win, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Background The scheduling of residents for rotation assignments and on-call responsibilities is a time-consuming process that challenges the resources of residency programs. Assignment of schedules is traditionally done by chief residents or program administration with variable input from the residents involved. Intervention We introduced an innovative point-based scheduling system to increase transparency in the scheduling process, foster a sense of fairness and equality in scheduling, and increase resident ownership for making judicious scheduling choices. Methods We devised a point-based system in which each resident in our 40-member program was allocated an equal number of points. The residents assigned these points to their preferred choices of rotations. Residents were then surveyed anonymously on their perceptions of this new scheduling system and were asked to compare it with their traditional scheduling system. Results The schedule was successfully implemented, and it allowed residents to express their scheduling preferences using an innovative point-based approach. Residents were generally satisfied with the new system, would recommend it to other programs, and perceived a greater sense of involvement. However, resident satisfaction with the new system was not significantly greater compared with the previous approach to scheduling (P = .20). Chief residents expressed satisfaction with the new scheduling model. Conclusions Residents were equally satisfied with the traditional preference-based scheduling approach and the new point-based system. Chief residents' feedback on the new system reflected reduced stress and time commitment in the new point-based system. PMID:26457154

  16. Patient- and person-reports on healthcare: preferences, outcomes, experiences, and satisfaction - an essay.

    PubMed

    Klose, K; Kreimeier, S; Tangermann, U; Aumann, I; Damm, K

    2016-12-01

    With the shift towards patient-centered healthcare, patient- and person-reports of health-related factors, including outcomes, are seen as important determinants for evaluating and improving healthcare. However, a comprehensive, systematic categorization of patient- and person-reports is currently lacking in the literature. This study aims at developing a new classification system with well-defined constructs for patients' and persons' self-reports on health and healthcare. A literature research and evaluation by the Reported Health Outcomes (RHO) Group were used to develop this classification system. The new classification system includes patient- and person-reported preferences, outcomes, experiences, and satisfaction related to healthcare and health outcomes. Moreover, the most constitutive methods to measure these four categories - preferences, outcomes, experiences, and satisfaction - have been described in this article. Even though the value of patients' and persons' perspectives on healthcare is increasingly being recognized, its measurement and implementation presents a lasting challenge to researchers, clinicians, patients, and the general population.

  17. Variability in thermal and phototactic preferences in Drosophila may reflect an adaptive bet‐hedging strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Jamey S.; Zhang, Sarah; Akhund‐Zade, Jamilla; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Klein, Mason; de Bivort, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Organisms use various strategies to cope with fluctuating environmental conditions. In diversified bet‐hedging, a single genotype exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity with the expectation that some individuals will survive transient selective pressures. To date, empirical evidence for bet‐hedging is scarce. Here, we observe that individual Drosophila melanogaster flies exhibit striking variation in light‐ and temperature‐preference behaviors. With a modeling approach that combines real world weather and climate data to simulate temperature preference‐dependent survival and reproduction, we find that a bet‐hedging strategy may underlie the observed interindividual behavioral diversity. Specifically, bet‐hedging outcompetes strategies in which individual thermal preferences are heritable. Animals employing bet‐hedging refrain from adapting to the coolness of spring with increased warm‐seeking that inevitably becomes counterproductive in the hot summer. This strategy is particularly valuable when mean seasonal temperatures are typical, or when there is considerable fluctuation in temperature within the season. The model predicts, and we experimentally verify, that the behaviors of individual flies are not heritable. Finally, we model the effects of historical weather data, climate change, and geographic seasonal variation on the optimal strategies underlying behavioral variation between individuals, characterizing the regimes in which bet‐hedging is advantageous. PMID:26531165

  18. Preferred habitat and effective population size drive landscape genetic patterns in an endangered species

    PubMed Central

    Weckworth, Byron V.; Musiani, Marco; DeCesare, Nicholas J.; McDevitt, Allan D.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mariani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Landscape genetics provides a framework for pinpointing environmental features that determine the important exchange of migrants among populations. These studies usually test the significance of environmental variables on gene flow, yet ignore one fundamental driver of genetic variation in small populations, effective population size, Ne. We combined both approaches in evaluating genetic connectivity of a threatened ungulate, woodland caribou. We used least-cost paths to calculate matrices of resistance distance for landscape variables (preferred habitat, anthropogenic features and predation risk) and population-pairwise harmonic means of Ne, and correlated them with genetic distances, FST and Dc. Results showed that spatial configuration of preferred habitat and Ne were the two best predictors of genetic relationships. Additionally, controlling for the effect of Ne increased the strength of correlations of environmental variables with genetic distance, highlighting the significant underlying effect of Ne in modulating genetic drift and perceived spatial connectivity. We therefore have provided empirical support to emphasize preventing increased habitat loss and promoting population growth to ensure metapopulation viability. PMID:24004939

  19. Presence and preferable viewing conditions when using an ultrahigh-definition large-screen display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Emoto, Masaki; Sugawara, Masayuki; Okano, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    We are investigating psychological aspects to obtain guidelines for the design of TVs aimed at future high-presence broadcasting. In this study, we performed subjective assessment tests to examine the psychological effects of different combinations of viewing conditions obtained by varying the viewing distance, screen size, and picture resolution (between 4000 and 1000 scan lines). The evaluation images were presented in the form of two-minute programs comprising a sequence of 10 still images, and the test subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 20 items relating to psychological effects such as "presence", "adverse effects", and "preferability". It was found that the test subjects reported a higher feeling of presence for 1000-line images when viewed around a distance of 1.5H (less than the standard viewing distance of 3H, which is recommended as a viewing distance for subjective evaluation of image quality for HDTV), and reported a higher feeling of presence for 4000-line images than for 1000-line images. The adverse effects such as "difficulty of viewing" did not differ significantly with resolution, but were evaluated to be lower as the viewing distance increased and tended to saturate at viewing distances above 2H. The viewing conditions were evaluated as being more preferable as the screen size increased, showing that it is possible to broadcast comfortable high-presence pictures using high-resolution large-screen displays.

  20. Presence and preferable viewing conditions when using an ultrahigh-definition large-screen display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Emoto, Masaki; Sugawara, Masayuki; Okano, Fumio

    2004-10-01

    We are investigating psychological aspects to obtain guidelines for the design of TVs aimed at future high-presence broadcasting. In this study, we performed subjective assessment tests to examine the psychological effects of different combinations of viewing conditions obtained by varying the viewing distance, screen size, and picture resolution (between 4000 and 1000 scan lines). The evaluation images were presented in the form of two-minute programs comprising a sequence of 10 still images, and the test subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 20 items relating to psychological effects such as "presence", "adverse effects", and "preferability". It was found that the test subjects reported a higher feeling of presence for 1000-line images when viewed around a distance of 1.5H (less than the standard viewing distance of 3H, which is recommended as a viewing distance for subjective evaluation of image quality for HDTV), and reported a higher feeling of presence for 4000-line images than for 1000-line images. The adverse effects such as "difficulty of viewing" did not differ significantly with resolution, but were evaluated to be lower as the viewing distance increased and tended to saturate at viewing distances above 2H. The viewing conditions were evaluated as being more preferable as the screen size increased, showing that it is possible to broadcast comfortable high-presence pictures using high-resolution large-screen displays.

  1. Paw preferences in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tan, U

    1987-02-01

    The distribution of paw preferences were studied in 28 dogs. The paw preference was assessed by counting the right and left paw movements performed to remove an adhesive plaster from the eyes. The significance of the right minus left paw reaches in percentages was evaluated statistically in each animal. There were three distinct groups in respect to paw preferences in dogs: right-preferent (57.1%), left-preferent (17.9%), and ambidextrous (25.0%). Statistical analysis showed that the observed frequencies for each group were not merely chance variations which would be expected in a random sample. It was concluded that the population bias can be expressed in a distribution skewed toward a right-hand bias as seen in man.

  2. Preference pulses without reinforcers.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony P; Grace, Randolph C; Pitts, Raymond C; Hughes, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Preference pulses are thought to represent strong, short-term effects of reinforcers on preference in concurrent schedules. However, the general shape of preference pulses is substantially determined by the distributions of responses-per-visit (visit lengths) for the two choice alternatives. In several series of simulations, we varied the means and standard deviations of distributions describing visits to two concurrently available response alternatives, arranged "reinforcers" according to concurrent variable-interval schedules, and found a range of different preference pulses. Because characteristics of these distributions describe global aspects of behavior, and the simulations assumed no local effects of reinforcement, these preference pulses derive from the visit structure alone. This strongly questions whether preference pulses should continue to be interpreted as representing local effects of reinforcement. We suggest an alternative approach whereby local effects are assessed by subtracting the artifactual part, which derives from visit structure, from the observed preference pulses. This yields "residual" preference pulses. We illustrate this method in application to published data from mixed dependent concurrent schedules, revealing evidence that the delivery of reinforcers had modest lengthening effects on the duration of the current visit, a conclusion that is quantitatively consistent with early research on short-term effects of reinforcement.

  3. Na+ Inhibits the Epithelial Na+ Channel by Binding to a Site in an Extracellular Acidic Cleft*

    PubMed Central

    Kashlan, Ossama B.; Blobner, Brandon M.; Zuzek, Zachary; Tolino, Michael; Kleyman, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. ENaC belongs to a family of ion channels that sense the external environment. These channels have large extracellular regions that are thought to interact with environmental cues, such as Na+, Cl−, protons, proteases, and shear stress, which modulate gating behavior. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which ENaC senses high external Na+ concentrations, resulting in an inhibition of channel activity. Both our structural model of an ENaC α subunit and the resolved structure of an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1) have conserved acidic pockets in the periphery of the extracellular region of the channel. We hypothesized that these acidic pockets host inhibitory allosteric Na+ binding sites. Through site-directed mutagenesis targeting the acidic pocket, we modified the inhibitory response to external Na+. Mutations at selected sites altered the cation inhibitory preference to favor Li+ or K+ rather than Na+. Channel activity was reduced in response to restraining movement within this region by cross-linking structures across the acidic pocket. Our results suggest that residues within the acidic pocket form an allosteric effector binding site for Na+. Our study supports the hypothesis that an acidic cleft is a key ligand binding locus for ENaC and perhaps other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:25389295

  4. Na+ inhibits the epithelial Na+ channel by binding to a site in an extracellular acidic cleft.

    PubMed

    Kashlan, Ossama B; Blobner, Brandon M; Zuzek, Zachary; Tolino, Michael; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. ENaC belongs to a family of ion channels that sense the external environment. These channels have large extracellular regions that are thought to interact with environmental cues, such as Na(+), Cl(-), protons, proteases, and shear stress, which modulate gating behavior. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which ENaC senses high external Na(+) concentrations, resulting in an inhibition of channel activity. Both our structural model of an ENaC α subunit and the resolved structure of an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1) have conserved acidic pockets in the periphery of the extracellular region of the channel. We hypothesized that these acidic pockets host inhibitory allosteric Na(+) binding sites. Through site-directed mutagenesis targeting the acidic pocket, we modified the inhibitory response to external Na(+). Mutations at selected sites altered the cation inhibitory preference to favor Li(+) or K(+) rather than Na(+). Channel activity was reduced in response to restraining movement within this region by cross-linking structures across the acidic pocket. Our results suggest that residues within the acidic pocket form an allosteric effector binding site for Na(+). Our study supports the hypothesis that an acidic cleft is a key ligand binding locus for ENaC and perhaps other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:25389295

  5. Feeding Preferences of the Larval Southern Two-Lined Salamander, Eurycea Cirrigera, in an Impacted Agricultural Area, Southwest Georgia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, T. K.; Golladay, S. W.; Smith, L. L.; Vellidis, G.

    2005-05-01

    Feeding preference of the stream-dwelling Southern Two-lined Salamander, Eurycea cirrigera, was examined in streams affected by agricultural practices in southwest Georgia. Larvae were collected within bimonthly benthic macroinvertebrate samples from February 2002 to February 2003. Five stream reaches were sampled, two of which were fenced from cattle and three allowed cattle access. Forty larvae were recovered from the invertebrate collections, with significantly higher captures at fenced sites than unfenced sites. The entire digestive tract was removed from larvae and stomach contents were examined to better understand prey selection in streams with differing intensities of adjacent agricultural land-use. Invertebrates were enumerated in 34 salamander stomachs, with Chironomidae comprising the largest percentage of individuals found, both in stomach contents and habitat collections. Electivity values showed a wide range of variability among individual salamanders, however, overall indices suggest slight positive selection for a subfamily of the Chironomidae, the Tanypodinae. It appears that E.cirrigera larvae select for Tanypodinae, however, this invertebrate group was found at all stream sites, suggesting factors other than prey abundance, such as stream habitat quality, may also influence larval salamander abundance.

  6. ALL STIMULI ARE EQUAL, BUT SOME ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS: MEASURING RELATIONAL PREFERENCES WITHIN AN EQUIVALENCE CLASS

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Erica; Fields, Lanny

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments used post-class formation within-class relational assessment test performances to evaluate whether participants demonstrated preference for certain members of an equivalence class based on the type of relation that existed between class members. In Experiment 1, two 5-node 7-member equivalence classes, consisting entirely of nonsense syllables, were established using the simultaneous protocol. Only 1 of the 6 participants in Experiment 1 formed classes. After class formation, the effects of the different relations between stimuli were evaluated using within-class relational assessment tests, and the 1 participant showed an absolute preference for transitive over equivalence relations, and for baseline over symmetrical relations. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1, except that one of the nonsense syllable stimuli in each class was replaced by a pictorial stimulus. Under these conditions, classes were formed by 5 of 13 participants. During the relational assessment tests, the 5 participants who formed classes demonstrated almost exclusive preferences for transitive relations over equivalence relations and for trained baseline relations over symmetrical relations. Thus, this research demonstrates that the members of equivalence classes are differentially related to each other based on relational type. PMID:23144503

  7. Sexual preference or opportunity: an examination of situational factors by gender of victims of clergy abuse.

    PubMed

    Holt, Karen; Massey, Christina

    2013-12-01

    The overwhelming number of male victims of clergy sexual abuse led to assumptions regarding sexual preference of clergy offenders. The present study examined 9,540 records (incidents) of alleged cleric sexual abuse in the United States between 1950 and 1999 to explore situational factors of the abuse by victim gender. No evidence was found to suggest that male victims were purposefully targeted more than female victims; rather, the abuse appeared to be more a function of opportunity. These findings support a situational framework of sexual abuse for the majority of clergy abuse and the assertion that abuse in church can be understood as not a crisis regarding homosexuality but as a social problem that must be examined in its context. PMID:23264544

  8. Crystal preferred orientation of an amphibole experimentally deformed by simple shear

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byeongkwan; Jung, Haemyeong

    2015-01-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been widely observed in crust and mantle materials and plays a key role in the understanding of structure and flow patterns. Although seismic anisotropy can be explained by the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) of highly anisotropic minerals in the crust, that is, amphibole, experimental studies on the CPO of amphibole are limited. Here we present the results of novel experiments on simple shear deformation of amphibolite at high pressure and temperatures (1 GPa, 480–700 °C). Depending on the temperature and stress, the deformed amphibole produced three types of CPOs and resulted in a strong seismic anisotropy. Our data provide a new understanding of the observed seismic anisotropy. The seismic data obtained from the amphibole CPOs revealed that anomalous seismic anisotropy observed in the deep crust, subducting slab and mantle wedge can be attributed to the CPO of amphibole. PMID:25858349

  9. An online survey to study the relationship between patients’ health literacy and coping style and their preferences for self-management-related information

    PubMed Central

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Peek, Niels; Mulder-Wiggers, Johanna MR; Kemps, Hareld MC; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique WM; Lacroix, Joyca PW

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate patients’ preferences for message features and assess their relationships with health literacy, monitor–blunter coping style, and other patient-dependent characteristics. Methods Patients with coronary heart disease completed an internet-based survey, which assessed health literacy and monitor–blunter coping style, as well as various other patient characteristics such as sociodemographics, disease history, and explicit information preferences. To assess preferences for message features, nine text sets differing in one of nine message features were composed, and participants were asked to state their preferences. Results The survey was completed by 213 patients. For three of the nine text sets, a relationship was found between patient preference and health literacy or monitor–blunter coping style. Patients with low health literacy preferred the text based on patient experience. Patients with a monitoring coping style preferred information on short-term effects of their treatment and mentioning of explicit risks. Various other patient characteristics such as marital status, social support, disease history, and age also showed a strong association. Conclusion Individual differences exist in patients’ preferences for message features, and these preferences relate to patient characteristics such as health literacy and monitor–blunter coping style. PMID:24851044

  10. An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James

    2014-02-01

    Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013.

  11. An Evaluation of The Relative Efficacy of and Children's Preferences for Teaching Strategies That Differ in Amount of Teacher Directedness

    PubMed Central

    Heal, Nicole A; Hanley, Gregory P; Layer, Stacy A

    2009-01-01

    The manner in which teachers mediate children's learning varies across early childhood classrooms. In this study, we used a multielement design to evaluate the efficacy of three commonly implemented strategies that varied in teacher directedness for teaching color- and object-name relations. Strategy 1 consisted of brief exposure to the target relations followed by an exclusively child-led play period in which correct responses were praised. Strategy 2 was similar except that teachers prompted the children to vocalize relations and corrected errors via model prompts. Strategy 3 incorporated the same procedures as Strategy 2 except that a brief period of teacher-initiated trials was arranged; these trials involved the use of prompt delay between questions and prompts, and correct responses resulted in tokens and back-up activity reinforcers. Children's preferences for the different teaching strategies were also directly assessed. Strategy 3 was most effective in promoting the acquisition and generalization of the color- and object-name relations and was also most preferred by the majority of children, Strategy 1 was the least effective, and Strategy 2 was typically the least preferred. Implications for the design of early educational environments based on evidence-based values are discussed. PMID:19721734

  12. An evaluation of the relative efficacy of and children's preferences for teaching strategies that differ in amount of teacher directedness.

