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Sample records for antagonist ameliorate renal

  1. Acute bile duct ligation ameliorates ischemic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Kielar, Mariusz L; Zhou, Xin J; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Christopher Y

    2003-01-01

    Biliary obstruction affects the renal response to ischemia and also elicits a hepatic cytokine response. Using a murine model, we now test the hypothesis that these hepatic cytokines help determine the outcome of ischemic acute renal failure. C3H/HEN mice were subjected to bile duct ligation 24 h (ABDL) or 7 days (CBDL) prior to induction of acute ischemic renal failure (ARF). Serum creatinine (Scr), cytokine mRNA abundance, and renal histology were studied 24 h after renal ischemia. ABDL prior to ARF resulted in amelioration of renal injury (Scr 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/dl compared to 2.5 +/- 0.1 mg/dl in sham/ARF group, (mean +/- SE, n = 11/group). CBDL exacerbated renal injury. Increased hepatic mRNA for interleukin-10 (IL10) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) was detected in the ABDL/ARF group but not in the CBDL/ARF group. These data suggest that hepatic production of IL10 and IL1RA in response to ABDL ameliorates ischemic ARF, an effect that is lost after several days of BDL. Our data support the concept that hepatic cytokines modulate renal injury. This adds a new dimension in our understanding of renal injury in the setting of hepatic disease. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Autoimmune encephalomyelitis ameliorated by AMPA antagonists.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Groom, A; Zhu, B; Turski, L

    2000-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system leading to progressive decline of motor and sensory functions and permanent disability. The therapy of multiple sclerosis is only partially effective, despite anti-inflammatory, immunosuppresive and immunomodulatory measures. White matter inflammation and loss of myelin, the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis, are thought to determine disease severity. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reproduces the features of multiple sclerosis in rodents and in nonhuman primates. The dominant early clinical symptom of acute autoimmune encephalomyelitis is progressive ascending muscle weakness. However, demyelination may not be profound and its extent may not correlate with severity of neurological decline, indicating that targets unrelated to myelin or oligodendrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here we report that within the spinal cord in the course of autoimmune encephalomyelitis not only myelin but also neurons are subject to lymphocyte attack and may degenerate. Blockade of glutamate AMPA receptors ameliorated the neurological sequelae of autoimmune encephalomyelitis, indicating the potential for AMPA antagonists in the therapy of multiple sclerosis.

  3. Ensete superbum ameliorates renal dysfunction in experimental diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sreekutty, MS; Mini, S

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications like nephropathy. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of Ensete superbum seeds (ESSE) on renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Glucose, HbA1c, total protein, albumin, renal function markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine), and lipid peroxidation levels were evaluated. Renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were examined along with renal histopathological study. Results: ESSE (400 mg/kg BW t) administration reduced glucose and HbA1c, and improved serum total protein and albumin in diabetic rats. ESSE in diabetic rats recorded decrement in renal function markers and renal lipid peroxidation products along with significant increment in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Renal morphological abnormalities of diabetic rats were markedly ameliorated by E. superbum. Conclusion: These results suggest that the antioxidant effect of E. superbum could ameliorate oxidative stress and delay/prevent the progress of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus. PMID:27096072

  4. SnoN upregulation ameliorates renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lirong; Shi, Mingjun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changzhi; Su, Bo; Xiao, Ying; Guo, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Progressive reduction of SnoN is associated with gradual elevation of TGF-β1 during diabetic nephropathy progression, suggesting SnoN to be a possible mediator of TGF-β1 signaling, with potential therapeutic benefits against TGF- β1 –induced renal fibrosis. To characterize SnoN for its role in renal fibrosis, we assessed SnoN expression patterns in response to high glucose stress, and evaluated the effects of upregulating SnoN on renal fibrosis. High glucose stress induced significantly elevated SnoN, TGF-β1, and Arkadia transcription; however, significantly reduced SnoN protein levels were observed under these conditions. Upregulating the SnoN protein was achieved by Arkadia knockdown, which resulted in inhibited high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal tubular cells, the onset phase of renal fibrosis. Alternatively, EMT was suppressed by dominantly expressed exogenous SnoN without interfering with TGF-β1. Overall, renal SnoN upregulation ameliorates renal fibrosis by relieving high glucose-induced EMT; these findings support a translational approach targeting SnoN for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:28350874

  5. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist candesartan cilexetil (TCV-116) ameliorates retinal disorders in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagisa, Y; Shintani, A; Nakagawa, S

    2001-07-01

    The results of the EUCLID trial (EURODIAB Controlled Trial of Lisinopril in Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus) highlighted the importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Candesartan cilexetil (TCV-116), a potent angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist, has beneficial effects on hypertension as well as on heart, renal and cerebrovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of candesarten cilexetil in ameliorating retinal disorders induced by hyperglycaemia. We compared retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression and the latencies of retinal oscillatory potentials in TCV-116-treated and control groups of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats with streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Retinal VEGF mRNA expression was significantly higher and the latencies of oscillatory potentials were significantly elongated in STZ-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with a non-treated spontaneously hypertensive rat group matched for age. These changes were dependent on hyperglycaemia but independent of hypertension. Treatment with TCV-116 (3 mg/kg) significantly diminished retinal VEGF mRNA expression and the latencies of oscillatory potential peaks, but had no effect on plasma glucose concentrations. These results suggest that TCV-116 is effective in preventing the development of diabetic retinopathy already in the early stages.

  6. Kinin B2 receptor deletion and blockage ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Gabriel R; Wasinski, Frederick; Bacurau, Reury F; Malheiros, Denise M A C; Câmara, Niels O S; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2014-09-01

    Cisplatin treatment has been adopted in some chemotherapies; however, this drug can induce acute kidney injury due its ability to negatively affect renal function, augment serum levels of creatinine and urea, increase the acute tubular necrosis score and up-regulate cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and TNF-α). The kinin B2 receptor has been associated with the inflammation process, as well as the regulation of cytokine expression, and its deletion resulted in an improvement in the diabetic nephropathy status. To examine the role of the kinin B2 receptor in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, kinin B2 receptor knockout mice were challenged with cisplatin. Additionally, WT mice were treated with a B2 receptor antagonist after cisplatin administration. B2 receptor-deficient mice were less sensitive to this drug than the WT mice, as shown by reduced weight loss, better preservation of kidney function, down regulation of inflammatory cytokines and less acute tubular necrosis. Moreover, treatment with the kinin B2 receptor antagonist effectively reduced the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea after cisplatin administration. Thus, our data suggest that the kinin B2 receptor is involved in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by mediating the necrotic process and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, thus resulting in declined renal function. These results highlight the kinin B2 receptor antagonist treatment in amelioration of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rap1 Ameliorates Renal Tubular Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Li; Zhu, Xuejing; Yang, Shikun; Liu, Fuyou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhan, Ming; Xie, Ping; Zhang, Dongshan; Li, Jun; Song, Panai; Kanwar, Yashpal S.; Sun, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Rap1b ameliorates high glucose (HG)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in tubular cells. However, its role and precise mechanism in diabetic nephropathy (DN) in vivo remain unclear. We hypothesize that Rap1 plays a protective role in tubular damage of DN by modulating primarily the mitochondria-derived oxidative stress. The role and precise mechanisms of Rap1b on mitochondrial dysfunction and of tubular cells in DN were examined in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes that have Rap1b gene transfer using an ultrasound microbubble-mediated technique as well as in renal proximal epithelial tubular cell line (HK-2) exposed to HG ambiance. The results showed that Rap1b expression decreased significantly in tubules of renal biopsies from patients with DN. Overexpression of a constitutively active Rap1b G12V notably ameliorated renal tubular mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the kidneys of STZ-induced rats, which was accompanied with increased expression of transcription factor C/EBP-β and PGC-1α. Furthermore, Rap1b G12V also decreased phosphorylation of Drp-1, a key mitochondrial fission protein, while boosting the expression of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidants in HK-2 cells induced by HG. These effects were imitated by transfection with C/EBP-β or PGC-1α short interfering RNA. In addition, Rap1b could modulate C/EBP-β binding to the endogenous PGC-1α promoter and the interaction between PGC-1α and catalase or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, indicating that Rap1b ameliorates tubular injury and slows the progression of DN by modulation of mitochondrial dysfunction via C/EBP-β–PGC-1α signaling. PMID:24353183

  8. Wnt antagonist gene polymorphisms and renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Hinoda, Yuji; Nakajima, Koichi; Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Yamamura, Soichiro; Kawakami, Kazumori; Suehiro, Yutaka; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epigenetic silencing of several Wnt pathway related genes has been reported in renal cancer. Except for the TCF4 gene, there are no reports regarding Wnt pathway gene polymorphisms in renal cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized that the polymorphisms in Wnt signaling genes may be risk factors for renal cancer. Experimental Design A total of 210 patients (145 male and 65 female) with pathologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and 200 age- and sex-matched control individuals were enrolled in this study. We genotyped 14 SNPs in six genes including DKK2 (rs17037102, rs419558, rs447372), DKK3 (rs3206824, rs11022095, rs1472189, rs7396187, rs2291599), DKK4 (rs2073664), sFRP4 (rs1802073, rs1802074), SMAD7 (rs12953717), DAAM2 (rs6937133, rs2504106) using PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing in RCC and age-matched healthy subjects. We also tested the relationship between these polymorphisms and clinicopathologic data including gender, grade, tumor stage, lymph-node involvement, distant metastasis, and overall survival. Results A significant decrease in the frequency of the G/A+A/A genotypes in the DKK3 codon335 rs3206824 was observed in RCC patients compared with controls. The frequency of the rs3206824 (G/A) A- rs7396187 (G/C) C haplotype was significantly lower in RCC compared with other haplotypes. We also found that DKK3 rs1472189 C/T is associated with distant metastasis and furthermore, DKK2 rs17037102 G homozygous patients had a decreased risk for death by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Conclusions This is the first report documenting that DKK3 polymorphisms are associated with RCC and that the DKK2 rs17037102 polymorphism may be a predictor for survival in RCC patients after radical nephrectomy. PMID:19562778

  9. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  10. Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huili; Wang, Wenjing; Han, Pengxun; Shao, Mumin; Song, Gaofeng; Du, Heng; Yi, Tiegang; Li, Shunmin

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results showed that administration of AS-IV reduced albuminuria, ameliorated changes in the glomerular and tubular pathology, and decreased urinary NAG, NGAL, and TGF-β1 in db/db mice. AS-IV also attenuated the diabetes-related activation of Akt/mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways without causing any detectable hepatotoxicity. Collectively, these findings showed AS-IV to be beneficial to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, which might be associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR, NFκB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:27585918

  11. Fetal kidney stem cells ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure and promote renal angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether fetal kidney stem cells (fKSC) ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats and promote renal angiogenesis. METHODS: The fKSC were isolated from rat fetuses of gestation day 16 and expanded in vitro up to 3rd passage. They were characterized for the expression of mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The in vitro differentiation of fKSC towards epithelial lineage was evaluated by the treatment with specific induction medium and their angiogenic potential by matrigel induced tube formation assay. To study the effect of fKSC in ARF, fKSC labeled with PKH26 were infused in rats with cisplatin induced ARF and, the blood and renal tissues of the rats were collected at different time points. Blood biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate renal function. Renal tissues were evaluated for renal architecture, renal cell proliferation and angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, renal cell apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling assay and early expression of angiogenic molecules viz. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by western blot. RESULTS: The fKSC expressed mesenchymal markers viz. CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 as well as renal progenitor markers viz. Wt1, Pax2 and Six2. They exhibited a potential to form CD31 and Von Willebrand factor expressing capillary-like structures and could be differentiated into cytokeratin (CK)18 and CK19 positive epithelial cells. Administration of fKSC in rats with ARF as compared to administration of saline alone, resulted in a significant improvement in renal function and histology on day 3 (2.33 ± 0.33 vs 3.50 ± 0.34, P < 0.05) and on day 7 (0.83 ± 0.16 vs 2.00 ± 0.25, P < 0.05). The infused PKH26 labeled fKSC were observed to engraft in damaged renal tubules and showed increased proliferation and reduced

  12. Blonanserin, an antipsychotic and dopamine D₂/D₃receptor antagonist, and ameliorated alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Manabu; Ujike, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) is used for treatment of both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. Because BNS has weak α1 receptor blocking activities and is almost devoid of histamine H1 and muscarinic M1 antagonist activity, BNS is better tolerated than other atypical antipsychotics. A high degree of D₃ receptor blockage is reported to be predictive of drug abuse and alcoholism, and BNS has strong D₃ receptor antagonism. Thus, BNS may be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. We present a case in which BNS ameliorated alcohol dependence.

  13. Amelioration of glycerol-induced acute renal failure in the rat with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine.

    PubMed Central

    Kellett, R.; Bowmer, C. J.; Collis, M. G.; Yates, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT), a non-selective antagonist at adenosine A1- and A2-receptors, can ameliorate the severity of glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in the rat. In the present study we have examined the effects of an antagonist with selectivity for adenosine A1-receptors (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, CPX) on the development of ARF. 2. In the anaesthetised rat 8-PT (4 mg kg-1, i.v.) and CPX (0.1 mg kg-1, i.v.) antagonised adenosine-evoked responses which are thought to be mediated via A1-receptors (bradycardia and decrease in renal blood flow). The agonist dose-ratio produced by CPX was equal to or greater than that found with 8-PT (heart rate and renal blood flow respectively). The hypotensive response to adenosine which is predominantly due to A2-receptor activation was also antagonised by 8-PT, whereas CPX was a much less effective antagonist of this response. 3. Administration of CPX (0.1 mg kg-1, i.v.; twice daily for two days) significantly attenuated the increase in plasma levels of urea and creatinine, the increased kidney weight and the renal tubule damage observed in rats 2 days following induction of ARF with intramuscular glycerol injection. In addition treatment with CPX significantly enhanced the clearances of inulin and p-aminohippurate. 4. After glycerol injection, the mortality rate over 7 days in untreated and vehicle-treated rats was 43% and 21% respectively. In contrast, all animals treated with CPX survived over the 7 day observation period. 5. These results support the suggestion that adenosine is an important factor in the development of ARF and indicate that this effect of the purine is likely to be mediated via an adenosine A1-receptor. PMID:2590769

  14. Human Kidney-Derived Cells Ameliorate Acute Kidney Injury Without Engrafting into Renal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Santeramo, Ilaria; Herrera Perez, Zeneida; Illera, Ana; Taylor, Arthur; Kenny, Simon; Murray, Patricia; Wilm, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert

    2017-04-04

    Previous studies have suggested that CD133(+) cells isolated from human kidney biopsies have the potential to ameliorate injury following intravenous (IV) administration in rodent models of kidney disease by integrating into damaged renal tissue and generating specialized renal cells. However, whether renal engraftment of CD133(+) cells is a prerequisite for ameliorating injury has not yet been unequivocally resolved. Here, we have established a cisplatin-induced nephropathy model in immunodeficient rats to assess the efficacy of CD133(+) human kidney cells in restoring renal health, and to determine the fate of these cells after systemic administration. Specifically, following IV administration, we evaluated the impact of the CD133(+) cells on renal function by undertaking longitudinal measurements of the glomerular filtration rate using a novel transcutaneous device. Using histological assays, we assessed whether the human kidney cells could promote renal regeneration, and if this was related to their ability to integrate into the damaged kidneys. Our results show that both CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells improve renal function and promote renal regeneration to a similar degree. However, this was not associated with engraftment of the cells into the kidneys. Instead, after IV administration, both cell types were exclusively located in the lungs, and had disappeared by 24 hours. Our data therefore indicate that renal repair is not mediated by CD133(+) cells homing to the kidneys and generating specialized renal cells. Instead, renal repair is likely to be mediated by paracrine or endocrine factors. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  15. Renal protection in essential hypertension: how do angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors compare with calcium antagonists?

    PubMed

    Bauer, J H; Reams, G P

    1990-11-01

    By interrupting the integrity of the systemic and renal renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown, experimentally, to preferentially reduce postglomerular capillary arteriolar resistance, to reduce glomerular capillary pressure, and to increase the ultrafiltration coefficient. Under normal physiological conditions, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have little effect on glomerular filtration rate; however, they increase effective renal plasma flow at renal perfusion pressures within the normal autoregulatory range and renal vascular resistance is decreased. In contrast, calcium antagonists have been shown, experimentally, to preferentially reduce preglomerular capillary arteriolar resistance. Their effects on angiotensin II and postglomerular capillary arteriolar resistance (hence, glomerular capillary pressure and the ultrafiltration coefficient) are controversial. Under normal physiological conditions, calcium antagonists increase both glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow at renal perfusion pressures within the normal autoregulatory range and renal vascular resistance is decreased. In patients with essential hypertension, studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (as predicted) sustain glomerular filtration rate, increase effective renal plasma flow, and decrease renal vascular resistance. However, essential hypertensive patients with impaired glomerular filtration rate may demonstrate marked improvement in both glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow. Calcium antagonists (as predicted) may increase both glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow (at high renal perfusion pressures) and may decrease renal vascular resistance. Calcium antagonists may also improve both glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in patients with impaired glomerular filtration rate. Long-term clinical trials comparing the renal effects

  16. Melatonin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, proteinuria, and progression of renal damage in rats with renal mass reduction.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Yasmir; Ferrebuz, Atilio; Romero, Freddy; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2008-02-01

    The progressive deterioration of renal function and structure resulting from renal mass reduction are mediated by a variety of mechanisms, including oxidative stress and inflammation. Melatonin, the major product of the pineal gland, has potent_antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and its production is impaired in chronic renal failure. We therefore investigated if melatonin treatment would modify the course of chronic renal failure in the remnant kidney model. We studied rats followed 12 wk after renal ablation untreated (Nx group, n = 7) and treated with melatonin administered in the drinking water (10 mg/100 ml) (Nx + MEL group, n = 8). Sham-operated rats (n = 10) were used as controls. Melatonin administration increased 13-15 times the endogenous hormone levels. Rats in the Nx + MEL group had reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels in plasma and in the remnant kidney as well as nitrotyrosine renal abundance) and renal inflammation (p65 nuclear factor-kappaB-positive renal interstitial cells and infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages). Collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor-beta renal abundance were all increased in the remnant kidney of the untreated rats and were reduced significantly by melatonin treatment. Deterioration of renal function (plasma creatinine and proteinuria) and structure (glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage) resulting from renal ablation were ameliorated significantly with melatonin treatment. In conclusion, melatonin administration improves the course of chronic renal failure in rats with renal mass reduction. Further studies are necessary to define the potential usefulness of this treatment in other animal models and in patients with chronic renal disease.

