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Sample records for ans preferred site

  1. An evaluation of public preferences for Superfund site cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, W.

    1995-12-31

    This study evaluates public preferences for cleanup of NPL sites. The National Priority List (NPL) was created to allocate use of Superfund monies. In spite of the expert view that NPL sites pose little immediate threat, substantial evidence suggests that people living near such sites believe they are at risk. The seriousness of the public view is captured by the large losses in property values that have occurred near such sites. Complete sit cleanup would presumably restore property values, thus property losses can approximate public willingness to pay for complete cleanup. Since complete cleanup is extremely expensive, a key question is, what level of cleanup would be acceptable to the public? A pilot market research study was used in an attempt to develop a methodology to answer this question. A survey instrument was developed that presented a hypothetical NPL site with a large population in close proximity, informed respondents of expert assessments of risk and the potential environmental effects of the site, and provided detailed information on cleanup options. Respondents selected their most preferred option. Implications of the research were further explored by examining potential aggregate benefits for cleanup of non-Federal NPL sites. Some preliminary conclusions emerged. (1) NPL listing of a site appears to exacerbate the fears of nearby citizens. (2) Results suggest that many people are satisfied with options other than complete cleanup, particularly when there are risks associated with complete cleanup. (3) Values for cleanup estimated in the pilot study are consistent with estimates from property value evidence. (4) High priority should be placed on expedited cleanup of sites with large enough nearby populations to pass a benefit-cost test based on public preferences. (5) Public preferrences should be incorporated into decisions regarding the extent of cleanup at NPL sites.

  2. Seismic refraction survey of the ANS preferred site

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.; Doll, W.E.

    1992-02-01

    Between September 19, 1991 and October 8, 1991 personnel from Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Automated Sciences Group, Inc., and Marrich, Inc. performed a seismic refraction survey at the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) preferred site. The purpose of this survey was to provide estimates of top-of-rock topography, based on seismic velocities, and to delineate variations in rock and soil velocities. Forty-four seismic refraction spreads were shot to determine top-of-rock depths at 42 locations. Nine of the seismic spreads were shot with long offsets to provide 216 top-of-rock depths for 4 seismic refraction profiles. The refraction spread locations were based on the grid for the ANS Phase I drilling program. Interpretation of the seismic refraction data supports the assumption that the top-of-rock surface generally follows the local topography. The shallow top-of-rock interface interpreted from the seismic refraction data is also supported by limited drill information at the site. Some zones of anomalous data are present that could be the result of locally variable weathering, a localized variation in shale content, or depth to top-of-rock greater than the site norm.

  3. Site preference and magnetic properties of Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, Sungho; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki

    2015-11-28

    The first-principles density functional theory has been used to study Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}). Based on the calculation of the substitution energy of Ga and In in SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and the formation probability analysis, we conclude that in SrFe{sub 12−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 19} the substituted Ga atoms prefer to occupy the 12k, 2a, and 4f{sub 1} sites, while In atoms in SrFe{sub 12−x}In{sub x}O{sub 19} occupy the 12k, 4f{sub 2}, and 4f{sub 1} sites. We used the site occupation probabilities to calculate the magnetic properties of the substituted SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. It was found that as the fraction of Ga atoms in SrFe{sub 12−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 19} increases, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) as well as magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) decrease, while the anisotropy field (H{sub a}) increases. In the case of SrFe{sub 12−x}In{sub x}O{sub 19}, M{sub s}, MAE, and H{sub a} decrease with an increase of the concentration of In atoms.

  4. Migration and habitat preferences of Swainson's Hawks at an autumn stopover site in northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littlefield, Carroll D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most raptors, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) migrates long distances between breeding and wintering ranges, which elevates the importance of stopover sites for foraging. We conducted three years of fall surveys in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Migrant Swainson's Hawks moved through the area mostly between July and mid-October, peaking in September. Subadults tended to migrate earlier than adults, and light morphs before dark morphs. Favored foraging habitats included silage corn, green beans, and alfalfa, but the hawks foraged primarily where ongoing agricultural activities disturbed prey and made them more available.

  5. Preference of female mosquitoes for natural and artificial resting sites.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Eubanks, Micky D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    At a wetland study site in Tuskegee National Forest, AL, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. Natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. Artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. We collected 12,888 female mosquitoes, representing 23 species in 8 genera, during the 6-month study. Each mosquito species demonstrated a preference for a particular type of resting site. Resting Aedes vexans females were collected almost exclusively from understory vegetation, while the great majority of Anopheles quadrimaculatus females were aspirated from large tree cavities. Culex erraticus and Cx. peccator females preferred trash cans over other available resting sites. Females of Cx. territans, although collected most commonly in large tree cavities, were also collected frequently from understory vegetation and trash cans. A multiple regression of resting-site parameters (excluding vegetation), including volume, surface area, and opening size, indicated that 50% and 20% of the variability associated with An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. territans collections, respectively, could be explained by opening size. Inner surface area and volume accounted for 33% and 12% of variation in Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator collections, respectively. Thus, female mosquitoes generally preferred larger resting sites over smaller resting sites. Similarly shaped artificial resting sites (fiber pots and trash cans) yielded comparable numbers of females per unit of volume (for those species that preferred artificial resting sites), indicating that shape of the resting site is an important factor in resting-site preference. In addition, trash cans proved to be a valuable novel tool for collecting resting female mosquitoes.

  6. Preferred Metal Binding Site of Aniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Sudesh; Sohnlein, Brad; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Group III metal-aniline complexes, M-aniline (M = Sc, Y, and La), were produced by interactions between laser-vaporized metal atoms and aniline vapor in a pulsed molecular beam source, identified by photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and studied by pulsed-field ionization zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Adiabatic ionization energies and several vibrational intervals were measured from the ZEKE spectra. Metal binding sites and electronic states were determined by combining the ZEKE measurements and theoretical calculations. Although aniline has various possible sites for metal coordination, the preferred site was determined to be phenyl ring. The metal binding with the phenyl ring yields syn and anti conformers. In these conformers, the neutral complexes are in doublet ground states and the corresponding singly charged cations in singlet states.

  7. Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Linksvayer, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to “immunize” the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

  8. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites.

    PubMed

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Linksvayer, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to "immunize" the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus.

  9. Equilibrium defects and solute site preferences in intermetallics: I. thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gary S.; Zacate, Matthew O.

    2001-03-01

    A model was developed to describe equilibrium defects and site preferences of dilute solute atoms in compounds having the CsCl and Ni_2Al3 structures. Equilibrium defects considered were combinations of elementary point defects that preserve the composition. Equilibria among possible defect combinations were combined with appropriate equations of constraint to obtain defect concentrations as a function of temperature and possible deviation from the stoichiometric composition. As an application, site-energies of defects and solutes in AB and A_2B_3) systems were estimated using Miedema's empirical model, with A=(Ni, Pd, Pt) and B= (Al, Ga, In). Dominant equilibrium defects in the respective systems were found to be the "triple defect" (2V_A+ A_B) and "octal defect" (5V_A+ 3A_B). Site preferences were found to depend on concentrations of intrinsic defects as well as on site-energy differences, and results reveal how preferences generally depend on temperature and composition. Consider solute S which, based on site energies, prefers to replace atom B. It is found that S always occupies B-sites in B-deficient alloys. In B-rich alloys, however, S may or may not occupy B-sites, depending on site-energy differences and the formation energies of equilibrium defects. For a solute that prefers to replace atom A, analogous results are obtained but with A replacing B in the three preceding sentences. This work was supported in part by the NSF under grant DMR 96-12306.

  10. Dental Students' Preference with Regard to Tactile or Visual Determination of Injection Site for an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Children: A Crossover Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ramazani, Nahid; Iranmanesh, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Instruction of local anesthesia injection in an important part of dental education curricula. This study was performed to compare dental students' preference with regard to tactile or visual determination of injection site for an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in children. This crossover randomized clinical trial was conducted on dental students of Zahedan Dental School who took the first practical course of pediatric dentistry in the first academic semester of 2013-14 (n=42). They were randomly divided into two groups. During the first phase, group I was instructed to find the needle insertion point for an IANB via tactile method and group II was instructed to do it visually. In the second phase, the groups received instructions for the alternate technique. Both instructions were done using live demonstrations by the same instructor and immediately after instruction the learners practiced an IANB using the taught method. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was then filled out by the students. The preference score was determined by calculating the mean of item scores. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Singed Rank tests in SPSS 19 at P=0.05 level of significance. Thirty-eight students completed the study. By using the visual method to perform an IANB, students gained a significantly higher mean preference score (P=0.020). There was a significant difference in the preference of male students (P=0.008). Instruction of IANB by visual identification of needle insertion point is more desirable by students.

  11. Atomistic Modeling of Pd Site Preference in NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of the site subsitution behavior of Pd in NiTi was performed using the BFS method for alloys. Through a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and detailed atom-by-atom energetic analyses of various computational cells, representing compositions of NiTi with up to 10 at% Pd, a detailed understanding of site occupancy of Pd in NiTi was revealed. Pd subsituted at the expense of Ni in a NiTi alloy will prefer the Ni-sites. Pd subsituted at the expense of Ti shows a very weak preference for Ti-sites that diminishes as the amount of Pd in the alloy increases and as the temperature increases.

  12. Dental Students’ Preference with Regard to Tactile or Visual Determination of Injection Site for an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Children: A Crossover Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Iranmanesh, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Instruction of local anesthesia injection in an important part of dental education curricula. This study was performed to compare dental students’ preference with regard to tactile or visual determination of injection site for an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in children. Materials and Methods: This crossover randomized clinical trial was conducted on dental students of Zahedan Dental School who took the first practical course of pediatric dentistry in the first academic semester of 2013–14 (n=42). They were randomly divided into two groups. During the first phase, group I was instructed to find the needle insertion point for an IANB via tactile method and group II was instructed to do it visually. In the second phase, the groups received instructions for the alternate technique. Both instructions were done using live demonstrations by the same instructor and immediately after instruction the learners practiced an IANB using the taught method. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was then filled out by the students. The preference score was determined by calculating the mean of item scores. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Singed Rank tests in SPSS 19 at P=0.05 level of significance. Results: Thirty-eight students completed the study. By using the visual method to perform an IANB, students gained a significantly higher mean preference score (P=0.020). There was a significant difference in the preference of male students (P=0.008). Conclusions: Instruction of IANB by visual identification of needle insertion point is more desirable by students. PMID:27536327

  13. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences.

  14. Cattle site preference in northeastern Oregon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Free-roaming beef cattle naturally gravitate to locations on the landscape that provide them food, water, shelter, and security. In mountainous environments, animals are also sensitive to land physiography, generally preferring level terrain near established trails and travel routes. Our study was...

  15. Landing sites on the human body preferred by Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Yoshikazu; Funada, Hisashi; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Seki, Taisuke; Morohashi, Masaaki

    2002-06-01

    The landing sites on the human body preferred by Aedes albopictus were examined. Five male volunteers wearing only shorts stood in a mosquito net enclosure containing 120 proboscis-amputated Ae. albopitus. In separate tests, 9 male volunteers and 1 female volunteer lay supine during the test. The number of mosquitoes landing on each site of the volunteer's body was counted, and after completion of the test, his or her body temperature was recorded. When the subject was upright, the landing site most preferred by mosquitoes was the foot. When volunteers were supine, the foot also was the most preferred landing site, but the proportion of mosquitoes landing on the foot in this position in comparison with other sites was lower than when the Volunteer was in the upright position. The 2nd most preferred landing site was the hand, followed by the face. No correlation was found between preferred landing sites and body temperature. Factors other than temperature (e.g., human emanation) may influence mosquito behavior and landing site.

  16. Valence state driven site preference in the quaternary compound Ca5MgAgGe5: an electron-deficient phase with optimized bonding.

    PubMed

    Ponou, Siméon; Lidin, Sven; Zhang, Yuemei; Miller, Gordon J

    2014-05-05

    The quaternary phase Ca5Mg0.95Ag1.05(1)Ge5 (3) was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state techniques, and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal diffraction methods in the orthorhombic space group Pnma-Wyckoff sequence c(12) with a = 23.1481(4) Å, b = 4.4736(1) Å, c = 11.0128(2) Å, V = 1140.43(4) Å(3), Z = 4. The crystal structure can be described as linear intergrowths of slabs cut from the CaGe (CrB-type) and the CaMGe (TiNiSi-type; M = Mg, Ag) structures. Hence, 3 is a hettotype of the hitherto missing n = 3 member of the structure series with the general formula R(2+n)T2X(2+n), previously described with n = 1, 2, and 4. The member with n = 3 was predicted in the space group Cmcm-Wyckoff sequence f(5)c(2). The experimental space group Pnma (in the nonstandard setting Pmcn) corresponds to a klassengleiche symmetry reduction of index two of the predicted space group Cmcm. This transition originates from the switching of one Ge and one Ag position in the TiNiSi-related slab, a process that triggers an uncoupling of each of the five 8f sites in Cmcm into two 4c sites in Pnma. The Mg/Ag site preference was investigated using VASP calculations and revealed a remarkable example of an intermetallic compound for which the electrostatic valency principle is a critical structure-directing force. The compound is deficient by one valence electron according to the Zintl concept, but LMTO electronic structure calculations indicate electronic stabilization and overall bonding optimization in the polyanionic network. Other stability factors beyond the Zintl concept that may account for the electronic stabilization are discussed.

  17. Teacher Preferences for Alternative School Site Administrative Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul M.; Denny, George S.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Public school teachers with high leadership potential who stated that they had no interest in being school principals were surveyed on their attitudes about six alternative school site administrative organizational models. Of the 391 teachers surveyed, 53% identified the Co-Principal model as the preferred school site administrative structure. In…

  18. Site Preference of Ternary Alloying Additions to AuTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of several alloying additions, namely. Na, Mg, Al, Si. Sc, V, Cr, Mn. Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr. Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt in B2 TiAu is reported. The 30 elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. Results of large scale simulations are also presented, distinguishing between additions that remain in solution from those that precipitate a second phase.

  19. Site Preference of Ternary Alloying Additions to AuTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of several alloying additions, namely. Na, Mg, Al, Si. Sc, V, Cr, Mn. Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr. Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt in B2 TiAu is reported. The 30 elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. Results of large scale simulations are also presented, distinguishing between additions that remain in solution from those that precipitate a second phase.

  20. An X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the metal site preference in Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}FeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, James D.S.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2013-01-15

    Magnetoelectric materials have potential for being introduced into next generation technologies, especially memory devices. The AFeO{sub 3} (Pna2{sub 1}; A=Al, Ga) system has received attention to better understand the origins of magnetoelectric coupling. The magnetoelectric properties this system exhibits depend on the amount of anti-site disorder present, which is affected by the composition and the method of synthesis. In this study, Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}FeO{sub 3} was synthesized by the ceramic method and studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Al L{sub 2,3}-, Ga K-, and Fe K-edge spectra were collected to examine how the average metal coordination number changes with composition. Examination of XANES spectra from Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}FeO{sub 3} indicate that with increasing Ga content, Al increasingly occupies octahedral sites while Ga displays a preference for occupying the tetrahedral site. The Fe K-edge spectra indicate that more Fe is present in the tetrahedral site in AlFeO{sub 3} than in GaFeO{sub 3}, implying more anti-site disorder is present in AlFeO{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}FeO{sub 3} has been investigated by XANES. Through examination of Al L{sub 2,3}-, Ga K-, and Fe K-edge XANES spectra, it was found that more anti-site disorder of the Fe atoms is present in AlFeO{sub 3} compared to in GaFeO{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}FeO{sub 3} was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga prefers to occupy the tetrahedral site in Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}FeO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe prefers to occupy the octahedral sites in Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}FeO{sub 3} as x increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More anti-site disorder is present in AlFeO{sub 3} compared to in GaFeO{sub 3.}.

  1. Noble gases on metal surfaces: Insights on adsorption site preference

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, De-Li; Al-Saidi, W. A.; Johnson, J. Karl

    2011-12-19

    We use a nonlocal van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) approach to reexamine the problem of why noble gases are experimentally observed to adsorb on low-coordination atop sites rather than on high-coordination hollow sites for several different metal surfaces. Previous calculations using density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA) ascribed the site preference to reduced Pauli repulsion at atop sites, largely due to reduced exchange repulsion within LDA-DFT. In contrast, our vdW-DF calculations show that site preference is not due to differences in the exchange repulsion at all, but rather the result of a delicate balance between the electrostatic and kinetic energies; surprisingly, exchange-correlation energies play a negligible role in determining site preference. In contrast to previous calculations, we find that experimental results cannot be explained in terms of binding energy differences between atop and hollow sites. Instead, we show that the hollow sites are transition states rather than minima on the two-dimensional potential energy surface, and therefore not likely to be observed in experiments. This phenomenon is quite general, holding for close-packed and non-close-packed metal surfaces. We show that inclusion of nonlocal vdW interactions is crucial for obtaining results in quantitative agreement with experiments for adsorption energies, equilibrium distances, and vibrational energies.

  2. Site-Specific Amino Acid Preferences Are Mostly Conserved in Two Closely Related Protein Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Doud, Michael B.; Ashenberg, Orr; Bloom, Jesse D.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution drives changes in a protein’s sequence over time. The extent to which these changes in sequence lead to shifts in the underlying preference for each amino acid at each site is an important question with implications for comparative sequence-analysis methods, such as molecular phylogenetics. To quantify the extent that site-specific amino acid preferences shift during evolution, we performed deep mutational scanning on two homologs of human influenza nucleoprotein with 94% amino acid identity. We found that only a modest fraction of sites exhibited shifts in amino acid preferences that exceeded the noise in our experiments. Furthermore, even among sites that did exhibit detectable shifts, the magnitude tended to be small relative to differences between nonhomologous proteins. Given the limited change in amino acid preferences between these close homologs, we tested whether our measurements could inform site-specific substitution models that describe the evolution of nucleoproteins from more diverse influenza viruses. We found that site-specific evolutionary models informed by our experiments greatly outperformed nonsite-specific alternatives in fitting phylogenies of nucleoproteins from human, swine, equine, and avian influenza. Combining the experimental data from both homologs improved phylogenetic fit, partly because measurements in multiple genetic contexts better captured the evolutionary average of the amino acid preferences for sites with shifting preferences. Our results show that site-specific amino acid preferences are sufficiently conserved that measuring mutational effects in one protein provides information that can improve quantitative evolutionary modeling of nearby homologs. PMID:26226986

  3. Femoropopliteal bypass: the preferred site for distal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D; Levine, K; Stanton, P E; Lamis, P A

    1983-01-01

    In many patients undergoing femoropopliteal bypass, an occluded superficial femoral artery may reconstitute at the adductor canal and the popliteal artery will be patent. For these patients, uncertainty exists as to whether the preferred site for the distal anastomosis is an above-knee (AK) or below-knee (BK) bypass graft. Operation is, therefore, often based on personal preference rather than fact. To evaluate this problem, we undertook a 6-year review of the cases of 90 patients who had femoropopliteal bypass to a patent popliteal artery. Seventy AK bypass grafts were performed: 20 with autogenous vein, 25 with Dacron, and 25 with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Based on the life table analysis method, the late patency rate was 70% for vein, 68% for PTFE, and 64% for Dacron. These results were compared against results in 25 patients who had BK femoropopliteal bypass with autogenous vein, in whom the late patency rate was 65%. There was no statistical difference between these groups (P less than 0.25). An AK femoropopliteal bypass with a prosthesis yielded long-term patency rates that were similar to those of AK or BK vein grafts. When the popliteal artery is patent and the distal anastomosis can be done proximal to the knee joint, a prosthetic graft should be used. A prosthetic graft will reduce operative time, shorten recuperation time, and spare the saphenous vein for use in the coronary or infrapopliteal vessels if the need arises.

  4. Choice alters Drosophila oviposition site preference on menthol

    PubMed Central

    Abed-Vieillard, Dehbia; Cortot, Jérôme; Everaerts, Claude; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Summary Food choice and preference relies on multiple sensory systems that are under the control of genes and sensory experience. Exposure to specific nutrients and nutrient-related molecules can change food preference in vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, larval exposure of several holometabolous insects to menthol can change their adult response to this molecule. However, studies involving Drosophila melanogaster exposure to menthol produced controversial results due maybe to methodological differences. Here, we compared the oviposition-site preference of wild-type D. melanogaster lines freely or forcibly exposed to menthol-rich food. After 12 generations, oviposition-site preference diverged between the two lines. Counterintuitively, menthol ‘forced’ lines showed a persistent aversion to menthol whereas ‘free choice’ lines exhibited a decreased aversion to menthol-rich food. This effect was specific to menthol since the ‘free choice’ lines showed unaltered responses to caffeine and sucrose. This suggests that the genetic factors underlying Drosophila oviposition site preference are more rapidly influenced when flies have a choice between alternative sources compared to flies permanently exposed to the same aversive substance. PMID:24326184

  5. Choice alters Drosophila oviposition site preference on menthol.

    PubMed

    Abed-Vieillard, Dehbia; Cortot, Jérôme; Everaerts, Claude; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2014-01-15

    Food choice and preference relies on multiple sensory systems that are under the control of genes and sensory experience. Exposure to specific nutrients and nutrient-related molecules can change food preference in vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, larval exposure of several holometabolous insects to menthol can change their adult response to this molecule. However, studies involving Drosophila melanogaster exposure to menthol produced controversial results due maybe to methodological differences. Here, we compared the oviposition-site preference of wild-type D. melanogaster lines freely or forcibly exposed to menthol-rich food. After 12 generations, oviposition-site preference diverged between the two lines. Counterintuitively, menthol 'forced' lines showed a persistent aversion to menthol whereas 'free choice' lines exhibited a decreased aversion to menthol-rich food. This effect was specific to menthol since the 'free choice' lines showed unaltered responses to caffeine and sucrose. This suggests that the genetic factors underlying Drosophila oviposition site preference are more rapidly influenced when flies have a choice between alternative sources compared to flies permanently exposed to the same aversive substance.

  6. Vole preference of bilberry along gradients of simulated moose density and site productivity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Simen; Andreassen, Harry P; Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Danell, Kjell; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Browsing by large herbivores might either increase or decrease preference for the plant by other herbivores, depending on the plant response. Using a cafeteria test, we studied the preference by root voles (Microtus oeconomus [Pallas, 1776]) for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) previously subjected to 4 levels of simulated moose (Alces alces [Linnaeus, 1758]) density. The different levels of moose density were simulated at population densities relevant for Fennoscandian conditions, in exclosures situated along a site productivity gradient. We expected: (i) voles to prefer bilberry from high productivity sites over low productivity sites; (ii) voles to prefer browsed bilberry, if plants allocate resources to compensatory growth or to avoid browsed bilberry if plants allocate resources to defense; (iii) these effects to increase with increasing simulated moose density; and (iv) the concentration of plant chemicals and the plant morphology to explain vole preference. Specifically, we predicted that voles would prefer: (i) plants with high nitrogen content; (ii) plants with low content of defensive substances; and (iii) tall plants with long shoots. Voles preferred bilberry from the high productivity sites compared to the low productivity sites. We also found an interaction between site productivity and simulated moose density, where voles preferred unbrowsed plants at low productivity sites and intermediate levels of browsing at high productivity sites. There was no effect of plant chemistry or morphology on vole preference. We conclude that moose browsing impacts the food preference of voles. With the current high densities of moose in Fennoscandia, this could potentially influence vole food selection and population dynamics over large geographical areas.

  7. Nest-site preference of northern goshawks in southcentral Wyoming

    Treesearch

    John R. Squires; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, we studied the nest-site preference of goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) nesting in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of the Medicine Bow National Forest, southcentral Wyoming. For 39 active pairs of goshawks, we described nesting habitat at 3 spatial scales: nest tree, nest-tree area (0.04 ha circle centered at nest tree), and nest stand (...

  8. Pupariation site preference within and between Drosophila sibling species.

    PubMed

    Erezyilmaz, Deniz F; Stern, David L

    2013-09-01

    Holometabolous insects pass through a sedentary pupal stage and often choose a location for pupation that is different from the site of larval feeding. We have characterized a difference in pupariation site choice within and between sibling species of Drosophila. We found that, in nature, Drosophila sechellia pupariate within their host fruit, Morinda citrifolia, and that they perform this behavior in laboratory assays. In contrast, in the laboratory, geographically diverse strains of Drosophila simulans vary in their pupariation site preference; D. simulans lines from the ancestral range in southeast Africa pupariate on fruit, or a fruit substitute, whereas populations from Europe or the New World select sites off of fruit. We explored the genetic basis for the evolved preference in puariation site preference by performing quantitative trait locus mapping within and between species. We found that the interspecific difference is controlled largely by loci on chromosomes X and II. In contrast, variation between two strains of D. simulans appears to be highly polygenic, with the majority of phenotypic effects due to loci on chromosome III. These data address the genetic basis of how new traits arise as species diverge and populations disperse. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Modeling of Substitutional Site Preference in Ordered Intermetallic Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Honecy, Frank

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the site substitution scheme of specific alloying elements in ordered compounds and the dependence of site occupancy on compound stoichiometry, alloy concentration. This basic knowledge, and the interactions with other alloying additions are necessary in order to predict and understand the effect of various alloying schemes on the physical properties of a material, its response to various temperature treatments, and the resulting mechanical properties. Many theoretical methods can provide useful but limited insight in this area, since most techniques suffer from constraints in the type of elements and the crystallographic structures that can be modeled. With this in mind, the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys was designed to overcome these limitations, with the intent of providing an useful tool for the theoretical prediction of fundamental properties and structure of complex systems. After a brief description of the BFS method, its use for the determination of site substitution schemes for individual as well as collective alloying additions to intermetallic systems is described, including results for the concentration dependence of the lattice parameter. Focusing on B2 NiAl, FeAl and CoAl alloys, the energetics of Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Hf, Ta and W alloying additions are surveyed. The effect of single additions as well as the result of two simultaneous additions, discussing the interaction between additions and their influence on site preference schemes is considered. Finally, the BFS analysis is extended to ternary L1(sub 2) (Heusler phase) alloys. A comparison between experimental and theoretical results for the limited number of cases for which experimental data is available is also included.

  10. Continuous and unattended measurements of the site preference of nitrous oxide emitted from an agricultural soil using quantum cascade laser spectrometry with intercomparison with isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akinori; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Akiyama, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yasuhiro

    2014-07-15

    The difference between the (15)N natural abundance of (14)N-(15)N-O and (15)N-(14)N-O (site preference; SP) is used to understand the mechanisms underlying N2O emissions from soils. We investigated the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometry for continuous and precise analysis of the SP of N2O emitted from a field soil at atmospheric mixing ratios. A QCL-based spectrometer was used to determine the SP of soil-emitted N2O accumulated in a closed chamber system without preconcentration. N2O standards (<2500 ppbv) were used to evaluate the precision of the QCL spectrometry (QCLS) system. CO2 and H2O were removed from the gas samples. Intercomparison measurements of QCLS and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) were performed on N2O calibration gases at different mixing ratios. The observed dependency of the QCLS result on the N2O mixing ratio was corrected. Measurement of SP of N2O emitted from the field suggested that the SP of N2O varied from 0 to 40‰ over a period of 1 month. The precisions of the SP measurements (300-2500 ppbv) were <1.9‰ for δ(15)N(α) values, <2.6‰ for δ(15)N(β) values, <2.1‰ for δ(15)N(bulk) values, and <2.1‰ for the SP (1 min averaging time) obtained on a once-an-hour calibrated QCLS system, with a cell temperature control precision of ±0.01 K. Continuous and unattended measurements of the SP of N2O emitted from soils were achieved at low N2O mixing ratios. The accuracy of the QCLS measurements for the SP of N2O was significantly improved by precisely controlling the temperature of the system and by correcting for the concentration dependency of the raw data through an intercomparison with IRMS measurements. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Preferred Sensor Sites for Surface EMG Signal Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Farah; Roy, Serge H.; De Luca, Carlo J.

    2012-01-01

    Technologies for decomposing the electromyographic (EMG) signal into its constituent motor unit action potential trains have become more practical by the advent of a non-invasive methodology using surface EMG (sEMG) sensors placed on the skin above the muscle of interest (De Luca et al. 2006 and Nawab et al. 2010). This advancement has widespread appeal among researchers and clinicians because of the ease of use, reduced risk of infection, and the greater number of motor unit action potential trains obtained compared to needle sensor techniques. In this study we investigated the influence of the sensor site on the number of identified motor unit action potential trains in six lower limb and one upper limb muscle with the intent of locating preferred sensor sites that provided the greatest number of decomposed motor unit action potential trains, or motor unit yield. Sensor sites rendered varying motor unit yields throughout the surface of a muscle. The preferred sites were located between the center and the tendinous areas of the muscle. The motor unit yield was positively correlated to the signal to noise ratio of the detected sEMG. The signal to noise ratio was inversely related to the thickness of the tissue between the sensor and the muscle fibers. A signal to noise ratio of 3 was found to be the minimum required to obtain a reliable motor unit yield. PMID:22260842

  12. Eliciting Web Site Preferences of People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Internet can be an excellent tool to help people with learning disabilities access relevant and appropriately written information. However, little work has been undertaken to ascertain web design or content preferences for this cohort. This paper examines methods to address this issue. Twenty five participants were presented with three web…

  13. Eliciting Web Site Preferences of People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Internet can be an excellent tool to help people with learning disabilities access relevant and appropriately written information. However, little work has been undertaken to ascertain web design or content preferences for this cohort. This paper examines methods to address this issue. Twenty five participants were presented with three web…

  14. Mutational Studies on Resurrected Ancestral Proteins Reveal Conservation of Site-Specific Amino Acid Preferences throughout Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Valeria A.; Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Delgado-Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Barroso-delJesus, Alicia; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Gavira, Jose A.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Local protein interactions (“molecular context” effects) dictate amino acid replacements and can be described in terms of site-specific, energetic preferences for any different amino acid. It has been recently debated whether these preferences remain approximately constant during evolution or whether, due to coevolution of sites, they change strongly. Such research highlights an unresolved and fundamental issue with far-reaching implications for phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution modeling. Here, we take advantage of the recent availability of phenotypically supported laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins and β-lactamases to experimentally address the change of site-specific amino acid preferences over long geological timescales. Extensive mutational analyses support the notion that evolutionary adjustment to a new amino acid may occur, but to a large extent this is insufficient to erase the primitive preference for amino acid replacements. Generally, site-specific amino acid preferences appear to remain conserved throughout evolutionary history despite local sequence divergence. We show such preference conservation to be readily understandable in molecular terms and we provide crystallographic evidence for an intriguing structural-switch mechanism: Energetic preference for an ancestral amino acid in a modern protein can be linked to reorganization upon mutation to the ancestral local structure around the mutated site. Finally, we point out that site-specific preference conservation naturally leads to one plausible evolutionary explanation for the existence of intragenic global suppressor mutations. PMID:25392342

  15. Boron site preference in ternary Ta and Nb boron silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Atta U.; Nunes, Carlos A.; Coelho, Gilberto C.; Suzuki, Paulo A.; Grytsiv, Andriy; Bourree, Francoise; Rogl, Peter F.

    2012-06-15

    X-ray single crystal (XSC) and neutron powder diffraction data (NPD) were used to elucidate boron site preference for five ternary phases. Ta{sub 3}Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x} (x=0.112(4)) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type (space group P4{sub 2}/n) with B-atoms sharing the 8g site with Si atoms. Ta{sub 5}Si{sub 3-x} (x=0.03(1); Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}- type) crystallizes with space group I4/mcm, exhibiting a small amount of vacancies on the 4a site. Both, Ta{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.568(3), and Nb{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.59(2), are part of solid solutions of M{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type into the ternary M-Si-B systems (M=Nb or Ta) with B replacing Si on the 8h site. The D8{sub 8}-phase in the Nb-Si-B system crystallizes with the Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type revealing the formula Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292(3)) with B partially filling the voids in the 2b site of the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} parent type. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of a series of compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry revealing details on the boron incorporation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a series of compounds have been solved by X-ray single crystal diffractometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ta{sub 3}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}) (x=0.112) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type, B and Si atoms randomly share the 8g site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292; Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type) was solved from NPD.

  16. Site-preference and valency for rare-earth sites in (R-Ce)2Fe14B magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Mahmud; McCallum, R. W.; Johnson, D. D.

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth (R) permanent magnets of R2Fe14B have technological importance due to their high energy products, and they have two R-sites (Wyckoff 4f and 4g, with four-fold multiplicity) that affect chemistry and valence. Designing magnetic behavior and stability via alloying is technologically relevant to reduce critical (expensive) R-content while retaining key properties; cerium, an abundant (cheap) R-element, offers this potential. We calculate magnetic properties and Ce site preference in (R1-xCex)2Fe14B [R = La,Nd] using density functional theory (DFT) methods—including a DFT + U scheme to treat localized 4f-electrons. Fe moments compare well with neutron data—almost unaffected by Hubbard U, and weakly affected by spin-orbit coupling. In La2Fe14B, Ce alloys for 0≤x≤1 and prefers smaller R(4f) sites, as observed, a trend we find unaffected by valence. Whereas, in Nd2Fe14B, Ce is predicted to have limited alloying (x ≤0.3) with a preference for larger R(4g) sites, resulting in weak partial ordering and segregation. The Curie temperatures versus x for (Nd,Ce) were predicted for a typical sample processing and verified experimentally.

  17. On the site preferences of ternary additions to triple defect B2 intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, L.M.; Chen, S.L.; Chang, Y.A.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge of the site preference of ternary solute additions is essential to developing an understanding of how these solutes affect the properties of B2 intermetallic compounds. A quasichemical model will be presented which is able to predict the site preferences of dilute solute additions to triple defect B2 compounds. The only parameters required are enthalpies of formation at the stoichiometric composition. General equations are developed which can be used to determine site occupations and defect concentrations for dilute as well as non-dilute solute additions. These equations use atom pair bond enthalpies as the parameters. It is found that the site preferences of dilute additions are not always in agreement with predictions based on the solubility lobes in ternary Gibbs isotherms, Predictions for dilute additions to NiAl and FeAl are compared to experimental results found in the literature. Satisfactory correlation is found between the model and the experimental results. In addition, the predictions from the model on vacancy concentrations in Fe doped NiAl are compared to recent experimental results by the authors.

  18. Differential responses to artificial selection on oviposition site preferences in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans.

    PubMed

    Soto, Eduardo M; Betti, María I L; Hurtado, Juan; Hasson, Esteban

    2015-12-01

    The preference-performance relationship in plant-insect interactions is a central theme in evolutionary ecology. Among many insects, eggs are vulnerable and larvae have limited mobility, making the choice of an appropriate oviposition site one of the most important decisions for a female. We investigated the evolution of oviposition preferences in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and Drosophila simulans Sturtevant by artificially selecting for the preference for 2 natural resources, grape and quince. The main finding of our study is the differential responses of D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Although preferences evolved in the experimental populations of D. melanogaster, responses were not consistent with the selection regimes applied. In contrast, responses in D. simulans were consistent with expectations, demonstrating that this species has selectable genetic variation for the trait. Furthermore, crosses between D. simulans divergent lines showed that the genetic factors involved in grape preference appear to be largely recessive. In summary, our artificial selection study suggests that D. melanogaster and D. simulans possess different genetic architectures for this trait.

  19. Managing for desired experiences and site preferences: the case of fee-fishing anglers.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Michael A; Pierskalla, Chad D

    2007-02-01

    Fee-fishing involves paying a fee for the privilege of fishing a body of water where fish populations are enhanced by stocking fish. Past literature on this activity has focused more on the operation of the enterprise and management of the fish than the people and site characteristics. The objectives of the study were to profile anglers and describe their site/management preferences. This study utilized an on-site interview and mail-back questionnaire at fee-fishing establishments in West Virginia (n = 212). Factor analysis of desired recreation experiences yielded five factors: Experience nature & adventure, Stress release & relaxation, Trophy fishing, Escape, and Family time. Cluster analysis showed that these anglers can be segmented into two distinct clusters, differing by sociodemographic characteristics, fishing behavior, and site/management preferences. The findings from this study provide baseline data to aid public resource managers and fee-fishing business owners in determining how to provide satisfying outdoor experiences and deliver desired services on-site. Future research will be needed from additional fee-fishing sites to obtain more detail about this outdoor recreation cohort and be able to generalize to a larger population of participants.

  20. Managing for Desired Experiences and Site Preferences: The Case of Fee-Fishing Anglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Michael A.; Pierskalla, Chad D.

    2007-02-01

    Fee-fishing involves paying a fee for the privilege of fishing a body of water where fish populations are enhanced by stocking fish. Past literature on this activity has focused more on the operation of the enterprise and management of the fish than the people and site characteristics. The objectives of the study were to profile anglers and describe their site/management preferences. This study utilized an on-site interview and mail-back questionnaire at fee-fishing establishments in West Virginia ( n = 212). Factor analysis of desired recreation experiences yielded five factors: Experience nature & adventure, Stress release & relaxation, Trophy fishing, Escape, and Family time. Cluster analysis showed that these anglers can be segmented into two distinct clusters, differing by sociodemographic characteristics, fishing behavior, and site/management preferences. The findings from this study provide baseline data to aid public resource managers and fee-fishing business owners in determining how to provide satisfying outdoor experiences and deliver desired services on-site. Future research will be needed from additional fee-fishing sites to obtain more detail about this outdoor recreation cohort and be able to generalize to a larger population of participants.

  1. Inter-seasonal maintenance of individual nest site preferences in hawksbill sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Stephanie J; Mrosovsky, N

    2006-11-01

    Within a single population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), we found a behavioral polymorphism for maternal nest site choice with respect to beach microhabitat characteristics. Some females preferred to nest in littoral forest and in places with overstory vegetation cover, and others preferred to nest in more open, deforested areas. Nest site choice was consistent within and between nesting seasons two years apart. This was not a result of females simply returning to the same location along the shoreline; beach sections used by individual turtles varied between seasons. Nest site choice was not influenced by changes in beach environment (e.g., beach width and foliage cover) or by changes in females' reproductive output (e.g., clutch size), suggesting that fidelity to particular microhabitats is a major determinant of the observed nesting patterns. Because hawksbills exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination, if the behavioral polymorphism in nest site choice has a genetic basis, as is plausible, then this would have implications for sex ratio evolution and offspring survival. By taking an individual-based approach to the study of maternal behavior we reveal previously overlooked individual variation and hope to provide some impetus for more detailed studies of nest site choice.

  2. Consensus preferred hydration sites in six FKBP12-drug complexes.

    PubMed

    Faerman, C H; Karplus, P A

    1995-09-01

    A set of consensus hydration sites for the FK506-FKBP12 complex are derived by comparing six FKBP12-drug complexes. These hydration sites include a subset of the observed water molecules plus some sites that are occupied by neighboring protein atoms in the FK506-FKBP12 crystal structure. Two hydration prediction algorithms, AUTO-SOL and AQUARIUS2, showed significant increases in apparent efficacy using these consensus water sites, suggesting that our proposed set of consensus hydration sites is truly a better representation of the hydration properties of FKBP12 in solution. Predictably, the consensus hydration sites include all buried water molecules. Otherwise, the features of solvation sites included in the consensus list versus those discarded reveal no distinctive features that would allow them to be selected unambiguously without reference to multiple crystal forms. We suggest that analyses such as this one are a crucial prelude to any theoretical analysis aimed at understanding hydration properties.

  3. Understanding dopant site preferences in doped iron oxide nanoparticles: Does a relaxed unit cell in nanoparticle alter the site preference within the spinel structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, Vanessa LaVelle Karandi

    The dopant behavior of spinels has been investigated for over half a century and yet new insight into this class of materials is still being made today. The dominating question has been "Into which site in the spinel structure does the dopant substitute?". In this work, we will explore this question for the nanoparticle regime. Through this work the potential for a relaxation of the normal strains that can arise in a bulk crystal structure is demonstrated in nanoparticles. The hypothesis that this relaxation can lead to unconventional dopant site preferences for dopants in an iron oxide spinel structure is demonstrated. Nanoparticles ranging from 6 nm to 15 nm in diameter have been synthesized with vanadium, manganese, zinc and gallium doped into the iron oxide spinels. The size and structure of the nanoparticles was investigated with transmission electron microscope and X-ray scattering pair distribution functions. The dopant's valence state was investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the coordination and magnetic properties of the materials were investigated with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Alternating current magnetic susceptibility was used to determine the degree of interaction between the particles, and in the case of non-interacting particles, anisotropy energies were extracted. In this study the dopant atoms were found to behave similarly to their bulk counterparts, with the important exception of manganese and vanadium. Manganese doped iron-oxide nanoparticles show clear evidence of crystalline relaxation. Vanadium substituted into the preferred tetrahedral site in the nanoparticle form, unlike the bulk behavior. Both observations are attributed to the accommodating relaxation found in nanoparticles.

  4. Where do we locate the moon base. [considering polar regions as preferred lunar observatory sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Because the lunar polar regions permit continuous solar energy collection and adjacent cryogenic temperature, they may be the preferred sites for early human occupation and use of the moon. If permafrost exists in the polar shaded regions, this preference will become dominant. Though not ideal from the point of view of all-sky coverage for astronomical observations, and also possibly subject to terminator-plane particle hazes near the surface, polar sites (especially the south polar region) may offer enough advantages (e.g., constant cryogenic telescope environments and unlimited tracking time) to be preferred sites for the first lunar observatories.

  5. Substitute sweeteners: diverse bacterial oligosaccharyltransferases with unique N-glycosylation site preferences.

    PubMed

    Ollis, Anne A; Chai, Yi; Natarajan, Aravind; Perregaux, Emily; Jaroentomeechai, Thapakorn; Guarino, Cassandra; Smith, Jessica; Zhang, Sheng; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2015-10-20

    The central enzyme in the Campylobacter jejuni asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway is the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), PglB, which transfers preassembled glycans to specific asparagine residues in target proteins. While C. jejuni PglB (CjPglB) can transfer many diverse glycan structures, the acceptor sites that it recognizes are restricted predominantly to those having a negatively charged residue in the -2 position relative to the asparagine. Here, we investigated the acceptor-site preferences for 23 homologs with natural sequence variation compared to CjPglB. Using an ectopic trans-complementation assay for CjPglB function in glycosylation-competent Escherichia coli, we demonstrated in vivo activity for 16 of the candidate OSTs. Interestingly, the OSTs from Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio gigas, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris, exhibited significantly relaxed specificity towards the -2 position compared to CjPglB. These enzymes glycosylated minimal N-X-T motifs in multiple targets and each followed unique, as yet unknown, rules governing acceptor-site preferences. One notable example is D. gigas PglB, which was the only bacterial OST to glycosylate the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G at its native 'QYNST' sequon. Overall, we find that a subset of bacterial OSTs follow their own rules for acceptor-site specificity, thereby expanding the glycoengineering toolbox with previously unavailable biocatalytic diversity.

  6. Substitute sweeteners: diverse bacterial oligosaccharyltransferases with unique N-glycosylation site preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ollis, Anne A.; Chai, Yi; Natarajan, Aravind; Perregaux, Emily; Jaroentomeechai, Thapakorn; Guarino, Cassandra; Smith, Jessica; Zhang, Sheng; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    The central enzyme in the Campylobacter jejuni asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway is the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), PglB, which transfers preassembled glycans to specific asparagine residues in target proteins. While C. jejuni PglB (CjPglB) can transfer many diverse glycan structures, the acceptor sites that it recognizes are restricted predominantly to those having a negatively charged residue in the −2 position relative to the asparagine. Here, we investigated the acceptor-site preferences for 23 homologs with natural sequence variation compared to CjPglB. Using an ectopic trans-complementation assay for CjPglB function in glycosylation-competent Escherichia coli, we demonstrated in vivo activity for 16 of the candidate OSTs. Interestingly, the OSTs from Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio gigas, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris, exhibited significantly relaxed specificity towards the −2 position compared to CjPglB. These enzymes glycosylated minimal N-X-T motifs in multiple targets and each followed unique, as yet unknown, rules governing acceptor-site preferences. One notable example is D. gigas PglB, which was the only bacterial OST to glycosylate the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G at its native ‘QYNST’ sequon. Overall, we find that a subset of bacterial OSTs follow their own rules for acceptor-site specificity, thereby expanding the glycoengineering toolbox with previously unavailable biocatalytic diversity. PMID:26482295

  7. Selection Rule of Preferred Doping Site for n-Type Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Li, S. S.; Xia, J. B.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-06-25

    Using first-principles calculations and analysis, we show that to create shallow n-type dopants in oxides, anion site doping is preferred for more covalent oxides such as SnO{sub 2} and cation site doping is preferred for more ionic oxides such as ZnO. This is because for more ionic oxides, the conduction band minimum (CBM) state actually contains a considerable amount of O 3s orbitals, thus anion site doping can cause large perturbation on the CBM and consequently produces deeper donor levels. We also show that whether it is cation site doping or anion site doping, the oxygen-poor condition should always be used.

  8. Ontogenetic and sex-based differences in habitat preferences and site fidelity of White's seahorse Hippocampus whitei.

    PubMed

    Harasti, D; Martin-Smith, K; Gladstone, W

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare habitat preferences for male and female adult and juvenile White's seahorse Hippocampus whitei and assess their movements and site fidelity over 4 years. Data were collected from three sites along 1.5 km of estuarine shoreline in Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia, from 2006 to 2009 using H. whitei that had been tagged with visible implant fluorescent elastomer. Relative availability of 12 habitats and habitat preferences of H. whitei was determined, based on the habitat that H. whitei used as a holdfast. Hippocampus whitei occurred in nine different habitats; adults preferred sponge and soft coral Dendronephthya australis habitats with no difference between male and female habitat preferences whilst juveniles preferred gorgonian Euplexaura sp. habitat. There was a significant preference by adults for D. australis colonies with height >40 cm and avoidance of colonies <20 cm. Neither adults nor juveniles used sand or the seagrasses Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni and Halophila ovalis. Hippocampus whitei showed cryptic behaviour with c. 50% of adult sightings cryptic and c. 75% for juveniles with crypsis occurring predominantly in Sargassum sp. for adults and Euplexaura sp. habitat for juveniles. Within sites, females moved significantly longer distances (maximum of 70 m) than males (maximum of 38 m) over 20 months. Strong site fidelity was displayed by H. whitei with males persisting at the same site for up to 56 months and females for 49 months and no H. whitei moved between sites. The longest period that an H. whitei was recorded on the same holdfast was 17 months for a male and 10 months for a female. As this species displays strong site fidelity, specific habitat preferences and has a limited distribution, future management needs to minimize the risk of habitat disturbance as loss of key habitats could have a negative effect on species abundance and distribution.

  9. Phase Stability and Site Preference of Tb-Fe-Co-V Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jiang; Qian, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the structural properties of intermetallic Tb3Fe27.4−xCoxV1.6 with Nd3(Fe,Ti)29 structure has been studied by using interatomic pair potentials obtained through the lattice inversion method. Calculated results show that the preferential occupation site of the V atom is found to be the 4i(Fe3) site, and Fe atoms are substituted for Co atoms with a strong preference for the 8j(Fe8) site. The calculated lattice constants coincide quite well with experimental values. The calculated crystal structure can recover after either an overall wide-range macrodeformation or atomic random motion, demonstrating that this system has the stable structure of Nd3(Fe,Ti)29. All these prove the effectiveness of interatomic pair potentials obtained through the lattice inversion method in the description of rare-earth materials. PMID:23878530

  10. Rapid screening of endonuclease target site preference using a modified bacterial two-plasmid selection.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Jason M; Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Edgell, David R

    2014-01-01

    Homing endonucleases and other site-specific endonucleases have potential applications in genome editing, yet efficient targeting requires a thorough understanding of DNA-sequence specificity. Here, we describe a modified two-plasmid genetic selection in Escherichia coli that allows rapid profiling of nucleotide substitutions within a target site of given endonucleases. The selection utilizes a toxic plasmid (pTox) that encodes a DNA gyrase toxin in addition to the endonuclease target site. Cleavage of the toxic plasmid by an endonuclease expressed from a second plasmid (pEndo) facilitates growth under selective conditions. The modified protocol utilizes competent cells harboring the endonuclease expression plasmid into which target site plasmids are transformed. Replica plating on nonselective and selective media plates identifies cleavable and non-cleavable targets. Thus, a library of randomized target sites, or many individual target sites, can be analyzed using a single transformation. Both cleavable and non-cleavable targets can be analyzed by DNA sequencing to gain information about nucleotide preference in the endonuclease's target site.

  11. The distributional preferences of an elite.

    PubMed

    Fisman, Raymond; Jakiela, Pamela; Kariv, Shachar; Markovits, Daniel

    2015-09-18

    We studied the distributional preferences of an elite cadre of Yale Law School students, a group that will assume positions of power in U.S. society. Our experimental design allows us to test whether redistributive decisions are consistent with utility maximization and to decompose underlying preferences into two qualitatively different tradeoffs: fair-mindedness versus self-interest, and equality versus efficiency. Yale Law School subjects are more consistent than subjects drawn from the American Life Panel, a diverse sample of Americans. Relative to the American Life Panel, Yale Law School subjects are also less fair-minded and substantially more efficiency-focused. We further show that our measure of equality-efficiency tradeoffs predicts Yale Law School students' career choices: Equality-minded subjects are more likely to be employed at nonprofit organizations. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Oviposition site preference and egg hatchability of Anopheles gambiae: effects of land cover types.

    PubMed

    Munga, Stephen; Minakawa, Noboru; Zhou, Guofa; Barrack, Okeyo-Owuor J; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2005-11-01

    We studied the oviposition site preference and egg hatchability of Anopheles gambiae Giles with water collected from farmlands, forests, and natural wetlands. Water types significantly affected oviposition preference. Mosquitoes deposited significantly more eggs in rainwater in both the dry and wet seasons than waters from forests and wetlands, suggesting that An. gambiae prefers water with few impurities for oviposition. In the dry season, An. gambiae females also deposited significantly more eggs in waters from farmlands than those from forests and natural wetlands, but these differences were not statistically significant during the wet season. In both indoor and natural conditions, egg mortality in natural wetland habitats was significantly higher than in farmland habitats. The average water temperature in natural wetland habitats was significantly lower than farmland habitats in the natural conditions, but it remained the same under indoor experimental conditions, suggesting that factors other than water temperature play an important role in egg hatchability. Together with the findings from previous studies on the effects of land cover on larval survivorship, our results support the hypothesis that variations in habitat conditions induced by different land cover types contribute to the heterogeneous spatial distribution of An. gambiae larvae in the western Kenya highland.

  13. Physical Activity in an Underserved Population: Identifying Technology Preferences.

    PubMed

    Medairos, Robert; Kang, Vicky; Aboubakare, Carissa; Kramer, Matthew; Dugan, Sheila Ann

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify patterns of use and preferences related to technology platforms that could support physical activity (PA) programs in an underserved population. A 29-item questionnaire was administered at 5 health and wellness sites targeting low income communities in Chicago. Frequency tables were generated for Internet, cell phone, and social media use and preferences. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate differences across age and income groups. A total of 291 individuals participated and were predominantly female (69.0%). Majority reported incomes less than $30,000 (72.9%) and identified as African American/Black/Caribbean (49.3%) or Mexican/Mexican American (34.3%). Most participants regularly used smartphones (63.2%) and the Internet (75.9%). Respondents frequently used Facebook (84.8%), and less commonly used Instagram (43.6%), and Twitter (20.0%). Free Internet-based exercise programs were the most preferred method to increase PA levels (31.6%), while some respondents (21.0%) thought none of the surveyed technology applications would help. Cell phone, Internet, and social media use is common among the surveyed underserved population. Technology preferences to increase PA levels varied, with a considerable number of respondents not preferring the surveyed technology platforms. Creating educational opportunities to increase awareness may maximize the effectiveness of technology-based PA interventions.

  14. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in borax

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhananga, T.M.; Matsuo, S.