    PubMed

    Heal, Nicole A; Hanley, Gregory P; Layer, Stacy A

    2009-01-01

    The manner in which teachers mediate children's learning varies across early childhood classrooms. In this study, we used a multielement design to evaluate the efficacy of three commonly implemented strategies that varied in teacher directedness for teaching color- and object-name relations. Strategy 1 consisted of brief exposure to the target relations followed by an exclusively child-led play period in which correct responses were praised. Strategy 2 was similar except that teachers prompted the children to vocalize relations and corrected errors via model prompts. Strategy 3 incorporated the same procedures as Strategy 2 except that a brief period of teacher-initiated trials was arranged; these trials involved the use of prompt delay between questions and prompts, and correct responses resulted in tokens and back-up activity reinforcers. Children's preferences for the different teaching strategies were also directly assessed. Strategy 3 was most effective in promoting the acquisition and generalization of the color- and object-name relations and was also most preferred by the majority of children, Strategy 1 was the least effective, and Strategy 2 was typically the least preferred. Implications for the design of early educational environments based on evidence-based values are discussed.

  13. Healthy-unhealthy weight and time preference. Is there an association? An analysis through a consumer survey.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Alessia; De Marchi, Elisa; Banterle, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Individual time preference has been recognized as key driver in explaining consumers' probability to have a healthy weight or to incur excess weight problems. The term time preference refers to the rate at which a person is disposed to trade a current satisfaction for a future benefit. This characteristic may affect the extent at which individuals invest in health and may influence diet choices. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which could be the role of time preference (measured in terms of diet-related behaviours) in explaining consumers' healthy or unhealthy body weight. The analysis also considers other drivers predicted to influence BMI, specifically information searching, health-related activities and socio-demographic conditions. The survey was based on face-to-face interviews on a sample of 240 consumers living in Milan. In order to test the hypothesis, we performed a set of seven ORM regressions, all having consumers' BMI as the dependent variable. Each ORM contains a different block of explanatory variables, while time preference is always included among the regressors. The results suggest that the healthy weight condition is associated with a high orientation to the future, with a high interest in nutrition claims, a low attention to health-related claims, and a high level of education. On the opposite, the probability to be overweight or obese increases when consumers are less future-concerned and is associated with a low searching for nutrition claims and to a high interest in health claims.

  14. Healthy-unhealthy weight and time preference. Is there an association? An analysis through a consumer survey.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Alessia; De Marchi, Elisa; Banterle, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Individual time preference has been recognized as key driver in explaining consumers' probability to have a healthy weight or to incur excess weight problems. The term time preference refers to the rate at which a person is disposed to trade a current satisfaction for a future benefit. This characteristic may affect the extent at which individuals invest in health and may influence diet choices. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which could be the role of time preference (measured in terms of diet-related behaviours) in explaining consumers' healthy or unhealthy body weight. The analysis also considers other drivers predicted to influence BMI, specifically information searching, health-related activities and socio-demographic conditions. The survey was based on face-to-face interviews on a sample of 240 consumers living in Milan. In order to test the hypothesis, we performed a set of seven ORM regressions, all having consumers' BMI as the dependent variable. Each ORM contains a different block of explanatory variables, while time preference is always included among the regressors. The results suggest that the healthy weight condition is associated with a high orientation to the future, with a high interest in nutrition claims, a low attention to health-related claims, and a high level of education. On the opposite, the probability to be overweight or obese increases when consumers are less future-concerned and is associated with a low searching for nutrition claims and to a high interest in health claims. PMID:25152435

  15. Mutation of active site serine residue with cysteine displays change in acyl-acceptor preference of β-peptidyl aminopeptidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Arima, Jiro; Tanaka, Ayumi; Morimoto, Masazumi; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2014-02-01

    A β-peptidyl aminopeptidase, a peptidase belonging to the P1 family, catalyzes aminolysis in accordance with its hydrolytic activity. We specifically examined β-peptidyl aminopeptidase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (BapF) to assess the effects of mutation of catalytic Ser with Cys or Thr on its catalytic ability. Recombinant BapF and its S237C mutant exhibited p-nitroaniline release activity toward β-homo-Gly-p-nitroanilide (βhGly-pNA), but the products of the enzyme reaction differed completely from one another. Wild-type BapF showed βhGly-βhGly-pNA synthetic activity, but the product vanished in a few minutes and converted to free βhGly. In contrast, the product βhGly-βhGly-pNA was synthesized by S237C BapF efficiently without degradation, indicating that because of the mutation, the enzyme came to recognize only the amine group as an acyl acceptor instead of water. Furthermore, a difference in acyl acceptor preference between that of wild type and S237C BapF was observed. When using cysteamine as an acyl acceptor, βhGly-cysteamine was synthesized only in the reaction using S237C BapF. In contrast, S237C BapF was unable to synthesize βhGly-cystamine when using cystamine as an acyl acceptor, although it was synthesized by wild-type BapF. Such a dynamic change in the acyl acceptor by the mutation of catalytic Ser with Cys is regarded as a unique feature of family P1 peptidases.

  16. [Osteoporosis and beverage preference].

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Noriko; Ezawa, Ikuko

    2005-02-01

    Opinions regarding beverage preference ingestion and osteoporosis differ with cultural background as well as by eating habits, food customs and other lifestyle factors in addition to climate, differences in each country and area. Furthermore, it is conceivable that it differs with or depends on life stages of the individual. Currently, beverage preferences are enjoyed as part of the eating habits in, daily life considered an indispensable food to be enjoyed thoroughly. Therefore, it may be important to drink a beverage preferences in moderate but not to indulge in excessive ingestion in order to build a healthy lifestyle contributing to both a sound mind and a sound body at each individual life stage.

  17. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    PubMed

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  18. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range

    PubMed Central

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M.; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally. PMID:27022909

  19. Identification and Characterization of an Allosteric Inhibitory Site on Dihydropteroate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The declining effectiveness of current antibiotics due to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains dictates a pressing need for novel classes of antimicrobial therapies, preferably against molecular sites other than those in which resistance mutations have developed. Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) catalyzes a crucial step in the bacterial pathway of folic acid synthesis, a pathway that is absent in higher vertebrates. As the target of the sulfonamide class of drugs that were highly effective until resistance mutations arose, DHPS is known to be a valuable bacterial Achilles heel that is being further exploited for antibiotic development. Here, we report the discovery of the first known allosteric inhibitor of DHPS. NMR and crystallographic studies reveal that it engages a previously unknown binding site at the dimer interface. Kinetic data show that this inhibitor does not prevent substrate binding but rather exerts its effect at a later step in the catalytic cycle. Molecular dynamics simulations and quasi-harmonic analyses suggest that the effect of inhibitor binding is transmitted from the dimer interface to the active-site loops that are known to assume an obligatory ordered substructure during catalysis. Together with the kinetics results, these structural and dynamics data suggest an inhibitory mechanism in which binding at the dimer interface impacts loop movements that are required for product release. Our results potentially provide a novel target site for the development of new antibiotics. PMID:24650357

  20. Cognitive Preference and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest D.; Barnes, Shelba

    As early as 1964, cognitive preference was introduced as a way of describing an individual's preference for applying, relating or questioning information. To determine the role of cognitive preference in the pattern of variables predicting teachers' ratings of students' performance, 44 high school students completed a 61-item cognitive preference…

  1. 23. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for North Base: Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: North Base Site Plan, February 1970. This drawing shows the North Base building distribution substantially as it appears in 1995. Records on file at AFFTC/CE-CECC-B (Design/Construction Flight/RPMC), Edwards AFB, California. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. An unknown male increases sexual incentive motivation and partner preference: Further evidence for the Coolidge effect in female rats.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Aquino, Elisa; Baños-Araujo, Jorge; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Paredes, Raúl G

    2016-05-01

    The Coolidge effect is the resumption of copulatory behavior induced by a novel sexual partner that has been reported in several species. The term is also used in males when they resume mating when exposed to an unknown receptive female after they have reached sexual exhaustion. Only few studies have evaluated the Coolidge effect in females. In the present study we further evaluated this possibility using the sexual incentive motivation (SIM) and the partner preference (PP) tests. Ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed and allowed to mate for 1h controlling the sexual interaction (paced mating) or in a condition where they were unable to pace the sexual encounters. In the SIM and PP tests, females were exposed to the male with whom they had mated before (known male) or with an unknown, sexually experienced one (unknown male). Regardless whether they paced the sexual interaction, all females showed clear preference for the unknown male but females that paced the sexual contacts spent more time in the incentive zone of the unknown male than females that could not pace the sexual interaction. Similar results were observed in the PP test. Both groups of females spent more time in the compartment of the previously unknown male than in that of the known one, but received the same amount of sexual stimulation, i.e., mounts, intromissions and ejaculations from both males. No preference was found when the females were tested in the SIM test between an unknown male and a sexually receptive female. The results further support the existence of a Coolidge effect in female rats that is more apparent if they pace the sexual interaction.

  3. An online questionnaire survey on preferred timing for the diagnosis and management of thyroid carcinoma in general population in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yun, Jin-Kyung; Kim, Byoung-Hoon; Noh, Yeon-Woo; Kim, Dong-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An optimal timing for diagnosis and management of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) has become the subject for much controversy. The aim of the present study is to analyze people's preference in Korea for timing of diagnosis and management of PTMC using an online questionnaire. Methods The questionnaire consists of 3 questions about preference for the diagnosis and management of PTMC and 3 additional questions about respondents' personal information. An online survey was conducted from March 3 to June 3 in 2015 using Google Survey (http://goo.gl/forms/b81yEjqNUA). Results A total 2,308 persons (1,246 males, 1,053 females) answered the questionnaire. Respondents' ages varied widely from teenagers to 70-year-olds. If there was a suspicious thyroid nodule from PTMC measuring less than 1 cm in diameter, 95.7% of respondents want to know a cytological diagnosis for it. If a thyroid nodule turned out to be a PTMC, 59.5% of respondents wanted it removed immediately. For surgical management of PTMC, 53.0% of respondents were worried more about recurrences than complications. In subgroup analyses, respondents younger than 40 years old more often want immediate surgery than others: 66.7% vs. 32.7% (P < 0.05). Respondents who underwent thyroid cancer surgery (n = 91) were worried more about recurrences than others: 69.2% vs. 52.4% (P < 0.05). Conclusion Almost all respondents in the present study wanted diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules immediately. However, there were opposing opinions about the preferred timing for surgical treatment and surgical extents. A patient's right to know their disease status and decision on treatments should be emphasized all the more. PMID:27274504

  4. Client Preference for a Disabled Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harry A., Jr.; Cohen, Marc S.

    1980-01-01

    Preference for an able-bodied v disabled counselor was rated across three problem areas by disabled and nondisabled volunteers. Data demonstrated that nondisabled persons preferred nondisabled counselors, and disabled persons preferred disabled counselors. (Author)

  5. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  6. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate. PMID:24566996

  7. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  8. The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: An analysis of marketer preferences

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.

    1999-08-01

    Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This report challenges the premise--sometimes proffered in debates over green markets--that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on surveys and interviews of US green power marketers, the article examines the role of specific regulatory and legislative policies in enabling the green market, and searches for those policies that are believed by marketers to be the most conducive or detrimental to the expansion of the green market. The authors find that marketers: (1) believe that profitable green power markets will only develop if a solid foundation of supportive policies exists; (2) believe that establishing overall price competition and encouraging customer switching are the top priorities; (3) are somewhat leery of government-sponsored or mandated public information programs; and (4) oppose three specific renewable energy policies that are frequently advocated by renewable energy enthusiasts, but that may have negative impacts on the green marketers' profitability. The stated preferences of green marketers shed light on ways to foster renewables by means of the green market. Because the interests of marketers do not coincide perfectly with those of society, however, the study also recognizes other normative perspectives and highlights policy tensions at the heart of current debates related to green markets. By examining these conflicts, they identify three key policy questions that should direct future research: (1) to what extent should price competition and customer switching be encouraged at the expense of cost shifting; (2) what requirements should be imposed to ensure credibility in green products and marketing; and (3) how should the green power market and broader renewable energy policies interact?

  9. A design method for an intuitive web site

    SciTech Connect

    Quinniey, M.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Baca, B.G.; Forsythe, J.C.; Grose, E.

    1999-11-03

    The paper describes a methodology for designing a web site for human factor engineers that is applicable for designing a web site for a group of people. Many web pages on the World Wide Web are not organized in a format that allows a user to efficiently find information. Often the information and hypertext links on web pages are not organized into intuitive groups. Intuition implies that a person is able to use their knowledge of a paradigm to solve a problem. Intuitive groups are categories that allow web page users to find information by using their intuition or mental models of categories. In order to improve the human factors engineers efficiency for finding information on the World Wide Web, research was performed to develop a web site that serves as a tool for finding information effectively. The paper describes a methodology for designing a web site for a group of people who perform similar task in an organization.

  10. An autoregulatory region in protein kinase C: the pseudoanchoring site.

    PubMed Central

    Ron, D; Mochly-Rosen, D

    1995-01-01

    We have previously identified receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs) as components of protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. RACK1, a recently cloned 36-kDa RACK, has short sequences of homology to PKC. A possible explanation for the homologous sequences between the ligand (PKC) and its intracellular receptor (RACK1) may be that, similar to the pseudosubstrate autoregulatory sequence on PKC, there is also a pseudo-RACK1 binding site on the enzyme. If this is the case, peptides with these sequences (derived from either RACK1 or PKC) are expected to affect PKC binding to RACK1 in vitro and PKC-mediated functions in vivo. Here, we show that the PKC-derived peptide (pseudo-RACK1 peptide), but not its RACK1 homologue, modulated PKC function both in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that the pseudo-RACK1 peptide binds and activates PKC in the absence of PKC activators and thereby acts as an agonist of PKC function in vivo. Therefore, the pseudo-RACK1 sequence in PKC appears to be another autoregulatory site; when PKC is in an inactive conformation, the pseudo-RACK1 site interacts with the RACK-binding site. Activation of PKC exposes the RACK-binding site, enabling the association of the enzyme with its anchoring RACK. Similar pseudoanchoring sites may regulate the function of other protein kinases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7831317

  11. An Online Resource Site for Extension Master Gardener Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langellotto, Gail Ann; Dorn, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    Developing an online resource site for Extension master gardener (EMG) coordinators is an ongoing project for Extension collaborators. Begun in 2014, the website includes peer-reviewed resources focused on best practices in volunteer management and program administration. The website is organized according to nine resource categories (e.g.,…

  12. Incorporation of an introduced weed into the diet of a native butterfly: consequences for preference, performance and chemical defense.

    PubMed

    Knerl, Angela; Bowers, M Deane

    2013-10-01

    The introduction of exotic plants, animals, and pathogens into non-native ecosystems can have profound effects on native organisms. Plantago lanceolata, narrow-leaf or ribwort plantain (Plantaginaceae), is a weed that was introduced to North America from Eurasia approximately 200 years ago and that has been incorporated into the diet of a variety of native North American herbivores. Plantain contains two iridoid glycosides, aucubin and catalpol, that can be toxic or deterrent to non-specialized herbivores or herbivores that have recently incorporated this species into their diet. Anartia jatrophae (Nymphalidae), the white peacock, feeds on plants in five families including the Plantaginaceae, and was recently observed feeding on plantain; however, the effects of feeding on this novel host plant are unknown. In this study, we performed a series of experiments to assess larval preference and performance on the introduced P. lanceolata and on a native host plant that does not contain iridoid glycosides, water hyssop, Bacopa monnieri (Plantaginaceae). We also tested whether or not white peacocks were able to sequester iridoid glycosides and compared this ability with an iridoid specialist, the buckeye, Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae). White peacocks successfully developed to the adult stage on plantain; larvae grew more slowly but pupae were heavier when compared with larvae and pupae reared on the native host plant. Larvae showed induced feeding preferences for the host plant on which they were reared. Furthermore, larvae sequestered small amounts of iridoids that were also retained in pupae and adults. These results suggest that incorporation of the introduced weed, plantain, into the diet of the white peacock may have important consequences for larval performance and preference, as well as for interactions with natural enemies. PMID:24142264

  13. Facebook Ads Recruit Parents of Children with Cancer for an Online Survey of Web-Based Research Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Wray, Sarah; Gilmer, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies involving samples of children with life-threatening illnesses and their families face significant challenges, including inadequate sample sizes and limited diversity. Social media recruitment and web-based research methods may help address such challenges yet have not been explored in pediatric cancer populations. Objective This study examined the feasibility of using Facebook ads to recruit parent caregivers of children and teens with cancer. We also explored the feasibility of web-based video recording in pediatric palliative care populations by surveying parents of children with cancer regarding (a) their preferences for research methods and (b) technological capabilities of their computers and phones. Methods Facebook's paid advertising program was used to recruit parent caregivers of children currently living with cancer to complete an electronic survey about research preferences and technological capabilities. Results The advertising campaign generated 3,897,981 impressions which resulted in 1050 clicks at a total cost of $1129.88. Of 284 screened individuals, 106 were eligible. Forty-five caregivers of children with cancer completed the entire electronic survey. Parents preferred and had technological capabilities for web-based and electronic research methods. Participant survey responses are reported. Conclusion Facebook was a useful, cost-effective method to recruit a diverse sample of parent caregivers of children with cancer. Web-based video recording and data collection may be feasible and desirable in samples of children with cancer and their families. Implications for Practice Web-based methods (e.g., Facebook, Skype) may enhance communication and access between nurses and pediatric oncology patients and their families. PMID:24945264

  14. Incorporation of an introduced weed into the diet of a native butterfly: consequences for preference, performance and chemical defense.

    PubMed

    Knerl, Angela; Bowers, M Deane

    2013-10-01

    The introduction of exotic plants, animals, and pathogens into non-native ecosystems can have profound effects on native organisms. Plantago lanceolata, narrow-leaf or ribwort plantain (Plantaginaceae), is a weed that was introduced to North America from Eurasia approximately 200 years ago and that has been incorporated into the diet of a variety of native North American herbivores. Plantain contains two iridoid glycosides, aucubin and catalpol, that can be toxic or deterrent to non-specialized herbivores or herbivores that have recently incorporated this species into their diet. Anartia jatrophae (Nymphalidae), the white peacock, feeds on plants in five families including the Plantaginaceae, and was recently observed feeding on plantain; however, the effects of feeding on this novel host plant are unknown. In this study, we performed a series of experiments to assess larval preference and performance on the introduced P. lanceolata and on a native host plant that does not contain iridoid glycosides, water hyssop, Bacopa monnieri (Plantaginaceae). We also tested whether or not white peacocks were able to sequester iridoid glycosides and compared this ability with an iridoid specialist, the buckeye, Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae). White peacocks successfully developed to the adult stage on plantain; larvae grew more slowly but pupae were heavier when compared with larvae and pupae reared on the native host plant. Larvae showed induced feeding preferences for the host plant on which they were reared. Furthermore, larvae sequestered small amounts of iridoids that were also retained in pupae and adults. These results suggest that incorporation of the introduced weed, plantain, into the diet of the white peacock may have important consequences for larval performance and preference, as well as for interactions with natural enemies.