  17. Leptin antagonist ameliorates chronic colitis in IL-10⁻/⁻ mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai P; Singh, Narendra P; Guan, Hongbing; Busbee, Brandon; Price, Robert L; Taub, Dennis D; Mishra, Manoj K; Fayad, Raja; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2013-12-01

    Although the etiology of two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are unknown and evidence suggests that chronic intestinal inflammation is caused by an excessive immune response to mucosal antigens. Previous studies support the role for TGF-β1 through 3 in the initiation and maintenance of tolerance via the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to control intestinal inflammation. Leptin, a satiety hormone produced primarily by adipose tissue, has been shown to increase during colitis progression and is believed to contribute to disease genesis and/or progression. We investigated the ability of a pegylated leptin antagonist (PG-MLA) to ameliorate the development of chronic experimental colitis. Compared to vehicle control animals, PG-MLA treatment of mice resulted in an (1) attenuated clinical score; (2) reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis including a decrease in body weight; (3) reduced systemic and mucosal inflammatory cytokine expression; (4) increased insulin levels and (5) enhanced systemic and mucosal Tregs and CD39⁺ Tregs in mice with chronic colitis. The percentage of systemic and mucosal TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 expressing CD4⁺ T cells were augmented after PG-MLA treatment. The activation of STAT1 and STAT3 and the expression of Smad7 were also reduced after PG-MLA treatment in the colitic mice. These findings clearly suggest that PG-MLA treatment reduces intestinal Smad7 expression, restores TGF-β1-3 signaling and reduces STAT1/STAT3 activation that may increase the number of Tregs to ameliorate chronic colitis. This study clearly links inflammation with the metabolic hormone leptin suggesting that nutritional status influences immune tolerance through the induction of functional Tregs. Inhibiting leptin activity through PG-MLA might provide a new and novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of IBD. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. A PPARδ-selective antagonist ameliorates IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuguo; Hao, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Lumei; Chen, Yongchun; Sun, Jun; Hu, Jinhong

    2016-11-01

    PPARδ is highly expressed in skin, especially keratinocytes, and its expression is increased in psoriatic lesions. However, the potential role of PPARδ in the pathogenesis of psoriasis remains undefined. Mice treated with Imiquimod (IMQ) to induce psoriasis can be used to evaluate the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and this model has become one of the most important in vivo research tools for research on the disease. In the current study, we showed that PPARδ was highly expressed in the skin of IMQ-induced psoriasis mice. To further understand the impact of PPARδ in psoriasis, we used these mice in a series of experiments to evaluate the pathogenesis of psoriasis. We found that PPARδ was highly expressed in both psoriatic lesions and normal skin in IMQ-induced psoriasis mice. Furthermore, the expression of PPARδ-relevant lipases was also significantly increased. The PPARδ-selective antagonist GSK3787 ameliorated the observed inflammation in the skin of the experimental mice. Based on these results, PPARδ may be a potential target for the effective treatment of psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. TRAP1 ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction by protecting renal tubular epithelial cell mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Feng; Wu, Qi-Shun; Xie, Yu-Xian; Si, Bo-Lin; Yang, Ping-Ping; Wang, Wen-Yan; Hua, Qin; He, Qing

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction causes renal tubular epithelial cell injury and promotes cell apoptosis and renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) progression. TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a molecular chaperone protein that is localized in mitochondria. It plays an important role in cell apoptosis; however, its functional mechanism in TIF remains unclear. In this study, we observed the effects of TRAP1 in renal tubular epithelial cell mitochondria in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and its function in cell apoptosis and TIF. Results show that TRAP1 could protect the mitochondrial structure in renal tubular epithelial cells; maintain the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP, and mitochondrial DNA copy number; inhibit reactive oxygen species production; stabilize the expression of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein mitofilin; reduce renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis; and inhibit TIF. These results provide new theoretical foundations for additional understanding of the antifibrotic mechanism of TRAP1 in the kidney.-Chen, J.-F., Wu, Q.-S., Xie, Y.-X., Si, B.-L., Yang, P.-P., Wang, W.-Y., Hua, Q., He, Q. TRAP1 ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction by protecting renal tubular epithelial cell mitochondria. © FASEB.

  20. CS-3150, a Novel Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist, Shows Preventive and Therapeutic Effects On Renal Injury in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate/Salt-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kiyoshi; Morikawa, Yuka; Ubukata, Naoko; Tsuruoka, Hiroyuki; Homma, Tsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess both preventive and therapeutic effects of (S)-1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl]-5-[2-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide (CS-3150), a novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on renal injury in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-induced hypertensive rats (DOCA rats). From 7 weeks of age, DOCA was subcutaneously administered once a week for 4 weeks to uninephrectomized rats fed a high-salt diet. In experiment 1, CS-3150 (0.3-3 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 4 weeks coincident with DOCA administration. In experiment 2, after establishment of renal injury by 4 weeks of DOCA/salt loading, CS-3150 (3 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 4 weeks with or without continuous DOCA administration. In experiment 1, DOCA/salt loading significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), which was prevented by CS-3150 in a dose-dependent manner. Development of renal injury (proteinuria, renal hypertrophy, and histopathological changes in glomeruli and tubule) was also suppressed by CS-3150 with inhibition of mRNA expression of fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers. In experiment 2, under continuous DOCA treatment, CS-3150 clearly ameliorated existing renal injury without lowering SBP, indicating that CS-3150 regressed renal injury independent of its antihypertensive action. Moreover, CS-3150 treatment in combination with withdrawal of DOCA showed further therapeutic effect on renal injury accompanied by reduction in SBP. These results demonstrate that CS-3150 not only prevents but also ameliorates hypertension and renal injury in DOCA rats. Therefore, CS-3150 could be a promising agent for the treatment of hypertension and renal disorders, and may have potential to promote regression of renal injury. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Targeting Renal Cell Carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenfang; Hill, Haley; Christie, Alana; Kim, Min Soo; Holloman, Eboni; Pavia-Jimenez, Andrea; Homayoun, Farrah; Ma, Yuanqing; Patel, Nirav; Yell, Paul; Hao, Guiyang; Yousuf, Qurratulain; Joyce, Allison; Pedrosa, Ivan; Geiger, Heather; Zhang, He; Chang, Jenny; Gardner, Kevin H.; Bruick, Richard K.; Reeves, Catherine; Hwang, Tae Hyun; Courtney, Kevin; Frenkel, Eugene; Sun, Xiankai; Zojwalla, Naseem; Wong, Tai; Rizzi, James P.; Wallace, Eli M.; Josey, John A.; Xie, Yang; Xie, Xian-Jin; Kapur, Payal; McKay, Renée M.; Brugarolas, James

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by VHL inactivation1,2. Because no other gene is mutated as frequently, and VHL mutations are truncal3, VHL inactivation is regarded as the governing event4. VHL loss activates HIF-2, and constitutive HIF-2 restores tumorigenesis in VHL-reconstituted ccRCC cells5. HIF-2 is implicated in angiogenesis and multiple other processes6–9, but angiogenesis is the main target of drugs like sunitinib10. HIF-2, a transcription factor, has been regarded as undruggable11. A structure-based design approach identified a selective HIF-2 antagonist (PT2399) that we evaluate using a tumorgraft (TG)/PDX platform12,13. PT2399 dissociated HIF-2 (an obligatory heterodimer [HIF-2α/HIF-1β])14 in human ccRCC suppressing tumorigenesis in 56% (10/18) lines. PT2399 had greater activity than sunitinib, was active in sunitinib-progressing tumors, and was better tolerated. Unexpectedly, some VHL-mutant ccRCCs were resistant. Resistance occurred despite HIF-2 dissociation in tumors and evidence of Hif-2 inhibition in the mouse as determined by suppression of circulating erythropoietin, a HIF-2 target15 and possible pharmacodynamic marker. We identified a HIF-2-dependent gene signature in sensitive tumors. Illustrating drug specificity, gene expression was largely unaffected by PT2399 in resistant tumors. Sensitive tumors exhibited a distinguishing gene expression signature, and generally higher HIF-2α levels. Prolonged PT2399 treatment led to resistance. We identified a binding site and second site suppressor mutation in HIF-2α and HIF-1β respectively. Both mutations preserved HIF-2 dimers despite treatment with PT2399. Finally, an extensively pretreated patient with a sensitive TG had disease control for >11 months with the close analogue PT2385. We validate HIF-2 as a target in ccRCC, show that some ccRCC are, unexpectedly, HIF-2 independent, and set the stage for biomarker-driven clinical trials. PMID:27595394

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin and Ischemic Preconditioning on Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshiekh, Mohammed; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Seifi, Behjat; Ranjbaran, Mina; Ahghari, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is one of the most common causes of renal dysfunction. There is increasing evidence about the role of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these injuries and endogenous antioxidants seem to have an important role in decreasing the renal tissue injury. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on renal IR injury. Materials and Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were allocated into four experimental groups: sham-operated, IR, EPO + IR, and IPC + IR. Rats were underwent 50 minutes bilateral ischemia followed by 24 hours reperfusion. Erythropoietin (5000 IU/kg, i.p) was administered 30 minutes before onset of ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning was performed by three cycles of 3 minutes ischemia followed by 3 minutes reperfusion. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine were measured. Kidney samples were taken for reactive oxidative species (ROS) measurement including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) contents, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results: Compared to the sham group, IR led to renal dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher plasma urea and creatinine. Treatment with EPO or IPC decreased urea, creatinine, and renal MDA levels and increased SOD activity and GSH contents in the kidney. Conclusions: Pretreatment with EPO and application of IPC significantly ameliorated the renal injury induced by bilateral renal IR. However, both treatments attenuated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in kidney tissues. There were no significant differences between pretreatment with EPO or application of IPC. PMID:26866008

  3. PPARα/γ antagonists reverse the ameliorative effects of osthole on hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in steatohepatitic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Ruijun; Zhu, Zengyan; Xie, Meilin

    2017-02-25

    Our previous studies have indicated that osthole may ameliorate the hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in nonalcoholic steatohepatitic rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to determine whether the effects of osthole were mediated by the activation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ (PPARα/γ). A rat model with steatohepatitis was induced by orally feeding high-fat and high-sucrose emulsion for 6 weeks. These experimental rats were then treated with osthole (20 mg/kg), PPARα antagonist MK886 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg), PPARγ antagonist GW9662 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg) and MK886 (1 mg/kg) plus GW9662 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The results showed that after osthole treatment, the hepatic triglycerides, free fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and liver index decreased by 52.3, 31.0, 32.4, 28.9, 36.3, 29.3 and 29.9%, respectively, and the score of steatohepatitis also decreased by 70.0%, indicating that osthole improved the hepatic steatosis and inflammation. However, these effects of osthole were reduced or abrogated after simultaneous addition of the specific PPARα antagonist MK886 or/and the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, especially in the co-PPARα/γ antagonists-treated group. Importantly, the osthole-induced hepatic expressions of PPARα/γ proteins were decreased, and the osthole-regulated hepatic expressions of lipogenic and inflammatory gene proteins were also reversed by PPARα/γ antagonist treatment. These findings demonstrated that the ameliorative effect of osthole on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was mediated by PPARα/γ activation, and osthole might be a natural dual PPARα/γ activator.

  4. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of G0/G1 Switch 2 Ameliorates Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Naoya; Ikeda, Eriko; Kakimoto, Keisuke; Watanabe, Miyako; Shindo, Naoya; Tsuruta, Akito; Ikeyama, Hisako; Hamamura, Kengo; Higashi, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kondo, Hideaki; Yoshida, Yuya; Matsuda, Masaki; Ogino, Takashi; Tokushige, Kazutaka; Itcho, Kazufumi; Furuichi, Yoko; Nakao, Takaharu; Yasuda, Kaori; Doi, Atsushi; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Aramaki, Hironori; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide; Ojida, Akio; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2) ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2) was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells. The renal expression of G0s2 in wild-type 5/6Nx mice was important for the transactivation of Ccl2 by p65. These pathologies were ameliorated by G0s2 knockdown. Furthermore, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of G0s2 expression was identified by high-throughput chemical screening, and the inhibitor suppressed renal inflammation in 5/6Nx mice. These findings indicated that G0s2 inhibitors may have applications in the treatment of CKD.

  6. Amelioration of cold injury-induced cortical brain edema formation by selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonists in mice.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Koyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs) are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice). Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist), IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist), or FR139317 (ETA antagonist) prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults.

  7. Amelioration of Cold Injury-Induced Cortical Brain Edema Formation by Selective Endothelin ETB Receptor Antagonists in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Koyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs) are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice). Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist), IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist), or FR139317 (ETA antagonist) prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults. PMID:25000290

  8. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Huang, Kuo-How; Wang, Ching-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chen, Li-Ping; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2016-04-19

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important pathogenic feature in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, regardless of the initiating insults. A recent study has shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is involved in acute ischemia/reperfusion-related acute kidney injury through oxidative stress induction. However, the influence of CHOP on chronic kidney disease-correlated renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CHOP in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced experimental chronic tubulointerstital fibrosis. The CHOP knockout and wild type mice with or without UUO were used. The results showed that the increased expressions of renal fibrosis markers collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the kidneys of UUO-treated wild type mice were dramatically attenuated in the kidneys of UUO-treated CHOP knockout mice. CHOP deficiency could also ameliorate lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes depletion, tubular apoptosis, and inflammatory cells infiltration in the UUO kidneys. These results suggest that CHOP deficiency not only attenuates apoptotic death and oxidative stress in experimental renal fibrosis, but also reduces local inflammation, leading to diminish UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Our findings support that CHOP may be an important signaling molecule in the progression of chronic kidney disease.

  9. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis‑induced acute renal injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 were measured with enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor‑κB signal pathway.

  10. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, W. L. N. V. Vara; Srilatha, Ch.; Sailaja, N.; Raju, N. K. B.; Jayasree, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt.), respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies. Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity. Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage. PMID:27956790

  11. Ameliorating Effect of Gemigliptin on Renal Injury in Murine Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin Yeong; Kim, Jin Sug; Kim, Yang Gyun; Moon, Ju-Young; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown the antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of DPP-IV inhibitor in experimental models of renal injury. We tested whether DPP-IV inhibitor (gemigliptin) ameliorates renal injury by suppressing apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice with adriamycin nephropathy. Methods. Mice were treated with normal saline (control), gemigliptin (GM), adriamycin (ADR), or adriamycin combined with gemigliptin (ADR+GM). Apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress were analyzed via western blotting, real-time PCR, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Results. In the ADR+GM group, urine albumin creatinine ratio decreased significantly compared with that in the ADR group on day 15. Glomerulosclerosis index and tubulointerstitial injury index in mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy decreased after gemigliptin treatment. ADR group showed higher levels of apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress-related molecules compared with the control group. The upregulation of these molecules was significantly reduced by gemigliptin. In the ADR group, the staining intensities of WT-1 and nephrin reduced, but these changes were ameliorated in the ADR+GM group. Conclusion. We demonstrated that gemigliptin ameliorates nephropathy by suppressing apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice administered adriamycin. Our data demonstrate that gemigliptin has renoprotective effects on adriamycin-induced nephropathy. PMID:28326327

  12. Protein kinase C inhibition ameliorates posttransplantation preservation injury in rat renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Tom Florian; Kusch, Angelika; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Catar, Rusan; Pützer, Jennifer; Haller, Martina; Troppmair, Jakob; Hoff, Uwe; Dragun, Duska

    2012-10-15

    Prolonged cold preservation frequently causes delayed renal graft function resulting from tubular epithelial injury. Inhibition of signal transduction downstream from protein kinase C (PKC) may reduce renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and confer renal graft protection. We therefore evaluated the effect of sotrastaurin, a small-molecule inhibitor of Ca²⁺-dependent and Ca²⁺-independent PKC isoforms, in comparison with mycophenolic acid (MPA) on rat renal transplants with prolonged cold preservation. Donor kidneys from male Lewis rats were cold stored in University of Wisconsin solution for 24 hr before syngeneic grafting. Recipients received sotrastaurin (30 mg/kg twice daily), MPA (20 mg/kg/day), or vehicle through gavage starting 1 hr after surgery. Renal function was evaluated by serum creatinine and histology on day 2 (acute injury) and day 7 (repair phase) after transplantation. Postreperfusion inflammation was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction of proinflammatory genes and histology. Signaling mechanisms were studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Sotrastaurin enhanced immediate transplant function, attenuated epithelial injury, and accelerated renal function recovery compared with MPA. Despite the stronger anti-inflammatory capacity of MPA, only sotrastaurin treatment achieved significant cellular protection with persisting reduced apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells. Decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p66Shc adaptor protein, both involved in cellular stress and apoptosis, were likely the responsible mechanism of action. The PKC inhibitor sotrastaurin effectively ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion organ damage and promoted cytoprotection in a clinically relevant model of extended renal cold preservation followed by transplantation. Pharmacologic targeting of PKC may be beneficial for recipients receiving renal transplants at risk for delayed graft function.

  13. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-18

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis.

  14. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis. PMID:26775807

  15. Is All Radiation-Induced Emesis Ameliorated by 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    5 - HT3 receptor antagonists ;~// 9-72 Bernard M.I Rabin 0’) and Gregory L. Kingt2) -) Behavioral Sciences and 2 PhYSzo~o~y Dcpiarlrnvni . Arm,. ii - R...RY Exposing ferrets to gamuma rays or X-rays produces vomiting that can be attenuated by 5 - HT3 receptor antagonists and by subdiaphraqmatic vagotomy...Pretreating ferrets with serotonin type-3 ( 5 - HT3 ) receptor antagonists or performing bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy reliably attenuates the

  16. Endothelin receptor blockade ameliorates renal injury by inhibition of RhoA/Rho-kinase signalling in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chung, Tun-Hui; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chang, Nen-Chung

    2014-04-01

    Excessive production of fibrosis is a feature of hypertension-induced renal injury. Activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) axis has been shown in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. We assessed whether selective endothelin receptor blockers can attenuate renal fibrosis by inhibiting RhoA/ROCK axis in DOCA-salt rats. At 4 weeks after the start of DOCA-salt treatment and uninephrectomization, male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups for 4 weeks: vehicle, ABT-627 (endothelin-A receptor inhibitor) and A192621 (endothelin-B receptor inhibitor). DOCA-salt was characterized by increased blood pressure, decreased renal function, increased proteinuria, increased glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with myofibroblast accumulation, increased renal endothelin-1 levels and RhoA activity along with increased expression of connective tissue growth factor at both mRNA and protein levels as compared with uninephrectomized control male Wistar rats. Treatment with a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone, ameliorated proteinuria. Impaired renal function and histological changes were overcome by treatment with ABT-627, but not with A192621. The beneficial effects of bosentan, a nonspecific endothelin receptor blocker, on proteinuria, RhoA activity, and connective tissue growth factor levels were similar to ABT-627. Furthermore, in an isolated perfuse kidney, a RhoA inhibitor, C3 exoenzyme, and two ROCK inhibitors, fasudil and Y-27632, significantly attenuated connective tissue growth factor levels. These results indicate that DOCA-salt elevates renal endothelin-1 levels and RhoA activity via activation of mineralocorticoid receptor, resulting in renal fibrosis and proteinuria. Endothelin-A receptor blockade can attenuate DOCA-salt-induced renal fibrosis probably through the inhibition of RhoA/ROCK activity and connective tissue growth factor expression.

  17. Wnt antagonist DICKKOPF-3 (Dkk-3) induces apoptosis in human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Koji; Hirata, Hiroshi; Majid, Shahana; Chen, Yi; Zaman, Mohd S; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Hinoda, Yuji; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2011-06-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is activated in most cancers while Wnt antagonist genes are inactivated. However, the functional significance and mechanisms of inactivation of Wnt antagonist Dkk-3 gene in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been reported. In this study, we examined potential epigenetic mechanisms regulating Dkk-3 expression in RCC cells and whether Dkk-3 expression affects cell growth and apoptosis. The expression of Dkk-3 is regulated by histone modification rather than CpG island DNA methylation in renal cancer cells. Renal cancer cell proliferation was significantly inhibited and apoptosis was promoted in Dkk-3 transfected renal cancer cells. Dkk-3 did not inhibit the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway but induced apoptosis via the noncanonical JNK pathway in renal cancer cells. Expression of p21, MDM-2, and Puma genes were increased after transfecting RCC cell lines with a Dkk-3 expression plasmid. Overexpression of Dkk-3 induced G(0)/G(1) arrest together with an increase in p21 expression. Growth of stable Dkk-3 transfected cells in nude mice was decreased compared to controls. Our data show for the first time that mRNA expression of Dkk-3 is regulated by histone modification and that Dkk-3 inhibits renal cancer growth through modulation of cell cycle and apoptotic pathways.