    1985-01-03

    The total hydrogen involved in borax synthesized at 25/sup 0/C in aqueous solution is enriched in deuterium by 5.3% compared with the mother liquor. There is no change in the value of the D/H fractionation factor between the hydrogen in borax and those in the mother liquor with changes in the degree of supersaturation. The fractionation factor changes slightly with a change in the crystallization temperature of borax in the range from 5 to 25/sup 0/C. The D/H ratio in the different sites of borax was estimated by a fractional dehydration technique. The results show that hydrogen atoms of the polyanionic group (B/sub 4/O/sub 5/(OH)/sub 4/) are much more enriched in deuterium than those of the cationic group (Na/sub 2/ x 8H/sub 2/O). The delta D values, referred to the mother liquor from which the borax was crystallized, for the cationic group (site A) and the polyanionic group (site B) are -35 +/- 3 and 167 +/- 13%, respectively based on the fractional dehydration results obtained at -21/sup 0/C. At -21/sup 0/C, isotopic exchange between different sites during dehydration is assumed not to occur. The mechanism for dehydration of borax is discussed. 48 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Domain Name and Site Hosting Preferences: Empirical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daniel, Thomas; Wai, Chew Kok

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of commercial Web sites that analyzed the correlation between domain names and regional allocation of IP addresses. Explains Internet addresses and names, discusses results which showed that domain names don't always correspond to the location of the host, and offers suggestions for international sampling. (Contains 25…

  16. Domain Name and Site Hosting Preferences: Empirical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daniel, Thomas; Wai, Chew Kok

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of commercial Web sites that analyzed the correlation between domain names and regional allocation of IP addresses. Explains Internet addresses and names, discusses results which showed that domain names don't always correspond to the location of the host, and offers suggestions for international sampling. (Contains 25…

  17. User preference as quality markers of paediatric web sites.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Borges, Angel A; Macías-Cervi, Pablo; Gaspar-Guardado, Asunción; Torres-Alvarez De Arcaya, María Luisa; Ruíz-Rabaza, Ana; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro

    2003-09-01

    Little is known about the ability of internet users to distinguish the best medical resources online, and how their preferences, measured by usage and popularity indexes, correlate with established quality criteria. Our objective was to analyse whether the number of inbound links and/or daily visits to a sample of paediatric web pages are reliable quality markers of the pages. Two-year follow-up study of 363 web pages with paediatric information. The number of inbound links and the average number of daily visits to the pages were calculated on a yearly basis. In addition, their rates of compliance with the codes of conduct, guidelines and/or principles of three international organizations were evaluated. The quality code most widely met by the sample web pages was the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (overall rate, 60.2%). Sample pages showed a low degree of compliance with principles related to privacy, confidentiality and electronic commerce (overall rate less than 45%). Most importantly, we observed a moderate, significant correlation between compliance with quality criteria and the number of inbound links (p < 0.001). However, no correlation was found between the number of daily visits to a page and its degree of compliance with the principles. Some indexes derived from the analysis of webmasters' hyperlinks could be reliable quality markers of medical web resources.

  18. Initial Findings Using an Alternative Assessment of Body Shape Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryujin, Donald H.; And Others

    Due to concerns that body shape preferences contribute to eating disorders among women, a new method to assess observer preferences for female body shapes was devised. In prior studies women have preferred thin models, but men have preferred models of average weight. In Experiment 1, an underweight female model was photographed in a white top and…

  19. Nest site preferences of the Woodlark (Lullula arborea) and its association with artificial nest predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Roman; Bosco, Laura; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Jacot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The Woodlark is an insectivorous bird, which is listed as a priority species in Switzerland. In Valais, a stronghold of this species in the country, the birds breed in intensively managed vineyards and show a preference for parcels with ground vegetation during territory establishment. As a ground-breeder, the species is highly vulnerable to nest predation by avian and mammal predators. The aims of our study were firstly to investigate nest site preferences of the woodlark within vineyards and secondly to compare the predation risk of artificial nests dependent of ground vegetation structure. Our results point out that the Woodlark prefers patches of tall and dense ground cover within vegetated vineyard parcels and avoids parcels that have been treated with herbicides. In a follow-up experiment we conducted a study comparing the predation rate of artificial nests between bare parcels (<20% vegetated area) and vegetated parcels (>40% vegetated area). Artificial nests equipped with one quail egg were distributed pairwise between two adjacent parcels that fulfilled the upper criteria and were monitored by trail cameras during 10-12 days. Predation rate was generally low (4 predation events) and only occurred in bare parcels. These data indicate that conspicuousness of avian nests may be decreased in vegetated parcels and that the amount of vegetation can lower the predation risk on ground breeding birds - another indication for the importance of ground vegetation for a successful conservation of the endangered Woodlark in Swiss vineyards.

  20. Larval exposure to azadirachtin affects fitness and oviposition site preference of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bezzar-Bendjazia, Radia; Kilani-Morakchi, Samira; Aribi, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0.28μg) and LD50 (0.67μg) and evaluated on fitness (development duration, fecundity, adult survival) and oviposition site preference with and without choice. Results showed that azadirachtin increased significantly at the two tested doses the duration of larval and pupal development. Moreover, azadirachtin treatment reduced significantly adult's survival of both sex as compared to control. In addition, azadirachtin affected fecundity of flies by a significant reduction of the number of eggs laid. Finally results showed that females present clear preference for oviposition in control medium. Pre-imaginal exposure (L3) to azadirachtin increased aversion to this substance suggesting a memorability of the learned avoidance. The results provide some evidence that larval exposure to azadirachtin altered adult oviposition preference as well as major fitness traits of D. melanogaster. Theses finding may reinforce behavioural avoidance of azadirachtin and contribute as repellent strategies in integrated pest management programmes.

  1. Site preferences for La and Pr in Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2016-11-01

    Using the first principles method, we studied the site preference and the magnetic ground state of rare-earth elements La and Pr doped Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet. It was found that the La preferred the f-site doping at low doping ratio (12.5 %) while the g-site was more favorable at high doping (25 %). For the Pr impurity, we observed the opposite behavior because the site preference was switched. In addition, the spin configuration also depended on the impurity type and concentration. An antiferromagnetic (AFM) type spin configuration was found at both lower and higher doping ratios of La. For the Pr impurity, at a lower doping ratio, the AFM spin configuration was still preserved. However, the ferromagnetic spin configuration was more stable at a high doping ratio. Through impurity-substitution energy calculations, we found that the La impurity preferred to enter into the 2:14:1 phase at low doping, but it favored the grain-boundary phase at high (25 %) doping ratio. On the other hand, we observed that the Pr always preferred the main phase for both low and high doping concentrations.

  2. Casposon integration shows strong target site preference and recapitulates protospacer integration by CRISPR-Cas systems

    PubMed Central

    Béguin, Pierre; Charpin, Nicole; Koonin, Eugene V.; Forterre, Patrick; Krupovic, Mart

    2016-01-01

    Casposons are a recently discovered group of large DNA transposons present in diverse bacterial and archaeal genomes. For integration into the host chromosome, casposons employ an endonuclease that is homologous to the Cas1 protein involved in protospacer integration by the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system. Here we describe the site-preference of integration by the Cas1 integrase (casposase) encoded by the casposon of the archaeon Aciduliprofundum boonei. Oligonucleotide duplexes derived from the terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of the A. boonei casposon as well as mini-casposons flanked by the TIR inserted preferentially at a site reconstituting the original A. boonei target site. As in the A. boonei genome, the insertion was accompanied by a 15-bp direct target site duplication (TSD). The minimal functional target consisted of the 15-bp TSD segment and the adjacent 18-bp sequence which comprises the 3′ end of the tRNA-Pro gene corresponding to the TΨC loop. The functional casposase target site bears clear resemblance to the leader sequence-repeat junction which is the target for protospacer integration catalyzed by the Cas1–Cas2 adaptation module of CRISPR-Cas. These findings reinforce the mechanistic similarities and evolutionary connection between the casposons and the adaptation module of the prokaryotic adaptive immunity systems. PMID:27655632

  3. Casposon integration shows strong target site preference and recapitulates protospacer integration by CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Béguin, Pierre; Charpin, Nicole; Koonin, Eugene V; Forterre, Patrick; Krupovic, Mart

    2016-12-01

    Casposons are a recently discovered group of large DNA transposons present in diverse bacterial and archaeal genomes. For integration into the host chromosome, casposons employ an endonuclease that is homologous to the Cas1 protein involved in protospacer integration by the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system. Here we describe the site-preference of integration by the Cas1 integrase (casposase) encoded by the casposon of the archaeon Aciduliprofundum boonei Oligonucleotide duplexes derived from the terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of the A. boonei casposon as well as mini-casposons flanked by the TIR inserted preferentially at a site reconstituting the original A. boonei target site. As in the A. boonei genome, the insertion was accompanied by a 15-bp direct target site duplication (TSD). The minimal functional target consisted of the 15-bp TSD segment and the adjacent 18-bp sequence which comprises the 3' end of the tRNA-Pro gene corresponding to the TΨC loop. The functional casposase target site bears clear resemblance to the leader sequence-repeat junction which is the target for protospacer integration catalyzed by the Cas1-Cas2 adaptation module of CRISPR-Cas. These findings reinforce the mechanistic similarities and evolutionary connection between the casposons and the adaptation module of the prokaryotic adaptive immunity systems.

  4. Whole Genome Resequencing Reveals Natural Target Site Preferences of Transposable Elements in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Linheiro, Raquel S.; Bergman, Casey M.

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements are mobile DNA sequences that integrate into host genomes using diverse mechanisms with varying degrees of target site specificity. While the target site preferences of some engineered transposable elements are well studied, the natural target preferences of most transposable elements are poorly characterized. Using population genomic resequencing data from 166 strains of Drosophila melanogaster, we identified over 8,000 new insertion sites not present in the reference genome sequence that we used to decode the natural target preferences of 22 families of transposable element in this species. We found that terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon families present clade-specific target site duplications and target site sequence motifs. Additionally, we found that the sequence motifs at transposable element target sites are always palindromes that extend beyond the target site duplication. Our results demonstrate the utility of population genomics data for high-throughput inference of transposable element targeting preferences in the wild and establish general rules for terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon target site selection in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:22347367

  5. Using Pure Cultures to Define the Site Preference of Nitrous Oxide Produced by Microbial Nitrification and Denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutka, R. L.; Breznak, J. A.; Ostrom, N. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; Gandhi, H.

    2004-12-01

    preference of N2O produced during denitrification we used concentrated cell suspensions of two organisms (Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) that lack N2O reductase. The site preference of N2O produced during nitrite reduction was similar for P. chlororaphis (0.3 ± 2.7 ‰ ) and P. aureofaciens (- 0.3 ± 1.7 ‰ ). The results indicate that the site preference of N2O produced during nitrite reduction is 0 ‰ regardless of whether the organism is a denitrifier or nitrifier. Fungal denitrification was investigated using pure cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon tonkinense. The site preference of N2O produced during nitrite reduction was similar for the cultures with an average site preference of 34.7 ± 2.2 ‰ for Fusarium oxysporum and 29.7 ± 1.7 ‰ for Cylindrocarpon tonkinense. The data indicate that fungal denitrification and bacterial denitrification can be distinguished based on site preference. The results from all of the pure culture studies indicate that isotopomers can be used to apportion bacterial nitrification and denitrification and in field studies.

  6. African American cocaine users' preferred treatment site: variations by rural/urban residence, stigma, and treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Borders, Tyrone F; Booth, Brenda M; Curran, Geoffrey M

    2015-03-01

    To encourage access, policy makers and providers need information about variations in drug users' treatment preferences. This study examined how rural/urban residence, stigma surrounding drug use, and perceived treatment availability and effectiveness are associated with African American cocaine users' preferences for the site of treatment (local, or in one's home town; nearby, or in a town nearby; and distant, or in a town farther away). Two hundred rural and 200 urban cocaine users were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and completed in-person interviews. Multinomial logit regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relative odds of preferring local vs. nearby and local vs. distant treatment. Rural cocaine users preferred distant (58%), and urban users preferred local (57%) treatment. Rural residence and a lifetime history of treatment were associated with higher odds of preferring nearby vs. local treatment; older age and greater perceived local treatment effectiveness were associated with lower odds of preferring nearby vs. local treatment. Rural residence, access to an automobile, higher rejection/discrimination stigma scores, and higher Brief Symptom Inventory-Global Severity Index scores were associated with higher odds of preferring distant vs. local treatment; older age, lower educational attainment, and greater perceived discrimination after treatment were associated with lower odds of preferring distant vs. local treatment. The findings from this study suggest that a regional approach to organizing drug use treatment services could better satisfy the preferences of rural African American cocaine users, whereas local treatment services should be expanded to meet the needs of urban cocaine users.

  7. Kin, daytime associations, or preferred sleeping sites? Factors influencing sleep site selection in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lock, Louise C; Anderson, James R

    2013-01-01

    Chimpanzee nesting behaviours and the factors that may influence these behaviours are rarely studied in captive settings. In the present study, the daytime associations, sleeping site selections and nesting groups of 11 zoo-housed chimpanzees over a 29-day period were analysed. Neither daytime associations nor presence of kin influenced sleeping site selection in females. Daytime associations did influence sleeping arrangements in males. Nighttime spatial arrangements and individual preferences for specific sleeping areas were broadly comparable to nesting patterns reported in free-living chimpanzee communities. In the interests of captive ape welfare, we conclude that exhibits should incorporate multilevel nesting areas and a choice of several potential sleeping sites.

  8. Site Preference of U and Th in Cl, F, and Sr Apatites

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Hughes, J; Rakovan, J; Pan, Y

    2009-01-01

    According to our calculation, the volume of the Ca2 polyhedron increases by about 5.8% from fluorapatite to chlorapatite, but that of Ca1 polyhedron increases by only 0.59%. We speculate that the much greater size of the Ca2 polyhedron in chlorapatite may diminish the selectivity of this position for U and Th. The incorporation of U and Th into fluorapatite results in a decrease in the size of both Ca polyhedra, but the incorporation of U and Th into chlorapatite results in an increase in the volume of both Ca polyhedra. We suggest that the preference of U and Th for both Ca sites in chlorapatite is attributable to the large increase in size and distortion of the Ca2 polyhedron upon substitution of Cl for F.

  9. Ubiquitination site preferences in anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) substrates

    PubMed Central

    Min, Mingwei; Mayor, Ugo; Lindon, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Ordered progression of mitosis requires precise control in abundance of mitotic regulators. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase plays a key role by directing ubiquitin-mediated destruction of targets in a temporally and spatially defined manner. Specificity in APC/C targeting is conferred through recognition of substrate D-box and KEN degrons, while the specificity of ubiquitination sites, as another possible regulated dimension, has not yet been explored. Here, we present the first analysis of ubiquitination sites in the APC/C substrate ubiquitome. We show that KEN is a preferred ubiquitin acceptor in APC/C substrates and that acceptor sites are enriched in predicted disordered regions and flanked by serine residues. Our experimental data confirm a role for the KEN lysine as an ubiquitin acceptor contributing to substrate destruction during mitotic progression. Using Aurora A and Nek2 kinases as examples, we show that phosphorylation on the flanking serine residue could directly regulate ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of substrates. We propose a novel layer of regulation in substrate ubiquitination, via phosphorylation adjacent to the KEN motif, in APC/C-mediated targeting. PMID:24004664

  10. Effect of rapid solidification on the site preference of Heusler alloy Mn2NiSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongzhi, Luo; Wei, Zhu; Li, Ma; Guodong, Liu; Yangxian, Li; Xiaoxi, Zhu; Chengbao, Jiang; Huibin, Xu; Guangheng, Wu

    2009-05-01

    The site preference of Mn atoms in Heusler alloy Mn2NiSb can be influenced obviously by different preparing methods. Mn atoms enter the A and B sites after arc-melting and subsequent annealing, and form an Hg2CuTi-type of structure. However, after melt-spinning, the Mn atoms tend to occupy the (A, C) sites and form the Cu2MnAl-type of structure. The electronic structure calculations suggest that the Hg2CuTi-type of structure is lower in energy than the Cu2MnAl one and more stable. The lattice constant of the former is a bit larger than the latter one, agreeing with experimental results. Ferromagnetism is observed in Mn2NiSb with both structures. Calculations give a total moment of 4.21 μB for the Hg2CuTi-type of structure and 3.93 μB for the Cu2MnAl-type one. These results fit the saturation magnetization at 5 K quite well. The difference between the Curie temperatures of the bulk and ribbon samples is about 77 K.

  11. Modeling of the Site Preference in Ternary B2-Ordered Ni-Al-Fe Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Khalil, Joseph; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2002-01-01

    The underlying equilibrium structure, site substitution behavior, and lattice parameter of ternary Ni-Fe-Al alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations and analytical calculations using the BFS method for alloys for the energetics. As a result of the theoretical calculations presented, a simple approach based on the energetics of small atomic clusters is introduced to explain the observed site preference schemes.

  12. Modeling of the Site Preference in Ternary B2-Ordered Ni-Al-Fe Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Khalil, Joseph; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2002-01-01

    The underlying equilibrium structure, site substitution behavior, and lattice parameter of ternary Ni-Fe-Al alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations and analytical calculations using the BFS method for alloys for the energetics. As a result of the theoretical calculations presented, a simple approach based on the energetics of small atomic clusters is introduced to explain the observed site preference schemes.

  13. Do choices of sport fisheries reflect angler preferences for site attributes?

    Treesearch

    Harris. Charles C.; B. L. Driver; Bergersen. E. P.

    1985-01-01

    A revised recreation choice model is proposed and partially tested using results of a 1980 survey of Colorado anglers. Results of discriminant analyses show modest and useful prediction from preference for trout fishery site attributes to choice of type of fishery used.

  14. Poly-acetylated chromatin signatures are preferred epitopes for site-specific histone H4 acetyl antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rothbart, Scott B; Lin, Shu; Britton, Laura-Mae; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Keogh, Michael-C; Garcia, Benjamin A; Strahl, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies specific for histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been central to our understanding of chromatin biology. Here, we describe an unexpected and novel property of histone H4 site-specific acetyl antibodies in that they prefer poly-acetylated histone substrates. By all current criteria, these antibodies have passed specificity standards. However, we find these site-specific histone antibodies preferentially recognize chromatin signatures containing two or more adjacent acetylated lysines. Significantly, we find that the poly-acetylated epitopes these antibodies prefer are evolutionarily conserved and are present at levels that compete for these antibodies over the intended individual acetylation sites. This alarming property of acetyl-specific antibodies has far-reaching implications for data interpretation and may present a challenge for the future study of acetylated histone and non-histone proteins.

  15. First principles calculations of the effect of Pt on NiAl surfaceenergy and the site preference of Pt

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Rong; Hou, Peggy Y.

    2007-03-08

    Pt-modified NiAl is widely used as a coating material in industry. In this study, the surface energies of NiAl with and without Pt are investigated using first-principles calculations. The presence of Pt in NiAl takes the surface electronic states to higher energies, resulting in an increased surface energy, which explains some of the beneficial effects of Pt on the oxidation resistance of NiAl. The electronic structure of NiAl-Pt alloys is also analyzed in terms of the site preference of Pt in NiAl. Results show that Pt bonds strongly to Al, giving its site preference on the Ni site.

  16. Viral Determinants of Integration Site Preferences of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Monse, Hella; Laufs, Stephanie; Kuate, Seraphin; Zeller, W. Jens; Fruehauf, Stefan; Überla, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Preferential integration into transcriptionally active regions of genomes has been observed for retroviral vectors based on gamma-retroviruses and lentiviruses. However, differences in the integration site preferences were detected, which might be explained by differences in viral components of the preintegration complexes. Viral determinants of integration site preferences have not been defined. Therefore, integration sites of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-based vectors produced in the absence of accessory genes or lacking promoter and enhancer elements were compared. Similar integration patterns for the different SIV vectors indicate that vif, vpr, vpx, nef, env, and promoter or enhancer elements are not required for preferential integration of SIV into transcriptionally active regions of genomes. PMID:16873270

  17. No Chemisorption on Ni(111): Coverage Effects, Site Preferences and Adsorption Geometry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-03

    U 01TECHNICAL REPORT No. 14 In NO CHEMISORPTION ON Ni(111): COVERAGE EFFECTS, SITE PREFERENCES AND ADSORPTION GEOMETRY by Shen-Shu Sung, Roald ...Adsorption Geometry 6. pER Op ,,GoRG. R --OAT NUmSER 7. ;.-.; T) hOR ( 2) .\\B. CONTRACT OR GRANT N’,UMaEA.I) Shen-Shu Sung, Roald Hoffman and Patricia...PREFERENCES AND ADSORPTION GEOMETRY Shen-Shu Sung , Roald Hoffmann and Patricia A. ThielT t Departent of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

  18. Reasons underlying treatment preference: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Bryan N; Pruitt, Larry; Fukuda, Seiya; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2008-02-01

    Very little is known about what factors influence women's treatment preferences after a sexual assault. To learn more about these factors, data were collected from 273 women who read a standard "if this happened to you, what would you do" scenario describing a sexual assault and subsequent trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. After reading standardized treatment options for a pharmacotherapy (sertraline) and a psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral treatment), participants made a hypothetical treatment choice and reported the main reasons for their choice. Women often cited reasons surrounding the effectiveness of a treatment as the primary reason for their treatment preference, suggesting potential masking of symptoms with the medication and more logical, long-lasting effects with the psychotherapy. Other common reasons underlying treatment preference were wariness of the medication and positive feelings about talking in psychotherapy. Better understanding factors that influence treatment preference may aid in refining psychoeducation materials regarding the psychological consequences of sexual assault and their treatment for the lay public and in helping clinicians further tailor their discussion of treatment alternatives for these women.

  19. Doll Preferences: An Index of Racial Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Zalk, Sue Rosenberg

    1974-01-01

    A doll choice task was administered to white and black nursery and kindergarten children by same and other race examiners. Male and female dolls were presented which differed only in skin color. Strong preference for white dolls found by previous studies was not obtained. (Author/BJG)

  20. Reasons Underlying Treatment Preference: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Bryan N.; Pruitt, Larry; Fukuda, Seiya; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about what factors influence women's treatment preferences after a sexual assault. To learn more about these factors, data were collected from 273 women who read a standard "if this happened to you, what would you do" scenario describing a sexual assault and subsequent trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. After reading…

  1. Site-preference and valency for rare-earth sites in (R-Ce)2Fe14B [R =La,Nd] magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Mahmud; McCallum, R. W.; Johnson, D. D.

    2013-03-01

    Rare-earth (R) permanent magnets of R2Fe14B have technological importance due to their high energy products, and they have two symmetry distinct R-sites (Wyckoff 4f and 4g) that affect chemistry and valence. Designing magnetic behavior and stability via alloying is technologically relevant to reduce critical (expensive) R-content while retaining key properties; cerium, an abundant (cheap) R-element, offers this potential. We calculate magnetic properties and Ce site preference in (R1-xCex)Fe14B [R=La,Nd] using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The Fe moments compare well with neutron scattering data - remain weakly affected by Hubbard U, but improved with spin-orbit coupling. In (La,Ce)2Fe14B, Ce alloys for 0 < x < 1 with a preference for smaller R(4f) sites, as observed, a trend we find unaffected by valence. Whereas in (Nd,Ce)2Fe14B, Ce is predicted to have limited alloying (x < 0.3) with a preference for larger R(4g) sites, resulting in weak partial ordering and segregation. Curie temperatures versus x were predicted for a typical sample processing and verified experimentally. We shall also present some initial results on the critical mixed valency of Ce in related compounds. Work at Ames Laboratory was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, ARPA-E under the REACT program (0472-1526)

  2. Repair of oxidative DNA base damage in the host genome influences the HIV integration site sequence preference.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Geoffrey R; Peters, Ryan; Wang, Xiao-hong; Hanne, Jeungphill; Sobol, Robert W; Bundschuh, Ralf; Fishel, Richard; Yoder, Kristine E

    2014-01-01

    Host base excision repair (BER) proteins that repair oxidative damage enhance HIV infection. These proteins include the oxidative DNA damage glycosylases 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and mutY homolog (MYH) as well as DNA polymerase beta (Polβ). While deletion of oxidative BER genes leads to decreased HIV infection and integration efficiency, the mechanism remains unknown. One hypothesis is that BER proteins repair the DNA gapped integration intermediate. An alternative hypothesis considers that the most common oxidative DNA base damages occur on guanines. The subtle consensus sequence preference at HIV integration sites includes multiple G:C base pairs surrounding the points of joining. These observations suggest a role for oxidative BER during integration targeting at the nucleotide level. We examined the hypothesis that BER repairs a gapped integration intermediate by measuring HIV infection efficiency in Polβ null cell lines complemented with active site point mutants of Polβ. A DNA synthesis defective mutant, but not a 5'dRP lyase mutant, rescued HIV infection efficiency to wild type levels; this suggested Polβ DNA synthesis activity is not necessary while 5'dRP lyase activity is required for efficient HIV infection. An alternate hypothesis that BER events in the host genome influence HIV integration site selection was examined by sequencing integration sites in OGG1 and MYH null cells. In the absence of these 8-oxo-guanine specific glycosylases the chromatin elements of HIV integration site selection remain the same as in wild type cells. However, the HIV integration site sequence preference at G:C base pairs is altered at several positions in OGG1 and MYH null cells. Inefficient HIV infection in the absence of oxidative BER proteins does not appear related to repair of the gapped integration intermediate; instead oxidative damage repair may participate in HIV integration site preference at the sequence level.

  3. Optimal Locations for Siting Wind Energy Projects: Technical Challenges, Economics, and Public Preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Julian V.

    Increasing the percentage of wind power in the United States electricity generation mix would facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable, low-pollution, and environmentally-conscious electricity grid. However, this effort is not without cost. Wind power generation is time-variable and typically not synchronized with electricity demand (i.e., load). In addition, the highest-output wind resources are often located in remote locations, necessitating transmission investment between generation sites and load. Furthermore, negative public perceptions of wind projects could prevent widespread wind development, especially for projects close to densely-populated communities. The work presented in my dissertation seeks to understand where it's best to locate wind energy projects while considering these various factors. First, in Chapter 2, I examine whether energy storage technologies, such as grid-scale batteries, could help reduce the transmission upgrade costs incurred when siting wind projects in distant locations. For a case study of a hypothetical 200 MW wind project in North Dakota that delivers power to Illinois, I present an optimization model that estimates the optimal size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generation and transmission (/MWh). I find that for this application of storage to be economical, energy storage costs would have to be 100/kWh or lower, which is well below current costs for available technologies. I conclude that there are likely better ways to use energy storage than for accessing distant wind projects. Following from this work, in Chapter 3, I present an optimization model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets. I include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. I assess the goal of providing

  4. Patient preferences and healthcare outcomes: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Street, Richard L; Elwyn, Glyn; Epstein, Ronald M

    2012-04-01

    This article examines the nature of patients' preferences for healthcare and whether clinician accommodation of patient preferences influences health outcomes. First, we provide a conceptualization of patient preferences along with their key attributes. Second, we review research on the relationship between health outcomes and patient preferences for treatments and for the process of care (e.g., preferred involvement in decision-making). Third, following a critique of this literature, we present an ecological model of patient preferences that, while acknowledging that patient preferences may emerge from various contexts (e.g., family or media exposure), we focus on the important role that clinical encounters and patients' health-related experiences play in the elicitation and construction of patient preferences. Fourth, we propose two pathways, one behavioral (adherence) and the other psychological (sense of autonomy or satisfaction with decision), through which meeting patient preferences could lead to better health outcomes. Fifth, we discuss how preferences can be elicited and clarified through patient-centered conversations. We conclude with implications for future research and clinical practice.

  5. Nitrogen isotopomer site preference of N2O produced by Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Sutka, R L; Ostrom, N E; Ostrom, P H; Gandhi, H; Breznak, J A

    2003-01-01

    The relative importance of individual microbial pathways in nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production is not well known. The intramolecular distribution of (15)N in N(2)O provides a basis for distinguishing biological pathways. Concentrated cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Nitrosomonas europaea were used to investigate the site preference of N(2)O by microbial processes during nitrification. The average site preference of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath (5.5 +/- 3.5 per thousand) and N. europaea (-2.3 +/- 1.9 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (-8.3 +/- 3.6 per thousand) differed significantly (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 247.9, p = 0). These results demonstrate that the mechanisms for hydroxylamine oxidation are distinct in M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea. The average delta(18)O-N(2)O values of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation for M. capsulatus Bath (53.1 +/- 2.9 per thousand) and N. europaea (-23.4 +/- 7.2 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (4.6 +/- 1.4 per thousand) were significantly different (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 279.98, p = 0). Although the nitrogen isotope value of the substrate, hydroxylamine, was similar in both cultures, the observed fractionation (delta(15)N) associated with N(2)O production via hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea (-2.3 and 26.0 per thousand, respectively) provided evidence that differences in isotopic fractionation were associated with these two organisms. The site preferences in this study are the first measured values for isolated microbial processes. The differences in site preference are significant and indicate that isotopomers provide a basis for apportioning biological processes producing N(2)O.

  6. Attracted to the enemy: Aedes aegypti prefers oviposition sites with predator-killed conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Albeny-Simoes, Daniel; Murrell, Ebony G.; Elliot, Simon L.; Andrade, Mateus R.; Lima, Eraldo; Juliano, Steven A.; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2014-01-01

    Oviposition habitat choices of species with aquatic larvae is expected to be influenced by both offspring risk of mortality due to predation, and offspring growth potential. Aquatic predators may indirectly influence growth potential for prey by reducing prey density and, for filter feeding prey, by increasing bacterial food for prey via added organic matter (feces, partially eaten victims), creating the potential for interactive effects on oviposition choices. We tested the hypothesis that the mosquito Aedes aegypti preferentially oviposit in habitats with predatory Toxorhynchites larvae because of indirect effects of predation on chemical cues indicating bacterial abundance. We predicted that A. aegypti would avoid oviposition in sites with Toxorhynchites, but prefer to oviposit where bacterial food for larvae is abundant, and that predation by Toxorhynchites would increase bacterial abundances. Gravid A. aegypti were offered paired oviposition sites representing choices among: predator presence; the act of predation; conspecific density; dead conspecific larvae; and bacterial activity. Aedes aegypti preferentially oviposited in sites with T. theobaldi predation, and with killed conspecific larvae, but failed to detect preferences for other treatments. The antibiotic Tetracycline eliminated the strongest oviposition preference. Both predation by Toxorhynchites and killed larvae increased bacterial abundances, suggesting that oviposition attraction is cued by bacteria. Our results show the potential for indirect effects, like trophic cascades, to influence oviposition choices and community composition in aquatic systems. Our results suggest that predators like Toxorhynchites may be doubly beneficial as biocontrol agents because of the attraction of ovipositing mosquitoes to bacterial by-products of Toxorhynchites feeding. PMID:24590205

  7. Attracted to the enemy: Aedes aegypti prefers oviposition sites with predator-killed conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Albeny-Simões, Daniel; Murrell, Ebony G; Elliot, Simon L; Andrade, Mateus R; Lima, Eraldo; Juliano, Steven A; Vilela, Evaldo F

    2014-06-01

    Oviposition habitat choices of species with aquatic larvae are expected to be influenced by both offspring risk of mortality due to predation, and offspring growth potential. Aquatic predators may indirectly influence growth potential for prey by reducing prey density and, for filter-feeding prey, by increasing bacterial food for prey via added organic matter (feces, partially eaten victims), creating the potential for interactive effects on oviposition choices. We tested the hypothesis that the mosquito Aedes aegypti preferentially oviposits in habitats with predatory Toxorhynchites larvae because of indirect effects of predation on chemical cues indicating bacterial abundance. We predicted that A. aegypti would avoid oviposition in sites with Toxorhynchites, but prefer to oviposit where bacterial food for larvae is abundant, and that predation by Toxorhynchites would increase bacterial abundances. Gravid A. aegypti were offered paired oviposition sites representing choices among: predator presence; the act of predation; conspecific density; dead conspecific larvae; and bacterial activity. A. aegypti preferentially oviposited in sites with Toxorhynchites theobaldi predation, and with killed conspecific larvae, but failed to detect preferences for other treatments. The antibiotic tetracycline eliminated the strongest oviposition preference. Both predation by Toxorhynchites and killed larvae increased bacterial abundances, suggesting that oviposition attraction is cued by bacteria. Our results show the potential for indirect effects, like trophic cascades, to influence oviposition choices and community composition in aquatic systems. Our results suggest that predators like Toxorhynchites may be doubly beneficial as biocontrol agents because of the attraction of ovipositing mosquitoes to bacterial by-products of Toxorhynchites feeding.

  8. Infants Prefer Female Body Phenotypes; Infant Girls Prefer They Have an Hourglass Shape.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Hawkins, Laura B; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3-18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls' greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls' later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success (e

  9. Acamprosate-responsive brain sites for suppression of ethanol intake and preference

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Allison; Prosser, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Acamprosate suppresses alcohol intake and craving in recovering alcoholics; however, the central sites of its action are unclear. To approach this question, brain regions responsive to acamprosate were mapped using acamprosate microimplants targeted to brain reward and circadian areas implicated in alcohol dependence. mPer2 mutant mice with nonfunctional mPer2, a circadian clock gene that gates endogenous timekeeping, were included, owing to their high levels of ethanol intake and preference. Male wild-type (WT) and mPer2 mutant mice received free-choice (15%) ethanol/water for 3 wk. The ethanol was withdrawn for 3 wk and then reintroduced to facilitate relapse. Four days before ethanol reintroduction, mice received bilateral blank or acamprosate-containing microimplants releasing ∼50 ng/day into reward [ventral tegmental (VTA), peduculopontine tegmentum (PPT), and nucleus accumbens (NA)] and circadian [intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)] areas. The hippocampus was also targeted. Circadian locomotor activity was measured throughout. Ethanol intake and preference were greater in mPer2 mutants than in wild-type (WT) mice (27 g·kg−1·day−1 vs. 13 g·kg−1·day−1 and 70% vs. 50%, respectively; both, P < 0.05). In WTs, acamprosate in all areas, except hippocampus, suppressed ethanol intake and preference (by 40–60%) during ethanol reintroduction. In mPer2 mutants, acamprosate in the VTA, PPT, and SCN suppressed ethanol intake and preference by 20–30%. These data are evidence that acamprosate's suppression of ethanol intake and preference are manifest through actions within major reward and circadian sites. PMID:21697518

  10. Relative strengths of axial and equatorial bonds and site preferences for ligand substitution on σ complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming-Der

    An analytical LCAO MO perturbation approach has been developed for treating the electronic structure and some properties of Y-shaped EL3 compounds where E is a main group element A or a transition metal M. Three problems have been considered: (i) the relative strengths of E-L(1,2) (1 and 2 stand for the paired ligands) and E-L(3) (3 stands for the unique ligand) bonds; (ii) the mutual influence of ligands in substituted complexes EL2L'; (iii) the site preference of the stronger donor (or acceptor) of substituents L', L''. Ratios of overlap populations T=NE-L(3)/NE-L(1) were estimated for ns, np and (n-1)d contributions. For 6-10 valence electron AL3 we found T(s)>1, T(p)>1. These contributions all reinforce to make the A-L(3) bond relatively stronger than A-L(1,2) bonds. The ML3 d0-d8 case was also examined and it was found that T(s+p+d)>1, while the T(p) contribution dominates in ML3 (d10) complexes to make M-L(3)>M-L(1,2). The perturbing influence on ligand σ orbital energies δα'=α(L')-α(L), where δα'>0(<0) corresponds to a better donor (acceptor) substituent L', and all changes in overlap populations of different E-L bonds, δN(E-L)/δα', were obtained in terms of the ns, np and (n-1)d contributions. In addition, there are three kinds of substitution type: sub-L(3)-cis-L(1), sub-L(1)-cis-L(2) and sub-L(1)-cis-L(3) effects. It was found that both the nature of E, L', L and steric factors may play important roles in determining the relative bond strengthening of E-L(1,2) and E-L(3) for unsubstituted and substituted EL3 compounds. Y-shaped substituents were examined using first-order perturbation theory, with the finding that the most electronegative atom prefers to substitute at the L(3) site in AL3 and d0-d10 ML3 complexes. The role of π bonding effects is briefly discussed. The results obtained agree with the available experimental and computational data and permit a number of predictions to be made.

  11. Premium campground with lake view - pingo remnants as preferred Mesolithic settlement sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüser, Andreas; Enters, Dirk; Wolters, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Pingo remnants are typical but not always easily visible landscape features in northwestern Germany and the Netherlands. Some of them are still small lakes but present-day land-use mostly disguises the existence of formerly water-filled depressions. In addition the circular wall structures have often been leveled by agricultural activities in modern times. However, according to estimates several hundreds pingo remnants bearing witness to Weichselian periglacial conditions can still be found in East Frisia and in the area between the rivers Elbe and Weser. Preliminary paleoecological investigations have shown that the majority of them were water-filled until Neolithic times making them a potential campground of preference for the Mesolithic population. In addition to wind shelter behind wall structures or dunes, Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities could have used here both aquatic and terrestrial food resources. We investigated three of these pingo remnants in northwestern Germany using a multi-proxy approach combining an iterative archaeological site analysis with sediment core studies including geochemical and biological proxies. Our results show that Mesolithic artifacts are often concentrated close to open water bodies. The sediment cores obtained cover the time span from the late Palaeolithic to modern times. Excellent preservation conditions and a moderate sedimentation rate during the Mesolithic enables environmental change to be reconstructed.

  12. CO/Pt(111) : GGA density functional study of site preference for adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaei, M.; Akbarzadeh, H.; Gholizadeh, H.; de Gironcoli, S.

    2008-02-01

    Based on density functional formalism, we investigate the site preference for the adsorption of CO on Cu, Rh, Ag, Pt, and Au(111) surfaces. The exchange-correlation term was approximated by BLYP, a functional within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) family that combines Becke’s exchange functional with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional. Our study shows that BLYP, although not a hybrid functional, can correctly predict the adsorption site for CO. This invalidate the general belief that only hybrid functionals are able to predict the correct site preference. We analyze our results by repeating all calculations using another well-known GGA functional, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof, which could trace back the origin of the success of BLYP to the different behavior of the two GGA functionals at large values of the reduced density gradients, s∝(∣∇n∣)/(n3/4) . This is a region where different functionals in the GGA family may legitimately behave very differently as it is poorly constrained on physical ground. Our present observation points to the possibility of further improving the accuracy of exchange-correlation functionals in the GGA family by properly constraining the remaining flexibility in the exchange-correlation kernel in this underdetermined region so as to reproduce known results in simple but critically important systems like the one studied here.

  13. Physical discontinuities in the surface microstructure of uranium alloys as preferred sites for hydrogen attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, D.; Arkush, R.; Zalkind, S.; Shamir, N.

    1996-06-01

    Hydrogen attacks the surface of uranium and uranium alloys heterogeneously. Four case studies were performed on different uranium alloys, with different microstructures. Clear correlations were found between the preferential hydrogen attack sites and discontinuities in the metal lattice, such as twins, inclusions, habit plans and grain boundaries. It is assumed that the oxide layer grows with a preferred orientation in relation to the underlying metal lattice, hence forming misfit interfaces in the oxide lattice caused by the discontinuities in the metal. These oxide discontinuities are preferential paths for hydrogen to reach the metal to form hydride nuclei.

  14. Infants Prefer Female Body Phenotypes; Infant Girls Prefer They Have an Hourglass Shape

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.; Hawkins, Laura B.; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3–18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls’ greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls’ later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success

  15. Quantitative assessment of the preferences for the amino acid residues flanking archaeal N-linked glycosylation sites.

    PubMed

    Igura, Mayumi; Kohda, Daisuke

    2011-05-01

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of an oligosaccharide to an asparagine residue in polypeptide chains. Using positional scanning peptide libraries, we assessed the effects of amino acid variations on the in vitro glycosylation efficiency within and adjacent to an N-glycosylation consensus, Asn-X-Ser/Thr, with an archaeal OST from Pyrococcus furiosus. The amino acid variations at the X(-2), X(-1) and X(+1) positions in the sequence X(-2)-X(-1)-Asn-X-Ser/Thr-X(+1) strongly influenced the glycosylation efficiency to a similar extent at position X. The rank orders of the amino acid preferences were unique at each site. We experimentally confirmed that the archaeal OST does not require an acidic residue at the -2 position, unlike the eubacterial OSTs. Pro was disfavored at the -1 and +1 positions, although the exclusion was not as strict as that at X, whereas Pro was the most favored amino acid residue among those studied at the -2 position. The overall amino acid preferences are correlated with a conformational propensity to extend around the sequon. The results of the library experiments revealed that the optimal acceptor sequence was PYNVTK, with a K(m) of 10 µM. The heat-stable, single-subunit OST of P. furiosus is a potential candidate enzyme for the production of recombinant glycoproteins in bacterial cells. Quantitative assessment of the amino acid preferences of the OST enzyme will facilitate the proper design of a production system.

  16. Preferable binding site of gas molecules on graphene nanoribbon with Stone–Wales defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzar, Zuriana; Johari, Zaharah; Sakina, S. H.; Alias, N. E.; Abidin, M. S. Z.

    2017-02-01

    The issue of sensitivity of sensing device has focused on the development of sensing devices by using new materials, such as graphene. The gas molecules in different positions such as on, near and far from the defect are placed in the same binding site in two graphene configurations for fair comparison. The interaction between two different graphene configurations such as (pristine armchair graphene nanoribbon (P-AGNR) and Stone–Wales defect on graphene surface (SW-AGNR)) with gas molecules (e.g. O2, N2 and NH3) have been investigated to observe the preferential position site of adsorbate gas molecules. The preferable position sites are investigated by using Extended-Huckel Theory. It is found that, the electronic properties of each configuration are strongly depends on the position of gas molecules and graphene system. Meanwhile, the binding site of the gas molecules on the defective site of graphene surface is a significant factor in determining the sensing behavior of graphene based gas defection device.

  17. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  18. An internal thermal sensor controlling temperature preference in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Fumika N.; Rosenzweig, Mark; Kang, Kyeongjin; Pulver, Stefan; Ghezzi, Alfredo; Jegla, Timothy J.; Garrity, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Animals from flies to humans are able to distinguish subtle gradations in temperature and exhibit strong temperature preferences1–4. Animals move to environments of optimal temperature and some manipulate the temperature of their surroundings, as humans do using clothing and shelter. Despite the ubiquitous influence of environmental temperature on animal behavior, the neural circuits and strategies through which animals select a preferred temperature remain largely unknown. Here we identify a small set of warmth-activated neurons (AC neurons) located in the Drosophila brain whose function is critical for preferred temperature selection. AC neuron activation occurs just above the fly’s preferred temperature and depends on dTRPA1, an ion channel that functions as a molecular sensor of warmth. Flies that selectively express dTRPA1 in the AC neurons select normal temperatures, while flies in which dTRPA1 function is reduced or eliminated choose warmer temperatures. This internal warmth-sensing pathway promotes avoidance of slightly elevated temperatures and acts together with a distinct pathway for cold avoidance to set the fly’s preferred temperature. Thus, flies select a preferred temperature by using a thermal sensing pathway tuned to trigger avoidance of temperatures that deviate even slightly from the preferred temperature. This provides a potentially general strategy for robustly selecting a narrow temperature range optimal for survival. PMID:18548007

  19. Protein products obtained by site-preferred partial crosslinking in protein crystals and "liberated" by redissolution.

    PubMed

    Buch, Michal; Wine, Yariv; Dror, Yael; Rosenheck, Sonia; Lebendiker, Mario; Giordano, Rita; Leal, Ricardo M F; Popov, Alexander N; Freeman, Amihay; Frolow, Felix

    2014-07-01

    The use of protein crystals as a source of nanoscale biotemplates has attracted growing interest in recent years owing to their inherent internal order. As these crystals are vulnerable to environmental changes, potential applications require their stabilization by chemical crosslinking. We have previously shown that such intermolecular chemical crosslinking reactions occurring within protein crystals are not random events, but start at preferred crosslinking sites imposed by the alignment of protein molecules and their packing within the crystalline lattice. Here we propose a new working hypothesis and demonstrate its feasibility in enabling us to extricate homogeneous populations of single protein molecules that display chemical point mutations or of dimers that show homogeneous chemical crosslinking, and that have the potential for isolation of higher structures. Characterization of the crosslinking mechanism and its end products opens the way to the potential retrieval of such specific modified/intermolecular crosslinked products simply by effecting partial crosslinking at identified preferred sites, followed by time-controlled arrest of the crosslinking reaction and dissolution of the crystals by medium exchange complemented by chromatographic purification. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. First-principles study of He effects in a bcc Fe grain boundary: site preference, segregation and theoretical tensile strength.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shu, Xiaolin; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2010-09-22

    We perform a first-principles calculation to investigate the effects of He in an Fe Σ5(310)/[001] grain boundary (GB) with the SIESTA code, for which the reliability of the pseudopotential and the basis set are systematically tested. We calculate the formation and segregation energies for different substitutional and interstitial cases in order to determine the site preference and the segregation properties of He in the Fe GB. It is demonstrated that the He segregation either breaks (substitution) or weakens (interstitial) the surrounding interfacial Fe-Fe bonds, leading to the GB tensile strength reduction.

  1. Incorporating User Preferences Within an Optimal Traffic Flow Management Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph Lucio; Sheth, Kapil S.; Guiterrez-Nolasco, Sebastian Armardo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of future decision support tools for Traffic Flow Management in the National Airspace System will depend on two major factors: computational burden and collaboration. Previous research has focused separately on these two aspects without consideration of their interaction. In this paper, their explicit combination is examined. It is shown that when user preferences are incorporated with an optimal approach to scheduling, runtime is not adversely affected. A benefit-cost ratio is used to measure the influence of user preferences on an optimal solution. This metric shows user preferences can be accommodated without inordinately, negatively affecting the overall system delay. Specifically, incorporating user preferences will increase delays proportionally to increased user satisfaction.

  2. Site preference of alloying elements in DO22-Ni3V phase: Phase-field and first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ding-Ni; Shangguan, Qian-Qian; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Ming-Yi

    2015-07-01

    Site preference of alloying elements in DO22-Ni3V phase was investigated using phase-field and first-principles method. The concentrations of alloying elements on sublattices of DO22-Ni3V phase were quantitatively studied using phase-field model based on microscopic diffusion equations. The phase-field computation results demonstrate that the concentration differences of alloying elements on the NiI and NiII site are attributed to the coordination environment difference. Host atoms Ni and substitutional ternary additions Al prefer to occupy NiI site. Antisite atoms V show site preference on the NiII site. Further reason of site preference of alloying elements on the two different Ni sites were studied using first-principles method to calculate the electronic structure of DO22-Ni3V phase. Calculation of density of states, orbitals population and charge population of the optimized Ni3V structure found that the electronic structures of NiI and NiII sites are different. Electronic structure difference, which is caused by coordination environment difference, is the essential reason for site selectivity behaviors of alloying elements on NiI and NiII sites.

  3. Racial differences in treatment preferences among lupus patients: a two-site study.

    PubMed

    Vina, Ernest R; Utset, Tammy O; Hannon, Michael J; Masi, Christopher M; Roberts, Nicole; Kwoh, C Kent

    2014-01-01

    To identify the demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics associated with racial differences in willingness to receive cyclophosphamide (CYC) or participate in a research clinical trial (RCT) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data from 163 African-American (AA) and 180 white (WH) SLE patients were evaluated. Structured interviews and chart reviews were conducted to determine treatment preferences in hypothetical situations and identify variables that may affect preferences. Logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the relationship between patient preferences and race, adjusted for patient characteristics. Among patients who had never received CYC (n=293), 62.9% AAs compared to 87.6% WHs were willing to receive the medication (p<0.001). This difference persisted (OR 0.37 [95% CI, 0.16-0.87]) after adjusting for socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, and perceptions about CYC and physicians. Income and higher perception of CYC effectiveness were other determinants of willingness to receive CYC. Among patients who had never participated in an RCT (n=326), 64.9% AAs compared to 84.3% WHs were willing to do so (p<0.001). This difference persisted (OR 0.41 [95% CI, 0.20-0.83]) after adjusting for socio-demographics, clinical context and patients' perceptions of physicians. SLE damage score, number of immunosuppressive medications and higher trust in physicians were also independently associated with willingness to participate in an RCT. Race remains an independent determinant of treatment preferences after adjustment for income, medications, medication efficacy expectations and trust in physicians. While some factors related to racial differences in preferences are relatively fixed, others that may alleviate these differences also exist, including medication beliefs and provider trust.

  4. Preference based load balancing as an outpatient appointment scheduling aid.

    PubMed

    Premarathne, Uthpala Subodhani; Han, Fengling; Khalil, Ibrahim; Tari, Zahir

    2013-01-01

    Load balancing is a performance improvement aid in various applications of distributed systems. In this paper we propose a preference based load balancing strategy as a scheduling aid in an outpatient clinic of an online medical consultation system. The performance objectives are to maximizing throughout and minimizing waiting time. Patients will provide a standard set of preferences prior to scheduling an appointment. The preferences are rated on to a scale and each service request will have a respective preference score. The available doctors will also be classified into classes based on their clinical expertise and the nature of the past diagnosis and the types of patients consulted. The preference scores will then be mapped on to each class and the appointment will be scheduled. The proposed scheme was modeled as a queuing system in Matlab. Matlab SimEvents library modules were used for constructing the model. Performance was analysed based on the average waiting time and utilization. The results revealed that the preference based load balancing scheme markedly reduce the waiting time and significantly improve the utilization under different load conditions.

  5. Individual Choices in Dynamic Networks: An Experiment on Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    van Dolder, Dennie; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation. PMID:24732665

  6. Individual choices in dynamic networks: an experiment on social preferences.

    PubMed

    van Dolder, Dennie; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation.

  7. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  8. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  9. An experimental methodology for a fuzzy set preference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    A flexible fuzzy set preference model first requires approximate methodologies for implementation. Fuzzy sets must be defined for each individual consumer using computer software, requiring a minimum of time and expertise on the part of the consumer. The amount of information needed in defining sets must also be established. The model itself must adapt fully to the subject's choice of attributes (vague or precise), attribute levels, and importance weights. The resulting individual-level model should be fully adapted to each consumer. The methodologies needed to develop this model will be equally useful in a new generation of intelligent systems which interact with ordinary consumers, controlling electronic devices through fuzzy expert systems or making recommendations based on a variety of inputs. The power of personal computers and their acceptance by consumers has yet to be fully utilized to create interactive knowledge systems that fully adapt their function to the user. Understanding individual consumer preferences is critical to the design of new products and the estimation of demand (market share) for existing products, which in turn is an input to management systems concerned with production and distribution. The question of what to make, for whom to make it and how much to make requires an understanding of the customer's preferences and the trade-offs that exist between alternatives. Conjoint analysis is a widely used methodology which de-composes an overall preference for an object into a combination of preferences for its constituent parts (attributes such as taste and price), which are combined using an appropriate combination function. Preferences are often expressed using linguistic terms which cannot be represented in conjoint models. Current models are also not implemented an individual level, making it difficult to reach meaningful conclusions about the cause of an individual's behavior from an aggregate model. The combination of complex aggregate

  10. Public preferences for nontimber benefits of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands regenerated by different site preparation methods

    Treesearch

    Jianbang Gan; Stephen H. Kolison; James Miller

    2000-01-01

    This study assesses public preferences for nontimber benefits of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)stands regenerated 1.5 yr earlier using different site preparation treatments at national forest and industrial forestry sites. Treatments tested on the Tuskegee National Forest were none, chainsaw felling, tree injection, and soil-active herbicide. At the...

  11. Site preference and electronic structure of Mn2RuSn: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianguo; Luo, Hongzhi; Jia, Pengzhong; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2014-09-01

    The site preference, electronic structure and magnetism of a newly discovered Heusler alloy Mn2RuSn have been investigated. The Hg2CuTi-type (XA) structure is found to be energetically favored in Mn2RuSn. Mn2RuSn is a normal ferrimagnetic metal at equilibrium lattice constant, but with 2% contraction of the lattice, it becomes a half-metal with a spin moment of 2μB. A tetragonal martensitic transformation is predicted in Mn2RuSn. The total moment of the tetragonal phase is near zero, which results in a large ΔM between the saturation moments of martensite and austenite. Finally, in tetragonal Mn2RuSn, a high spin polarization ratio of 93% is predicted. These properties make Mn2RuSn a potential candidate for spintronics materials.