  15. Sex-specific asymmetries in communication sound perception are not related to hand preference in an early primate

    PubMed Central

    Scheumann, Marina; Zimmermann, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Background Left hemispheric dominance of language processing and handedness, previously thought to be unique to humans, is currently under debate. To gain an insight into the origin of lateralization in primates, we have studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. We explored potential functional asymmetries on the behavioral level by applying a combined handedness and auditory perception task. For testing handedness, we used a forced food-grasping task. For testing auditory perception, we adapted the head turn paradigm, originally established for exploring hemispheric specializations in conspecific sound processing in Old World monkeys, and exposed 38 subjects to control sounds and conspecific communication sounds of positive and negative emotional valence. Results The tested mouse lemur population did not show an asymmetry in hand preference or in orientation towards conspecific communication sounds. However, males, but not females, exhibited a significant right ear-left hemisphere bias when exposed to conspecific communication sounds of negative emotional valence. Orientation asymmetries were not related to hand preference. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for sex-specific asymmetries for conspecific communication sound perception in non-human primates. Furthermore, they suggest that hemispheric dominance for communication sound processing evolved before handedness and independently from each other. PMID:18199316

  16. Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Juottonen, Heli; Siivonen, Pauli; Lloret Quesada, Cosme; Tuomi, Pirjo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjälä, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites. PMID:25105905

  17. Plutonium Particle Migration in the Shallow Vadose Zone: The Nevada Test Site as an Analog Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. R.; Smith, D. K.

    2004-12-01

    The upper meter of the vadose zone in desert environments is the horizon where wastes have been released and human exposure is determined through dermal, inhalation, and food uptake pathways. This region is also characterized by numerous coupled processes that determine contaminant transport, including precipitation infiltration, evapotranspiration, daily and annual temperature cycling, dust resuspension, animal burrowing, and geochemical weathering reactions. While there is considerable interest in colloidal transport of minerals, pathogenic organisms, and contaminants in the vadose zone, there are limited field sites where the actual occurrence of contaminant migration can be quantified over the appropriate spatial and temporal scales of interest. At the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site, there have been numerous releases of radionuclides since the 1950's that have become field-scale tracer tests. One series of tests was the four safety shots conducted in an alluvial valley of Area 11 in the 1950's. These experiments tested the ability of nuclear materials to survive chemical explosions without initiating fission reactions. Four above-ground tests were conducted and they released plutonium and uranium on the desert valley floor with only one of the tests undergoing some fission. Shortly after the tests, the sites were surveyed for radionuclide distribution on the land surface using aerial surveys and with depth. Additional studies were conducted in the 1970's to better understand the fate of plutonium in the desert that included studies of depth distribution and dust resuspension. More recently, plutonium particle distribution in the soil profile was detected using autoradiography. The results to date demonstrate the vertical migration of plutonium particles to depths in excess of 30 cm in this arid vadose zone. While plutonium migration at the Nevada Test Site has been and continues to be a concern, these field experiments have become analog sites for the

  18. Is hyporheic flow an indicator for salmonid spawning site selection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, R. M.; Tonina, D.; Marzadri, A.; McKean, J. A.; Isaak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the role of hydraulic variables in the selection of spawning sites by salmonids. Some recent studies suggest that the intensity of the ambient hyporheic flow, that present without a salmon egg pocket, is a cue for spawning site selection, but others have argued against it. We tested this hypothesis by using a unique dataset of field surveyed spawning site locations and an unprecedented meter-scale resolution bathymetry of a 13.5 km long reach of Bear Valley Creek (Idaho, USA), an important Chinook salmon spawning stream. We used a two-dimensional surface water model to quantify stream hydraulics and a three-dimensional hyporheic model to quantify the hyporheic flows. Our results show that the intensity of ambient hyporheic flows is not a statistically significant variable for spawning site selection. Conversely, the intensity of the water surface curvature and the habitat quality, quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, are the most important variables for salmonid spawning site selection. KEY WORDS: Salmonid spawning habitat, pool-riffle system, habitat quality, surface water curvature, hyporheic flow

  19. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L.; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B.; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy+/− but not Npy−/− rats, while Npy−/− rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy+/+ rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy−/− rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy+/− rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  20. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight.

  1. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  2. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  3. Restructuring Web Site Design: An Alternative to WebTeams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marc; Boyer, Janice

    In July 1997, the University Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha adopted a new structural model for Web site development--the publishing metaphor. Rather than relying on an individual expert (the Webmaster) or a WebTeam comprised of a few individuals, the model permits everyone in the organization, regardless of position or Web…

  4. Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An experiment using methyle methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) and phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride (PMSF) to specifically modify the cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilism respectively is demonstrated. The covalent modification of these enzymes and subsequent rescue of papain shows the beginning biochemist that proteins…

  5. 20. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for additions to North Base: Job No. A(8-1), Military Construction, Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California; Additional Construction, Location Plan, Sheet No. 2, October 1943. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. How to Plan an Educational Visit on Historic Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teaching history can be far more than dry lectures and reading long books. Maintains that the "historical staff ride" program in the U.S. Army can serve as an example of how to teach history outside the classroom. Describes the program and provides guidelines for selecting and visiting historic sites with classes. (CFR)

  7. Encouraging overweight students with intellectual disability to actively perform walking activity using an air mouse combined with preferred stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Jui; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    This study continues the research on using an air mouse as a physical activity detector. An air mouse is embedded with a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) gyro sensor, which can measure even the slightest movement in the air. The air mouse was strapped to one of each participant's calves to detect walking activity. This study was conducted to evaluate whether four students with intellectual disability who were overweight and disliked exercising could be motivated to engage in walking actively by linking the target response with preferred stimulation. Single-subject research with ABAB design was adopted in this study. The experimental data showed substantial increases in the participants' target responses (i.e. the performance of the activity of walking) during the intervention phases compared to the baseline phases. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27037988

  8. Host preferences of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis at an endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Tesh, R B

    1993-07-01

    Blood meals from 579 Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera:Psychodidae), collected in an endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia, were identified by precipitin test. Sand fly collections were made during a 16-month period from the inside walls of two houses, a pigpen, and rock crevices in a small community (El Callejon) within the endemic area. Feeding patterns of the sand flies varied with locality and date of collection. Overall, bovine feedings predominated, but feedings were also recorded on pigs, equines, humans, dogs, opossums, birds, and reptiles. Calculation of the forage ratios for each host species indicated that cows and pigs were the preferred hosts of Lu. longipalpis in El Callejon. Results of this study suggest that Lu. longipalpis is an opportunistic feeder and is not highly anthropophilic nor strongly attracted to dogs.

  9. Origins Of The Elements - An Educational Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarasingha, Iranga; Ivans, I. I.

    2011-01-01

    This poster introduces a new and unique web site "ORIGINS OF THE ELEMENTS" to the astronomy and physics communities. The main objective of our site is to provide a useful reference guide to the origins of the elements for researchers, educators and students. Only a very few of the lightest elements have their origins at the earliest cosmological ages of the Universe, the Big Bang. Most of the elements found on the Earth, and in the rest of the Universe, owe their primary existence to stellar nucleosynthesis, either during the course of the energy generation lifetimes of stars, or in the exploding supernovae of stars at the end of their lives. A by-product of stellar energy generation and exploding supernovae is alchemy -- the ashes of the energy generation contribution of one element is another, more massive element. Although various reference sources are available to learn about nucleosynthesis, it's a challenging task to uncover appropriate study materials. In this single site, we present both data and recent research results in a concise and attractive structure. Using tables and charts, the material is presented in a multi-level style. For each of the elements in the periodic table, and for each of the stable isotopes in the chart of the nuclides, the site gives a clear visualization of their corresponding nucleosynthetic origins. As a consequence, the charts afford an insight into the patterns of nucleosynthesis. Moreover, the web site provides the student with an intuition to the relative distributions of those elements. Another important feature of our site is that users have direct access to the tabulated elemental abundances (both theoretical and observed) of stars and meteorites.

  10. Hosting an `Ask the Astronomer' Site on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenwald, S. F.

    1996-12-01

    Since 1995, the World Wide Web has explosively evolved into a significant medium for dispensing astronomical information to the general public. In addition to the numerous image archives that have proliferated, an increasing number of sites invite visitors to pose questions about astronomy and receive answers provided by professional astronomers. In this paper, I describe the operation of an Ask the Astronomer site that was opened on the WWW during August, 1995 as part of an astronomy education resource area called the "Astronomy Cafe" (URL=http://www2.ari.net/home/odenwald/cafe.html). The Astronomy Cafe includes a number of documents describing: a career in astronomy; how research papers are written; essays about cosmology, hyperspace and infrared astronomy; and the results from a 100-question, just for fun, personality test which distinguishes astronomers from non-astronomers. The Ask the Astronomer site is operated by a single astronomer through private donations and is now approaching its 500th day of operation. It contains over 2000+ questions and answers with a growth rate of 5 - 10 questions per day. It has attracted 70,000 visitors who are responsible for nearly 1 million 'hits' during the site's lifetime. The monthly statistics provide a unique survey of the kinds of individuals and organizations who visit Ask the Astronomer-type web sites, moreover, the accumulated questions provide a diagnostic X-ray into the public mind in the area of astronomy. I will present an analysis of the user demographics, and the types of questions that appear to be the most frequently asked. A paper copy of the complete index of these questions will be available for inspection.

  11. Site-selected doping in silicon nanowires by an external electric field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Kan, Erjun; Wu, Xiaojun

    2011-09-01

    The properties of dopant-related defects in silicon nanowires are key characteristics in semiconductive devices. Our first-principles calculations predicted that the preferred doping sites of B and P atoms in hydrogen-passivated silicon nanowires have opposite distribution behavior under electric field, suggesting a steady intrinsic p-n junction can be spontaneously formed in (B and P) codoped silicon nanowires.

  12. Binding of dinitrogen to an iron-sulfur-carbon site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čorić, Ilija; Mercado, Brandon Q.; Bill, Eckhard; Vinyard, David J.; Holland, Patrick L.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogenases are the enzymes by which certain microorganisms convert atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia, thereby providing essential nitrogen atoms for higher organisms. The most common nitrogenases reduce atmospheric N2 at the FeMo cofactor, a sulfur-rich iron-molybdenum cluster (FeMoco). The central iron sites that are coordinated to sulfur and carbon atoms in FeMoco have been proposed to be the substrate binding sites, on the basis of kinetic and spectroscopic studies. In the resting state, the central iron sites each have bonds to three sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Addition of electrons to the resting state causes the FeMoco to react with N2, but the geometry and bonding environment of N2-bound species remain unknown. Here we describe a synthetic complex with a sulfur-rich coordination sphere that, upon reduction, breaks an Fe-S bond and binds N2. The product is the first synthetic Fe-N2 complex in which iron has bonds to sulfur and carbon atoms, providing a model for N2 coordination in the FeMoco. Our results demonstrate that breaking an Fe-S bond is a chemically reasonable route to N2 binding in the FeMoco, and show structural and spectroscopic details for weakened N2 on a sulfur-rich iron site.

  13. Binding of dinitrogen to an iron-sulfur-carbon site.

    PubMed

    Čorić, Ilija; Mercado, Brandon Q; Bill, Eckhard; Vinyard, David J; Holland, Patrick L

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogenases are the enzymes by which certain microorganisms convert atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia, thereby providing essential nitrogen atoms for higher organisms. The most common nitrogenases reduce atmospheric N2 at the FeMo cofactor, a sulfur-rich iron-molybdenum cluster (FeMoco). The central iron sites that are coordinated to sulfur and carbon atoms in FeMoco have been proposed to be the substrate binding sites, on the basis of kinetic and spectroscopic studies. In the resting state, the central iron sites each have bonds to three sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Addition of electrons to the resting state causes the FeMoco to react with N2, but the geometry and bonding environment of N2-bound species remain unknown. Here we describe a synthetic complex with a sulfur-rich coordination sphere that, upon reduction, breaks an Fe-S bond and binds N2. The product is the first synthetic Fe-N2 complex in which iron has bonds to sulfur and carbon atoms, providing a model for N2 coordination in the FeMoco. Our results demonstrate that breaking an Fe-S bond is a chemically reasonable route to N2 binding in the FeMoco, and show structural and spectroscopic details for weakened N2 on a sulfur-rich iron site.

  14. Response-Induced Reversals of Preference in Gambling: An Extended Replication in Las Vegas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Sarah; Slovic, Paul

    1973-01-01

    The present report describes an expanded replication of the previous experiments in a nonlaboratory real-play setting unique to the experimental literature on decision processes - a casino in downtown Las Vegas. (Author)

  15. Microhabitat characteristics of Akodon montensis, a reservoir for hantavirus, and hantaviral seroprevalence in an Atlantic forest site in eastern Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Douglas G; Paige, Robert; Owen, Robert D; Ghimire, Kabita; Koch, David E; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2009-06-01

    Hantaviruses may cause serious disease when transmitted to humans by their rodent hosts. Since their emergence in the Americas in 1993, there have been extensive efforts to understand the role of environmental factors on the presence of these viruses in their host rodent populations. HPS outbreaks have been linked to precipitation, but climatic factors alone have not been sufficient to predict the spatial-temporal dynamics of the environment-reservoir-virus system. Using a series of mark-recapture sampling sites located at the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve, an Atlantic Forest site in eastern Paraguay, we investigated the hypothesis that microhabitat might also influence the prevalence of Jaborá hantavirus within populations of its reservoir species, Akodon montensis. Seven trapping sessions were conducted during 2005-2006 at four sites chosen to capture variable microhabitat conditions within the study site. Analysis of microhabitat preferences showed that A. montensis preferred areas with little forest overstory and denser vegetation cover on and near the ground. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the microhabitat occupied by antibody-positive vs antibody-negative rodents, indicating that microhabitats with greater overstory cover may promote transmission and maintenance of hantavirus in A. montensis.

  16. Learning Preference Models in Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmis, Marco De; Iaquinta, Leo; Lops, Pasquale; Musto, Cataldo; Narducci, Fedelucio; Semeraro, Giovanni

    As proved by the continuous growth of the number of web sites which embody recommender systems as a way of personalizing the experience of users with their content, recommender systems represent one of the most popular applications of principles and techniques coming from Information Filtering (IF). As IF techniques usually perform a progressive removal of nonrelevant content according to the information stored in a user profile, recommendation algorithms process information about user interests - acquired in an explicit (e.g., letting users express their opinion about items) or implicit (e.g., studying some behavioral features) way - and exploit these data to generate a list of recommended items. Although each type of filtering method has its own weaknesses and strengths, preference handling is one of the core issues in the design of every recommender system: since these systems aim to guide users in a personalized way to interesting or useful objects in a large space of possible options, it is important for them to accurately capture and model user preferences. The goal of this chapter is to provide a general overview of the approaches to learning preference models in the context of recommender systems. In the first part, we introduce general concepts and terminology of recommender systems, giving a brief analysis of advantages and drawbacks for each filtering approach. Then we will deal with the issue of learning preference models, show the most popular techniques for profile learning and preference elicitation, and analyze methods for feedback gathering in recommender systems.

  17. The solubility and site preference of Fe3+ in Li7−3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets

    PubMed Central

    Rettenwander, D.; Geiger, C.A.; Tribus, M.; Tropper, P.; Wagner, R.; Tippelt, G.; Lottermoser, W.; Amthauer, G.

    2015-01-01

    A series of Fe3+-bearing Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets was synthesized using solid-state synthesis methods. The synthetic products were characterized compositionally using electron microprobe analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structurally using X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. A maximum of about 0.25 Fe3+ pfu could be incorporated in Li7−3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnet solid solutions. At Fe3+ concentrations lower than about 0.16 pfu, both tetragonal and cubic garnets were obtained in the synthesis experiments. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed only a garnet phase for syntheses with starting materials having intended Fe3+ contents lower than 0.52 Fe3+ pfu. Back-scattered electron images made with an electron microprobe also showed no phase other than garnet for these compositions. The lattice parameter, a0, for all solid-solution garnets is similar with a value of a0≈12.98 Å regardless of the amount of Fe3+. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate the presence of poorly- or nano-crystalline FeLaO3 in syntheses with Fe3+ contents greater than 0.16 Fe3+ pfu. The composition of different phase pure Li7−3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets, as determined by electron microprobe (Fe, La, Zr) and ICP-OES (Li) measurements, give Li6.89Fe0.03La3.05Zr2.01O12, Li6.66Fe0.06La3.06Zr2.01O12, Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12, and Li6.19Fe0.19La3.02Zr2.04O12. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of cubic Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12 garnet indicates that most Fe3+ occurs at the special crystallographic 24d position, which is the standard tetrahedrally coordinated site in garnet. Fe3+ in smaller amounts occurs at a general 96h site, which is only present for certain Li-oxide garnets, and in Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12 this Fe3+ has a distorted 4-fold coordination. PMID:26435549

  18. An Examination through Conjoint Analysis of the Preferences of Students Concerning Online Learning Environments According to Their Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghan, Gökhan; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2012-01-01

    This study examines learning styles of students receiving education via online learning environments, and their preferences concerning the online learning environment. Maggie McVay Lynch Learning Style Inventory was used to determine learning styles of the students. The preferences of students concerning online learning environments were detected…

  19. Pages from a Sociometric Notebook: An Analysis of Nomination and Rating Scale Measures of Acceptance, Rejection, and Social Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; Sippola, Lorrie; Hoza, Betsy; Newcomb, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a conceptual and empirical analysis of the associations between the fundamental sociometric dimensions of acceptance, rejection, and social preference. Examines whether nomination and rating scale measures index the same constructs. Notes that sociometric ratings measure social preference, but can also yield indicators of acceptance and…

  20. An Exploratory Investigation into the Relationship between Television Program Preference and Emotion-Eliciting Qualities--A New Theoretical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, William G.; Biggers, Thompson

    1984-01-01

    This exploratory study applies Mehrabian and Russell's newly formulated theory of emotion to the problem of explaining television program preference. Results suggest that emotion-eliciting qualities (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) can account for up to 43 percent of the program preference of television viewers. (PD)

  1. The Role of Work-Integrated Learning in Student Preferences of Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    The role of work-integrated learning in student preferences of instructional methods is largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. This study conducted six experiments to explore student preferences of instructional methods for learning, in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differed in algorithmic rigor, in the context of a…

  2. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  3. The preference for potential.