  18. Metformin Ameliorates Podocyte Damage by Restoring Renal Tissue Podocalyxin Expression in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Limin; Gu, Junfei; Yang, Di; Wang, Wei; Ye, Shandong

    2015-01-01

    Podocalyxin (PCX) is a signature molecule of the glomerular podocyte and of maintaining integrity of filtration function of glomerulus. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of different doses of metformin on renal tissue PCX expression in type 2 diabetic rats and clarify its protection on glomerular podocytes. Type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in which diabetes was induced by high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) were treated with different doses of metformin (150, 300, and 500 mg/kg per day, resp.) for 8 weeks. Various biochemical parameters, kidney histopathology, and renal tissue PCX expression levels were examined. In type 2 diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia were developed. Urinary albumin and PCX were markedly increased. Diabetes induced significant alterations in renal glomerular structure. In addition, protein and mRNA expression of renal tissue PCX were highly decreased. However, treatment of rats with different doses of metformin restored all these changes to a varying degree. These results suggested that metformin can ameliorate glomerular podocyte damage in type 2 diabetic rats, which may be partly associated with its role in restoring PCX expression and inhibiting urinary excretion of PCX with dose dependence. PMID:26075281

  19. Capsaicin Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Renal Injury through Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; Lee, Subin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil; So, Hong-Seob

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents. However, its use is limited due to its toxicity in normal tissues, including the kidney and ear. In particular, nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin is closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme metabolism, has been implicated in a various cellular processes, such as inflammatory injury and anti-oxidant/oxidant homeostasis. Capsaicin is reported to have therapeutic potential in cisplatin-induced renal failures. However, the mechanisms underlying its protective effects on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrated that administration of capsaicin ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction by assessing the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as well as tissue histology. In addition, capsaicin treatment attenuates the expression of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress markers for renal damage. We also found that capsaicin induces HO-1 expression in kidney tissues and HK-2 cells. Notably, the protective effects of capsaicin were completely abrogated by treatment with either the HO inhibitor ZnPP IX or HO-1 knockdown in HK-2 cells. These results suggest that capsaicin has protective effects against cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction through induction of HO-1 as well as inhibition oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24642709

  20. Protodioscin ameliorates fructose-induced renal injury via inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinyang; Yang, Xiaolin; Meng, Zhaoqing; Guo, Changrun

    2016-11-15

    High dietary fructose can cause metabolic syndrome and renal injury. The effects of protodioscin on metabolic syndrome and renal injury were investigated in mice receiving high-dose fructose. Mice received 30% (w/v) fructose in water and standard chow for 6 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome and were divided into four groups to receive carboxymethylcellulose sodium, allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and protodioscin (5 and 10 mg/kg) continuously for 6 weeks, respectively. The glucose intolerance, serum uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. Protodioscin significantly improved glucose intolerance and reduced the levels of serum UA, BUN, Cr, TC and TG. Histological examinations showed that protodioscin ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes. Protodioscin significantly reduced renal concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In addition, the effect of protodioscin on the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway was examined. Taken together, protodioscin is a potential drug candidate for high dietary fructose-induced metabolic syndrome and renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Dahuang Fuzi Decoction Attenuates Renal Fibrosis and Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shui, Guang-Xing; Sang, Dong; Yin, Xun; Cai, Yun; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. The effects of the traditional formula Dahuang Fuzi Decoction (DFD) on chronic aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) in mice and its underlying mechanisms were studied. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into the following six groups: the control group, the model group (AAN), the saline-treated group (AAN + vehicle), the normal dose DFD-treated group (AAN + NDFD), the high dose DFD-treated group (AAN + HDFD), and the rosiglitazone treated group (AAN + Rosi). After treating for 8 weeks, 24 h urine and blood samples were collected and the mice sacrificed to study the biochemical parameters associated with renal function. The samples were analyzed for renal fibrosis and mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) markers. To achieve that, collagen III, collagen I, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers (mtDNA), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP content, and ROS production were evaluated. Results. Our results showed that proteinuria, kidney function, and the renal pathological characteristics were improved by DFD and rosiglitazone. The expression of collagen III and collagen I decreased after treating with either DFD or rosiglitazone. Mitochondrial dysfunction based on the increase in ROS production, decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy numbers, and reduction of MMP and ATP content was improved by DFD and rosiglitazone. Conclusions. DFD could protect against renal impairments and ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic AAN mice.

  2. Dahuang Fuzi Decoction Attenuates Renal Fibrosis and Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Guang-xing; Sang, Dong; Yin, Xun; Cai, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. The effects of the traditional formula Dahuang Fuzi Decoction (DFD) on chronic aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) in mice and its underlying mechanisms were studied. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into the following six groups: the control group, the model group (AAN), the saline-treated group (AAN + vehicle), the normal dose DFD-treated group (AAN + NDFD), the high dose DFD-treated group (AAN + HDFD), and the rosiglitazone treated group (AAN + Rosi). After treating for 8 weeks, 24 h urine and blood samples were collected and the mice sacrificed to study the biochemical parameters associated with renal function. The samples were analyzed for renal fibrosis and mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) markers. To achieve that, collagen III, collagen I, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers (mtDNA), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP content, and ROS production were evaluated. Results. Our results showed that proteinuria, kidney function, and the renal pathological characteristics were improved by DFD and rosiglitazone. The expression of collagen III and collagen I decreased after treating with either DFD or rosiglitazone. Mitochondrial dysfunction based on the increase in ROS production, decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy numbers, and reduction of MMP and ATP content was improved by DFD and rosiglitazone. Conclusions. DFD could protect against renal impairments and ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic AAN mice. PMID:28421124

  3. Curcumin ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting local fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Changgeng; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is mainly characterized by activation and proliferation of interstitial fibroblasts and by excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, including fibronectin (FN) and collagen. This study investigated the effects of curcumin on proliferation of renal interstitial fibroblasts and their underlying mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. ECM components were visualized by Sirius red and immunohistochemistry staining and quantified by western blot analysis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Duplex staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), as well as MTT and flow cytometry assays, were performed to measure fibroblast proliferation. Protein expression of phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were assessed by western blotting. Curcumin treatment decreased the accumulation of type I collagen and FN in the kidney of animals with UUO. Activation of rat renal interstitial fibroblasts (NRK-49F) was induced by TGF-β1. Curcumin treatment inhibited fibroblast proliferation and the cell cycle was arrested in the G1 phase. Curcumin treatment upregulated the expression of PPAR-γ and downregulated the expression of p-Smad2/3. These results suggest that curcumin treatment ameliorates renal fibrosis by reducing fibroblast proliferation and ECM accumulation mediated by PPAR-γ and Smad-dependent TGF-β1 signaling.

  4. Cisplatin-induced acute renal failure is ameliorated by erdosteine in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Hüseyin; Yildirim, Zeki; Kotuk, Mahir; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Yağmurca, Murat; Iraz, Mustafa; Söğüt, Sad; Gergerlioglu, Serdar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum dosage of erdosteine to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Three different doses of erdosteine at 25, 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) were studied in rats. Intraperitoneal administration of 7 mg kg(-1) cisplatin led to acute renal failure, as indicated by kidney histology and increases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. At 5 days after cisplatin injection the BUN level was increased significantly from 15.1 +/- 4.3 to 126.7 +/- 152.6 mg dl(-1) and plasma creatinine levels increased from 0.37 +/- 0.005 to 1.68 +/- 1.9 mg dl(-1). When the rats were administered 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) erdosteine 24 h before cisplatin injection that was continued until sacrifice (total of 6 days), the BUN and creatinine levels remained similar to control levels and the grade of histology was similar. Erdosteine at doses of 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal failure. The optimum dose of erdosteine may be 50 mg kg(-1) in this study.

  5. The role of renal hemodynamics in the antihypertensive action of mepirodipine, a new calcium antagonist.

    PubMed

    Noda, H; Fujita, T; Ogata, E

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the role of regional hemodynamics in the anti-hypertensive effect of mepirodipine, a new dihydropyridine-derivative calcium antagonist, we measured systemic, renal, hepatic, and forearm hemodynamics in 10 patients with essential hypertension treated with mepirodipine (15 mg/day) for 4 weeks. After the administration of mepirodipine, a significant decline in mean blood pressure (-13.8 +/- 2.3%, p less than 0.01) accompanied by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (-21.1 +/- 2.6%, p less than 0.01) was observed. Although forearm vascular resistance did not change significantly, both renal (-19.2 +/- 6.7%, p less than 0.01) and hepatic vascular resistance (-17.6 +/- 3.8%, p less than 0.01) decreased considerably. The decrements of mean blood pressure with mepirodipine did not correlate with those of hepatic or forearm vascular resistance but correlated positively with those of renal vascular resistance (r = 0.699, p less than 0.05). Moreover, the increment of renal blood flow with mepirodipine was negatively correlated with the pretreatment level of renal blood flow (r = -0.670, p less than 0.05); renal blood flow increased to a greater extent in patients with lower pretreatment renal blood flow. These findings suggest that the oral administration of mepirodipine in patients with essential hypertension can produce selective vasodilation in the renal vasculature, which may play an important role in the relatively long-term antihypertensive effect of this drug.

  6. Resveratrol ameliorates renal injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats by inhibiting renal micro-inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Yan; Yuan, Li; Cao, Ying-Jie; Fan, Ya-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Lan; Huang, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Micro-inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenol with anti-fibrosis activity in hypertensive renal damage model. In SHR renal damage model, RSV treatment blunted the increase in urine albumin excretion, urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), attenuated the decrease in creatinine clearance rate (CCR). The glomerular sclerosis index (1.54±0.33 compared with 0.36±0.07) and tubulointerstitial fibrosis (1.57±0.31 compared with 0.19±0.04) were significantly higher in SHRs compared with Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs), which were significantly lower by RSV treatment. The increases in mesangium accumulation and the expression of renal collagen type I (Col I), fibronectin (Fn), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in SHR were also reduced by RSV treatment. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) expression was increased in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the SHR kidneys, which was significantly decreased by RSV treatment. Furthermore, the protein level of IκB-α significantly decreased in the kidneys of the SHR when compared with the WKYs. RSV treatment partially restored the decreased IκB-α level. In SHR kidney, increased expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were observed. These changes were attenuated by RSV treatment. No changes in blood pressure were detected between SHR group and SHR + RSV group. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that RSV treatment may significantly attenuate renal damage in the SHR model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The renal protective effect is associated with inhibition of IL-6, ICAM-1 and MCP-1 expression via the regulation of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which suggesting that micro-inflammation may be a potential therapeutic target of hypertensive

  7. Resveratrol ameliorates renal injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats by inhibiting renal micro-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hai-Yan; Yuan, Li; Cao, Ying-Jie; Fan, Ya-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Lan; Huang, Xin-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Micro-inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenol with anti-fibrosis activity in hypertensive renal damage model. In SHR renal damage model, RSV treatment blunted the increase in urine albumin excretion, urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), attenuated the decrease in creatinine clearance rate (CCR). The glomerular sclerosis index (1.54±0.33 compared with 0.36±0.07) and tubulointerstitial fibrosis (1.57±0.31 compared with 0.19±0.04) were significantly higher in SHRs compared with Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs), which were significantly lower by RSV treatment. The increases in mesangium accumulation and the expression of renal collagen type I (Col I), fibronectin (Fn), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in SHR were also reduced by RSV treatment. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) expression was increased in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the SHR kidneys, which was significantly decreased by RSV treatment. Furthermore, the protein level of IκB-α significantly decreased in the kidneys of the SHR when compared with the WKYs. RSV treatment partially restored the decreased IκB-α level. In SHR kidney, increased expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were observed. These changes were attenuated by RSV treatment. No changes in blood pressure were detected between SHR group and SHR + RSV group. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that RSV treatment may significantly attenuate renal damage in the SHR model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The renal protective effect is associated with inhibition of IL-6, ICAM-1 and MCP-1 expression via the regulation of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which suggesting that micro-inflammation may be a potential therapeutic target of hypertensive

  8. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  9. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, R. J.; Collis, M. G.; Yates, M. S.; Bowmer, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of the selective adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX), on the development of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure was investigated in the rat. 2. CPX at doses of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg-1, i.v. caused increasing degrees of antagonism of adenosine-induced bradycardia in anaesthetized rats. The magnitude of antagonism was not directly proportional to the increment in dose, but for each dose, it was similar in rats injected with either saline or cisplatin. CPX at a dose of 0.03 mg kg-1 significantly antagonized adenosine-induced bradycardia for up to 2.5 h, while doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg-1 produced significant blockade for periods longer than 5 h. 3. Administration of cisplatin (6 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused acute renal failure characterized by decreased inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances, increased urine volume but decreased excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions and by increased plasma levels of urea and creatinine. Kidney weight was increased in cisplatin-treated rats and renal tubule necrosis occurred. 4. Administration of CPX (0.03 mg kg-1, i.v.; twice daily for two days) to rats given cisplatin did not reduce the severity of the resultant renal failure. However, treatment with 0.1 mg kg-1 CPX attenuated the increases in plasma creatinine/urea levels observed in rats on days 3 and 7 after induction of renal failure. In addition, this dose significantly reduced renal tubule damage and increased inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances. A similar pattern of protection was noted with CPX at a dose of 0.3 mg kg-1 although the increase in inulin clearance was not statistically significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1810593

  10. Exogenous Lipocalin 2 Ameliorates Acute Rejection in a Mouse Model of Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, M. I.; Schwelberger, H. G.; Brendel, K. A.; Feurle, J.; Andrassy, J.; Kotsch, K.; Regele, H.; Pratschke, J.; Maier, H. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is rapidly produced by damaged nephron epithelia and is one of the most promising new markers of renal injury, delayed graft function and acute allograft rejection (AR); however, the functional importance of Lcn2 in renal transplantation is largely unknown. To understand the role of Lcn2 in renal AR, kidneys from Balb/c mice were transplanted into C57Bl/6 mice and vice versa and analyzed for morphological and physiological outcomes of AR at posttransplantation days 3, 5, and 7. The allografts showed a steady increase in intensity of interstitial infiltration, tubulitis and periarterial aggregation of lymphocytes associated with a substantial elevation in serum levels of creatinine, urea and Lcn2. Perioperative administration of recombinant Lcn2:siderophore:Fe complex (rLcn2) to recipients resulted in functional and morphological amelioration of the allograft at day 7 almost as efficiently as daily immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (CsA). No significant differences were observed in various donor–recipient combinations (C57Bl/6 wild‐type and Lcn2−/−, Balb/c donors and recipients). Histochemical analyses of the allografts showed reduced cell death in recipients treated with rLcn2 or CsA. These results demonstrate that Lcn2 plays an important role in reducing the extent of kidney AR and indicate the therapeutic potential of Lcn2 in transplantation. PMID:26595644

  11. Amelioration of progressive renal injury by genetic manipulation of Klotho gene.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Yoshisuke; Kashihara, Naoki; Satoh, Minoru; Tomita, Naruya; Namikoshi, Tamehachi; Sasaki, Tamaki; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Xie, Ping; Kanwar, Yashpal S

    2007-02-13

    Klotho, an antiaging gene with restricted organ distribution, is mainly expressed in the kidney tubules; the mutant mice have shortened life span, arteriosclerosis, anemia, and osteoporesis, features common to patients with chronic renal failure. Conceivably, the reduction of the Klotho gene expression may contribute to the development of kidney failure; alternatively, its overexpression may lead to the amelioration of renal injury in an ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) mouse model with subtle immune complex-mediated disease. To address this issue, four different strains of mice were generated by cross-breeding: ICGN mice without the Klotho transgene (ICGN), ICGN mice with the Klotho transgene (ICGN/klTG), wild-type mice with the Klotho transgene (klTG), and wild-type mice without the Klotho transgene (control). At 40 weeks old, the survival rate was approximately 30% in ICGN mice, and approximately 70% in the ICGN/klTG group. This improvement was associated with dramatic improvement in renal functions, morphological lesions, and cytochrome c oxidase activity but a reduction in beta-galactosidase activity (a senescence-associated protein), mitochondrial DNA fragmentation, superoxide anion generation, lipid peroxidation, and Bax protein expression and apoptosis. Interestingly, improvement was seen in both the tubular and glomerular compartments of the kidney, although Klotho is exclusively confined to the tubules, suggesting that its gene product has a remarkable renoprotective effect by potentially serving as a circulating hormone while mitigating the mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  12. Berberine is a dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor antagonist and ameliorates experimentally induced colitis by suppressing innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Masaaki; Takagi, Rie; Kaneko, Atsushi; Matsushita, Sho

    2015-12-15

    Berberine is an herbal alkaloid with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. Here, we examined the effects of berberine on dopamine receptors and the ensuing anti-inflammatory responses. Berberine was found to be an antagonist at both dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors and ameliorates the development of experimentally induced colitis in mice. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated immune cells, berberine treatment modified cytokine levels, consistent with the effects of the dopamine receptor specific antagonists SCH23390 and L750667. Our findings indicate that dopamine receptor antagonists suppress innate and adaptive immune responses, providing a foundation for their use in combatting inflammatory diseases.

  13. A Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Antagonist Is Down-Regulated in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blish, Kimberly Rose; Wang, Wei; Willingham, Mark C.; Du, Wei; Birse, Charles E.; Krishnan, Surekha R.; Brown, Julie C.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Garvin, A. Julian; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Torti, Frank M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed expression of candidate genes encoding cell surface or secreted proteins in normal kidney and kidney cancer. This screen identified a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, SOSTDC1 (sclerostin domain–containing-1) as down-regulated in kidney tumors. To confirm screening results, we probed cDNA dot blots with SOSTDC1. The SOSTDC1 message was decreased in 20/20 kidney tumors compared with normal kidney tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed significant decrease of SOSTDC1 protein in clear cell renal carcinomas relative to normal proximal renal tubule cells (p < 0.001). Expression of SOSTDC1 was not decreased in papillary and chromophobe kidney tumors. SOSTDC1 was abundantly expressed in podocytes, distal tubules, and transitional epithelia of the normal kidney. Transfection experiments demonstrated that SOSTDC1 is secreted and binds to neighboring cells and/or the extracellular matrix. SOSTDC1 suppresses both BMP-7–induced phosphorylation of R-Smads-1, -5, and -8 and Wnt-3a signaling. Restoration of SOSTDC1 in renal clear carcinoma cells profoundly suppresses proliferation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SOSTDC1 is expressed in the human kidney and decreased in renal clear cell carcinoma. Because SOSTDC1 suppresses proliferation of renal carcinoma cells, restoration of SOSTDC1 signaling may represent a novel target in treatment of renal clear cell carcinoma. PMID:18032587

  14. Influence of specific and non-specific endothelin receptor antagonists on renal morphology in rats with surgical renal ablation.