  12. Parental preference or child well-being: an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Turner, Helen N

    2010-02-01

    An ethical dilemma that is not uncommon to encounter when caring for children occurs when parental preference does not appear to be in the child's best interest. Challenges facing the health care team are further amplified when the family's cultural background does not match that of the team. A case study will be used to illustrate the challenges of a pediatric palliative care ethical dilemma further complicated by cultural diversity. Review of the child's medical condition, patient/parent preferences, quality of life, and contextual features will be followed by an analysis and recommendations for resolution of this challenging situation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant resting site preferences and parity rates among the vectors of Rift Valley Fever in northeastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Arum, Samwel O; Weldon, Christopher W; Orindi, Benedict; Tigoi, Caroline; Musili, Francis; Landmann, Tobias; Tchouassi, David P; Affognon, Hippolyte D; Sang, Rosemary

    2016-05-31

    Mosquito lifespan can influence the circulation of disease causing pathogens because it affects the time available for infection and transmission. The life-cycle of mosquitoes is determined by intrinsic and environmental factors, which can include the availability of hosts and suitable resting environments that shelter mosquitoes from extreme temperature and desiccating conditions. This study determined the parity rates (an indirect measure of survival) and plant resting preference of vectors of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in northeastern Kenya. Resting mosquitoes were trapped during the rainy and the dry season using a Prokopack aspirator from vegetation, whereas general adult populations were trapped using CDC light traps. At each site, sampling was conducted within a 1 km(2) area, subdivided into 500 × 500 m quadrants and four 250 × 250 m sub-quadrants from which two were randomly selected as sampling units. In each sampling unit, plants were randomly selected for aspiration of mosquitoes. Only Aedes mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus were dissected to determine parity rates while all mosquito species were used to assess plant resting preference. Overall, 1124 (79 %, 95 % CI = 76.8-81.1 %) mosquitoes were parous. There was no significant difference in the number of parous Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus. Parity was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Daily survival rate was estimated to be 0.93 and 0.92 among Ae. ochraceus and Ae. mcintoshi, respectively. Duosperma kilimandscharicum was the most preferred plant species with the highest average capture of primary (3.64) and secondary (5.83) vectors per plant, while Gisekia africana was least preferred. Survival rate of each of the two primary vectors of RVF reported in this study may provide an indication that these mosquitoes can potentially play important roles in the circulation of diseases in northern Kenya. Resting preference of the mosquitoes in vegetation may influence their

  14. Learning Strategy Preferences in an Intensive English Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumaker, Melody G.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study utilized frequency data to identify and describe the learning strategy preferences of English as a Second Language learners at an Intensive English Institute in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Qualitative data were gathered by journals, observations, and interviews. Additionally, feedback from teacher observations were gathered. The 36…

  15. An Analysis of Thinking Preferences across Three Health Care Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wium, A. M.; Pitout, H.; Human, A.; du Toit, P. H.

    2017-01-01

    Three lecturers respectively in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy (SLPA, OT and PT) at a public Higher Education Institution in South Africa collaborated to determine thinking preferences. The Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI®) was used to collect data from three lecturers while an adapted…

  16. An Analysis of Thinking Preferences across Three Health Care Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wium, A. M.; Pitout, H.; Human, A.; du Toit, P. H.

    2017-01-01

    Three lecturers respectively in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy (SLPA, OT and PT) at a public Higher Education Institution in South Africa collaborated to determine thinking preferences. The Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI®) was used to collect data from three lecturers while an adapted…

  17. Creating Classrooms of Preference: An Exercise in Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as a process used in organizational creation and change and then outlines steps for an in-class exercise titled "The Preferred Classroom," to be used to design and organize a college classroom for the term. The exercise also prepares business students for future exposure to AI. A brief literature…

  18. First-principles study of carbon effects in a tungsten grain boundary: site preference, segregation and strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongbo; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guanghong

    2011-12-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate energetics and site preference of carbon (C) in a tungsten (W) Σ5(310)/[001] grain boundary (GB). We calculate the solution energies of the C atom in the GB, which show that the interstitial C is energetically favored over the substitutional C. The segregation energy is calculated to be -3.95 eV for the energetically favorable GB interstitial site, indicating that C energetically prefers to segregate into the W GB. Based on the Rice-Wang model, our total energy calculations show that C has a significant beneficial effect on the W GB cohesion.

  19. Integrase residues that determine nucleotide preferences at sites of HIV-1 integration: implications for the mechanism of target DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Erik; Krishnan, Lavanya; Shun, Ming-Chieh; Li, Xiang; Cherepanov, Peter; Engelman, Alan; Maertens, Goedele N.

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses favor target-DNA (tDNA) distortion and particular bases at sites of integration, but the mechanism underlying HIV-1 selectivity is unknown. Crystal structures revealed a network of prototype foamy virus (PFV) integrase residues that distort tDNA: Ala188 and Arg329 interact with tDNA bases, while Arg362 contacts the phosphodiester backbone. HIV-1 integrase residues Ser119, Arg231, and Lys258 were identified here as analogs of PFV integrase residues Ala188, Arg329 and Arg362, respectively. Thirteen integrase mutations were analyzed for effects on integrase activity in vitro and during virus infection, yielding a total of 1610 unique HIV-1 integration sites. Purine (R)/pyrimidine (Y) dinucleotide sequence analysis revealed HIV-1 prefers the tDNA signature (0)RYXRY(4), which accordingly favors overlapping flexible dinucleotides at the center of the integration site. Consistent with roles for Arg231 and Lys258 in sequence specific and non-specific binding, respectively, the R231E mutation altered integration site nucleotide preferences while K258E had no effect. S119A and S119T integrase mutations significantly altered base preferences at positions −3 and 7 from the site of viral DNA joining. The S119A preference moreover mimicked wild-type PFV selectivity at these positions. We conclude that HIV-1 IN residue Ser119 and PFV IN residue Ala188 contact analogous tDNA bases to effect virus integration. PMID:24520116

  20. Site preferences in hetero-metallic [Fe9-xNix] clusters: a combined crystallographic, spectroscopic and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulou, Anastasia N; Al-Ameed, Karrar; Boudalis, Athanassios K; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios F; Psycharis, Vassilis; McGrady, John E; Sanakis, Yiannis; Raptopoulou, Catherine P

    2017-09-18

    The reaction of mixtures of Fe(O2CMe)2·2H2O and Ni(O2CMe)2·4H2O of various compositions with di-2-pyridyl ketone (py2CO, dpk) in MeCN under an inert atmosphere afforded a family of hetero-metallic enneanuclear clusters with general formula [Fe9-xNix(μ4-OH)2(O2CMe)8(py2CO2)4] (2, x = 1.00; 3: x = 6.02; 4, x = 7.46; 5, x = 7.81). Clusters 2-5 are isomorphous to the homo-metallic [Fe9] cluster (1) previously reported by some of us, and also isostructural to the known homo-metallic [Ni9] cluster. All four clusters contain a central M(II) ion in an unusual 8-coordinate site and eight peripheral M(II) ions in distorted octahedral environments. The distribution of Fe(II) and Ni(II) ions over these two distinct coordination sites in 2-5 can be established through a combination of X-ray fluorescence and Mössbauer spectroscopies, which show that Fe(II) preferentially occupies the unique 8-coordinate metal site while Ni(II) accumulates in the octahedral holes. Density functional theory indicates that the distribution of ions across the two sites arises not from any intrinsic preference of the Fe(II) ions for the 8-coordinate sites, but rather because of the large ligand field stabilization energy available to Ni(II) in octahedral coordination.

  1. An Articulatory Phonology Account of Preferred Consonant-Vowel Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Giulivi, Sara; Whalen, D. H.; Goldstein, Louis M.; Nam, Hosung; Levitt, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    Certain consonant/vowel combinations (labial/central, coronal/front, velar/back) are more frequent in babbling as well as, to a lesser extent, in adult language, than chance would dictate. The “Frame then Content” (F/C) hypothesis (Davis & MacNeilage, 1994) attributes this pattern to biomechanical vocal-tract biases that change as infants mature. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman and Goldstein 1989) attributes preferences to demands placed on shared articulators. F/C implies that preferences will diminish as articulatory control increases, while AP does not. Here, babbling from children at 6, 9 and 12 months in English, French and Mandarin environments was examined. There was no developmental trend in CV preferences, although older ages exhibited greater articulatory control. A perception test showed no evidence of bias toward hearing the preferred combinations. Modeling using articulatory synthesis found limited support for F/C but more for AP, including data not originally encompassed in F/C. AP thus provides an alternative biomechanical explanation. PMID:23505343

  2. A test of the longevity of impact-induced faults as preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that impact-induced faults have been preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses has been suggested for several planets and satellites. This hypothesis is investigated on earth by examining whether terrestrial impact structures show higher rates of nearby earthquake activity than do surrounding intraplate regions. For 28 of 30 probable impact structures having an original crater 20 km or more in diameter, the rates of nearby seismicity have been no higher than the regional background rates. For two large probable impact structures, Vredefort and Charlevoix, with higher than normal rates of nearby seismicity, factors other than slip on impact-induced faults appear to control the occurrence of earthquakes. It is concluded that impact-induced faults, at least on earth, do not persist as lithospheric 'weak zones' for periods in excess of several million years after the impact event.

  3. The Relaxase of the Rhizobium etli Symbiotic Plasmid Shows nic Site cis-Acting Preference

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Lucas, María; Muñoz, Socorro; Herrera-Cervera, José A.; Olivares, José; de la Cruz, Fernando; Sanjuán, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical characterization of TraA, the relaxase of symbiotic plasmid pRetCFN42d from Rhizobium etli, is described. After purifying the relaxase domain (N265TraA), we demonstrated nic binding and cleavage activity in vitro and thus characterized for the first time the nick site (nic) of a plasmid in the family Rhizobiaceae. We studied the range of N265TraA relaxase specificity in vitro by testing different oligonucleotides in binding and nicking assays. In addition, the ability of pRetCFN42d to mobilize different Rhizobiaceae plasmid origins of transfer (oriT) was examined. Data obtained with these approaches allowed us to establish functional and phylogenetic relationships between different plasmids of this family. Our results suggest novel characteristics of the R. etli pSym relaxase for previously described conjugative systems, with emphasis on the oriT cis-acting preference of this enzyme and its possible biological relevance. PMID:16916896

  4. The relaxase of the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid shows nic site cis-acting preference.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Lucas, María; Muñoz, Socorro; Herrera-Cervera, José A; Olivares, José; de la Cruz, Fernando; Sanjuán, Juan

    2006-11-01

    Genetic and biochemical characterization of TraA, the relaxase of symbiotic plasmid pRetCFN42d from Rhizobium etli, is described. After purifying the relaxase domain (N265TraA), we demonstrated nic binding and cleavage activity in vitro and thus characterized for the first time the nick site (nic) of a plasmid in the family Rhizobiaceae. We studied the range of N265TraA relaxase specificity in vitro by testing different oligonucleotides in binding and nicking assays. In addition, the ability of pRetCFN42d to mobilize different Rhizobiaceae plasmid origins of transfer (oriT) was examined. Data obtained with these approaches allowed us to establish functional and phylogenetic relationships between different plasmids of this family. Our results suggest novel characteristics of the R. etli pSym relaxase for previously described conjugative systems, with emphasis on the oriT cis-acting preference of this enzyme and its possible biological relevance.

  5. Site preference and compensation behavior in Co(Cr, Mn){sub 2}O{sub 4} system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. G.; Wang, Z.; Yue, M.; Liu, E. K.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.

    2015-05-07

    Site preference of doped Mn ions in CoCr{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0–2) series has been derived separately from structure and magnetic measurement. It shows that parts of the doped Mn ions occupy the A (Co) sites when x < 0.5. And then, it takes the two B (Cr) sites in turn before and after x = 1.3. This site preference behavior results in a role conversion of the magnetic contributors and, thus, leads to the composition dependent magnetic compensation. Temperature induced compensation and negative magnetization have also been found in several samples, which is attributed to the large energy barrier between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin arrangement. A structure transition from cubic to tetragonal symmetry has been detected.

  6. Mixed valency and site-preference chemistry for cerium and its compounds: A predictive density-functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Aftab; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-06-01

    Cerium and its technologically relevant compounds are examples of anomalous mixed valency, originating from two competing oxidation states—itinerant Ce4+ and localized Ce3+. Under applied stress, anomalous transitions are observed but not well understood. Here we treat mixed valency as an “alloy” problem involving two valences with competing and numerous site-occupancy configurations. We use density-functional theory with Hubbard U (i.e., DFT+U) to evaluate the effective valence and predict properties, including controlling the valence by pseudoternary alloying. For Ce and its compounds, such as (Ce,La)2(Fe,Co)14B permanent magnets, we find a stable mixed-valent α state near the spectroscopic value of νs=3.53. Ce valency in compounds depends on its steric volume and local chemistry. For La doping, Ce valency shifts towards γ-like Ce3+, as expected from steric volume; for Co doping, valency depends on local Ce-site chemistry and steric volume. Our approach captures the key origins of anomalous valency and site-preference chemistry in complex compounds.

  7. Site Selection for Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE), Volume 3: Preferred Site Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    established that the GBFEL-TIE could be accomplished at any of the three candidate sites. However, based on differences identified during site investigations...construction and operation of the GBFEL-TIE, including environmental mitigation costs, differed only slightly among the three sites, with the Orogrande site...the differences in the findings that would affect site selection, and established a relative ranking of the three sites under consideration. The

  8. Sleeping site preferences in Sapajus cay Illiger 1815 (Primates: Cebidae) in a disturbed fragment of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest, Rancho Laguna Blanca, Eastern Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Hayes, Sarah E; Smith, Paul; Dickens, Jeremy K

    2017-08-20

    Wild primates can spend up to half of their lives sleeping, during which time they are subjected to many of the same selective pressures that they face when awake. Choosing an appropriate sleeping site can thus have important fitness consequences. We examined the sleeping site preferences of wild hooded capuchins (Sapajus cay) in a small degraded fragment of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest at Rancho Laguna Blanca (RLB) in eastern Paraguay. Sleeping trees and sites were identified during 5 months of field observations and their physical characteristics were compared to those of non-sleeping trees and sites. Capuchins preferred larger emergent trees with more main and forked branches, no lianas and denser undergrowth directly below. These were found in sites of more mature forest with fewer small trees, less liana coverage and denser undergrowth but more fruiting trees. The species composition of the sleeping sites differed from that of the non-sleeping sites and was dominated by Albizia niopoides (Mimosaceae) as well as Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Fabaceae). The capuchins were found to sleep most often in these three tree species: 69.23% in Albizia niopoides (Mimosaceae), 11.54% in Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae) and 11.54% in Anadenanthera colubrina (Fabaceae). We found evidence for the predator avoidance, thermoregulatory, social contact and feeding site proximity hypotheses. We found no support for parasite avoidance, given the reuse of sites, although the small size of the forest fragment may have restricted this. Their preference for older-growth forest suggests that selective logging impacts hooded capuchins. However, their persistence in a disturbed fragment shows they are highly adaptable, providing support for the value of conservation and reforestation of even small fragments of the Paraguayan Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest.

  9. An ecological valence theory of human color preference.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B

    2010-05-11

    Color preference is an important aspect of visual experience, but little is known about why people in general like some colors more than others. Previous research suggested explanations based on biological adaptations [Hurlbert AC, Ling YL (2007) Curr Biol 17:623-625] and color-emotions [Ou L-C, Luo MR, Woodcock A, Wright A (2004) Color Res Appl 29:381-389]. In this article we articulate an ecological valence theory in which color preferences arise from people's average affective responses to color-associated objects. An empirical test provides strong support for this theory: People like colors strongly associated with objects they like (e.g., blues with clear skies and clean water) and dislike colors strongly associated with objects they dislike (e.g., browns with feces and rotten food). Relative to alternative theories, the ecological valence theory both fits the data better (even with fewer free parameters) and provides a more plausible, comprehensive causal explanation of color preferences.

  10. An ecological valence theory of human color preference

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-01-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of visual experience, but little is known about why people in general like some colors more than others. Previous research suggested explanations based on biological adaptations [Hurlbert AC, Ling YL (2007) Curr Biol 17:623–625] and color-emotions [Ou L-C, Luo MR, Woodcock A, Wright A (2004) Color Res Appl 29:381–389]. In this article we articulate an ecological valence theory in which color preferences arise from people’s average affective responses to color-associated objects. An empirical test provides strong support for this theory: People like colors strongly associated with objects they like (e.g., blues with clear skies and clean water) and dislike colors strongly associated with objects they dislike (e.g., browns with feces and rotten food). Relative to alternative theories, the ecological valence theory both fits the data better (even with fewer free parameters) and provides a more plausible, comprehensive causal explanation of color preferences. PMID:20421475

  11. How Do You Like To Learn? Comparing User Preferences and Visit Length of Educational Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, David T.; Allison-Bunnell, Steven; Borun, Minda; Chambers, Margaret B.

    This paper reports results of a study designed to determine people's preferences for different types of Web-based educational activity. The primary research question was: How do people's preferences vary among types of Web-based learning activity? Six activity types were identified for comparison: Creative Play, Guided Tour, Interactive Reference,…

  12. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  13. Why h atom prefers the on-top site and alkali metals favor the middle hollow site on the Basal plane of graphite.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhong Hua; Lu, Gao Qing; Wang, Fu Yang

    2005-04-28

    In this work, the different adsorption properties of H and alkali metal atoms on the basal plane of graphite are studied and compared using a density functional method on the same model chemistry level. The results show that H prefers the "on-top site" while alkali metals favor the "middle hollow site" of graphite basal plane due to the unique electronic structures of H, alkali metals, and graphite. H has a higher electronegativity than carbon, preferring to form a covalent bond with C atoms, whereas alkaline metals have lower electronegativity, tending to adsorb on the highest electrostatic potential sites. During adsorption, there are more charges transferred from alkali metal to graphite than from H to graphite.

  14. Nonconserved active site residues modulate CheY autophosphorylation kinetics and phosphodonor preference

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephanie A.; Immormino, Robert M.; Bourret, Robert B.; Silversmith, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    In two-component signal transduction, response regulator proteins contain the catalytic machinery for their own covalent phosphorylation and can catalyze phosphotransfer from a partner sensor kinase or autophosphorylate using various small molecule phosphodonors. Although response regulator autophosphorylation is physiologically relevant and a powerful experimental tool, the kinetic determinants of the autophosphorylation reaction and how those determinants might vary for different response regulators and phosphodonors are largely unknown. We characterized the autophosphorylation kinetics of 21 variants of the model response regulator Escherichia coli CheY that contained substitutions primarily at nonconserved active site positions D+2 (CheY residue 59) and T+2 (CheY residue 89), two residues C-terminal to conserved D57 and T87, respectively. Overall, the CheY variants exhibited a >105-fold range of rate constants (kphos/KS) for reaction with phosphoramidate, acetyl phosphate, or monophosphoimidazole, with the great majority of rates enhanced over wild type CheY. Although phosphodonor preference varied substantially, nearly all the CheY variants reacted faster with phosphoramidate than acetyl phosphate. Correlation between increased positive charge of the D+2/T+2 side chains and faster rates indicated electrostatic interactions are a kinetic determinant. Moreover, sensitivities of rate constants to ionic strength indicated that both long-range and localized electrostatic interactions influence autophosphorylation kinetics. Increased nonpolar surface area of the D+2/T+2 side chains also correlated with enhanced autophosphorylation rate, especially for reaction with phosphoramidate and monophosphoimidazole. Computer docking suggested that highly accelerated monophosphoimidazole autophosphorylation rates for CheY variants with a tyrosine at position T+2 likely reflect structural mimicry of phosphotransfer from the sensor kinase histidyl phosphate. PMID:23458124

  15. Oviposition site preferences and performance in natural resources in the human commensals Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans.

    PubMed

    Soto, Eduardo M; Soto, Ignacio M; Cortese, Marcelo D; Hasson, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    The choice of egg laying site and progeny's performance in a rearing site are important components of habitat selection. Despite the huge amount of genetic, morphological, behavioral and physiological data regarding Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and D. simulans Sturtevant, oviposition site preferences remain poorly known. We investigated resource preference (acceptance and choice) and performance (measured as larval viability, developmental time and wing size) in Vitis vinifera Linneo (grape) and Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince), two fruit plants that D. melanogaster and D. simulans use as breeding substrates in Western Argentina. Females of both species preferred V. vinifera over C. oblonga when offered to lay eggs on grape and/or quince, with D. melanogaster showing a more biased preference for V. vinifera than its sibling. Concerning performance, flies reared in C. oblonga developed faster than in V. vinifera, regardless of the species and D. simulans had a shorter developmental time than D. melanogaster. We also observed inter and intraspecific (between flies reared in different resources) differences in wing size and shape. Our study provides novel data concerning ecological aspects scarcely addressed in these species, and suggest that the use of different resource may be a relevant factor in their recent evolutionary history.

  16. Perceptions and preferences on denture marking in an Indian sample.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ashith B; Anehosur, Gouri V; Kanchi, Pooja P; Naik, Medha G; Nadiger, Ramesh K

    2012-06-01

    Denture marking is useful in institutional settings and post-mortem identification. Numerous markers have been developed, and their advantages and limitations assessed previously; however, patient perception to denture marking is paramount. We evaluated this in an Indian sample and also gauged their preference for different markers. One-hundred and one edentulous patients seeking prosthodontic treatment in our institution were shown four denture markers (stainless steel matrix band, paper strip with name inscribed on it, patient photograph and optically readable laminated bar code) and asked whether they wanted similar markers in their dentures; patients were also asked to rank the markers based on preference and indicate their satisfaction with it. Approximately two-thirds of patients (65/101) were uninterested in getting their dentures marked; among the 36 who agreed, 10 preferred the stainless steel band followed by photographs (9), paper strip (6) and bar code (2); nine gave multiple responses and were excluded from analyses. Sixteen patients expressed dissatisfaction with the photographic marker and bar code, while this number reduced for the stainless steel band (13) and paper strip (10). The results are in contrast to European studies wherein the majority of patients agreed to denture marking, indicating patient background (e.g. education level) may affect perception to denture marking; amongst those who agreed to marking, most preferred, or were satisfied with, the stainless steel and paper strip markers over photographic marker and a complex method such as bar-coding, implying that simple methods harbouring basic patient information may suffice in the Indian context. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. The Information Architecture of E-Commerce: An Experimental Study on User Performance and Preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Abdul Rahim; Md Noor, Nor Laila; Mehad, Shafie

    Too often, designers of e-commerce web sites use models, concepts, guidelines, and designs that focus on the artifacts while ignoring the context in which the artifacts will be used. Furthermore, the link between culture and usability in web site IA phenomenon is still considered as uncharted area, as it lacks much theoretical consideration. In an effort toward addressing the aforementioned issues, our study provides a theoretical and empirical link between cultural and usability through the application of ‘Venustas' (Delight) drawn from the architectural field and Hofstede's cultural dimensions. We use Islamic culture as the case study and report on the experiment to investigate the effect of the IA designs based on the cultural dimensions on e-commerce web sites. The result provides partial empirical support to the theorized link between culture and usability based on the usability measurement on user performance and preference. In addition, practical web site IA cultural design prescriptions are also provided.

  18. An evaluation of preference for video and in vivo modeling.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Kaneen B; Leblanc, Linda A; Dillon, Courtney M; Bates, Stephanie L

    2010-01-01

    We assessed preference for video or in vivo modeling using a concurrent-chains arrangement with 3 children with autism. The two modeling conditions produced similar acquisition rates and no differential selection (i.e., preference) for all 3 participants.

  19. Patient Preferences and Adherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Randi L.; Basch, Charles E.; Brouse, Corey H.; Shmukler, Celia; Shea, Steven

    2006-01-01

    We measured patient preferences for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies and actual receipt of alternative CRC screening tests among an urban minority sample participating in an intervention study. The fecal occult blood test was the most preferred test, reportedly owing to its convenience and the noninvasive nature. For individuals who obtained a test that was other than their stated preference (41.1%), reasons for this discordance may be due to physician preferences that override patient preferences. PMID:16571715

  20. Student Preferences for Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Student preferences among instructional methods are largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. The algorithmic rigor of courses and the societal culture can influence these preferences. This study explored students' preferences of instructional methods for learning in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differ in algorithmic…

  1. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. Methods UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+). Key Results All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pKa1 values between 2·8 and 4·5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Conclusions Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata. PMID:18977765

  2. Site preferences and lattice vibrations of Nd6Fe13 - x TxSi (T = Co, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tian-Shun; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Zhang, Zhen-Feng; An, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Guo-Hua

    2015-10-01

    The site preferences of the rare earth intermetallics Nd6Fe13-xTxSi (T = Co, Ni) are investigated by using interatomic pair potentials which are converted from a lattice-inversion method. Calculation shows that the order of the site preference of Co is 4d, 16k, 16l1, and 16l2 and that of Ni is 16l2, 16l1, 16k, and 4d in Nd6Fe13-xTxSi. Calculated lattice and positional parameters are found to agree with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the phonon density of states for Nd6Fe13-xTxSi is also evaluated, and a qualitative analysis featuring the coordination and the relevant potentials is carried out. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11272048 and 50971024) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB606401).

  3. A test of the hypothesis that impact-induced fractures are preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    Impact cratering has been an important process in the solar system. The cratering event is generally accompanied by faulting in adjacent terrain. Impact-induced faults are nearly ubiquitous over large areas on the terrestrial planets. The suggestion is made that these fault systems, particularly those associated with the largest impact features are preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses generated by other processes. The evidence is a perceived clustering of orientations of tectonic features either radial or concentric to the crater or basin in question. An opportunity exists to test this suggestion more directly on Earth. The terrestrial continents contain more than 100 known or probable impact craters, with associated geological structures mapped to varying levels of detail. Prime facie evidence for reactivation of crater-induced faults would be the occurrence of earthquakes on these faults in response to the intraplate stress field. Either an alignment of epicenters with mapped fault traces or fault plane solutions indicating slip on a plane approximately coincident with that inferred for a crater-induced fault would be sufficient to demonstrate such an association.

  4. Sodium preference and appetite in rats in an operant protocol.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Connie L; Rowland, Neil E

    2005-01-17

    An operant task that may simulate natural foraging was used to study in Sprague-Dawley rats the need-free choice between water and various concentrations of NaCl solution, and the induction of sodium appetite during chronic deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) treatment. The task imposed a fixed ratio foraging or procurement cost for access to each fluid. The relative preference for NaCl over water when both had the same procurement cost was similar to the preference/aversion function that has been reported for this strain of rat under free drinking conditions. As the procurement cost increased, the number of bouts taken per day of both water and NaCl decreased and the mean bout size increased. Administration of DOCA produced an increase in NaCl intake under all conditions, and this appetite was manifest as discrete episodes whose frequency and size were inversely related. Natural observations of sodium appetite in mammals, such as excursions to, often remote, mineral deposits, imply an episodic organization of this behavior. This report is the first laboratory simulation of environmental factors that affect the episodic or temporal organization of sodium appetite.

  5. Site preference of ternary alloying additions to NiTi: Fe, Pt, Pd, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of Pd in NiTi (J. Alloys and Comp. (2004), in press) has been extended to examine the behavior of several other alloying additions, namely, Fe, Pt, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf in this important shape memory alloy. It was found that all elements, to a varying degree, displayed absolute preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. How- ever, the energetics of the different substitutional schemes, coupled with large scale simulations indicate that the general trend in all cases is for the ternary addition to want to form stronger ordered structures with Ti.

  6. The piggyBac Transposon Displays Local and Distant Reintegration Preferences and Can Cause Mutations at Noncanonical Integration Sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng Amy; Pettitt, Stephen J.; Eckert, Sabine; Ning, Zemin; Rice, Stephen; Cadiñanos, Juan; Yusa, Kosuke; Conte, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is widely used as a tool in mammalian experimental systems for transgenesis, mutagenesis, and genome engineering. We have characterized genome-wide insertion site preferences of piggyBac by sequencing a large set of integration sites arising from transposition from two separate genomic loci and a plasmid donor in mouse embryonic stem cells. We found that piggyBac preferentially integrates locally to the excision site when mobilized from a chromosomal location and identified other nonlocal regions of the genome with elevated insertion frequencies. piggyBac insertions were associated with expressed genes and markers of open chromatin structure and were excluded from heterochromatin. At the nucleotide level, piggyBac prefers to insert into TA-rich regions within a broader GC-rich context. We also found that piggyBac can insert into sites other than its known TTAA insertion site at a low frequency (2%). Such insertions introduce mismatches that are repaired with signatures of host cell repair pathways. Transposons could be mobilized from plasmids with the observed noncanonical flanking regions, indicating that piggyBac could generate point mutations in the genome. PMID:23358416

  7. Preferred viewing directions of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) when learning and approaching their nest site.

    PubMed

    de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Philippides, Andrew; Riabinina, Olena; Collett, Thomas S

    2009-10-01

    Many bees and wasps learn about the immediate surroundings of their nest during learning flights, in which they look back towards the nest and acquire visual information that guides their subsequent returns. Visual guidance to the nest is simplified by the insects' tendency to adopt similar viewing directions during learning and return flights. To understand better the factors determining the particular viewing directions that insects choose, we have recorded the learning and return flights of a ground-nesting bumblebee in two visual environments--an enclosed garden with a partly open view between north and west, and a flat roof with a more open panorama. In both places, bees left and returned to an inconspicuous nest hole in the centre of a tabletop, with the hole marked by one or more nearby cylinders. In all experiments, bees adopted similar preferred orientations on their learning and return flights. Bees faced predominantly either north or south, suggesting the existence of two attractors. The bees' selection between attractors seems to be influenced both by the distribution of light, as determined by the shape of the skyline, and by the direction of wind. In the partly enclosed garden with little or no wind, bees tended to face north throughout the day, i.e. towards the pole in the brighter half of their surroundings. When white curtains, which distributed skylight more evenly, were placed around the table, bees faced both north and south. The bees on the roof tended to face south or north when the wind came from a wide arc of directions from the south or north, respectively. We suggest that bees switch facing orientation between north and south as a compromise between maintaining a single viewing direction for efficient view-based navigation and responding to the distribution of light for the easier detection of landmarks seen against the ground or to the direction of the wind for exploiting olfactory cues.

  8. Public Preferences of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands Generated by Different Site Preparation Methods

    Treesearch

    Jianbang Gan; Stephen H. Kolison; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    In recent decades, the public's demand for non-timber products and services from forests has dramatically increased. To meet these diverse demands, particularly from public forests, has called for the critical evaluation of non-timber as well as timber benefits of forest resources. However, it has been a challenge to elicit and quantify public preferences for non...

  9. A time-stop nonlinear model of cattle site preference in Northwestern Oregon and Western Idaho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle producers of Oregon and Idaho are interested in ensuring the long-term health and productivity of their lands while producing livestock products and maintaining important environmental benefits such as healthy watersheds. In order to do this, producers must know the areas that are preferred ...

  10. Delivery Site Preferences and Associated Factors among Married Women of Child Bearing Age in Bench Maji Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ababulgu, Fira Abamecha; Bekuma, Tariku Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity must address societal and cultural factors that affect women's health and their access to services. There was no research conducted previously on delivery site preferences and associated factors among married women of child bearing age in the study area. The aim of this study was to assess the delivery site preferences and associated factors among women of child bearing age in Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional quantitative study design supplemented by qualitative data was conducted from April 20 to May 20, 2013. Simple random sampling to select kebeles and systematic random sampling to contact eligible woman were used. Data was collected using structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Logistic regressions analysis was employed to identify potential predictor variables. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess the association of variables. P-value less than 5% was used to declare significant association. Three hundred five (61.9%) of the mothers gave birth at home. Three Hundred ninety six (78.7%) of them had Ante natal care. The preference of facility delivery was 412(88.3%). Age of women, mothers' educational level, and place of delivery of the last baby, perception of mothers about pregnancy and health care workers significantly affected delivery site preference. Most of the women attended Ante natal care. However, only some had actually delivered at health facilities to their last pregnancy. Community members should get health education to reduce misconceptions on delivering in health facility.

  11. Visual discrimination in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus): measuring visual preference.

    PubMed

    Hanazuka, Yuki; Kurotori, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Mika; Midorikawa, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Although previous studies have confirmed that trained orangutans visually discriminate between mammals and artificial objects, whether orangutans without operant conditioning can discriminate remains unknown. The visual discrimination ability in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with no experience in operant learning was examined using measures of visual preference. Sixteen color photographs of inanimate objects and of mammals with four legs were randomly presented to an orangutan. The results showed that the mean looking time at photographs of mammals with four legs was longer than that for inanimate objects, suggesting that the orangutan discriminated mammals with four legs from inanimate objects. The results implied that orangutans who have not experienced operant conditioning may possess the ability to discriminate visually.

  12. Is there an own-race preference in attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Burke, Darren; Nolan, Caroline; Hayward, William Gordon; Russell, Robert; Sulikowski, Danielle

    2013-08-15

    Even in multicultural nations interracial relationships and marriages are quite rare, one reflection of assortative mating. A relatively unexplored factor that could explain part of this effect is that people may find members of their own racial group more attractive than members of other groups. We tested whether there is an own-race preference in attractiveness judgments, and also examined the effect of familiarity by comparing the attractiveness ratings given by participants of different ancestral and geographic origins to faces of European, East Asian and African origin. We did not find a strong own-race bias in attractiveness judgments, but neither were the data consistent with familiarity, suggesting an important role for other factors determining the patterns of assortative mating observed.

  13. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  14. A Conserved Active Site Tyrosine Residue of Proline Dehydrogenase Helps Enforce the Preference for Proline over Hydroxyproline as the Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, E.L.; Larson, J.D.; Schuermann, J.P.; Tanner, J.J.

    2009-03-02

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to {Delta}-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insight into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analogue L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75, 1.90, and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline 3-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of 20 (Y540S) and 50 (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding the substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate.

  15. A conserved active site tyrosine residue of proline dehydrogenase helps enforce the preference for proline over hydroxyproline as the substrate.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Larson, John D; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Tanner, John J

    2009-02-10

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of l-proline to Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insight into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analogue l-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75, 1.90, and 1.85 A, respectively. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline 3-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of 20 (Y540S) and 50 (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding the substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate.

  16. Integration of minitransposons for expression of the Escherichia coli elt genes at a preferred site in Salmonella typhimurium identifies a novel putative fimbrial locus.

    PubMed

    Brocchi, M; Covone, M G; Palla, E; Galeotti, C L

    1999-01-01

    An asd-complementing mini-Tn5 transposon was constructed for random insertion of the Escherichia coli LT enterotoxin genes (elt) into the genome of Deltaasd attenuated strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Transfer of the minitransposon to different S. typhimurium strains resulted in random integration only in strain chi4072, while in strain chi3987, which harbours the virulence plasmid, over 20% of the insertions occurred at the same site. Expression of elt was found to be highest in Salmonella isolates carrying the mini-Tn5 integrated at the preferred site, which was mapped to an uncharacterised region of the virulence plasmid. Sequence analysis of the integration site showed that it lies within an open reading frame with sequence similarity to E. coli leuO and contiguous to a novel fimbrial locus.

  17. Effect of site preference of 3d atoms on the electronic structure and half-metallicity of Heusler alloy Mn2YAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hongzhi; Zhu, Zhiyong; Ma, Li; Xu, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin; Wu, Guangheng

    2008-03-01

    The site preference of 3d atoms Y in Mn2YAl (Y = V, Fe, Co) alloys and its influence on their electronic structures and magnetism have been studied by first-principles calculations. The results prove that elements with more valence electrons than Mn tend to enter the A (0, 0, 0) and C (½, ½, ½) sites and elements with fewer electrons prefer the B (¼, ¼, ¼) site (Wyckoff positions). Meanwhile, it is found that for Mn2VAl and Mn2FeAl, a high spin polarization can be obtained whether the Y atom enters the (A, C) or the B site. In particular, Mn2VAl is half-metallic whether it forms the Cu2MnAl type or the Hg2CuTi type of structure. And a 100% spin polarization can be retained even when a 25% Mn-V antisite disorder occurs. This is quite preferable in practical applications. It is also found that the higher-valent element such as Co at the B (¼, ¼, ¼) site has opposite effects and tends to close the energy gap. Finally, a systemic summarization on the electronic and magnetic properties of Mn2YAl (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co) alloys was made. All of them except for Mn2TiAl are predicted as half-metals. The calculated total spin moment is an integral value and increases from -3µB/f.u. for Mn2TiAl to +2µB/f.u. for Mn2CoAl with increasing number of valence electrons. This agrees with the Slater-Pauling curve quite well. All the Mn2YAl alloys studied here are ferrimagnets.

  18. Can preference for oviposition sites initiate reproductive isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?

    PubMed

    Rova, Emma; Björklund, Mats

    2011-01-31

    Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact.

  19. An Examination of Parents' Preferred School Counselor Professional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. The primary focus of research was to determine if any relationship exists between (1) parents' demographic factors--gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity--and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities; (2)…

  20. An Examination of Parents' Preferred School Counselor Professional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. The primary focus of research was to determine if any relationship exists between (1) parents' demographic factors--gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity--and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities; (2)…

  1. Leisure preferences and open space needs in an

    Treesearch

    Tingwei Zhang; Paul H. Gobster

    1998-01-01

    Leisure preferences and open space needs were explored within a discrete, homogeneous ethnic community: the Chinese Americans of Chicago's Chinatown. Face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions were used to identify outdoor leisure patterns and preferences, in general, and with respect to new park development being planned for the community. Findings show...

  2. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  3. Acylsucrose-Producing Tomato Plants Forces Bemisia tabaci to Shift Its Preferred Settling and Feeding Site

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-López, Maria Jose; Garzo, Elisa; Bonani, Jean Patrick; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) causes dramatic damage to plants by transmitting yield-limiting virus diseases. Previous studies proved that the tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was resistant to B. tabaci, the vector of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). This resistance is based on the presence of type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production. These trichomes deter settling and probing of B. tabaci in ABL 14-8, which reduces primary and secondary spread of TYLCD. Methodology/Principal Findings Whitefly settlement preference was evaluated on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of nearly-isogenic tomato lines with and without B. tabaci-resistance traits, ‘ABL 14-8 and Moneymaker’ respectively, under non-choice and free-choice conditions. In addition, the Electrical Penetration Graph technique was used to study probing and feeding activities of B. tabaci on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the same genotypes. B. tabaci preferred to settle on the abaxial than on the adaxial surface of ‘Moneymaker’ leaves, whereas no such preference was observed on ABL 14-8 tomato plants at the ten-leaf growth stage. Furthermore, B. tabaci preferred to feed on the abaxial than on the adaxial leaf surface of ‘Moneymarker’ susceptible tomato plants as shown by a higher number of sustained phloem feeding ingestion events and a shorter time to reach the phloem. However, B. tabaci standard probing and feeding behavior patterns were altered in ABL 14-8 plants and whiteflies were unable to feed from the phloem and spent more time in non-probing activities when exposed to the abaxial leaf surface. Conclusions/Significance The distorted behavior of B. tabaci on ABL 14-8 protects tomato plants from the transmission of phloem-restricted viruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and forces whiteflies to feed on the adaxial side of leaves where they feed less efficiently and become more vulnerable to natural enemies. PMID:22427950

  4. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  5. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  6. The Development and Description of an Inventory To Measure the Reading Preferences of Mexican Immigrant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Cindy C.

    2001-01-01

    The development of an inventory of Mexican immigrant students' reading preferences is described. A study involving 405 Mexican immigrant students in grades 6-9 in southern New Mexico examined various influences on reading preferences. Results indicate that although preferences differed by gender, grade level, and U.S. residence, titles reflecting…

  7. Reinforcement magnitude: an evaluation of preference and reinforcer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimentation in this area. Three children who engaged in problem behavior that was maintained by social positive reinforcement (attention, access to tangible items) participated. Results indicated that preference for different magnitudes of social reinforcement may predict reinforcer efficacy and that magnitude effects may be mediated by the schedule requirement.

  8. Space environment induced mutations prefer to occur at polymorphic sites of rice genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Liu, M.; Cheng, Z.; Sun, Y.

    To explore the genomic characteristics of rice mutants induced by space environment, space-induced mutants 971-5, 972-4, and R955, which acquired new traits after space flight such as increased yield, reduced resistance to rice blast, and semi-dwarfism compared with their on-ground controls, 971ck, 972ck, and Bing95-503, respectively, together with other 8 japonica and 3 indica rice varieties, 17 in total, were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. We chose 16 AFLP primer-pairs which generated a total of 1251 sites, of which 745 (59.6%) were polymorphic over all the genotypes. With the 16 pairs of primer combinations, 54 space-induced mutation sites were observed in 971-5, 86 in 972-4, and 5 in R955 compared to their controls, and the mutation rates were 4.3%, 6.9% and 0.4%, respectively. Interestingly, 75.9%, 84.9% and 100% of the mutation sites identified in 971-5, 972-4, and R955 occurred in polymorphic sites. This result suggests that the space environment preferentially induced mutations at polymorphic sites in rice genomes and might share a common mechanism with other types of mutagens. It also implies that polymorphic sites in genomes are potential "hotspots" for mutations induced by the space environment.

  9. An ethical review of euthanasia web sites.

    PubMed

    Ravvaz, Kourosh; Patrick, Timothy B

    2007-10-11

    Euthanasia is an act of mercifully killing or letting die a sick or injured individual, and is an alternative to palliative care. As a healthcare related web site, a euthanasia site should satisfy standard ethical criteria such as the HONcode. In this paper, we report our preliminary review of euthanasia web sites for compliance with HONcode criteria.

  10. Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration.

    PubMed

    Binetti, Nicola; Harrison, Charlotte; Coutrot, Antoine; Johnston, Alan; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period of direct gaze that feels comfortable and examined whether autonomic factors linked to arousal were indicative of people's preferred amount of eye contact. Surprisingly, we find that preferred period of gaze duration is not dependent on fundamental characteristics such as gender, personality traits or attractiveness. However, we do find that subtle pupillary changes, indicative of physiological arousal, correlate with the amount of eye contact people find comfortable. Specifically, people preferring longer durations of eye contact display faster increases in pupil size when viewing another person than those preferring shorter durations. These results reveal that a person's preferred duration of eye contact is signalled by physiological indices (pupil dilation) beyond volitional control that may play a modulatory role in gaze behaviour.

  11. Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration

    PubMed Central

    Binetti, Nicola; Harrison, Charlotte; Coutrot, Antoine; Johnston, Alan; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period of direct gaze that feels comfortable and examined whether autonomic factors linked to arousal were indicative of people's preferred amount of eye contact. Surprisingly, we find that preferred period of gaze duration is not dependent on fundamental characteristics such as gender, personality traits or attractiveness. However, we do find that subtle pupillary changes, indicative of physiological arousal, correlate with the amount of eye contact people find comfortable. Specifically, people preferring longer durations of eye contact display faster increases in pupil size when viewing another person than those preferring shorter durations. These results reveal that a person's preferred duration of eye contact is signalled by physiological indices (pupil dilation) beyond volitional control that may play a modulatory role in gaze behaviour. PMID:27493767

  12. Self-generated cognitive fluency as an alternative route to preference formation.

    PubMed

    Constable, Merryn D; Bayliss, Andrew P; Tipper, Steven P; Kritikos, Ada

    2013-03-01

    People tend to prefer fluently processed over harder to process information. In this study we examine two issues concerning fluency and preference. First, previous research has pre-selected fluent and non-fluent materials. We did not take this approach yet show that the fluency of individuals' idiosyncratic on-line interactions with a given stimulus can influence preference formation. Second, while processing fluency influences preference, the opposite also may be true: preferred stimuli could be processed more fluently than non-preferred. Participants performed a visual search task either before or after indicating their preferred images from an array of either paintings by Kandinsky or decorated coffee mugs. Preferred stimuli were associated with fluent processing, reflected in facilitated search times. Critically, this was only the case for participants who gave their preferences after completing the visual search task, not for those stating preferences prior to the visual search task. Our results suggest that the spontaneous and idiosyncratic experience of processing fluency plays a role in forming preference judgments and conversely that our first impressions of preference do not drive response fluency.

  13. Ce{sub 11}Ge{sub 3.73(2)}In{sub 6.27}: Solid-state synthesis, crystal structure and site-preference

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Beom-Yong; Nam, Gnu; Lee, Dong Woo; Min Ok, Kang; You, Tae-Soo

    2016-04-15

    A novel intermetallic compound of Ce{sub 11}Ge{sub 3.73(2)}In{sub 6.27} has been synthesized through the high-temperature solid-state reaction using Nb-ampoules. A batch of well grown block-/short bar-shaped single-crystals has been obtained, and the crystal structure of the title compound has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Ce{sub 11}Ge{sub 3.73(2)}In{sub 6.27} adopts the Ho{sub 11}Ge{sub 10}-type structure belonging to the tetragonal space group I4/mmm (Z=4, Pearson symbol tI84) with nine crystallographically unique atomic positions in the asymmetric unit. The lattice parameters are a=12.0163(1) Å and c=16.5396(2) Å. The overall crystal structure can simply be depicted as an assembly of three different types of co-facial cationic polyhedra centered by anions, which is further enclosed by the three-dimensional (3-D) cage-like anionic framework. The extra amount of In is observed in one of three isolated anionic sites resulting in introducing the Ge/In-mixed site at the Wyckoff 4e site. This unique site-preference of In substitution for Ge at the 4e site has been enlightened via the atomic size-aspect which was fully supported and rationalized by the site- and bond-energies analyses using tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) calculations. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), density of states (DOS), crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP), and electron localization function (ELF) analyses for the title compound are also presented. Magnetic susceptibility measurement proves that an antiferromagnetic ordering of Ce atoms at a low temperature with a paramagnetic Curie temperature of −23.2 K. - Graphical abstract: Reported is experimental and theoretical investigations for Ce{sub 11}Ge{sub 3.73(2)}In{sub 6.27}, which is the first reported example having the extra amounts of In substitution for Ge at one of three “isolated” anionic sites in the Ho{sub 11}Ge{sub 10}-type phase. The observed In site-preference

  14. Investigation of the site preference in Mn2RuSn using KKR-CPA-LDA calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Liu, Bohua; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the site preference and atomic disorder between the A and C sites in Heusler alloy Mn2RuSn by using the KKR-CPA-LDA method. It is found that, at ground state 0 K, the Hg2CuTi-type (XA) structure is energetically favored, in which one Mn and one Ru occupy the A and C sites, respectively. The ground state energy of Mn2RuSn increases with increasing degree of Mn (A)-Ru (C) atomic disorder. The equilibrium lattice constants also show a similar tendency. The Mn (A)-Ru (C) disorder lower the total spin moment effectively, which is 1.87 μB in the XA structure and only 0.98 μB in the L21B structure. In Mn2RuSn with different degree of Mn (A)-Ru (C) atomic disorder, the total moments are always determined by the antiparallel aligned Mn (A, C) and Mn (B) spin moments. The saturated moment of Mn2RuSn at 5 K is 1.68 μB, which corresponds to ∼11% antisite Mn entering the C site. This Mn (A)-Ru (C) disorder in samples can be related to the contributions from entropy of mixing at elevated temperatures, especially when this sample is quenched from high temperatures.

  15. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2004-01-01

    I conducted a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined...

  16. Electronic structure, magnetic structure, and metal-atom site preferences in CrMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Laura Christine

    Density functional theory was used to examine stoichiometric CrMnAs, one of a class of 3d-metal arsenides that exhibit cooperative magnetic ordering. CrMnAs is a tetragonal structure with two inequivalent metal sites: M(I), which is tetrahedral coordinate, and M(II), which is square pyramidal coordinate. CrMnAs thus presents a "coloring problem," the question of how the two types of metal atoms are distributed between the two types of metal sites. Previous diffraction studies have determined that CrMnAs is antiferromagnetic with the M(I) site primarily occupied by Cr. TB-LMTO-ASA local density approximation (LDA) calculations showed indications of instability in the nonmagnetic structure, which could be resolved either by structural distortion or by spin polarization. LDA crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) curves were used to predict the nature of particular direct-exchange interactions upon spin polarization. Spin-polarized total energy calculations were performed using VASP with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The lowest-energy structure had Mn at the M(I) site and a different antiferromagnetic ordering than previously observed. The structure with the second-lowest calculated total energy also had Mn at M(I). Next lowest were four structures with Cr at M(I), including the experimentally observed structure. Those four had calculated total energies ranging from 154.2 to 167.8 meV/f.u. higher than the lowest-energy case. The number of possible structures with small energy differences suggests that the observed magnetic ordering and coloring may be due to entropy rather than reflecting a true electronic ground state.

  17. Resting and feeding preferences of Anopheles stephensi in an urban setting, perennial for malaria.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shalu; Ravishankaran, Sangamithra; Justin, N A Johnson Amala; Asokan, Aswin; Mathai, Manu Thomas; Valecha, Neena; Montgomery, Jacqui; Thomas, Matthew B; Eapen, Alex

    2017-03-10

    The Indian city of Chennai is endemic for malaria and the known local malaria vector is Anopheles stephensi. Plasmodium vivax is the predominant malaria parasite species, though Plasmodium falciparum is present at low levels. The urban ecotype of malaria prevails in Chennai with perennial transmission despite vector surveillance by the Urban Malaria Scheme (UMS) of the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). Understanding the feeding and resting preferences, together with the transmission potential of adult vectors in the area is essential in effective planning and execution of improved vector control measures. A yearlong survey was carried out in cattle sheds and human dwellings to check the resting, feeding preferences and transmission potential of An. stephensi. The gonotrophic status, age structure, resting and host seeking preferences were studied. The infection rate in An. stephensi and Anopheles subpictus were analysed by circumsporozoite ELISA (CS-ELISA). Adult vectors were found more frequently and at higher densities in cattle sheds than human dwellings. The overall Human Blood Index (HBI) was 0.009 indicating the vectors to be strongly zoophilic. Among the vectors collected from human dwellings, 94.2% were from thatched structures and the remaining 5.8% from tiled and asbestos structures. 57.75% of the dissected vectors were nulliparous whereas, 35.83% were monoparous and the rest 6.42% biparous. Sporozoite positivity rate was 0.55% (4/720) and 1.92% (1/52) for An. stephensi collected from cattle sheds and human dwellings, respectively. One adult An. subpictus (1/155) was also found to be infected with P. falciparum. Control of the adult vector populations can be successful only by understanding the resting and feeding preferences. The present study indicates that adult vectors predominantly feed on cattle and cattle sheds are the preferred resting place, possibly due to easy availability of blood meal source and lack of any

  18. Risky Business: An Analysis of Teacher Risk Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Daniel H.; Buck, Stuart; Deck, Cary; Mills, Jonathan N.; Shuls, James V.

    2015-01-01

    A range of proposals aim to reform teacher compensation, recruitment, and retention. Teachers have generally not embraced these policies. One potential explanation for their objections is that teachers are relatively risk averse. We examine this hypothesis using a risk-elicitation task common to experimental economics. By comparing preferences of…

  19. An Exploratory Investigation of Computer Simulations, Student Preferences, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, Rajiv; Rochford, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Marketing students (n=99) used computer simulation, 34 did not. Students who performed well on traditional exams also did well on the simulation. Students who preferred working with others seemed to perform more poorly on both the exam and the simulation. (SK)

  20. Segmenting the antihistamine market: an investigation of consumer preferences.

    PubMed

    Reardon, G; Pathak, D S

    1990-09-01

    The authors combine conjoint analysis and contingent valuation into a single model to estimate the value of product attributes for antihistamine drugs. One hundred forty-three allergic rhinitis suffers were examined. The results show evidence of validity in the data. Cluster analysis reveals five segments of patients with various patterns of preference for product attributes.

  1. An Empirical Investigation of Media Program Preferences and Tastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael J.; And Others

    Approximately 600 telephone interviews were conducted in a study that investigated attitudes toward television and radio programs and program preferences of different audience groups. Findings indicated that younger subjects tended to like rock music and were more concerned with international news than were older subjects. Little difference was…

  2. Preference Reversal: A New Look at an Old Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shu

    2006-01-01

    A generalized "weak dominance" approach is used to test the documented preference reversal (PR) phenomenon. This approach simply models risky choice behavior in PR as a choice between the best possible outcomes or a choice between the worst possible outcomes by equating smaller paired outcome difference between bets. The preference…

  3. Risky Business: An Analysis of Teacher Risk Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Daniel H.; Buck, Stuart; Deck, Cary; Mills, Jonathan N.; Shuls, James V.

    2015-01-01

    A range of proposals aim to reform teacher compensation, recruitment, and retention. Teachers have generally not embraced these policies. One potential explanation for their objections is that teachers are relatively risk averse. We examine this hypothesis using a risk-elicitation task common to experimental economics. By comparing preferences of…

  4. Dairy cow preference and usage of an alternative freestall design.

    PubMed

    Abade, C C; Fregonesi, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-02-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows was created to reduce the amount of bedding and labor needed to keep stalls clean. However, some aspects of stall design may restrict stall usage by cows. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cow preference and usage of a conventional stall (with a neck rail and metal stall dividers) and an alternative stall design with no neck rail or stall dividers other than a wooden board protruding slightly (8cm) above the lying surface. In the no-choice phase of the study, 48 cows were randomly assigned to 8 groups (of 6 cows each); groups were alternately allocated to the 2 treatments. Each group was observed for 7 d on one treatment and then switched to the alternate treatment for 7 d. For the choice phase (also 7 d), groups in adjacent pens were merged (to form 4 groups, each with 12 cows) and cows had free access to both treatments within the merged pen. In the no-choice phase, cows spent more time standing with 4 hooves in the alternative versus conventional freestall (0.60±0.06 vs. 0.05±0.06h/d), but stall designs had no effect on time spent lying down (13.2±0.4 vs. 12.9±0.4h/d). In the choice phase, cows spent more time lying down in the conventional freestall (9.4±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.8h/d) and more time standing with all 4 hooves in the alternative stall (0.24±0.03 vs. 0.02±0.03h/d). These results illustrate how different stall design features can affect different types of stall use; the more open design facilitated standing fully in the stall, but the protruding partitions likely made the stall less suitable for lying.