    PubMed

    Tormala, Zakary L; Jia, Jayson S; Norton, Michael I

    2012-10-01

    When people seek to impress others, they often do so by highlighting individual achievements. Despite the intuitive appeal of this strategy, we demonstrate that people often prefer potential rather than achievement when evaluating others. Indeed, compared with references to achievement (e.g., "this person has won an award for his work"), references to potential (e.g., "this person could win an award for his work") appear to stimulate greater interest and processing, which can translate into more favorable reactions. This tendency creates a phenomenon whereby the potential to be good at something can be preferred over actually being good at that very same thing. We document this preference for potential in laboratory and field experiments, using targets ranging from athletes to comedians to graduate school applicants and measures ranging from salary allocations to online ad clicks to admission decisions.

  4. An Examination of Preferences for Social Presence in Online Courses with Regard to Personality Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Daniel Merritt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the connections between personality types as illustrated by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator and the desire for social presence components within a technology based learning environment. Participants in the study were undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in an educational technology program at a…

  5. Environmental Education Needs and Preferences of an Inner City Community of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeno, Amiko S.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the ways in which the experiences and concerns of a predominantly African American and Hispanic community affect how they view environmental issues. Their views are intended to serve as a guide in the development of an environmental education program that is being developed at one of the local parks.…

  6. Preference for Progressive Delays and Concurrent Physical Therapy Exercise in an Adult with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase self-control and engagement in a physical therapy task (head holding) for a man with acquired traumatic brain injury. Once impulsivity was observed (i.e., repeated impulsive choices), an experimental condition was introduced that consisted of choices between a small immediate reinforcer, a large…

  7. Learning Style Preferences: An Examination of Differences amongst Students with Different Disciplinary Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Frances; Tomkinson, Bland; Hiley, Anna; Dobson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The context of this study is of students with backgrounds in a variety of engineering and social science disciplines, and from first degrees in different countries, coming together to study Project Management. Tailoring teaching to all individuals' learning styles is not possible, but, in an attempt to learn how to teach better in ways that fit…

  8. Student Attitudes and Preferences toward an E-Mentoring Program: A Survey of Journalism Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Jamie; Switzer, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide new opportunities for mentoring, eliminating the need for a synchronous meeting. We report the findings of a survey that measured university student perceptions of the roles and expectations of online mentors and the likelihood of using an online mentor if given the opportunity.…

  9. Development of an Environmental Response Handbook for BNFL Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Claxton, D. G. S. A.

    2002-02-26

    The BNFL Group of Companies owns and operates a number of nuclear licensed sites in the UK, Europe, and US. These cover fuel manufacture and reactor services; power reactors; spent fuel management; and nuclear decommissioning and clean up. To implement its environmental policy, BNFL needs to have tools and techniques that allow it to: (a) Respond appropriately to Environmental Trigger Events (ETEs), and to (b) Provide assurance that BNFL is able to manage contaminated land in the short to medium term (prior to site closure). As a consequence, over the past five years, BNFL has developed the Environmental Response Handbook (ERH). ETEs on a nuclear licensed site cover a number of scenarios: proactive action to remediate known contamination; change in behavior or location of known contamination (e.g. mobility increase); revision of permitted environmental limits on contaminants; other changes in regulatory regime; precedent set by a third party; and discovery of previously unknown contamination or new contaminating event. The main themes of the ERH are: global considerations for remediation on an operational site; detailed consideration of the application of remediation to the current ETE(s); a maintained ''toolkit'' of favored remediation techniques; and case studies and action plans In this paper the process undertaken to develop the ERH is discussed. Details of the structure and application of the ERH are also presented.

  10. Novel approaches for an enhanced geothermal development of residential sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Firmbach, Linda; Shao, Haibing; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An ongoing technological enhancement drives an increasing use of shallow geothermal systems for heating and cooling applications. However, even in areas with intensive shallow geothermal use, planning of geothermal systems is in many cases solely based on geological maps, drilling databases, and literature references. Thus, relevant heat transport parameters are rather approximated than measured for the specific site. To increase the planning safety and promote the use of renewable energies in the domestic sector, this study investigates a novel concept for an enhanced geothermal development of residential neighbourhoods. This concept is based on a site-specific characterization of subsurface conditions and the implementation of demand-oriented geothermal usage options. Therefore, an investigation approach has been tested that combines non-invasive with minimum-invasive exploration methods. While electrical resistivity tomography has been applied to characterize the geological subsurface structure, Direct Push soundings enable a detailed, vertical high-resolution characterization of the subsurface surrounding the borehole heat exchangers. The benefit of this site-specific subsurface investigation is highlighted for 1) a more precise design of shallow geothermal systems and 2) a reliable prediction of induced long-term changes in groundwater temperatures. To guarantee the financial feasibility and practicability of the novel geothermal development, three different options for its implementation in residential neighbourhoods were consequently deduced.

  11. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu-Tho; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Nukman, Yusoff; Aoyama, Hideki; Case, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS) for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment. PMID:26368541

  12. Study of an intraurban travel demand model incorporating commuter preference variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holligan, P. E.; Coote, M. A.; Rushmer, C. R.; Fanning, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    The model is based on the substantial travel data base for the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area, provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. The model is of the abstract type, and makes use of commuter attitudes towards modes and simple demographic characteristics of zones in a region to predict interzonal travel by mode for the region. A characterization of the STOL/VTOL mode was extrapolated by means of a subjective comparison of its expected characteristics with those of modes characterized by the survey. Predictions of STOL demand were made for the Bay Area and an aircraft network was developed to serve this demand. When this aircraft system is compared to the base case system, the demand for STOL service has increased five fold and the resulting economics show considerable benefit from the increased scale of operations. In the previous study all systems required subsidy in varying amounts. The new system shows a substantial profit at an average fare of $3.55 per trip.

  13. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huu-Tho; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Nukman, Yusoff; Aoyama, Hideki; Case, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS) for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment. PMID:26368541

  14. Assessing Posidonia oceanica Seedling Substrate Preference: An Experimental Determination of Seedling Anchorage Success in Rocky vs. Sandy Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alagna, Adriana; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Anna, Giovanni D; Magliola, Carlo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Badalamenti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the growing awareness of the ecological importance of seagrass meadows has prompted increasing efforts to protect existing beds and restore degraded habitats. An in-depth knowledge of factors acting as major drivers of propagule settlement and recruitment is required in order to understand patterns of seagrass colonization and recovery and to inform appropriate management and conservation strategies. In this work Posidonia oceanica seedlings were reared for five months in a land-based culture facility under simulated natural hydrodynamic conditions to identify suitable substrates for seedling anchorage. Two main substrate features were investigated: firmness (i.e., sand vs. rock) and complexity (i.e., size of interstitial spaces between rocks). Seedlings were successfully grown in culture tanks, obtaining overall seedling survival of 93%. Anchorage was strongly influenced by substrate firmness and took place only on rocks, where it was as high as 89%. Anchorage occurred through adhesion by sticky root hairs. The minimum force required to dislodge plantlets attached to rocky substrates reached 23.830 N (equivalent to 2.43 kg), which would potentially allow many plantlets to overcome winter storms in the field. The ability of rocky substrates to retain seedlings increased with their complexity. The interstitial spaces between rocks provided appropriate microsites for seedling settlement, as seeds were successfully retained, and a suitable substrate for anchorage was available. In conclusion P. oceanica juveniles showed a clear-cut preference for hard substrates over the sandy one, due to the root system adhesive properties. In particular, firm and complex substrates allowed for propagule early and strong anchorage, enhancing persistence and establishment probabilities. Seedling substrate preference documented here leads to expect a more successful sexual recruitment on hard bottoms compared with soft ones. This feature could have influenced P

  15. Medical records confidentiality and public health research: two values at stake? An italian survey focus on individual preferences.

    PubMed

    Toccaceli, Virgilia; Fagnani, Corrado; Stazi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-02-20

    In a time when Europe is preparing to introduce new regulations on privacy protection, we conducted a survey among 1700 twins enrolled in the Italian Twin Register about the access and use of their medical records for public health research without explicit informed consent. A great majority of respondents would refuse or are doubtful about the access and use of hospital discharge records or clinical data without their explicit consent. Young and female individuals represent the modal profile of these careful people. As information retrieved from medical records is crucial for progressing knowledge, it is important to promote a better understanding of the value of public health research activities among the general population. Furthermore, public opinions are relevant to policy making, and concerns and preferences about privacy and confidentiality in research can contribute to the design of procedures to exploit medical records effectively and customize the protection of individuals' medical data. Significance for public healthInformation retrieved from medical records is critical for public health research and policy. In particular, large amounts of individual health data are needed in an epidemiological setting, where methodological constraints (e.g. follow-up update) and quality control procedures very often require data to be re-identifiable. Concern about European regulation affecting access to medical records seems to be widespread in the scientific community. Highlighting individuals' concerns and preferences about privacy and informed consent regarding the use of health data can support policy making for public health research. It can contribute to the design of procedures aiming to extract the greatest value from medical records and, more importantly, to create a system for the protection of personal data tailored to the needs of different people. PMID:25918693

  16. 19. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for additions to North Base: Job No. Muroc A(511), Military Construction, Third District Region, San Bernardino, California; Muroc Bombing Range, Muroc Lake, Calif; Additional Temporary Construction, Materiel Center Flight Test Base, Location Grading & Paving Plan, Sheet No. 1 of 21, March 1943. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Swan Falls: Bringing new lift to an old site

    SciTech Connect

    Groff, E.O. )

    1994-02-01

    Idaho Power Company is adding a new hydroelectric project to its system in the spring of 1994. The utility anticipates that the new development will extend the life of an existing hydro site for another century. This article describes the development of the new hydroelectric project at the existing Swan Falls plant south of Boise. The design of the new powerhouse and the decommissioning of the old powerhouse are described.

  18. Patient inertia and the status quo bias: when an inferior option is preferred.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Schwartz, Carey; Gross, James J

    2013-09-01

    Medical noncompliance is a major public-health problem. One potential source of this noncompliance is patient inertia. It has been hypothesized that one cause of patient inertia might be the status quo bias-which is the tendency to select the default choice among a set of options. To test this hypothesis, we created a laboratory analogue of the decision context that frequently occurs in situations involving patient inertia, and we examined whether participants would stay with a default option even when it was clearly inferior to other available options. Specifically, in Studies 1 and 2, participants were given the option to reduce their anxiety while waiting for an electric shock. When doing nothing was the status quo option, participants frequently did not select the option that would reduce their anxiety. In Study 3, we demonstrated a simple way to overcome status quo bias in a context relevant to patient inertia.

  19. Affective priming as an indirect measure of food preferences acquired through odor conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Lamote, Sabine; Spruyt, Adriaan; Eelen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating affective priming for originally neutral food stimuli that recently acquired their affective meaning through odor conditioning. In a first phase, pictures of different brands of yogurts (CSs) were contingently presented with a positive or negative odor (US). In a subsequent phase, the yogurt CSs were used as primes in an affective priming procedure. Rating data showed that the acquisition procedure resulted in a reliable evaluative learning effect. This could be corroborated by the results of the priming task. Participants responded faster to positive target words and made fewer errors when they were preceded by a CS that had been associated with a positive odor, as compared to a CS that was associated with a negative odor. A reversed pattern was present for negative targets. Based on these findings, it is suggested that affective priming might be used as a demand-free measure of evaluative learning.

  20. Pangea B: a plausible impossibility is always preferable to an uncommitting possibility (Aristotle, Poetics 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, G.; Kent, D. V.; Garzanti, E.; Brack, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Gaetani, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Wegenerian configuration of Pangea at Jurassic times is not questioned among Earth scientists. Debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving in 1977 introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana to the East by ≈3000km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. Pangea 'B' and its tectonic implications have not been however broadly accepted by the scientific community. We review data from Gondwana and Laurasia strictly from igneous rocks, and conclude that Pangea 'B' is indeed paleomagnetically acceptable in the Early Permian. Importantly, the exclusive use of paleomagnetic data from igneous rocks virtually excludes possible effects of sedimentary inclination error as an explanation for Pangea 'B' as envisaged by Rochette and Vandamme (1998). The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentral axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis by introducing a specific octupole component of a specific amount with a specific sign in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001). We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset made exclusively and entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from the northern hemisphere, that the effects of an octupole field contamination can not account for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore review geological data from the literature in support of Pangea dextral mega-shear. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' occurred after the cooling of the Varisican lithosphere during the Permian at a minimum plate speed of ≈15cm/yr. No Triassic transformation is herein envisaged. The transformation is coeval with the opening of the Neotethys Ocean, which took place along the eastern margin of Gondwanan between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian continents, and widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism in the west, along the margin of the Adriatic promontory. We show that the "push-pull" driving forces associated with the Gondwana grand

  1. The development of an on-site container

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R. E.; McAllaster, M. E.; Jones, P. L.; McKinney, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a package for the on-site. transport of chemical munitions for the US Army. This package was designed to prevent the release of lethal quantities of chemical agents during transportation of munitions to the demilitarization facilities on-site. The packaging prevents auto-ignition of the munitions by limiting the thermal and structural assault on the munitions during an accident. This package, with some modifications to account for contents, may be suitable for the on-site transport of mixed wastes at United States Department of Energy facilities. This paper discusses the design and verification testing of the package. The safety criteria for the package were modeled after the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hypothetical accident sequence and modified to take credit for operational controls. The modified accident sequence consisted of drop, puncture, and thermal events. The post-accident leak rate was established to prevent harm to an exposed worker. The packaging has a mass of 8600 kg and can accommodate up to 3600 kg of contents. The interior of the package is 188 cm in diameter and 232 cm long. Two sample ports can be used to sample the interior of the package prior to opening the closure and an o-ring test port can be used to determine the leak rates prior to and after transport.

  2. Endocrine vasculatures are preferable targets of an antitumor ineffective low dose of anti-VEGF therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunlong; Hosaka, Kayoko; Huang, Guichun; Zang, Jingwu; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yun; Samani, Nilesh J.; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    Anti-VEGF–based antiangiogenic drugs are designed to block tumor angiogenesis for treatment of cancer patients. However, anti-VEGF drugs produce off-tumor target effects on multiple tissues and organs and cause broad adverse effects. Here, we show that vasculatures in endocrine organs were more sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment than tumor vasculatures. In thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreatic islets, systemic treatment with low doses of an anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody caused marked vascular regression, whereas tumor vessels remained unaffected. Additionally, a low dose of VEGF blockade significantly inhibited the formation of thyroid vascular fenestrae, leaving tumor vascular structures unchanged. Along with vascular structural changes, the low dose of VEGF blockade inhibited vascular perfusion and permeability in thyroid, but not in tumors. Prolonged treatment with the low-dose VEGF blockade caused hypertension and significantly decreased circulating levels of thyroid hormone free-T3 and -T4, leading to functional impairment of thyroid. These findings show that the fenestrated microvasculatures in endocrine organs are more sensitive than tumor vasculatures in response to systemic anti-VEGF drugs. Thus, our data support the notion that clinically nonbeneficial treatments with anti-VEGF drugs could potentially cause adverse effects. PMID:27035988

  3. Blind dates and mate preferences: an analysis of newspaper matchmaking columns.

    PubMed

    Kelley, John M; Malouf, Rebecca A

    2013-01-02

    Parental investment theory and sexual strategies theory predict that women and men should differ on many of the criteria by which they choose mates. These theories posit a gender selectivity effect, such that women should be more selective than men in their mating choices. The theories also posit an age differential effect, such that women should seek older mates, and men should seek younger mates. These two hypotheses have been supported by self-report surveys, speed-dating studies, analysis of on-line and newspaper personal ads, and laboratory analog studies. However, each of these data sources has limitations. Therefore, a new source of data may provide a valuable additional test of the robustness of these effects.  The current study examined two independent sources of data involving blind dates arranged and paid for by newspapers. Consistent with the first hypothesis, we found women to be more selective than men. We also found that matchmakers tended to pair older men with younger women, consistent with the second hypothesis. However, contrary to the second hypothesis, we found no evidence that the age differential between members of a couple influenced their ratings of the date. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Endocrine vasculatures are preferable targets of an antitumor ineffective low dose of anti-VEGF therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunlong; Hosaka, Kayoko; Huang, Guichun; Zang, Jingwu; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yun; Samani, Nilesh J; Cao, Yihai

    2016-04-12

    Anti-VEGF-based antiangiogenic drugs are designed to block tumor angiogenesis for treatment of cancer patients. However, anti-VEGF drugs produce off-tumor target effects on multiple tissues and organs and cause broad adverse effects. Here, we show that vasculatures in endocrine organs were more sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment than tumor vasculatures. In thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreatic islets, systemic treatment with low doses of an anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody caused marked vascular regression, whereas tumor vessels remained unaffected. Additionally, a low dose of VEGF blockade significantly inhibited the formation of thyroid vascular fenestrae, leaving tumor vascular structures unchanged. Along with vascular structural changes, the low dose of VEGF blockade inhibited vascular perfusion and permeability in thyroid, but not in tumors. Prolonged treatment with the low-dose VEGF blockade caused hypertension and significantly decreased circulating levels of thyroid hormone free-T3 and -T4, leading to functional impairment of thyroid. These findings show that the fenestrated microvasculatures in endocrine organs are more sensitive than tumor vasculatures in response to systemic anti-VEGF drugs. Thus, our data support the notion that clinically nonbeneficial treatments with anti-VEGF drugs could potentially cause adverse effects.

  5. "We prefer greeting rather than eating:" life in an elder care center in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teka, Alemnesh; Adamek, Margaret E

    2014-12-01

    In Ethiopia where family care is a centuries-long tradition, living in an elder care institution invariably brings social devaluation. Accordingly, this study explored the psychosocial needs of older adults in a residential elder care center in Ethiopia from the perspective of both staff and residents. Three focus group discussions of 24 residents and interviews with 5 staff persons revealed that elders were living a subsistence lifestyle, eating the same meal every day, mostly cutoff from the surrounding community, and lacking basic amenities. Despite the absence of basic amenities, residents yearned even more so for meaningful social interaction. Psychosocial support was both undervalued and underutilized by staff members, and thus, residents' psychosocial well-being appeared to be at risk. The addition of social workers in institutional care in Ethiopia may help to promote improved living standards. Advocacy is needed on behalf of residents to establish and implement guidelines on care and support of residents in old age homes. As elders in developing countries are living longer--a growing number with disabilities--at the same time that informal supports are waning, the need for developing long term care policies is becoming critical.