    PubMed

    Nabokov, A; Amann, K; Wagner, J; Gehlen, F; Münter, K; Ritz, E

    1996-03-01

    Studies in experimental models of chronic renal failure suggest an important role for the endothelin system in the development of renal scarring. Endothelin receptor (ETR) anatagonists interfere with progression, but it has not been resolved (i) whether this is true for all models of renal damage, (ii) to what extent the effect is modulated by systemic blood pressure and (iii) whether the effect is similar for ETAR and ETA/ETBR antagonists. 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) by surgical ablation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparison of ACE inhibitor Trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day), ETAR antagonist BMS 182874 (30 mg/kg/day) and ETAR/ETBR antagonist Ro 46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) by gavage. Duration of the experiment eight weeks. Systolic blood pressure by tail plethysmography. Perfusion fixation of kidneys and morphometric analysis ET-1 and ETA/ETBR by quantitative PCR. SNX caused a significant (P < 0.01) increase of systolic blood pressure (170 +/- 8.6 mmHg) compared to sham operated controls (131 +/- 5.3 mmHg). Blood pressure was significantly (P < 0.001) lower with Trandolapril (128 +/- 5.3 mmHg), but not with BMS 182874 (153 +/- 5.9 mmHg) or Ro 46-2005 (167 +/- 7.6 mmHg). Compared to sham operated rats (0.03 +/- 0.01) glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the untreated SNX group (0.9 +/- 0.15). Significantly lower GSI was found in Trandolapril treated (0.29 +/- 0.04), BMS 182874 treated (0.36 +/- 0.05), and Ro 46-2005 treated animals (0.45 +/- 0.11). The effect of BMS 182874 was accompanied by lower tubulointerstitial damage index. Mean glomerular volume was dramatically increased (P < 0.001) in SNX rats as compared to sham operated animals. This glomerular enlargement was partially prevented by Trandolapril (P < 0.05), but not by either ETR antagonist. ET-1 mRNA tended to be higher in SNX irrespective of treatment, while ETAR and ETBR mRNA were significantly lower. Both specific (ETAR) and non-specific (ETA/ETBR) endothelin antagonists

  15. Honey supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats elicits antihypertensive effect via amelioration of renal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Ab Wahab, Mohd S; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N S; Salleh, Salzihan; Gurtu, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of GST and catalase (CAT) were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

  16. Cell Therapy Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Renal Progenitors Ameliorates Acute Kidney Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Toyohara, Takafumi; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Sueta, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Yamagishi, Yukiko; Kawamoto, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Tomoko; Hoshina, Azusa; Toyoda, Taro; Tanaka, Hiromi; Araoka, Toshikazu; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Yamaji, Noboru; Ogawa, Seishi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Osafune, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a rapid loss of renal function resulting from various etiologies, with a mortality rate exceeding 60% among intensive care patients. Because conventional treatments have failed to alleviate this condition, the development of regenerative therapies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) presents a promising new therapeutic option for AKI. We describe our methodology for generating renal progenitors from hiPSCs that show potential in ameliorating AKI. We established a multistep differentiation protocol for inducing hiPSCs into OSR1+SIX2+ renal progenitors capable of reconstituting three-dimensional proximal renal tubule-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that renal subcapsular transplantation of hiPSC-derived renal progenitors ameliorated the AKI in mice induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury, significantly suppressing the elevation of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and attenuating histopathological changes, such as tubular necrosis, tubule dilatation with casts, and interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge, few reports demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy with renal lineage cells generated from hiPSCs have been published. Our results suggest that regenerative medicine strategies for kidney diseases could be developed using hiPSC-derived renal cells. This report is the first to demonstrate that the transplantation of renal progenitor cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has therapeutic effectiveness in mouse models of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, this report clearly demonstrates that the therapeutic benefits come from trophic effects by the renal progenitor cells, and it identifies the renoprotective factors secreted by the progenitors. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of developing regenerative medicine strategy using iPS cells against renal diseases.

  17. Cell Therapy Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Renal Progenitors Ameliorates Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Toyohara, Takafumi; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Sueta, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Yamagishi, Yukiko; Kawamoto, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Tomoko; Hoshina, Azusa; Toyoda, Taro; Tanaka, Hiromi; Araoka, Toshikazu; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Yamaji, Noboru; Ogawa, Seishi; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a rapid loss of renal function resulting from various etiologies, with a mortality rate exceeding 60% among intensive care patients. Because conventional treatments have failed to alleviate this condition, the development of regenerative therapies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) presents a promising new therapeutic option for AKI. We describe our methodology for generating renal progenitors from hiPSCs that show potential in ameliorating AKI. We established a multistep differentiation protocol for inducing hiPSCs into OSR1+SIX2+ renal progenitors capable of reconstituting three-dimensional proximal renal tubule-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that renal subcapsular transplantation of hiPSC-derived renal progenitors ameliorated the AKI in mice induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury, significantly suppressing the elevation of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and attenuating histopathological changes, such as tubular necrosis, tubule dilatation with casts, and interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge, few reports demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy with renal lineage cells generated from hiPSCs have been published. Our results suggest that regenerative medicine strategies for kidney diseases could be developed using hiPSC-derived renal cells. Significance This report is the first to demonstrate that the transplantation of renal progenitor cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has therapeutic effectiveness in mouse models of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, this report clearly demonstrates that the therapeutic benefits come from trophic effects by the renal progenitor cells, and it identifies the renoprotective factors secreted by the progenitors. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of developing regenerative medicine strategy using iPS cells against renal diseases

  18. Dietary nitrite ameliorates renal injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tomita, Shuhei; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Abe, Shinji; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2010-02-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) has numerous important functions in the kidney, and long-term blockage of nitric oxide synthases in rats by L-NAME results in severe hypertension and progressive kidney damage. On the other hand, NO production seems to be low in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and NO deficiency may play a role in CKD progression. In this review, we summarized the mechanisms of amelioration of renal injury induced by L-NAME treated rats by treatment of nitrite. First, we demonstrate whether orally-administrated nitrite-derived NO can shift to the circulation. When 3mg/kg body weight Na(15)NO(2) was orally administered to rats, an apparent EPR signal derived from Hb(15)NO (A(z)=23.4 gauss) appeared in the blood, indicating that orally ingested nitrite can be a source of NO in vivo. Next, in order to clarify the capacity of nitrite to prevent renal disease, we administered low-dose nitrite (LDN: 0.1mg of sodium nitrite in 1L of drinking water), medium-dose nitrite (MDN: 1mg sodium nitrite/L, which corresponds to the amount of nitrite ingested by vegetarians), or high-dose nitrite (HDN: 10mg sodium nitrite/L) to rats simultaneously with L-NAME (1 g l-NAME/L) for 8 weeks, then examined the blood NO level as a hemoglobin-NO adduct (iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin) using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, urinary protein excretion, and renal histological changes at the end of the experiment. It was found that oral administration of MDN and HDN but not LDN increased the blood iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin concentration to the normal level, ameliorated the L-NAME-induced proteinuria, and reduced renal histological damage. The findings demonstrate that chronic administration of a mid-level dietary dose of nitrite restores the circulating iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin levels reduced by L-NAME and that maintenance of the circulating iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin level in a controlled range protects against L-NAME-induced renal injury. Taking these findings together, we

  19. Thalidomide ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal inflammation in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

    2015-04-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug. However, its chemotherapeutic use is restricted by serious side effects, especially nephrotoxicity. Inflammatory mechanisms have a significant role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent and is used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential nephroprotective effect of thalidomide in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity was induced in mice by a single injection of cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and treated with thalidomide (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days, beginning 24 h prior to the cisplatin injection. Renal toxicity induced by cisplatin was demonstrated by increasing plasma levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Cisplatin increased the renal production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In addition, kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) were increased by cisplatin. Biochemical results showed that thalidomide reduced cisplatin-induced increase in plasma creatinine and BUN. Thalidomide treatment also significantly reduced tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, MPO, and NO and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, histological examination indicated that thalidomide ameliorated renal damage caused by cisplatin. These data suggest that thalidomide attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly by inhibition of inflammatory reactions. Taken together, our findings indicate that thalidomide might be a valuable candidate for the prevention of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving cisplatin.

  20. Febuxostat ameliorates diabetic renal injury in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Joo; Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Yang Gyun; Moon, Joo Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Sung, Ji Youn; Lee, Tae Won

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to play central roles in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Febuxostat is a novel non-purine xanthine oxidase (XO)-specific inhibitor developed to treat hyperuricemia. In this study, we investigated whether febuxostat could ameliorate DN via renoprotective mechanisms such as alleviation of oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory actions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a normal group, a diabetes group (DM group), and a febuxostat-treated diabetes group (DM+Fx group). We administered 5 mg/kg of febuxostat to experimental rats for 7 weeks and evaluated clinical and biochemical parameters and XO and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activity in hepatic tissue. The degree of oxidative stress and extent of inflammation were evaluated from urine samples and renal tissue collected from each group. Diabetic rats (DM and DM+Fx groups) had higher blood glucose and kidney weight relative to body weight than normal rats. Albuminuria was significantly reduced in febuxostat-treated diabetic rats compared with untreated diabetic rats. Quantitative analysis showed that hepatic XO and XDH activities were higher in the DM groups, but decreased after treatment with febuxostat. Urinary 8-OHdG concentrations and renal cortical nitrotyrosine also indicated reduced oxidative stress in the DM+Fx group relative to the DM group. The number of ED-1-stained cells in the glomerulus and tubule of diabetic renal tissue decreased in febuxostat-treated diabetic rats relative to that of non-treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats also expressed higher transcript levels of inflammatory genes (E-selectin and VCAM-1), an inflammation-induced enzyme (COX-2), and inflammatory mediators (ED-1 and NF-κB) than control rats; expression of these genes was significantly reduced by treatment with febuxostat. Febuxostat prevents diabetic renal injury such as albuminuria. This renoprotective effect appears to be due to attenuation of the

  1. Bilateral Renal Denervation Ameliorates Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure through Downregulation of the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Dong; Cheng, Ai-Yuan; Huo, Yan-Li; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Fang, Zhi-Qin; Sun, Hong-Sheng; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by cardiac dysfunction along with autonomic unbalance that is associated with increased renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). Renal denervation (RD) has been shown to improve cardiac function in HF, but the protective mechanisms remain unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that RD ameliorates isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced HF through regulation of brain RAS and PICs. Chronic ISO infusion resulted in remarked decrease in blood pressure (BP) and increase in heart rate and cardiac dysfunction, which was accompanied by increased BP variability and decreased baroreflex sensitivity and HR variability. Most of these adverse effects of ISO on cardiac and autonomic function were reversed by RD. Furthermore, ISO upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of several components of the RAS and PICs in the lamina terminalis and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, two forebrain nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulations. RD significantly inhibited the upregulation of these genes. Either intracerebroventricular AT1-R antagonist, irbesartan, or TNF-α inhibitor, etanercept, mimicked the beneficial actions of RD in the ISO-induced HF. The results suggest that the RD restores autonomic balance and ameliorates ISO-induced HF and that the downregulated RAS and PICs in the brain contribute to these beneficial effects of RD. PMID:27746855

  2. Macrophage and myofibroblast involvement in ischemic acute renal failure is attenuated by endothelin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Forbes, J M; Leaker, B; Hewitson, T D; Becker, G J; Jones, C L

    1999-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) may be a mediator of injury following ischemia-induced acute renal failure (ARF). ET receptor (ETR) antagonists have been reported to increase survival rates and lower serum creatinines when administered postrenal ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat. Renal cellular and extracellular matrix responses to this therapy have not been addressed. We investigated the use of ETR antagonists, PD 156707 (ETA) and SB 209670 (ETA and ETB) in the treatment of sublethal postischemic ARF. The right kidney of female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 200 g was removed. After five days, the left renal pedicle was occluded for 45 minutes. Twenty-four hours after renal ischemia, one of two ETR antagonists, PD 156707 (N = 7) or SB 209670 (N = 8), was administered. Experimental animals were compared with an ischemic group receiving only saline (N = 9). Three nephrectomized groups that did not undergo ischemia but that received infusions of saline (N = 6), PD 156707 (N = 6), and SB 209670 (N = 6), respectively, were also studied. Animals were sacrificed one week postischemia. Quantitation of monocytes and macrophages (Mo/Mphi), alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts, and collagens type III and IV was performed by immunohistochemical staining. Cell kinetics were examined by staining for apoptosis with terminal deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling and for proliferation with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. All ischemic groups of rats initially developed raised serum creatinine levels; however, no significant difference was observed between the groups (Kruskal-Wallis). Creatinines returned to preischemic values in all groups by the time of sacrifice. No significant difference in kidney weights or body weights was found between groups. Histologically, infiltration of Mo/Mphi was significantly reduced in groups treated with ETR antagonists (P < 0.001). The presence of myofibroblasts was also significantly reduced in the antagonist

  3. Inhibition of SET Domain–Containing Lysine Methyltransferase 7/9 Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Irifuku, Taisuke; Yamada, Kyoko; Kokoroishi, Keiko; Ueno, Toshinori; Doi, Toshiki; Hida, Eisuke; Arihiro, Koji; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1 activity results in methylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) through SET domain–containing lysine methyltransferase 7/9 (SET7/9) induction, which is important for the transcriptional activation of fibrotic genes in vitro. However, in vivo studies utilizing an experimental model of renal fibrosis are required to develop therapeutic interventions that target SET7/9. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway of TGF-β1-induced SET7/9 expression and whether inhibition of SET7/9 suppresses renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice and kidney cell lines. Among the SET family, SET7/9 was upregulated on days 3 and 7 in UUO mice, and the upregulation was suppressed by TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. TGF-β1 induced SET7/9 expression via Smad3 in normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E cells. In human kidney biopsy specimens from patients diagnosed with IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy, SET7/9 expression was positively correlated with the degree of interstitial fibrosis (r=0.59, P=0.001 in patients with IgA nephropathy; and r=0.58, P<0.05 in patients with membranous nephropathy). In addition, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SET7/9 expression significantly attenuated renal fibrosis in UUO mice. Sinefungin, an inhibitor of SET7/9, also suppressed the expression of mesenchymal markers and extracellular matrix proteins and inhibited H3K4 mono-methylation (H3K4me1) in kidneys of UUO mice. Moreover, sinefungin had an inhibitory effect on TGF-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin expression and H3K4me1 in both NRK-52E and NRK-49F cells. In conclusion, sinefungin, a SET7/9 inhibitor, ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting H3K4me1 and may be a candidate therapeutic agent. PMID:26045091

  4. Safflower extract: a novel renal fibrosis antagonist that functions by suppressing autocrine TGF-beta.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Lin; Chang, Shan-Yu; Teng, Hsiang-Chun; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Lee, Tao-Chen; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Chang, Fang-Rong; Liao, Tung-Nan; Huang, Jau-Shyang; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Teng; Hung, Min-Yuan; Wang, Ching-Jen; Chiang, Tai-An; Hung, Chien-Ya; Hung, Tsung-Jen

    2008-06-01

    Progressive renal disease is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the renal interstitium. Hence, developing agents that antagonize fibrogenic signals is a critical issue facing researchers. The present study investigated the blood-circulation-promoting Chinese herb, safflower, on fibrosis status in NRK-49F cells, a normal rat kidney interstitial fibroblast, to evaluate the underlying signal transduction mechanism of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a potent fibrogenic growth factor. Safflower was characterized and extracted using water. Renal fibrosis model was established both in vitro with fibroblast cells treated with beta-hydroxybutyrate and in vivo using rats undergone unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Western blotting was used to examine protein expression in TGF-beta-related signal proteins such as type I and type II TGF-beta receptor, Smads2/3, pSmad2/3, Smads4, and Smads7. ELISA was used to analyze bioactive TGF-beta1 and fibronectin levels in the culture media. Safflower extract (SE) significantly inhibited beta-HB-induced fibrosis in NRK cells concomitantly with dose-dependent inhibition of the type I TGF-beta1 receptor and its down-stream signals (i.e., Smad). Moreover, SE dose-dependently enhanced inhibitory Smad7. Thus, SE can suppress renal cellular fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-beta autocrine loop. Moreover, remarkably lower levels of tissue collagen were noted in the nephron and serum TGF-beta1 of UUO rats receiving oral SE (0.15 g/3 ml/0.25 kg/day) compared with the untreated controls. Hence, SE is a potential inhibitor of renal fibrosis. We suggest that safflower is a novel renal fibrosis antagonist that functions by down-regulating TGF-beta signals.

  5. Systemic and renal effects of an ETA receptor subtype-specific antagonist in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schmetterer, Leopold; Dallinger, Susanne; Bobr, Barbara; Selenko, Nicole; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Wolzt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Endothelins (ETs) might play a pathophysiological role in a variety of vascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BQ-123, a specific ETA receptor antagonist on systemic and renal haemodynamics in healthy subjects. This was done at baseline and during infusion of exogenous ET-1.The study was performed in a balanced, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind 4 way cross-over design in 10 healthy male subjects. Subjects received co-infusions of ET-1 (2.5 ng kg−1 min−1 for 120 min) or placebo and BQ-123 (15 μg min−1 for 60 min and subsequently 60 μg min−1 for 60 min) or placebo. Renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed by the para-aminohippurate (PAH) and the inulin plasma clearance method, respectively.BQ-123 alone had no renal or systemic haemodynamic effect. ET-1 significantly reduced RPF (−24%, P<0.001) and GFR (−12%, P=0.034). These effects were abolished by co-infusion of either dose of BQ-123 (RPF: P=0.0012; GFR: P=0.020).BQ-123 reversed the renal haemodynamic effects induced by exogenous ET-1 in vivo. This indicates that vasoconstriction in the kidney provoked by ET-1 is predominantly mediated by the ETA receptor subtype. PMID:9692778

  6. A cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist ameliorates impairment of recognition memory on withdrawal from MDMA (Ecstasy).

    PubMed

    Nawata, Yoko; Hiranita, Takato; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2010-01-01

    (+/-)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') abusers have persistent neuropsychiatric deficits including memory impairments after the cessation of abuse. On the other hand, cannabinoid CB(1) receptors have been implicated in learning/memory, and are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a region of the brain believed to have an important function in certain forms of learning and memory. In this study, we clarified the mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment that develops during MDMA withdrawal from the standpoint of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Mice were administered MDMA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day for 7 days. On the 7th day of withdrawal, a novel object recognition task was performed and the amount of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor protein was measured with western blotting. Recognition performance was impaired on the 7th day of withdrawal. This impairment was blocked by AM251, a cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist, administered 30 min before the training trial or co-administered with MDMA. At this time, the level of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor protein increased significantly in the hippocampus but not the prefrontal cortex or striatum. This increase of CB(1) receptor protein in the hippocampus was also blocked by the co-administration of AM251. Furthermore, CB(1) receptor knockout mice showed no impairment of recognition performance on the withdrawal from MDMA. The impairment of recognition memory during withdrawal from MDMA may result from the activation of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in the hippocampus.

  7. A pegylated leptin antagonist ameliorates CKD-associated cachexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wai W; Ding, Wei; Gunta, Sujana S; Gu, Yong; Tabakman, Rinat; Klapper, Leah N; Gertler, Arieh; Mak, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Elevated serum leptin levels correlate with inflammation and predict changes in lean body mass in patients with CKD, and activation of the melanocortin system by leptin signaling mediates the pathophysiology of CKD-associated cachexia. We tested whether treatment with a pegylated leptin receptor antagonist (PLA) attenuates cachexia in mice with CKD. CKD and Sham mice received vehicle or PLA (2 or 7 mg/kg per day). At these doses, PLA did not influence serum leptin levels in mice. Treatment with 7 mg/kg per day PLA stimulated appetite and weight gain, improved lean mass and muscle function, reduced energy expenditure, and normalized the levels of hepatic TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA in mice with CKD. Furthermore, treatment with 7 mg/kg per day PLA attenuated the CKD-associated increase in the transcriptional and protein abundance of uncoupling proteins that mediates thermogenesis, and it normalized the molecular signatures of processes associated with muscle wasting in CKD, including proteolysis, myogenesis and muscle regeneration, and expression of proinflammatory muscle cytokines, such as IL-1α, -1β, and -6 and TNF-α. Our results suggest that leptin antagonism may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for cachexia in CKD.

  8. Barnidipine ameliorates the vascular and renal injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Alp Yildirim, F Ilkay; Eker Kizilay, Deniz; Ergin, Bülent; Balci Ekmekçi, Özlem; Topal, Gökçe; Kucur, Mine; Demirci Tansel, Cihan; Uydeş Doğan, B Sönmez

    2015-10-05

    The present study was aimed to investigate the influence of Barnidipine treatment on early stage hypertension by determining the function and morphology of the mesenteric and renal arteries as well as the kidney in N(ω)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Barnidipine (3 mg/kg/day p.o) was applied to rats after 2 weeks of L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day) administration, and continued for the next 3 weeks concomitantly with L-NAME. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats was determined to decrease significantly in Barnidipine treated hypertensive group when compared to that of rats received L-NAME alone. Myograph studies demonstrated that the contractile reactivity to noradrenaline were significantly reduced in both of the resistance arteries while endothelium-dependent relaxations to acethylcholine were significantly diminished particularly in the mesenteric arteries of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. The impaired contractile and endothelial responses were completely restored by concomitant treatment of Barnidipine with L-NAME. Histopathological examinations verified structural alterations in the arteries as well as the kidney. Moreover, a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was presented both in the arteries and kidney of hypertensive rats which were increased following Barnidipine treatment. Elevated plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also reduced in Barnidipine treated hypertensive rats. In conclusion, besides to its efficacy in reducing the elevated SBP, amelioration of vascular function, modulation of arterial and renal eNOS expressions as well as reduction of the plasma levels of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers are possible supportive mechanisms mediating the favorable implications of Barnidipine in L-NAME-induced hypertension model.