  5. Son preference in Pakistan: an analysis of intentions vs. behavior.

    PubMed

    De Tray, D

    1984-01-01

    The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. Several fertility measures and estimation techniques were used to determine whether subsequent fertility behavior is influenced by the sex composition of previous births. Khan and Sirageldin's work on sex preference and desires for additional children in Pakistan were reviewed, followed by consideration of several methods of testing the relationship between sex of children and subsequent fertility and presentation of the results of several other tests of the hypothesis that sex composition of children affects actual fertility behavior. The Khan and Sirageldin (1977) results can be translated into a stopping rule which states that the higher the proportion of boys in a family, the less likely a couple is to go on to have another child. This finding, based on intentions, conflicts with the results based on actual behavior presented here. The Khan and Sirageldin results were extended by assessing the extent to which couples translated their very strong expressed preferences for sons into actual behavior. This extension was based on a sample of women, most of whom have completed fertility (all were aged 35 or older) and all of whom had at least 1 live birth. No overall relationship was found between the sex composition of children and subsequent fertility behavior. At least 2 explanations are possible for this inconsistency between intentions and behavior with each having a different implication for population policy and for the future of population growth in general. The first explanation is that in traditional societies such as Pakistan couples are unable to control their fertility adequately. The policy implications of this view suggest family planning and contraceptive distribution programs aimed at reducing the cost of achieving whatever desired family size couples want. Another explanation is that although parents

  6. Homosexual mating preferences from an evolutionary perspective: sexual selection theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Gobrogge, Kyle L; Perkins, Patrick S; Baker, Jessica H; Balcer, Kristen D; Breedlove, S Marc; Klump, Kelly L

    2007-10-01

    Studies in evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory show that heterosexual men prefer younger mating partners than heterosexual women in order to ensure reproductive success. However, previous research has generally not examined differences in mating preferences as a function of sexual orientation or the type of relationship sought in naturalistic settings. Given that homosexual men seek partners for reasons other than procreation, they may exhibit different mating preferences than their heterosexual counterparts. Moreover, mating preferences may show important differences depending on whether an individual is seeking a long-term versus a short-term relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine these issues by comparing partner preferences in terms of age and relationship type between homosexual and heterosexual men placing internet personal advertisements. Participants included 439 homosexual and 365 heterosexual men who placed internet ads in the U.S. or Canada. Ads were coded for the participant's age, relationship type (longer-term or short-term sexual encounter) sought, and partner age preferences. Significantly more homosexual than heterosexual men sought sexual encounters, although men (regardless of sexual orientation) seeking sexual encounters preferred a significantly wider age range of partners than men seeking longer-term relationships. These findings suggest that partner preferences are independent of evolutionary drives to procreate, since both types of men preferred similar ages in their partners. In addition, they highlight the importance of examining relationship type in evolutionary studies of mating preferences, as men's partner preferences show important differences depending upon the type of relationship sought.

  7. PyDII: A python framework for computing equilibrium intrinsic point defect concentrations and extrinsic solute site preferences in intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong; Medasani, Bharat; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin A.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Asta, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Point defects play an important role in determining the structural stability and mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds. To help quantitatively understand the point defect properties in these compounds, we developed PyDII, a Python program that performs thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium intrinsic point defect concentrations and extrinsic solute site preferences in intermetallics. The algorithm implemented in PyDII is built upon a dilute-solution thermodynamic formalism with a set of defect excitation energies calculated from first-principles density-functional theory methods. The analysis module in PyDII enables automated calculations of equilibrium intrinsic antisite and vacancy concentrations as a function of composition and temperature (over ranges where the dilute solution formalism is accurate) and the point defect concentration changes arising from addition of an extrinsic substitutional solute species. To demonstrate the applications of PyDII, we provide examples for intrinsic point defect concentrations in NiAl and Al3 V and site preferences for Ti, Mo and Fe solutes in NiAl.

  8. Integration Preferences of Wildtype AAV-2 for Consensus Rep-Binding Sites at Numerous Loci in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hüser, Daniela; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Lutter, Timo; Weger, Stefan; Winter, Kerstin; Hammer, Eva-Maria; Cathomen, Toni; Reinert, Knut; Heilbronn, Regine

    2010-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) is known to establish latency by preferential integration in human chromosome 19q13.42. The AAV non-structural protein Rep appears to target a site called AAVS1 by simultaneously binding to Rep-binding sites (RBS) present on the AAV genome and within AAVS1. In the absence of Rep, as is the case with AAV vectors, chromosomal integration is rare and random. For a genome-wide survey of wildtype AAV integration a linker-selection-mediated (LSM)-PCR strategy was designed to retrieve AAV-chromosomal junctions. DNA sequence determination revealed wildtype AAV integration sites scattered over the entire human genome. The bioinformatic analysis of these integration sites compared to those of rep-deficient AAV vectors revealed a highly significant overrepresentation of integration events near to consensus RBS. Integration hotspots included AAVS1 with 10% of total events. Novel hotspots near consensus RBS were identified on chromosome 5p13.3 denoted AAVS2 and on chromsome 3p24.3 denoted AAVS3. AAVS2 displayed seven independent junctions clustered within only 14 bp of a consensus RBS which proved to bind Rep in vitro similar to the RBS in AAVS3. Expression of Rep in the presence of rep-deficient AAV vectors shifted targeting preferences from random integration back to the neighbourhood of consensus RBS at hotspots and numerous additional sites in the human genome. In summary, targeted AAV integration is not as specific for AAVS1 as previously assumed. Rather, Rep targets AAV to integrate into open chromatin regions in the reach of various, consensus RBS homologues in the human genome. PMID:20628575

  9. Integration preferences of wildtype AAV-2 for consensus rep-binding sites at numerous loci in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Hüser, Daniela; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Lutter, Timo; Weger, Stefan; Winter, Kerstin; Hammer, Eva-Maria; Cathomen, Toni; Reinert, Knut; Heilbronn, Regine

    2010-07-08

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) is known to establish latency by preferential integration in human chromosome 19q13.42. The AAV non-structural protein Rep appears to target a site called AAVS1 by simultaneously binding to Rep-binding sites (RBS) present on the AAV genome and within AAVS1. In the absence of Rep, as is the case with AAV vectors, chromosomal integration is rare and random. For a genome-wide survey of wildtype AAV integration a linker-selection-mediated (LSM)-PCR strategy was designed to retrieve AAV-chromosomal junctions. DNA sequence determination revealed wildtype AAV integration sites scattered over the entire human genome. The bioinformatic analysis of these integration sites compared to those of rep-deficient AAV vectors revealed a highly significant overrepresentation of integration events near to consensus RBS. Integration hotspots included AAVS1 with 10% of total events. Novel hotspots near consensus RBS were identified on chromosome 5p13.3 denoted AAVS2 and on chromsome 3p24.3 denoted AAVS3. AAVS2 displayed seven independent junctions clustered within only 14 bp of a consensus RBS which proved to bind Rep in vitro similar to the RBS in AAVS3. Expression of Rep in the presence of rep-deficient AAV vectors shifted targeting preferences from random integration back to the neighbourhood of consensus RBS at hotspots and numerous additional sites in the human genome. In summary, targeted AAV integration is not as specific for AAVS1 as previously assumed. Rather, Rep targets AAV to integrate into open chromatin regions in the reach of various, consensus RBS homologues in the human genome.

  10. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication. PMID:27648335

  11. An instrument for measuring cancer patients' preferences for support groups.

    PubMed

    Smoczyk, C M; Zhu, W; Whatley, M H

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess cancer patients' preferences for all types of social support and organizational features of cancer support groups. The content of the instrument was the result of a detailed analysis of four resources: (1) literature relating to cancer support group interventions, (2) program materials from existing groups, (3) interviews with individuals who developed or directed groups, and (4) interviews with patients who have participated in cancer support groups. A jury of six experts was used to establish content validity of the instrument. The reliability of the instrument was examined by measuring a sample of 258 cancer patients. The reliability coefficients of the instrument were all above .80, except for two types of social support (instrumental and informational-educational), which were .72 and .78, respectively. It was concluded that the instrument produces valid and reliable measurements of cancer patients' preferences for cancer support groups.

  12. Preference effects on friendship choice: Evidence from an online field experiment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siyu; Xie, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Observed friendship choices are constrained by social structures and thus problematic indicators for underlying personal preferences. In this paper, we report on a study demonstrating the causal effects of preference in friendship choice based on an online field experiment. Specifically, we tested two important forces that govern friendship choices: preference for shared group identity (operationalized as the desire to befriend others sharing the same place-of-origin identity) and preference for high status (operationalized as the desire to befriend others from high-status institutions). Using an online field experiment in one of the largest social network service websites in China, we investigated the causal preference effects of these two forces free from structural constraints. The results of our study confirm the preference effects on friendship choice in both of the two dimensions we tested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Recreational rates and future land-use preferences for four Department of Energy sites: consistency despite demographic and geographical differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2004-06-01

    The management of ecosystems has been improved by both a public understanding of ecosystem structure and function and by managers' understanding of public perceptions and attitudes. This is especially true for contaminated lands where there are a variety of remediation, restoration, and future land-use decisions to be made. This paper synthesizes several surveys from four US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the states of South Carolina, Idaho, Nevada, and New York. Although ethnic composition varied among the sites, age and gender did not. The percentage of the study population engaged in hunting ranged from 30% to 41% and that in fishing ranged from 55% to 74%. Average hunting rates ranged from 9 (New York) to 15 (South Carolina) days/year; average fishing rates ranged from 12 (New Mexico) to 38 (New York) days a year. Despite the demographic and recreational rate differences, there was remarkable agreement about future land uses. Maintaining these DOE sites as National Environmental Research Parks and using them for nonconsumptive recreation rated the highest. The lowest rated future land uses were current and additional nuclear waste storage and the building of homes and factories. People who participated in a recreational activity rated those future land uses higher than nonusers. While these data on recreational rates can be used to assess the potential risk to people using contaminated sites and to aid in setting clean-up standards based on potential risk, the information on land-use preferences can be used by managers to determine future use and to plan for such use. This information is particularly relevant to the Department of Energy's "Risk-based End State Vision."

  14. Parallel female preferences for call duration in a diploid ancestor of an allotetraploid treefrog.

    PubMed

    Bee, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    The gray treefrog species complex (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) comprises a single allotetraploid species (H. versicolor) that arose multiple times from hybrid matings between an extant diploid species (H. chrysoscelis) and at least two other extinct diploid treefrogs. While previous studies have investigated female preferences for call duration in the tetraploid, we know little about these preferences in its putative diploid anscestors. Here, I report results from two-choice phonotaxis experiments investigating call duration preferences in H. chrysoscelis. Females preferred an average-length call over shorter-than-average calls (0.5-2.0 standard deviations [SD] below average), and they preferred longer-than-average calls over average or shorter-than-average calls if the difference in pulse number was at least 2.0 SD. When the amplitude of the longer alternative was attenuated by 6 dB, females still preferred an average-length call over a shorter-than-average call, but there was no preference for longer-than-average calls over an average call. In the presence of chorus noise, female preferences for both average and longer-than-average calls over shorter alternatives were weakened or reversed. Together, the results from this study reveal patterns of female preferences for call duration that are strikingly similar among two members of a species complex with a novel evolutionary history. In both species, female preferences are directional, nonlinear, and limited by environmental noise. Furthermore, these results also highlight the need for caution in studies of sexual selection when extrapolating from patterns of female preference obtained under ideal laboratory conditions to conclusions about how those preferences are expressed in the real world.

  15. Parallel female preferences for call duration in a diploid ancestor of an allotetraploid treefrog

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The gray treefrog species complex (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) comprises a single allotetraploid species (H. versicolor) that arose multiple times from hybrid matings between an extant diploid species (H. chrysoscelis) and at least two other extinct diploid treefrogs. While previous studies have investigated female preferences for call duration in the tetraploid, we know little about these preferences in its putative diploid anscestors. Here, I report results from two-choice phonotaxis experiments investigating call duration preferences in H. chrysoscelis. Females preferred an average-length call over shorter-than-average calls (0.5–2.0 standard deviations [SD] below average), and they preferred longer-than-average calls over average or shorter-than-average calls if the difference in pulse number was at least 2.0 SD. When the amplitude of the longer alternative was attenuated by 6 dB, females still preferred an average-length call over a shorter-than-average call, but there was no preference for longer-than-average calls over an average call. In the presence of chorus noise, female preferences for both average and longer-than-average calls over shorter alternatives were weakened or reversed. Together, the results from this study reveal patterns of female preferences for call duration that are strikingly similar among two members of a species complex with a novel evolutionary history. In both species, female preferences are directional, nonlinear, and limited by environmental noise. Furthermore, these results also highlight the need for caution in studies of sexual selection when extrapolating from patterns of female preference obtained under ideal laboratory conditions to conclusions about how those preferences are expressed in the real world. PMID:19727325

  16. Host preference of an introduced 'generalist' parasite for a non-native host.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Victor M; Hendry, Andrew P; Rolshausen, Gregor; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Parasites can invade new ecosystems if they are introduced with their native hosts or if they successfully infect and colonise new hosts upon arrival. Here, we ask to what extent an introduced parasite demonstrates specialisation among novel host species. Infection surveys across three field sites in Gatun Lake, Panama, revealed that the invasive peacock bass, Cichla monoculus, was more commonly infected by the introduced trematode parasite Centrocestus formosanus than were three other common cichlid fishes. Laboratory infection experiments were conducted to determine whether parasitism might be driven by differential encounter/exposure to parasites or by differential infection susceptibility/preference across different host species. These experiments were performed by controlling for parasite exposure in single host (compatibility) experiments and in mixed host (preference) experiments. In all cases, the peacock bass exhibited higher infection rates with viable metacercariae relative to the other potential fish hosts. Our experiments thus support that an introduced generalist parasite shows apparent specialisation on a specific novel host. Further studies are needed to determine whether these patterns of specialisation are the result of local adaptation following invasion by the parasite.

  17. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental impact...

  18. Telecommuting and Learning Style Preference: An Examination of Learning Transfer in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Telecommuting learning style preferences were examined in an effort to determine the impact of learning transfer and if employees could benefit from blended training methodologies (i.e., online, face-to-face). Learning style preferences were examined in an effort to promote learning transfer and retention in the workplace. Employees in higher…

  19. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental impact...

  20. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental impact...

  1. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental impact...

  2. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental impact...

  3. Telecommuting and Learning Style Preference: An Examination of Learning Transfer in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Telecommuting learning style preferences were examined in an effort to determine the impact of learning transfer and if employees could benefit from blended training methodologies (i.e., online, face-to-face). Learning style preferences were examined in an effort to promote learning transfer and retention in the workplace. Employees in higher…

  4. Application of diet theory reveals context-dependent foraging preferences in an herbivorous coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Hanmer, John; White, J Wilson; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2017-03-23

    Dietary preferences of grazers can drive spatial variability in top-down control of autotroph communities, because diet composition may depend on the relative availability of autotroph species. On Caribbean coral reefs, parrotfish grazing is important in limiting macroalgae, but parrotfish dietary preferences are poorly understood. We applied diet-switching analysis to quantify the foraging preferences of the redband parrotfish (Sparisoma aurofrenatum). At 12 Caribbean reefs, we observed 293 redband parrotfish in 5-min feeding bouts and quantified relative benthic algal cover using quadrats. The primary diet items were macroalgal turfs, Halimeda spp., and foliose macroalgae (primarily Dictyota spp. and Lobophora spp.). When each resource was evaluated independently, there were only weak relationships between resource cover and foraging effort (number of bites taken). Electivity for each resource also showed no pattern, varying from positive (preference for the resource) to negative (avoidance) across sites. However, a diet-switching analysis consisting of pairwise comparisons of relative cover and relative foraging effort revealed clearer patterns: parrotfish (a) preferred Halimeda and macroalgal turfs equally, and those two resources were highly substitutable; (b) preferred Halimeda to foliose macroalgae, but those two resources were complementary; and (c) also preferred turf to foliose macroalgae, and those resources were also complementary. Thus parrotfish grazing rates depend on relative, not absolute, abundance of macroalgal types, due to differences in substitutability among resources. Application of similar analyses may help predict potential changes in foraging effort of benthic grazers over spatial gradients that could inform expectations for reef recovery following the protection of herbivore populations.

  5. Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27: Solid-state synthesis, crystal structure and site-preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Beom-Yong; Nam, Gnu; Lee, Dong Woo; Min Ok, Kang; You, Tae-Soo

    2016-04-01

    A novel intermetallic compound of Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27 has been synthesized through the high-temperature solid-state reaction using Nb-ampoules. A batch of well grown block-/short bar-shaped single-crystals has been obtained, and the crystal structure of the title compound has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27 adopts the Ho11Ge10-type structure belonging to the tetragonal space group I4/mmm (Z=4, Pearson symbol tI84) with nine crystallographically unique atomic positions in the asymmetric unit. The lattice parameters are a=12.0163(1) Å and c=16.5396(2) Å. The overall crystal structure can simply be depicted as an assembly of three different types of co-facial cationic polyhedra centered by anions, which is further enclosed by the three-dimensional (3-D) cage-like anionic framework. The extra amount of In is observed in one of three isolated anionic sites resulting in introducing the Ge/In-mixed site at the Wyckoff 4e site. This unique site-preference of In substitution for Ge at the 4e site has been enlightened via the atomic size-aspect which was fully supported and rationalized by the site- and bond-energies analyses using tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) calculations. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), density of states (DOS), crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP), and electron localization function (ELF) analyses for the title compound are also presented. Magnetic susceptibility measurement proves that an antiferromagnetic ordering of Ce atoms at a low temperature with a paramagnetic Curie temperature of -23.2 K.

  6. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  7. Public preferences for future conditions in disturbed and undisturbed northern forest sites

    Treesearch

    Terry C. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This study presented computer visualizations (pictures) of projected changes over an 80-year period to conditions in a northern forest that had been hit by a major blowdown. Study participants included local residents and forest visitors who were asked to choose between visualizations of projected outcome scenarios for 10 pairs of treatment versus no-treatment options...

  8. An online means of testing asymmetries in seating preference reveals a bias for airplanes and theaters.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate asymmetrical interactions between humans and their environment using online seat booking sites. Functional differences between the cerebral hemispheres affect the choices people make. For example, when asked to imagine going to a cinema, people preferentially select seats to the right We investigated whether this experimental research generalizes to online booking sites for aircraft and theaters. Occupancy rates for seats taken on the left and right sides were assessed for 100 airline flights with 12,762 available seats and 37 theater performances with 34,456 seats. On the basis of previous research, a rightward bias was predicted for aircraft and theaters. For aircraft, contrary to expectation, occupancy rate was higher for left- compared with right-side seats. For theaters, a rightward bias was observed when the theater was less than half full.The bias was not affected by the orientation of the map. For aircraft, the leftward preference could be attributable to a rightward turning bias or a "feeling" that the port seats are closer to the exit, even though they are not. For theaters, the data demonstrate that the rightward preference observed in earlier studies exists only when the theater is relatively empty. Asymmetrical seating may play an important role in the efficient assimilation of information from the environment, and this role should take this into account when designing effective human-environment interfaces.The online method of assessing seating used in the current study provides an informative and potentially powerful means of assessing asymmetries in human perception and action.

  9. Time Preferences and Natural Resource Extraction Behavior: An Experimental Study from Artisanal Fisheries in Zanzibar

    PubMed Central

    Kulesz, Micaela M.; Schlüter, Achim; Ghosh, Alexandra; Jiddawi, Narriman S.

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource users face a trade-off between present and future consumption. Using harmful methods or extracting unsustainably, lowers future consumption. Therefore, it is reasonable to posit that people with higher time preferences extract more as compared to people with lower time preferences. The present study combines experimental methods and questionnaire data in order to understand the relationship between individual time preferences and fishers’ extraction behavior. We elicit individual time preferences using an incentivized experiment, linking the resulting time preference measures to extraction data from a questionnaire, as well as data collected from a framed Common Pool Resource (CPR) experiment. Both the experiments and questionnaire were conducted with artisanal fishers in Zanzibar. Our findings suggest that the relationship between time preferences and CPR extraction is not as straightforward as predicted by classical economic theory. In contrast to earlier studies, we find that fishers’ time preferences are negatively correlated to their extraction rates. Our surprising findings can partly be explained by the fact that higher time preferences are associated with lower investment in extraction capability (the disinvestment effect of time preferences), and by fishers´ cognitive abilities. PMID:28033328

  10. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Owino, Eunice A; Mwang'onde, Beda J; Mahande, Aneth M; Nyindo, Mramba; Mosha, Franklin

    2011-09-26

    Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls) of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI). The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values.Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both laboratory and field conditions have shown that

  11. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls) of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI). Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both

  12. At-Risk Learner Preference in Engineering/Technical Graphics: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated learner preferences of secondary Career and Technical Education (CTE) Engineering/Technical Graphics students using the VARK Questionnaire. The VARK Questionnaire is an instrument that assists in determining students' dominant preferred learning styles, whether visual, aural, reading, or kinesthetic. This study…

  13. Co-doping of (Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))TiO(3): secondary phase formation and lattice site preference of Co.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, V; Staab, T E M

    2012-11-14

    Bismuth sodium titanate (Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))TiO(3) (BNT) is considered to be one of the most promising lead-free alternatives to piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). However, the effect of dopants on the material has so far received little attention from an atomic point of view. In this study we investigated the effects of cobalt-doping on the formation of additional phases and determined the preferred lattice site of cobalt in BNT. The latter was achieved by comparing the measured x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra to numerically calculated spectra of cobalt on various lattice sites in BNT. (Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))TiO(3) + x mol% Co (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.6) was synthesized via solid state reaction. As revealed by SEM backscattering images, a secondary phase formed in all doped specimens. Using both XRD and SEM-EDX, it was identified as Co(2)TiO(4) for dopant levels >0.5 mol%. In addition, a certain amount of cobalt was incorporated into BNT, as shown by electron probe microanalysis. This amount increased with increasing dopant levels, suggesting that an equilibrium forms together with the secondary phase. The XANES experiments revealed that cobalt occupies the octahedral B-site in the BNT perovskite lattice, substituting Ti and promoting the formation of oxygen vacancies in the material.

  14. Kinetic studies show that Ca2+ and Tb3+ have different binding preferences toward the four Ca2+-binding sites of calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Wang, C L; Leavis, P C; Gergely, J

    1984-12-18

    The stepwise addition of Tb3+ to calmodulin yields a large tyrosine-sensitized Tb3+ luminescence enhancement as the third and fourth ions bind to the protein [Wang, C.-L. A., Aquaron, R. R., Leavis, P. C., & Gergely, J. (1982) Eur. J. Biochem. 124, 7-12]. Since the only tyrosine residues in calmodulin are located within binding sites III and IV, these results suggest that Tb3+ binds first to sites I and II. Recent NMR studies have provided evidence that Ca2+, on the other hand, binds preferentially to sites III and IV. Kinetic studies using a stopped-flow apparatus also show that the preferential binding of Ca2+ and lanthanide ions is different. Upon rapid mixing of 2Ca-calmodulin with two Tb3+ ions, there was a small and rapid tyrosine fluorescence change, but no Tb3+ luminescence was observed, indicating that Tb3+ binds to sites I and II but not sites III and IV. When two Tb3+ ions are mixed with 2Dy-calmodulin, Tb3+ luminescence rises rapidly as Tb3+ binds to the empty sites III and IV, followed by a more gradual decrease (k = 0.4 s-1 as the ions redistribute themselves over the four sites. These results indicate that (i) both Tb3+ and Dy3+ prefer binding to sites I and II of calmodulin and (ii) the binding of Tb3+ to calmodulin is not impeded by the presence of two Ca2+ ions initially bound to the protein. Thus, the Ca2+ and lanthanide ions must exhibit opposite preferences for the four sites of calmodulin: sites III and IV are the high-affinity sites for Ca2+, whereas Tb3+ and Dy3+ prefer sites I and II.

  15. Methodologic evaluation of adaptive conjoint analysis to assess patient preferences: an application in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Pieterse, Arwen H.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background  Adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) is an individually tailored preferences elicitation technique that mimics actual decision‐making processes by asking participants to make trade‐offs between the various dimensions that underlie decision problems. ACA is increasingly applied in patient preferences assessments but formal evaluation of its validity and reliability is lacking. Objective  To investigate ACA’s validity and reliability in elicitation of treatment outcome preferences. Methods  Sixty‐eight disease‐free rectal cancer patients, treated with surgery with or without preoperative radiotherapy were asked to complete exercises to assess their preferences for radiotherapy [using the treatment trade‐off method (TTM)] and for key outcomes associated with radiotherapy (using ACA). We assessed (i) rank ordering of ACA‐derived outcome‐probability utilities, (ii) compensatory decision making, (iii) ACA test–retest reliability, and (iv) concordance of ACA‐ and TTM‐based preferences. Results  All participants completed the TTM and 66 completed the ACA questionnaire, in 15 min on average. Outcome utilities were rank ordered in agreement with probabilities from best to worst in most participants, except for sexual dysfunction. Most participants were willing to trade survival and their most important outcome. Mean importance ratings were similar at retest. ACA‐ and TTM‐based preferences differed. TTM‐based preferences were related to past treatment, ACA‐based preferences were not. Conclusions  ACA assesses group‐level preferences reliably over time and captures individual preferences independently from treatment experience in treated cancer patients. ACA seems a valid treatment outcome preference elicitation method in a context in which trade‐offs between cure and quality of life need to be considered. PMID:20550594

  16. Methodologic evaluation of adaptive conjoint analysis to assess patient preferences: an application in oncology.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Arwen H; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Marijnen, Corrie A M

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) is an individually tailored preferences elicitation technique that mimics actual decision-making processes by asking participants to make trade-offs between the various dimensions that underlie decision problems. ACA is increasingly applied in patient preferences assessments but formal evaluation of its validity and reliability is lacking. To investigate ACA's validity and reliability in elicitation of treatment outcome preferences. Sixty-eight disease-free rectal cancer patients, treated with surgery with or without preoperative radiotherapy were asked to complete exercises to assess their preferences for radiotherapy [using the treatment trade-off method (TTM)] and for key outcomes associated with radiotherapy (using ACA). We assessed (i) rank ordering of ACA-derived outcome-probability utilities, (ii) compensatory decision making, (iii) ACA test-retest reliability, and (iv) concordance of ACA- and TTM-based preferences. All participants completed the TTM and 66 completed the ACA questionnaire, in 15 min on average. Outcome utilities were rank ordered in agreement with probabilities from best to worst in most participants, except for sexual dysfunction. Most participants were willing to trade survival and their most important outcome. Mean importance ratings were similar at retest. ACA- and TTM-based preferences differed. TTM-based preferences were related to past treatment, ACA-based preferences were not. ACA assesses group-level preferences reliably over time and captures individual preferences independently from treatment experience in treated cancer patients. ACA seems a valid treatment outcome preference elicitation method in a context in which trade-offs between cure and quality of life need to be considered. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help.

  18. Sequential effects in preference decision: Prior preference assimilates current preference.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seah; Kim, Chai-Youn; Cho, Yang Seok

    2017-01-01

    An important factor affecting preference formation is the context in which that preference decision takes place. The current research examined whether one's preference formed for a previously presented stimulus influences the processing of a subsequent preference decision, henceforth referred to as the preference sequence effect. Using a novel sequential rating/judgment paradigm, the present study demonstrated the presence of a preference sequence effect using artistic photographs and face stimuli: A neutral stimulus was preferred more following a preferable stimulus than a less preferable stimulus. Furthermore, a similar trend was found even when the potential influence of response bias was controlled. These results suggest that an assimilative sequential effect exists even when sequential judgments are made solely based on one's subjective feeling; preference formed for a preceding stimulus modulates preference for a subsequent stimulus. This implies the need for a consideration of trial sequence as a factor creating a psychological context affecting the subsequent preference decisions.

  19. Sequential effects in preference decision: Prior preference assimilates current preference

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seah; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2017-01-01

    An important factor affecting preference formation is the context in which that preference decision takes place. The current research examined whether one’s preference formed for a previously presented stimulus influences the processing of a subsequent preference decision, henceforth referred to as the preference sequence effect. Using a novel sequential rating/judgment paradigm, the present study demonstrated the presence of a preference sequence effect using artistic photographs and face stimuli: A neutral stimulus was preferred more following a preferable stimulus than a less preferable stimulus. Furthermore, a similar trend was found even when the potential influence of response bias was controlled. These results suggest that an assimilative sequential effect exists even when sequential judgments are made solely based on one’s subjective feeling; preference formed for a preceding stimulus modulates preference for a subsequent stimulus. This implies the need for a consideration of trial sequence as a factor creating a psychological context affecting the subsequent preference decisions. PMID:28817619

  20. Site preference and elastic properties of ternary alloying additions in B2 YAg alloys by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yurong; Hu, Wangyu; Xu, Longshan

    2012-09-01

    First-principles calculations were preformed to study the site preference behavior and elastic properties of 3d (Ti-Cu) transition-metal elements in B2 ductility YAg alloy. In YAg, Ti is found to occupy the Y sublattice whereas V, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni and Cu tend to substitute for Ag sublattice. Due to the addition of 3d transition metals, the lattice parameters of YAg is decreased in the order: V

  1. Do Children Prefer Contingencies? An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Contingent versus Noncontingent Social Reinforcement during Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and…

  2. Preference for language of instruction of an English language learner with autism.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Jeannie M; White, Pamela J; Fragale, Christina; Chan, Jeffrey Michael

    2016-06-01

    To use a preference assessment to identify the preferred language of instruction (English or Spanish) for a child with autism living in a Spanish-speaking home and receiving school services in English only. We used a concurrent chains method to evaluate the participant's preference for English or Spanish instruction. Colored microswitches represented English instruction, Spanish instruction and no instruction (control). Switch presses resulted in instruction and reinforcement in either English or Spanish, or no instruction and no reinforcement. After session 10, switches were reprogrammed to control for color bias. The participant chose Spanish instruction most frequently. The participant preferred to receive instruction in Spanish. These data support previous research indicating the importance of child preference when individualizing educational programs for children with autism and that language of instruction is an important variable when working with children with autism who experience multiple languages across home and school.

  3. Medical Students' and Residents' preferred site characteristics and preceptor behaviours for learning in the ambulatory setting: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Karen W; Kirby, John; Delva, Dianne; Godwin, Marshall; Verma, Sarita; Birtwhistle, Richard; Knapper, Chris; Seguin, Rachelle

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical training is increasingly occurring in the ambulatory setting for final year medical students and residents. This study looks to identify if gender, school, level of training, or speciality affects learner's (final year medical students and residents) preferred site characteristics and preceptor behaviours for learning in the ambulatory setting. Methods All final year medical students and residents at the five medical schools in Ontario (N = 3471) were surveyed about the site characteristics and preceptor behaviours most enhancing their learning in the ambulatory setting. Preferred site characteristics and preceptor behaviours were rank ordered. Factor analysis grouped the site characteristics and preceptor behaviours into themes which were then correlated with gender, school, level of training, and speciality. Results Having an adequate number and variety of patients while being supervised by enthusiastic preceptors who give feedback and are willing to discuss their reasoning processes and delegate responsibility are site characteristics and preceptor behaviours valued by almost all learners. Some teaching strategies recently suggested to improve efficiency in the ambulatory teaching setting, such as structuring the interview for the student and teaching and reviewing the case in front of the patient, were found not to be valued by learners. There was a striking degree of similarity in what was valued by all learners but there were also some educationally significant differences, particularly between learners at different levels and in different specialities. Key findings between the different levels include preceptor interaction being most important for medical students as opposed to residents who most value issues pertaining to patient logistics. Learning resources are less valued early and late in training. Teaching and having the case reviewed in front of the patient becomes increasingly less valued as learners advance in their training. As

  4. Do children prefer contingencies? An evaluation of the efficacy of and preference for contingent versus noncontingent social reinforcement during play.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) schedules with typically developing children. Results showed that 7 of the 8 children preferred the DRA schedule; 1 child was indifferent. We also demonstrated a high degree of procedural fidelity, which suggested that preference is influenced by the presence of a contingency under which reinforcement can be obtained. These findings are discussed in terms of (a) the selection of reinforcement schedules in practice, (b) variables that influence children's preferences for contexts, and (c) the selection of experimental control procedures when evaluating the effects of reinforcement.

  5. DO CHILDREN PREFER CONTINGENCIES? AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF AND PREFERENCE FOR CONTINGENT VERSUS NONCONTINGENT SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT DURING PLAY

    PubMed Central

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) schedules with typically developing children. Results showed that 7 of the 8 children preferred the DRA schedule; 1 child was indifferent. We also demonstrated a high degree of procedural fidelity, which suggested that preference is influenced by the presence of a contingency under which reinforcement can be obtained. These findings are discussed in terms of (a) the selection of reinforcement schedules in practice, (b) variables that influence children's preferences for contexts, and (c) the selection of experimental control procedures when evaluating the effects of reinforcement. PMID:20190915

  6. Perceived Professional Needs of Korean Science Teachers Majoring in Chemical Education and Their Preferences for Online and On-Site Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Taehee; Cha, Jeongho; Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the perceived professional needs of Korean science teachers majoring in chemical education, and examined their preferences for online and on-site inservice teacher training programmes. The results were also compared with those of preservice teachers. Participants were 120 secondary school teachers and 67 preservice…

  7. Bone grafts utilized in dentistry: an analysis of patients' preferences.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ramón Fuentes; Bucchi, Cristina; Navarro, Pablo; Beltrán, Víctor; Borie, Eduardo

    2015-10-20

    Many procedures currently require the use of bone grafts to replace or recover bone volume that has been resorbed. However, the patient's opinion and preferences must be taken into account before implementing any treatment. Researchers have focused primarily on assessing the effectiveness of bone grafts rather than on patients' perceptions. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore patients' opinions regarding the different types of bone grafts used in dental treatments. One hundred patients were randomly chosen participated in the study. A standardized survey of 10 questions was used to investigate their opinions regarding the different types of bone grafts used in dental treatments. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the different variables, and absolute frequencies and percentages were used as summary measures. A value of p <0.05 was selected as the threshold for statistical significance. The highest rate of refusal was observed for allografts and xenografts. The grafts with the lowest rates of refusal were autologous grafts (3 %) and alloplastics (2 %). No significant differences were found between the various types of bone grafts in the sociodemographic variables or the refusal/acceptance variable. Similarly, no significant relations were observed between a specific religious affiliation and the acceptance/refusal rates of the various types of graft. Allografts and xenografts elicited the highest refusal rates among the surveyed patients, and autologous bone and alloplastics were the most accepted bone grafts. Moreover, no differences were found in the sociodemographic variables or religious affiliations in terms of the acceptance/refusal rates of the different bone grafts.

  8. Reproductive success is driven by local site fidelity despite stronger specialisation by individuals for large-scale habitat preference.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Samantha Clare; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2017-05-01

    There is widespread evidence that within populations, specialists and generalists can coexist and this is particularly prevalent in marine ecosystems, where foraging specialisations are evident. While individuals may limit niche overlap by consistently foraging in specific areas, site fidelity may also emerge as an artefact of habitat choice, but both drivers and fitness consequences of site fidelity are poorly understood. Here, we examine an individual metric of site and habitat fidelity, using tracking data collected over 11 years for black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophris). Fidelity was calculated as the similarity between pairs of foraging zones, quantifying measures for within and between years. Foraging areas were identified using area-restricted search, defined as periods during which birds decrease speed and increase turning. Our results demonstrate that birds were considerably more specialised in the habitat in which they forage than the exact location they use within years, and there was a similar pattern between years. However, despite this, it was site fidelity that explained reproductive success. Within a single year, females which were more faithful to a specific location had higher reproductive success than non-specialists, and between years there was a tendency for both sexes. Our results suggest that black-browed albatrosses are highly faithful in their foraging habitat but it is rather site fidelity that is more clearly associated with reproductive success. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  9. Stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow: An example from the Copper Ridge Dolomite in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.; Ketelle, D.

    1987-07-14

    The Copper Ridge Dolomite of the Upper Cambrian Knox Group underlies a site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) for a below ground waste disposal facility. The Copper Ridge was studied for DOE to understand the influence of lithology on deep groundwater flow. Three facies types are distinguished which comprise laterally continuous, 1 to 4 m thick rock units interpreted to represent upward-shallowing depositional cycles having an apparently significant effect on groundwater flow at depth. Rock core observations indicate one of the recurring facies types is characterized by thin to medium-bedded, fine-grained dolostone with planar cryptalgal laminae and thin shaley partings. Distinctive fracturing in this facies type, that may have resulted from regional structural deformation, it considered to be responsible for weathering at depth and the development of stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow. In addition, geophysical data suggest that one occurrence of this weathered facies type coincides with an apparent geochemical interface at depth. Geophysical data also indicate the presence of several fluid invasion horizons, traceable outside the study area, which coincide with the unweathered occurrence of this fine-grained facies type. The subcropping of recurrent zones of preferred groundwater flow at the weathered/unweathered interface may define linear traces of enhanced aquifer recharge paralleling geologic strike. Vertical projection of these zones from the weathered/unweathered rock interface to the ground surface may describe areas of enhanced infiltration. Tests to determine the role of stratigraphic controls on groundwater flow are key components of future investigations on West Chestnut Ridge. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Substrate preferences of epiphytic bromeliads: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Vollrath, Birgit

    2002-05-01

    Based on the known vertical distributions of three epiphyte species we tested the hypothesis that observed interspecific differences are determined at a very early ontogenetic stage. We attached 1296 first-year seedlings of the three species Guzmania monostachya, Tillandsia fasciculata, and Vriesea sanguinolenta (Bromeliaceae) to substrates differing in orientation and relative position within the crown of the host tree, Annona glabra. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differential mortality on different substrate types for any of the three species. Hence, differences in vertical distribution cannot be explained by interspecific differences in site-specific survival at this stage. This suggests that spatial distribution patterns are determined even earlier, probably resulting from species differences in seed dispersal or during germination.

  11. An Approach to Reconciling Competing Ethical Principles in Aggregating Heterogeneous Health Preferences.

    PubMed

    Dewitt, Barry; Davis, Alexander; Fischhoff, Baruch; Hanmer, Janel

    2017-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores are used extensively to quantify the effectiveness of medical interventions. Societal preference-based HRQL scores aim to produce societal valuations of health by aggregating valuations from individuals in the general population, where each aggregation procedure embodies different ethical principles, as explained in social choice theory. Using the Health Utilities Index as an exemplar, we evaluate societal preference-based HRQL measures in the social choice theory framework. We find that current preference aggregation procedures are typically justified in terms of social choice theory. However, by convention, they use only one of many possible aggregation procedures (the mean). Central to the choice of aggregation procedure is how to treat preference heterogeneity, which can affect analyses that rely on HRQL scores, such as cost-effectiveness analyses. We propose an analytical-deliberative framework for choosing one (or a set of) aggregation procedure(s) in a socially credible way, which we believe to be analytically sound and empirically tractable, but leave open the institutional mechanism needed to implement it. Socially acceptable decisions about aggregating heterogeneous preferences require eliciting stakeholders' preferences among the set of analytically sound procedures, representing different ethical principles. We describe a framework for eliciting such preferences for the creation of HRQL scores, informed by social choice theory and behavioral decision research.

  12. Cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, S.R.; Aday, D.D.; Kwak, T.J.; Gross, K.

    2010-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we investigated cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern USA stream fish. Fish were tested individually and given 24 hours to make a selection from four cover options, including rock, leaf pack, mussel shell, and an artificial cover unit. Among 30 trials, Carolina madtom preferred the artificial cover unit, selecting it 63% of the time. Rock was selected 23% of the time, and leaf pack 13%. Mussel shells were not selected during any trial.

  13. Cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, indemic southeastern stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, S.R.; Aday, D.D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Gross, K.

    2010-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we investigated cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern USA stream fish. Fish were tested individually and given 24 hours to make a selection from four cover options, including rock, leaf pack, mussel shell, and an artificial cover unit. Among 30 trials, Carolina madtom preferred the artificial cover unit, selecting it 63% of the time. Rock was selected 23% of the time, and leaf pack 13%. Mussel shells were not selected during any trial.

  14. Homo sapiens dullard protein phosphatase shows a preference for the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site of lipin1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Garland, Megan; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N

    2011-04-19

    Human lipin1 catalyzes the highly regulated conversion of phosphatidic acids to diacylglycerides. Lipin's cellular location, protein partners, and biological function are directed by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events catalyzed by the phosphoserine phosphatase dullard. To define the determinants of dullard substrate recognition and catalysis, and hence, lipin regulation, steady-state kinetic analysis was performed on phosphoserine-bearing nonapeptides based on the phosphorylation sites of lipin. The results demonstrate that dullard shows specificity for the peptide corresponding to the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site (Ser106) of lipin with a k(cat)/K(m) of 2.9 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These results are consistent with a coil-loop structure for the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site on human lipin1 and make unlikely the requirement for an adaptor protein to confer activity such as that proposed for the yeast homologue.

  15. An Image Retrieval System using Impressional Words Based on Individual Preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambo, Hidetaka; Okamine, Tadashi; Kimura, Haruhiko; Nakazawa, Minoru; Hattori, Shimmi

    When we examine goods with their pictures at online shops, regarding flowers and drawings, it is difficult to give proper keywords for retrieving goods' pictures. To refer their pictures efficiently, image retrieval systems using adjectives called as Kansei words, which represent human feelings, impressions, etc., are proposed. However, since the current systems retrieve pictures without customers' preferences, outputs disagree with the preferences. To cope with the problem, we propose an image retrieval system with Kansei words according to users' preferences. Experimental results have shown the efficiencies of the proposed system comparing with performances of a conventional system.

  16. Sleeping in safe places: an experimental investigation of human sleeping place preferences from an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Stich, Jennifer

    2010-08-03

    Although humans spend a third of their life asleep, their choice of sleeping places has so far been little investigated both theoretically and empirically. We address this issue from the perspective of evolutionary psychology. Our basic assumption is that humans have an evolved preference for safe sleeping places, that is, those that promise protection against potential aggressors and nighttime predation. Several testable predictions were derived from this assumption concerning the preferred location of the bed in a sleeping room. Specifically, we predicted that people prefer sleeping places that allow them to view the entrances to the sleeping room (doors and windows) from a distance while remaining concealed from the entrances themselves. To test these hypotheses, 138 participants were asked to arrange a bed and other pieces of furniture on floor plans that were experimentally manipulated with respect to the direction in which the door opened and the presence of a window. In agreement with predictions, participants predominantly positioned the bed in a way that (a) allowed them to see the door, (b) was as distant as possible from the door, and (c) was on the side of the room toward which the door opened. In addition, the positioning of the bed was influenced as predicted by the presence of a window.

  17. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  18. An overview of surveys of mental health consumers' preferences for housing and support services.

    PubMed

    Tanzman, B

    1993-05-01

    The author examined the methodology and results of studies that surveyed mentally ill clients' preferences related to housing and support services to gain an overview of demographic characteristics, current and preferred housing situations, and preferred types of staff supports and social and material supports in a nationally representative sample of clients. Through mailings to state departments of mental health and local mental health providers and advocates, a national survey of residential providers, and other contacts with mental health agencies, the author identified a total of 43 studies of mental health consumers' preferences for housing and supports conducted between 1986 and 1992. The results of 26 of the studies whose methodologies permitted comparison of findings were summarized. Consumers consistently reported that they would prefer to live in their own house or apartment, to live alone or with a spouse or romantic partner, and not to live with other mental health consumers. Consumers reported a strong preference for outreach staff support that is available on call; few respondents wanted to live with staff. Consumers also emphasized the importance of material supports such as money, rent subsidies, telephones, and transportation for successful community living. To accommodate consumers' preferences, mental health systems should work toward providing flexible supports corresponding to the episodic nature of psychiatric disability and should expand their advocacy for affordable housing and for increased income for people who depend on disability benefits and other entitlements.

  19. An evolutionary perspective of sex-typed toy preferences: pink, blue, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M

    2003-02-01

    Large sex differences in children's toy preferences are attributed to gender group identification and social learning. The proposal outlined in this paper is that contemporary conceptual categories of "masculine" or "feminine" toys are also influenced by evolved perceptual categories of male-preferred and female-preferred objects. Research on children exposed prenatally to atypical levels of androgens and research on typically developing infants suggest sex-dimorphic preferences exist for object features, such as movement or color/form. The evolution and neurobiology of mammalian visual processing--and recent findings on sex-dimorphic toy preferences in nonhuman primates--suggest further that an innate bias for processing object movement or color/form may contribute to behaviors with differential adaptive significance for males and females. In this way, preferences for objects such as toys may indicate a biological preparedness for a "masculine" or "feminine" gender role-one that develops more fully as early perceptual preferences are coupled with object experiences imposed by contemporary gender socialization.

  20. Associations between Film Preferences and Risk Factors for Suicide: An Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  1. Patterns of sugar feeding and host plant preferences in adult males of An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Poueme, Rodrigue S; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-12-01

    Sugar feeding by male mosquitoes is critical for their success in mating competition. However, the facets of sugar source finding under natural conditions remain unknown. Here, evidence obtained in Western Burkina Faso indicated that the distribution of An. gambiae s.s. (M and S molecular forms) males across different peri-domestic habitats is dependent on the availability of potential sugar sources from which they obtain more favorable sites for feeding or resting. Among field-collected anophelines, a higher proportion of specimens containing fructose were found on flowering Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Dolonix regia (Fabaceae), Thevetia neriifolia (Apocynaceae), Senna siamea, and Cassia sieberiana (both Fabaceae) compared to that recorded on other nearby plants, suggesting that some plants are favored for use as a sugar source over others. Y-tube olfactometer assays with newly-emerged An. gambiae s.s. exposed to odors from individual plants and some combinations thereof showed that males use odor cues to guide their preference. The number of sugar-positive males was variable in a no-choice cage assay, consistent with the olfactory response patterns towards corresponding odor stimuli. These experiments provide the first evidence both in field and laboratory conditions for previously unstudied interactions between males of An. gambiae and natural sugar sources.

  2. Correlation between site preference and magnetic characteristics of self assembled strontium ferrite dot array on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Ali; Sepelak, Vladimir; Liu, Xiaoxi; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2013-05-01

    In this research work, ferrite nanoparticles with composition of SrFe12-x(Ni0.5Co0.5Ti)x/2O19 (x = 0-2.5 in a step of 0.5) were synthesized by a reverse micelle. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were also functionalized by employing poly(acrylic acid). Then the ferrite nanoparticles were deposited on the functionalized surface of carbon nanotubes by hetero-coagulation process. The volume percentage of carbon nanotubes was kept constant at 8 vol. % for synthesizing nanocomposites. The site preference of substituted cations in ferrite crystal structure was determined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was proved that the substituted cations were distributed in 12 k crystallographic sites. The morphology of ferrite dot array on carbon nanotubes was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Quantum Device MPMS-5S SQUID magnetometer was used to probe the variation of magnetization with applied magnetic field. It was found that with an increase in substitution content, the saturation of magnetization and coercivity decrease.

  3. Improved CO Adsorption Energies, Site Preferences, and Surface Formation Energies from a Meta-Generalized Gradient Approximation Exchange-Correlation Functional, M06-L.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sijie; Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G

    2012-10-18

    A notorious failing of approximate exchange-correlation functionals when applied to problems involving catalysis has been the inability of most local functionals to predict the correct adsorption site for CO on metal surfaces or to simultaneously predict accurate surface formation energies and adsorption energies for transition metals. By adding the kinetic energy density τ to the density functional, the revTPSS density functional was shown recently to achieve a balanced description of surface energies and adsorption energies. Here, we show that the older M06-L density functional, also containing τ, provides improved surface formation energies and CO adsorption energies over revTPSS for five transition metals and correctly predicted the on-top/hollow site adsorption preferences for four of the five metals, which was not achieved by most other local functionals. Because M06-L was entirely designed on the basis of atomic and molecular energies, its very good performance is a confirmation of the reasonableness of its functional form. Two GGA functionals with an expansion in the reduced gradient that is correct through second order, namely, SOGGA and SOGGA11, were also tested and found to produce the best surface formation energies of all tested GGA functionals, although they significantly overestimate the adsorption energies.

  4. Site Evaluation for Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1985-01-01

    Foresters evaluate sites for an indication of potential growth and yield, for an ecological descriptor, and to correctly match the hardwood species to be planted with sites suitable for them. Site indexes measured directly from trees on the site are the preferable means of quantifying site. Because this method is not always possible, other means based on soil and...

  5. Research Supervision: An Important Site of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, M. Jane; McKee, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Supervision of students engaged in research projects and theses is an important site of teaching. Schon's (1987) well-known framework-educating for reflective practice-proves aptly suited for this teaching forum, offering insights for research supervision at multiple university levels. Conceptually, a research and writing studio where a practicum…

  6. Trichostasis Spinulosa at an Unusual Site

    PubMed Central

    Ramteke, Manjeet Naresh; Bhide, Anuradha Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Trichostasis spinulosa (TS) is very common yet unrecognized disorder of the hair follicle. Usually occurring on the mid-face, especially on the nose, TS occurs more commonly in young, adult dark skinned women. Here, we present a case of TS at an unusual site diagnosed on the basis of history, hair mount, dermoscopy, and histopathology. PMID:27601861

  7. An alternate binding site for PPARγ ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis S.; Giri, Pankaj Kumar; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Shin, Youseung; Blayo, Anne-Laure; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    PPARγ is a target for insulin sensitizing drugs such as glitazones, which improve plasma glucose maintenance in patients with diabetes. Synthetic ligands have been designed to mimic endogenous ligand binding to a canonical ligand-binding pocket to hyperactivate PPARγ. Here we reveal that synthetic PPARγ ligands also bind to an alternate site, leading to unique receptor conformational changes that impact coregulator binding, transactivation and target gene expression. Using structure-function studies we show that alternate site binding occurs at pharmacologically relevant ligand concentrations, and is neither blocked by covalently bound synthetic antagonists nor by endogenous ligands indicating non-overlapping binding with the canonical pocket. Alternate site binding likely contributes to PPARγ hyperactivation in vivo, perhaps explaining why PPARγ full and partial or weak agonists display similar adverse effects. These findings expand our understanding of PPARγ activation by ligands and suggest that allosteric modulators could be designed to fine tune PPARγ activity without competing with endogenous ligands. PMID:24705063

  8. Preferred orientation of rolling-induced \\varepsilon martensite in an Fe-Mn-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, K. K.; Jang, W. Y.; Chung, Y. H.

    2003-10-01

    Preferred orientation of \\varepsilon martensite induced by cold rolling is studied in an Fe-27Mn-3.5Si alloy. Since the flat rolling is essentially a plane strain condition, cold rolling is applied to induced the martensite. The alloy consists of stacking faults and thermal \\varepsilon martensite with some variants in γ matrix. By cold rolling, \\varepsilon martensite plates are preferably induced with a single variant, producing a preferred orientation. Rolling-induced \\varepsilon martensite is observed to possess a preferred orientation of (1013)\\varepsilon [3032]\\varepsilon. It is revealed that the [3032]\\varepsilon and normal direction of (1013)\\varepsilon experience the largest contraction and expansion, respectively, in γto\\varepsilon shear deformation when c/a is almost (8/3)^{1/2}.

  9. An experimental investigation of the effects of preferred and relaxing music listening on pain perception.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Laura A; MacDonald, Raymond A R

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of music listening on perception and tolerance of experimentally induced cold pressor pain. Fifty-four participants (34 females, 20 males) each underwent 3 cold pressor trials while listening to (a) white noise, (b) specially designed relaxation music, and (c) their own chosen music. Tolerance time, pain intensity on visual analog scale, and the pain rating index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and perceived control over the pain were measured in each condition. While listening to their own preferred music, male and female participants tolerated the painful stimulus significantly longer than during both the relaxation music and control conditions. However, only female participants rated the intensity of the pain as significantly lower in the preferred music condition. Both male and female participants reported feeling significantly more control when listening to their preferred music. It is suggested that personal preference is an influential factor when considering the efficacy of music listening for pain relief.