  6. Preferences for symmetry in human faces in two cultures: data from the UK and the Hadza, an isolated group of hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Apicella, Coren L; Marlowe, Frank W

    2007-12-22

    Many studies show agreement within and between cultures for general judgements of facial attractiveness. Few studies, however, have examined the attractiveness of specific traits and few have examined preferences in hunter-gatherers. The current study examined preferences for symmetry in both the UK and the Hadza, a hunter-gatherer society of Tanzania. We found that symmetry was more attractive than asymmetry across both the cultures and was more strongly preferred by the Hadza than in the UK. The different ecological conditions may play a role in generating this difference. Such variation in preference may be adaptive if it reflects adaptation to local conditions. Symmetry is thought to indicate genetic quality, which may be more important among the Hadza with much higher mortality rates from birth onwards. Hadza men who were more often named as good hunters placed a greater value on symmetry in female faces. These results suggest that high quality Hadza men are more discriminating in their choice of faces. Hadza women had increased preferences for symmetry in men's faces when they were pregnant or nursing, perhaps due to their increased discrimination and sensitivity to foods and disease harmful to a foetus or nursing infant. These results imply that symmetry is an evolutionarily relevant trait and that variation in symmetry preference appears strategic both between cultures and within individuals of a single culture. PMID:17925281

  7. Temporal Effects of a Begomovirus Infection and Host Plant Resistance on the Preference and Development of an Insect Vector, Bemisia tabaci, and Implications for Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Legarrea, Saioa; Barman, Apurba; Marchant, Wendy; Diffie, Stan; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-01-01

    Persistent plant viruses, by altering phenotypic and physiological traits of their hosts, could modulate the host preference and fitness of hemipteran vectors. A majority of such modulations increase vector preference for virus-infected plants and improve vector fitness, ultimately favouring virus spread. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how these virus-induced modulations on vectors vary temporally, and whether host resistance to the pathogen influences such effects. This study addressed the two questions using a Begomovirus-whitefly-tomato model pathosystem. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) -susceptible and TYLCV-resistant tomato genotypes were evaluated by whitefly-mediated transmission assays. Quantitative PCR revealed that virus accumulation decreased after an initial spike in all genotypes. TYLCV accumulation was less in resistant than in susceptible genotypes at 3, 6, and 12 weeks post inoculation (WPI). TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies over time from resistant and susceptible genotypes was also consistent with virus accumulation in the host plant. Furthermore, preference assays indicated that non-viruliferous whiteflies preferred virus-infected plants, whereas viruliferous whiteflies preferred non-infected plants. However, this effect was prominent only with the susceptible genotype at 6 WPI. The development of whiteflies on non-infected susceptible and resistant genotypes was not significantly different. However, developmental time was reduced when a susceptible genotype was infected with TYLCV. Together, these results suggest that vector preference and development could be affected by the timing of infection and by host resistance. These effects could play a crucial role in TYLCV epidemics. PMID:26529402

  8. Temporal Effects of a Begomovirus Infection and Host Plant Resistance on the Preference and Development of an Insect Vector, Bemisia tabaci, and Implications for Epidemics.

    PubMed

    Legarrea, Saioa; Barman, Apurba; Marchant, Wendy; Diffie, Stan; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-01-01

    Persistent plant viruses, by altering phenotypic and physiological traits of their hosts, could modulate the host preference and fitness of hemipteran vectors. A majority of such modulations increase vector preference for virus-infected plants and improve vector fitness, ultimately favouring virus spread. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how these virus-induced modulations on vectors vary temporally, and whether host resistance to the pathogen influences such effects. This study addressed the two questions using a Begomovirus-whitefly-tomato model pathosystem. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) -susceptible and TYLCV-resistant tomato genotypes were evaluated by whitefly-mediated transmission assays. Quantitative PCR revealed that virus accumulation decreased after an initial spike in all genotypes. TYLCV accumulation was less in resistant than in susceptible genotypes at 3, 6, and 12 weeks post inoculation (WPI). TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies over time from resistant and susceptible genotypes was also consistent with virus accumulation in the host plant. Furthermore, preference assays indicated that non-viruliferous whiteflies preferred virus-infected plants, whereas viruliferous whiteflies preferred non-infected plants. However, this effect was prominent only with the susceptible genotype at 6 WPI. The development of whiteflies on non-infected susceptible and resistant genotypes was not significantly different. However, developmental time was reduced when a susceptible genotype was infected with TYLCV. Together, these results suggest that vector preference and development could be affected by the timing of infection and by host resistance. These effects could play a crucial role in TYLCV epidemics. PMID:26529402

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, T J; Riedhauser, S R

    1999-12-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys.

  10. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  11. Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

    2006-11-01

    Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.

  12. Parameterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Thermokarst features are thought to be an important mechanism for landscape change in permafrost-dominated cold regions, but few such features have been incorporated into full featured landscape models. The root of this shortcoming is that historic observations are not detailed enough to parameterize a model, and the models typically do not include the relevant processes for thermal erosion. A new, dynamic thermokarst feature has been identified at the Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW) in the boreal forest of Interior Alaska. Located adjacent to a traditional use trail, this feature terminates directly in Caribou Creek. Erosion within the feature is driven predominantly by fluvial interflow. CPCRW is a Long-Term Ecological Research site underlain by varying degrees of relatively warm, discontinuous permafrost. This poster will describe the suite of measurements that have been undertaken to parameterize the ERODE model for this site, including thorough surveys, time lapse- and aerial photography, and 3-D structure from motion algorithms.

  13. Social Networking Sites: An Adjunctive Treatment Modality for Psychological Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Indu S.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thennarasu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems. PMID:25035548

  14. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO{sub 3} Fe{sub 3}Al, Co{sub 3}Al, and Ni{sub 3}Al based intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Stocks, G. M.; Újfalussy, B.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co, and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In this paper, we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO{sub 3} Fe{sub 3}Al, Co{sub 3}Al, and Ni{sub 3}Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which correspond to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the α sites, while Co and Ni prefer the γ sites of the DO{sub 3} lattice. An important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni{sub 3}Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co is added as a ternary element.

  15. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.

  16. The Development of Mauna Kea as an Astronomical Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, David H.

    2015-08-01

    This is a proposal to hold a panel discussion at the 2015 IAU General Assembly, within the three-day Focus Meeting FM2, “Astronomical Heritage: Progressing the UNESCO-IAU Initiative” August 11-13. We believe the proposal is germane to FM2 in that it is directed to "Recognizing the twentieth-century heritage of astronomy." This panel will consist of a set of moderated and linked talks by individuals who were central to the creation of the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii, and to building observatory sites both on Haleakala and Mauna Kea. Invited discussants thus far include John T. Jefferies, David Morrison, Alan Tokunaga and Ann Boesgaard. The purpose of the panel discussion will be to provide a platform wherein astronomers will share their recollections and views relating to the history of the establishment of Mauna Kea as an astronomical observatory. They, along with fellow discussants and the audience, will then consider what is critical about this history and suggest steps for adequately preserving and elucidating that history. What were the chief opportunities, challenges and then hurdles to overcome in the identification and then implementation of Mauna Kea as an ideal site, and how did the University of Hawaii become the host institution for its establishment? What was learned from sites established on Haleakela by the U. S. Air Force and the Smithsonian that focused attention on Mauna Kea? How and why did NASA become interested in establishing a large observatory there? And once the site was established and its qualities fully appreciated, how did astronomical institutions from all over the world join to populate the peaks and saddles of the dwelling place of the goddess Poliahu? Each of the invited participants will be encouraged to make extended opening statements relating to their experiences, but at least half of the session will be devoted to structured questions from the moderator, and open discussion during audience Q&A.

  17. Chemosynthetic trophic support for the benthic community at an intertidal cold seep site at Mocha Island off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellanes, Javier; Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Pantoja, Silvio; Jessen, Gerdhard L.

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed C and N stable isotope ratios of benthic fauna and their potential food sources at an intertidal methane seep site and a control site without emanation at Mocha Island (central Chile). The objective was to trace the origin of the main food sources used by the local heterotrophic fauna, based on the hypothesis that chemosynthetic production could be partially fueling the local food web at the seep site. Food sources sampled at both sites included macroalgae, particulate organic matter and bacteria-like filaments found growing over the red algae Gelidium lingulatum within the areas of active methane release. At the control site, located 11 km away from the gas emanation, fauna exhibited moderate δ 13C values ranging from -16.2‰ (in a nereid polychaete) to -14.8‰ (in a cirolanid isopod), which were consistent with those of the potential photosynthetic food sources sampled at this site (-20.2 to -16.5‰). δ 13C values of the photosynthetic food sources at the seep site similarly ranged between -25.4 and -17.9‰. However, a portion of the animals at this site were consistently more 13C-depleted, with δ 13C values close to that of the seeping methane (-43.8‰) and the bacteria-like filaments (-39.2 ± 2.5‰) also collected at this site. Specific examples were the Marphysa sp. polychaetes (δ 13C = -44.7 ± 0.6‰), the Schistomeringos sp. dorvilleid polychaetes (δ 13C = -42.9‰), and the tanaid crustacean Zeuxo marmoratus (δ 13C = -37.3 ± 0.2‰). The significantly higher δ 13C values of the herbivorous gastropod Tegula atra at the seep site (-29.3 ± 3.1‰) than at the control site (-12.6 ± 0.3‰) also indicated differences among sites of the preferred carbon sources of this species. Mixing model estimates indicate that at the seep site bacteria-like filaments could be contributing up to ˜60% of the assimilated diet of selected invertebrates. Furthermore, several indicators of trophic structure, based in isotopic niche metrics, indicate a

  18. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    PubMed

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  19. The Learning Environment Preferences: Exploring the Construct Validity of an Objective Measure of the Perry Scheme of Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Presents initial data from 725 college and university students on the construct validity of the Learning Environmental Preferences (LEP) instrument. Findings suggest that the LEP accurately measures the cognitive portion of the Perry scheme of intellectual development. (Author/TE)

  20. Dead Phish: An Examination of Deactivated Phishing Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Ferragut, Erik M

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to combat phishing and fraud online often center around filtering the phishing messages and disabling phishing Web sites to prevent users from being deceived. A couple approaches can be taken to disable a phishing site: 1) eliminate the required DNS records to reach the site or 2) remove the site from the machine itself. While previous work has focused on DNS take-down efforts, we focus on determining how long a phishing site remains on a machine after the DNS records have been removed. We find that on the day a site is reported, as many as 56% of phishing sites remain present on the hosting machines even after the DNS records have been removed. While many of these sites are removed within a few days, the DNS caching behavior at ISP resolvers may preserve the phishing site accessibility until the phishing site itself is completely removed.

  1. Multicomponent simulations of contrasting redox environments at an LNAPL site.

    PubMed

    Miles, B; Peter, A; Teutsch, G

    2008-01-01

    A two-dimensional multicomponent reactive transport modeling approach was used to simulate contaminant transport and the evolution of redox processes at a large-scale kerosene-contaminated site near Berlin, Germany. In contrast to previous site-scale modeling studies that focused either on one or two contaminants or on steady-state redox conditions, multiple contaminants and electron acceptors, including mineral phase Iron (III), were considered with an evolving redox zonation. Inhibition terms were used to switch between the different electron acceptor processes in the reaction scheme. The transient evolution of redox zones and contaminant plumes was simulated for two separate transects of the site, which have different geology and ground water recharge distributions and where quite different downstream contaminant and terminal electron-accepting process (TEAP) distributions are observed. The same reaction system, calibrated to measured concentrations along one of the transects, was used in both cases, achieving a reasonable match with observed concentrations. The differences between the two transects could thus to some extent be attributed to the different hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, in particular ground water recharge distributions. Long-term simulations showed that the distribution of TEAPs evolves as Fe(III) becomes depleted, with conditions becoming increasingly methanogenic, leading to changes in contaminant plume lengths. The models were applied to assess the potential effects of planned changes in land use at the site that may affect the ground water recharge distribution. The simulated redox zonation responded strongly to changes in recharge, which in turn led to changes in the contaminant plume lengths.

  2. Consumers' preferences for Iberian dry-cured ham and the influence of mast feeding: An application of conjoint analysis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Francisco J; Gaspar, Paula; Pulido, Angel F; Escribano, Miguel; Pulido, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyzes consumers' preferences for Iberian dry-cured ham, one of the most typical and highly prized meat products in Spain. The data were obtained by a survey carried out between April and May 2006 with a sample of 417 consumers in Extremadura (SW Spain). Conjoint Analysis was used to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes affecting preferences for Iberian ham and to create consumer segments with similar preference profiles. Results have shown that Price and Type of ham are the most important attributes for the choice of ham. Simulation analyses determined the surcharge that consumers are willing to pay for an Iberian mast-fed ham instead of an Iberian ham, thus identifying an ideal cluster for Iberian mast-fed ham.

  3. 22. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for North Base: Job No. Muroc AFB A-52, War Department-Corps of Engineers, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California: Muroc Air Force Base, Muroc, California; Additonal Sprinkler Facilities, Test Base, Electrical Distribution & Pump House No. 3 Details, Sheet No. 14 of 17, October 1950. This drawing gives the contemporary temporary building numbers (T-xx) for all structures at North Base in 1950 Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Archaeological Site Monitoring: Uav Photogrammetry can BE AN Answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaudo, F.; Chiabrando, F.; Lingua, A.; Spanò, A.

    2012-07-01

    During archaeological excavations it is important to monitor the new excavated areas and findings day by day in order to be able to plan future excavation activities. At present, this daily activity is usually performed by using total stations, which survey the changes of the archaeological site: the surveyors are asked to produce day by day draft plans and sections which allow archaeologists to plan their future activities. The survey is realized during the excavations or just at the end of every working day and drawings have to be produced as soon as possible in order to allow the comprehension of the work done and to plan the activities for the following day. By using this technique, all the measurements, even those not necessary for the day after, have to be acquired in order to avoid a `loss of memory'. A possible alternative to this traditional approach is aerial photogrammetry, if the images can be acquired quickly and at a taken distance able to guarantee the necessary accuracy of a few centimeters. Today the use of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can be considered a proven technology able to acquire images at distances ranging from 4 m up to 20 m: and therefore as a possible monitoring system to provide the necessary information to the archaeologists day by day. The control network, usually present at each archaeological site, can give the stable control points useful for orienting a photogrammetric block acquired by using an UAV equipped with a calibrated digital camera and a navigation control system able to drive the aircraft following a pre-planned flight scheme. Modern digital photogrammetric software can solve for the block orientation and generate a DSM automatically, allowing rapid orthophoto generation and the possibility of producing sections and plans. The present paper describes a low cost UAV system realized by the research group of the Politecnico di Torino and tested on a Roman villa archaeological site located in Aquileia (Italy), a well

  5. Broaden Students' Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Blanc, Albert

    1983-01-01

    A model of music preference theory suggests ways that teachers can broaden their students' musical preferences. Teachers can change preferences by changing something in the listener, the social environment, the music, or the ways that the listener processes information. (AM)

  6. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  7. An Approach to Identify Site Response Directivity of Accelerometer Sites and Application to the Iranian Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Vincenzo; Pierri, Pierpaolo; Rajabi, Ali M.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, several workers have found numerous cases of sites characterised by significant azimuthal variation of dynamic response to seismic shaking. The causes of this phenomenon are still unclear, but are possibly related to combinations of geological and geomorphological factors determining a polarisation of resonance effects. To improve their comprehension, it would be desirable to extend the database of observations on this phenomenon. Thus, considering that unrevealed cases of site response directivity can be "hidden" among the sites of accelerometer networks, we developed a two-stage approach of data mining from existing strong motion databases to identify sites affected by directional amplification. The proposed procedure first calculates Arias Intensity tensor components from accelerometer recordings of each site to determine mean directional variations of total shaking energy. Then, at the sites where a significant anisotropy appears in ground motion, azimuthal variations of HVSR values (spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical components of recordings) are analysed to confirm the occurrence of site resonance conditions. We applied this technique to a database of recordings acquired by accelerometer stations in the Iranian area. The results of this investigation pointed out some sites affected by directional resonance that appear to be correlated to the orientation of local tectonic lineaments, these being mostly transversal to the direction of maximum shaking. Comparing Arias Intensities observed at these sites with theoretical estimates provided by ground motion prediction equations, the presence of significant site amplifications was confirmed. The magnitude of the amplification factors appear to be correlated to the results of HVSR analysis, even though the pattern of dispersion of HVSR values suggests that while high peak values of spectral ratios are indicative of strong amplifications, lower values do not necessarily imply lower

  8. Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

    2010-05-01

    Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values

  9. Evaluation of Dietary Choices, Preferences, Knowledge and Related Practices Among Pregnant Women Living in An Indian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ajantha; Singh, Awnish K; Malhotra, Bhavya; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Healthy and nutritious diet is very essential component of Antenatal care along with clinical advice. The objective of this study was to understand the dietary choices, preferences, knowledge and related practices among pregnant women living in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods Hundred pregnant women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Information about Socio-demographic profile, food item price and approach during inflation, nutrition related knowledge, attitude and practices and 24 hour dietary recall was acquired. Results Majority of the participants (87%) reported regular antenatal care visits and intake of iron and folic acid tablets. Eighty two percent of the participants were acquainted with standardized marks on food items and 64% of them reported checking of these marks before purchasing. Thirty two percent of the participants did not know about balanced diet. Fifty eight percent of the participants felled in fair category of dietary recall final scores. Conclusion There is still vast room for improvement of the nutritional status of pregnant women as none of the participants were able to achieve excellent status on 24 hour food record scoring sheet. PMID:26435972

  10. Is central nervous system an immune-privileged site?

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R; Millington, O; Brewer, J; Bushell, T

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) was once considered to be an immune-privileged area. However, increasing evidence shows that the central nervous system is not an immune-privileged but is an active surveillance site. There is a bi-directional communication between the central nervous system and immune system. Normally, immune cells migrate into the central nervous system microenvironment through choroid plexus and interact with the central nervous system resident cells through either through neuromediators or immunomediators. This finding has led to a significant interest in neuroimmunological interactions and investigation onto the role of the immune system in the pathology of various neurological disorders and examine whether it can be targeted to produce novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23774427

  11. Dedicated education unit: implementing an innovation in replication sites.

    PubMed

    Moscato, Susan R; Nishioka, Vicki M; Coe, Michael T

    2013-05-01

    An important measure of an innovation is the ease of replication and achievement of the same positive outcomes. The dedicated education unit (DEU) clinical education model uses a collaborative academic-service partnership to develop an optimal learning environment for students. The University of Portland adapted this model from Flinders University, Australia, to increase the teaching capacity and quality of nursing education. This article identifies DEU implementation essentials and reports on the outcomes of two replication sites that received consultation support from the University of Portland. Program operation information, including education requirements for clinician instructors, types of patient care units, and clinical faculty-to-student ratios is presented. Case studies of the three programs suggest the DEU model is adaptable to a range of different clinical settings and continues to show promise as one strategy for addressing the nurse faculty shortage and strengthening academic-clinical collaborations while maintaining quality clinical education for students.