  9. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog PVPA ameliorates cyclosporine-induced hypertension and renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Michael M; Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Chesnik, Marla A; Sharma, Amit; Paudyal, Mahesh P; Falck, John R; Imig, John D

    2016-09-01

    The introduction of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) into clinical practice in the late 1970s transformed organ transplantation and led to significant improvement in acute rejection episodes. However, despite their significant clinical utility, the use of these agents is hampered by the development of hypertension and nephrotoxicity, which ultimately lead to end-stage kidney disease and overt cardiovascular outcomes. There are currently no effective agents to treat or prevent these complications. Importantly, CNI-free immunosuppressive regimens lack the overall efficacy of CNI-based treatments and put patients at risk of allograft rejection. Cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), have potent vasodilator and antihypertensive properties in addition to many cytoprotective effects, but their effects on CNI-induced nephrotoxicity have not been explored. Here, we show that PVPA, a novel, orally active analog of 14,15-EET, effectively prevents the development of hypertension and ameliorates kidney injury in cyclosporine-treated rats. PVPA treatment reduced proteinuria and renal dysfunction induced by cyclosporine. PVPA inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney and decreased renal fibrosis. PVPA also reduced tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, attenuated the generation of reactive oxygen species, and modulated the unfolded protein response that is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress. Consistent with the in vivo data, PVPA attenuated cyclosporine-induced apoptosis of NRK-52E cells in vitro. These data indicate that the cytochrome P-450/EET system offers a novel therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent CNI-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Chronic administration of oral vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan exerts both myocardial and renal protective effects in rats with hypertensive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Morooka, Hanako; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Tamaki, Yodo; Takase, Toru; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Nakano, Yoshimasa; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2012-07-01

    Although recent clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of the oral vasopressin (AVP) type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist tolvaptan, its long-term effects on the myocardium and kidney in heart failure (HF) are not clear. We examined the chronic effects of tolvaptan administration on both the myocardium and kidney in a rat hypertensive HF model. Not only circulating AVP level but also myocardial AVP and V1a receptor (V1aR) expressions, renal V1aR, and V2R expressions were significantly upregulated during the transition to HF. The animals were chronically treated with low-dose or high-dose (HD) tolvaptan or vehicle from the left ventricular (LV) hypertrophic stage. Chronic tolvaptan treatment persistently increased urine volume but did not affect blood pressure. In the HD group, the animal survival significantly improved (log-rank test, P<0.01). At the HF stage, the progression of LV dysfunction was prevented and lung congestion was suppressed. Activation of atrial natriuretic peptide, endothelin-1, AVP, and V1aR mRNA levels were significantly suppressed in the LV myocardium. Meanwhile, renal histopathologic damage was ameliorated and renal function was improved in the HD group at the HF stage. Concomitantly, not only activation of aquaporin-2 but also those of V2R, V1aR, renin, and endothelin-1 in the kidney were significantly suppressed (all P<0.05). These results indicate that chronic tolvaptan treatment has beneficial effects by preventing not only the progression of LV dysfunction but also that of renal injury in hypertensive rats with HF. The underlying mechanism may be related to the suppression of myocardial and renal neurohumoral activation.

  11. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist ameliorates experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-associated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W W; Feng, L; Vannice, J L; Wilson, C B

    1994-01-01

    The contribution of IL-1 to leukocyte infiltration in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab) glomerulonephritis (GN) was examined by the administration of a specific IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Lewis rats received anti-GBM Ab or normal rabbit serum and were treated with either 0.9% saline or 6 mg IL-1ra over a 24-h time period. Plasma IL-1ra concentration was 2,659 +/- 51 ng/ml 4 h after anti-GBM Ab and IL-1ra administration. PMN and monocyte/macrophage infiltration declined 39% (9.8 +/- 1.9 to 6.0 +/- 1.5 PMN/glomerulus, P < 0.001) and 29% (4.9 +/- 0.8 to 3.5 +/- 0.8 ED-1 cells/glomerulus, P = 0.002) with IL-1ra treatment at 4 h, respectively. Similarly, the number of glomerular cells staining for lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 beta (CD18) declined 39% from 16.7 +/- 1.9 to 10.7 +/- 1.6 cells/glomerulus at 4 h (P = 0.0001). This was associated with a decrease in glomerular intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. The mean glomerular intracellular adhesion molecule-1 score in anti-GBM Ab GN rats treated with IL-1ra was less than that of rats administered anti-GBM Ab and 0.9% saline at 4 (2.0 +/- 0.2 vs 2.5 +/- 0.2, P < 0.05) and 24 (2.5 +/- 0.1 vs 3.1 +/- 0.2, P = 0.0001) h. These immunopathologic changes correlated with a 50% reduction in proteinuria from 147 +/- 34 to 75 +/- 25 mg/d (P < 0.002). Treatment with IL-1ra did not affect the steady state mRNA expression of either IL-1 beta or TNF alpha. An increase in the IL-1ra dose to 30 mg given within the initial 4 h provided no additional benefit. The decline in PMN and monocyte/macrophage infiltration of the glomerulus at 4 h was similar to that found in the initial study. Furthermore, the protective benefit of IL-1ra was abrogated by doubling the dose of the anti-GBM Ab GN, despite administering high dose IL-1ra (30 mg). In these studies, detectable IL-1ra was found in the serum of untreated anti-GBM Ab GN controls. These data suggest a positive yet limited role for IL-1ra in

  12. Gingival hyperplasia in renal allograft recipients receiving cyclosporin-A and calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    King, G N; Fullinfaw, R; Higgins, T J; Walker, R G; Francis, D M; Wiesenfeld, D

    1993-04-01

    Although it is established that the immunosuppressant cyclosporin-A (CsA) and calcium antagonists [Nifedipine (Nif) and Diltiazem (Dz)] can independently induce gingival enlargement, little has been documented on the significance of the salivary CsA levels and the combined effect of CsA and a calcium antagonist upon gingival tissues. In the present cross-sectional investigation, clinical periodontal parameters and the pharmacologic profiles of CsA, Nif, and Dz were determined for 66 renal transplant recipients. Subjects were divided into the following groups: Group (Gp) 1: CsA [n = 18]; Gp 2: CsA + Nif [n = 15]; Gp 3: CsA + Dz [n = 12] and a negative Control Gp 4: azathioprine [n = 21]. A gingival enlargement score was assessed for each patient from study models using a hyperplastic index (HI). Pharmacologic profiles included CsA whole blood and whole saliva levels as measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The HI scores between Gp 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly different. However, when compared with controls (Gp 4), there was a significant difference in HI and all individual groups (Gp 1, 2, 3) (p < 0.05). Gingival hyperplasia was only weakly related to plaque and calculus but was unrelated to CsA dose (mg/kg/day), duration of CsA therapy (months), CsA blood or saliva levels (ng/ml), or the concurrent administration of a Nif or Dz. Gingival enlargement was found to occur in 49% of subjects who were either on CsA or CsA and a calcium antagonist. It is concluded that CsA alone or in combination with a calcium antagonist caused a significant increase in gingival enlargement compared with controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Protein kinase CK2α catalytic subunit ameliorates diabetic renal inflammatory fibrosis via NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junying; Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Jie; Chen, Qiuhong; Li, Jingyan; Gong, Wenyan; Huang, Jiani; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2017-02-23

    Activation of casein kinase 2 (CK2) is closely linked to the body disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism and inflammatory reaction. The renal chronic inflammatory reaction in the setting of diabetes is one of the important hallmarks of diabetic renal fibrosis. However, it remains unknown whether CK2 influences the process of diabetic renal fibrosis. The current study is aimed to investigate if CK2α ameliorates renal inflammatory fibrosis in diabetes via NF-κB pathway. To explore potential regulatory mechanism of CK2α, the expression and activity of CK2α, which were studied by plasmid transfection, selective inhibitor, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and adenovirus infection in vitro or in vivo, were analyzed by means of western blotting (WB), dual luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The following findings were observed: (1) Expression of CK2α was upregulated in kidneys of db/db and KKAy diabetic mice; (2) Inhibition of CK2α kinase activity or knockdown of CK2α protein expression suppressed high glucose-induced expressions of FN and ICAM-1 in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs); (3) Inhibition of CK2α kinase activity or knockdown of CK2α protein expression not only restrained IκB degradation, but also suppressed HG-induced nuclear accumulation, transcriptional activity and DNA binding activity of NF-κB in GMCs; (4) Treatment of TBB or CK2α RNAi adenovirus infection ameliorated renal fibrosis in diabetic animals; (5) Treatment of TBB or CK2α RNAi adenovirus infection suppressed IκB degradation and NF-κB nuclear accumulation in glomeruli of diabetic animals. This study indicates the essential role of CK2α in regulating the diabetic renal pathological process of inflammatory fibrosis via NF-κB pathway, and inhibition of CK2α may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Dioclea violacea lectin ameliorates oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in an experimental model of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Flavia PS; Porto, Marcella L; Tranhago, Camilla P; Piontkowski, Rogerio; Miguel, Emilio C; Miguel, Thaiz BAR; Martins, Jorge L; Nascimento, Kyria S; Balarini, Camille M; Cavada, Benildo S; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Gava, Agata L

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by rapid and potentially reversible decline in renal function; however, the current management for AKI is nonspecific and associated with limited supportive care. Considering the need for more novel therapeutic approaches, we believe that lectins from Dioclea violacea (Dvl), based on their anti-inflammatory properties, could be beneficial for the treatment of AKI induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Dvl (1 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle (100 µL) was administered to Wistar rats prior to the induction of bilateral renal ischemia (45 min). Following 24 hours of reperfusion, inulin and para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearances were performed to determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), renal blood flow (RBF) and renal vascular resistance (RVR). Renal inflammation was assessed using myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Kidney sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to evaluate morphological changes. Intracellular superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, nitric oxide and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. IR resulted in diminished GFR, RPF, RBF, and increased RVR; however, these changes were ameliorated in rats receiving Dvl. AKI-induced histomorphological changes, such as tubular dilation, tubular necrosis and proteinaceous casts, were attenuated by Dvl administration. Treatment with Dvl resulted in diminished renal MPO activity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats submitted to IR. Our data reveal that Dvl has a protective effect in the kidney, improving renal function after IR injury, probably by reducing neutrophil recruitment and oxidative stress. These results indicate that Dvl can be considered a new therapeutic approach for AKI-induced kidney injury. PMID:26885258

  15. Gestational therapy with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and transient renal failure in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Bass, J Kirk; Faix, Roger G

    2006-07-01

    The fetotoxic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors when used during the second half of pregnancy are well known. The more recently developed angiotensin II receptor antagonists appear to yield similar fetal abnormalities. We report a premature infant born to a 41-year-old mother with a long history of infertility who had received losartan therapy for hypertension throughout an undetected pregnancy. Ultrasound examination 2 days prior to delivery identified a single fetus at 29 weeks gestation, anhydramnios, and an empty fetal bladder. The neonatal course was complicated by oliguria, hyperkalemia, marked renal dysfunction, respiratory failure, joint contractures, and a large anterior fontanelle with widely separated sutures. Hypotension (mean arterial pressure<25 torr) on day 1 responded to volume expansion, dopamine, and hydrocortisone. Serum creatinine reached a maximum of 2.7 mg/dL on day 6 and decreased to 0.4 by day 56. No formal urinalysis was performed, but the urine was reported to be visually clear throughout the course. Although a renal ultrasound on day 2 was normal, a follow-up study at 7 months revealed bilateral generalized parenchymal echogenicity, consistent with medical renal disease. Since then, weight and length have been at the 5th percentile or less, with apparent renal tubular acidosis necessitating the addition of sodium citrate supplements. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for potential pregnancy when contemplating the use of a drug of this class, and considering serial testing for pregnancy when using such drugs, even in patients with a longstanding history of infertility.

  16. Nicotine Ameliorates NMDA Receptor Antagonist-Induced Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning through High Affinity Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    André, Jessica M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    NMDA glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are both involved in learning and synaptic plasticity. Increasing evidence suggests processes mediated by these receptors may interact to modulate learning; however, little is known about the neural substrates involved in these interactive processes. The present studies investigated the effects of nicotine on MK-801 hydrogen maleate (MK-801) and DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) induced disruption of contextual fear conditioning in male C57BL/6J mice, using direct drug infusion and selective nAChR antagonists to define the brain regions and the nAChR subtypes involved. Mice treated with MK-801 showed a deficit in contextual fear conditioning that was ameliorated by nicotine. Direct drug infusion demonstrated that the NMDAR antagonists disrupted hippocampal function and that nicotine acted in the dorsal hippocampus to ameliorate the deficit in learning. The high-affinity nAChR antagonist Dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide (DhβE) blocked the effects of nicotine on MK-801-induced deficits while the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate salt hydrate (MLA) did not. These results suggest that NMDARs and nAChRs may mediate similar hippocampal processes involved in contextual fear conditioning. Furthermore, these results may have implications for developing effective therapeutics for the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia because a large subset of patients with schizophrenia exhibit cognitive deficits that may be related to NMDAR dysfunction and smoke at much higher rates than the healthy population, which may be an attempt to ameliorate cognitive deficits. PMID:21167848

  17. Resistive index as a predictor of renal progression in patients with moderate renal dysfunction regardless of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonist medication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Su Mi; Son, Young Ki; Kim, Seong Eun; An, Won Suk

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a higher resistive index (RI) on renal duplex ultrasonography was related with renal progression and acute kidney injury, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB). We evaluated whether a RI value is a predictive factor for renal progression regardless of ACEI or ARB medication in patients with moderate renal dysfunction. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 119 patients with moderate renal dysfunction that had been evaluated with renal duplex ultrasonography from February 2011 to April 2015. Moderate renal dysfunction was defined as a stage 3 to 4 CKD. Renal progression was defined as a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine (sCr), a decrease of baseline glomerular filtration rate by > 50%, or initiation of renal replacement therapy. Results The mean age was 64.7 ± 11.0 years and sCr level was 2.1 ± 1.2 mg/dL. The RI ≥ 0.79 group showed a higher incidence of renal progression (P = 0.004, log-rank test) compared with the RI < 0.79 group, irrespective of ACEI or ARB usage. In the Cox proportional hazard model, RI ≥ 0.79 was an independent prognostic factor after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, sCr, proteinuria, and use of ACEI or ARB (hazard ratio, 4.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–22.53; P = 0.043). Conclusion RI ≥ 0.79 on the renal duplex ultrasonography can be a helpful predictor for renal progression in patients with moderate renal dysfunction, regardless of their ACEI or ARB usage.

  18. Mizoribine Ameliorates Renal Injury and Hypertension along with the Attenuation of Renal Caspase-1 Expression in Aldosterone-Salt-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Toshiki; Doi, Shigehiro; Nakashima, Ayumu; Ueno, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Yukio; Kohno, Nobuoki; Masaki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone-salt treatment induces not only hypertension but also extensive inflammation that contributes to fibrosis in the rat kidney. However, the mechanism underlying aldosterone-salt-induced renal inflammation remains unclear. Pyroptosis has recently been identified as a new type of cell death that is accompanied by the activation of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that aldosterone-salt treatment could induce inflammation through pyroptosis and that mizoribine, an effective immunosuppressant, would ameliorate the renal inflammation that would otherwise cause renal fibrosis. Ten days after recovery from left uninephrectomy, rats were given drinking water with 1% sodium chloride. The animals were divided into three groups (n = 7 per group): (1) vehicle infusion group, (2) aldosterone infusion group, or (3) aldosterone infusion plus oral mizoribine group. Aldosterone-salt treatment increased the expression of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 3 and caspase-1, and also increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells. However, the oral administration of mizoribine attenuated these alterations. Furthermore, mizoribine inhibited hypertension and renal fibrosis, and also attenuated the aldosterone-induced expression of serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase and α epithelial sodium channel. These results suggest that caspase-1 activation plays an important role in the development of inflammation induced by aldosterone-salt treatment and that it functions as an anti-inflammatory strategy that protects against renal injury and hypertension. PMID:24695748

  19. Resveratrol ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced renal tubular oxidative stress damage via modulating the SIRT1/FOXO3a pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueling; Meng, Linghang; Zhao, Long; Wang, Zengfu; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Gang; Guan, Guangju

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We aimed to investigate if resveratrol (RSV) could ameliorate hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in renal tubules via modulating the SIRT1/FOXO3a pathway. The effects of RSV on diabetes rats were assessed by periodic acid-Schiff, Masson staining, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses. Additionally, oxidative indicators (such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species, and malondialdehyde), the deacetylase activity of SIRT1 and protein expressions of SIRT1, FOXO3a, and acetylated-FOXO3a were measured. These indicators were similarly evaluated in an in vitro study. Furthermore, the silencing of SIRT1 was used to confirm its role in the resistance to oxidative stress and the relationship between SIRT1 and FOXO3a in vitro. After 16weeks of RSV treatment, the renal function and glomerulosclerosis of rats with DN was dramatically ameliorated. RSV treatment increased SIRT1 deacetylase activity, subsequently decreasing the expression of acetylated-FOXO3a and inhibiting the oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia both in vivo and in vitro. The silencing of SIRT1 in HK-2 cells aggravated the high glucose-induced oxidative stress and overexpression of acetylated-FOXO3a; RSV treatment failed to protect against these effects. RSV modulates the SIRT1/FOXO3a pathway by increasing SIRT1 deacetylase activity, subsequently ameliorating hyperglycemia-induced renal tubular oxidative stress damage. This mechanism provides the basis for a new approach to developing an effective DN treatment, which is of great clinical significance for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with DN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ameliorative effect of berberine on renal damage in rats with diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duo; Wen, Wei; Qi, Chun-Li; Zhao, Ru-Xia; Lü, Jun-Hua; Zhong, Chun-Yan; Chen, Yi-Yu

    2012-06-15

    Berberine (BBR) is one of the main constituents in Rhizoma coptidis and it has widely been used for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The aims of the study were to investigate the effects and mechanism of action of berberine on renal damage in diabetic rats. Diabetes and hyperglycaemia were induced in rats by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, such as i) control rats, ii) untreated diabetic rats iii) 250 mg/kg metformin-treated, iv and v) 100 and 200 mg/kg berberine-treated diabetic rats and treated separately for 8 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycosylated hemoglobin were measured in rats. Kidneys were isolated at the end of the treatment for histology, Western blot analysis and estimation of malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and renal advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). The results revealed that berberine significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, insulin levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in diabetic rats. The histological examinations revealed amelioration of diabetes-induced glomerular pathological changes following treatment with berberine. In addition, the protein expressions of nephrin and podocin were significantly increased. It seems likely that in rats berberine exerts an ameliorative effect on renal damage in diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. The possible mechanisms for the renoprotective effects of berberine may be related to inhibition of glycosylation and improvement of antioxidation that in turn upregulate the expressions of renal nephrin and podocin.

  1. Low-dose paclitaxel ameliorates renal fibrosis in rat UUO model by inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongshan; Sun, Lin; Xian, Wang; Liu, Fuyou; Ling, Guanghui; Xiao, Li; Liu, Yanhong; Peng, Youmin; Haruna, Yoshisuke; Kanwar, Yashpal S

    2010-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has a pivotal function in the progression of renal fibrosis in a wide variety of renal diseases. Smad proteins have been identified to have an important function in regulating the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through TGF-beta signaling pathway. Aberrant TGF-beta/Smad signaling can be modulated by stabilization of microtubules with paclitaxel. In this study, we investigated if paclitaxel can attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Rats in groups of six were subjected to UUO and received low-dose intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (0.3 mg/kg) twice a week. They were killed at day 7 and 14 after UUO or Sham operation. TGF-beta signaling cascade and status of various ECM proteins were evaluated by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical or immunofluorescence staining. The paclitaxel treatment markedly suppressed Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. This was associated with attenuated expression of integrin-linked kinase, collagens I and III, fibronectin (FN) and alpha-smooth muscle actin, and a substantial decrease in renal fibrosis in animals that underwent UUO and received paclitaxel. These data indicate that the low-dose paclitaxel ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by modulating TGF-beta signaling, and thus, the paclitaxel may have some therapeutic value in humans.