  10. Heterogeneity and nonlinearity in consumers' preferences: An application to the olive oil shopping behavior in Chile.

    PubMed

    Romo-Muñoz, Rodrigo Alejandro; Cabas-Monje, Juan Hernán; Garrido-Henrríquez, Héctor Manuel; Gil, José María

    2017-01-01

    In relatively unknown products, consumers use prices as a quality reference. Under such circumstances, the utility function can be non-negative for a specific price range and generate an inverted U-shaped function. The extra virgin olive oil market in Chile is a good example. Although domestic production and consumption have increased significantly in the last few years, consumer knowledge of this product is still limited. The objective of this study was to analyze Chilean consumer preferences and willingness to pay for extra virgin olive oil attributes. Consumers were segmented taking into account purchasing frequency. A Random Parameter Logit model was estimated for preference heterogeneity. Results indicate that the utility function is nonlinear allowing us to differentiate between two regimes. In the first regime, olive oil behaves as a conspicuous good, that is, higher utility is assigned to higher prices and consumers prefer foreign products in smaller containers. Under the second regime, Chilean olive oil in larger containers is preferred.

  11. β-Mn-type Co(8+x)Zn(12-x) as a defect cubic Laves phase: site preferences, magnetism, and electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weiwei; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Lamsal, Jagat; Liu, Jing; Heitmann, Thomas W; Quirinale, Dante; Goldman, Alan I; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Miller, Gordon J

    2013-08-19

    The results of crystallographic analysis, magnetic characterization, and theoretical assessment of β-Mn-type Co-Zn intermetallics prepared using high-temperature methods are presented. These β-Mn Co-Zn phases crystallize in the space group P4(1)32 [Pearson symbol cP20; a = 6.3555(7)-6.3220(7)], and their stoichiometry may be expressed as Co(8+x)Zn(12-x) [1.7(2) < x < 2.2(2)]. According to a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, atomic site occupancies establish clear preferences for Co atoms in the 8c sites and Zn atoms in the 12d sites, with all additional Co atoms replacing some Zn atoms, a result that can be rationalized by electronic structure calculations. Magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction of an equimolar Co:Zn sample confirm ferromagnetism in this phase with a Curie temperature of ∼420 K. Neutron powder diffraction and electronic structure calculations using the local spin density approximation indicate that the spontaneous magnetization of this phase arises exclusively from local moments at the Co atoms. Inspection of the atomic arrangements of Co(8+x)Zn(12-x) reveals that the β-Mn aristotype may be derived from an ordered defect, cubic Laves phase (MgCu2-type) structure. Structural optimization procedures using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) and starting from the undistorted, defect Laves phase structure achieved energy minimization at the observed β-Mn structure type, a result that offers greater insight into the β-Mn structure type and establishes a closer relationship with the corresponding α-Mn structure (cI58).

  12. The effect of visual and auditory cues on seat preference in an opera theater.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Kim, Yong Hee; Cabrera, Densil; Bassett, John

    2008-06-01

    Opera performance conveys both visual and auditory information to an audience, and so opera theaters should be evaluated in both domains. This study investigates the effect of static visual and auditory cues on seat preference in an opera theater. Acoustical parameters were measured and visibility was analyzed for nine seats. Subjective assessments for visual-only, auditory-only, and auditory-visual preferences for these seat positions were made through paired-comparison tests. In the cases of visual-only and auditory-only subjective evaluations, preference judgment tests on a rating scale were also employed. Visual stimuli were based on still photographs, and auditory stimuli were based on binaural impulse responses convolved with a solo tenor recording. For the visual-only experiment, preference is predicted well by measurements taken related to the angle of seats from the theater midline at the center of the stage, the size of the photographed stage view, the visual obstruction, and the distance from the stage. Sound pressure level was the dominant predictor of auditory preference in the auditory-only experiment. In the cross-modal experiments, both auditory and visual preferences were shown to contribute to overall impression, but auditory cues were more influential than the static visual cues. The results show that both a positive visual-only or a positive auditory-only evaluations positively contribute to the assessments of seat quality.

  13. Aggression in Soccer: An Exploratory Study of Accounts Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traclet, Alan; Rascle, Olivier; Souchon, Nicolas; Coulomb-Cabagno, Genevieve; Petrucci, Carrie; Ohbuchi, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    Most researchers have defined aggression in sport as overt acts violating the formal rules and intentionally causing harm. Such conduct in team sports may also be conceptualized as a kind of social interaction, which would suggest aggression is not judged as an isolated act but as a set of actions and reactions between individuals. In many…

  14. An Examination of Academic Advising Style Preference in Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Elizabeth Kendrick

    2010-01-01

    As universities put increasing pressure on student retention and success, academic advising has become an increasingly visible and important part of the university. One of the first examinations of advising contrasted two major styles: prescriptive and developmental (Crookston, 1972). Prescriptive styles are based on the expertise of the advisor.…

  15. Sexual differences in food preferences in the white stork: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwieciński, Zbigniew; Rosin, Zuzanna M.; Dylewski, Łukasz; Skórka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Sex differences in the foraging ecology of monomorphic species are poorly understood, due to problems with gender identification in field studies. In the current study, we used experimental conditions to investigate the food preferences of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, an opportunistic species in terms of food, but characterised by a low level of sexual dimorphism. During a 10-day experiment, 29 individuals (20 females and 9 males) were studied by means of a `cafeteria test' in which the storks' diet consisted of mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, insects and earthworms. The storks preferred food characterised by high calorific and protein values such as mammals, birds and fish. Sexes differed strongly in their preferences; males preferred mammals, whereas females preferred birds. Moreover, females consumed insects and earthworms less often than males. Interestingly, males spent significantly less time foraging than females. We have demonstrated that the white stork exhibits clear sexual differences in food preferences which are mostly attributable to differences in parental duties, physiology and anatomy.

  16. An Investigation of Patient Preferences for Music Played Before Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Graff, Veena; Wingfield, Peter; Adams, David; Rabinowitz, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Patients often feel anxious before electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which can lead to avoidance of treatments. Music is a noninvasive safe option to reduce anxiety in the preoperative setting. Therefore, we examined patients' preferences of listening to music while receiving ECT by providing music-by way of headphones or speakers-to participants before treatment. Patients receiving ECT were recruited for this study. Patients served as their own controls in 3 separate music intervention sessions: 1) randomization to music via headphones or speakers, 2) no music, 3) the remaining music intervention. Patients completed a questionnaire related to satisfaction and preferences of music being played before ECT. Patients received a final questionnaire at the end of the study asking which intervention they preferred. Thirty patients completed the study. Ninety percent enjoyed listening to music through speakers. Eighty percent liked listening to music through headphones. Seventeen percent preferred not having any music. The difference in preference between speakers and headphones was not significant (P = 0.563; McNemar-Bowker test). There was no association between preference at the end of the study and the initial assignment of speakers or headphones (P = 0.542 and P = 0.752, respectively; Pearson χ tests). No adverse events were reported. Music is a low-cost intervention with virtually no side effects that could be offered as an adjunctive therapy for patients receiving ECT. A significant proportion of patients liked hearing music before treatment.

  17. Sexual differences in food preferences in the white stork: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kwieciński, Zbigniew; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Dylewski, Łukasz; Skórka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Sex differences in the foraging ecology of monomorphic species are poorly understood, due to problems with gender identification in field studies. In the current study, we used experimental conditions to investigate the food preferences of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, an opportunistic species in terms of food, but characterised by a low level of sexual dimorphism. During a 10-day experiment, 29 individuals (20 females and 9 males) were studied by means of a 'cafeteria test' in which the storks' diet consisted of mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, insects and earthworms. The storks preferred food characterised by high calorific and protein values such as mammals, birds and fish. Sexes differed strongly in their preferences; males preferred mammals, whereas females preferred birds. Moreover, females consumed insects and earthworms less often than males. Interestingly, males spent significantly less time foraging than females. We have demonstrated that the white stork exhibits clear sexual differences in food preferences which are mostly attributable to differences in parental duties, physiology and anatomy.

  18. The siting of a polluting facility in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    Siting of a trash incinerator to serve a medium-sized city is analyzed. A model of residential locational choice is developed. In the model, households gather to live in proximity to employment, which is assumed to be concentrated at a central point. Land prices and residential density adjust to reflect this preference for central location. Land prices also reflect variation in environmental characteristics over space, for example the level of ambient air quality at a given location. The question of siting an incinerator is addressed within this framework. Transport of waste is more costly if the incinerator is placed in a remote location while more households are affected by the external impacts of the incinerator if it is placed at a central location. A complication, previously unaddressed in locational analyses, arises from the realization that any incinerator location influences long-run residential locational choices. This work analyzes the impact of siting and related policy questions within a long-run framework, which takes full account of subsequent residential locational patterns. because of the complexity of the model, a computer simulation is designed to allow the solution of a long-run equilibrium.

  19. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Calear, Alison L

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. Objective This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. Methods A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Results Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Conclusions Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help. PMID:28666976

  20. An information model for automated assessment of concordance between advance care preferences and care delivered near the end of life

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Susan; Meng, Di; Kanter, Michael H; Garrido, Terhilda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop an information model for automating evaluation of concordance between patient preferences and end-of-life care. Methods We modeled and validated 15 end-of-life care preference option domains, to which we mapped preferences recorded in standardized advance care planning documents and 232 end-of-life care events defined by procedure and medication codes. Patient preferences and end-of-life care events were available in electronic health records. Data from Kaiser Permanente Southern California modeling and testing populations were evaluated for concordance between patients’ preferences and the end-of-life care events they experienced. Results The information model successfully assessed concordance between patient preferences and end-of-life care events. Among 388 expired patients in the modeling population, 4164 care events occurred, 4100 (98%) of which were preference-concordant, and 64 (2%) of which were preference-discordant. Including end-of-life care events that did not occur increased the number of observations to 6029; 99% were preference-concordant. At the level of individuals, 72% (278) of patients experienced only preference-concordant care events, 13% (50) experienced at least one preference-discordant care event, and 15% (60) experienced no preference-related care events. Discussion Model limitations pertain to assumptions that are required to match advance care planning documents with patient preference options and exclusion of preferred care that did not occur. Further research is required to apply the model to larger populations and to investigate the need for additional preference options. Conclusion An information model for automating the assessment of the concordance between patients’ advance care planning preferences and the end-of-life care they received was effective in a small population and has the potential to assess population-level preference-concordance on an ongoing basis. PMID:26567328

  1. Atomistic study on the site preference and lattice vibration of Gd3-xYxCo29T4B10 (T=Al and Ge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Hu, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Shen, Jiang; Qian, Ping; Chen, Nan-Xian

    2015-04-01

    The effects of the Y substitution for Gd on the structural stability and the site preference of intermetallics Gd3-xYxCo29T4B10 (T=Al and Ge) are studied by using a series of interatomic pair potentials. The calculated results show Y can stabilize Gd3-xYxCo29T4B10 with the tetragonal structure, and Y substitute for Gd with a strong preference for the 2b sites. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, the total and partial phonon densities of states are evaluated for the Gd3-xYxCo29T4B10 compounds with the tetragonal structure. A qualitative analysis is carried out with the relevant potentials for the vibrational modes, which makes it possible to predict some properties related to lattice vibration.

  2. Communication about colorectal cancer screening in Britain: public preferences for an expert recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Waller, J; Macedo, A; von Wagner, C; Simon, A E; Jones, C; Hammersley, V; Weller, D; Wardle, J; Campbell, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informed decision-making approaches to cancer screening emphasise the importance of decisions being determined by individuals' own values and preferences. However, advice from a trusted source may also contribute to autonomous decision-making. This study examined preferences regarding a recommendation from the NHS and information provision in the context of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: In face-to-face interviews, a population-based sample of adults across Britain (n=1964; age 50–80 years) indicated their preference between: (1) a strong recommendation to participate in CRC screening, (2) a recommendation alongside advice to make an individual decision, and (3) no recommendation but advice to make an individual decision. Other measures included trust in the NHS and preferences for information on benefits and risks. Results: Most respondents (84%) preferred a recommendation (47% strong recommendation, 37% recommendation plus individual decision-making advice), but the majority also wanted full information on risks (77%) and benefits (78%). Men were more in favour of a recommendation than women (86% vs 81%). Trust in the NHS was high overall, but the minority who expressed low trust were less likely to want a recommendation. Conclusion: Most British adults want full information on risks and benefits of screening but they also want a recommendation from an authoritative source. An ‘expert' view may be an important part of autonomous health decision-making. PMID:23175148

  3. Fidelity of Target Site Duplication and Sequence Preference during Integration of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanggu; Rusmevichientong, Alice; Dong, Beihua; Remenyi, Roland; Silverman, Robert H.; Chow, Samson A.

    2010-01-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) is a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. The causal relationship of XMRV infection to human disease and the mechanism of pathogenicity have not been established. During retrovirus replication, integration of the cDNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cell chromosome is an essential step and involves coordinated joining of the two ends of the linear viral DNA into staggered sites on target DNA. Correct integration produces proviruses that are flanked by a short direct repeat, which varies from 4 to 6 bp among the retroviruses but is invariant for each particular retrovirus. Uncoordinated joining of the two viral DNA ends into target DNA can cause insertions, deletions, or other genomic alterations at the integration site. To determine the fidelity of XMRV integration, cells infected with XMRV were clonally expanded and DNA sequences at the viral-host DNA junctions were determined and analyzed. We found that a majority of the provirus ends were correctly processed and flanked by a 4-bp direct repeat of host DNA. A weak consensus sequence was also detected at the XMRV integration sites. We conclude that integration of XMRV DNA involves a coordinated joining of two viral DNA ends that are spaced 4 bp apart on the target DNA and proceeds with high fidelity. PMID:20421928

  4. K(+) preference at the NaK channel entrance revealed by fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy analysis of site-specifically incorporated (7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanling; Lv, Pei; Li, Dong; Guo, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Mu; Li, Dandan; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Longhua; Tian, Changlin

    2015-11-14

    The fluorescent unnatural amino acid, (7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine (HC), was site-specifically incorporated at the Phe69 site, close to the entrance of the selectivity filter of the NaK channel. Decreased fluorescence lifetime and elevated time-resolved anisotropy of NaK-F69HC in buffers with high K(+)/Na(+) molar ratios indicated the K(+) preference at the entrance of the NaK channel, consistent with previous crystal structure results of the NaK channel.

  5. Reversal of an Unconditioned Behavioral Preference for Specific Food Pellets by Intervention of Whisker Sensory Inputs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hannah; Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclase type-5 (AC5) is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum. Recently, we reported that AC5 knockout (KO) mice preferred food pellets carrying an olfactory cue produced by AC5 KO mice during food consumption (AC5 KO pellets) over food pellets that had been taken by wildtype (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left in AC5 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Conversely, whisker trimming on the right but not the left in WT mice induced a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Mice lacking D2 dopamine receptor (D2 KO mice) also showed a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. In D2 mice, whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left blocked a behavioral preference for AC5 KO food pellets. AC5 KO mice had increased level of phospho-CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum, and WT mice with whiskers cut on either side also showed increased p-CaMKIIα level in the dorsal striatum. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum in either the right or the left hemisphere in AC5 KO mice and D2 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. However, behavioral changes induced by this inhibition on each side showed asymmetrical time courses. These results suggest that an unconditioned behavioral preference for specific food pellets can be switched on or off based on the balance of states of neural activity in the dorsal striatum regulated by a signaling pathway centered on AC5 and D2 and the sensory inputs of whiskers from the right side of the face.

  6. Patients' Preferences for Generic and Branded Over-the-Counter Medicines: An Adaptive Conjoint Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Halme, Merja; Linden, Kari; Kääriä, Kimmo

    2009-12-01

    : Despite increased use of generic medicines, little is known about either the attitudes of patients towards them or the decision-making process surrounding them. Young adults use over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics relatively often. : To assess the preferences of patients for generic and branded OTC pain medicines, to identify clusters with different preference structures, and to estimate the price elasticity of a generic alternative among university students. : Finnish university students (n = 256; students in courses at the Helsinki School of Economics) responded to an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) questionnaire on the choice between branded and generic OTC ibuprofen products. Product attributes of price, brand, onset time of effect, place of purchase and source of information were included in the questionnaire on the basis of the literature, a focus group and a previous pilot study. Several socioeconomic and health behavior descriptors were employed. Individual-level utility functions were estimated, preference clusters were identified, and the price elasticity of the generic medicine was assessed. : Five clusters with characteristic individual-level preferences and price elasticity but few differences in socioeconomic background were detected. Approximately half of the respondents were strongly price sensitive while the others had other preferences such as brand or an opportunity to buy the medicine at a pharmacy or to have a physician or a pharmacist as an information source. : The study provided new information on the concomitant effects of brand, price and other essential product attributes on the choice by patients between branded and generic medicines.

  7. Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-05-01

    Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector.

  8. Development of an Instrument to Measure Parents’ Preferences and Goals for the Treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fiks, Alexander G.; Mayne, Stephanie; Hughes, Cayce C.; DeBartolo, Elena; Behrens, Carina; Guevara, James P.; Power, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and validation of an instrument to measure parents' attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment preferences and goals. Methods Parents of children 6–12 years diagnosed with ADHD in the past 18 months were recruited from 8 primary care sites and an ADHD treatment center (autism excluded). A 16-item medication and 15-item behavior therapy preference scale and a 23-item goal scale, developed following literature review, 90 parent and clinician semi-structured interviews, and input from parent advocates and professional experts, were administered to parents. Parent cognitive interviews confirmed item readability, clarity, content, and response range. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis, assessed internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and construct and concurrent validity. Results We recruited 237 parents (mean child age 8.1 years, 51% Black, 59% from primary care, 61% of children medication naive). Factor analyses identified 4 medication preference subscales (treatment acceptability, feasibility, stigma, and adverse effects, Cronbach's α 0.74 to 0.87); three behavior therapy subscales (treatment acceptability, feasibility, and adverse effects, α 0.76 to 0.83); and three goal subscales (academic achievement, behavioral compliance, and interpersonal relationships, α 0.83 to 0.86). The most strongly endorsed goal was academic achievement. The scales demonstrated construct validity, concurrent validity (r= 0.3–0.6) compared to the Treatment Acceptability Questionnaire and Impairment Rating Scale and moderate to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC= 0.7–0.9). Conclusions We developed a valid and reliable instrument for measuring preferences and goals for ADHD treatment, which may help clinicians more easily adhere to new national treatment guidelines for ADHD that emphasize shared decision making. PMID:22748759

  9. Frequent consumption of certain fast foods may be associated with an enhanced preference for salt taste.

    PubMed

    Kim, G H; Lee, H M

    2009-10-01

    Excessive exposure to high-salt foods may change the taste perception, which results in the overconsumption of sodium. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of liking or frequent eating of high-salt food on salt taste perception among schoolchildren. The detection threshold of sodium chloride (NaCl) and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup were determined and were used to represent the salt taste acuity and preference, respectively, of 70 Koreans aged 12-13 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding food preferences or frequency of eating certain high-salt Korean dishes, Westernised fast foods and commercially-prepared foods, as well as various food groups. The significance of differences in taste perceptions was assessed in relation to the reported liking, and frequency of eating, high-salt foods. In addition, the correlation between taste perception and the liking or frequency of eating fast foods was also assessed. The participants who reported a liking for soup/stew had significantly higher thresholds for NaCl (P = 0.029), and frequent users of fast-food restaurants showed a preference for significantly saltier soup (P = 0.010). The preferred salinity was associated significantly with a high preference for pizza (r = 0.282, P = 0.018) or hamburgers (r = 0.305, P = 0.010) and the frequent consumption of pork cutlets (r = 0.239, P = 0.046) or hamburgers (r = 0.461, P = 0.010). The results obtained in the present study suggest that the frequent consumption of certain fast foods by young teenagers may be associated with an increased preference for salt taste. This study provides basic information for use in devising education programmes in evidence-based nutrition to reduce salt intake.

  10. Preferences for cancer treatments: an overview of methods and applications in oncology.

    PubMed

    Blinman, P; King, M; Norman, R; Viney, R; Stockler, M R

    2012-05-01

    This review provides cancer clinicians and researchers with an overview of methods for assessing preferences, with examples and recommendations for their application in oncology. Decisions about cancer treatments involve trade-offs between their relative benefits and harms. An individual's preference for a cancer treatment reflects their evaluation of the relative benefits and harms in comparison with a given alternative or alternatives. Methods of preference assessment include the ranking or rating scale, standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), visual analogue scale, discrete choice experiment (DCE), and multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI). The choice of method depends on the purpose of preference assessment; the ranking or rating scale, SG, TTO, and DCEs are best suited to clinical decisions, whereas MAUIs are best suited to health policy decisions. Knowledge of patients' preferences for cancer treatments can better inform clinical decisions about patient management by enabling the tailoring of decisions to individual patients' values, attitudes, and priorities and health policy decisions through economic evaluations of cancer treatments and their suitability for coverage by health payers.

  11. An analysis of users' preference on keyboards through ergonomic comparison among four keyboards.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, R; Ise, N; Yamada, S; Tsuchiya, K

    1997-09-01

    The usability of four kinds of keyboards as regards touch and feel was evaluated by measuring the performance and eliciting the preferences of a total of 24 Japanese participants in a test that consisted of typing English text. It was found that quiet keyboards with an indistinct tactile feedback tend to give higher uncorrected error rates than keyboards with a distinct tactile feedback and clicking sound, while no significant difference in throughput was found among the four keyboards. As regards preference, the test participants were divided into two groups: those who preferred keyboards with a distinct tactile feedback and clicking sound, and those who preferred keyboards with an indistinct tactile feedback and no sound. Analysis revealed that these two groups also showed different sensations and preferences with respect to several aspects of the touch and feel of keyboards. This result suggests that suppliers of computer keyboards should provide two kinds of keyboards, with distinct and indistinct tactile key switches, in order to satisfy as many users as possible.

  12. Using an abstract geometry in virtual reality to explore choice behaviour: visual flicker preferences in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Van De Poll, Matthew N; Zajaczkowski, Esmi L; Taylor, Gavin J; Srinivasan, Mandyam V; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Closed-loop paradigms provide an effective approach for studying visual choice behaviour and attention in small animals. Different flying and walking paradigms have been developed to investigate behavioural and neuronal responses to competing stimuli in insects such as bees and flies. However, the variety of stimulus choices that can be presented over one experiment is often limited. Current choice paradigms are mostly constrained as single binary choice scenarios that are influenced by the linear structure of classical conditioning paradigms. Here, we present a novel behavioural choice paradigm that allows animals to explore a closed geometry of interconnected binary choices by repeatedly selecting among competing objects, thereby revealing stimulus preferences in an historical context. We used our novel paradigm to investigate visual flicker preferences in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and found significant preferences for 20-25 Hz flicker and avoidance of higher (50-100 Hz) and lower (2-4 Hz) flicker frequencies. Similar results were found when bees were presented with three simultaneous choices instead of two, and when they were given the chance to select previously rejected choices. Our results show that honeybees can discriminate among different flicker frequencies and that their visual preferences are persistent even under different experimental conditions. Interestingly, avoided stimuli were more attractive if they were novel, suggesting that novelty salience can override innate preferences. Our recursive virtual reality environment provides a new approach to studying visual discrimination and choice behaviour in animals. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. What's in a name? Terms preferred by service recipients.

    PubMed

    Covell, Nancy H; McCorkle, Brian H; Weissman, Ellen M; Summerfelt, Tom; Essock, Susan M

    2007-09-01

    In a large (n = 1,827) multi-site study examining effectiveness of consumer operated service programs as an adjunct to traditional mental health services, we examined individuals' preferred term describing their status as service recipients, and we applied logistic regression to examine whether preference varied by gender, race or diagnosis. Preferred terms were client (39%), patient (22%), consumer (16%), survivor (11%), other (11%) and ex-patient (1%), varying by site. Controlling for site, preferences did not vary by gender, race, or diagnosis. The lack of consensus suggests clinicians, researchers, program administrators, and policymakers should be sensitive to individuals' preferences.

  14. I Can Search for Jobs on the Internet! A Web Site that Helps Youth in Transition Identify Preferred Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert L.; Morgan, Rebecca B.; Despain, Dallas; Vasquez, Eleazar, III

    2006-01-01

    Despite the efforts of many transition teachers and developers of model programs, some students' vision of their careers seems to lack clarity, direction, or realism. Some young adults with disabilities have difficulty identifying preferred employment that can lead to achievable careers, or they may identify occupations for which they lack the…

  15. Understanding Preferences for Osteoporosis Information to Develop an Osteoporosis Patient Education Brochure

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Stephanie W; Solimeo, Samantha L; Nguyen, Vu-Thuy; Wright, Nicole C; Roblin, Douglas W; Saag, Kenneth G; Cram, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Context Patient education materials can provide important information related to osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, available osteoporosis education materials fail to follow best-practice guidelines for patient education. Objective To develop an educational brochure on bone health for adults aged 50 years and older using mixed-method, semistructured interviews. Design This project consisted of 3 phases. In Phase 1, we developed written content that included information about osteoporosis. Additionally, we designed 2 graphic-rich brochures, Brochure A (photographs) and Brochure B (illustrations). In Phase 2, interviewers presented the text-only document and both brochure designs to 53 participants from an academic Medical Center in the Midwest and an outpatient clinic in the Southeastern region of the US. Interviewers used open- and closed-ended questions to elicit opinions regarding the brochures. In Phase 3, using feedback from Phase 2, we revised the brochure and presented it to 11 participants at a third site in the Southeastern US. Main Outcome Measures Participants’ comprehension of brochure text and acceptability of brochure design. Results We enrolled 64 participants. Most were women, white, and college-educated, with an average age of 66.1 years. Participants were able to restate the basic content of the brochure and preferred Brochure A’s use of photographs. Conclusions Using feedback from older adults, we developed and refined a brochure for communicating bone health information to older adults at risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. The methods outlined in this article may serve to guide others in developing health educational brochures for chronic medical conditions. PMID:28080957

  16. An Exploration of the Relationship Between Case Study Methodology and Learning Style Preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Judy

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the use of the case method approach in relation to the preferred learning style of students in an elementary science methods course. Ninety-seven students enrolled in an elementary and elementary/middle level science methods course at Midwest university participated in this study. Participants completed a Barsch Learning Styles Inventory to determine learning style preference. At the end of the semester, students were asked to rate the eight identified teaching methods utilized throughout the semester as to their effectiveness. This research shows that pre-service teachers found the use of case studies as potentially useful in helping them learn and process course content no matter what learning style preference the pre-service teacher has.

  17. An acute, non-therapeutic dose of methylphenidate disrupts partner preference in female rats.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alexa; Petrucci, Alexandra N; Dance, Lauren; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Gibbs, Nicole; Dahlhausen, Cara C; Villatoro, Jessica R; Frohardt, Russell F; Guarraci, Fay A

    The present study was designed to test the effects of an acute, high dose of methylphenidate (MPH; trademarked as Ritalin) on sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, naturally cycling subjects in estrus were tested for partner preference 20min after receiving an i.p. injection of MPH 10mg/kg (n=8) or saline (n=7). During the partner-preference test, female subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male stimulus or a sexually receptive female stimulus. Physical contact was limited by placing the stimulus animals behind a wire mesh during the no-contact phase of the test, whereas physical contact was not limited during the contact phase. Female subjects that received MPH spent significantly less time with the male stimulus than the saline-treated subjects during both phases (no-contact and contact) of the partner-preference test. This acute dose of MPH did not affect visits to the female stimulus; however, MPH-treated subjects made fewer visits to the male stimulus than the saline-treated subjects during the contact phase of the partner-preference test. Consistent with previous findings, MPH increased line crossings when subjects were tested in an open field immediately after the partner-preference test. In Experiment 2, female subjects were ovariectomized (OVX), primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, and tested for partner preference 20min after receiving an injection of MPH 10mg/kg (n=8) or saline (n=8). Similar to the results of Experiment 1, OVX hormone-primed subjects that received MPH spent significantly less time with the male stimulus than the saline-treated subjects during both phases of the partner-preference test. Although MPH-treated subjects were sexually receptive, they displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (i.e., hops and darts) than saline-treated subjects. Two-weeks later, the subjects from Experiment 2 were tested in an open field 20min after receiving an injection of MPH 10mg/kg or saline

  18. An early sex difference in the relation between mental rotation and object preference.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Jillian E; Udelson, Hallie B; Jeon, Sung O; Lourenco, Stella F

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that males outperform females on mental rotation tasks as early as infancy. Sex differences in object preference have also been shown to emerge early in development and precede sex-typed play in childhood. Although research with adults and older children is suggestive of a relationship between play preferences and visuospatial abilities, including mental rotation, little is known about the developmental origins of this relationship. The present study compared mental rotation ability and object preference in 6- to 13-month-old infants. We used a novel paradigm to examine individual differences in infants' mental rotation abilities as well as their differential preference for one of two sex-typed objects. A sex difference was found on both tasks, with boys showing an advantage in performance on the mental rotation task and exhibiting greater visual attention to the male-typed object (i.e., a toy truck) than to the female-typed object (i.e., a doll) in comparison to girls. Moreover, we found a relation between mental rotation and object preference that varied by sex. Greater visual interest in the male-typed object was related to greater mental rotation performance in boys, but not in girls. Possible explanations related to perceptual biases, prenatal androgen exposure, and experiential influences for this sex difference are discussed.

  19. An early sex difference in the relation between mental rotation and object preference

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Jillian E.; Udelson, Hallie B.; Jeon, Sung O.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that males outperform females on mental rotation tasks as early as infancy. Sex differences in object preference have also been shown to emerge early in development and precede sex-typed play in childhood. Although research with adults and older children is suggestive of a relationship between play preferences and visuospatial abilities, including mental rotation, little is known about the developmental origins of this relationship. The present study compared mental rotation ability and object preference in 6- to 13-month-old infants. We used a novel paradigm to examine individual differences in infants’ mental rotation abilities as well as their differential preference for one of two sex-typed objects. A sex difference was found on both tasks, with boys showing an advantage in performance on the mental rotation task and exhibiting greater visual attention to the male-typed object (i.e., a toy truck) than to the female-typed object (i.e., a doll) in comparison to girls. Moreover, we found a relation between mental rotation and object preference that varied by sex. Greater visual interest in the male-typed object was related to greater mental rotation performance in boys, but not in girls. Possible explanations related to perceptual biases, prenatal androgen exposure, and experiential influences for this sex difference are discussed. PMID:26005426

  20. Functional and organic eggs as an alternative to conventional production: a conjoint analysis of consumers' preferences.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula

    2011-02-01

    In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Acute restraint stress and corticosterone transiently disrupts novelty preference in an object recognition task.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Torres-Berrio, Angélica; González-Martínez, Lina; Múnera, Alejandro; Lamprea, Marisol R

    2015-09-15

    The object recognition task is a procedure based on rodents' natural tendency to explore novel objects which is frequently used for memory testing. However, in some instances novelty preference is replaced by familiarity preference, raising questions regarding the validity of novelty preference as a pure recognition memory index. Acute stress- and corticosterone administration-induced novel object preference disruption has been frequently interpreted as memory impairment; however, it is still not clear whether such effect can be actually attributed to either mnemonic disruption or altered novelty seeking. Seventy-five adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task and subjected to either acute stress or corticosterone administration to evaluate the effect of stress or corticosterone on an object recognition task. Acute stress was induced by restraining movement for 1 or 4h, ending 30 min before the sample trial. Corticosterone was injected intraperitoneally 10 min before the test trial which was performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial. Four-hour, but not 1-h, stress induced familiar object preference during the test trial performed 1h after the sample trial; however, acute stress had no effects on the test when performed 24h after sample trial. Systemic administration of corticosterone before the test trial performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial also resulted in familiar object preference. However, neither acute stress nor corticosterone induced changes in locomotor behaviour. Taken together, such results suggested that acute stress probably does not induce memory retrieval impairment but, instead, induces an emotional arousing state which motivates novelty avoidance.

  2. ZENK expression in a restricted forebrain area correlates negatively with preference for an imprinted stimulus.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, Christine; Husemann, Pamela; Lieshoff, Carsten; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2006-07-15

    Sexual imprinting is an early learning process by which young birds acquire the characteristics of a potential sexual partner. The physiological basis of this learning process is an irreversible reduction of dendritic spines in two forebrain areas, the LNM (lateral nido-mesopallium) and the MNM (medial nido-mesopallium). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these two brain areas are activated if the imprinted stimulus is presented to the adult bird after the end of the sensitive period. One group of zebra finch males was reared by their own parents. These birds, as adults, showed an exclusive preference for their own species in choice tests between a zebra finch and a Bengalese finch female. If exposed as adults to a zebra finch female, LNM and MNM showed lower activation, as measured by ZENK expression, compared to males exposed to a Bengalese finch female. A second group was reared by Bengalese finches and was exposed at day 100 to a zebra finch female for 1 week. As shown earlier, this regime leads to mixed choices, the birds are courting Bengalese and zebra finch females with a fixed ratio (preference score). If these birds were exposed to a zebra finch female as adults, the ZENK expression within LNM was much higher compared to group 1, and it showed a strong tendency to correlate negatively with the preference score: Birds with higher zebra finch preference showed lower activation compared to those with a low zebra finch and a high Bengalese finch preference. We propose that higher ZENK activation in group 2 is due to the rearing by a foster species which may result in a more complex neuronal network. The negative relation between activation and preference score may be explained by special properties of the LNM and MNM networks.

  3. Does body posture influence hand preference in an ancestral primate model?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The origin of human handedness and its evolution in primates is presently under debate. Current hypotheses suggest that body posture (postural origin hypothesis and bipedalism hypothesis) have an important impact on the evolution of handedness in primates. To gain insight into the origin of manual lateralization in primates, we studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. First, we investigated hand preference in a simple food grasping task to explore the importance of hand usage in a natural foraging situation. Second, we explored the influence of body posture by applying a forced food grasping task with varying postural demands (sit, biped, cling, triped). Results The tested mouse lemur population did not prefer to use their hands alone to grasp for food items. Instead, they preferred to pick them up using a mouth-hand combination or the mouth alone. If mouth usage was inhibited, they showed an individual but no population level handedness for all four postural forced food grasping tasks. Additionally, we found no influence of body posture on hand preference in gray mouse lemurs. Conclusion Our results do not support the current theories of primate handedness. Rather, they propose that ecological adaptation indicated by postural habit and body size of a given species has an important impact on hand preference in primates. Our findings suggest that small-bodied, quadrupedal primates, adapted to the fine branch niche of dense forests, prefer mouth retrieval of food and are less manually lateralized than large-bodied species which consume food in a more upright, and less stable body posture. PMID:21356048

  4. Structures of E. coli peptide deformylase bound to formate: insight into the preference for Fe2+ over Zn2+ as the active site metal.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rinku; Hao, Bing; Liu, Ren-Peng; Chan, Michael K

    2005-04-06

    E. coli peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the deformylation of nascent polypeptides generated during protein synthesis. While PDF was originally thought to be a zinc enzyme, subsequent studies revealed that the active site metal is iron. In an attempt to understand this unusual metal preference, high-resolution structures of Fe-, Co-, and Zn-PDF were determined in complex with its deformylation product, formate. In all three structures, the formate ion binds the metal and forms hydrogen-bonding interactions with the backbone nitrogen of Leu91, the amide side chain of Gln50, and the carboxylate side chain of Glu133. One key difference, however, is how the formate binds the metal. In Fe-PDF and Co-PDF, formate binds in a bidentate fashion, while in Zn-PDF, it binds in a monodentate fashion. Importantly, these structural results provide the first clues into the origins of PDF's metal-dependent activity differences. On the basis of these structures, we propose that the basis for the higher activity of Fe-PDF stems from the better ability of iron to bind and activate the tetrahedral transition state required for cleavage of the N-terminal formyl group.

  5. Identification of Preferred DNA-Binding Sites for the Thermus thermophilus Transcriptional Regulator SbtR by the Combinatorial Approach REPSA

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Matthew D.; Clay, Emily; Hiam, Kamir J.; McMurry, Jonathan L.; Xie, Ying

    2016-01-01

    One of the first steps towards elucidating the biological function of a putative transcriptional regulator is to ascertain its preferred DNA-binding sequences. This may be rapidly and effectively achieved through the application of a combinatorial approach, one involving very large numbers of randomized oligonucleotides and reiterative selection and amplification steps to enrich for high-affinity nucleic acid-binding sequences. Previously, we had developed the novel combinatorial approach Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection and Amplification (REPSA), which relies not on the physical separation of ligand-nucleic acid complexes but instead selects on the basis of ligand-dependent inhibition of enzymatic template inactivation, specifically cleavage by type IIS restriction endonucleases. Thus, no prior knowledge of the ligand is required for REPSA, making it more amenable for discovery purposes. Here we describe using REPSA, massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics to identify the preferred DNA-binding sites for the transcriptional regulator SbtR, encoded by the TTHA0167 gene from the model extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8. From the resulting position weight matrix, we can identify multiple operons potentially regulated by SbtR and postulate a biological role for this protein in regulating extracellular transport processes. Our study provides a proof-of-concept for the application of REPSA for the identification of preferred DNA-binding sites for orphan transcriptional regulators and a first step towards determining their possible biological roles. PMID:27428627

  6. Infants' preferences for native speakers are associated with an expectation of information.

    PubMed

    Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Humans' preference for others who share our group membership is well documented, and this heightened valuation of in-group members seems to be rooted in early development. Before 12 mo of age, infants already show behavioral preferences for others who evidence cues to same-group membership such as race or native language, yet the function of this selectivity remains unclear. We examine one of these social biases, the preference for native speakers, and propose that this preference may result from infants' motivation to obtain information and the expectation that interactions with native speakers will provide better opportunities for learning. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured EEG theta activity, a neural rhythm shown to index active and selective preparation for encoding information in adults. In study 1, we established that 11-mo-old infants exhibit an increase in theta activation in situations when they can expect to receive information. We then used this neural measure of anticipatory theta activity to explore the expectations of 11-mo-olds when facing social partners who either speak the infants' native language or a foreign tongue (study 2). A larger increase in theta oscillations was observed when infants could expect to receive information from the native speaker, indicating that infants were preparing to learn information from the native speaker to a greater extent than from the foreign speaker. While previous research has demonstrated that infants prefer to interact with knowledgeable others, the current experiments provide evidence that such an information-seeking motive may also underpin infants' demonstrated preference for native speakers.

  7. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  8. An Evaluation of Preference for Mode of Instruction Following Variations in Response Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Patrick W.; McCoy, Thomasin E.; Wacker, David P.; Padilla-Dalmau, Yaniz C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated preference for mode of instruction (i.e., visual or vocal) for four children diagnosed with a language-based learning disability. Each participant was an elementary student who was initially referred to a neuropsychology clinic specializing in learning disabilities. As a part of the evaluation, measures of each…

  9. Irrational decision-making in an amoeboid organism: transitivity and context-dependent preferences

    PubMed Central

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    Most models of animal foraging and consumer choice assume that individuals make choices based on the absolute value of items and are therefore ‘economically rational’. However, frequent violations of rationality by animals, including humans, suggest that animals use comparative valuation rules. Are comparative valuation strategies a consequence of the way brains process information, or are they an intrinsic feature of biological decision-making? Here, we examine the principles of rationality in an organism with radically different information-processing mechanisms: the brainless, unicellular, slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We offered P. polycephalum amoebas a choice between food options that varied in food quality and light exposure (P. polycephalum is photophobic). The use of an absolute valuation rule will lead to two properties: transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Transitivity is satisfied if preferences have a consistent, linear ordering, while IIA states that a decision maker's preference for an item should not change if the choice set is expanded. A violation of either of these principles suggests the use of comparative rather than absolute valuation rules. Physarum polycephalum satisfied transitivity by having linear preference rankings. However, P. polycephalum's preference for a focal alternative increased when a third, inferior quality option was added to the choice set, thus violating IIA and suggesting the use of a comparative valuation process. The discovery of comparative valuation rules in a unicellular organism suggests that comparative valuation rules are ubiquitous, if not universal, among biological decision makers. PMID:20702460

  10. An Evaluation of Preference for Mode of Instruction Following Variations in Response Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Patrick W.; McCoy, Thomasin E.; Wacker, David P.; Padilla-Dalmau, Yaniz C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated preference for mode of instruction (i.e., visual or vocal) for four children diagnosed with a language-based learning disability. Each participant was an elementary student who was initially referred to a neuropsychology clinic specializing in learning disabilities. As a part of the evaluation, measures of each…

  11. Audio and Written Comments in an Online Undergraduate Composition Class: Student and Instructor Approaches and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Andrew; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' and instructors' approaches and preferences to audio and written comments in an online undergraduate composition class. A mixed-method design was employed utilizing both a survey instrument and interviews for data collection. Forty-nine students and five instructors participated. Students gave more positive…

  12. Teacher's Feedback and Student's Preferences in an Advanced Writing Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Raeesi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This paper was intended to examine teacher's corrective feedback and student's preferences in an advanced writing course. The study was conducted using a questionnaire as the instrument and 15 MA TEFL students from Ilam state university in Iran as the participants. The students were asked to prioritize among a list of ten aspects of error…

  13. Irrational decision-making in an amoeboid organism: transitivity and context-dependent preferences.

    PubMed

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2011-01-22

    Most models of animal foraging and consumer choice assume that individuals make choices based on the absolute value of items and are therefore 'economically rational'. However, frequent violations of rationality by animals, including humans, suggest that animals use comparative valuation rules. Are comparative valuation strategies a consequence of the way brains process information, or are they an intrinsic feature of biological decision-making? Here, we examine the principles of rationality in an organism with radically different information-processing mechanisms: the brainless, unicellular, slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We offered P. polycephalum amoebas a choice between food options that varied in food quality and light exposure (P. polycephalum is photophobic). The use of an absolute valuation rule will lead to two properties: transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Transitivity is satisfied if preferences have a consistent, linear ordering, while IIA states that a decision maker's preference for an item should not change if the choice set is expanded. A violation of either of these principles suggests the use of comparative rather than absolute valuation rules. Physarum polycephalum satisfied transitivity by having linear preference rankings. However, P. polycephalum's preference for a focal alternative increased when a third, inferior quality option was added to the choice set, thus violating IIA and suggesting the use of a comparative valuation process. The discovery of comparative valuation rules in a unicellular organism suggests that comparative valuation rules are ubiquitous, if not universal, among biological decision makers.

  14. An Assessment of Teachers' Preference for Lecture Delivery Methods in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seth, Vikas; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Kumar, Virendra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the medical teachers' preference for various lecture delivery methods like the lectures using chalkboard, utilizing transparencies with an overhead projector (OHP) or lectures using a PowerPoint presentation and their frequency of use of teaching aids. The faculty of the medical college was asked to fill in the…

  15. Hemisphericity Modes, Learning Styles, and Environmental Preferences of Students in an "Introduction to Special Education" Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramasamy, Rangasamy; van der Jagt, Johan W.; Jacobs, Roy L.; Ghose, Chhanda; Lindsey, Jimmy D.

    This study was designed to determine whether a sample of preservice teachers had different brain hemisphere processing modes, learning styles, environmental preferences, and course-related behaviors. The study population was 90 students enrolled in an undergraduate introductory special education course. Forty-four of the students were selected to…

  16. Development of an Instrument for Assessing Senior High School Students' Preferred and Perceived Laboratory Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Wu, Ying-Tien; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wong, Terrence William; Fu, Hsieh-Hai; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chung-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an instrument, named the inquiry-based laboratory classroom environment instrument (ILEI), for assessing senior high-school science students' preferred and perceived laboratory environment. A total of 262 second-year students, from a senior-high school in Taiwan, were recruited for this study. Four stages were included…

  17. Development of an Instrument for Assessing Senior High School Students' Preferred and Perceived Laboratory Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Wu, Ying-Tien; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wong, Terrence William; Fu, Hsieh-Hai; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chung-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an instrument, named the inquiry-based laboratory classroom environment instrument (ILEI), for assessing senior high-school science students' preferred and perceived laboratory environment. A total of 262 second-year students, from a senior-high school in Taiwan, were recruited for this study. Four stages were included…

  18. An Assessment of Teachers' Preference for Lecture Delivery Methods in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seth, Vikas; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Kumar, Virendra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the medical teachers' preference for various lecture delivery methods like the lectures using chalkboard, utilizing transparencies with an overhead projector (OHP) or lectures using a PowerPoint presentation and their frequency of use of teaching aids. The faculty of the medical college was asked to fill in the…

  19. Audio and Written Comments in an Online Undergraduate Composition Class: Student and Instructor Approaches and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Andrew; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' and instructors' approaches and preferences to audio and written comments in an online undergraduate composition class. A mixed-method design was employed utilizing both a survey instrument and interviews for data collection. Forty-nine students and five instructors participated. Students gave more positive…

  20. An in vitro transcription assay for probing drug-DNA interactions at individual drug sites.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D R; Cullinane, C M; Crothers, D M

    1998-08-01

    An in vitro transcription assay of drug-DNA interactions has been described and is based largely on the stable lac UV5-initiated transcription complex. This system utilizes a synchronized population of radiolabeled nascent RNA 10 nucleotides long. Reaction of this initiated transcription complex with drug and subsequent elongation of the nascent RNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, reveals blockages at drug binding sites. From these blockages it is possible to obtain four features of the drug-DNA interaction: the sequence of preferred drug binding sites, the relative drug occupancy at each binding site, the drug dissociation rate at each site, and the probability of drug-induced termination of transcription at each site. The unidirectional transcription assay has been extended to a two-promoter, counter-directed system, which yields a bidirectional transcription footprint of drug sites.

  1. Preferences for policy options for cannabis in an Australian general population: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Marian; Gerard, Karen; Ritter, Alison

    2014-07-01

    Policy choices for illicit drugs such as cannabis entail consideration of competing factors such as individual health, societal views about pleasure, and criminal justice impacts. Society must weigh up these factors in determining the preferred cannabis policy; although often cast as a contest between legalisation of cannabis or full prohibition the actual policy choices are not so black and white. This study assessed societal preferences for different cannabis policies and multiple consequences. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) quantified value-based preferences for alternative cannabis policies described by the five key attributes legal status, health harms, criminal justice service costs, rates of cannabis use and purchase location. An online survey was conducted on a population sample of 1020 Australians. The analytical model was based on stated choices for Policy A, B or Current Policy. The results revealed a strong general preference for either civil penalties or legalisation compared to cannabis cautioning (Current Policy) and a strong dislike of criminalising possession and use of cannabis. Results also demonstrate difference in preferences among those with different demographics and beliefs. Understanding these nuances help to quantify the range of preferences held within the population and can be used to inform policy. This is the first known DCE survey applied to the area of illicit drugs policy. It demonstrates the public hold disparate views on the most appropriate status for cannabis offences and they are able to make trade-offs between policy choices and outcomes in complex areas of social policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (Culicidae) in Wrocław area (Poland): occurrence and breeding site preferences of mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Jawień, Piotr; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Both ornithophilic mosquito species, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Culex torrentium (Martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate Europe. They are presumed to be primary vectors of West Nile and Sindbis viruses. Differentiation of these morphologically similar Culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. Cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as Cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, because only males of both species can be diagnosed reliably by morphology. Thus, knowledge about species abundance, geographical distribution, breeding site preferences and the zoonotic risk assessment is incomplete also in Poland. In Wrocław area (Silesian Lowland), besides typical urban breeding sites, huge sewage irrigation fields provide suitable breeding conditions for Culex species. They are also inhabited by 180 resident and migratory bird species serving as potential virus reservoirs. In this study, morphology of larvae and males as well as species diagnostic enzyme markers, namely adenylate kinase (AK) and 2-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), were used to discriminate Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. torrentium. In a total of 650 Culex larvae from 24 natural and artificial breeding sites, Cx. pipiens s.l. had a proportion of 94.0% and Cx. torrentium only 6.0%. It could be shown that both species are well adapted to various breeding site types like ditches, catch basins, flower pots and buckets with diverse water quality. Cx. torrentium preferred more artificial water containers in urban surrounding (12% species proportion), whereas in semi-natural breeding sites, Cx. torrentium was rare (3%). In 12 of 24 breeding sites, larvae of both species have been found associated.

  3. Reasons for unmet need for family planning, with attention to the measurement of fertility preferences: protocol for a multi-site cohort study.

    PubMed

    Machiyama, Kazuyo; Casterline, John B; Mumah, Joyce N; Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Obare, Francis; Odwe, George; Kabiru, Caroline W; Yeasmin, Sharifa; Cleland, John

    2017-02-09

    Unmet need for family planning points to the gap between women's reproductive desire to avoid pregnancy and contraceptive behaviour. An estimated 222 million women in low- and middle-income countries have unmet need for modern contraception. Despite its prevalence, there has been little rigorous research during the past fifteen years on reasons for this widespread failure to implement childbearing desires in contraceptive practice. There is demographic survey data on women's self-reported reasons for non-use, but these data provide limited insight on the full set of possible obstacles to use, and one may doubt the meaningfulness of explanations provided by non-users alone. To rectify this evidence gap, this study will gather extensive information on women's perceptions of contraception (generic and method-specific) and their past contraceptive experience, and it will allow for more complexity in fertility preferences than is standard in demographic surveys. A multi-site cohort study will be conducted in urban Kenya, rural Kenya, and rural Bangladesh. In each setting trained fieldworkers will recruit and interview 2600 women, with participants re-interviewed at 12 and 18 months. Data will be collected using a questionnaire whose development was informed by a review of existing literature and instruments from past studies in both developed and developing countries. Dozens of experts in the field were consulted as the instrument was developed. The questionnaire has three main components: a sub-set of Demographic and Health Survey items measuring socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and sexual activity; additional questions on prospective and retrospective fertility preferences designed to capture ambivalence and uncertainty; and two large blocks of items on (i) generic concerns about contraception and (ii) method-specific attributes. The method-specific items encompass eight modern and traditional methods. Policy and programmes intended to reduce

  4. Staring us in the face? An embodied theory of innate face preference.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Nick; Paikan, Ali; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Rea, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    Human expertise in face perception grows over development, but even within minutes of birth, infants exhibit an extraordinary sensitivity to face-like stimuli. The dominant theory accounts for innate face detection by proposing that the neonate brain contains an innate face detection device, dubbed 'Conspec'. Newborn face preference has been promoted as some of the strongest evidence for innate knowledge, and forms a canonical stage for the modern form of the nature-nurture debate in psychology. Interpretation of newborn face preference results has concentrated on monocular stimulus properties, with little mention or focused investigation of potential binocular involvement. However, the question of whether and how newborns integrate the binocular visual streams bears directly on the generation of observable visual preferences. In this theoretical paper, we employ a synthetic approach utilizing robotic and computational models to draw together the threads of binocular integration and face preference in newborns, and demonstrate cases where the former may explain the latter. We suggest that a system-level view considering the binocular embodiment of newborn vision may offer a mutually satisfying resolution to some long-running arguments in the polarizing debate surrounding the existence and causal structure of newborns' 'innate knowledge' of faces. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. An Assessment of MDPV-induced Place Preference in Adult Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    King, Heather E.; Wetzell, Bradley; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Most drugs of abuse have both aversive and rewarding effects, and the use and abuse potential of such drugs is thought to be a function of a balance of these affective properties. Characterizing these effects and their relative balance may provide insight into abuse vulnerability. One drug that has received recent attention is methylenedioxyparavalerone (MDPV), a monoamine transport inhibitor similar to, but significantly more potent than, cocaine. MDPV is self-administered and has been shown to produce aversive and rewarding effects in adult rats. The present study extended this characterization of the affective properties of MDPV by examining its ability to support place conditioning at a range of doses known to produce taste avoidance. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with MDPV (1, 1.8 or 3.2 mg/kg) or saline and placed on the non-preferred side of a place conditioning apparatus for 30 min. On the next day, they were given an injection of saline and placed on the preferred side. This was repeated three times for a total of four conditioning cycles, and side preference was assessed on a final test. RESULTS All doses of MDPV produced significant increases in time spent in the drug-paired chamber, an effect not seen in vehicle-treated animals. CONCLUSIONS That the same doses of MDPV induced both taste avoidance and place preference allows assessments of how other factors might impact these effects and how they may, in turn, contribute to its abuse liability. PMID:25468817

  6. An IRT Approach to Constructing and Scoring Pairwise Preference Items Involving Stimuli on Different Dimensions: The Multi-Unidimensional Pairwise-Preference Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Stephen; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes an item response theory (IRT) approach to constructing and scoring multidimensional pairwise preference items. Individual statements are administered and calibrated using a unidimensional single-stimulus model. Tests are created by combining multidimensional items with a small number of unidimensional pairings needed to…

  7. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  8. A comparison of food habits and prey preference of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L; Mukhacheva, Anna S; Matyukhina, Dina S; Salmanova, Elena; Salkina, Galina P; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. Therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. We used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the Russian Far East. We also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. We collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. Similar to previous studies, we found that tigers primarily preyed on medium to large ungulates, with wild boar, roe, sika and red deer collectively comprising 86.7% of total biomass consumed on average. According to Jacobs' index, tigers preferred wild boar, and avoided sika deer. Variation in preference indices derived from these scat analyses compared to indices derived from kill data appear to be due to adjustments in biomass intake when sex-age of a killed individual is known: a component missing from scat data. Pseudoreplication (multiple samples collected from a single kill site) also skewed results derived from scat analyses. Scat analysis still appears useful in providing insight into the diets of carnivores when the full spectrum of prey species needs to be identified, or when sample sizes from kill data are not sufficient. When sample sizes of kill data are large (as is now possible with GPS-collared animals), kill data adjusted by sex-age categories probably provides the most accurate estimates of prey biomass composition. Our results provide further confirmation of the centrality of medium ungulates, in particular wild boar, to Amur tiger diet, and suggest that the protection of this group of species is critical to Amur tiger conservation. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Fear, Anger, and Risk Preference Reversals: An Experimental Study on a Chinese Sample.