  12. Values and preferences: defining preference construction.

    PubMed

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter; Van Boven, Leaf

    2011-03-01

    Extensive research in the values and preferences literature suggests that preferences are sensitive to context and calculated at the time of choice. This has led to the view that preferences are constructed. Recent work calls for a better understanding of when preferences are constructed and when they are not. We contend that the answer to this question depends on the meaning of the term constructed. Constructed can mean that a preference changes across contexts. If construction is synonymous with context sensitivity, we contend that preferences are always constructed because context influences nearly every aspect of the judgment and choice process. As a motivating example, we show that preferences are influenced by goals and goals are highly context sensitive. Constructed, however, can mean instead that a preference is calculated or formulated during the judgment and choice process. If construction is synonymous with calculation, we contend that many preferences are calculated and the more important question is to what degree preferences are calculated. We review the literature that shows that the degree to which decision makers calculate preferences is influenced by goals, cognitive constraints, and experience. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 193-205 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.98 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. Upheaval Dome, An Analogue Site for Gale Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Eignebrode, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose Upheaval Dome in southeastern Utah as an impact analogue site on Earth to Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing site Gale Crater. The genesis of Upheaval Dome was a mystery for some time--originally thought to be a salt dome. The 5 km crater was discovered to possess shocked quartz and other shock metamorphic features just a few years ago, compelling evidence that the crater was formed by impact, although the structural geology caused Shoemaker and Herkenhoff to speculate an impact origin some 25 years earlier. The lithology of the crater is sedimentary. The oldest rocks are exposed in the center of the dome, upper Permian sandstones, and progressively younger units are well exposed moving outward from the center. These are Triassic sandstones, siltstones and shales, which are intruded by clastic dikes. There are also other clay-rich strata down section, as is the case with Gale Crater. There is significant deformation in the center of the crater, with folding and steeply tilted beds, unlike the surrounding Canyonlands area, which is relatively undeformed. The rock units are well exposed at Upheaval Dome, and there are shatter cones, impactite fragments, shocked quartz grains and melt rocks present. The mineral shock features suggest that the grains were subjected to dynamic pressures> 10 GPa.

  14. Atomistic study on the site preference and lattice vibration of Gd{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} (T=Al and Ge)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Hu, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Shen, Jiang; Qian, Ping; Chen, Nan-Xian

    2015-04-15

    The effects of the Y substitution for Gd on the structural stability and the site preference of intermetallics Gd{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} (T=Al and Ge) are studied by using a series of interatomic pair potentials. The calculated results show Y can stabilize Gd{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} with the tetragonal structure, and Y substitute for Gd with a strong preference for the 2b sites. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, the total and partial phonon densities of states are evaluated for the Gd{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} compounds with the tetragonal structure. A qualitative analysis is carried out with the relevant potentials for the vibrational modes, which makes it possible to predict some properties related to lattice vibration. - Graphical abstract: The lattice cell of Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} consists of 92 atoms, or two Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} formula units, with fourteen distinct kinds of site. Rare-earth atoms occupy 2b and 4d sites, Co atoms occupy the Co1(2c), Co2(8i1), Co3(8i2), Co4(8i3), Co5(8j1), Co6(8j2) and Co7(16k), T atoms occupy the T(8i) sites, and B atoms occupy the B1(2c1), B2(2c2), B3(8i) and B4(8j) sites. - Highlights: • The application of the pair potentials obtained from lattice-inversion method. • The lattice vibrations for Gd{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} (T=Ge and Al) are first evaluated. • The Y atoms should prefer the 2b site of Gd{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} compounds. • The total and partial phonon densities of states are evaluated for the Gd{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 29}T{sub 4}B{sub 10} compounds with the tetragonal structure. • A qualitative analysis is carried out with the relevant potentials for the vibrational modes.

  15. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo.

  16. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo. PMID:27507423

  17. School Counseling Site Supervisor Training: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKruyf, Lorraine; Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the supervision training needs of site supervisors of master's program school counseling interns via the construct of self-efficacy. Using the Site Supervisor Self-Efficacy Survey developed for this study, the authors surveyed school counseling site supervisors in the states of Oregon and Washington (N = 147) regarding their…

  18. Goal-oriented Site Characterization in Hydrogeological Applications: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we address the importance of goal-oriented site characterization. Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in hydrogeological applications, information needs of modeling, prediction and decision support should be satisfied with efficient and rational field campaigns. In this work, we provide an overview of an optimal sampling design framework based on Bayesian decision theory, statistical parameter inference and Bayesian model averaging. It optimizes the field sampling campaign around decisions on environmental performance metrics (e.g., risk, arrival times, etc.) while accounting for parametric and model uncertainty in the geostatistical characterization, in forcing terms, and measurement error. The appealing aspects of the framework lie on its goal-oriented character and that it is directly linked to the confidence in a specified decision. We illustrate how these concepts could be applied in a human health risk problem where uncertainty from both hydrogeological and health parameters are accounted.

  19. Gender differences in preferences for coaching as an occupation: the role of self-efficacy, valence, and perceived barriers.

    PubMed

    Everhart, C B; Chelladurai, P

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the role of self-efficacy, occupational valence, valence of coaching, and perceived barriers in preference to coach at the high school, 2-year college, Division III, Division II, and Division I levels. The participants, 191 Big Ten university basketball players (94 men, 97 women), responded to a specially constructed instrument. The genders did not differ in their coaching self-efficacy, preferred occupational valence, and perceived barriers. Relative to men, women perceived greater valence in coaching (p < .001). Women with a female coach perceived greater valence in coaching (p < .05) and expressed less concern with perceived discrimination (p < .05) than those with a male coach. Perceived self-efficacy and preferred occupational valence were differentially related to the desire to coach at various levels. Working Hours most negatively affected the desire to coach at every level (R > .20). PMID:9635332

  20. Gender differences in preferences for coaching as an occupation: the role of self-efficacy, valence, and perceived barriers.

    PubMed

    Everhart, C B; Chelladurai, P

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the role of self-efficacy, occupational valence, valence of coaching, and perceived barriers in preference to coach at the high school, 2-year college, Division III, Division II, and Division I levels. The participants, 191 Big Ten university basketball players (94 men, 97 women), responded to a specially constructed instrument. The genders did not differ in their coaching self-efficacy, preferred occupational valence, and perceived barriers. Relative to men, women perceived greater valence in coaching (p < .001). Women with a female coach perceived greater valence in coaching (p < .05) and expressed less concern with perceived discrimination (p < .05) than those with a male coach. Perceived self-efficacy and preferred occupational valence were differentially related to the desire to coach at various levels. Working Hours most negatively affected the desire to coach at every level (R > .20).

  1. Magnetic mapping and interpretation of an archaeological site in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    khatib alkontar, Rozan AL; Munschy, Marc; Castel, Corinne; Quenet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the subsurface methods of exploration that have been developed to meet the new requirements of archaeological research, geophysical methods offer a very wide range of applications in the study of buried deposits. In their latest developments, the prospecting method based on the measurement of the magnetic field is particularly effective at very different types of sites, ranging from prehistoric times to the most recent. The measured magnetic field observed at a place and at a time, results from the vector sum of the main regional field, the effect of subsurface structures, local disturbances such as power lines, buildings, fences, and the diurnal variation (solar influence). The principle of the magnetic method is, from magnetic measurements on a flat plane above the prospected surface, to study the three-dimensional variations of magnetization producing the magnetic anomalies. The use of magnetic surveys for archaeological prospecting is a well-established and versatile technique, and wide ranges of data processing routines are often applied to further enhance acquired data or derive source parameters. The main purpose of this work was to acquire new magnetic data on the field and to propose quantitative interpretations of magnetic maps obtained on three archaeological sites of Bronze Age in Syria (Badiyah ANR program). More precisely, some results are presented concerning one of the three sites, the Tell Al-Rawda-site which corresponds to a circular city of Early Bronze Age with a radius of about 200 m. Several profiles are used to characterize magnetizations. A large portion of archaeological geophysical data are concerned primarily with identifying the location and spatial extent of buried remains, although the data collected are likely to contain further information relating to the depth and geometry of anomalous features. A simple magnetic model corresponding to rectangular structures uniformly magnetized associated to walls cannot explain the magnetic

  2. Comparing First Graders' Attitudes and Preferences Toward a Peer Using an iPad(®)-Based Speech-Generating Device and a Non-Electronic AAC System.

    PubMed

    Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Collins, Dana; Chen, Mo; Amundson, Casey; Timinski, Kelli; Mizuko, Mark

    2016-06-01

    This study compared first graders' attitudes toward a peer who used an iPad(®)-based speech-generating device (SGD) versus a non-electronic AAC system, as well as preferences regarding the systems. In all, 115 first graders were randomly assigned to view a video of a peer using either the SGD or the non-electronic system. Participants then completed the Assessment of Attitudes Toward Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AATAAC) and answered preference questions about the systems. Results showed that attitudes toward the peer did not vary significantly as a function of the type of AAC system the peer used. Girls tended to have more positive attitudes than boys toward the peer who used AAC. A majority of participants preferred the SGD for their peer's and for their own use.

  3. The Ryan/Harley site: Sedimentology of an inundated Paleoindian site in north Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balsillie, J.H.; Means, G.H.; Dunbar, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Ryan/Harley site (Florida Master Site File Number: 8Je-1004) is a Middle Paleoindian habitation site containing Suwannee points. Based on stratigraphic correlation and diagnostic artifact seriation, Suwannee-age sites have been relatively dated from ??? 10,900 14C yr B.P to ??? 10,500 14C yr B.P. Clovis-like traits on the Suwannee points and other stone tools from the Ryan/Harley site suggest it dates to the earlier end of the Suwannee timeframe. The currently inundated site is partially buried beneath a sediment column located in a swamp forest and partially exposed in a side channel section of the Wacissa River, Jefferson County, Florida. Research done prior to this analysis determined that the artifact assemblage appeared to be unsorted and was contained in a midden-like unit. Our purpose here is to assess the issue of site integrity further. Unconsolidated sediment samples collected from the artifact-bearing horizon and from horizons immediately above and below the artifact horizon were analyzed using granulometric techniques. Arithmetic probability plots of the grain-size distributions show that the sediments were transported and deposited by fluvial processes. Thus, the Suwannee points and associated artifacts, and faunal remains appear to have accumulated during a time of subaerial exposure perhaps after a regional water-table decline, and have remained largely or essentially intact, with little or no postdepositional reworking. The artifacts and faunal remains recovered from the artifact-bearing horizon at Ryan/Harley are distributed randomly, showing no sign of sorting. In the fossil suite, two articulated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vertebra were recovered in situ. The unsorted nature of artifacts and articulated faunal remains that are contained within the fluvially deposited sediments suggests the Suwannee point level of the Ryan/Harley site has remained undisturbed since original deposition. ?? 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An organizational survey of the Los Alamos Site

    SciTech Connect

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-11-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administered at the Los Alamos Site that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concern, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of ``culture;`` that is, the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization. While comparisons among groups are made, it is not the purpose of this report to make evaluative statements of which profile may be positive or negative. However, using the data presented in this report in conjunction with other evaluative activities, may provide useful insight into the organization. The OS administration at the Los Alamos Site was the ninth to occur at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. All data from the OS is presented in group summaries, by organization, department or directorate within organization, supervisory level both overall and within organization, and staff classification within organization. Statistically significant differences between groups are identified and discussed. 9 refs., 94 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. An organizational survey of the Los Alamos Site

    SciTech Connect

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-11-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administered at the Los Alamos Site that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concern, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture;'' that is, the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization. While comparisons among groups are made, it is not the purpose of this report to make evaluative statements of which profile may be positive or negative. However, using the data presented in this report in conjunction with other evaluative activities, may provide useful insight into the organization. The OS administration at the Los Alamos Site was the ninth to occur at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. All data from the OS is presented in group summaries, by organization, department or directorate within organization, supervisory level both overall and within organization, and staff classification within organization. Statistically significant differences between groups are identified and discussed. 9 refs., 94 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Site environmental assessment to an old paint factory in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fucheng; Yan, Jichang; Wang, Yuehong; Chen, Dawei

    2008-04-01

    High ethyl-benzene and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were found in the soil samples and groundwater samples during a site environmental assessment for an old paint factory in the city Changchun, Jilin province of China. The target old paint plant had been in operation for near 30 years by manufacturing resin and house paint. Driving force for this study was to identify potential environmental contamination existing in this paint factory which is located next to a new resident area under construction. The assessment result would be used as baseline environmental data input for remediation plan when the factory site will be changed into potential resident area in near future. The analytical data from the soil samples from different area of the factory which had high exposure to operation showed that solid waster storage area was contaminated with high heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) and waster paint storage areas were contaminated with ethyl-benzene, xylene and C9-C30 aromatic hydrocarbon solvent. The analytical data from the groundwater samples from different area of the factory showed that resin plant area and waster paint storage areas were contaminated with high concentration of naphthalene, ethyl-benzene and xylene which exceed the reference standard. Remediation action is recommended.

  7. Warthin tumor in an unusual site: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J; Machado, S; Lima, F; Lima, M; Miguel, M

    2013-05-01

    Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, adenolymphoma) is a benign neoplasm from salivary glands and is almost restricted to the parotid gland and the periparotid lymph nodes. Its etiopathogenesis has been associated with tobacco smoke. Several authors believe that the tumor develops from heterotopic salivary gland tissues or through the attraction of a heavy lymphoid reaction. Most cases involve the lower pole or the tail of the parotid. Since its description, a few cases have been reported in other sites, like the submandibular salivary gland. This study aimed to describe a rare presentation of a Warthin tumor and discuss its etiology and differential diagnosis. A 72-year-old male patient presented an asymptomatic, nodular mass adjacent to the submandibular salivary gland. Based on clinical diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy, the patient underwent a surgical excision of the lesion. Histopathological exam revealed a benign neoplasm from salivary glands composed of two components: epithelial and lymphoid. The findings were consistent with Warthin tumor. Warthin tumor from submandibular salivary gland is a rare lesion. Professionals should not misinterpret their site of origin, as if they were from the lower pole or the tail of the parotid.

  8. Reducing Job Coach Assistance for Supported Workers with Severe Multiple Disabilities: An Alternative Off-Site/On-Site Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Marsha B.; Reid, Dennis H.; Green, Carolyn W.; Browning, Leah B.

    2001-01-01

    A study evaluated an off-site/on-site program for reducing job coach assistance provided for three adults with severe multiple disabilities in a part-time community job. On-the-job assistance was reduced, while the individuals received more traditional day services when not at work. No adverse effects on productivity were observed. (Contains…

  9. 75 FR 66795 - TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Register on March 25, 2009 (74 FR 12901). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services... workers from Kelly Services and Aerotek, and including an on-site leased worker from Orbotech,...

  10. Working with LGBT older adults: an assessment of employee training practices, needs, and preferences of senior service organizations in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Moone, Rajean P; Cagle, John G; Croghan, Catherine F; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    As the population ages and LGBT older adults become more visible among senior service providers, the need for cultural competency training will grow. Although this training is a relatively new phenomenon, curricula exist. These are generally in person for 2- to 8-hr durations. Training to Serve embarked on a study to investigate preferences in cultural competency format and duration. One-hundred and eighty-four Minnesota service providers participated in the online survey. The majority (90%) were interested in participating in LGBT cultural competency training. Results suggest a preference for shorter duration and online formats. Implications for curricula development and future research are included.

  11. Organizational actions of sex hormones on sexual partner preference.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, E; Mansukhani, V; Thompson, R; Yang, S

    1997-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in copulatory behavior results from organizational actions of sex steroids (permanent effects of sex steroids occurring during early development). Reproductive success depends not only on copulatory behavior, but also on mate choice, which is often sexually dimorphic as well. The clearest example is sexual partner preference: the preference of males for female sexual partners and females for males. Are organizational hormone actions responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preference? The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a potentially valuable species for addressing this question, because the birds form life-long socially monogamous pair bonds. In one experiment, both early estrogen treatment (injection with estradiol benzoate-EB-for the first 2 weeks posthatch) and unisex housing during juvenile development independently resulted in a preference for females over males in two-choice tests, and only females that experienced both EB treatment and unisex living were more likely than controls to pair with other females in colony tests. In a second experiment, females injected with an estrogen synthesis inhibitor for the first week posthatch preferred to spend time near females instead of males in two-choice tests, unlike control females. These experiments suggest that sexual partner preference may result from organizational hormone actions in this pair-bonding species. Possible neural mechanisms or sites that could underly hormonal organization of sexual partner preference in birds and mammals include the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area, the corticomedial amygdala, and its avian homologue nucleus taeniae of the archistriatum, the septum, and peripheral sensory processes.