  2. Baicalin ameliorates renal fibrosis via inhibition of transforming growth factor β1 production and downstream signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long; Zhang, Chao; Li, Long; Hu, Chao; Hu, Mushuang; Sidikejiang, Niyazi; Wang, Xuanchuan; Lin, Miao; Rong, Ruiming

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential antifibrotic effects of baicalin in vitro, via examination of 21 compounds isolated from plants. However, its biological activity and underlying mechanisms of action in vivo remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on renal fibrosis in vivo, and the potential signaling pathways involved. A unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)‑induced renal fibrosis model was established using Sprague‑Dawley rats. Baicalin was administrated intraperitoneally every 2 days for 10 days. The degree of renal damage and fibrosis was investigated by histological assessment, and detection of fibronectin and collagen I mRNA expression levels. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels and downstream phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic 2/3 (Smad2/3) were examined in vivo and in an NRK‑52E rat renal tubular cell line in vitro. Baicalin was demonstrated to markedly ameliorate renal fibrosis and suppress EMT, as evidenced by reduced interstitial collagen accumulation, decreased fibronectin and collagen I mRNA expression levels, upregulation of N‑ and E‑cadherin expression levels, and downregulation of α‑smooth muscle actin and vimentin expression. Furthermore, baicalin decreased TGF‑β1 expression levels in serum and kidney tissue following UUO, and suppressed Smad2/3 phosphorylation in rat kidney tissue. In vitro studies identified that baicalin may inhibit the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 under the same TGF‑β1 concentration. In conclusion, baicalin may protect against renal fibrosis, potentially via inhibition of TGF‑β1 production and its downstream signal transduction.

  3. Renal effects of nabumetone, a COX-2 antagonist: impairment of function in isolated perfused rat kidneys contrasts with preserved renal function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Reichman, J; Cohen, S; Goldfarb, M; Shina, A; Rosen, S; Brezis, M; Karmeli, F; Heyman, S N

    2001-01-01

    The constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 enzyme has been considered the physiologically important isoform for prostaglandin synthesis in the normal kidney. It has, therefore, been suggested that selective inhibitors of the 'inducible' isoform (COX-2) may be free from renal adverse effects. We studied the renal effects of the predominantly COX-2 antagonist nabumetone in isolated perfused kidneys. As compared with controls, kidneys removed after in vivo administration of oral nabumetone (15 mg/kg) disclosed altered renal function with reduced glomerular filtration rate, filtration fraction, and urine volume and enhanced hypoxic outer medullary tubular damage. By contrast, renal function and morphology were not affected in vivo by nabumetone or its active metabolite 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid. The latter agent (10-20 mg/kg i.v.) did not significantly alter renal microcirculation, as opposed to a selective substantial reduction in medullary blood flow noted with the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.). In a rat model of acute renal failure, induced by concomitant administration of radiocontrast, nitric oxide synthase, and COX inhibitors, the decline in kidney function and the extent of hypoxic medullary damage with oral nabumetone (80 mg/kg) were comparable to a control group, and significantly less than those induced by indomethacin. In rats subjected to daily oral nabumetone for 3 consecutive weeks, renal function and morphology were preserved as well. Both nabumetone and 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid reduced renal parenchymal prostaglandin E2 to the same extent as indomethacin. It is concluded that while nabumetone adversely affects renal function and may intensify hypoxic medullary damage ex vivo, rat kidneys are not affected by this agent in vivo, both in acute and chronic studies. COX selectivity may not explain the renal safety of nabumetone.

  4. Ameliorative effect of a hippocampal metabotropic glutamate- receptor agonist on histamine H1 receptor antagonist-induced memory deficit in rats.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Takayoshi; Mikami, Azusa; Kamei, Chiaki

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the ameliorative effects of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)-receptor agonists on histamine H(1) receptor antagonist-induced spatial memory deficit and the decrease in hippocampal theta activity in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of pyrilamine (35 mg/kg) resulted in impaired reference and working memory in the radial maze task and decreased hippocampal theta amplitude and power. The working memory deficit and decreased hippocampal theta power induced by pyrilamine were ameliorated by intrahippocampal injection of (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (1 and 10 microg/side), a group I mGlu-receptor agonist; however, intrahippocampal injection of (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (APDC), a group II mGlu-receptor agonist, and L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4), a group III mGlu-receptor agonist, showed no significant effect on the pyrilamine-induced memory deficit and decreased hippocampal theta activity. These results indicate that the activation of hippocampal group I mGlu receptors, but not group II and III mGlu receptors, improve the histamine H(1) receptor antagonist-induced working memory deficit and decreased hippocampal theta activity.

  5. Histamine H3 receptor antagonists ameliorate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral changes caused by neonatal habenula lesion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jeong; Goto, Yukiori; Lee, Young-A

    2017-08-31

    A partial agonist and a full antagonist of the histamine H3 receptor have been suggested to have therapeutic effects on cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders. We have previously shown that neonatal habenula lesion (NHL) induces behavioral deficits that resemble the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined the effects of three H3 antagonists on ADHD-like behavioral changes caused by NHL in rats. Behavioral tests and administration of the H3 receptor antagonists were performed in juvenile rats with NHL. H3 antagonist administration to juvenile rats dose dependently improved NHL-induced hyperlocomotion, impulsive behavior, and attention deficit. These results suggest that histamine H3 antagonists may be used as alternative therapeutic drugs for the treatment of ADHD.

  6. D-ribose ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Masaaki; Ueno, Masaki; Morishita, Jun; Maekawa, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs, but it can produce side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules have important roles in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. D-Ribose is a naturally occurring five-carbon monosaccharide that is found in all living cells, and has anti-inflammatory effects in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of D-ribose on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Forty-eight mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, cisplatin, cisplatin + ribose, and ribose. Mice were given cisplatin (20 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) with or without D-ribose (400 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, immediately after cisplatin injection). At 72 h after cisplatin injection, we measured serum and renal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; renal expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction; serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; and histological changes. Cisplatin increased serum and renal TNF-α concentrations, renal MCP-1 concentration, and renal ICAM-1 mRNA expression. Treatment with D-ribose attenuated the increase in serum and renal TNF-α concentrations, renal MCP-1 concentration, and renal ICAM-1 mRNA expression. Consequently, cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and renal tubular necrosis were attenuated by D-ribose treatment. This is believed to be the first time that protective effects of D-ribose on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of inflammatory reactions have been investigated. Thus, D-ribose may become a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  7. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists in End-Stage Renal Disease: Efficacy and Safety.

    PubMed

    Bomback, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) that block aldosterone's effects on both epithelial and non-epithelial receptors have become a mainstay of therapy for chronic heart failure. Given that cardiovascular events remain the leading cause of death for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the question of whether these MRAs can be employed in dialysis patients arises. This review summarizes the rationale for blocking aldosterone in patients with chronic and end-stage kidney disease and surveys the data on both the efficacy and safety of using MRAs in the ESRD population. A small but growing body of literature suggests that use of MRAs by ESRD patients is associated with lower blood pressure, reduced left ventricular (LV) mass, and improved LV ejection fraction. Recently, a large randomized trial found an overall 3-year mortality rate of 6.4% in ESRD patients on spironolactone 25 mg daily vs. 19.7% in ESRD patients on no MRA therapy (p = 0.002), without a significantly increased risk of hyperkalemia.

  8. A CCR4 antagonist reverses the tumor-promoting microenvironment of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berlato, Chiara; Khan, Moddasar N.; Thompson, Richard; Maniati, Eleni; Montfort, Anne; Jangani, Maryam; Canosa, Monica; Kulbe, Hagen; Hagemann, Urs B.; Duncan, Alexander R.; Fletcher, Laura; Wilkinson, Robert W.; Powles, Thomas; Quezada, Sergio A.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated expression of the chemokine receptor CCR4 in tumors is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers. Here, we have determined that CCR4 was highly expressed in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) biopsies and observed abnormal levels of CCR4 ligands in RCC patient plasma. An antagonistic anti-CCR4 antibody had antitumor activity in the RENCA mouse model of RCC. CCR4 inhibition did not reduce the proportion of infiltrating leukocytes in the tumor microenvironment but altered the phenotype of myeloid cells, increased NK cell and Th1 cytokine levels, and reduced immature myeloid cell infiltrate and blood chemokine levels. In spite of prominent changes in the myeloid compartment, the anti-CCR4 antibody did not affect RENCA tumors in T cell–deficient mice, and treatment with an anti–class II MHC antibody abrogated its antitumor activity. We concluded that the effects of the anti-CCR4 antibody required the adaptive immune system and CD4+ T cells. Moreover, CCL17-induced IFN-γ production was reduced when Th1-polarized normal CD4+ T cells were exposed to the CCR4 ligand, evidencing the involvement of CCR4 in Th1/Th2 regulation. The anti-CCR4 antibody, alone or in combination with other immune modulators, is a potential treatment approach to human solid cancers with high levels of CCR4-expressing tumor-infiltrating leukocytes and abnormal plasma CCR4 ligand levels. PMID:28134623

  9. Tephrosia purpurea ameliorates N-diethylnitrosamine and potassium bromate-mediated renal oxidative stress and toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, N; Sharma, S; Alam, A; Saleem, M; Sultana, S

    2001-06-01

    In an earlier communication, we have shown that Tephrosia purpurea ameliorates benzoyl peroxide-induced oxidative stress in murine skin (Saleem et al. 1999). The present study was designed to investigate a chemopreventive efficacy of T purpurea against N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and potassium bromate-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in rat kidney. A single intraperitoneal dose of N-diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg body weight) one hr prior to the dose of KBrO3 (125 mg/kg body weight) increases microsomal lipid peroxidation and the activity of xanthine oxidase and decreases the activities of renal antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phase II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase and causes depletion in the level of renal glutathione content. A sharp increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine has also been observed. Prophylactic treatment of rats with T. purpurea at doses of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight prevented N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and KBrO3 promoted renal oxidative stress and toxicity. The susceptibility of renal microsomal membrane for iron ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activities were significantly reduced (P<0.01). The depleted levels of glutathione, the inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes, phase II metabolizing enzymes and the enhanced levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were recovered to a significant level (P<0.01). All the antioxidant enzymes were recovered dose-dependently. Our data indicate that T purpurea besides a skin antioxidant can be a potent chemopreventive agent against renal oxidative stress and carcinogenesis induced by N-diethylnitrosamine and KBrO3.

  10. The AT{sub 1} Receptor Antagonist, L-158,809, Prevents or Ameliorates Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, Mike E. Payne, Valerie B.S.; Tommasi, Ellen B.S.; Diz, Debra I.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brown, William R.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Olson, John; Zhao Weiling

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that administration of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, L-158,809, to young adult male rats would prevent or ameliorate fractionated whole-brain irradiation (WBI)-induced cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Groups of 80 young adult male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway (F344xBN) rats, 12-14 weeks old, received either: (1) fractionated WBI; 40 Gy of {gamma} rays in 4 weeks, 2 fractions/week, (2) sham-irradiation; (3) WBI plus L-158,809 (20 mg/L drinking water) starting 3 days prior, during, and for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation; and (4) sham-irradiation plus L-158,809 for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation. An additional group of rats (n = 20) received L-158,809 before, during, and for 5 weeks postirradiation, after which they received normal drinking water up to 28 weeks postirradiation. Results: Administration of L-158,809 before, during, and for 28 or 54 weeks after fractionated WBI prevented or ameliorated the radiation-induced cognitive impairment observed 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. Moreover, giving L-158,809 before, during, and for only 5 weeks postirradiation ameliorated the significant cognitive impairment observed 26 weeks postirradiation. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments occurred without any changes in brain metabolites or gross histologic changes assessed at 28 and 54 weeks postirradiation, respectively. Conclusions: Administering L-158,809 before, during, and after fractionated WBI can prevent or ameliorate the chronic, progressive, cognitive impairment observed in rats at 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. These findings offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain tumor patients.

  11. The AT1 receptor antagonist, L-158,809, prevents or ameliorates fractionated whole-brain irradiation-induced cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Mike E.; Payne, Valerie; Tommasi, Ellen; Diz, Debra I; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brown, William R.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Olson, John; Zhao, Weiling

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesized that administration of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, L-158,809, to young adult male rats would prevent or ameliorate fractionated whole-brain irradiation (WBI)-induced cognitive impairment. Methods and Materials Groups of 80 young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (F344×BN) rats, 12–14 weeks old, received either: i] fractionated WBI; 40 Gy of γ rays in 4 weeks, 2 fractions/week, ii] sham-irradiation; iii] WBI plus L-158,809 (20 mg/L drinking water) starting 3 days prior, during and for 14, 28, or 54 weeks post-irradiation; and iv] sham-irradiation plus L-158,809 for 14, 28, or 54 weeks post-irradiation. An additional group of rats (n = 20) received L-158,809 prior to, during, and for 5 weeks post-irradiation, after which they received normal drinking water up to 28 weeks post-irradiation Results Administration of L-158,809 prior to, during, and for 28 or 54 weeks after fractionated WBI prevented or ameliorated the radiation-induced cognitive impairment observed 26 and 52 weeks post-irradiation. Moreover, giving L-158,809 prior to, during, and for only 5 weeks post-irradiation ameliorated the significant cognitive impairment observed 26 weeks post-irradiation. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments occurred without any changes in brain metabolites or gross histologic changes assessed at 28 and 54 weeks post-irradiation, respectively. Conclusions Administering L-158,809 prior to, during, and after fractionated WBI can prevent or ameliorate the chronic, progressive, cognitive impairment observed in rats at 26 and 52 weeks post-irradiation. These findings offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain tumor patients. PMID:19084353

  12. Administration of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics ameliorates congestion with improving renal dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hanatani, Akihisa; Shibata, Atsushi; Kitada, Ryouko; Iwata, Shinichi; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Doi, Atsushi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Takagi, Masahiko; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    In patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction, high dose of diuretics are necessary to improve congestion, which may progress to renal dysfunction. We examined the efficacy of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics to improve renal function in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized study in 44 patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine concentration ≥1.1 mg/dl) treated with conventional diuretics. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: tolvaptan (15 mg) with a fixed dose of diuretics or with reducing to a half-dose of diuretics for 7-14 consecutive days. We examined the change of urine volume, body weight, serum creatinine and electrolyte concentrations in each group. Both groups demonstrated significant urine volume increase (724 ± 176 ml/day in the fixed-dose group and 736 ± 114 ml/day in the half-dose group) and body weight reduction (1.6 ± 1.5 kg and 1.6 ± 1.9 kg, respectively) from baseline, with no differences between the two groups. Serum creatinine concentration was significantly increased in the fixed-dose group (from 1.60 ± 0.47 to 1.74 ± 0.66 mg/dl, p = 0.03) and decreased in the half-dose group (from 1.98 ± 0.91 to 1.91 ± 0.97 mg/dl, p = 0.10). So the mean changes in serum creatinine concentration from baseline significantly differed between the two groups (0.14 ± 0.08 mg/dl in the fixed-dose group and -0.07 ± 0.19 mg/dl in the half-dose group, p = 0.006). The administration of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics was clinically effective to ameliorate congestion with improving renal function in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction.

  13. Sodium Thiosulfate Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Preserves Renal Function in Hyperoxaluric Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bijarnia, Rakesh K.; Bachtler, Matthias; Chandak, Prakash G.; van Goor, Harry; Pasch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperoxaluria causes crystal deposition in the kidney, which leads to oxidative stress and to injury and damage of the renal epithelium. Sodium thiosulfate (STS, Na2S2O3) is an anti-oxidant, which has been used in human medicine for decades. The effect of STS on hyperoxaluria-induced renal damage is not known. Methods Hyperoxaluria and renal injury were induced in healthy male Wistar rats by chronic exposure to ethylene glycol (EG, 0.75%) in the drinking water for 4 weeks. The treatment effects of STS, NaCl or Na2SO4 were compared. Furthermore, the effects of STS on oxalate-induced oxidative stress were investigated in vitro in renal LLC-PK1 cells. Results Chronic EG exposure led to hyperoxaluria, oxidative stress, calcium oxalate crystalluria and crystal deposition in the kidneys. Whereas all tested compounds significantly reduced crystal load, only STS-treatment maintained tissue superoxide dismutase activity and urine 8-isoprostaglandin levels in vivo and preserved renal function. In in vitro studies, STS showed the ability to scavenge oxalate-induced ROS accumulation dose dependently, reduced cell-released hydrogen peroxide and preserved superoxide dismutase activity. As a mechanism explaining this finding, STS was able to directly inactivate hydrogen peroxide in cell-free experiments. Conclusions STS is an antioxidant, which preserves renal function in a chronic EG rat model. Its therapeutic use in oxidative-stress induced renal-failure should be considered. PMID:25928142

  14. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition ameliorates angiotensin II-dependent hypertension and renal vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Manuel; Sivritas, Sema H; Mergia, Evanthia; Potthoff, Sebastian A; Yang, Guang; Hering, Lydia; Grave, Katharina; Hoch, Henning; Rump, Lars C; Stegbauer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Changes in renal hemodynamics have a major impact on blood pressure (BP). Angiotensin (Ang) II has been shown to induce vascular dysfunction by interacting with phosphodiesterase (PDE)1 and PDE5. The predominant PDE isoform responsible for renal vascular dysfunction in hypertension is unknown. Here, we measured the effects of PDE5 (sildenafil) or PDE1 (vinpocetine) inhibition on renal blood flow (RBF), BP, and renal vascular function in normotensive and hypertensive mice. During acute short-term Ang II infusion, sildenafil decreased BP and increased RBF in C57BL/6 (WT) mice. In contrast, vinpocetine showed no effect on RBF and BP. Additionally, renal cGMP levels were significantly increased after acute sildenafil but not after vinpocetine infusion, indicating a predominant role of PDE5 in renal vasculature. Furthermore, chronic Ang II infusion (500 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) increased BP and led to impaired NO-dependent vasodilation in kidneys of WT mice. Additional treatment with sildenafil (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) attenuated Ang II-dependent hypertension and improved NO-mediated vasodilation. During chronic Ang II infusion, urinary nitrite excretion, a marker for renal NO generation, was increased in WT mice, whereas renal cGMP generation was decreased and restored after sildenafil treatment, suggesting a preserved cGMP signaling after PDE5 inhibition. To investigate the dependency of PDE5 effects on NO/cGMP signaling, we next analyzed eNOS-KO mice, a mouse model characterized by low vascular NO/cGMP levels. In eNOS-KO mice, chronic Ang II infusion increased BP but did not impair NO-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, sildenafil did not influence BP or vascular function in eNOS-KO mice. These results highlight PDE5 as a key regulator of renal hemodynamics in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Slit2 ameliorates renal inflammation and fibrosis after hypoxia-and lipopolysaccharide-induced epithelial cells injury in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Yao, Qisheng; Sun, Xinbo; Gong, Xiaoxin; Yang, Yong; Chen, Congbo; Shan, Guang

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) is often incompletely repaired and leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The Slit2 family of secreted glycoproteins is expressed in the kidney, it has been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory activity and prevent ischemic renal injury in vivo. However, whether Slit2 reduces renal fibrosis and inflammation after hypoxic and inflammatory epithelial cells injury in vitro remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether Slit2 ameliorated fibrosis and inflammation in two renal epithelial cells line challenged with hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Renal epithelial cells were treated with hypoxia and LPS to induce cell injury. Hoechst staining and Western blot analysis was conducted to examine epithelial cells injury. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tested the inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Western blot analysis determined the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Results revealed that hypoxia induced epithelial cells apoptosis, inflammatory factor IL-1β and TNF-α release and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. LPS could exacerbate hypoxia -induced epithelial cells apoptosis, IL-1β and TNF-α release and fibrosis. Slit2 reduced the expression of fibronectin, the rate of epithelial cell apoptosis, and the expression of inflammatory factor. Slit2 could also inhibit the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB, but not the expression of HIF-1α. Therefore, Slit2 attenuated inflammation and fibrosis after LPS- and hypoxia-induced epithelial cells injury via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, but not depending on the HIF-1α signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metformin ameliorates podocyte damage by restoring renal tissue nephrin expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Limin; Gu, Junfei; Yang, Di; Hu, Wen; Wang, Wei; Ye, Shandong