    PubMed

    She, Shengxiang; Eimontaite, Iveta; Zhang, Dangli; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Fear and anger are basic emotions of the same valence which differ in terms of their certainty and control dimensions according to the Appraisal Tendency Framework, a theory addressing the relationship between specific emotions, and judgments and choices. Past research based on the Appraisal Theory revealed contradictory results for risky choice decision-making. However, these conclusions were drawn from Western samples (e.g., North American). Considering potential cultural differences, the present study aims to investigate whether the Appraisal Tendency hypothesis yields the same results in a Chinese sample. Our first study explores how dispositional fear and anger influence risk preferences through a classic virtual "Asia Disease Problem" task and the second study investigates how induced fear and anger influence risk preferences through an incentive-compatible task. Consistent with previous research, our results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option. However, we find no associations between dispositional fear (or anger) and risky decisions.

  10. "Sex-role preference" as an explanatory variable in homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Carrier, J M

    1977-01-01

    Sex-role preference is an important neglected variable in statistically controlled studies of homosexual behavior. This variable must accompany controls for degree of psychopathology of respondents and degree of heterosexual and homosexual behavior experienced by respondents. Cross-cultural differences exist. Mexican males have rigidly defined insertor-insertee roles, with earlier life events serving as predictors of these sex-role preferences. Greece is comparable to Mexico. In Turkey, stigmatization accompanies passive homosexuality. Role playing may be age graded, as in the Southwest Pacific. In lower socioeconomic classes of the United States, sex roles for homosexual males are more stereo-typically and unequivocably defined. Chicanos generally have strong sex-role preferences when involved in homosexual encounters; their attitude is similar to that found in Mexico. Among middle-class Anglo-American males, few or no sex-role feelings are associated with types of sex acts by most homosexually behaving males. This may be related to a focus on oral-genital rather than anal sex acts. The sharply dichotomized gender roles and the cultural formulation linking effeminacy and homosexuality appear to provide the necessary conditions for the development of sex-role preferences in many societies.

  11. A function of synchronous chorusing and a novel female preference shift in an anuran

    PubMed Central

    Grafe, T. U.

    1999-01-01

    Many chorusing insects and anurans acoustically compete for females under conditions of high background noise produced by conspecifics and have developed a variety of strategies for improving their conspicuousness in a chorus. In this study, I present a novel female preference shift that can explain the synchronous chorusing of males. In the running frog Kassina fusca the median degree of overlap found in pairwise interactions between males (20.8%) and in response to playbacks of conspecific calls (21.4%) corresponded remarkably well with the preference function of females. Although preferring follower male calls when the degree of call overlap was low (10 and 25%), females shifted their preference towards leader male calls when the degree of call overlap was high (75 and 90%). Males were physiologically capable of calling with short latencies and, thus, high degrees of overlap. This suggests that follower males can control the degree of overlap with neighbours and do so to their advantage. These results stand in contrast to recent findings in insects and anurans in which chorusing structure has been described as an epiphenomenon.

  12. From Online Randomized Controlled Trials to Participant Preference Studies: Morphing the San Francisco Stop Smoking Site into a Worldwide Smoking Cessation Resource

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet interventions have the potential to address many of the health problems that produce the greatest global burden of disease. We present a study illustrating this potential. The Spanish/English San Francisco Stop Smoking Internet site, which yielded quit rates of 20% or more at 12 months in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), was modified to make it accessible to Spanish- and English-speaking smokers 18 years of age or older anywhere in the world. Objective To illustrate that Internet interventions designed to conduct RCTs can be adapted to serve as universal health care resources. We also examine quit rates obtained in the current participant preference study (in which users could choose from all elements tested in previous RCTs) to determine whether they differ from the quit rates found in the RCTs. Methods We modified the San Francisco Stop Smoking Internet site so that, instead of being randomly assigned to a specific intervention, participants could personalize the site by choosing among nine site elements (eg, stop smoking guide, reminder emails, journal, mood management intervention, or virtual group). Participants completed a baseline assessment, and reported smoking and mood data at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. We assessed the modified website’s reach and outcomes (quit rates), and compared the quit rates of the current participant preference study with those of the previous RCTs. Results In the first year of recruitment, 94,158 individuals from 152 countries and territories visited the site; 13,488 participants left some data; 9173 signed consent; 7763 completed the baseline survey; and 1955, 1362, 1106, and 1096 left 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month data, respectively. Observed quit rates were 38.1% (n = 668), 44.9% (n = 546), 43.6% (n = 431), and 45.4% (n = 449), respectively. The current participant preference study yielded higher observed quit rates (odds ratio 1.30) than the previous RCT when controlling for

  13. Industrial Sites - An Approach to Closure

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Nevada Site Office was created by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address the environmental legacy of contamination resulting from more than 50 years of nuclear weapons research, production and testing. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) is responsible for remediating portions of the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and the Tonopah Test Range, which is within the Nevada Test and Training Range.

  14. Relationship between Salt Preference and Gastric Cancer Screening: An Analysis of a Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeongseon; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population. Materials and Methods The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend=0.048). Conclusion Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice. PMID:26693914

  15. Relationship between Salt Preference and Gastric Cancer Screening: An Analysis of a Nationwide Survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeongseon; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population. The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend=0.048). Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice.

  16. Promoting community health resources: preferred communication strategies.

    PubMed

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, Amy L; Eickhoff, Amanda; Johnson, Luann

    2011-03-01

    Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. A random dialed representative phone survey was conducted assessing current health resource community awareness, health resource utilization, and communication strategy preferences. The survey revealed that community members preferred to receive information on health resources from the Internet (28.3%), newspaper (26.4%), or mail (22.3%). Different priority populations had varying health communication strategy preferences (e.g., young adults prefer Internet, older adults prefer newspaper, and obese adults prefer mail). Ideally, if health resources are intended for adult audiences, a campaign that would include communication through newspaper (targeting older adults), mailing (targeting obese adults), and Web sites (targeting younger adults) would be the most effective approach. This research suggests that an assessment of communication strategy preferences of the priority population might be a crucial first step when developing health promotion programs.

  17. Genetically tagged TRE5-A retrotransposons reveal high amplification rates and authentic target site preference in the Dictyostelium discoideum genome

    PubMed Central

    Siol, Oliver; Spaller, Thomas; Schiefner, Jana; Winckler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Retrotransposons contribute significantly to the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. They replicate by producing DNA copies of their own RNA, which are integrated at new locations in the host cell genome. In the gene-dense genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, retrotransposon TRE5-A avoids insertional mutagenesis by targeting the transcription factor (TF) IIIC/IIIB complex and integrating ∼50 bp upstream of tRNA genes. We generated synthetic TRE5-A retrotransposons (TRE5-Absr) that were tagged with a selection marker that conferred resistance to blasticidin after a complete retrotransposition cycle. We found that the TRE5-Absr elements were efficiently mobilized in trans by proteins expressed from the endogenous TRE5-A population found in D. discoideum cells. ORF1 protein translated from TRE5-Absr elements significantly enhanced retrotransposition. We observed that the 5′ untranslated region of TRE5-A could be replaced by an unrelated promoter, whereas the 3′ untranslated region of TRE5-A was essential for retrotransposition. A predicted secondary structure in the RNA of the 3′ untranslated region of TRE5-A may be involved in the retrotransposition process. The TRE5-Absr elements were capable of identifying authentic integration targets in vivo, including formerly unnoticed, putative binding sites for TFIIIC on the extrachromosomal DNA element that carries the ribosomal RNA genes. PMID:21525131

  18. Sequence preferences of DNA interstrand crosslinking agents: quantitation of interstrand crosslink locations in DNA duplex fragments containing multiple crosslinkable sites.

    PubMed Central

    Millard, J T; Weidner, M F; Kirchner, J J; Ribeiro, S; Hopkins, P B

    1991-01-01

    A general approach to the quantitative study of the sequence specificity of DNA interstrand crosslinking agents in synthetic duplex DNA fragments is described. In the first step, a DNA fragment previously treated with an interstrand crosslinking agent is subjected to denaturing PAGE. Not only does this distinguish crosslinked from native or monoadducted DNA, it is shown herein that isomeric crosslinked DNAs differing in position of the crosslink can in some cases be separated. In the second stage, the now fractionated crosslinked DNAs isolated from denaturing PAGE are subjected to fragmentation using iron(II)/EDTA. For those fractions which are structurally homogeneous, analysis of the resulting fragment distribution has previously been shown to reveal the crosslink position at nucleotide resolution. It is shown herein that in fractions which are structurally heterogeneous due to differences in position of crosslink, this analysis quantifies the relative extent of crosslinking at distinct sites. Using this method it is shown that reductively activated mitomycin C crosslinks the duplex sequences 5'-GCGC and 5'-TCGA with 3 +/- 1:1 relative efficiency. Images PMID:1903204

  19. Structural and dynamic effects of cholesterol at preferred sites of interaction with rhodopsin identified from microsecond length molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Khelashvili, George; Grossfield, Alan; Feller, Scott E.; Pitman, Michael C.; Weinstein, Harel

    2014-01-01

    An unresolved question about GPCR function is the role of membrane components in receptor stability and activation. In particular, cholesterol is known to affect the function of membrane proteins, but the details of its effect on GPCRs are still elusive. Here, we describe how cholesterol modulates the behavior of the TM1-TM2-TM7-helix 8(H8) functional network that comprises the highly conserved NPxxY(x)5,6F motif, through specific interactions with the receptor. The inferences are based on the analysis of microsecond length molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of rhodopsin in an explicit membrane environment. Three regions on the rhodopsin exhibit the highest cholesterol density throughout the trajectory: the extracellular end of TM7, a location resembling the high-density sterol area from the electron microscopy data; the intracellular parts of TM1, TM2, and TM4, a region suggested as the cholesterol binding site in the recent X-ray crystallography data on β2-adrenergic GPCR; and the intracellular ends of TM2-TM3, a location that was categorized as the high cholesterol density area in multiple independent 100 ns MD simulations of the same system. We found that cholesterol primarily affects specific local perturbations of the helical TM domains such as the kinks in TM1, TM2, and TM7. These local distortions, in turn, relate to rigid-body motions of the TMs in the TM1-TM2-TM7-H8 bundle. The specificity of the effects stems from the nonuniform distribution of cholesterol around the protein. Through correlation analysis we connect local effects of cholesterol on structural perturbations with a regulatory role of cholesterol in the structural rearrangements involved in GPCR function. PMID:19173312

  20. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  1. Determinants of half-site spacing preferences that distinguish AP-1 and ATF/CREB bZIP domains.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Struhl, K

    1995-01-01

    The AP-1 and ATF/CREB families of eukaryotic transcription factors are dimeric DNA-binding proteins that contain the bZIP structural motif. The AP-1 and ATF/CREB proteins are structurally related and recognize identical half-sites (TGAC), but they differ in their requirements for half-site spacing. AP-1 proteins such as yeast GCN4 preferentially bind to sequences with overlapping half-sites, whereas ATF/CREB proteins bind exclusively to sequences with adjacent half-sites. Here we investigate the distinctions between AP-1 and ATF/CREB proteins by determining the DNA-binding properties of mutant and hybrid proteins. First, analysis of GCN4-ATF1 hybrid proteins indicates that a short surface spanning the basic and fork regions of the bZIP domain is the major determinant of half-site spacing. Replacement of two GCN4 residues on this surface (Ala244 and Leu247) by their ATF1 counterparts largely converts GCN4 into a protein with ATF/CREB specificity. Secondly, analysis of a Fos derivative containing the GCN4 leucine zipper indicates that Fos represents a novel intermediate between AP-1 and ATF/CREB proteins. Thirdly, we examine the effects of mutations in the invariant arginine residue of GCN4 (Arg243) that contacts the central base pair(s) of the target sites. While most mutations abolish DNA binding, substitution of a histidine residue results in a GCN4 derivative with ATF/CREB binding specificity. These results suggest that the AP-1 and ATF/CREB proteins differ in positioning a short surface that includes the invariant arginine and that AP-1 proteins may represent a subclass (and perhaps evolutionary offshoot) of ATF/CREB proteins that can tolerate overlapping half-sites. Images PMID:7630732

  2. Accommodating student learning styles and preferences in an online occupational therapy course.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Nancy Wolcott; Jacobs, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.

  3. DNA sequence preferences at sites cleaved by human DNA topoisomerase II in response to novel quinolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huff, A C; Robinson, R G; Evans, A C; Selander, K N; Wentland, M P; Rake, J B; Coughlin, S A

    1995-04-01

    We have examined the DNA cleavage site specificity of human type II DNA topoisomerase in the presence of each of five novel quinolone derivatives. Each quinolone derivative inhibited the human enzyme, inducing double-strand breaks with a four-base stagger. Break sites generated in response to each derivative had a predominance of C in the 3'-terminal position. Consensus sequences derived for cleavage sites induced by each derivative were strikingly similar, not only at the 3'-terminal position, but also at additional positions on either side of the broken phosphodiester bond. Analysis of these consensus sequences yielded information about possible interactions of specific substituents on the quinolone derivatives with DNA and/or topoisomerase. Comparison of the quinolone-based consensus sequences with those derived for cleavage sites generated by the human type II topoisomerase in the presence of either m-AMSA or VM-26, or in the absence of drug, provided compelling evidence that DNA cleavage sites include two domains: one which interacts with drug and a second, larger domain which interacts with topoisomerase.

  4. Resetting the Site: Redirecting Integration of an Insertion Sequence in a Predictable Way

    PubMed Central

    Guynet, Catherine; Achard, Adeline; Hoang, Bao Ton; Barabas, Orsolya; Hickman, Alison Burgess; Dyda, Frederick; Chandler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Target site choice is a complex and poorly understood aspect of DNA transposition despite its importance in rational transposon-mediated gene delivery. Thoughmost transposons choose target sites essentially randomly or with some slight sequence or structural preferences, insertion sequence IS608 from Helicobacter pylori, which transposes using single-stranded DNA, always inserts just 3′ of a TTAC tetranucleotide. Our results from studies on the IS608 transposition mechanism demonstrated that the transposase recognizes its target site by co-opting an internal segment of transposon DNA and utilizes it for specific recognition of the target sites through base-pairing. This suggested a way to redirect IS608 transposition to novel target sites. As we demonstrate here, we can now direct insertions in a predictable way into a variety of different chosen target sequences, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19524540

  5. Measuring preferences for health care interventions using conjoint analysis: an application to HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Maddala, Tara; Johnson, F Reed

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine preferences for HIV test methods using conjoint analysis, a method used to measure economic preferences (utilities). Data Sources Self-administered surveys at four publicly funded HIV testing locations in San Francisco, California, between November 1999 and February 2000 (n=365, 96 percent response rate). Study Design We defined six important attributes of HIV tests and their levels (location, price, ease of collection, timeliness/accuracy, privacy/anonymity, and counseling). A fractional factorial design was used to develop scenarios that consisted of combinations of attribute levels. Respondents were asked 11 questions about whether they would choose “Test A or B” based on these scenarios. Data Analysis We used random effects probit models to estimate utilities for testing attributes. Since price was included as an attribute, we were able to estimate willingness to pay, which provides a standardized measure for use in economic evaluations. We used extensive analyses to examine the reliability and validity of the results, including analyses of: (1) preference consistency, (2) willingness to trade among attributes, and (3) consistency with theoretical predictions. Principal Findings Respondents most preferred tests that were accurate/timely and private/anonymous, whereas they had relatively lower preferences for in-person counseling. Respondents were willing to pay an additional $35 for immediate, highly accurate results; however, they had a strong disutility for receiving immediate but less accurate results. By using conjoint analysis to analyze new combinations of attributes, we found that respondents would most prefer instant, highly accurate home tests, even though they are not currently available in the U.S. Respondents were willing to pay $39 for a highly accurate, instant home test. Conclusions The method of conjoint analysis enabled us to estimate utilities for specific attributes of HIV tests as well as the overall utility obtained

  6. Temperature preference as an indicator of the chronic toxicity of cupric ions to Mozambique Tilapia

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, T.J.; Stauffer, J.R. Jr.; Morgan, R.P. II )

    1989-11-01

    Evaluation of the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic communities has focused primarily on acute bioassays. These bioassays provide rapid and reproducible concentration response curves based on death as an endpoint. In recent years, however, emphasis has shifted towards monitoring sublethal effects of toxicants. Temperature is an easily quantifiable parameter influencing both the behavior and survival of fishes. As poikilotherms, fish use behavioral responses to help regulate body temperature. Fish thermoregulatory behavior may be altered by various toxic substances. Some researchers found that a 24 hr exposure of sublethal concentrations of copper caused a significant decrease in preferred temperature of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), although the results were confounded due to variations in copper concentrations. In this study, the authors examined the feasibility of using acute temperature preference tests to assess the chronic toxicity of low concentrations of free cupric ions to Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters).

  7. Performance of an image analysis processing system for hen tracking in an environmental preference chamber.

    PubMed

    Kashiha, Mohammad Amin; Green, Angela R; Sales, Tatiana Glogerley; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniel; Gates, Richard S

    2014-10-01

    Image processing systems have been widely used in monitoring livestock for many applications, including identification, tracking, behavior analysis, occupancy rates, and activity calculations. The primary goal of this work was to quantify image processing performance when monitoring laying hens by comparing length of stay in each compartment as detected by the image processing system with the actual occurrences registered by human observations. In this work, an image processing system was implemented and evaluated for use in an environmental animal preference chamber to detect hen navigation between 4 compartments of the chamber. One camera was installed above each compartment to produce top-view images of the whole compartment. An ellipse-fitting model was applied to captured images to detect whether the hen was present in a compartment. During a choice-test study, mean ± SD success detection rates of 95.9 ± 2.6% were achieved when considering total duration of compartment occupancy. These results suggest that the image processing system is currently suitable for determining the response measures for assessing environmental choices. Moreover, the image processing system offered a comprehensive analysis of occupancy while substantially reducing data processing time compared with the time-intensive alternative of manual video analysis. The above technique was used to monitor ammonia aversion in the chamber. As a preliminary pilot study, different levels of ammonia were applied to different compartments while hens were allowed to navigate between compartments. Using the automated monitor tool to assess occupancy, a negative trend of compartment occupancy with ammonia level was revealed, though further examination is needed. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. An evaluation of the effects of access duration on preference assessment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brooke A; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which access duration during stimulus preference assessments affects preschool-age children's preferences for leisure items. Results demonstrated that rankings for highly preferred items remained similar across both short- and long-access durations; however, overall preference hierarchies remained more similar across administrations of long-access-duration assessments than short-access-duration assessments.

  9. Experimental Test of Preferences for an Invasive Prey by an Endangered Predator: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying impacts of exotic species on native populations is central to ecology and conservation. Although the effects of exotic predators on native prey have received much attention, the role of exotic prey on native predators is poorly understood. Determining if native predators actively prefer invasive prey over native prey has implications for interpreting invasion impacts, identifying the presence of evolutionary traps, and predator persistence. One of the world’s most invasive species, Pomacea maculata, has recently established in portions of the endangered Everglade snail kite’s (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) geographic range. Although these exotic snails could provide additional prey resources, they are typically much larger than the native snail, which can lead to lower foraging success and the potential for diminished energetic benefits in comparison to native snails. Nonetheless, snail kites frequently forage on exotic snails. We used choice experiments to evaluate snail kite foraging preference in relation to exotic species and snail size. We found that snail kites do not show a preference for native or exotic snails. Rather, snail kites generally showed a preference for medium-sized snails, the sizes reflective of large native snails. These results suggest that while snail kites frequently forage on exotic snails in the wild, this behavior is likely driven simply by the abundance of exotic snails rather than snail kites preferring exotics. This lack of preference offers insights to hypotheses regarding effects of exotic species, guidance regarding habitat and invasive species management, and illustrates how native-exotic relationships can be misleading in the absence of experimental tests of such interactions. PMID:27829031

  10. Experimental Test of Preferences for an Invasive Prey by an Endangered Predator: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rebecca C; Fletcher, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying impacts of exotic species on native populations is central to ecology and conservation. Although the effects of exotic predators on native prey have received much attention, the role of exotic prey on native predators is poorly understood. Determining if native predators actively prefer invasive prey over native prey has implications for interpreting invasion impacts, identifying the presence of evolutionary traps, and predator persistence. One of the world's most invasive species, Pomacea maculata, has recently established in portions of the endangered Everglade snail kite's (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) geographic range. Although these exotic snails could provide additional prey resources, they are typically much larger than the native snail, which can lead to lower foraging success and the potential for diminished energetic benefits in comparison to native snails. Nonetheless, snail kites frequently forage on exotic snails. We used choice experiments to evaluate snail kite foraging preference in relation to exotic species and snail size. We found that snail kites do not show a preference for native or exotic snails. Rather, snail kites generally showed a preference for medium-sized snails, the sizes reflective of large native snails. These results suggest that while snail kites frequently forage on exotic snails in the wild, this behavior is likely driven simply by the abundance of exotic snails rather than snail kites preferring exotics. This lack of preference offers insights to hypotheses regarding effects of exotic species, guidance regarding habitat and invasive species management, and illustrates how native-exotic relationships can be misleading in the absence of experimental tests of such interactions.

  11. Making Your School Site an Environmental Smorgasboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Describes ways to enhance a school's outdoor facilities to provide more educational opportunities: nesting boxes, ground water monitoring holes, nature's "swamp shop," soil studies, weather stations, wildlife habitat improvement, forestry practices, aquatic resources, archaeological dig sites, horticulture demonstration areas, outdoor…

  12. Making Your School Site an Environmental Smorgasboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Describes ways to enhance a school's outdoor facilities to provide more educational opportunities: nesting boxes, ground water monitoring holes, nature's "swamp shop," soil studies, weather stations, wildlife habitat improvement, forestry practices, aquatic resources, archaeological dig sites, horticulture demonstration areas, outdoor…

  13. Evidence for an internet addiction disorder: internet exposure reinforces color preference in withdrawn problem users.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Re, Federica; Roaro, Alessandra; Truzoli, Roberto; Reed, Phil

    2016-02-01

    This study examined whether exposure to the Internet could create a preference for colors associated with visited Web sites and explored the possible relationship with self-reported problematic Internet use and Internet deprivation. 100 adult participants were divided into 2 groups; one was deprived access to the Internet for 4 hours, and the other was not. After this period, they were asked to choose a color and complete a series of psychometric questionnaires concerning mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory). They were then given a 15-minute exposure to the Internet, and the Web sites they visited were recorded. They were then asked to again choose a color, complete the same psychometric questionnaires, and complete the Internet Addiction Test. The study was conducted between November 2013 and April 2014. For Internet-deprived, but not nondeprived, subjects, a reduction of mood and increased anxiety was noted in the higher problematic Internet users following Web cessation. There was also a shift toward choosing the color most prominent on the visited Web sites in these participants. No shift in mood, or toward choosing the dominant Web site color, was seen in the lower problem users. These findings suggest that the Internet can serve as a negative reinforcer for behavior in higher problem users and that the reinforcement obtained from the alleviation of withdrawal symptoms becomes conditioned, with the color and appearance of the visited Web sites giving them a more positive value. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Positive Preferences: The Emotional Valence of What an Avatar Says Matters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jennifer; Kraemer, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    This study examined preferences and ascriptions of human control for avatars associated with positive and negative language. An avatar is a graphical representation of an individual user in a virtual world. Users form judgments of other virtual world users based on the appearance and behavior of their avatars in the absence of physical cues. In particular, users have previously displayed sensitivity toward anthropomorphism and verbal behavior of avatars they encounter within virtual environments. Thus far, investigations of language in online and virtual spaces have been limited to specific contexts. University student participants and Amazon Mechanical Turk workers were shown two avatars. Each pair consisted of two out of three possible appearances: a tiger, a male, or a female. Each avatar was aligned with a different text introduction: one containing words of positive emotional valence and the other of negative emotional valence. Participants from both samples preferred avatars associated with positive language, regardless of appearance, but participants did not ascribe human control of an avatar based on either emotional valance or appearance. Significant differences for reported preferences and likeability demonstrate the salience of emotive language as a social cue even in short text introductions for avatars. These findings suggest that those we like and want to be around in virtual environments might not necessarily align with whom we view as human.

  15. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    DOE PAGES

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternarymore » alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.« less

  16. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co, and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In this paper, we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which correspond to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the α sites, while Co and Ni prefer the γ sites of the DO3 lattice. An important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co is added as a ternary element.

  17. Effects of viewing an evidence-based video decision aid on patients' treatment preferences for spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Jon D; Spratt, Kevin F; Blood, Emily A; Tosteson, Tor D; Tosteson, Anna N A; Weinstein, James N

    2011-08-15

    Secondary analysis within a large clinical trial. To evaluate the changes in treatment preference before and after watching a video decision aid as part of an informed consent process. A randomized trial with a similar decision aid in herniated disc patients had shown decreased rate of surgery in the video group, but the effect of the video on expressed preferences is not known. Subjects enrolling in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) with intervertebral disc herniation, spinal stenosis, or degenerative spondylolisthesis at 13 multidisciplinary spine centers across the United States were given an evidence-based videotape decision aid viewed prior to enrollment as part of informed consent. Of the 2505 patients, 86% (n = 2151) watched the video and 14% (n = 354) did not. Watchers shifted their preference more often than nonwatchers (37.9% vs. 20.8%, P < 0.0001) and more often demonstrated a strengthened preference (26.2% vs. 11.1%, P < 0.0001). Among the 806 patients whose preference shifted after watching the video, 55% shifted toward surgery (P = 0.003). Among the 617 who started with no preference, after the video 27% preferred nonoperative care, 22% preferred surgery, and 51% remained uncertain. After watching the evidence-based patient decision aid (video) used in SPORT, patients with specific lumbar spine disorders formed and/or strengthened their treatment preferences in a balanced way that did not appear biased toward or away from surgery.

  18. Large-scale recoding of an arbovirus genome to rebalance its insect versus mammalian preference

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Sam H.; Stauft, Charles B.; Gorbatsevych, Oleksandr; Song, Yutong; Ward, Charles B.; Yurovsky, Alisa; Mueller, Steffen; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-01-01

    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants. These organisms have evolved carefully balanced genomes that can efficiently use the translational machineries of different phyla, even if the phyla belong to different kingdoms. Using dengue virus as an example, we have undone the genome encoding balance and specifically shifted the encoding preference away from mammals. These mammalian-attenuated viruses grow to high titers in insect cells but low titers in mammalian cells, have dramatically increased LD50s in newborn mice, and induce high levels of protective antibodies. Recoded arboviruses with a bias toward phylum-specific expression could form the basis of a new generation of live attenuated vaccine candidates. PMID:25825721

  19. Large-scale recoding of an arbovirus genome to rebalance its insect versus mammalian preference.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sam H; Stauft, Charles B; Gorbatsevych, Oleksandr; Song, Yutong; Ward, Charles B; Yurovsky, Alisa; Mueller, Steffen; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-04-14

    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants. These organisms have evolved carefully balanced genomes that can efficiently use the translational machineries of different phyla, even if the phyla belong to different kingdoms. Using dengue virus as an example, we have undone the genome encoding balance and specifically shifted the encoding preference away from mammals. These mammalian-attenuated viruses grow to high titers in insect cells but low titers in mammalian cells, have dramatically increased LD50s in newborn mice, and induce high levels of protective antibodies. Recoded arboviruses with a bias toward phylum-specific expression could form the basis of a new generation of live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  20. Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Carolyn S.; Baier, Felix; Omondi, Aman B.; Spitzer, Sarabeth A.; Lutomiah, Joel; Sang, Rosemary; Ignell, Rickard; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2014-01-01

    Female mosquitoes are major vectors of human disease and the most dangerous are those that preferentially bite humans. A ‘domestic’ form of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has evolved to specialize in biting humans and is the major worldwide vector of dengue, yellow fever, and Chikungunya viruses. The domestic form coexists with an ancestral, animal-biting ‘forest’ form along the coast of Kenya. We collected the two forms, established laboratory colonies, and document striking divergence in preference for human versus animal odour. We further show that the evolution of preference for human odour in domestic mosquitoes is tightly linked to increases in the expression and ligand-sensitivity of the odorant receptor AaegOr4, which we found recognises a compound present at high levels in human odour. Our results provide a rare example of a gene contributing to behavioural evolution and provide insight into how disease-vectoring mosquitoes came to specialise on humans. PMID:25391959

  1. Locally, meiotic double-strand breaks targeted by Gal4BD-Spo11 occur at discrete sites with a sequence preference.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hajime; Nicolas, Alain

    2009-07-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are catalyzed by the type II topoisomerase-like Spo11 protein. Locally, at recombination hot spots, Spo11 introduces DSBs at multiple positions within approximately 75 to 250 bp, corresponding to accessible regions of the chromatin. The molecular basis of this multiplicity of cleavage positions, observed in a population of meiotic cells, remains elusive. To address this issue, we have examined the properties of the Gal4BD-Spo11 fusion protein, which targets meiotic DSBs to regions with Gal4 binding sites (UAS). By single-nucleotide resolution mapping of targeted DSBs, we found that DSB formation was restricted to discrete sites approximately 20 nucleotides from the UAS, defining a "DSB targeting window." Thus, the multiplicity of cleavage positions at natural Spo11 hot spots likely represents binding of Spo11 to different distinct sites within the accessible DNA region in each different meiotic cell. Further, we showed that mutations in the Spo11 moiety affected the DSB distribution in the DSB targeting window and that mutations in the DNA at the Spo11 cleavage site affected DSB position. These results demonstrate that Spo11 itself has sequence preference and contributes to the choice of DSB positions.

  2. Preferences for clinic privileges, retail items and social activities in an outpatient buprenorphine treatment program.

    PubMed

    Amass, L; Bickel, W K; Crean, J P; Higgins, S T; Badger, G J

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated preferences for various clinic privileges, retail items, and social activities for use in an outpatient opioid dependence treatment program. Fifty-three opioid-dependent patients who received treatment with buprenorphine for at least 30 days rank ordered 11 clinic privileges, 19 retail items, and 8 social activities from the most desirable (a rank of 1) to the least desirable (a rank equal to the number of items in that category). Additional questions determined preference for counseling frequency and dosing levels. The top three mean rankings for clinic privileges were $50 cash for opioid-negative urines (2.8), take-home doses of buprenorphine (3.6), and voucher points for opioid-negative urines (4.7). The top three mean rankings for retail items were restaurant gift certificates (4.1), movie passes (4.9), and videotape movie and player rentals (6.8). The top three mean rankings for social activities were movies (2.4), barbecues (3.8), and hiking trips (4.3). There was no preference reported for increases or decreases in counseling frequency. Seventy-four percent of subjects preferred to increase their buprenorphine dose by an average of 60.84% independent of their present dose. Consistent with previous findings from methadone treatment, cash payments for opioid-negative urines and take-home medication were the highest ranked clinic privileges. These results suggest that various retail items and social activities may also be useful for reinforcing positive treatment outcomes during outpatient opioid treatment.

  3. An assessment of MDPV-induced place preference in adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    King, Heather E; Wetzell, Bradley; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Most drugs of abuse have both aversive and rewarding effects, and the use and abuse potential of such drugs is thought to be a function of a balance of these affective properties. Characterizing these effects and their relative balance may provide insight into abuse vulnerability. One drug that has received recent attention is methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a monoamine transport inhibitor similar to, but significantly more potent than, cocaine. MDPV is self-administered and has been shown to produce aversive and rewarding effects in adult rats. The present study extended this characterization of the affective properties of MDPV by examining its ability to support place conditioning at a range of doses known to produce taste avoidance. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with MDPV (1, 1.8 or 3.2mg/kg) or saline and placed on the non-preferred side of a place conditioning apparatus for 30 min. On the next day, they were given an injection of saline and placed on the preferred side. This was repeated three times for a total of four conditioning cycles, and side preference was assessed on a final test. All doses of MDPV produced significant increases in time spent in the drug-paired chamber, an effect not seen in vehicle-treated animals. That the same doses of MDPV induced both taste avoidance and place preference allows assessments of how other factors might impact these effects and how they may, in turn, contribute to its abuse liability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the Nevada National Security Site Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Ashley V.

    2014-05-30

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are free-roaming descendants of domesticated horses and legally protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, which mandates how feral horses and burros should be managed and protected on federal lands. Using a geographic information system to determine the home range and suitable habitat of feral horses on the federally managed Nevada National Security Site can enable wildlife biologists in making best management practice recommendations. Home range was estimated at 88.1 square kilometers. Site suitability was calculated for elevation, forage, slope, water presence and horse observations. These variables were combined in successive iterations into one polygon. Suitability rankings established that 85 square kilometers are most suitable habitat, with 2,052 square kilometers of good habitat 1,252 square kilometers of fair habitat and 122 square kilometers of least suitable habitat.

  5. A Study of the Relationship between Learner Preference and Student Achievement and Attitudes in an Instructional Television Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Judith L.

    The effects of interactive television (ITV) learning on the attitudes and achievement of different types of learners were investigated using as subjects 97 students who were taking courses at remote sites through the University of Southern Maine ITV system. First, a Likert-type scale for measuring learner preferences was developed and validated.…

  6. Nitrogen uptake and preference in a forest understory following invasion by an exotic grass.

    PubMed

    Fraterrigo, Jennifer M; Strickland, Michael S; Keiser, Ashley D; Bradford, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Plant-soil interactions have been proposed as a causative mechanism explaining how invasive plant species impact ecosystem processes. We evaluate whether an invasive plant influences plant and soil-microbe acquisition of nitrogen to elucidate the mechanistic pathways by which invaders might alter N availability. Using a (15)N tracer, we quantify differences in nitrogen uptake and allocation in communities with and without Microstegium vimineum, a shade-tolerant, C(4) grass that is rapidly invading the understories of eastern US deciduous forests. We further investigate if plants or the microbial biomass exhibit preferences for certain nitrogen forms (glycine, nitrate, and ammonium) to gain insight into nitrogen partitioning in invaded communities. Understory native plants and M. vimineum took up similar amounts of added nitrogen but allocated it differently, with native plants allocating primarily to roots and M. vimineum allocating most nitrogen to shoots. Plant nitrogen uptake was higher in invaded communities due primarily to the increase in understory biomass when M. vimineum was present, but for the microbial biomass, nitrogen uptake did not vary with invasion status. This translated to a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the ratio of microbial biomass to plant biomass nitrogen uptake, which suggests that, although the demand for nitrogen has intensified, microbes continue to be effective nitrogen competitors. The microbial biomass exhibited a strong preference for ammonium over glycine and nitrate, regardless of invasion status. By comparison, native plants showed no nitrogen preferences and M. vimineum preferred inorganic nitrogen species. We interpret our findings as evidence that invasion by M. vimineum leads to changes in the partitioning of nitrogen above and belowground in forest understories, and to decreases in the microbial biomass, but it does not affect the outcome of plant-microbe-nitrogen interactions, possibly due to functional shifts in the

  7. Needs and preference assessment for an in-home nutrition education program using social marketing theory.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L; Strickland, Amy Williams

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition education programs for elder caregivers (CG) and their elder care recipients (CR) are important in preventing malnutrition. Using Social Marketing Theory, this study assessed the needs and preferences for nutrition education in elder CGs and their CRs in Guilford County, NC. Thirty-two pairs of community-residing elder CGs/CRs and three focus groups (FGs) participated. Health and diet questionnaires were administered to all CGs/CRs during in-home interviews. CGs/CRs and FGs evaluated nutrition education materials. Questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS v9. Ethnograph v5.0 was used to code the interviews regarding the education materials. The CGs were middle age (58.9 years), overweight (BMI = 28.8) Caucasian women. The CRs were old (79.4 years), overweight (BMI = 26.0) Caucasian women. Identified malnutrition risk factors of CGs and CRs included inadequate fluid and dietary intake, polypharmacy, and chronic disease. Identified nutrition needs and education preferences of CGs/CRs were similar. Perceived nutrition education preferences of the FGs did not reflect the interests of the CGs/CRs. This information is being used to revise the education materials and develop an in-home nutrition education program for CGs and CRs in Guilford County, NC.

  8. Valuing improvements to threatened and endangered marine species: an application of stated preference choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2011-07-01

    Non-market valuation research has produced value estimates for over forty threatened and endangered (T&E) species, including mammals, fish, birds, and crustaceans. Increasingly, Stated Preference Choice Experiments (SPCE) are utilized for valuation, as the format offers flexibility for policy analysis and may reduce certain types of response biases relative to the more traditional Contingent Valuation method. Additionally, SPCE formats can allow respondents to make trade-offs among multiple species, providing information on the distinctiveness of preferences for different T&E species. In this paper we present results of an SPCE involving three U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed species: the Puget Sound Chinook salmon, the Hawaiian monk seal, and the smalltooth sawfish. We estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) values for improving each species' ESA listing status and statistically compare these values between the three species using a method of convolutions approach. Our results suggest that respondents have distinct preferences for the three species, and that WTP estimates differ depending on the species and the level of improvement to their ESA status. Our results should be of interest to researchers and policy-makers, as we provide value estimates for three species that have limited, if any, estimates available in the economics literature, as well as new information about the way respondents make trade-offs among three taxonomically different species.

  9. When autocratic leaders become an option--uncertainty and self-esteem predict implicit leadership preferences.

    PubMed

    Schoel, Christiane; Bluemke, Matthias; Mueller, Patrick; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the impact of uncertainty on leadership preferences and propose that the conjunction of self-esteem level and stability is an important moderator in this regard. Self-threatening uncertainty is aversive and activates the motivation to regain control. People with high and stable self-esteem should be confident of achieving this goal by self-determined amelioration of the situation and should therefore show a stronger preference for democratic leadership under conditions of uncertainty. By contrast, people with low and unstable self-esteem should place their trust and hope in the abilities of powerful others, resulting in a preference for autocratic leadership. Studies 1a and 1b validate explicit and implicit leadership measures and demonstrate a general prodemocratic default attitude under conditions of certainty. Studies 2 and 3 reveal a democratic reaction for individuals with stable high self-esteem and a submissive reaction for individuals with unstable low self-esteem under conditions of uncertainty. In Study 4, this pattern is cancelled out when individuals evaluate leadership styles from a leader instead of a follower perspective. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment.

    PubMed

    Cianci, Daniela; Hartemink, Nienke; Zeimes, Caroline B; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Ienco, Annamaria; Caputo, Beniamino

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat preferences of the species is needed for help in successful prevention and control. So far, the habitat preference in urban environments has not been studied in Southern European cities. In this paper, spatial statistical models were used to evaluate the relationship between egg abundances and land cover types on the campus of Sapienza University in Rome, which is taken as an example of a European urban habitat. Predictor variables included land cover types, classified in detail on a high resolution image, as well as solar radiation and month of capture. The models account for repeated measures in the same trap and are adjusted for meteorological circumstances. Vegetation and solar radiation were found to be positively related to the number of eggs. More specifically, trees were positively related to the number of eggs and the relationship with grass was negative. These findings are consistent with the species' known preference for shaded areas. The unexpected positive relationship with solar radiation is amply discussed in the paper. This study represents a first step toward a better understanding of the spatial distribution of Ae. albopictus in urban environments.

  11. Understanding Patients’ Preferences for Referrals to Specialists for an Asymptomatic Condition

    PubMed Central

    Dunlea, Robert; Lenert, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A specialty referral is a common but complex decision that often requires a primary care provider to balance his or her own interests with those of the patient. OBJECTIVE To examine the factors that influence a patient’s choice of a specialist for consultation for an asymptomatic condition and better understand the trade-offs that patients are and are not willing to make in this decision. DESIGN Stratified cross sectional convenience sample of subjects selected to parallel US population demographics. PARTICIPANTS Members of an Internet survey panel who reported seeing a physician in the past year whose responses met objective quality metrics for attention. MAIN MEASURES Respondents completed an adaptive conjoint analysis survey comparing specialists over eight attributes. The reliability of assessments and the predictive validity of models were measured using hold out samples. The relative importance (RI) of different attributes was computed using paired t tests. The implications of utility values were studied using market simulation methods. KEY RESULTS 530 subjects completed the survey and had responses that met quality criteria. The reliability of responses was high (86% agreement) and models were predictive of patients’ preferences (82.6% agreement with holdout choices.) The most important attribute for patients was out-of-pocket cost (RI of 19.5%, p<0.0001 vs. other factors). Among the non-financial factors “collaboration and communication” with the primary care provider was the most important attribute (RI of 13.1% P<0.001). Third in importance was whether the specialist practiced shared decision-making (RI of12.2% P<0.001 vs. other factors except delay in consultation). Cost did not dominate decision-making. In market simulations patients frequently preferred more expensive providers. For example, most patients (76.3%) were willing to pay more ($80) to see a specialist who both collaborated well with their primary care provider and

  12. Occurrence and ovitrap site preference of tree hole mosquitoes: Aedes triseriatus and Aedes hendersoni in eastern Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Ballard, E M; Waller, J H; Knapp, F W

    1987-03-01

    This ovitrap study examined the effects of altitude above sea level, tree species, and tree trunk diameter on the distribution of eggs of the 2 tree hole mosquitoes, Aedes hendersoni and Ae. triseriatus. Only tree species and trunk diameter affected the distribution significantly. Aedes hendersoni eggs were found more frequently associated with trees of border and sunny habitat, while Ae. triseriatus eggs were more frequently found in association with trees of mesic habitat. Oviposition of Ae. hendersoni occurred more often at trees with smaller diameter at breast height than did Ae. triseriatus. These differences in ovipositing frequency appear to be related to the microhabitat associated with different sample sites.

  13. SiteOut: An Online Tool to Design Binding Site-Free DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Clarissa; Wunderlich, Zeba; DePace, Angela H.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins control many fundamental biological processes such as transcription, recombination and replication. A major goal is to decipher the role that DNA sequence plays in orchestrating the binding and activity of such regulatory proteins. To address this goal, it is useful to rationally design DNA sequences with desired numbers, affinities and arrangements of protein binding sites. However, removing binding sites from DNA is computationally non-trivial since one risks creating new sites in the process of deleting or moving others. Here we present an online binding site removal tool, SiteOut, that enables users to design arbitrary DNA sequences that entirely lack binding sites for factors of interest. SiteOut can also be used to delete sites from a specific sequence, or to introduce site-free spacers between functional sequences without creating new sites at the junctions. In combination with commercial DNA synthesis services, SiteOut provides a powerful and flexible platform for synthetic projects that interrogate regulatory DNA. Here we describe the algorithm and illustrate the ways in which SiteOut can be used; it is publicly available at https://depace.med.harvard.edu/siteout/. PMID:26987123

  14. SiteOut: An Online Tool to Design Binding Site-Free DNA Sequences.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Javier; Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Scholes, Clarissa; Wunderlich, Zeba; DePace, Angela H

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins control many fundamental biological processes such as transcription, recombination and replication. A major goal is to decipher the role that DNA sequence plays in orchestrating the binding and activity of such regulatory proteins. To address this goal, it is useful to rationally design DNA sequences with desired numbers, affinities and arrangements of protein binding sites. However, removing binding sites from DNA is computationally non-trivial since one risks creating new sites in the process of deleting or moving others. Here we present an online binding site removal tool, SiteOut, that enables users to design arbitrary DNA sequences that entirely lack binding sites for factors of interest. SiteOut can also be used to delete sites from a specific sequence, or to introduce site-free spacers between functional sequences without creating new sites at the junctions. In combination with commercial DNA synthesis services, SiteOut provides a powerful and flexible platform for synthetic projects that interrogate regulatory DNA. Here we describe the algorithm and illustrate the ways in which SiteOut can be used; it is publicly available at https://depace.med.harvard.edu/siteout/.

  15. [Evaluation of an internet site on evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Mathys, J; Steurer, J

    2000-10-19

    The present study evaluated a Swiss internet provider of Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) with regard to its utilization and function for medical practitioners. The internet provider under study (www.evimed.ch) primarily provides abstracts of original articles relevant to medical practice that are presented according to the criteria of EBM and includes information about EBM itself. In March 1999 a survey was conducted to better appraise the benefits gained from the information provided from the website visitors' point of view. Around 400 persons who had entered their names in the homepage guest book were informed about the survey by e-mail. A total of 167 questionnaires were filled in online, which is equivalent to the reply rate of close to 42%. The majority of the replies (63.5%) were from private-practice physicians, 22.2% from hospital-based physicians. The average age ranged between 40 and 49 years. 67.7% of the 167 respondents had internet access at their workplace, 72.5% had private internet access. For their own practical work, 61.1% of the respondents rated the information provided by www.evimed.ch as generally useful. The clinical relevance of the studies presented in the Journal Club was rated as good by 55.7% and as very good by 26.9%. The reliability of the information provided was rated as good by 56.3% and as very good by 35.3%. The majority regarded the following homepage sites as personally important: Journal Club (55.7%), articles about EBM (46.1%), MEDLINE access (37.7%) and article citations/links (41.3%). The homepage was visited at an average frequency of 1-3 times a month. 50.3% preferred electronic media (40.1% using various internet providers, 10.2% www.evimed.ch) and 44.3% preferred print media to search for specialist information on a specific medical subject. With regard to new medical findings, 44.9% of the respondents stated that they used print media, 17.4% the www.evimed.ch homepage and 28.7% other internet sources as their primary

  16. Validation of an auditory sensory reinforcement paradigm: Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) do not prefer consonant over dissonant sounds.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Basile, Muriel; Olivier, Marion; Remeuf, Kevin; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-08-01

    The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies conducted with organisms at different levels of the primate lineage are needed to understand the evolutionary scenario under which this phenomenon emerged. Although previous research found no preference for consonance in a New World monkey species, the question remained opened for Old World monkeys. We used an experimental paradigm based on a sensory reinforcement procedure to test auditory preferences for consonant sounds in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli), an Old World monkey species. Although a systematic preference for soft (70 dB) over loud (90 dB) control white noise was found, Campbell's monkeys showed no preference for either consonant or dissonant sounds. The preference for soft white noise validates our noninvasive experimental paradigm, which can be easily reused in any captive facility to test for auditory preferences. This would suggest that human preference for consonant sounds is not systematically shared with New and Old World monkeys. The sensitivity for harmonic musical intervals emerged probably very late in the primate lineage.

  17. [An examination of support function of humor: construction of a preference scale for supportive humor].

    PubMed

    Miyato, M; Ueno, Y

    1996-10-01

    In this study, we constructed a scale to measure individual preference for supportive humor, and examined whether the preference related to mental health. Two samples of female undergraduates cooperated with survey studies. In the first, a scale was constructed to measure preference for supportive kinds of humor, and relationships were examined between its score, hardiness to negative events, and depression, together with preference for other types of humor identified in a previous study (Ueno, 1992). In the second, the preference was correlated with hedonistic attitudes and private self-consciousness. Main findings were as follows: (1) Of the three types of humor (aggressive, playful, and supportive), only preference for supportive humor correlated with depression. (2) Hedonistic attitudes correlated with preference for each of the three types. (3) Private self-consciousness correlated only with preference for supportive humor.

  18. Site preference of ternary alloying elements in Ni3Al-X (X  =  Co,Nb): a first-principles calculations in combination with XPS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrokhin, Yu S.; Belash, V. P.; Klimova, I. N.; Stepanova, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    Using the XPS experiment with first-principles calculations, we perfomed a detailed study of the site occupancy of 3d (Co) and 4d (Nb) transition metal elements in the L12 Ni3Al matrix. Two different packages TB-LMTO-ASA and VASP were used in the first-principles calculations. The total density of states (DOS) obtained in both cases are similar. The smearing DOS are in good agreement with XPS experiment. It was found that in Ni3Al-X ternary alloy Co prefers Ni sites and Nb prefers Al sites.

  19. SITE PROGRAM: AN ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an engineering analysis of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration Program performed between February 1993 and April 1994. The SITE Program evaluates new and promising treatment and monitoring and measurement technologies for clea...

  20. Measuring Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences: The Redevelopment of an Instrument to Determine Individual and Collective Preferences--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagorski, Laura; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner. James R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is an area that is gaining momentum. Extension agents are expected to teach production methods that include sustainable agriculture, yet little is known regarding how Extension agents feel about this agricultural paradigm. The research reported here sought to further develop an instrument that could quantitatively measure…

  1. Measuring Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences: The Redevelopment of an Instrument to Determine Individual and Collective Preferences--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagorski, Laura; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner. James R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is an area that is gaining momentum. Extension agents are expected to teach production methods that include sustainable agriculture, yet little is known regarding how Extension agents feel about this agricultural paradigm. The research reported here sought to further develop an instrument that could quantitatively measure…

  2. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  3. Preference-Inconsistent Recommendations: An Effective Approach for Reducing Confirmation Bias and Stimulating Divergent Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwind, Christina; Buder, Jurgen; Cress, Ulrike; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2012-01-01

    The Web is a perfect backdrop for opinion formation as a multitude of different opinions is publicly available. However, the different opinions often remain unexploited: Learners prefer preference-consistent over preference-inconsistent information, a phenomenon called confirmation bias. Two experiments were designed to test whether technologies…

  4. Decision-Making Styles: An Exploration of Preferences of On- and Off-Campus Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kristine; Gallagher, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was completed by 55 of 78 off-campus extension agents and 29 of 49 on-campus specialists. Although the groups share many preferences, there was a highly significant difference in the judging function: 72% of the specialists preferred Thinking and 60% of agents preferred Feeling in decision making. This could…

  5. Decision-Making Styles: An Exploration of Preferences of On- and Off-Campus Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kristine; Gallagher, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was completed by 55 of 78 off-campus extension agents and 29 of 49 on-campus specialists. Although the groups share many preferences, there was a highly significant difference in the judging function: 72% of the specialists preferred Thinking and 60% of agents preferred Feeling in decision making. This could…

  6. Preference-Inconsistent Recommendations: An Effective Approach for Reducing Confirmation Bias and Stimulating Divergent Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwind, Christina; Buder, Jurgen; Cress, Ulrike; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2012-01-01

    The Web is a perfect backdrop for opinion formation as a multitude of different opinions is publicly available. However, the different opinions often remain unexploited: Learners prefer preference-consistent over preference-inconsistent information, a phenomenon called confirmation bias. Two experiments were designed to test whether technologies…

  7. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  8. An achievement-weighted constraint satisfaction approach to modeling user preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Hitoshi

    The presented study deals with the so-called soft constraint satisfaction problem (SCSP) and proposes an extension to the standard SCSP formulation to accommodate a wider class of over-constrained situations and allow for a generally higher level of flexibility in the constraint-driven problem-solving. The extended modeling approach called Achievement-Weighted Constraint Satisfaction (AWCS) assumes the definition of constraint parameters ``traditional'' for SCSPs, as well as additional parameters specified to dynamically manipulate constraint weights in the course of solution search. These latter parameters make it possible to ``relax'' over-constrained models and obtain a solution even when there are mutually contradicting rules utilized by an AWCS problem-solver. To explore the proposed modeling framework, a task of finding an optimal route in car navigation, based on user preferences - a popular are of research in SCSP studies - is considered. A case study is presented, in which an optimal route is first modeled with constraints reflecting user preferences. Problem solutions having different optimality levels are then obtained. A software system is developed to automate both the optimal route modeling (via interaction with the user) and the solution search processes. The system is applied in an experiment conducted to validate the theoretical ideas. Experimental results are discussed, and conclusions are drawn.