  12. Evaluating the Performance and Preference of Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on an Exotic Species, Acutaspis albopicta (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), and Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Robinson, Lindsay J; Redak, Richard A; Morse, Joseph G

    2016-02-01

    Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell) is an exotic scale detected on imported ‘Hass’ avocados arriving in California from Mexico. An effort was made to understand how well this species might be biologically controlled by the parasitoid, Aphytis melinus DeBach. In no-choice trials, single life stages of A. albopicta and Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) were exposed to one Ap. melinus female. Ap. melinus attacked and developed to adult on all A. albopicta life stages tested, which included early, middle, and late male and female second instars, and early, middle, and late female third instars. However, the proportion of scales attacked was relatively low (≤20%), as were the number of eggs laid on each scale stage. In six of seven comparisons of scale cover surface area between A. albopicta and Ao. aurantii that were similarly aged, Ao. aurantii was significantly larger. With intraspecific choice trials, females of Ap. melinus strongly preferred to parasitize the oldest and largest female scales in both single- and mixed-sex offerings. Younger, smaller scales were preferred for host feeding. Five comparisons of preference between A. albopicta and Ao. aurantii showed that Ap. melinus preferred 28- and 36-d-old Ao. aurantii females over similarly aged A. albopicta. However, Ap. melinus preferred 23-d-old males of A. albopicta. In three of five comparisons, Ao. aurantii was the preferred species to host feed on. More F1 females of Ap. melinus were recovered from both intraspecific choice trials compared with any stage in no-choice trials. Implications of incorporating Ap. melinus into biological control programs are discussed. PMID:26577862

  13. Evaluating the Performance and Preference of Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on an Exotic Species, Acutaspis albopicta (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), and Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Robinson, Lindsay J; Redak, Richard A; Morse, Joseph G

    2016-02-01

    Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell) is an exotic scale detected on imported ‘Hass’ avocados arriving in California from Mexico. An effort was made to understand how well this species might be biologically controlled by the parasitoid, Aphytis melinus DeBach. In no-choice trials, single life stages of A. albopicta and Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) were exposed to one Ap. melinus female. Ap. melinus attacked and developed to adult on all A. albopicta life stages tested, which included early, middle, and late male and female second instars, and early, middle, and late female third instars. However, the proportion of scales attacked was relatively low (≤20%), as were the number of eggs laid on each scale stage. In six of seven comparisons of scale cover surface area between A. albopicta and Ao. aurantii that were similarly aged, Ao. aurantii was significantly larger. With intraspecific choice trials, females of Ap. melinus strongly preferred to parasitize the oldest and largest female scales in both single- and mixed-sex offerings. Younger, smaller scales were preferred for host feeding. Five comparisons of preference between A. albopicta and Ao. aurantii showed that Ap. melinus preferred 28- and 36-d-old Ao. aurantii females over similarly aged A. albopicta. However, Ap. melinus preferred 23-d-old males of A. albopicta. In three of five comparisons, Ao. aurantii was the preferred species to host feed on. More F1 females of Ap. melinus were recovered from both intraspecific choice trials compared with any stage in no-choice trials. Implications of incorporating Ap. melinus into biological control programs are discussed.

  14. Characterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate volume loss of soil over time from this site, provide parameterizations on erodibility of ice rich permafrost and serve as a baseline for future landscape evolution simulations. Located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the interior region of Alaska (USA) is home to a large quantity of warm, unstable permafrost that is both high in ice content and has soil temperatures near the freezing point. Much of this permafrost maintains a frozen state despite the general warming air temperature trend in the region due to the presence of a thick insulating organic mat and a dense root network in the upper sub-surface of the soil column. At a rapidly evolving thermo-erosion site, located within the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (part of the Bonanza Creek LTER) near Chatanika, Alaska (N65.140, W147.570), the protective organic layer and associated plants were disturbed by an adjacent traditional use trail and the shifting of a groundwater spring. These triggers have led to rapid geomorphological change on the landscape as the soil thaws and sediment is transported into the creek at the valley bottom. Since 2006 (approximately the time of initiation), the thermal erosion has grown to 170 meters length, 3 meters max depth, and 15 meters maximum width. This research combines several data sets: DGPS survey, imagery from an extremely low altitude pole-based remote sensing (3 to 5 meters above ground level), and imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) at about 60m altitude.

  15. Athletic Coaching from an Instructional Communication Perspective: The Influence of Coach Experience on High School Wrestlers' Preferences and Perceptions of Coaching Behaviors across a Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turman, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the influence of coach experience on young athletes' preferences for, and perceptions of, coaches' leadership behaviors (autocratic, democratic, social support, positive feedback, and training and instruction) across an athletic season. Indicates that negative control strategies can be quite satisfactory at times, particularly if a…

  16. School Gardens: An Experiential Learning Approach for a Nutrition Education Program to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Knowledge, Preference, and Consumption among Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Sondra M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shannon, David; Struempler, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a school garden on children's fruit and vegetable knowledge, preference, and consumption. Design: Self-report questionnaires, interview-style taste and rate items, lunchroom observations. Setting: An elementary school. Participants: Second-grade students (n = 115). Intervention: Participants were assigned to…

  17. A Study of Extension Professionals Preferences and Perceptions of Usefulness and Level of Comfort with Blogs as an Informal Professional Development Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cater, Melissa; Davis, Debra; Leger, Bradley; Machtmes, Krisanna; Arcemont, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The use of blogs for informal professional development is a growing phenomenon in higher education. The purpose of the study reported here was to describe Extension faculty's preferences for and perceptions of using an online, particularly social media, environment for professional development. The LSU AgCenter Organization Development and…

  18. An Exploration of Preference for Numerical Information in Relation to Math Self-Concept and Statistics Anxiety in a Graduate Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to investigate the relationship between preference for numerical information (PNI), math self-concept, and six types of statistics anxiety in an attempt to establish support for the nomological validity of the PNI. Correlations indicate that four types of statistics anxiety were strongly related to PNI, and…

  19. Conserved Sequence Preferences Contribute to Substrate Recognition by the Proteasome*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Houqing; Singh Gautam, Amit K.; Wilmington, Shameika R.; Wylie, Dennis; Martinez-Fonts, Kirby; Kago, Grace; Warburton, Marie; Chavali, Sreenivas; Inobe, Tomonao; Finkelstein, Ilya J.; Babu, M. Madan

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome has pronounced preferences for the amino acid sequence of its substrates at the site where it initiates degradation. Here, we report that modulating these sequences can tune the steady-state abundance of proteins over 2 orders of magnitude in cells. This is the same dynamic range as seen for inducing ubiquitination through a classic N-end rule degron. The stability and abundance of His3 constructs dictated by the initiation site affect survival of yeast cells and show that variation in proteasomal initiation can affect fitness. The proteasome's sequence preferences are linked directly to the affinity of the initiation sites to their receptor on the proteasome and are conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and human cells. These findings establish that the sequence composition of unstructured initiation sites influences protein abundance in vivo in an evolutionarily conserved manner and can affect phenotype and fitness. PMID:27226608

  20. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L.; Rosensteel, B.; Awl, D.

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action.

  1. Simulated natural hydrologic regime of an intermountain playa conservation site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanderson, J.S.; Kotliar, N.B.; Steingraeber, D.A.; Browne, C.

    2008-01-01

    An intermountain playa wetland preserve in Colorado's San Luis Valley was studied to assess how its current hydrologic function compares to its natural hydrologic regime. Current hydrologic conditions were quantified, and on-site effects of off-site water use were assessed. A water-budget model was developed to simulate an unaltered (i.e., natural) hydrologic regime, and simulated natural conditions were compared to observed conditions. From 1998-2002, observed stream inflows accounted for ??? 80% of total annual water inputs. No ground water discharged to the wetland. Evapotranspiration (ET) accounted for ??? 69% of total annual water loss. Simulated natural conditions differed substantially from current altered conditions with respect to depth, variability, and frequency of flooding. During 1998-2002, observed monthly mean surface-water depth was 65% lower than under simulated natural conditions. Observed monthly variability in water depth range from 129% greater (May) to 100% less (September and October) than simulated. As observed, the wetland dried completely (i.e., was ephemeral) in all years; as simulated, the wetland was ephemeral in two of five years. For the period 1915-2002, the simulated wetland was inundated continuously for as long as 16 years and nine months. The large differences in observed and simulated surface-water dynamics resulted from differences between altered and simulated unaltered stream inflows. The maximum and minimum annual total stream inflows observed from 1998-2005 were 3.1 ?? 106 m3 and 0 m3, respectively, versus 15.5 ?? 106 m3 and 3.2 ?? 106 m3 under simulated natural conditions from 1915-2002. The maximum simulated inflow was 484% greater than observed. These data indicate that the current hydrologic regime of this intermountain playa differs significantly from its natural hydrologic regime, which has important implications for planning and assessing conservation success. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  2. Hydrogeologic characterization of an arid zone Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ginanni, J.M.; O`Neill, L.J.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Dozier, B.L.; Sully, M.J.; Johnejack, K.R.; Emer, D.F.; Tyler, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    An in-depth subsurface site characterization and monitoring program for the soil water migration pathway has been planned, implemented, and completed to satisfy data requirements for a waiver from groundwater monitoring, for an exemption from liner leachate collections systems, and for different regulatory driven performance assessments. A traditional scientific approach has been taken to focus characterization and monitoring efforts. This involved developing a conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system and defining and testing hypotheses about this model. Specific hypotheses tested included: that the system was hydrologically heterogenous and anisotropic, and that recharge was very low or negligible. Mineralogical, physical, and hydrologic data collected to test hypotheses has shown the hydrologic system to be remarkably homogenous and isotropic rather than heterogenous and anisotropic. Both hydrodynamic and environmental tracer approaches for estimating recharge have led to the conclusion that recharge from the Area 5 RWMS is not occurring in the upper region of the vadose zone, and that recharge at depth is extremely small or negligible. This demonstration of ``no migration of hazardous constituents to the water table satisfies a key requirement for both the groundwater monitoring waiver and the exemption from liner leachate collection systems. Data obtained from testing hypotheses concerning the soil water migration pathway have been used to refine the conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system of the site. These data suggest that the soil gas and atmospheric air pathways may be more important for transporting contaminants to the accessible environment than the soil water pathway. New hypotheses have been developed about these pathways, and characterization and monitoring activities designed to collect data to test these hypotheses.

  3. A Multi-Objective Approach for Protein Structure Prediction Based on an Energy Model and Backbone Angle Preferences.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Jyh-Jong; Su, Shih-Chieh; Yu, Chin-Sheng

    2015-07-03

    Protein structure prediction (PSP) is concerned with the prediction of protein tertiary structure from primary structure and is a challenging calculation problem. After decades of research effort, numerous solutions have been proposed for optimisation methods based on energy models. However, further investigation and improvement is still needed to increase the accuracy and similarity of structures. This study presents a novel backbone angle preference factor, which is one of the factors inducing protein folding. The proposed multiobjective optimisation approach simultaneously considers energy models and backbone angle preferences to solve the ab initio PSP. To prove the effectiveness of the multiobjective optimisation approach based on the energy models and backbone angle preferences, 75 amino acid sequences with lengths ranging from 22 to 88 amino acids were selected from the CB513 data set to be the benchmarks. The data sets were highly dissimilar, therefore indicating that they are meaningful. The experimental results showed that the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the multiobjective optimization approach based on energy model and backbone angle preferences was superior to those of typical energy models, indicating that the proposed approach can facilitate the ab initio PSP.

  4. Evidence for Language-Specific Influence on the Preference of Stress Patterns in Infants Learning an Iambic Language (Hebrew)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Osnat; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of infants to develop recognition of a common stress pattern that is language specific has been tested mainly in trochaic languages with a strong-weak (SW) stress pattern. The goals of the present study were: (a) to test Hebrew-learning infants on their stress pattern preference in the Hebrew language, for which the…

  5. An Investigation into Food Preferences and the Neural Basis of Food-Related Incentive Motivation in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, E. C.; Holland, A. J.; Gellatly, M. S. N.; Soni, S.; Owen, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research into the excessive eating behaviour associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) to date has focused on homeostatic and behavioural investigations. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the reward system in such eating behaviour, in terms of both the pattern of food preferences and the neural substrates of incentive…

  6. A Multi-Objective Approach for Protein Structure Prediction Based on an Energy Model and Backbone Angle Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Tsay, Jyh-Jong; Su, Shih-Chieh; Yu, Chin-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Protein structure prediction (PSP) is concerned with the prediction of protein tertiary structure from primary structure and is a challenging calculation problem. After decades of research effort, numerous solutions have been proposed for optimisation methods based on energy models. However, further investigation and improvement is still needed to increase the accuracy and similarity of structures. This study presents a novel backbone angle preference factor, which is one of the factors inducing protein folding. The proposed multiobjective optimisation approach simultaneously considers energy models and backbone angle preferences to solve the ab initio PSP. To prove the effectiveness of the multiobjective optimisation approach based on the energy models and backbone angle preferences, 75 amino acid sequences with lengths ranging from 22 to 88 amino acids were selected from the CB513 data set to be the benchmarks. The data sets were highly dissimilar, therefore indicating that they are meaningful. The experimental results showed that the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the multiobjective optimization approach based on energy model and backbone angle preferences was superior to those of typical energy models, indicating that the proposed approach can facilitate the ab initio PSP. PMID:26151847

  7. Yohimbine Impairs Extinction of Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference in an [alpha] [subscript 2]-Adrenergic Receptor Independent Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Adeola R.; Shields, Angela D.; Brigman, Jonathan L.; Norcross, Maxine; McElligott, Zoe A.; Holmes, Andrew; Winder, Danny G.

    2008-01-01

    Extinction, a form of learning that has the ability to reshape learned behavior based on new experiences, has been heavily studied utilizing fear learning paradigms. Mechanisms underlying extinction of positive-valence associations, such as drug self-administration and place preference, are poorly understood yet may have important relevance to…

  8. An Exploration of the Leadership Style Preferences among African American Women Administrators of the 1890 Cooperative Extension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Shelvy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify and explore the leadership style preferences among current African American Administrators of the 1890 Land-Grant Cooperative Extension system. The population used in this study was African American women administrators from eighteen mostly southern states. The researcher used a "two-phase…

  9. Peer Influence on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2…

  10. An investigation of lower-extremity functional asymmetry for non-preferred able-bodied walking speeds

    PubMed Central

    RICE, JOHN; SEELEY, MATTHEW K.

    2010-01-01

    Functional asymmetry is an idea that is often used to explain documented bilateral asymmetries during able-bodied gait. Within this context, this idea suggests that the non-dominant and dominant legs, considered as whole entities, contribute asymmetrically to support and propulsion during walking. The degree of functional asymmetry may depend upon walking speed. The purpose of this study was to better understand the potential relationship between functional asymmetry and walking speed. Bilateral ground reaction forces (GRF) were measured for 20 healthy subjects who walked at nine different speeds: preferred, +10%, +20%, +30%, +40, −10%, −20%, −30%, and −40%. Contribution to support was determined to be the support impulse: the time integral of the vertical GRF during stance. Contribution to propulsion was determined to be the propulsion impulse: the time integral of the anterior-posterior GRF, while this force was directed forward. Repeated measures ANOVA (α = 0.05) revealed leg × speed interactions for normalized support (p = 0.001) and propulsion (p = 0.001) impulse, indicating that speed does affect the degree of functional asymmetry during gait. Post hoc comparisons (α = 0.05) showed that support impulse was approximately 2% greater for the dominant leg, relative to the non-dominant leg, for the −10%, −20%, and −40% speeds. Propulsion impulse was 12% greater for the dominant leg than for the non-dominant leg at the +20% speed. Speed does appear to affect the magnitude of bilateral asymmetry during walking, however, only the bilateral difference for propulsion impulse at one fast speed (+20%) was supportive of the functional asymmetry idea. PMID:27182346

  11. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  12. Risk Preference and Diagnosticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocklin, Thomas

    Researchers have suggested two models of risk preference to account for subjects' preference for tasks of moderate difficulty. The affective model proposes that pride of success and shame of failure are responsible for the observed preference. The cognitive model suggests preference for tasks of moderate difficulty because they are the most…

  13. No peroxisome is an island - Peroxisome contact sites.

    PubMed

    Shai, Nadav; Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2016-05-01

    In order to optimize their multiple cellular functions, peroxisomes must collaborate and communicate with the surrounding organelles. A common way of communication between organelles is through physical membrane contact sites where membranes of two organelles are tethered, facilitating exchange of small molecules and intracellular signaling. In addition contact sites are important for controlling processes such as metabolism, organelle trafficking, inheritance and division. How peroxisomes rely on contact sites for their various cellular activities is only recently starting to be appreciated and explored and the extent of peroxisomal communication, their contact sites and their functions are less characterized. In this review we summarize the identified peroxisomal contact sites, their tethering complexes and their potential physiological roles. Additionally, we highlight some of the preliminary evidence that exists in the field for unexplored peroxisomal contact sites.

  14. Do children prefer mentalistic descriptions?

    PubMed

    Dore, Rebecca A; Lillard, Angeline S

    2014-01-01

    Against a long tradition of childhood realism (Piaget, 1929), A. S. Lillard and J. H. Flavell (1990) found that 3-year-olds prefer to characterize people by their mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions) than by their visible behaviors. In this exploratory study, we extend this finding to a new cohort of 3-year-olds, examine how these preferences change from 3-4 years, and explore relationships with theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. The results showed a developmental change and a possible cohort difference: at 3 years, children in the sample preferred behavioral descriptions, although by 4 years of age, they preferred mentalistic ones. Interestingly, mentalistic preferences were unrelated to theory of mind or parental mind-mindedness, concurrently or over time. Perspective-taking skills at 3 years, however, predicted an increase in mentalistic responses from 3 years to 4 years. Possible explanations for each finding are discussed. PMID:24796151

  15. Temporal Constraint Reasoning With Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time (specifically, associated with durations or orderings of events) on the basis of preferences. For example. a pair of events might be constrained to occur in a certain order, and, in addition. it might be preferable that the delay between them be as large, or as small, as possible. This paper explores problems in which a set of temporal constraints is specified, where each constraint is associated with preference criteria for making local decisions about the events involved in the constraint, and a reasoner must infer a complete solution to the problem such that, to the extent possible, these local preferences are met in the best way. A constraint framework for reasoning about time is generalized to allow for preferences over event distances and durations, and we study the complexity of solving problems in the resulting formalism. It is shown that while in general such problems are NP-hard, some restrictions on the shape of the preference functions, and on the structure of the preference set, can be enforced to achieve tractability. In these cases, a simple generalization of a single-source shortest path algorithm can be used to compute a globally preferred solution in polynomial time.