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies found that metformin provided some renoprotection for diabetic renal damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of different doses of metformin on the expression of renal tissue nephrin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model rats and the possible mechanism underlying its protective effect in kidney podocytes. A high-fat diet combined with a low dose of streptozotocin was used to induce T2DM model rats. Diabetic rats were treated with 150, 300, or 500 mg/kg metformin for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, urine and blood samples were collected for measurement of different indices. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify morphological changes. Renal expression of nephrin protein was assayed by immunohistochemical staining, whereas real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect renal nephrin (Nphs1) mRNA expression. Metformin treatment of T2DM rats produced dose-dependent significant reductions in urinary albumin and nephrin concentrations, glomerular basement membrane thickness (GBMT), and the foot process fusion rate (FPFR) compared with control T2DM model rats, whereas renal expression of nephrin protein and Nphs1 mRNA was dose-dependently increased by metformin treatment. Metformin protects kidney podocytes in T2DM model rats by dose-dependently adjusting renal nephrin expression. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Curcumin ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Masaaki; Ueno, Masaki; Morishita, Jun; Maekawa, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin is an orange-yellow polyphenol present in curry spice and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of curcumin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, cisplatin, cisplatin + curcumin and curcumin. Mice were given cisplatin (20 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) with or without curcumin treatment (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, immediately after cisplatin injection). Serum and renal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 concentrations, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA expression in kidney, renal function and histological changes were determined 72 h after cisplatin injection. Serum TNF-alpha concentration in the cisplatin + curcumin group significantly decreased compared with that in the cisplatin group. Renal TNF-alpha and MCP-1 concentrations and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in kidney in the cisplatin + curcumin group also significantly decreased compared with those in the cisplatin group. Consequently, cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and renal tubular necrosis scores were attenuated by curcumin treatment. These results indicate that curcumin acts to reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through its anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, curcumin may become a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  18. Reducing VEGF-B Signaling Ameliorates Renal Lipotoxicity and Protects against Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Falkevall, Annelie; Mehlem, Annika; Palombo, Isolde; Heller Sahlgren, Benjamin; Ebarasi, Lwaki; He, Liqun; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Olauson, Hannes; Axelsson, Jonas; Sundelin, Birgitta; Patrakka, Jaakko; Scotney, Pierre; Nash, Andrew; Eriksson, Ulf

    2017-03-07

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of severe renal disease, and few treatment options are available today that prevent the progressive loss of renal function. DKD is characterized by altered glomerular filtration and proteinuria. A common observation in DKD is the presence of renal steatosis, but the mechanism(s) underlying this observation and to what extent they contribute to disease progression are unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) controls muscle lipid accumulation through regulation of endothelial fatty acid transport. Here, we demonstrate in experimental mouse models of DKD that renal VEGF-B expression correlates with the severity of disease. Inhibiting VEGF-B signaling in DKD mouse models reduces renal lipotoxicity, re-sensitizes podocytes to insulin signaling, inhibits the development of DKD-associated pathologies, and prevents renal dysfunction. Further, we show that elevated VEGF-B levels are found in patients with DKD, suggesting that VEGF-B antagonism represents a novel approach to treat DKD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simvastatin ameliorates renal lipidosis through the suppression of renal CXCL16 expression in mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Li, Qian; Zhen, Junhui; Xu, Yihuai; Sun, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the roles of CXCL16 and ox-LDL in adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy mice and to explore the mechanism of simvastatin on the renal protective effects of ADR nephropathy. Methods: Fifteen male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into normal control (NC), ADR nephropathy and simvastatin-treated ADR nephropathy (ADR-SIM) groups. ADR nephropathy was induced by a single intravenous injection of ADR into the tail vein. All mice were sacrificed at the end of the 7th week, with the blood, 24-h urine and kidneys collected. The levels of ox-LDL and total cholesterol in the serum, the serum CXCL16, ox-LDL and NF-κB expression were detected. Results: Compared with the NC group, the levels of serum total cholesterol and ox-LDL in the ADR and ADR-SIM groups were significantly higher, the level of serum albumin was significantly lower and the expression of CXCL16, ox-LDL and NF-κB in the renal tissue of ADR and ADR-SIM groups was significantly increased. Compared with the ADR group, the expressions of renal CXCL16, ox-LDL and NF-κB in the ADR-SIM group were significantly decreased. Levels of serum total cholesterol and ox-LDL were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: Simvastatin exerts a protective effect on renal function and structure in mice with ADR nephropathy. The beneficial effects of simvastatin might be related to the decreasing expression of CXCL16 in glomerular podocytes followed by the decreasing endocytosis of ox-LDL in podocytes and inhibition of NF-κB pathway activation. PMID:26884839

  20. Interleukin-22 ameliorated renal injury and fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaofei; Li, Yubin; Fan, Jiajun; Zhang, Xuyao; Luan, Jingyun; Bian, Qi; Ding, Tao; Wang, Yichen; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Ping; Cui, Daxiang; Mei, Xiaobin; Ju, Dianwen

    2017-07-20

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most lethal complications of diabetes mellitus with metabolic disorders and chronic inflammation. Although the cytokine IL-22 was initially implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, recent studies suggested that IL-22 could suppress inflammatory responses and alleviate tissue injury. Herein, we examined the role of IL-22 in DN. We found that serum levels of IL-22 were significantly downregulated in both patients and mice with DN. The expression of IL-22 was further decreased with the progression of DN, whereas IL-22 gene therapy significantly ameliorated renal injury and mesangial matrix expansion in mice with established nephropathy. IL-22 could also markedly reduce high glucose-induced and TGF-β1-induced overexpression of fibronectin and collagen IV in mouse renal glomerular mesangial cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting the potential role of IL-22 to inhibit the overproduction of ECM in vitro. Simultaneously, IL-22 gene therapy drastically alleviated renal fibrosis and proteinuria excretion in DN. In addition, IL-22 gene therapy markedly attenuated hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic mice. Notably, IL-22 drastically reversed renal activation of NLRP3, cleavage of caspase-1, and the maturation of IL-1β in DN, suggesting unexpected anti-inflammatory function of IL-22 via suppressing the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Moreover, IL-22 markedly downregulated high glucose-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in renal mesangial cells in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that the effects of IL-22 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation was independent of improved glycemic control. These results suggested that nephroprotection by IL-22 in DN was most likely associated with reduced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. In conclusion, our finding demonstrated that IL-22 could exert favorable effects on DN via simultaneously alleviating systemic

  1. A Beverage Containing Fermented Black Soybean Ameliorates Ferric Nitrilotriacetate-Induced Renal Oxidative Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yasumasa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Kawakami, Norito; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Toyokuni, Shinya; Okada, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    It is beneficial to seek scientific basis for the effects of functional foods. Natural pigments derived from plants are widely known as possible antioxidants. Black soybean contains a larger amount of anthocyanins than regular soybean. Here we studied the antioxidative effect of a beverage obtained via citric acid fermentation of black soybean (BBS), using a rat model of renal oxidative injury induced by a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate. BBS (10 ml/kg) was orally administered 30 min before ferric nitrilotriacetate treatment. Renal lipid peroxidation was significantly suppressed in the BBS-pretreated animals concomitant with decrease in 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Maintenance of renal activities of antioxidative enzymes including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and quinone reductase was significantly better in the BBS-pretreated rats. Elevation of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen was significantly suppressed in the BBS-pretreated rats. These data suggest that dietary intake of BBS is useful for the prevention of renal tubular oxidative damage mediate by iron, and warrant further investigation. PMID:21103028

  2. Pharmacologic Blockade of αvβ1 Integrin Ameliorates Renal Failure and Fibrosis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yongen; Lau, Wei Ling; Jo, Hyunil; Tsujino, Kazuyuki; Gewin, Leslie; Reed, Nilgun Isik; Atakilit, Amha; Nunes, Ane Claudia Fernandes; DeGrado, William F; Sheppard, Dean

    2017-02-20

    Activated fibroblasts are deemed the main executors of organ fibrosis. However, regulation of the pathologic functions of these cells in vivo is poorly understood. PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) is highly expressed in activated pericytes, a main source of fibroblasts. Studies using a PDGFRβ promoter-driven Cre system to delete αv integrins in activated fibroblasts identified these integrins as core regulators of fibroblast activity across solid organs, including the kidneys. Here, we used the same PDGFRβ-Cre line to isolate and study renal fibroblasts ex vivo We found that renal fibroblasts express three αv integrins, namely αvβ1, αvβ3, and αvβ5. Blockade of αvβ1 prevented direct binding of fibroblasts to the latency-associated peptide of TGF-β1 and prevented activation of the latent TGF-β complex. Continuous administration of a recently described potent small molecule inhibitor of αvβ1, compound 8, starting the day of unilateral ureteral obstruction operation, inhibited collagen deposition in the kidneys of mice 14 days later. Compound 8 also effectively attenuated renal failure, as measured by BUN levels in mice fed an adenine diet known to cause renal injury followed by fibrosis. Inhibition of αvβ1 integrin could thus hold promise as a therapeutic intervention in CKD characterized by renal fibrosis.

  3. Dalbergioidin Ameliorates Doxorubicin-Induced Renal Fibrosis by Suppressing the TGF-β Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xianguo; Bo, Yun; Fan, Junting; Chen, Maosheng; Xu, Daliang; Dong, Yang; He, Haowei; Ren, Xianzhi; Qu, Rong; Jin, Yulian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Dalbergioidin (DAL), a well-known natural product extracted from Uraria crinita, on doxorubicin- (DXR-) induced renal fibrosis in mice. The mice were pretreated for 7 days with DAL followed by a single injection of DXR (10 mg/kg) via the tail vein. Renal function was analyzed 5 weeks after DXR treatment. DXR caused nephrotoxicity. The symptoms of nephrotic syndrome were greatly improved after DAL treatment. The indices of renal fibrosis, the phosphorylation of Smad3, and the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, collagen III (Col III), E-cadherin, TGF-β, and Smad7 in response to DXR were all similarly modified by DAL. The present findings suggest that DAL improved the markers for kidney damage investigated in this model of DXR-induced experimental nephrotoxicity. PMID:28100935

  4. Dalbergioidin Ameliorates Doxorubicin-Induced Renal Fibrosis by Suppressing the TGF-β Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianguo; Bo, Yun; Fan, Junting; Chen, Maosheng; Xu, Daliang; Dong, Yang; He, Haowei; Ren, Xianzhi; Qu, Rong; Jin, Yulian; Zhao, Weihong; Xu, Changliang

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Dalbergioidin (DAL), a well-known natural product extracted from Uraria crinita, on doxorubicin- (DXR-) induced renal fibrosis in mice. The mice were pretreated for 7 days with DAL followed by a single injection of DXR (10 mg/kg) via the tail vein. Renal function was analyzed 5 weeks after DXR treatment. DXR caused nephrotoxicity. The symptoms of nephrotic syndrome were greatly improved after DAL treatment. The indices of renal fibrosis, the phosphorylation of Smad3, and the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, collagen III (Col III), E-cadherin, TGF-β, and Smad7 in response to DXR were all similarly modified by DAL. The present findings suggest that DAL improved the markers for kidney damage investigated in this model of DXR-induced experimental nephrotoxicity.

  5. Mild Electrical Stimulation and Heat Shock Ameliorates Progressive Proteinuria and Renal Inflammation in Mouse Model of Alport Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ryosuke; Morino-Koga, Saori; Suico, Mary Ann; Koyama, Kosuke; Sato, Takashi; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerulopathy with proteinuria and nephritis caused by defects in genes encoding type IV collagen in the glomerular basement membrane. All male and most female patients develop end-stage renal disease. Effective treatment to stop or decelerate the progression of proteinuria and nephritis is still under investigation. Here we showed that combination treatment of mild electrical stress (MES) and heat stress (HS) ameliorated progressive proteinuria and renal injury in mouse model of Alport syndrome. The expressions of kidney injury marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were suppressed by MES+HS treatment. The anti-proteinuric effect of MES+HS treatment is mediated by podocytic activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt and heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72)-dependent pathways in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effect of MES+HS was mediated by glomerular activation of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38-dependent pathways ex vivo. Collectively, our studies show that combination treatment of MES and HS confers anti-proteinuric and anti-inflammatory effects on Alport mice likely through the activation of multiple signaling pathways including PI3K-Akt, Hsp72, JNK1/2, and p38 pathways, providing a novel candidate therapeutic strategy to decelerate the progression of patho-phenotypes in Alport syndrome. PMID:22937108

  6. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    PubMed

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (p<0.05) serum glucose and urea concentrations, increased (p<0.05) serum insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment for β-cell dysfunction (HOMA-β) while the level of creatinine and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were not affected. Histological examination of the pancreas and kidney revealed restoration of the structural derangements caused by streptozotocin in the polyphenol extracts treated diabetic rats compared to the control groups. Therefore, polyphenols from Zingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats.

  7. Mycelia glycoproteins from Cordyceps sobolifera ameliorate cyclosporine-induced renal tubule dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Chyau, Charny-Cherng; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Jun-Chang; Yang, Te-Cheng; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Cheng, Chi-Hung

    2014-05-14

    Cordyceps sorbolifera has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for improving the renal function. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an important immunosuppressive agent in the prevention of renal allograft rejection, but long-term usage of CsA could lead to chronic nephrotoxicity and renal graft failure. The study was aimed to investigate whether the mycelia glycoproteins of Cordyceps sobolifera (CSP) exert prevention effects on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n=6 per group): normal saline (control group), CSP group, CsA group, and CSP-CsA group (CsA combined treatment with CSP). Glomerular and tubular functions were assessed and histological studies were performed. CSP, prepared by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and membrane dialysis, was found to be composed of three glycoproteins with average molecular weights of 543, 31, and 6.3 kDa, respectively. CsA impaired urea clearance and creatinine clearance were significantly improved by concomitant administration of CSP. TUNEL histochemical stain revealed that CSP significantly decreased CsA-induced apoptosis in renal tubular cells. The reducing effect of caspase-3 activation by CSP was suggested through the over-expression of the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 in renal tubule cells. In assessment of CSP protection of renal tubule function, we found that CSP restored CsA induced magnesium wasting by increasing the magnesium reabsorption channels TRMP6 and TRMP7. The results suggested that CSP had a significant suppressive activity on CsA-induced apoptosis and protective activity against nephron loss possibly via its restoring activity by increasing the magnesium reabsorption channels TRMP6 and TRMP7 on CsA induced magnesium wasting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The combination of neurokinin-1 and galanin receptor antagonists ameliorates caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Carati, Colin J; Schloithe, Ann C; Toouli, James; Saccone, Gino T P

    2010-02-01

    Both galanin and substance P have been separately implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. We compared the efficacy of the combination of the galanin antagonist galantide and the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L703,606 with that of either alone in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice with 7-hourly caerulein injections. Galantide was co-administered with each caerulein injection commencing with the first injection (prophylactic) or 2h after the first injection (therapeutic). L703,606 was administered either 30 min before (prophylactic), or 2h after the first caerulein injection (therapeutic). Combination of the two agents was also administered. Control groups received galantide, L703,606, or saline, without caerulein. Pancreata were harvested for histological examination and estimation of myeloperoxidase activity. Plasma amylase activity was measured. Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of galantide reduced the hyperamylasemia by 37% and 30% respectively whereas only prophylactic L703,606 reduced hyperamylasemia (by 34%). Prophylactic administration of the combined antagonists reduced the hyperamylasemia by 44%. In contrast, therapeutic administration of the combination significantly increased plasma amylase levels by 27%. The plasma amylase activity in the control groups was similar to basal levels. Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of either antagonist or the combination significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity. Galantide and L703,606 individually, and in combination, significantly reduced the acute pancreatitis-induced necrosis score. The administration of the combined antagonists does not offer any further benefit as compared to galantide alone. An interaction between neurokinin-1 and galanin receptors may occur to modulate amylase secretion.

  9. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dev; Singla, Surinder K; Puri, Veena; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI), which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI). Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC) lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI.

  10. Amelioration of renal carcinogenesis by bee propolis: a chemo preventive approach.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Summya; Ali, Nemat; Nafees, Sana; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Sultana, Sarwat

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the chemo preventive efficacy of bee propolis (BP) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) promoted renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Chronic treatment of Fe-NTA induced oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular proliferation in Wistar rats. BP is a resinous material collected by bees from various plants which has been used from centuries in folk medicine. Renal cancer was initiated by single intraperitoneal injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN 200 mg/kg body weight) and promoted by twice weekly administration of Fe-NTA 9 mg Fe/kg body weight for 16 weeks. The chemo preventive efficacy of BP was studied in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO), renal anti-oxidant armory such as catalase, superoxide dismustase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione (GSH), serum toxicity markers, cell proliferation, tumor suppressor protein and inflammation markers. Administration of Fe-NTA enhances renal LPO, with concomitant reduction in reduced GSH content and antioxidant enzymes. It induces serum toxicity markers, viz., blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase. Chemo preventive effects of BP were associated with upregulation of antioxidant armory and down regulation of serum toxicity markers. BP was also able to down regulate expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and upregulated p53 along with induction of apoptosis. Histopathological changes further confirmed the biochemical and immunohistochemical results. These results provide a powerful evidence for the chemo preventive efficacy of BP against renal carcinogenesis possibly by modulation of multiple molecular pathways.