  9. N2O source partitioning in soils using (15)N site preference values corrected for the N2O reduction effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Köster, Jan Reent; Cárdenas, Laura M; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Bol, Roland

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of isotope fractionation associated with N2O reduction during soil denitrification on N2O site preference (SP) values and hence quantify the potential bias on SP-based N2O source partitioning. The N2O SP values (n = 431) were derived from six soil incubation studies in N2-free atmosphere, and determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The N2 and N2O concentrations were measured directly by gas chromatography. Net isotope effects (NIE) during N2O reduction to N2 were compensated for using three different approaches: a closed-system model, an open-system model and a dynamic apparent NIE function. The resulting SP values were used for N2O source partitioning based on a two end-member isotopic mass balance. The average SP0 value, i.e. the average SP values of N2O prior to N2O reduction, was recalculated with the closed-system model, resulting in -2.6 ‰ (±9.5), while the open-system model and the dynamic apparent NIE model gave average SP0 values of 2.9 ‰ (±6.3) and 1.7 ‰ (±6.3), respectively. The average source contribution of N2O from nitrification/fungal denitrification was 18.7% (±21.0) according to the closed-system model, while the open-system model and the dynamic apparent NIE function resulted in values of 31.0% (±14.0) and 28.3% (±14.0), respectively. Using a closed-system model with a fixed SP isotope effect may significantly overestimate the N2O reduction effect on SP values, especially when N2O reduction rates are high. This is probably due to soil inhomogeneity and can be compensated for by the application of a dynamic apparent NIE function, which takes the variable reduction rates in soil micropores into account. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An improved method for evaluating ideal standards in self-perception and mate preferences.

    PubMed

    Katsena, Lasma; Dimdins, Girts

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the methodology for measuring ideals of self-perception and mate preferences. The Ideal Standards Model (ISM; Fletcher, Simpson, Thomas & Giles, 1999) was used as a basis for development of the scale. It was further modified by adding a number of items from previous studies. Data were collected from 223 participants, aged 19 to 27 years. The results suggested that a modified five-factor version of the ISM is an appropriate method for evaluation of ideal characteristics. The five factors are warmth/ trustworthiness, status/ resources, intelligence, social skills and physical attractiveness. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Site selection study for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico as an alternative site for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Wheeler, T.; McClellan, Y.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SSM) Programmatic Environmental impact Statement (PEIS). The National Environmental Policy Act requires the DOE to look at alternative sites for the NIF. The SSM PEIS will evaluate four alternative locations for the NIF. This study documents the process and results of a site selection study for a preferred site for the NIF at SNL/NM. The NIF research objectives are to provide the world`s most powerful laser systems to be used in ignition of fusion fuel and energy gain to perform high energy density and radiation effects experiments in support of the DOE`s national security, energy, and basic science research mission. The most immediate application of the NIF will be to provide nuclear-weapon-related physics data, since many phenomena occurring on the laboratory scale are similar to those that occur in weapons. The NIF may also provide an important capability for weapons effects simulation. The NIF is designed to achieve propagating fusion bum and modest energy gain for development as a source of civilian energy.

  12. Temperature-driven plasticity in nutrient use and preference in an ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2017-09-20

    Environmental temperature has strong effects on the rate and efficiency of resource use in ectotherms, but little is known about how changes in temperature influence their diet selection patterns. Changes in temperature may alter the balance of nutrients required by ectotherms by affecting metabolism. In response to temperature changes, ectotherms are predicted to express a preference for a specific nutrient (protein or carbohydrate) to match their altered nutrient requirement. Here, we examined the nutritional consequences of mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor L.) that were constrained to diets varying in protein:carbohydrate balance (P:C = 1:5, 1:1, or 5:1) or offered a choice between two nutritionally complementary diets (1:5 vs. 5:1) at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30, or 35 °C). Beetles had high mortality and reduced body mass at higher temperatures. Post-ingestive use efficiencies of both protein and carbohydrate decreased as temperature rose. Warming-driven decrease in carbohydrate use efficiencies occurred most profoundly when carbohydrates were consumed excessively. When given a choice, beetles selected protein and carbohydrate equally at 25 and 30 °C, but exhibited a significant preference for carbohydrate at 35 °C. Since carbohydrate is an immediate source of energy, this warming-driven preference for carbohydrate is explicable as an adaptive response of beetles to meet increased energy needs at high temperature. Beetles exposed to 20 °C ate substantially less food, but preferentially consumed carbohydrate over protein possibly to cope with reduced energy intake. The present findings have implications for the impact of temperature on foraging and resource use in ectotherms.

  13. Remediation management of complex sites using an adaptive site management approach.

    PubMed

    Price, John; Spreng, Carl; Hawley, Elisabeth L; Deeb, Rula

    2017-04-08

    Complex sites require a disproportionate amount of resources for environmental remediation and long timeframes to achieve remediation objectives, due to their complex geologic conditions, hydrogeologic conditions, geochemical conditions, contaminant-related conditions, large scale of contamination, and/or non-technical challenges. A recent team of state and federal environmental regulators, federal agency representatives, industry experts, community stakeholders, and academia worked together as an Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) team to compile resources and create new guidance on the remediation management of complex sites. This article summarizes the ITRC team's recommended process for addressing complex sites through an adaptive site management approach. The team provided guidance for site managers and other stakeholders to evaluate site complexities and determine site remediation potential, i.e., whether an adaptive site management approach is warranted. Adaptive site management was described as a comprehensive, flexible approach to iteratively evaluate and adjust the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key aspects of adaptive site management were described, including tools for revising and updating the conceptual site model (CSM), the importance of setting interim objectives to define short-term milestones on the journey to achieving site objectives, establishing a performance model and metrics to evaluate progress towards meeting interim objectives, and comparing actual with predicted progress during scheduled periodic evaluations, and establishing decision criteria for when and how to adapt/modify/revise the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key findings will be published in an ITRC Technical and Regulatory guidance document in 2017 and free training webinars will be conducted. More information is available at www.itrc-web.org. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lateral preferences in Brazilian adults: an analysis with the Edinburgh Inventory.

    PubMed

    Brito, G N; Brito, L S; Paumgartten, F J; Lins, M F

    1989-09-01

    The lateral preferences of 959 Brazilian adults (471 males and 488 females) were assessed with the abbreviated form of the Edinburgh Inventory using the interview method. The behavioral validity of the inventory was evaluated by asking 36 subjects to perform the activities included in the inventory five months after the interview. The results showed that lateral preferences in Brazilian adults are similar to those reported from other countries. Additionally, effects of sex and age on hand preference were observed. However, area of professional occupation was not related to hand preference. Factor analysis of the Edinburgh Inventory (including items related to foot, eye and ear preference) revealed two factors. Factor I ("Motor-Related Laterality") included all handedness items and the foot-preference item, and Factor II ("Sensory-Related Laterality") included the eye and ear preference items. The Edinburgh Inventory was found to be reliable and valid in this population.

  15. HIV Testing Preferences Among MSM Members of an LGBT Community Organization in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Medline, Alexandra; Daniels, Joseph; Marlin, Robert; Young, Sean; Wilson, Greg; Huang, Emily; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    Lack of regular HIV testing puts African American, Asian, and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk for HIV infection. Rapid self-testing may be an effective option for these men. We explored acceptability, preferences, and usability of HIV self-test kits with MSM of color using semi-structured focus groups to discuss HIV testing history, reasons for testing, and self-testing preferences. Participants (n = 21) lived in Los Angeles, identified as MSM of color, and were 18-35 years of age. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Participants expressed needs for (a) accessibility, (b) privacy, (c) local support, and (d) access to testing professionals. Self-testing for HIV infection may be an effective method for high-risk MSM. Effective self-testing programs need to consider accessibility, confidentiality, and support to increase routine testing. Community-based organizations have an opportunity to increase HIV testing for MSM of color. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Evaluation Guide for Selecting a Junior College Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reida, G. W.

    Emphasis is placed upon conceiving the site as an integral part of the total educational environment. Preliminary steps are suggested for planning a junior college campus, placing emphasis upon the need for a master plan. Criteria for site selection are discussed for site size, student enrollment, land use patterns, and accessibility. Directions…

  17. First Counseling Revealing the Diagnosis of Childhood Cancer: Parent Preferences From an Indian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Gem; Scott, Julius X; Nasrin, Rizwana; Sneha, Latha; Manohar, Rakesh; Subramanian, Lalitha; Narayani, Sowmiya; Rajendran, Aruna

    2016-11-01

    The first counseling or the exchange between the physician and the parent(s) of children with cancer is of vital importance as it sets the tone for the rest of the treatment. The goal of our study was to find out the preferences among parents of Indian children with cancer regarding communication and breaking of bad news when fully informed about the diagnosis. A sample of 60 parents who had been counseled within 3 months from diagnosis were interviewed with a prepared questionnaire directed at eliciting their experiences with the physicians who broke the bad news to them and also suggestions to improve the exchange. Sixty parents of children diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. All parents agreed on the importance of first counseling and asked for a second round of counseling to reinforce concepts learned during the first counseling. An overall 83% of parents wanted a comparison with another child having the same diagnosis, 57% wanted immediate or extended family to be present, and 92% did not want support staff to be present during counseling. In all, 68% of parents did not want to reveal the diagnosis to the child, 77% wanted as much information about the disease as possible, including estimated cost of treatment, and 90% wanted access to other information services and information about other centers where treatment was available. Parents have preferences about the ways in which information is presented to them during the first counseling. Knowing these preferences will help physicians to better their ability to interact with parents in the future during first counseling and help them decide a culturally appropriate course of action.

  18. Females tend to prefer genetically similar mates in an island population of house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is often proposed that females should select genetically dissimilar mates to maximize offspring genetic diversity and avoid inbreeding. Several recent studies have provided mixed evidence, however, and in some instances females seem to prefer genetically similar males. A preference for genetically similar mates can be adaptive if outbreeding depression is more harmful than inbreeding depression or if females gain inclusive fitness benefits by mating with close kin. Here, we investigated genetic compatibility and mating patterns in an insular population of house sparrow (Passer domesticus), over a three-year period, using 12 microsatellite markers and one major histocompability complex (MHC) class I gene. Given the small population size and the distance from the mainland, we expected a reduced gene flow in this insular population and we predicted that females would show mating preferences for genetically dissimilar mates. Results Contrary to our expectation, we found that offspring were less genetically diverse (multi-locus heterozygosity) than expected under a random mating, suggesting that females tended to mate with genetically similar males. We found high levels of extra-pair paternity, and offspring sired by extra-pair males had a better fledging success than those sired by the social male. Again, unexpectedly, females tended to be more closely related to extra-pair mates than to their social mates. Our results did not depend on the type of genetic marker used, since microsatellites and MHC genes provided similar results, and we found only little evidence for MHC-dependent mating patterns. Conclusions These results are in agreement with the idea that mating with genetically similar mates can either avoid the disruption of co-adapted genes or confer a benefit in terms of kin selection. PMID:24621140

  19. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.

  20. Larval settlement preference maximizes genetic mixing in an inbreeding population of a simultaneous hermaphrodite (Bugula stolonifera, Bryozoa).

    PubMed

    Johnson, C H; Woollacott, R M

    2010-12-01

    Conspecific aggregations in terrestrial and aquatic organisms can have a significant effect on an individual's survival, growth and reproductive fitness, particularly if these aggregations are composed of closely related individuals. Such aggregations can form passively, as a consequence of dispersal, or actively, as a consequence of kin recognition. In this study, we investigated the genetic composition of individuals in conspecific aggregations in the simultaneous hermaphroditic marine bryozoan Bugula stolonifera. Conspecific larvae routinely metamorphose on adult colonies; the possibility that larvae select or avoid their maternal colony was investigated utilizing 10 newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci. Adult colonies were collected from Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Massachusetts and inspected for the presence of attached individuals. Adult colonies and their attached individuals were genotyped and compared to assess genetic relatedness within and among these groups relative to the overall genetic variability of the sampling site. Overall, the population of B. stolonifera at this site was found to be outside Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium because of significant levels of inbreeding. No significant genetic differentiation, however, was found between any groups, documenting that a group containing an adult colony and its attached individuals had as much genetic variability as was found for the entire sampling site. Parentage-exclusion analyses showed that the vast majority of attached individuals (>93%) could not have derived from the colony on which they were attached. Kinship analyses showed that the majority of attached individuals (≈63%) shared less than a half-sibling relationship. These results suggest that a colony's nearest neighbours are not composed of siblings, and thus, larval settlement preference can maximize outcrossing in this inbreeding population. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Revealed social preference for potable groundwater: An Eastern Iowa case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Forney, W.; Mishra, S.

    2011-12-01

    revealed preference is the concept from economic consumer theory meaning that the observed consumption bundle chosen (e.g. the amounts of crop production, groundwater risk and everything else) is preferred to any other bundle possible (e.g. the bundle including more crop production and the concomitant increase in groundwater risk) given the constraints the consumer faces. This concept was initially applied at the level of an individual consumer, but it also applies by the same logic at the social level of analysis. Using the spatially explicit information provided by Landsat MRLI about land use on the surfaces recharging the aquifers, more efficient regulation can be devised to allow more production on the surface while protecting aquifers to the degree implied by this revealed preference analysis.

  2. Higher Precision in Pointing Movements of the Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Hand Is Associated with an Earlier Occurrence of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR)). Moreover, we analyzed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and anterior deltoid (AD) were more anticipated when movements were performed with the PREF than with the NON-PREF hand (60–70 vs. 20–30 ms). APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (PREF: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; NON-PREF: 16.3 ± 1.7). Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the NON-PREF side. PMID:27486394

  3. Higher Precision in Pointing Movements of the Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Hand Is Associated with an Earlier Occurrence of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR)). Moreover, we analyzed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and anterior deltoid (AD) were more anticipated when movements were performed with the PREF than with the NON-PREF hand (60-70 vs. 20-30 ms). APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (PREF: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; NON-PREF: 16.3 ± 1.7). Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the NON-PREF side.

  4. A cross-cultural perspective on the preference for potential effect: an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaomin; Xu, Dan; Luo, Fang; Wei, Zihan; Wei, Cong; Xue, Gang

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper [Tormala ZL, Jia JS, Norton MI (2012). The preference for potential. Journal of personality and social psychology, 103: 567-583] demonstrated that persons often prefer potential rather than achievement when evaluating others, because information regarding potential evokes greater interest and processing, resulting in more favorable evaluations. This research aimed to expand on this finding by asking two questions: (a) Is the preference for potential effect replicable in other cultures? (b) Is there any other mechanism that accounts for this preference for potential? To answer these two questions, we replicated Tormala et al.'s study in multiple cities (17 studies with 1,128 participants) in China using an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis approach to test our hypothesis. Our results showed that the preference for potential effect found in the US is also robust in China. Moreover, we also found a pro-youth bias behind the preference for potential effect. To be specific, persons prefer a potential-oriented applicant rather than an achievement-oriented applicant, partially because they believe that the former is younger than the latter.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on the Preference for Potential Effect: An Individual Participant Data (IPD) Meta-Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomin; Xu, Dan; Luo, Fang; Wei, Zihan; Wei, Cong; Xue, Gang

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper [Tormala ZL, Jia JS, Norton MI (2012). The preference for potential. Journal of personality and social psychology, 103: 567-583] demonstrated that persons often prefer potential rather than achievement when evaluating others, because information regarding potential evokes greater interest and processing, resulting in more favorable evaluations. This research aimed to expand on this finding by asking two questions: (a) Is the preference for potential effect replicable in other cultures? (b) Is there any other mechanism that accounts for this preference for potential? To answer these two questions, we replicated Tormala et al.’s study in multiple cities (17 studies with 1,128 participants) in China using an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis approach to test our hypothesis. Our results showed that the preference for potential effect found in the US is also robust in China. Moreover, we also found a pro-youth bias behind the preference for potential effect. To be specific, persons prefer a potential-oriented applicant rather than an achievement-oriented applicant, partially because they believe that the former is younger than the latter. PMID:25806521

  6. Residues at a Single Site Differentiate Animal Cryptochromes from Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyases by Affecting the Proteins' Preferences for Reduced FAD.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Wen, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Changqing; Wu, Mingcai; Zhu, Guoping

    2017-06-19

    Cryptochromes (CRYs) and photolyases belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). Reduced FAD is essential for photolyases to photorepair UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or 6-4 photoproducts in DNA. In Drosophila CRY (dCRY, a type I animal CRY), FAD is converted to the anionic radical but not to the reduced state upon illumination, which might induce a conformational change in the protein to relay the light signal downstream. To explore the foundation of these differences, multiple sequence alignment of 650 CPF protein sequences was performed. We identified a site facing FAD (Ala377 in Escherichia coli CPD photolyase and Val415 in dCRY), hereafter referred to as "site 377", that was distinctly conserved across these sequences: CPD photolyases often had Ala, Ser, or Asn at this site, whereas animal CRYs had Ile, Leu, or Val. The binding affinity for reduced FAD, but not the photorepair activity of E. coli photolyase, was dramatically impaired when replacing Ala377 with any of the three CRY residues. Conversely, in V415S and V415N mutants of dCRY, FAD was photoreduced to its fully reduced state after prolonged illumination, and light-dependent conformational changes of these mutants were severely inhibited. We speculate that the residues at site 377 play a key role in the different preferences of CPF proteins for reduced FAD, which differentiate animal CRYs from CPD photolyases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Studies on the preferred uracil-adenine base pair at the cleavage site of 10-23 DNAzyme by functional group modifications on adenine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfei; Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Zhenjun; He, Junlin

    2015-08-01

    10-23 DNAzyme is capable of catalytically cleaving RNA substrates with the preferred cleavage sites rAU and rGU, in which the common base pair U-dA0 forms between the substrate and the DNAzyme in the cleavage reaction. Here its conservation was studied with base modifications on dA and extra functional groups introduced. The nitrogen atom at 7- or 8-position of adenine was demonstrated to be equally important for the cleavage reaction, although it is not related to the thermal stability of the base pair. Deletion of 6-amino group led to decreased stability of the base pair and a slight slower reaction rate. Extra functional groups through 6-amino group were not favorably accommodated in the cleavage site. From these modifications at the level of functional groups, it demonstrated that the base pair U-dA0 not only contributes to the recognition and binding stability, but also it is involved in the active catalytic center by its functional groups and base stacking. This kind of chemical modifications with 7-substituted 8-aza-7-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine at dA0 is favorable for the introduction of signal molecules for mechanistic studies and biological applications, without significant loss of the catalytic function and structural destruction.

  8. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford`s early reactors were crucial to the sites`s history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO{sub 3} plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site`s Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon.

  9. An experimental study of gender and cultural differences in hue preference

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of both gender and culture on color preference. Inspection of previous studies of color preference reveals that many of these studies have poor control over the colors that are shown—the chromatic co-ordinates of colors are either not noted or the illuminant that colors are shown under is not controlled. This means that conclusions about color preference are made using subjective terms for hue with little knowledge about the precise colors that were shown. However, recently, a new quantitative approach to investigating color preference has been proposed, where there is no need to summarize color preference using subjective terms for hue (Hurlbert and Ling, 2007; Ling and Hurlbert, 2007). This approach aims to quantitatively summarize hue preference in terms of weights on the two channels or “cardinal axes” underlying color vision. Here I further extend Hurlbert and Ling’s (2007) approach to investigating color preference, by replicating their study but with Arabic and English participants, and to answer several questions: First, are there cultural differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Second, are there gender differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Thirty eight British and 71 Saudi Arabian (Arabic) participants were compared. Results revealed that Arabic and English preference curves were found to differ, yet there was greater similarity for Arabic and English males than Arabic and English females. There was also a sex difference that was present for both Arabic and English participants. The male curve is fairly similar for both samples: peak-preference is in the blue-green region, and a preference minimum is in the red-pink/purple region. For Arabic females the preference peak appears to be in the red-pink region, whilst for English females it is shifted toward purple/blue-green. PMID:25688219

  10. Fog chemistry at an urban midwestern site

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.S.; Wade, K.A.; Carter, B.H.; Armentano, T.V.; Pribush, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    The Holcomb Research Institute is monitoring fog chemistry in Indianapolis, Indiana and at sites in and near the heavily industrialized Ohio River Valley. Results reported here indicate that fogs in this area can be strongly acidic, and that further studies are warranted. We report 1) the ionic composition of three fog events, samples collected in Indianapolis between December 1985 and February 1986, and 2) the pH of three additional events, samples collected between November 1985 and February 1986. (The volume of fog collected during the latter three events was insufficient for chemical analysis other than pH.) The pH of the fog samples ranged from 2.85 to 4.06; some of this fell within the range known to damage foliage and yield of some plant species. It has been demonstrated that even one exposure to highly acidic mists (pH par. delta 2.5) can damage certain crop species; hence, it is important to document the occurrence of any events having acidity near this level.

  11. An infrared motion detector system for lossless real-time monitoring of animal preference tests.

    PubMed

    Pogány, A; Heszberger, J; Szurovecz, Zita; Vincze, E; Székely, T

    2014-12-01

    Automated behavioural observations are routinely used in many fields of biology, including ethology, behavioural ecology and physiology. When preferences for certain resources are investigated, the focus is often on simple response variables, such as duration and frequency of visits to choice chambers. Here we present an automated motion detector system that use passive infrared sensors to eliminate many drawbacks of currently existing methods. Signals from the sensors are processed by a custom-built interface, and after unnecessary data is filtered by a computer software, the total time and frequency of the subject's visits to each of the choice chambers are calculated. We validate the detector system by monitoring (using the system) and in the same time video recording mating preferences of zebra finches in a four-way choice apparatus. Manual scoring of the video recordings showed very high consistency with data from the detector system both for time and for frequency of visits. Furthermore, the validation revealed that if we used micro-switches or light barriers, the most commonly applied automatic detection techniques, this would have resulted in approximately 22% less information compared to our lossless system. The system provides a low-cost alternative for monitoring animal movements, and we discuss its further applicability.

  12. Effects of Viewing an Evidence-Based Video Decision Aid on Patients’ Treatment Preferences for Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Blood, Emily A.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Weinstein, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis within a large clinical trial Objective To evaluate the changes in treatment preference before and after watching a video decision aid as part of an informed consent process. Summary of Background Data A randomized trial with a similar decision aid in herniated disc patients had shown decreased rate of surgery in the video group, but the effect of the video on expressed preferences is not known. Methods Subjects enrolling in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) with intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SPS), or degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) at thirteen multidisciplinary spine centers across the US were given an evidence-based videotape decision aid viewed prior to enrollment as part of informed consent. Results Of the 2505 patients, 86% (n=2151) watched the video and 14% (n=354) did not. Watchers shifted their preference more often than non-watchers(37.9% vs. 20.8%, p < 0.0001) and more often demonstrated a strengthened preference (26.2% vs. 11.1%, p < 0.0001). Among the 806 patients whose preference shifted after watching the video, 55% shifted toward surgery (p=0.003). Among the 617 who started with no preference, after the video 27% preferred non-operative care, 22% preferred surgery, and 51% remained uncertain. Conclusion After watching the evidence-based patient decision aid (video) used in SPORT, patients with specific lumbar spine disorders formed and/or strengthened their treatment preferences in a balanced way that did not appear biased toward or away from surgery. PMID:21358485

  13. Use of an annular chamber for testing thermal preference of westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, T.E.; Bear, E.A.; Zale, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Remaining populations of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) in western North America are primarily confined to cold headwaters whereas nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) predominate in warmer, lower elevation stream sections historically occupied by westslope cutthroat trout. We tested whether differing thermal preferences could account for the spatial segregation observed in the field. Thermal preferences of age-1 westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout (125 to 150 mm total length) were assessed in the laboratory using a modified annular preference chamber at acclimation temperatures of 10, 12, 14, and 16??C Final preferred temperature of westslope cutthroat trout (14.9??C) was similar to that of rainbow trout (14.8??C) when tested in a thermal gradient of 11-17??C The high degree of overlap in thermal preference indicates the two species have similar thermal niches and a high potential for competition. We suggest several modifications to the annular preference chamber to improve performance in future studies.

  14. An empirical study on the impact of marital residence arrangement upon gender preference in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yan, M

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between type of marital living arrangement and gender preference among women from Hubei Province, China. Interviews were conducted among a sample of 96 women who were in a Type I marriage, with the wife's family living in Babao Township, Gangzi County; a sample of 104 women who were not in a Type I marriage and lived in the same township; and a sample of 103 women who were in a Type II marriage, with the husband's family living in another township. The study participants were asked to identify the gender of 10 children aged about 6 months from photographs of children who showed different expressions and were not easily identified by gender. Respondents were then asked to select two photos and were told that their selections included one boy and one girl. Respondents were then asked to choose the boy or girl for hypothetical adoption. The reply was recorded as the respondents' gender preference. Findings indicate that 159 preferred boys and 144 preferred girls. Gender preference was not evenly distributed in the three groups. Type II groups had a stronger preference for boys. There were similar percentages of subjects who preferred boys and girls among the Type I group and the group under the influence of the Type I group. The Type I group showed a stronger preference for girls. The group subject to the influence of the Type I group showed no obvious gender preference. The Type I group that had 1-2 sons or 1-2 daughters still preferred girls. The Type II group preferred boys regardless of the gender of their own children. The subject group showed no preference by the gender of their own children. Findings show the strong impact of marital residence arrangement.

  15. "Is There An App For That?" Orthopaedic Patient Preferences For A Smartphone Application.

    PubMed

    Datillo, Jonathan R; Gittings, Daniel J; Sloan, Matthew; Hardaker, William M; Deasey, Matthew J; Sheth, Neil P

    2017-08-16

    Patients are seeking out medical information on the Internet and utilizing smartphone health applications ("apps"). Smartphone use has exponentially increased among orthopaedic surgeons and patients. Despite this increase, patients are rarely directed to specific apps by physicians. No study exists querying patient preferences for a patient-centered, orthopaedic smartphone application. The purpose of this study is to 1) determine Internet use patterns amongst orthopaedic patients; 2) ascertain access to and use of smartphones; and 3) elucidate what features orthopaedic patients find most important in a smartphone application. We surveyed patients in an orthopaedic practice in an urban academic center to assess demographics, access to and patterns of Internet and Smartphone use, and preferences for features in a smartphone app. A total of 310 surveys were completed. Eighty percent of patients reported Internet access, and 62% used the Internet for health information. Seventy-seven percent owned smartphones, 45% used them for health information, and 28% owned health apps. Only 11% were referred to an app by a physician. The highest ranked features were appointment reminders, ability to view test results, communication with physicians, and discharge instructions. General orthopaedic information and pictures or videos explaining surgery were the 2 lowest ranked features. Seventy-one percent of patients felt an app with some of the described features would improve their healthcare experiences, and 40% would pay for the app. The smartphone is an under-utilized tool to enhance patient-physician communication, increase satisfaction, and improve quality of care. Patients were enthusiastic about app features that are often included in patient health portals, but ranked orthopaedic educational features lowest. Further study is required to elucidate how best to use orthopaedic apps as physician-directed educational opportunities to promote patient satisfaction and quality of

  16. Experimental manipulation of melanism demonstrates the plasticity of preferred temperature in an agricultural pest (Phaulacridium vittatum).

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key trait of successful pest species, and may increase the ability to cope with higher, more variable temperatures under climate change. We investigate the plasticity of preferred temperature in a widespread agricultural pest, the wingless grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum). Preferred temperature is a measure of thermoregulatory behaviour through habitat selection. It is influenced by melanism, which affects body temperature by determining the amount of radiation absorbed by the body. First we demonstrate that body temperature and preferred temperature in P. vittatum is influenced by melanism, by comparing the preferred temperature of the colour morphs in laboratory thermal gradients and field body temperatures in natural populations. We then test whether preferred temperature changes in response to changes in body temperature, by determining preferred temperature before and after manipulation of melanism by painting. When melanism was manipulated experimentally in live grasshoppers, preferred temperature changed to reflect the thermal qualities of the new colour. The preferred temperature of light grasshoppers increased after they were painted black, and decreased after being painted white. Similarly, dark individuals that were painted white behaved like a light individual, maintaining a lower body temperature. Preferred temperature in P.vittatum is a plastic thermoregulatory response to ambient temperature, mediated by the influence of melanism on body temperature.

  17. Experimental Manipulation of Melanism Demonstrates the Plasticity of Preferred Temperature in an Agricultural Pest (Phaulacridium vittatum)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rebecca M. B.; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key trait of successful pest species, and may increase the ability to cope with higher, more variable temperatures under climate change. We investigate the plasticity of preferred temperature in a widespread agricultural pest, the wingless grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum). Preferred temperature is a measure of thermoregulatory behaviour through habitat selection. It is influenced by melanism, which affects body temperature by determining the amount of radiation absorbed by the body. First we demonstrate that body temperature and preferred temperature in P. vittatum is influenced by melanism, by comparing the preferred temperature of the colour morphs in laboratory thermal gradients and field body temperatures in natural populations. We then test whether preferred temperature changes in response to changes in body temperature, by determining preferred temperature before and after manipulation of melanism by painting. When melanism was manipulated experimentally in live grasshoppers, preferred temperature changed to reflect the thermal qualities of the new colour. The preferred temperature of light grasshoppers increased after they were painted black, and decreased after being painted white. Similarly, dark individuals that were painted white behaved like a light individual, maintaining a lower body temperature. Preferred temperature in P.vittatum is a plastic thermoregulatory response to ambient temperature, mediated by the influence of melanism on body temperature. PMID:24223223

  18. Snorkeling preferences foster an amino acid composition bias in transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Aaron K; Lee, Yohan; Kim, Sanguk; Bowie, James U

    2004-05-28

    By analyzing transmembrane (TM) helices in known structures, we find that some polar amino acids are more frequent at the N terminus than at the C terminus. We propose the asymmetry occurs because most polar amino acids are better able to snorkel their polar atoms away from the membrane core at the N terminus than at the C terminus. Two findings lead us to this proposition: (1) side-chain conformations are influenced strongly by the N or C-terminal position of the amino acid in the bilayer, and (2) the favored snorkeling direction of an amino acid correlates well with its N to C-terminal composition bias. Our results suggest that TM helix predictions should incorporate an N to C-terminal composition bias, that rotamer preferences of TM side-chains are position-dependent, and that the ability to snorkel influences the evolutionary selection of amino acids for the helix N and C termini.

  19. Autoinjector preference in multiple sclerosis and the role of nurses in treatment decisions: results from an international survey in Europe and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Verdun di Cantogno, Elisabetta; Tomlinson, Mark; Manuel, Laure; Thakur, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This international survey recorded the opinions of multiple sclerosis (MS) nurses about their role in treatment decision making and about the importance of different attributes of autoinjectors used to deliver first-line parenteral therapy. Methods The survey involved 52 MS nurses in different practice settings in France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the USA. Nurses described their role in patient education and in treatment decision making. They also rated the importance of nine prespecified attributes of autoinjectors and stated their preference, both overall and by attribute, for one of two autoinjectors used to deliver interferon β-1b (ExtaviPro® 30G and Betacomfort®). Nurses’ preferences were compared with those previously collected from patients using an identical questionnaire. Results There were pronounced differences between practice settings and between countries in the opinions of MS nurses about their influence on treatment decision making. Nurses considered themselves instrumental in helping patients decide between treatment options offered by neurologists. Of the nine autoinjector attributes, nurses rated “reliable to use” as most important, followed by attributes associated with convenience (“easy to operate,” “ergonomic shape,” “reach” [of injection sites], and “one-handed injection”). Nurses’ and patients’ rankings of attributes were closely aligned. For the nine attributes, 74%–98% of nurses preferred ExtaviPro® 30G to Betacomfort®, 94% preferring ExtaviPro® 30G overall. Nurses showed a greater preference than patients for ExtaviPro® 30G with respect to “easy to operate” (92% vs 78%), “intuitive to use” (98% vs 78%), and “attractive design” (98% vs 83%; P<0.05, all), but preference rates were otherwise similar across the two groups. The most common reasons in both groups for preferring ExtaviPro® 30G to Betacomfort® were “easy to use” and “ergonomic shape.” Conclusion MS nurses play a

  20. The E. coli sirtuin CobB shows no preference for enzymatic and nonenzymatic lysine acetylation substrate sites

    PubMed Central

    AbouElfetouh, Alaa; Kuhn, Misty L; Hu, Linda I; Scholle, Michael D; Sorensen, Dylan J; Sahu, Alexandria K; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Mrksich, Milan; Anderson, Wayne F; Gibson, Bradford W; Schilling, Birgit; Wolfe, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Nε-lysine acetylation is an abundant posttranslational modification of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. In the model bacterium Escherichia coli, the ε-amino group of a lysine residue can be acetylated either catalytically by acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA) and lysine acetyltransferases, or nonenzymatically by acetyl phosphate (acP). It is well known that catalytic acCoA-dependent Nε-lysine acetylation can be reversed by deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, structural and immunological evidence that CobB, a deacetylase of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, can reverse acetylation regardless of acetyl donor or acetylation mechanism. We analyzed 69 lysines on 51 proteins that we had previously detected as robustly, reproducibly, and significantly more acetylated in a cobB mutant than in its wild-type parent. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses supported the hypothesis that CobB regulates protein function in diverse and often essential cellular processes, most notably translation. Combined mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and protein structural data provided evidence that the accessibility and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target acetyllysine help determine CobB specificity. Finally, we provide evidence that CobB is the predominate deacetylase in E. coli. PMID:25417765

  1. The E. coli sirtuin CobB shows no preference for enzymatic and nonenzymatic lysine acetylation substrate sites.

    PubMed

    AbouElfetouh, Alaa; Kuhn, Misty L; Hu, Linda I; Scholle, Michael D; Sorensen, Dylan J; Sahu, Alexandria K; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Mrksich, Milan; Anderson, Wayne F; Gibson, Bradford W; Schilling, Birgit; Wolfe, Alan J

    2015-02-01

    N(ε) -lysine acetylation is an abundant posttranslational modification of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. In the model bacterium Escherichia coli, the ε-amino group of a lysine residue can be acetylated either catalytically by acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA) and lysine acetyltransferases, or nonenzymatically by acetyl phosphate (acP). It is well known that catalytic acCoA-dependent N(ε) -lysine acetylation can be reversed by deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, structural and immunological evidence that CobB, a deacetylase of the sirtuin family of NAD(+) -dependent deacetylases, can reverse acetylation regardless of acetyl donor or acetylation mechanism. We analyzed 69 lysines on 51 proteins that we had previously detected as robustly, reproducibly, and significantly more acetylated in a cobB mutant than in its wild-type parent. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses supported the hypothesis that CobB regulates protein function in diverse and often essential cellular processes, most notably translation. Combined mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and protein structural data provided evidence that the accessibility and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target acetyllysine help determine CobB specificity. Finally, we provide evidence that CobB is the predominate deacetylase in E. coli.

  2. Motivation and incentive preferences of community health officers in Ghana: an economic behavioral experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Sakiko; Agyekum, Enoch Oti; Shibanuma, Akira; Oduro, Abraham; Okawa, Sumiyo; Enuameh, Yeetey; Yasuoka, Junko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Gyapong, Margaret; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ansah, Evelyn; Hodgson, Abraham; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-08-22

    Health worker shortage in rural areas is one of the biggest problems of the health sector in Ghana and many developing countries. This may be due to fewer incentives and support systems available to attract and retain health workers at the rural level. This study explored the willingness of community health officers (CHOs) to accept and hold rural and community job postings in Ghana. A discrete choice experiment was used to estimate the motivation and incentive preferences of CHOs in Ghana. All CHOs working in three Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Ghana, 200 in total, were interviewed between December 2012 and January 2013. Respondents were asked to choose from choice sets of job preferences. Four mixed logit models were used for the estimation. The first model considered (a) only the main effect. The other models included interaction terms for (b) gender, (c) number of children under 5 in the household, and (d) years worked at the same community. Moreover, a choice probability simulation was performed. Mixed logit analyses of the data project a shorter time frame before study leave as the most important motivation for most CHOs (β 2.03; 95 % CI 1.69 to 2.36). This is also confirmed by the largest simulated choice probability (29.1 %). The interaction effect of the number of children was significant for education allowance for children (β 0.58; 95 % CI 0.24 to 0.93), salary increase (β 0.35; 95 % CI 0.03 to 0.67), and housing provision (β 0.16; 95 % CI -0.02 to 0.60). Male CHOs had a high affinity for early opportunity to go on study leave (β 0.78; 95 % CI -0.06 to 1.62). CHOs who had worked at the same place for a long time greatly valued salary increase (β 0.28; 95 % CI 0.09 to 0.47). To reduce health worker shortage in rural settings, policymakers could provide "needs-specific" motivational packages. They should include career development opportunities such as shorter period of work before study leave and financial policy in the

  3. Reactivation of an aversive memory modulates learning strategy preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Patel, Jessica M; Hodges, Kelly S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    Reminders of an aversive event adversely impact retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memories and exacerbate stress-induced levels of anxiety. Interestingly, stress and anxiety shift control over learning away from the hippocampus and toward the striatum. The aims of the current study were to determine whether spatial memory and learning strategy are impacted by reminders of a stressor. Adult male Long-Evans rats (N = 47) were subjected to an inhibitory avoidance (IA) training trial in which 32 rats were exposed (3 s) to a single inescapable electrical footshock (0.6 mA). Prior to the retention trial of a Y-maze task and the probe trials of two different learning strategy tasks, some of the rats that were exposed to the footshock (n = 17) were reminded of the stressor on an IA retrieval trial. Both groups of rats exposed to the initial stressor exhibited hypoactivity, but no impairment in spatial memory, on the Y-maze task conducted 1 week after exposure to the footshock. One month after exposure to footshock, both groups of rats exposed to the initial stressor tended to prefer a striatum-dependent learning strategy on a water T-maze task. However, 2 months after exposure to footshock, only shocked rats that were reminded of the stressor exhibited a preference for a striatum-dependent learning strategy on a visible-platform water maze task, which corresponded with lower levels of activity in an open field. The results indicate that reminders of a stressor perpetuate the deleterious effects of stress on affective and cognitive processes.

  4. Adolescent Female Text Messaging Preferences to Prevent Pregnancy After an Emergency Department Visit: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. Objective The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. Methods We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were “brief,” “professional,” and “nonaccusatory.” Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive “confidential” care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to

  5. Mining Preferred Traversal Paths with HITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jieh-Shan; Lin, Ying-Lin; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    Web usage mining can discover useful information hidden in web logs data. However, many previous algorithms do not consider the structure of web pages, but regard all web pages with the same importance. This paper utilizes HITS values and PNT preferences as measures to mine users' preferred traversal paths. Wë structure mining uses HITS (hypertext induced topic selection) to rank web pages. PNT (preferred navigation tree) is an algorithm that finds users' preferred navigation paths. This paper introduces the Preferred Navigation Tree with HITS (PNTH) algorithm, which is an extension of PNT. This algorithm uses the concept of PNT and takes into account the relationships among web pages using HITS algorithm. This algorithm is suitable for E-commerce applications such as improving web site design and web server performance.

  6. Psoriasis comprehensive care: an evaluation of a web site.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Leyva-Garcia, Ana; Ruiz-Carrascosa, Jose Carlos; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramon; Jiménez-Moleon, Jose Juan

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a disease that affects many facets of life. Psoriasis patients have needs that cannot be addressed within the traditional consultation structure. Although the Internet provides a number of health resources, the quality of the information is variable, and many sites are not editorially independent. After reviewing the contents available on the Internet related to psoriasis, the staff of the psoriasis unit at San Cecilio University Hospital (Granada, Spain) developed a Web site to meet the needs of psoriasis patients. A group of 241 patients who attended a follow-up visit to our psoriasis unit evaluated the Web site and provided feedback through an online survey. The result of the Web development process was the creation of "Psoriasis365" (https://sites.google.com/site/psoriasis365/). Overall, the Web site achieved high scores, the most popular section being "research." These results suggest that the Web site can complement the healthcare of psoriasis patients and is potentially useful for research purposes.

  7. The impact of adding an extra dimension to a preference-based measure

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, John; Rowen, Donna; Tsuchiya, Aki; Yang, Yaling; Young, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to compare incremental changes in Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) generated by different condition-specific preference-based measures (CSPBMs), or indeed between generic measures, is often criticised even where the valuation methods and source of values are the same. A key concern is the impact of excluding key dimensions from a descriptive system. This study examines the impact of adding a generic pain/discomfort dimension to a CSPBM, the AQL-5D (an asthma-specific CSPBM), by valuing samples of states from the AQL-5D with and without the new dimension using an interviewer administered time trade-off with a sample of the UK general public. 180 respondents provided 720 valuations for states with and without pain/discomfort. As expected the additional pain/discomfort dimension was found to have a significant and relatively large coefficient. More importantly for comparing changes in QALYs across populations the addition of pain/discomfort significantly impacts on the coefficients of the other dimensions and the degree of impact differs by dimension and severity level. The net effect on the utility value depends on the severity of their state: the addition of pain/discomfort at level 1 (no pain/discomfort) or 2 (moderate pain/discomfort) significantly increased the mean health state values in an asthma patient population; whereas level 3 pain/discomfort (extreme) reduced values. Comparability between measures requires that the impact of different dimensions on preferences is additive, whether or not they are included in the classification system. Our results cast doubt on this assumption, implying that the chosen measure must contain all important and relevant dimensions in its classification system. PMID:21689878

  8. Perception, Attitude and Instructional Preferences on Physics in High School Students: An Exploration in an International Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Mini; Gafoor, Abdul

    Questionnaire survey explored perception, attitude and instructional preferences with respect to gender and nationality in high school students of India and USA, a sample of 1101 Indian and 458 US students. Descriptive Statistics techniques were adopted for analysis. Male and female students in USA were at the high and low ends of the spectrum, respectively, in perception and attitude. Preference on instructional strategies was found to be independent of nationality, exposed strategies, opting science, class size and facilities. Responses from both countries indicate preference for an integrated instructional strategy that has strong teacher involvement in a student-centered framework. A thoughtful and properly designed instructional strategy could provide sufficient elements in modifying students' epistemological beliefs. Understanding the nature and process of physics along with a better learning outcome is usually not possible by administering student-centered or teacher-centered strategies alone in their purest form. This study provides adequate support in obtaining two equally significant but contrasting goals in Physics Education Research, to gain conceptual development with increased interest and attainment in learners, through integration.

  9. Site and soil characterization of hazardous waste sites using an expert system guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Roy E.

    1993-03-01

    An expert system guide (knowledge book) has been devised to assist field personnel who must identify, describe, sample, and interpret size and soil characteristics of hazardous waste sites. The guide takes an approach that will be unfamiliar to most soil and environmental scientists and is directed to on-scene coordinators and project managers and others who may have little soil science training. It meets the need of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for standard procedures, guidelines, or protocols that address soil and site contamination, particularly heavy metals. The guide is organized to include: (1) general considerations and processes for collecting and using site and soils data, (2) detailed knowledge frames (descriptive profiles) of likely site and soil conditions, (3) a citation of references, (4) an appendix listing common sources of characterization data, and (5) a glossary of more than 900 general definitions.

  10. An economic experiment reveals that humans prefer pool punishment to maintain the commons.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-09-22

    Punishment can stabilize costly cooperation and ensure the success of a common project that is threatened by free-riders. Punishment mechanisms can be classified into pool punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by a paid third party, (e.g. a police system or a sheriff), and peer punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by peers. Which punishment mechanism is preferred when both are concurrently available within a society? In an economic experiment, we show that the majority of subjects choose pool punishment, despite being costly even in the absence of defectors, when second-order free-riders, cooperators that do not punish, are also punished. Pool punishers are mutually enforcing their support for the punishment organization, stably trapping each other. Our experimental results show how organized punishment could have displaced individual punishment in human societies.

  11. An economic experiment reveals that humans prefer pool punishment to maintain the commons

    PubMed Central

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Punishment can stabilize costly cooperation and ensure the success of a common project that is threatened by free-riders. Punishment mechanisms can be classified into pool punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by a paid third party, (e.g. a police system or a sheriff), and peer punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by peers. Which punishment mechanism is preferred when both are concurrently available within a society? In an economic experiment, we show that the majority of subjects choose pool punishment, despite being costly even in the absence of defectors, when second-order free-riders, cooperators that do not punish, are also punished. Pool punishers are mutually enforcing their support for the punishment organization, stably trapping each other. Our experimental results show how organized punishment could have displaced individual punishment in human societies. PMID:22764167

  12. Syringes versus minibags as an intravenous admixture system: a comparison of cost and nursing preference.

    PubMed

    Gin, A; Martens, D; Dobson, K; Hall, K

    1987-06-01

    The implementation of centralized intravenous admixture programs in Canadian hospitals has been hindered by the high costs associated with such programs. The most popular system uses minibags as an admixture base but other less expensive alternatives are being investigated. This study examines the material and labour costs associated with preparing admixtures in either minibags or polypropylene syringes. The minibag admixtures were administered by nursing staff using secondary medication administration sets. Standard volume-control sets were used for diluting and administering the intravenous admixtures supplied in syringes. The results indicated a major cost advantage for the syringe-based program. Furthermore, evaluation of the two systems by nursing staff indicated a strong preference for the syringe-based system.

  13. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand.

  14. An Assessment of Student Preferences for PowerPoint Presentation Structure in Undergraduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperson, Jennifer M.; Laws, Eric L.; Scepansky, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that students prefer PowerPoint and respond favorably to classes when it is used. Few studies have addressed the physical structure of PowerPoint. In this study, students enrolled in several psychology classes on two campuses completed a 36 item questionnaire regarding their preferences for the use of PowerPoint in the…

  15. An Exploratory Study of the Language-Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…

  16. An Examination of Learning Preferences of U.S. and International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Kristin; Clinebell, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Learning styles and preferences are often discussed topics in educational psychology, but are less prevalent in business education. International students are another understudied segment of business education. This article reviews literature regarding learning styles and preferences and examines whether U.S. and international students have…

  17. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces over AD…

  18. Children's Favorite Picture Storybooks: An Analysis of Structure and Reading Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Richard F.

    Fifty picture storybooks found on the 1979 Classroom Choices list (a compilation of children's favorite titles) were analyzed to find out what structural characteristics children preferred. A taxonomy developed by Gayle Palmer and Jadzia Nakonechny was used to categorize the books. The analysis reveals the following children's preferences: books…

  19. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John K; Hargett, Charles W; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma; Lehrich, Ruediger W

    2015-09-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: "readers" prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; "social-auditory learners" prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and "visual learners" prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  20. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces over AD…

  1. Does Social Work Education Have an Impact on Social Policy Preferences? A Three-Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Idit; Gal, John; Cnaan, Ram A.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the impact of social work education on the social policy preferences of social work students through a panel study of 3 cohorts of students at universities in 2 countries--the United States and Israel. The findings of the study indicate that though the initial policy preferences of the students at the beginning of their…

  2. An Evaluation of Modality Preference Using a "Morse Code" Recall Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Louise; Cottrell, David

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of modality preference posit that individuals have a dominant sense and that when new material is presented in this preferred modality, learning is enhanced. Despite the widespread belief in this position, there is little supporting evidence. In the present study, the authors implemented a Morse code-like recall task to examine whether…

  3. A Study of Goal Preferences Regarding an Energy Crisis Contingency Plan: The School Without Schools Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mary T.; Loadman, William E.

    The study examines goal preferences regarding emergency educational programs such as the Columbus School Without Schools Program conducted during the energy shortages of 1977. Preferences of diverse educator groups were analyzed by the multi-dimensional scaling program MDPREF. A two-dimensional solution was obtained, the first dimension being an…

  4. An Examination of Learning Preferences of U.S. and International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Kristin; Clinebell, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Learning styles and preferences are often discussed topics in educational psychology, but are less prevalent in business education. International students are another understudied segment of business education. This article reviews literature regarding learning styles and preferences and examines whether U.S. and international students have…

  5. Understanding Senior Housing: An American Association of Retired Persons Survey of Consumers' Preferences, Concerns, and Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Aging and housing professionals must reexamine housing policy and practices, and reshape housing opportunities for older persons without undermining their preferences and values. A nationwide survey of 1,500 adults age 60 and older was conducted to determine their housing needs, concerns, and preferences. The results revealed that 70% of…

  6. Learning Style Preferences and Course Performance in an Undergraduate Physiology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Learning styles may be classified according to the sensory modality that one most prefers to use when internalizing information. The four major sensory modalities are visual, aural or auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between preferred learning style, gender, and course scores in…

  7. Does Social Work Education Have an Impact on Social Policy Preferences? A Three-Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Idit; Gal, John; Cnaan, Ram A.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the impact of social work education on the social policy preferences of social work students through a panel study of 3 cohorts of students at universities in 2 countries--the United States and Israel. The findings of the study indicate that though the initial policy preferences of the students at the beginning of their…

  8. An Evaluation of Modality Preference Using a "Morse Code" Recall Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Louise; Cottrell, David

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of modality preference posit that individuals have a dominant sense and that when new material is presented in this preferred modality, learning is enhanced. Despite the widespread belief in this position, there is little supporting evidence. In the present study, the authors implemented a Morse code-like recall task to examine whether…

  9. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, John K.; Hargett, Charles W.; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: “readers” prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; “social-auditory learners” prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and “visual learners” prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. PMID:26330030

  10. An Assessment of Student Preferences for PowerPoint Presentation Structure in Undergraduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperson, Jennifer M.; Laws, Eric L.; Scepansky, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that students prefer PowerPoint and respond favorably to classes when it is used. Few studies have addressed the physical structure of PowerPoint. In this study, students enrolled in several psychology classes on two campuses completed a 36 item questionnaire regarding their preferences for the use of PowerPoint in the…

  11. An Examination of Behavioral History Effects on Preference for Choice in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberlin, Alayna T.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the effects of behavioral history on elementary students' preference for making a choice in two studies. Previous research on choice has focused on the arrangement of current contingencies and has not accounted for the effects of behavioral history. Study 1 examined participants' preference for two options (i.e.,…

  12. An Exploration of Preferred Advising Styles at Baptist Affiliated Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine if there was congruence between college students' perceptions of their current academic advisor's advising style and their preferred advisor's academic advising style; examine if the relationship between current and preferred advisor's academic advising styles predicted a student's level of…

  13. Site action, environmental justice and an urban community: A unique approach at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Seppi, P.K.; Richman, L.R.; Wireman, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) project at the Diamond Alkali Superfund Site is an example of how technical, environmental justice, and community relations issues all affect actions at a Superfund Site. The Diamond Alkali Superfund Site is divided into two operable units. The site consists of the former pesticides manufacturing facility at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, and the adjoining six mile reach of the Passaic River known as the ``Passaic River Study Area``. EPA has negotiated Consent Orders with the Potentially Responsible Party (PRP) to design and construct the selected containment remedy at the land-based properties, and to conduct the Remedial Investigation (RI) of the river under EPA oversight. Pesticides, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals and other hazardous substances have been found at the Site. Evidence indicates that the ecology of the Passaic River has been adversely impacted by the presence of these hazardous substances. The State of New Jersey issued a ban on the consumption of fish and crabs from affected sections of the Passaic River; yet reportedly, many residents still consume seafood from the river. Community relations at the Site had deteriorated because of the community`s lack of trust and loss of confidence in EPA. To address these issues, EPA has implemented an innovative public outreach program to improve how it communicates with racial minority and low-income communities living in the vicinity of the Site, and to involve them in the decision-making process.

  14. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  15. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  16. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    PubMed

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  17. On the relative preference of enamine/iminium pathways in an organocatalytic Michael addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mahendra P; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2009-05-04

    The mechanism of the organocatalyzed Michael addition between propanal and methyl vinyl ketone is investigated using the density functional and ab intio methods. Different modes of substrate activation offered by a secondary amine (pyrrolidine) organocatalyst are reported. The electrophilic activation of enone (P-I) through the formation of an iminium ion, and nucleophilic activation of propanal (P-II) in the form of enamine have been examined by identifying the corresponding transition states. The kinetic preference for the formation of key intermediates is established in an effort to identify the competing pathways associated with the title reaction. A comparison of barriers associated with different pathways as well as intermediate formation allows us to provide a suitable mechanistic rationale for Michael addition reactions catalyzed by a secondary amine. The overall barriers for the C-C bond formation pathways involving enol or iminium intermediates are identified as higher than the enamine pathway. Additionally, the generation of iminium is found to be less favored as compared to enamine formation. The effect of co-catalyst/protic solvent on the energetics of the overall reaction is also studied using the cluster continuum approach. Significant reduction in the activation energies for each step of the reaction is predicted for the solvent-assisted models. The co-catalyst assisted addition of propanal-enamine to methyl vinyl ketone is identified as the most preferred pathway (P-IV) for the Michael addition reaction. The results are in concurrence with the available experimental reports on the rate acceleration by the use of a co-catalyst in this reaction.