  16. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  17. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  18. Testing the FOCUS model PEARL in an Italian site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    2003-04-01

    Pesticides are integral part of the modern agricultural production system . The use of pesticide has soared during the post war period, and now the consumption of pesticide has been reducing in Europe. However, the reduction is difficult to attribute to one specific factor since the application of pesticide is highly variable and linked to climatic, out-breaks of diseases, etc. Furthermore, new molecules are being produced which are more efficient and require a lower dosage. In the EU, the placing on the market of Plant Protection Products (PPP) is regulated at the Community Level by the Council Directive (91/414/EEC). The PPP stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. In this context, European Commission set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project with one major objective being the validation and improvement of existing pesticide fate models. The research presented here focuses on the validation of the PEARL model in an Italian site. The PEARL model, which is one of the FOCUS model, is actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure. The test site is located near Bologna (Italy). The 35 months long experiment was conducted on a 107m by 28m plot with a loamy soil for . The experiment involved the application of KBr as a tracer and two applications of ethoprophos and three applications of Aclonifen. A sequential approach was used for the Bologna site. During this exercise only the measured soil physical parameters were used. The simulation with the PEARL model yielded negative values for both soil moisture profile and pesticide content. In a second step, the water transport module was calibrated, using measured soil moisture profile. This improved greatly the prediction of the soil water balance. Information relative to pesticide degradation and sorption where then included. This allowed a good

  19. Standard Setting and Risk Preference: An Elaboration of the Theory of Achievement Motivation and an Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Julius

    1978-01-01

    A formal elaboration of the original theory of achievement motivation (Atkinson, 1957; Atkinson & Feather, 1966) is proposed that includes personal standards as determinants of motivational tendencies. The results of an experiment are reported that examines the validity of some of the implications of the elaborated model proposed here. (Author/RK)

  20. Encouraging obese students with intellectual disabilities to engage in pedaling an exercise bike by using an air mouse combined with preferred environmental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Lin, Yen-Chung

    2014-12-01

    This study extended research into the application of high-tech products in the field of special education, using a standard air mouse with a newly developed pedal detection program (PDP) software. PDP is a new software program used to turn a standard air mouse into a pedal detector in order to evaluate whether two obese students with intellectual disabilities (ID) would be able to actively perform the activity of pedaling an exercise bike in order to control their preferred environmental stimulation. This study was performed according to an ABAB design. The data showed that both participants had more willingness to engage in the pedaling activity to activate the environmental stimulation in the intervention phases than in the baseline phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. A computational strategy for altering an enzyme in its cofactor preference to NAD(H) and/or NADP(H).

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongbing; Zhang, Lujia; Jiang, Shuiqin; Yao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Bei; Lin, Jinping; Yuan, Y Adam; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-06-01

    Coenzyme engineering, especially for altered coenzyme specificity, has been a research hotspot for more than a decade. In the present study, a novel computational strategy that enhances the hydrogen-bond interaction between an enzyme and a coenzyme was developed and utilized to alter the coenzyme preference. This novel computational strategy only required the structure of the target enzyme. No other homologous enzymes were needed to achieve alteration in the coenzyme preference of a certain enzyme. Using our novel strategy, Gox2181 was reconstructed from exhibiting complete NADPH preference to exhibiting dual cofactor specificity for NADH and NADPH. Structure-guided Gox2181 mutants were designed in silico and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the strength of hydrogen-bond interactions between the enzyme and the coenzyme NADPH. Three Gox2181 mutants displaying high structure stability and structural compatibility to NADH/NADPH were chosen for experimental confirmation. Among the three Gox2181 mutants, Gox2181-Q20R&D43S showed the highest enzymatic activity by utilizing NADPH as its coenzyme, which was even better than the wild-type enzyme. In addition, isothermal titration calorimetry analysis further verified that Gox2181-Q20R&D43S was able to interact with NADPH but the wild-type enzyme could not. This novel computational strategy represents an insightful approach for altering the cofactor preference of target enzymes.

  2. Alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and preferences regarding an alcohol-focused adherence intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics in Tshwane, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients’ alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument). Additionally, patients’ views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted. Results About half of the male drinkers’ and three quarters of the female drinkers’ Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour’s duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an alcohol-focused adherence counseling program that employs motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy-type approaches. Conclusion The association between alcohol use and ART nonadherence points to a

  3. GAS HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN ACTIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m.

  4. Sharing of Potential Nest Sites by Etheostoma olmstedi Males Suggests Mutual Tolerance in an Alloparental Species

    PubMed Central

    Stiver, Kelly A.; Wolff, Stephen H.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2013-01-01

    When reproductive competitors tolerate or cooperate with one another, they may gain particular benefits, such as collectively guarding resources or attracting mates. Shared resources may be those essential to reproduction, such as a breeding site or nest. Using the tessellated darter, a species where males but not females compete over potential nest sites, we examined site use and sharing under controlled conditions of differing competitor density. Sharing was observed even when competitor density was low and individuals could have each occupied a potential nest site without same-sex sharing. Males were more likely to share a nest site with one other when the difference in size between them was larger rather than smaller. There was no evidence that female sharing was dependent on their relative size. Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered. We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences. Tessellated darter males are known to provide alloparental care for eggs but this occurs without any social contact between the alloparent and the genetic father of the young. Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems. PMID:23468853

  5. An analysis of treatment preferences and sexual quality of life outcomes in female partners of Chinese men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Jun; Bai, Wen-Jun; Dai, Yu-Tian; Xu, Wen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Ning; Li, Han-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The impact of erectile dysfunction is distressing to both males and their female partners, but less attention has been paid to identify female partners' preferred treatment and sexual quality of life outcomes. The present analysis explores female partners' treatment preference for erectile dysfunction in Chinese Men. This was a phase 4, randomized, open-label, multicenter, crossover study in Chinese men with erectile dysfunction who were naïve to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatments. Eligible patients were randomized to sequential 20-mg tadalafil/100-mg sildenafil or 100-mg sildenafil/20-mg tadalafil for 8 weeks each. Of 418 patients, female partners of 64 patients agreed to enter the study; of 64 patients who entered the study with female partners, 63 were randomized, and 62 completed the study. Baseline demographics and disease characteristics were comparable between treatment groups. Significantly more couples preferred tadalafil compared with sildenafil overall (75.4% vs 24.6%; P < 0.001), and irrespective of erectile dysfunction severity at baseline (P ≤ 0.005). Significant improvements in sexual quality of life scores were reported at endpoint (Visit 8) in male patients and female partners in both tadalafil and sildenafil treatment groups (P < 0.001). Significantly higher mean changes from baseline were observed for male patients in the tadalafil group compared with the sildenafil group for the erectile function (P = 0.013) and overall satisfaction (P = 0.019) International Index for Erectile Function domains and the spontaneity domain (P < 0.001) of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scale. No major safety concerns were reported during the study. Though both treatments were effective, safe, and tolerable, more couples preferred tadalafil compared with sildenafil.

  6. An analysis of treatment preferences and sexual quality of life outcomes in female partners of Chinese men with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Jun; Bai, Wen-Jun; Dai, Yu-Tian; Xu, Wen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Ning; Li, Han-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The impact of erectile dysfunction is distressing to both males and their female partners, but less attention has been paid to identify female partners’ preferred treatment and sexual quality of life outcomes. The present analysis explores female partners’ treatment preference for erectile dysfunction in Chinese Men. This was a phase 4, randomized, open-label, multicenter, crossover study in Chinese men with erectile dysfunction who were naïve to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatments. Eligible patients were randomized to sequential 20-mg tadalafil/100-mg sildenafil or 100-mg sildenafil/20-mg tadalafil for 8 weeks each. Of 418 patients, female partners of 64 patients agreed to enter the study; of 64 patients who entered the study with female partners, 63 were randomized, and 62 completed the study. Baseline demographics and disease characteristics were comparable between treatment groups. Significantly more couples preferred tadalafil compared with sildenafil overall (75.4% vs 24.6%; P < 0.001), and irrespective of erectile dysfunction severity at baseline (P ≤ 0.005). Significant improvements in sexual quality of life scores were reported at endpoint (Visit 8) in male patients and female partners in both tadalafil and sildenafil treatment groups (P < 0.001). Significantly higher mean changes from baseline were observed for male patients in the tadalafil group compared with the sildenafil group for the erectile function (P = 0.013) and overall satisfaction (P = 0.019) International Index for Erectile Function domains and the spontaneity domain (P < 0.001) of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scale. No major safety concerns were reported during the study. Though both treatments were effective, safe, and tolerable, more couples preferred tadalafil compared with sildenafil. PMID:26459780

  7. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  8. An evaluation of SAO sites for laser operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, J. M.; Bush, M. A.; Pearlman, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    Operational criteria are provided for the selection of laser tracking sites for the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program. A compilation of data is given concerning the effect of weather conditions on laser and Baker-Nunn camera operations. These data have been gathered from the Smithsonian astrophysical observing station sites occupied since the inception of the satellite tracking program. Also given is a brief description of each site, including its characteristic weather conditions, comments on communications and logistics, and a summary of the terms of agreement under which the station is or was operated.

  9. mRNA decay during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: mutations that affect translation of an mRNA influence the sites at which it is cleaved by the HSV virion host shutoff (Vhs) protein.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Lora A; Read, G Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    During lytic infections, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (Vhs) endoribonuclease degrades many host and viral mRNAs. Within infected cells it cuts mRNAs at preferred sites, including some in regions of translation initiation. Vhs binds the translation initiation factors eIF4H, eIF4AI, and eIF4AII, suggesting that its mRNA degradative function is somehow linked to translation. To explore how Vhs is targeted to preferred sites, we examined the in vitro degradation of a target mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing in vitro-translated Vhs. Vhs caused rapid degradation of mRNAs beginning with cleavages at sites in the first 250 nucleotides, including a number near the start codon and in the 5' untranslated region. Ligation of the ends to form a circular mRNA inhibited Vhs cleavage at the same sites at which it cuts capped linear molecules. This was not due to an inability to cut any circular RNA, since Vhs cuts circular mRNAs containing an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the same sites as linear molecules with the IRES. Cutting linear mRNAs at preferred sites was augmented by the presence of a 5' cap. Moreover, mutations that altered the 5' proximal AUG abolished Vhs cleavage at nearby sites, while mutations that changed sequences surrounding the AUG to improve their match to the Kozak consensus sequence enhanced Vhs cutting near the start codon. The results indicate that mutations in an mRNA that affect its translation affect the sites at which it is cut by Vhs and suggest that Vhs is directed to its preferred cut sites during translation initiation.

  10. mRNA Decay during Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections: Mutations That Affect Translation of an mRNA Influence the Sites at Which It Is Cleaved by the HSV Virion Host Shutoff (Vhs) Protein

    PubMed Central

    Shiflett, Lora A.

    2013-01-01

    During lytic infections, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (Vhs) endoribonuclease degrades many host and viral mRNAs. Within infected cells it cuts mRNAs at preferred sites, including some in regions of translation initiation. Vhs binds the translation initiation factors eIF4H, eIF4AI, and eIF4AII, suggesting that its mRNA degradative function is somehow linked to translation. To explore how Vhs is targeted to preferred sites, we examined the in vitro degradation of a target mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing in vitro-translated Vhs. Vhs caused rapid degradation of mRNAs beginning with cleavages at sites in the first 250 nucleotides, including a number near the start codon and in the 5′ untranslated region. Ligation of the ends to form a circular mRNA inhibited Vhs cleavage at the same sites at which it cuts capped linear molecules. This was not due to an inability to cut any circular RNA, since Vhs cuts circular mRNAs containing an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the same sites as linear molecules with the IRES. Cutting linear mRNAs at preferred sites was augmented by the presence of a 5′ cap. Moreover, mutations that altered the 5′ proximal AUG abolished Vhs cleavage at nearby sites, while mutations that changed sequences surrounding the AUG to improve their match to the Kozak consensus sequence enhanced Vhs cutting near the start codon. The results indicate that mutations in an mRNA that affect its translation affect the sites at which it is cut by Vhs and suggest that Vhs is directed to its preferred cut sites during translation initiation. PMID:23077305

  11. Surgical Site Infections Following Pediatric Ambulatory Surgery: An Epidemiologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rinke, Michael L; Jan, Dominique; Nassim, Janelle; Choi, Jaeun; Choi, Steven J

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify surgical site infection (SSI) rates following pediatric ambulatory surgery, SSI outcomes and risk factors, and sensitivity and specificity of SSI administrative billing codes. DESIGN Retrospective chart review of pediatric ambulatory surgeries with International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for SSI, and a systematic random sampling of 5% of surgeries without SSI ICD-9 codes, all adjudicated for SSI on the basis of an ambulatory-adapted National Healthcare Safety Network definition. SETTING Urban pediatric tertiary care center April 1, 2009-March 31, 2014. METHODS SSI rates and sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9 codes were estimated using sampling design, and risk factors were analyzed in case-rest of cohort, and case-control, designs. RESULTS In 15,448 pediatric ambulatory surgeries, 34 patients had ICD-9 codes for SSI and 25 met the adapted National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. One additional SSI was identified with systematic random sampling. The SSI rate following pediatric ambulatory surgery was 2.9 per 1,000 surgeries (95% CI, 1.2-6.9). Otolaryngology surgeries demonstrated significantly lower SSI rates compared with endocrine (P=.001), integumentary (P=.001), male genital (P<.0001), and respiratory (P=.01) surgeries. Almost half of patients with an SSI were admitted, 88% received antibiotics, and 15% returned to the operating room. No risk factors were associated with SSI. The sensitivity of ICD-9 codes for SSI following ambulatory surgery was 55.31% (95% CI, 12.69%-91.33%) and specificity was 99.94% (99.89%-99.97%). CONCLUSIONS SSI following pediatric ambulatory surgery occurs at an appreciable rate and conveys morbidity on children. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:931-938.

  12. An alternative approach to characterize nonlinear site effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Hartzell, S.; Liang, J.; Hu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale of a method of nonstationary processing and analysis, referred to as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for its application to a recording-based approach in quantifying influences of soil nonlinearity in site response. In particular, this paper first summarizes symptoms of soil nonlinearity shown in earthquake recordings, reviews the Fourier-based approach to characterizing nonlinearity, and offers justifications for the HHT in addressing nonlinearity issues. This study then uses the HHT method to analyze synthetic data and recordings from the 1964 Niigata and 2001 Nisqually earthquakes. In doing so, the HHT-based site response is defined as the ratio of marginal Hilbert amplitude spectra, alternative to the Fourier-based response that is the ratio of Fourier amplitude spectra. With the Fourier-based approach in studies of site response as a reference, this study shows that the alternative HHT-based approach is effective in characterizing soil nonlinearity and nonlinear site response.

  13. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  14. Neural Signatures of Intransitive Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias; Tobler, Philippe N.; Huijbers, Willem; Daselaar, Sander M.; Pennartz, Cyriel M.A.

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that decisions are made by rank-ordering and thus comparing the available choice options based on their subjective values. Rank-ordering requires that the alternatives’ subjective values are mentally represented at least on an ordinal scale. Because one alternative cannot be at the same time better and worse than another alternative, choices should satisfy transitivity (if alternative A is preferred over B, and B is preferred over C, A should be preferred over C). Yet, individuals often demonstrate striking violations of transitivity (preferring C over A). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of intransitive choices between gambles varying in magnitude and probability of financial gains. Behavioral intransitivities were common. They occurred because participants did not evaluate the gambles independently, but in comparison with the alternative gamble presented. Neural value signals in prefrontal and parietal cortex were not ordinal-scaled and transitive, but reflected fluctuations in the gambles’ local, pairing-dependent preference-ranks. Detailed behavioral analysis of gamble preferences showed that, depending on the difference in the offered gambles’ attributes, participants gave variable priority to magnitude or probability and thus shifted between preferring richer or safer gambles. The variable, context-dependent priority given to magnitude and probability was tracked by insula (magnitude) and posterior cingulate (probability). Their activation-balance may reflect the individual decision rules leading to intransitivities. Thus, the phenomenon of intransitivity is reflected in the organization of the neural systems involved in risky decision-making. PMID:20814565

  15. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M.; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  16. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  17. Measurement of Client Preferences for Therapist Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, Alphons J.

    While past research has found conflicting results on the place for client role preferences in psychotherapy, none of this research has examined the client role preferences in an actual client population seeking outpatient therapy. This study involved the development of a measure of client role preferences which attempted to survey a wider range of…

  18. An inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Joseph

    1991-03-01

    At the request of True Mid Pacific Geothermal, Archaeological Consultants of Hawaii, Inc. has conducted an inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No.2, TMK: 1-2-10:3. The Principal Investigator was Joseph Kennedy M.A., assisted by Jacob Kaio, Field Supervisor and field crew Mark Borrello B.A., Michael O'Shaughnessy B.A., and Randy Adric. This report supercedes all previous reports submitted to the Historic Presentation Section of the Department of Land and Natural Resources. In addition to 100% surface coverage of the 400 x 400 foot well pad itself, 100% surface coverage of a substantial buffer zone was also completed. This buffer zone was established by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, Historic Preservation personnel and extends 1000 feet east and west of the well site and 500 feet north and south of the well site.

  19. Reducing job coach assistance for supported workers with severe multiple disabilities: an alternative off-site/on-site model.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M B; Reid, D H; Green, C W; Browning, L B

    2001-01-01

    Adults with severe multiple disabilities constitute a very small percentage of individuals in supported work. When these persons do obtain community jobs, considerable assistance is usually required. We evaluated an off-site/on-site program for reducing job coach assistance provided for three adults with severe multiple disabilities in a part-time community job. Following observations of the supported workers' job performance in a publishing company, the job support reduction program was implemented while the individuals received more traditional day services when not at work. The program involved assessing the amount and type of assistance provided for each step in a worker's job tasks, and then reducing the assistance through environmental adaptations and instruction. After implementation in the nonwork setting, the adaptations and instruction were extended to the work site. Immediate reductions occurred in the amount of assistance provided by job coaches for each supported worker while on the job. No adverse effects on productivity were observed. These results suggest that an off-site/on-site approach to reducing work assistance represents a viable alternative to current supported work models. Social validity observations in 10 job sites highlighted the need to demonstrate ways to reduce work assistance provided for workers with severe multiple disabilities. Future research areas are noted, focusing on evaluating other models for enhancing supported work opportunities for people with highly significant disabilities.

  20. Reducing job coach assistance for supported workers with severe multiple disabilities: an alternative off-site/on-site model.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M B; Reid, D H; Green, C W; Browning, L B

    2001-01-01

    Adults with severe multiple disabilities constitute a very small percentage of individuals in supported work. When these persons do obtain community jobs, considerable assistance is usually required. We evaluated an off-site/on-site program for reducing job coach assistance provided for three adults with severe multiple disabilities in a part-time community job. Following observations of the supported workers' job performance in a publishing company, the job support reduction program was implemented while the individuals received more traditional day services when not at work. The program involved assessing the amount and type of assistance provided for each step in a worker's job tasks, and then reducing the assistance through environmental adaptations and instruction. After implementation in the nonwork setting, the adaptations and instruction were extended to the work site. Immediate reductions occurred in the amount of assistance provided by job coaches for each supported worker while on the job. No adverse effects on productivity were observed. These results suggest that an off-site/on-site approach to reducing work assistance represents a viable alternative to current supported work models. Social validity observations in 10 job sites highlighted the need to demonstrate ways to reduce work assistance provided for workers with severe multiple disabilities. Future research areas are noted, focusing on evaluating other models for enhancing supported work opportunities for people with highly significant disabilities. PMID:11325162