  18. Inhaler devices in asthma and COPD--an assessment of inhaler technique and patient preferences.

    PubMed

    Chorão, Pedro; Pereira, Ana M; Fonseca, João A

    2014-07-01

    Incorrect use of inhaler devices remains an obstacle for respiratory diseases management. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of inhaler technique errors; to determine the devices perceived as the easiest and favourite to use; to study the association of device type, demographics and patient preferences with inhaler technique (IT). Cross-sectional assessment of 301 adults, with asthma (194) or chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, undergoing treatment with Aerolizer®, Autohaler®, Breezehaler®, Diskus®, Handihaler®, MDI without spacer, Miat-haler®, Novolizer®, Respimat® and/or Turbohaler®. Patients completed self-assessment questionnaires and face-to-face interview, with demonstration of inhaler technique. The rate of wrong steps (number of wrong steps ÷ number of total steps; RWS) was the primary outcome. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for presenting ≥1 IT errors were computed. From the 464 inhaler technique performances, the median RWS was 18%. Turbohaler® (21%) and Diskus® (19%) were chosen as easiest and Novolizer® (18%), Diskus® (18%), Turbohaler® (17%) as favourite for daily use. Females (aOR 2.68 [95% CI 1.55-4.65]; vs. males], patients with >64 yr (aOR 2.73 [95% CI 1.15-6.48]; vs <45 yr) and patients using Aerolizer® or Handihaler® (aOR 3.24 [95% CI 1.13-9.32] and aOR 3.71 [95% CI 1.38-10.2], respectively) were more likely to perform IT errors; otherwise, no association was found, including with using the favourite device (aOR 1.43 [95% CI 0.84-2.42]). The frequency of inhaler technique errors was high and no device was clearly preferred over the others. Using the preferred inhaler device was not associated with less errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An exploration of parents’ preferences for foot care in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a possible role for the discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increased awareness of patients’ and parents’ care preferences regarding foot care is desirable from a clinical perspective as such information may be utilised to optimise care delivery. The aim of this study was to examine parents’ preferences for, and valuations of foot care and foot-related outcomes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) incorporating willingness-to-pay (WTP) questions was conducted by surveying 42 parents of children with JIA who were enrolled in a randomised-controlled trial of multidisciplinary foot care at a single UK paediatric rheumatology outpatients department. Attributes explored were: levels of pain; mobility; ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL); waiting time; referral route; and footwear. The DCE was administered at trial baseline. DCE data were analysed using a multinomial-logit-regression model to estimate preferences and relative importance of attributes of foot care. A stated-preference WTP question was presented to estimate parents’ monetary valuation of health and service improvements. Results Every attribute in the DCE was statistically significant (p < 0.01) except that of cost (p = 0.118), suggesting that all attributes, except cost, have an impact on parents’ preferences for foot care for their child. The magnitudes of the coefficients indicate that the strength of preference for each attribute was (in descending order): improved ability to perform ADL, reductions in foot pain, improved mobility, improved ability to wear desired footwear, multidisciplinary foot care route, and reduced waiting time. Parents’ estimated mean annual WTP for a multidisciplinary foot care service was £1,119.05. Conclusions In terms of foot care service provision for children with JIA, parents appear to prefer improvements in health outcomes over non-health outcomes and service process attributes. Cost was relatively less important than other attributes

  20. Teacher Participation in an Art Curriculum Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ArtsNetMN--an art curriculum site developed by four Minnesota museums. Discusses design features on the ArtsNetMN site; collaboration as a key to ArtsNetMN's success as an online Learning Museum; the change from use of a listserv to a software product called Web Board; feedback from teachers; and implications for the classroom.…

  1. Preference for consonant music over dissonant music by an infant chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Tasuku; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Nobuyoshi, Noritomo; Kiriyama, Yasushi; Takeshita, Hideko; Nakamura, Tomoyasu; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that humans prefer consonant sounds from the early stages of development. From a comparative psychological perspective, although previous studies have shown that birds and monkeys can discriminate between consonant and dissonant sounds, it remains unclear whether nonhumans have a spontaneous preference for consonant music over dissonant music as humans do. We report here that a five-month-old human-raised chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) preferred consonant music. The infant chimpanzee consistently preferred to produce, with the aid of our computerized setup, consonant versions of music for a longer duration than dissonant versions. This result suggests that the preference for consonance is not unique to humans. Further, it supports the hypothesis that one major basis of musical appreciation has some evolutionary origins.

  2. Sweet taste preferences before and after an intensive medical weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Asao, K; Rothberg, A E; Arcori, L; Kaur, M; Fowler, C E; Herman, W H

    2016-06-01

    Medical weight loss could change sweet taste threshold and preferences. The decrease in sweet taste preferences may, in turn, help in the maintenance of weight loss. This study examined the association between sweet taste preferences at baseline and weight change during a medical weight management programme and the impact of diet-induced weight loss on sweet taste preferences. Adult patients with body mass index ≥32 kg m(-2) were recruited from a medical weight management clinic. Sweet taste preference was assessed using a forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method before and after a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Twenty participants were included in the analysis: mean age was 53.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 11.4) years, and 14 were female. The mean body mass index was 41.4 (SD: 7.5) kg m(-2). The median preferred sucrose concentration before VLCD was 0.45 M. Following VLCD, mean change in weight was -13.3 (SD: 6.6) kg, and percentage weight change was -11.3% (SD: 5.9%). Based on mixed models with and without adjustment for demographic factors, diabetes status and smoking history, preferred sucrose concentration at baseline did not predict change in longer-term body weight. The change of preferred sucrose concentration following 12 weeks of VLCD was not significant (P-value 0.95). Change in weight during and after VLCD was not associated with sweet taste preferences at baseline. After diet-induced weight loss, sweet taste preferences did not change.

  3. 47 CFR 1.1622 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... franchise area, nor will the diversity preference be available to applicants whose proposed transmitter site... diversity preference be available to applicants whose proposed transmitter site is located within the...

  4. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J; Woodson, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA-protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension.

  5. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA•protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension. PMID:22736006

  6. Toward a "smart" nightstand prototype: an examination of nightstand table contents and preferences.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Johnell O; Smolentzov, Linnea; Dearment, Amy; Logan, William; Green, Keith; Walker, Ian; Honchar, Julia; Guirl, Chris; Beeco, Rebekkah; Blakeney, Carrie; Boggs, Amy; Carroll, Carson; Duckworth, Kenna; Goller, Linda; Ham, Sloan; Healy, Stan; Heaps, Carolyn; Hayden, Caroline; Manganelli, Joe; Mayweather, Lyndsay; Mixon, Hillary; Price, Koty; Reis, Ashley; Yanik, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to obtain an understanding of the types of items seniors keep in their nightstands and to understand how users feel about the possibility of "smart" furniture. To enable aging in place and universal design, it is vital to understand the needs of a broad range of aging individuals, especially since there is little research on nightstand usage and design. Study 1 allowed for the development of a structured inventory of nightstand use today in assisted living and rehabilitation facilities. Study 1 led to Study 2, demonstrating the need to conceptualize new ideas for smart nightstands. Feedback was obtained from intergenerational participants who could discuss their needs and preferences for a smart nightstand. In Study 1, more than 150 items were recorded and categorized into 25 different groups. The authors found that participants utilized the top portion of their nightstand as opposed to the lower sections; most items were found on top of the nightstand or in the top drawer. In Study 2, the authors found that the vast majority of participants are willing to consider the use of a smart nightstand. Participants discussed key functions and design preferences, which included carefully designed storage, the ability to move the nightstand up and down, contemporary design, and interaction through voice activation. Existing nightstands do not meet the needs of current users. This research provides greater understanding of the existing limitations associated with nightstands. Study 2 confirmed that user-centered design and the use of technology can be used to enhance daily living. Smart furniture may play a role in promoting the health and independence of diverse user groups.

  7. Exploring differences in empirical time preference rates for health: an application of meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Peters, Tim J; Coast, Joanna

    2008-02-01

    Estimated time preference rates are extremely varied, with many rates being extremely high. Reviewing empirical studies without quantitative synthesis of their findings is largely unhelpful in determining how rates vary according to different factors. This study therefore explores the use of meta-regression techniques to combine available evidence to draw reliable conclusions about the factors influencing empirical time preference rates. Papers reporting empirically derived time preference rates related to health and health-care programmes were selected. Included were papers presenting all of: a mean time preference rate; information allowing derivation of standard errors; and one or more covariates. Appropriate data were derived from only eight of the 16 papers reporting empirical time preference rates. Meta-regression indicated that there were statistically significant relationships between mean time preference rates and: (a) delay period on a log scale; (b) whether the outcome question related to a gain or a loss. There were a number of limitations related to the use of meta-regression in this area, including difficulties in extracting appropriate data from the original studies, and the extent to which the original studies provide fully deliberated estimates of time preference.

  8. Nannophya pygmaea (Odonata: Libellulidae), an endangered dragonfly in Korea, prefers abandoned paddy fields in the early seral stage.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jihyun; Nam, Jong Min; Kim, Heungtae; Bae, Yeon Jae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2010-04-01

    To characterize habitats of Nannophya pygmaea Rambur (the northern pygmyfly; Odonata: Lilbellulidae), which is endangered in Korea, we analyzed characteristics of surface water and soil, landscape properties, and vegetation types in 22 habitats in eight areas of Korea where nymphs of N. pygmaea have been found since 2005. We divided the habitats into two groups: DS (dwelling site) habitats, where N. pygmaea was observed at the time of the study, and PDS (past dwelling site) habitats, where N. pygmaea recently lived but is no longer found. The habitats were mostly located in former paddy fields on mountain slopes that have been abandoned for 3-7 yr. The main water sources for these habitats were ground water and surface runoff, and the water level was stable at 3-7 cm in depth. The habitats ranged from 300 to 1000 m(2) and were dominated by Juncus effusus, which formed tussock mounds. According to the hydrosere model of succession, N. pygmaea appeared mostly in the early stages of plant succession (the period approximately 3-7 yr after the initiation of succession in former paddy fields) and N. pygmaea preferred habitats displaying the water and soil characteristics that are typical of the early stages of succession in abandoned paddy fields. These results indicate that the primary habitats of N. pygmaea in Korea are recently abandoned paddy fields that are in an oligotrophic state. As succession proceeds in these habitats, N. pygmaea disappears. A habitat management program should be launched to conserve the habitats and populations of N. pygmaea.

  9. Preferences for dealing with environmental problems: an empirical study of managers in three mainland Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos W H

    2002-01-01

    This study examines managerial preferences for various policy mechanisms commonly used to address environmental problems using a sample of 653 Chinese managers from firms in Beijing, Dalian and Guangzhou. Overall, these managers appeared to favor regulatory instruments, placing somewhat less faith in market and communicative instruments. However, all measures appear to have ample support within each subgroup. In addition, the influence of two situational factors on these preferences was investigated--the immediacy of environmental impact and diffusion of responsibility. The results of the study indicate that these two factors interact in explaining managerial preferences, but only for the use of market mechanisms.

  10. Digital Discernment: An E-Commerce Web Site Evaluation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Betsy Page; Boston, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Students entering the business workforce today may well share some responsibility for developing, revising, or evaluating their company's Web site. They may lack the experience, however, to critique their employer's Web presence effectively. The purpose of developing Digital Discernment, an e-commerce Web site evaluation tool, was to prepare…

  11. Digital Discernment: An E-Commerce Web Site Evaluation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Betsy Page; Boston, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Students entering the business workforce today may well share some responsibility for developing, revising, or evaluating their company's Web site. They may lack the experience, however, to critique their employer's Web presence effectively. The purpose of developing Digital Discernment, an e-commerce Web site evaluation tool, was to prepare…

  12. Use of an Academic Library Web Site Search Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes an analysis of the search engine logs of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale's library to determine how patrons used the site search. Discusses results that showed patrons did not understand the function of the search and explains improvements that were made in the Web site and in online reference services. (Author/LRW)

  13. The Story Project: An Online Site for Reading and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett Wheeler, Sally

    This paper describes an online publishing site at Georgia Perimeter College called "The Story Project." The Web site contains more than 60 stories written by faculty members, students, administrators, staff, family, and friends, and serves to encourage student writing, create a community of writers, celebrate common and diverse past experiences,…

  14. Mutations inducing an active-site aperture in Rhizobium sp. sucrose isomerase confer hydrolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Alexandra; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Robert, Xavier; Rhimi, Moez; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2013-02-01

    Sucrose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of sucrose isomers of high biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest. Owing to the complexity of the chemical synthesis of these isomers, isomaltulose and trehalulose, enzymatic conversion remains the preferred method for obtaining these products. Depending on the microbial source, the ratio of the sucrose-isomer products varies significantly. In studies aimed at understanding and explaining the underlying molecular mechanisms of these reactions, mutations obtained using a random-mutagenesis approach displayed a major hydrolytic activity. Two of these variants, R284C and F164L, of sucrose isomerase from Rhizobium sp. were therefore crystallized and their crystal structures were determined. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants allowed the identification of the molecular determinants that favour hydrolytic activity compared with transferase activity. Substantial conformational changes resulting in an active-site opening were observed, as were changes in the pattern of water molecules bordering the active-site region.

  15. Development of an ethanol model using social insects: III. Preferences for ethanol solutions.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Kandolf, Andreja; Sheridan, Audrey; Donohue, Darius; Bozic, Janko; Meyers, Julia E; Benbassat, Danny

    2004-02-01

    Experiments are designed to assess whether free-flying honey bees have an aversion to an ethanol solution when given a choice between targets containing an ethanol solution in sucrose or sucrose only. Animals given a choice between a 1% ethanol solution and sucrose only show no aversion to the ethanol solution either in acquisition or extinction. Honey bees given a choice between a 5% ethanol solution and sucrose only show no differences in the initial choice of targets but some ees do switch over to the sucrose-only target. Performance during extinction indicates that bees landed on the previously reinforced sucrose-only target more than the target previously containing the 5% ethanol solution. An experiment in which bees were given a single 5%, ethanol target showed that of 20 bees, 11 returned for the entire 12 trials of the experiment. All bees returned at least 6 times to the 5% ethanol target. Additional experiments were run on harnessed foragers in a palatability study of alcoholic beverages consumed by humans. The results of the palatability experiment indicate that in general, bees prefer more sweet drinks with less alcohol.

  16. Risk attitudes in a changing environment: An evolutionary model of the fourfold pattern of risk preferences.

    PubMed

    Mallpress, Dave E W; Fawcett, Tim W; Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2015-04-01

    A striking feature of human decision making is the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, involving risk-averse behavior in situations of unlikely losses and likely gains, but risk-seeking behavior in response to likely losses and unlikely gains. Current theories to explain this pattern assume particular psychological processes to reproduce empirical observations, but do not address whether it is adaptive for the decision maker to respond to risk in this way. Here, drawing on insights from behavioral ecology, we build an evolutionary model of risk-sensitive behavior, to investigate whether particular types of environmental conditions could favor a fourfold pattern of risk attitudes. We consider an individual foraging in a changing environment, where energy is needed to prevent starvation and build up reserves for reproduction. The outcome, in terms of reproductive value (a rigorous measure of evolutionary success), of a one-off choice between a risky and a safe gain, or between a risky and a safe loss, determines the risk-sensitive behavior we should expect to see in this environment. Our results show that the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes may be adaptive in an environment in which conditions vary stochastically but are autocorrelated in time. In such an environment the current options provide information about the likely environmental conditions in the future, which affect the optimal pattern of risk sensitivity. Our model predicts that risk preferences should be both path dependent and affected by the decision maker's current state. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Sensory preferences and discrimination ability of children before and after an obesity intervention.

    PubMed

    Alexy, Ute; Schaefer, Anke; Sailer, Oliver; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Reinehr, Thomas; Kunert, Joachim; Kersting, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Sensory preferences and discrimination ability were assessed before and after participating in a long-term outpatient obesity lifestyle intervention for obese children and adolescents ('Obeldicks'). Each subject (N=72; 7-16 years) performed 9 experimental sensory tests (5 paired-comparison preference tests, 4 paired-comparison sensitivity tests). For the examination of the taste categories sweet, salty and sour, sugar, table salt or citric acid were added to suitable customary foods. Fatty foods were included in the tests using cheese and sausage (salami) in the preference tests and milk with different fat content in the sensitivity tests. All tests were conducted at the start of the intervention program, after three and twelve months. For both preference and sensitivity tests, there was no significant difference in experimental test decisions between the three time points.

  18. An occupational preference model of turnover behaviour: the case of Israel's medical sector employees.

    PubMed

    Mano-Negrin, R

    2001-01-01

    Occupational preferences and subsequent turnover behaviour are part of a complex relationship between employees and their occupational and organizational labour markets. Both markets contribute to matching skills and jobs. Differences in individual and occupational attributes can predict the direction and intensity of preferences for alternative organizations, occupations and job locations. Occupational preferences, which reflect the attractiveness of alternative positions within and outside the employing organization, are examined as central antecedents of occupation-specific turnover behaviour. The results of a logistic regression analysis, based on a cross-sectional occupational representative data set of 700 medical sector employees and a follow-up sample of 81 "quitters" suggest that turnover behaviour is influenced by organizational and occupational employment opportunities and occupational preferences.

  19. The relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences: an evaluation of 4 inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa L; Dishaw, Laura V; Sheehe, Paul R; Youngentob, Steven L

    2007-11-01

    Ethanol's taste attributes undoubtedly contribute to the development of drug preference. Ethanol's taste is both sweet and bitter. Taster status for bitter 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been proposed as a genetic marker for alcoholism; however, human results are conflicting. We collected preference scores for both tastants in 4 mouse strains selected on the basis of previously reported taste preference, with the generally accepted idea that inbred mice show minimal within-strain variation. Eighty-eight male mice (22 per strain) participated. The strains were as follows: C57BL/6J, ethanol preferring; BALB/cJ, ethanol avoiding; SWR/J, PROP avoiding; and C3HeB/FeJ, PROP neutral. Using a brief-access (1-min trials) 2-bottle preference test, we assessed the taste response of each strain to PROP and ethanol on separate days. Although PROP avoiding versus neutral mice could be segregated into significantly different populations, this was not the case for ethanol avoiding versus preferring mice, and all strains showed high variability. On average, only BALB/cJ, SWR/J, and C3HeB/FeJ mice conformed to their literature-reported preferences; nonetheless, there were a substantial number of discordant animals. C57BL/6J did not conform to previous results, indicating that they are ethanol preferring. Finally, we did not observe a significant relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences across strains. The high variability per strain and the number of animals in disagreement with their respective literature-reported preference raise concerns regarding their utility for investigations underlying mechanisms of taste-mediated ingestive responses. Absent postingestive consequences, the brief-access results suggest a possible degree of previously masked polymorphisms in taste preferences or a more recent drift in underlying genetic factors. The absence of a relationship between PROP and ethanol indicates that the bitter quality in ethanol may be more highly related to other

  20. [Communication preferences of patients with prostate cancer : Preferences regarding the communication of bad news of patients with prostate cancer in Germany-results of an anonymous patient survey].

    PubMed

    Merseburger, A S; Kramer, M W; Scheithe, K; Colling, C

    2016-10-01

    The communication of bad medical news represents a burdening situation for both patients and physicians which may lead to hurdles in their communication. The questionnaire Measure of Patients' Preferences (MPP-D, validated German translation) was developed to investigate patients' preferences regarding the communication of bad news. The preferences regarding the communication of bad news among patients with prostate cancer was assessed. Anonymous survey, where approximately 70 office-based urologists were asked to distribute the MPP-D questionnaire to about 20 of their patients with prostate cancer. In addition, information on social demographics was retrieved in order to investigate the influence on communication preferences. In total, 709 questionnaires were evaluated (>50 % return). The majority of patients had clear preferences concerning privacy of the setting, completeness, and unambiguity of information provided and assessment of their subjective information needs. Larger individual differences were observed regarding preferences for emotional support offered by the physician and involvement of family which was also influenced by age and education of the patients. This is the first large, multicenter survey of prostate cancer patients in Germany regarding their preferences for communication of bad news. The results confirm previous reports on the importance of cultural affiliation, age, and education as influencing factors.

  1. US food and drug administration Indian site inspections: An experience.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Pooja; D'Souza, Natasha; Bhatt, Arun; Halbe, Vipul; Sharma, Richa; Narayanswamy, Shweta; Bughediwala, Murtuza

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005, USFDA has begun inspections of Indian clinical trial investigator sites. This paper reports experience of an FDA inspection performed at two Indian centers. The inspection started with an in-depth discussion with the investigator and his team about the conduct of the clinical trial at the site and was followed by a tour of the important locations - registration, outpatient department, specialty clinic, medical record section, and special procedure department. The inspector reviewed the critical processes - protocol compliance, ethics committee approval, informed consent process, case record form and source documents completion, investigational product accountability, serious adverse events documentation and reporting. The inspector reviewed all documents from the investigator site file and conducted audit of all subjects enrolled at both the sites. As the Indian sites are not exposed to regulatory inspections, it is vital for the sponsor to conduct preinspection audit, provide training and support to face the FDA inspection.

  2. US food and drug administration Indian site inspections: An experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Pooja; D’Souza, Natasha; Bhatt, Arun; Halbe, Vipul; Sharma, Richa; Narayanswamy, Shweta; Bughediwala, Murtuza

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, USFDA has begun inspections of Indian clinical trial investigator sites. This paper reports experience of an FDA inspection performed at two Indian centers. The inspection started with an in-depth discussion with the investigator and his team about the conduct of the clinical trial at the site and was followed by a tour of the important locations - registration, outpatient department, specialty clinic, medical record section, and special procedure department. The inspector reviewed the critical processes - protocol compliance, ethics committee approval, informed consent process, case record form and source documents completion, investigational product accountability, serious adverse events documentation and reporting. The inspector reviewed all documents from the investigator site file and conducted audit of all subjects enrolled at both the sites. As the Indian sites are not exposed to regulatory inspections, it is vital for the sponsor to conduct preinspection audit, provide training and support to face the FDA inspection. PMID:22701824

  3. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.

  4. An Objective Approach to Determining the Weight Ranges of Prey Preferred by and Accessible to the Five Large African Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Hayley S.; Tambling, Craig J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed “accessible prey”. Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14–135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1–45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32–632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15–1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10–289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore

  5. Evaluating preferred direction tropical cyclone track variability in an operational global ensemble prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elless, Travis J.

    Ensemble forecasts of Tropical Storm Debby and Hurricane Sandy (2012) highlight instances where variability in tropical cyclone (TC) position forecasts are stretched along a preferred direction. The goal of this thesis is to analyze this stretching of variability in a global ensemble prediction system, particularly the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), to determine how often and under what conditions does variability stretching occur, and ultimately what feature(s) are responsible for generating this variability. This study defines and evaluates preferred direction variability through a 2008--2012 global climatology of ECMWF TC position variability. A basin by basin comparison found stretching of the variability tends to occur most frequently in the West Pacific and least frequently in the Atlantic. Other forecast characteristics such as location, motion, and intensity are examined in each basin, and highlight midlatitude effects being associated with preferred direction variability. However, other features unique to each basin could also be playing a role in generating preferred direction variability. Possible sources of preferred direction variability are examined through a case study of ECMWF ensemble forecast initialized at 0000 UTC 24 June 2012 for Tropical Storm Debby. Zonal magnitude differences in Debby's steering layer wind are identified as the source for generating the associated variability stretching. Further evaluation however, cannot relate these differences to one feature, suggesting multiple processes are in play in generating preferred direction variability.

  6. An Examination of Women's Self-Presentation, Social Physique Anxiety, and Setting Preferences during Injury Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated whether women experience self-presentational concerns related to rehabilitation settings and explored preferences for characteristics of the social and physical treatment environment in relation to women's Social Physique Anxiety (SPA). Methods. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted. In Study 1, female undergraduate students (n = 134) completed four questionnaires (Social Physique Anxiety Scale; three bespoke questionnaires assessing self-presentation in rehabilitation and social and physical environment preferences) with respect to hypothetical rehabilitation scenarios. Study 2 recruited injured women who were referred for physiotherapy (n = 62) to complete the same questionnaires regarding genuine rehabilitation scenarios. Results. Women with high SPA showed less preference for physique salient clothing than women with low SPA in both hypothetical (p = 0.001) and genuine settings (p = 0.01). In Study 2, women with high SPA also preferred that others in the clinic were female (p = 0.01) and reported significantly greater preference for private treatment spaces (p = 0.05). Conclusions. Self-presentational concerns exist in rehabilitation as in exercise settings. Results indicated inverse relationships between women's SPA and preference for the presence of men, physique-enhancing clothing, and open-concept treatment settings. Future studies to determine the effect of self-presentational concerns on treatment adherence are needed. PMID:28386484

  7. An Exploration into Framing Effects and Information Preferences: Implications for the Design of Energy Feedback Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Brown, Peter

    A recent topic in the energy industry involves developing strategies to reduce the necessary peak production capacity of our future electricity infrastructure. One of these strategies is promoting behavioral change among individual energy consumers. An inherent problem with electricity consumption is that electricity is invisible, intangible, and abstract. Interfaces that provide people with useful feedback on their usage can help with understanding and reduction of consumption. These interfaces intend to empower individuals with ability to adopt less wasteful energy consumption behaviors. Skillful HCI design will include attention to informational preferences, and framing effects due to presentation choices. An online questionnaire was utilized to explore this domain, and the results identified design requirements for a home feedback interface. The final dataset contained responses from 36 male and 49 female United States residents. Cost () was perceived as the most useful metric and kW as the least useful. Respondent preference was expressed for lower levels of automation, which was not attributable to distrust of automation. Further, a test of framings effects showed a higher likelihood to change behavior to save 100 dollars per year than 2 per week (U=1248.5, p=0.001). A feedback interface design based on the questionnaire results was used in the second phase of the research. A 2x2x2 factorial design compared the effects of goal-type (specific vs. open-ended), metric-use ( vs. kWh), and visualization (graphical vs. text-only) on user experience, learning and behavior during a consumption reduction task. Results showed that goal-type affects the amount of diagnostic behavior conducted by participants (U=351.0, p=0.001). Goal-type and metric-use independently affect participant belief that they could reduce their consumption in their real home with the same feedback shown in the task, F(df=1,39)=24.77, p=0.001; F(df=1,39)=5.55, p=0.05. In addition, visualization

  8. Participant Preferences for Pharmacologic Chronic Pain Treatment Trial Characteristics: An ACTTION Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon M; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Kitt, Rachel A; Markman, John D; Vaughan, Janet A; Cowan, Penney; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; Sadosky, Alesia; Tive, Leslie; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-11-01

    Barriers to clinical trial recruitment can delay study completion, potentially resulting in increased costs and an unrepresentative sample. In the current study of 150 participants with chronic pain, we used a computerized adaptive choice-based conjoint survey that included 8 characteristics that may affect enrollment in pharmacologic pain treatment trials (ie, treatment allocation, frequency of pain ratings, treatment administration method, current medications, number of study visits, availability of evening and weekend visits, invasiveness of laboratory procedures, payment). These data were analyzed using Sawtooth Software ver. 8.4.8 (Sawtooth Software, Inc, Orem, UT), which identifies the characteristics that dominate participants' decisions across multiple sets of potential trials. Three characteristics had the largest relative importance in participants' trial preferences: 1) invasiveness of required laboratory procedures (ie, 22%), with no procedures or blood tests preferred over ice-water sensory testing or skin biopsy; 2) ability to continue current pain medications (21%); and 3) payment for study participation (21%), with higher payment preferred. The fourth most important characteristic was number of study visits (13%), with participants preferring fewer in-person visits and more phone contacts. Understanding the preferences of potential participants is an important step toward enhancing enrollment in pain treatment trials.

  9. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

    1984-04-01

    Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references.

  10. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine's capacity to establish place preferences and modify intake of an alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, E J; Hui, Y Z; Hubbell, C L; Reid, L D

    1990-12-01

    Doses of 0.2, 2.0, 6.3 and 20.0 mg/kg 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a putative neurotoxin at serotonergic neurons and a recreational drug, were assessed using Sprague-Dawley rats in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test. Also, the drug's effects on intake of a sweetened ethanol solution (ES) was assessed. The CP testing involved multiple administrations of MDMA with frequent periodic testing (weekly for 4 weeks) of MDMA's effects. Doses of 2.0 and 6.3 mg/kg produced positive CPPs with every test. MDMA also affected rats' gain in body weight across the 4 weeks of dosing. The 2.0 mg/kg reliably incremented gain in body weight, while the 20.0 mg/kg dose reliably attenuated it. In the drinking experiment, water-deprived rats (22 h/day) were given daily opportunities to drink either tap water or a sweetened ES. When stable intakes were achieved, MDMA's effects were assessed across repeated daily administrations (12 days) and subsequently (16 days). MDMA, dose-relatedly, decreased intake of both ES and water with the highest dose leading to marked loss in body weight. Intakes of fluids were not modified markedly subsequent to dosing. In summary, MDMA is an agent that produces a positive CPP (providing further evidence for MDMA's abuse liability), produces changes in weight gain and nonselectively reduces fluid intake among fluid-deprived rats.

  11. Aquatic environmental DNA detects seasonal fish abundance and habitat preference in an urban estuary

    PubMed Central

    Soboleva, Lyubov; Charlop-Powers, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    The difficulty of censusing marine animal populations hampers effective ocean management. Analyzing water for DNA traces shed by organisms may aid assessment. Here we tested aquatic environmental DNA (eDNA) as an indicator of fish presence in the lower Hudson River estuary. A checklist of local marine fish and their relative abundance was prepared by compiling 12 traditional surveys conducted between 1988–2015. To improve eDNA identification success, 31 specimens representing 18 marine fish species were sequenced for two mitochondrial gene regions, boosting coverage of the 12S eDNA target sequence to 80% of local taxa. We collected 76 one-liter shoreline surface water samples at two contrasting estuary locations over six months beginning in January 2016. eDNA was amplified with vertebrate-specific 12S primers. Bioinformatic analysis of amplified DNA, using a reference library of GenBank and our newly generated 12S sequences, detected most (81%) locally abundant or common species and relatively few (23%) uncommon taxa, and corresponded to seasonal presence and habitat preference as determined by traditional surveys. Approximately 2% of fish reads were commonly consumed species that are rare or absent in local waters, consistent with wastewater input. Freshwater species were rarely detected despite Hudson River inflow. These results support further exploration and suggest eDNA will facilitate fine-scale geographic and temporal mapping of marine fish populations at relatively low cost. PMID:28403183

  12. Reference-dependent preferences for maternity wards: an exploration of two reference points.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Einat

    2014-01-01

    It is now well established that a person's valuation of the benefit from an outcome of a decision is determined by the intrinsic "consumption utility" of the outcome itself and also by the relation of the outcome to some reference point. The most notable expression of such reference-dependent preferences is loss aversion. What precisely this reference point is, however, is less clear. This paper claims and provides empirical evidence for the existence of more than one reference point. Using a discrete choice experiment in the Israeli public health-care sector, within a sample of 219 women who had given birth, it is shown that respondents refer to two reference points: (i) a constant scenario that is used in the experiment; and (ii) also the actual state of the quantitative attributes of the service (number of beds in room of hospitalization; and travel time from residence to hospital). In line with the loss aversion theory, it is also shown that losses (vis-à-vis the constant scenario and vis-à-vis the actual state) accumulate and have reinforced effects, while gains do not.

  13. Dreams of Tigers and Flowers: Child Gender Predictions and Preference in an Urban Mainland Chinese Sample during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Kek Khee; Luo, Xiying; Su, Hong; Presson, Angela; Li, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In an urban, mainland Chinese sample, we investigated expectant mothers’ stated gender preference for a boy or girl child, their conjectures on the fetal gender, the culture-specific beliefs for making their predictions, and their relations to sociodemographic variables. A total of 174 women were interviewed at 12–19 weeks gestation. Among 84 women who made a prediction on gender, 56 (67%) thought they were carrying a boy, and 28 (33%) expected a girl. The most frequent reasons cited for their speculation were personal feelings (36%), food/taste preference (13%), feedback from others (13%), somatic responses (13%) and dreams (7%). Out of 63 women who stated a wish for a boy or girl child, 45 (71%) wished for a girl and 18 (29%) wished for a boy. Women with undergraduate or graduate degrees were more likely to indicate a preference for boys. Older expectant mothers were more likely to report that they thought they were carrying boys. In conclusion, the majority of the women did not state a distinct choice for gender of the child. When they expressed a gender preference, more mothers expressed a desire to have a girl. However, boy child conjectures were more frequent than girl child conjectures. Greater boy child preference and prediction among the most highly educated and older expectant mothers might be reflective of implicit social status in having sons in urban China. PMID:19485234

  14. Does an early socialization into a food culture condition lifelong food preferences? Evidence from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Scrob, Mircea-Lucian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of early formed dietary practices on food choices and preferences during adulthood has often been assumed but rarely adequately demonstrated given the difficulty of studying the subject matter with conventional laboratory or observational research designs. This article examines this assumption by analyzing the information from 31 structured interviews on the respondents' current preferences for combinations of six side dishes with bread or mămăligă (boiled cornmeal mush, similar to polenta). All the respondents had consumed mămăligă in their childhood but in their adulthood had switched to bread following the social and economic upheavals from 1960s Romania. The results show that a) for specific combinations, physiological factors and/or cultural norms that defined bread as a 'prestigious' food have been capable of overriding the effects of early socialization with mămăligă as the accompanying food and b) that consumers continue to prefer certain side dishes with mămăligă even after decades of predominant consumption of bread although confounding factors might account for such preferences. These findings qualify the expectation that an early familiarization with healthy eating habits will promote this desired lifestyle during adulthood by showing that physiological and socio-cultural factors are capable of overriding its effects on hedonic preferences.

  15. Dreams of tigers and flowers: child gender predictions and preference in an urban mainland Chinese sample during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Loo, Kek Khee; Luo, Xiying; Su, Hong; Presson, Angela; Li, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In an urban, mainland Chinese sample, we investigated expectant mothers' stated gender preference for a boy or girl child, their conjectures on the fetal gender, the culture-specific beliefs for making their predictions, and their relations to sociodemographic variables. A total of 174 women were interviewed at 12-19 weeks gestation. Among 84 women who made a prediction on gender, 56 (67%) thought they were carrying a boy, and 28 (33%) expected a girl. The most frequent reasons cited for their speculation were personal feelings (36%), food/taste preference (13%), feedback from others (13%), somatic responses (13%), and dreams (7%). Out of 63 women who stated a wish for a boy or girl child, 45 (71%) wished for a girl and 18 (29%) wished for a boy. Women with undergraduate or graduate degrees were more likely to indicate a preference for boys. Older expectant mothers were more likely to report that they thought they were carrying boys. In conclusion, the majority of the women did not state a distinct choice for gender of the child. When they expressed a gender preference, more mothers expressed a desire to have a girl. However, boy child conjectures were more frequent than girl child conjectures. Greater boy child preference and prediction among the most highly educated and older expectant mothers might be reflective of implicit social status in having sons in urban China.

  16. Preferred Methods of Learning for Nursing Students in an On-Line Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Debra; Pearce, Patricia F; Moser, Debra K

    Investigators have demonstrated that on-line courses result in effective learning outcomes, but limited information has been published related to preferred teaching strategies. Delivery of on-line courses requires various teaching methods to facilitate interaction between students, content, and technology. The purposes of this study were to understand student teaching/learning preferences in on-line courses to include (a) differences in preferred teaching/learning methods for on-line nursing students across generations and (b) which teaching strategies students found to be most engaging and effective. Participants were recruited from 2 accredited, private school nursing programs (N=944) that admit students from across the United States and deliver courses on-line. Participants provided implied consent, and 217 (23%) students completed the on-line survey. Thirty-two percent of the students were from the Baby Boomer generation (1946-1964), 48% from Generation X (1965-1980), and 20% from the Millennial Generation (born after 1980). The preferred teaching/learning methods for students were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations, followed by synchronous Adobe Connect educations sessions, assigned journal article reading, and e-mail dialog with the instructor. The top 2 methods identified by participants as the most energizing/engaging and most effective for learning were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations and case studies. The teaching/learning method least preferred by participants and that was the least energizing/engaging was group collaborative projects with other students; the method that was the least effective for learning was wikis. Baby Boomers and Generation X participants had a significantly greater preference for discussion board (P<.0167) than millennial students. Millennial students also had a greater preference for simulation than did Baby Boomer and Generation X students and rated on-line games as significantly more energizing/engaging and

  17. Growth trajectory influences temperature preference in fish through an effect on metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S

    2014-11-01

    Most animals experience temperature variations as they move through the environment. For ectotherms, in particular, temperature has a strong influence on habitat choice. While well studied at the species level, less is known about factors affecting the preferred temperature of individuals; especially lacking is information on how physiological traits are linked to thermal preference and whether such relationships are affected by factors such feeding history and growth trajectory. This study examined these issues in the common minnow Phoxinus phoxinus, to determine the extent to which feeding history, standard metabolic rate (SMR) and aerobic scope (AS), interact to affect temperature preference. Individuals were either: 1) food deprived (FD) for 21 days, then fed ad libitum for the next 74 days; or 2) fed ad libitum throughout the entire period. All animals were then allowed to select preferred temperatures using a shuttle-box, and then measured for SMR and AS at 10 °C, estimated by rates of oxygen uptake. Activity within the shuttle-box under a constant temperature regime was also measured. In both FD and control fish, SMR was negatively correlated with preferred temperature. The SMR of the FD fish was increased compared with the controls, probably due to the effects of compensatory growth, and so these growth-compensated fish preferred temperatures that were on average 2.85 °C cooler than controls fed a maintenance ration throughout the study. Fish experiencing compensatory growth also displayed a large reduction in activity. In growth-compensated fish and controls, activity measured at 10 °C was positively correlated with preferred temperature. Individual fish prefer temperatures that vary predictably with SMR and activity level, which are both plastic in response to feeding history and growth trajectories. Cooler temperatures probably allow individuals to reduce maintenance costs and divert more energy towards growth. A reduction in SMR at cooler

  18. Inhomogeneous Site Percolation on an Irregular Bethe Lattice with Random Site Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jingli; Zhang, Liying

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study inhomogeneous site percolation on an irregular Bethe lattice, for considering that percolation often occurs on irregular grids or lattices with variable site neighbours in real-world problems. The explicit expression for cluster-size distribution of this percolation is derived based on probability theory. Moreover, the exact formulas for critical occupation probability, mean cluster size, and percolation probability are obtained using generating function method and generalised recursive approach. In addition, sensitivity analysis and numerical simulation are given to deepen and illustrate the results.

  19. Sexual Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year, Washington, DC.

    This document considers sexual preference as it specifically relates to women. Divided into two parts, the document presents a fact sheet about lesbianism and contains a workshop resource guide on sexual preference. The fact sheet, arranged in a question-answer format, focuses on the following concerns: (1) lesbianism as a woman's issue; (2) legal…

  20. Residential preferences for river network improvement: an exploration of choice experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.

  1. Residential Preferences for River Network Improvement: An Exploration of Choice Experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.

  2. Cultural- and educational-level differences in students knowledge, attitudes, and preferences for working with older adults: an israeli perspective.

    PubMed

    Zisberg, Anna; Topaz, Maxim; Band-Wintershtein, Tova

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nursing education on students' knowledge, attitudes, and preferences to work with older adults in an ethnically diverse Israeli society. In a cross-sectional design, Kogan's Old People Scale was used to measure attitudes toward older adults and Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz-1 to assess the level of knowledge of nursing students in four cohorts. Of the 224 nursing students who responded to the survey, 55% were Jewish and 45% were Arabs. Ethnicity and knowledge were the strongest correlates (p < .0001) of attitudes, and attitudes and ethnicity (p < .0001) correlated with work preferences. While knowledge of old age among students increased, preferences for future career in geriatrics declined with education. Ethnicity was a strong predictor of attitudes and future intentions to work with older adults. Culturally tailored educational programs focused on changing the attitudes toward aging are critically needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Biperiden (an M1 antagonist) reduces memory consolidation of cocaine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Marina S; Ramos, Anna C; Alves, Danielle R; Galduróz, José C F

    2012-04-04

    It is well-known that cocaine dependence is a public health issue, and several studies stress the need to look for new and more effective treatments. Although the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projects to several forebrain structures, is known to be critically involved in the neurobiology of cocaine dependence, acetylcholine (ACh) has also been shown to play an important role in cocaine dependence via its action on this reward system. ACh is also important in the formation of hippocampal memory associated with appetitive behavior. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biperiden, an ACh antagonist with high affinity for muscarinic M1 type receptors, on the acquisition of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. The cocaine and biperiden were dissolved in sterile saline and were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 10mg/kg. The conditioning regime was 8 days long, and the cholinergic antagonist was given immediately at the end of each conditioning session. The test for CPP occurred 24h after the last session. The results showed that animals treated with biperiden spent significantly less time in the cocaine-paired compartment than did the ones treated with saline. This finding represents a reduction in the consolidation of cocaine-induced CPP. One hypothesis that could explain this outcome focuses on the action of cholinergic antagonists on the consolidation of contextual memories. The amnesic effect of M1 antagonists on aversive tasks and on morphine CPP has been demonstrated when administered before the training or the conditioning session. The present study highlights the possibility of impairment in the acquisition of an appetitive memory, even when the cholinergic drug is administered after the conditioning session. This protocol also rejects the possibility of performance disturbance and suggests a possible pharmacological tool in the treatment of cocaine

  4. Projective mapping based on choice or preference: An affective approach to projective mapping.

    PubMed

    Varela, Paula; Berget, Ingunn; Hersleth, Margrethe; Carlehög, Mats; Asioli, Daniele; Næs, Tormod

    2017-10-01

    This work explores a new affective approach to projective mapping, based on consumers' choices or preferences. Two sessions, one week apart, were performed with the same consumers, using whole bread as a case study. Overall liking ratings (OL) were gathered in blind conditions and samples were also profiled by a trained panel using generic descriptive analysis. Three projective mapping tests were performed in different scenarios. Consumers' categorization and product descriptions were explored when consumers based their positioning on the products' similarities and differences (analytical approach, "classic napping") both in blind and informed conditions, and when consumers were focusing on their preference or choice (affective approach). The affective approach to projective mapping successfully revealed consumers' drivers of liking and choice from a holistic perspective, where consumers summarized their main drivers for categorizing products as they would do when choosing in real life situations, based on their preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 23. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for North Base: Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: North Base Site Plan, February 1970. This drawing shows the North Base building distribution substantially as it appears in 1995. Records on file at AFFTC/CE-CECC-B (Design/Construction Flight/RPMC), Edwards AFB, California. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. An architecture for the autonomous generation of preference-based trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Jamie

    Numerous techniques exist to optimize aircraft and spacecraft trajectories over cost functions that include terms such as fuel, time, and separation from obstacles. Relative weighting factors can dramatically alter solution characteristics, and engineers often must manually adjust either cost weights or the trajectory itself to obtain desirable solutions. Further, when humans and robots work together, or when humans task robots, they may express their performance expectations in a "fuzzy" natural language fashion, or else as an uncertain range of more or less acceptable values. This work describes a software architecture which accepts both fuzzy linguistic and hard numeric constraints on trajectory performance and, using a trajectory generator provided by the user, automatically constructs trajectories to meet these specifications as closely as possible. The system respects hard constraints imposed by system dynamics or by the user, and will not let the user's preferences interfere with the system and user needs. The architecture's evaluation agent translates these requirements into cost functional weights expected to produce the desired motion characteristics. The quality of the resulting full-state trajectory is then evaluated based on a set of computed trajectory features compared to the specified constraints. If constraints are not met, the cost functional weights are adjusted according to precomputed heuristic equations. Heuristics are not generated in an ad hoc fashion, but are instead the result of a systematic testing of the simulated system under a range of simple conditions. The system is tested in a 2DOF linear and a 6DOF nonlinear domain with a variety of constraints and in the presence of obstacles. Results show that the system consistently meets all hard numeric constraints placed on the trajectory. Desired characteristics are often attainable or else, in those cases where they are discounted in favor of the hard constraints, failed by small margins

  7. An X-linked three allele model of hand preference and hand posture for writing.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Walter F

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a genetic model of hand preferences for writing and for handwriting posture (HWP). The challenge of devising an X-linked model for these aspects of human handedness was posed by the results of a large family handedness study (McKeever, 2000) that showed evidence of such linkage. Because X-linkage for handedness has been widely regarded as untenable, the prospects for developing such a model were not initially encouraging, but ultimately a viable model did suggest itself. Family studies of handedness and leading theories of handedness are briefly described, as is some of the research on HWP motivated by the theory of Levy and Nagylaki (1972). It is argued that there is evidence that HWP reflects a biological dictate and not just individual "choices" or "adaptations" to writing in a left-to-right direction with the left hand. The model proposes that inverted handwriting posture is not necessarily highly related to speech and language lateralities of sinistrals, but that it reveals an interhemispheric mediation of writing. It is hypothesised that it reflects a specialisation of the left angular gyrus (with some possible extension into the supramarginal gyrus) for the storage of movement and timing sequences of cursive writing, and right hemisphere motor programming of the motor output of writing. It is also argued that no family handedness study conducted to date is adequate for testing the predictions of extant handedness theories, and the often wide variations between the results of family handedness studies are noted. It is suggested that fMRI studies could definitively test the HWP hypotheses of the model and that the hypothesis of X-linkage could be tested definitively should studies of the human genome identify a gene for handedness.

  8. An additional substrate binding site in a bacterial phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Ronau, Judith A; Paul, Lake N; Fuchs, Julian E; Corn, Isaac R; Wagner, Kyle T; Liedl, Klaus R; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M; Das, Chittaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine, a reaction that must be kept under tight regulatory control. Mammalian PAH has a regulatory domain in which binding of the substrate leads to allosteric activation of the enzyme. However, the existence of PAH regulation in evolutionarily distant organisms, for example some bacteria in which it occurs, has so far been underappreciated. In an attempt to crystallographically characterize substrate binding by PAH from Chromobacterium violaceum, a single-domain monomeric enzyme, electron density for phenylalanine was observed at a distal site 15.7 Å from the active site. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments revealed a dissociation constant of 24 ± 1.1 μM for phenylalanine. Under the same conditions, ITC revealed no detectable binding for alanine, tyrosine, or isoleucine, indicating the distal site may be selective for phenylalanine. Point mutations of amino acid residues in the distal site that contact phenylalanine (F258A, Y155A, T254A) led to impaired binding, consistent with the presence of distal site binding in solution. Although kinetic analysis revealed that the distal site mutants suffer discernible loss of their catalytic activity, X-ray crystallographic analysis of Y155A and F258A, the two mutants with the most noticeable decrease in activity, revealed no discernible change in the structure of their active sites, suggesting that the effect of distal binding may result from protein dynamics in solution.

  9. Engineering Cofactor Preference of Ketone Reducing Biocatalysts: A Mutagenesis Study on a γ-Diketone Reductase from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Serving as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Katzberg, Michael; Skorupa-Parachin, Nàdia; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie-Françoise; Bertau, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of pharmaceuticals and catalysts more and more relies on enantiopure chiral building blocks. These can be produced in an environmentally benign and efficient way via bioreduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by dehydrogenases. A productive source of these biocatalysts is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose genome also encodes a reductase catalyzing the sequential reduction of the γ-diketone 2,5-hexanedione furnishing the diol (2S,5S)-hexanediol and the γ-hydroxyketone (5S)-hydroxy-2-hexanone in high enantio- as well as diastereoselectivity (ee and de >99.5%). This enzyme prefers NADPH as the hydrogen donating cofactor. As NADH is more stable and cheaper than NADPH it would be more effective if NADH could be used in cell-free bioreduction systems. To achieve this, the cofactor binding site of the dehydrogenase was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the rational approach based on a homology model of the enzyme allowed us to generate a mutant enzyme having a relaxed cofactor preference and thus is able to use both NADPH and NADH. Results obtained from other mutants are discussed and point towards the limits of rationally designed mutants. PMID:20480039

  10. Engineering cofactor preference of ketone reducing biocatalysts: A mutagenesis study on a γ-diketone reductase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serving as an example.

    PubMed

    Katzberg, Michael; Skorupa-Parachin, Nàdia; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie-Françoise; Bertau, Martin

    2010-04-14

    The synthesis of pharmaceuticals and catalysts more and more relies on enantiopure chiral building blocks. These can be produced in an environmentally benign and efficient way via bioreduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by dehydrogenases. A productive source of these biocatalysts is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose genome also encodes a reductase catalyzing the sequential reduction of the gamma-diketone 2,5-hexanedione furnishing the diol (2S,5S)-hexanediol and the gamma-hydroxyketone (5S)-hydroxy-2-hexanone in high enantio- as well as diastereoselectivity (ee and de >99.5%). This enzyme prefers NADPH as the hydrogen donating cofactor. As NADH is more stable and cheaper than NADPH it would be more effective if NADH could be used in cell-free bioreduction systems. To achieve this, the cofactor binding site of the dehydrogenase was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the rational approach based on a homology model of the enzyme allowed us to generate a mutant enzyme having a relaxed cofactor preference and thus is able to use both NADPH and NADH. Results obtained from other mutants are discussed and point towards the limits of rationally designed mutants.

  11. The Impact and Evaluation of Two School-Based Interventions on Intention to Register an Organ Donation Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…

  12. All Stimuli Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Measuring Relational Preferences within an Equivalence Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Erica; Fields, Lanny

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments used post-class formation within-class relational assessment test performances to evaluate whether participants demonstrated preference for certain members of an equivalence class based on the type of relation that existed between class members. In Experiment 1, two 5-node 7-member equivalence classes, consisting entirely of…

  13. The Impact and Evaluation of Two School-Based Interventions on Intention to Register an Organ Donation Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…

  14. Evaluating the Performance Improvement Preferences of Disability Service Managers: An Exploratory Study Using Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooderson, John R.; Cuskelly, Monica; Meyer, Kim A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Front-line managers play an important role in managing the performance of staff working in services for people with intellectual disability, but little is known about the practices they prefer to use to improve staff performance and whether these align with what research has shown to be effective. Method: This study comprised two…

  15. Children's Feedback Preferences in Response to an Experimentally Manipulated Peer Evaluation Outcome: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children's depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n = 142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television…

  16. All Stimuli Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Measuring Relational Preferences within an Equivalence Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Erica; Fields, Lanny

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments used post-class formation within-class relational assessment test performances to evaluate whether participants demonstrated preference for certain members of an equivalence class based on the type of relation that existed between class members. In Experiment 1, two 5-node 7-member equivalence classes, consisting entirely of…

  17. Effects of and Preference for Pay for Performance: An Analogue Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Robert D., III; Wilder, David A.; Betz, Alison; Dutta, Ami

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of 2 payment systems on the rate of check processing and time spent on task by participants in a simulated work setting. Three participants experienced individual pay-for-performance (PFP) without base pay and pay-for-time (PFT) conditions. In the last phase, we asked participants to choose which system they preferred. For…

  18. Personal Space and User Preference for Patterns of Carrel Arrangement in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larason, Larry; DiCarlo, Rebecca

    Based on a series of six field experiments conducted from 1978 through 1981 at Northeast Louisiana University's Sandel Library, this report examines user preferences related to library carrel arrangement in the context of personal space theory. A brief review of research on personal space requirements and a description of Sandel Library and its…

  19. An Investigation of Graduate Students' Help-Seeking Experiences, Preferences and Attitudes in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Selma; Liu, Xiongyi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored graduate students' help-seeking preferences, attitudes and experiences based on the online classes they took at a Midwestern higher education institution. The findings indicated that the majority of the students used self-regulatory strategies in their help-seeking process striving for independent mastery of learning. Thematic…

  20. Evaluation of an Efficient Method for Training Staff to Implement Stimulus Preference Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    We used a brief training procedure that incorporated feedback and role-play practice to train staff members to conduct stimulus preference assessments, and we used group-comparison methods to evaluate the effects of training. Staff members were trained to implement the multiple-stimulus-without-replacement assessment in a single session and the…