  11. Perivascular radiofrequency renal denervation lowers blood pressure and ameliorates cardiorenal fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Su, Linan; Zhang, Yunrong; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Yang, Yongjian; Ma, Shuangtao

    2017-01-01

    Background Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) is a promising approach to treat hypertension, but innervation patterns limit the response to endovascular RDN and the post-procedural renal artery narrowing or stenosis questions the endovascular ablation strategy. This study was performed to investigate the anti-hypertensive and target organ protective effects of perivascular RDN in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were divided into sham group (n = 10), radiofrequency ablation group (n = 20) in which rats received bilateral perivascular ablation with radiofrequency energy (2 watts), and chemical (10% phenol in 95% ethanol) ablation group (n = 12). The tail-cuff blood pressure was measured before the ablation and on day 14 and day 28 after the procedure. The plasma levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, and catecholamines, urinary excretion of electrolytes and protein, and myocardial and glomerular fibrosis were analyzed and compared among the groups on day 28 after the procedure. Results We identified that 2-watt is the optimal radiofrequency power for perivascular RDN in rats. Perivascular radiofrequency and chemical ablation achieved roughly comparable blood pressure reduction in SHR but not in WKY on day 14 and day 28 following the procedure. Radiofrequency-mediated ablation substantially destroyed the renal nerves surrounding the renal arteries of both SHR and WKY without damaging the renal arteries and diminished the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the enzyme marker for postganglionic sympathetic nerves. Additionally, perivascular radiofrequency ablation also decreased the plasma catecholamines of SHR. Interestingly, both radiofrequency and chemical ablation decreased the myocardial and glomerular fibrosis of SHR, while neither increased the plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen nor affected the urinary excretion of electrolytes and protein when compared to sham group. Conclusions Radiofrequency

  12. Perivascular radiofrequency renal denervation lowers blood pressure and ameliorates cardiorenal fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shujie; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yan; Su, Linan; Zhang, Yunrong; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Yang, Yongjian; Ma, Shuangtao

    2017-01-01

    Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) is a promising approach to treat hypertension, but innervation patterns limit the response to endovascular RDN and the post-procedural renal artery narrowing or stenosis questions the endovascular ablation strategy. This study was performed to investigate the anti-hypertensive and target organ protective effects of perivascular RDN in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were divided into sham group (n = 10), radiofrequency ablation group (n = 20) in which rats received bilateral perivascular ablation with radiofrequency energy (2 watts), and chemical (10% phenol in 95% ethanol) ablation group (n = 12). The tail-cuff blood pressure was measured before the ablation and on day 14 and day 28 after the procedure. The plasma levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, and catecholamines, urinary excretion of electrolytes and protein, and myocardial and glomerular fibrosis were analyzed and compared among the groups on day 28 after the procedure. We identified that 2-watt is the optimal radiofrequency power for perivascular RDN in rats. Perivascular radiofrequency and chemical ablation achieved roughly comparable blood pressure reduction in SHR but not in WKY on day 14 and day 28 following the procedure. Radiofrequency-mediated ablation substantially destroyed the renal nerves surrounding the renal arteries of both SHR and WKY without damaging the renal arteries and diminished the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the enzyme marker for postganglionic sympathetic nerves. Additionally, perivascular radiofrequency ablation also decreased the plasma catecholamines of SHR. Interestingly, both radiofrequency and chemical ablation decreased the myocardial and glomerular fibrosis of SHR, while neither increased the plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen nor affected the urinary excretion of electrolytes and protein when compared to sham group. Radiofrequency-mediated perivascular RDN may become a

  13. Glycyrrhizic acid ameliorates HMGB1-mediated cell death and inflammation after renal ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Lau, Arthur; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Weihua; Haig, Aaron; Zhang, Zhu-Xu; Jevnikar, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) leads to acute kidney injury (AKI) and the death of tubular epithelial cells (TEC). The release of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and other damage-associated molecular pattern moieties from dying cells may promote organ dysfunction and inflammation by effects on TEC. Glycyrrhizic acid (GZA) is a functional inhibitor of HMGB1, but its ability to attenuate the HMGB1-mediated injury of TEC has not been tested. In vitro, hypoxia and cytokine treatment killed TEC and resulted in the progressive release of HMGB1 into the supernatant. GZA reduced the hypoxia-induced TEC death as measured by annexin-V and propidium iodide. Hypoxia increased the expression of MCP-1 and CXCL1 in TEC, which was reduced by GZA in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the HMGB1 activation of effector NK cells was inhibited by GZA. To test the effect of HMGB1 neutralization by GZA in vivo, mice were subjected to renal IRI. HMGB1 protein expression increased progressively in kidneys from 4 to 24 h after ischemia and was detected in tubular cells by 4 h using immunohistochemistry. GZA preserved renal function after IRI and reduced tubular necrosis and neutrophil infiltration by histological analyses and ethidium homodimer staining. Importantly, these data demonstrate for the first time that AKI following hypoxia and renal IRI may be promoted by HMGB1 release, which can reduce the survival of TEC and augment inflammation. Inhibition of the interaction of HMGB1 with TEC through GZA may represent a therapeutic strategy for the attenuation of renal injury following IRI and transplantation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. HSV-1-mediated IL-1 receptor antagonist gene therapy ameliorates MOG(35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Furlan, R; Bergami, A; Brambilla, E; Butti, E; De Simoni, M G; Campagnoli, M; Marconi, P; Comi, G; Martino, G

    2007-01-01

    Primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, play a crucial pathogenic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and may represent, therefore, a suitable therapeutic target. We have previously established the delivery of anti-inflammatory cytokine genes within the central nervous system (CNS), based on intracisternal (i.c.) injection of non-replicative HSV-1-derived vectors. Here we show the therapeutic efficacy of i.c. administration of an HSV-1-derived vector carrying the interleukin-1receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene, the physiological antagonist of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1, in C57BL/6 mice affected by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE. IL-1ra gene therapy is effective preventively, delaying EAE onset by almost 1 week (22.4+/-1.4 days post-immunization vs 15.9+/-2.1 days in control mice; P=0.0229 log-rank test), and decreasing disease severity. Amelioration of EAE course was associated with a reduced number of macrophages infiltrating the CNS and in a decreased level of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in the CNS, suggesting an inhibitory activity of IL-1ra on effector cell recruitment, as antigen-specific peripheral T-cell activation and T-cell recruitment to the CNS is unaffected. Thus, local IL-1ra gene therapy may represent a therapeutic alternative for the inhibition of immune-mediated demyelination of the CNS.

  15. Deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Down syndrome ameliorated by GABAB receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Belichenko, Pavel V; Faizi, Mehrdad; Jacobs, Lucia F; Htun, Khin; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Mobley, William C

    2012-07-04

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABA(B) receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABA(B) receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition, and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABA(B) receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABA(B) receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS.

  16. Deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Down syndrome ameliorated by GABAB receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Kleschevnikov, A.M.; Belichenko, P.V.; Faizi, M.; Jacobs, L.F.; Htun, K.; Shamloo, M.; Mobley, W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABAB receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABAB receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABAB receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABAB receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABAB receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS. PMID:22764230

  17. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Yi-ping; Deng, Yue-yi; Zheng, Rong; Zhong, Yi-fei; Wang, Lin; Du, Lan-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. Methods: We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group, vehicle-treated SNx, Cozaar, 2 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 1 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 92 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx, and 46 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx. Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis. The expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Renal injury, reflected in urine and serum analyses, and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention. The depositions of Col IV and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF. In some respects, 2 g/(kg∙d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar. Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown that C. cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway. Therefore, we conclude that the use of C. cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis. PMID:22135152

  18. Elevated bilirubin levels are associated with a better renal prognosis and ameliorate kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sehoon; Kim, Do Hyoung; Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Seung Hee; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin has been reported to protect against kidney injury. However, further studies highlighting the beneficial effects of bilirubin on renal fibrosis and chronic renal function decline are necessary. We assessed a prospective cohort with a reference range of total bilirubin levels. The primary outcome was a 30% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, and the secondary outcome was a doubling of the serum creatinine levels, halving of the eGFR and the initiation of dialysis. In addition, experiments with tubular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice were performed to investigate the protective effects of bilirubin on kidney fibrosis. As a result, 1,080 patients were included in the study cohort. The study group with relative hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 0.8-1.2 mg/dL) showed a better prognosis in terms of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.59, P < 0.001) and the secondary outcome (adjusted HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.71, P = 0.01) than that of the control group. Moreover, the bilirubin-treated mice showed less fibrosis in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model (P < 0.05). In addition, bilirubin treatment decreased fibronectin expression in tubular epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels were associated with better renal prognosis, and bilirubin treatment induced a beneficial effect on renal fibrosis. Therefore, bilirubin could be a potential therapeutic target to delay fibrosis-related kidney disease progression.

  19. The carbonyl scavenger carnosine ameliorates dyslipidaemia and renal function in Zucker obese rats.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Braidotti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina

    2011-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor that increases the risk for development of renal and vascular complications. This study addresses the effects of chronic administration of the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-CAR) and of its enantiomer (β-alanyl-D-histidine, D-CAR) on hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, advanced glycation end products, advanced lipoxidation end products formation and development of nephropathy in the non-diabetic, Zucker obese rat. The Zucker rats received a daily dose of L-CAR or D-CAR (30 mg/kg in drinking water) for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was recorded monthly. At the end of the treatment, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, creatinine and urinary levels of total protein, albumin and creatinine were measured. Several indices of oxidative/carbonyl stress were also measured in plasma, urine and renal tissue. We found that both L- and D-CAR greatly reduced obese-related diseases in obese Zucker rat, by significantly restraining the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and renal injury, as demonstrated by both urinary parameters and electron microscopy examinations of renal tissue. Because the protective effect elicited by L- and D-CAR was almost superimposable, we conclude that the pharmacological action of L-CAR is not due to a pro-histaminic effect (D-CAR is not a precursor of histidine, since it is stable to peptidic hydrolysis), and prompted us to propose that some of the biological effects can be mediated by a direct carbonyl quenching mechanism.

  20. The carbonyl scavenger carnosine ameliorates dyslipidaemia and renal function in Zucker obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Braidotti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor that increases the risk for development of renal and vascular complications. This study addresses the effects of chronic administration of the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-CAR) and of its enantiomer (β-alanyl-D-histidine, D-CAR) on hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, advanced glycation end products, advanced lipoxidation end products formation and development of nephropathy in the non-diabetic, Zucker obese rat. The Zucker rats received a daily dose of L-CAR or D-CAR (30 mg/kg in drinking water) for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was recorded monthly. At the end of the treatment, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, creatinine and urinary levels of total protein, albumin and creatinine were measured. Several indices of oxidative/carbonyl stress were also measured in plasma, urine and renal tissue. We found that both L- and D-CAR greatly reduced obese-related diseases in obese Zucker rat, by significantly restraining the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and renal injury, as demonstrated by both urinary parameters and electron microscopy examinations of renal tissue. Because the protective effect elicited by L- and D-CAR was almost superimposable, we conclude that the pharmacological action of L-CAR is not due to a pro-histaminic effect (D-CAR is not a precursor of histidine, since it is stable to peptidic hydrolysis), and prompted us to propose that some of the biological effects can be mediated by a direct carbonyl quenching mechanism. PMID:20518851

  1. Elevated bilirubin levels are associated with a better renal prognosis and ameliorate kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Seung Hee; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Background Bilirubin has been reported to protect against kidney injury. However, further studies highlighting the beneficial effects of bilirubin on renal fibrosis and chronic renal function decline are necessary. Methods We assessed a prospective cohort with a reference range of total bilirubin levels. The primary outcome was a 30% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, and the secondary outcome was a doubling of the serum creatinine levels, halving of the eGFR and the initiation of dialysis. In addition, experiments with tubular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice were performed to investigate the protective effects of bilirubin on kidney fibrosis. Results As a result, 1,080 patients were included in the study cohort. The study group with relative hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 0.8–1.2 mg/dL) showed a better prognosis in terms of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19–0.59, P < 0.001) and the secondary outcome (adjusted HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.71, P = 0.01) than that of the control group. Moreover, the bilirubin-treated mice showed less fibrosis in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model (P < 0.05). In addition, bilirubin treatment decreased fibronectin expression in tubular epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Conclusions Mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels were associated with better renal prognosis, and bilirubin treatment induced a beneficial effect on renal fibrosis. Therefore, bilirubin could be a potential therapeutic target to delay fibrosis-related kidney disease progression. PMID:28225832

  2. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  3. Renal inactivation, mineralocorticoid generation, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition ameliorate the antimineralocorticoid effect of progesterone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quinkler, M; Meyer, B; Oelkers, W; Diederich, S

    2003-08-01

    Progesterone (P) is a strong mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist in vitro. The high P concentrations seen in normal pregnancy only moderately increase renin and aldosterone concentrations. In previous in vitro studies we hypothesized that this may be explained by intrarenal conversion of P to less potent metabolites. To investigate the in vivo anti-MR potency of P, we performed an infusion study in patients with adrenal insufficiency (n = 8). They omitted 9alpha-fluorocortisol for 4 d and hydrocortisone for 0.5 d before a continuous iv infusion of aldosterone for 8.5 h, with an additional iv P infusion commenced at 4 h. During aldosterone infusions the initially elevated urinary sodium to potassium ratio decreased significantly. Despite the 1000-fold excess of P over aldosterone, the urinary sodium to potassium ratio and urinary sodium excretion increased only slightly after 3 h of P infusion. We detected inhibition of renal 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 by P, thus giving cortisol/prednisolone access to the MR. Urinary and plasma concentrations of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, a major metabolite of renal P metabolism, and those of serum androstenedione and deoxycorticosterone, a mineralocorticoid itself, increased significantly during P infusion. This supports the hypothesis of an effective protection of the MR from P by efficient extraadrenal downstream conversion of P.

  4. You-gui Pill ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cao, Ai-Li; Chi, Yang-Feng; Ju, Zheng-Cai; Yin, Pei-Hao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Peng, Wen

    2015-07-01

    You-gui Pill (YGP), a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, was widely used to warm and recuperate "kidney-yang" clinically for hundreds of years in China. Recent studies found that YGP had a potential benefit for renoprotection. The present study aimed to elucidate the in vivo and in vitro efficacy of YGP on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and the molecular mechanism is also investigated. Rat renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis model was elicited by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent UUO and were studied after 14 days. Animals were randomly subjected to six groups: sham, UUO, UUO/YGP (0.14, 0.42, 1.26g/kg/d), and UUO/enalapril (10mg/kg/d). HE, Masson and ELISA were used for evaluate renal injury and function. Immunohistochemical analysis and western blot were used to detect the expressions of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen matrix and Smads. In vitro studies were investigated in TGF-β1-stiumlated NRK-49F cell line. Oral administration of YGP significantly decreased UUO-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, and there was no significant difference between YGP at 1.26g/kg and enalapril at 10mg/kg treatment (P>0.05). Meanwhile, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were reduced dramatically (P<0.01). In coincide with the decreased of TGF-β1, α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen matrix expressions were also declined with YGP treatment in both UUO kidneys and TGF-β1-stimulated NRK-49F cell line. Additionally, nuclear translocation of p-Smad2/3 was markedly down-regulated by YGP (P<0.001), with a relative mild up-regulated expression of Smad7 (P<0.05). Our findings demonstrate that YGP had a renoprotective effect in ameliorating renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and this activity possibly via suppression of the TGF-β and its downstream regulatory signaling pathway, including Smad2/3. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Influence of Titration of Neurohormonal Antagonists and Blood Pressure Reduction on Renal Function and Decongestion in Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, F. Perry; Brisco, Meredith A.; Bellumkonda, Lavanya; Jacoby, Daniel; Coca, Steven G.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Testani, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP reduction) during the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is strongly and independently associated with worsening renal function (WRF). Our objective was to determine if SBP reduction or titration of oral neurohormonal antagonists during ADHF treatment negatively influences diuresis and decongestion. Methods and Results SBP reduction was evaluated from admission to discharge in consecutive ADHF admissions (n=656). Diuresis and decongestion was examined across a range of parameters such as diuretic efficiency, fluid output, hemoconcentration, and diuretic dose. The average reduction in SBP was 14.4 ± 19.4 mmHg and 77.6% of the population had discharge SBP lower than admission. SBP reduction was strongly associated with WRF (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9, p=0.004), a finding that persisted after adjusting for parameters of diuresis and decongestion (OR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2, p=0.002). However, SBP reduction did not negatively impact diuresis or decongestion (p≥0.25 for all parameters). Uptitration of neurohormonal antagonists occurred in over 50% of admissions and was associated with a modest additional reduction in blood pressure (≤ 5.6 mmHg). Notably, WRF was not increased and diuretic efficiency was significantly improved with the uptitration of neurohormonal antagonists. Conclusions Despite a higher rate of WRF, blood pressure reduction was not associated with worsening of diuresis or decongestion. Furthermore, titration of oral neurohormonal antagonists was actually associated with improved diuresis in this cohort. These results provide reassurance that the guideline recommended titration of chronic oral medication during ADHF hospitalization may not be antagonistic to the short-term goal of decongestion. PMID:26699390

  6. Amelioration of renal damage by administration of anti-thymocyte globulin to potential donors in a brain death rat model.

    PubMed

    Cicora, F; Stringa, P; Guerrieri, D; Roberti, J; Ambrosi, N; Toniolo, F; Cicora, P; Palti, G; Vásquez, D; Raimondi, C

    2012-09-01

    Brain death (BD), a non-immunological factor of renal injury, triggers an inflammatory process causing pathological signs of cell death in the kidney, such as necrosis and apoptosis. Kidneys from brain dead donors show lower success rates than kidneys from living donors and one strategy to improve transplantation outcome is to precondition the donors. For the first time, anti-rat thymoglobulin (rATG) was administered in an experimental brain death animal model to evaluate if it could ameliorate histopathological damage and improve organ function. Animals were divided into three groups: V (n=5) ventilated for 2h; BD (n=5) brain death and ventilated for 2h; and BD+rATG (n=5) brain death, ventilated for 2h, rATG was administered during brain death (10mg/kg). We observed lower creatinine levels in treatment groups (means): V, 0·88±0·22 mg/dl; BD, 1·37±0·07 mg/dl; and BD+rATG, 0·64±0·02 mg/dl (BD versus BD+rATG, P<0·001). In the BD group there appeared to be a marked increase of ATN, whereas ATN was decreased significantly in the rATG group (V, 2·25±0·5 versus BD, 4·75±0·5, P<0·01; BD+rATG, 2·75±0·5 versus BD 4·75±0·5 P<0·01). Gene expression was evaluated with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, C3, CD86 showed no significant difference between groups. Increased IL-10 and decreased CCL2 in BD+rATG compared to BD (both cases P<0·01). Myeloperoxidase was increased significantly after the brain death setting (V: 32±7·5 versus BD: 129±18). Findings suggest that rATG administered to potential donors may ameliorate renal damage caused by BD. These findings could contribute in the search for specific cytoprotective interventions to improve the quality and viability of transplanted organs.

  7. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides ameliorates renal injury and inflammatory reaction in alloxan-induced diabetic nephropathy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qihan; Li, Jingjing; Yan, Jun; Liu, Shuai; Guo, Yulin; Chen, Dajie; Luo, Qiong

    2016-07-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on renal function and inflammatory reaction in rabbits with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan (ALX). Japanese male white rabbits were randomly assigned into 5 groups: normal control group, diabetic nephropathy (DN) model group, LBP prevention group, positive control group and LBP treatment group. LBP (10mg/kg) was given to the LBP prevention group after diabetes mellitus (DM) model succeeded for 12weeks and to the LBP treatment group after DN model succeeded for 4weeks. Telmisartan (3.7mg/kg) was given to the positive group after DN model succeeded for 4weeks, and the same volume of balanced saline was given to the normal group and DN group for 12weeks. Urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (SCr), and C-reaction protein (CRP) in serum were detected at the end of the 12th week. The expression of MCP-1 mRNA and ICAM-1 mRNA extracted from cortex were detected by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis was carried out to examine NF-κB p65 protein expression. LBP improves the renal function and alleviates the inflammatory reaction in the kidneys of diabetic rabbits. In addition, the prevention effect of LBP is better than the treatment effect of LBP. LBP has obvious protective effect on the diabetic nephropathy rabbits' renal function and postpones the appearance and development of DN. The mechanisms may be related to the reduction the expression of MCP-1mRNA and ICAM-1mRNA by restraining the expression of NF-κB and AngII. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Rats Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction and Fibrosis Post-Myocardial Infarction Involving MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxin; Li, Xiaoyan; Lyu, Yongnan; He, Yiyu; Wan, Weiguo; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-08-04

    BACKGROUND The role of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) in ameliorating post-myocardial infarction (MI) left ventricular (LV) fibrosis via microRNA-dependent regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) remains unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS MI and RSD were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by ligating the left coronary artery and denervating the bilateral renal nerves, respectively. Norepinephrine, renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone in plasma, collagen, microRNA21, microRNA 101a, microRNA 133a and CTGF in heart tissue, as well as cardiac function were evaluated six weeks post-MI. RESULTS In the RSD group, parameters of cardiac function were significantly improved as evidenced by increased LV ejection fraction (p<0.01), LV end-systolic diameter (p<0.01), end-diastolic diameter (p<0.05), LV systolic pressure (p<0.05), maximal rate of pressure rise and decline (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin, p<0.05), and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (p<0.05) when compared with MI rats. Further, reduced collagen deposition in peri-infarct myocardium was observed in RSD-treated rats along with higher microRNA101a and microRNA133a (p<0.05) and lower microRNA21 expression (p<0.01) than in MI rats. CTGF mRNA and protein levels were decreased in LV following RSD (p<0.01), accompanied by decreased expression of norepinephrine, renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone in plasma (p<0.05) compared with untreated MI rats. CONCLUSIONS The potential therapeutic effects of RSD on post-MI LV fibrosis may be partly mediated by inhibition of CTGF expression via upregulation of microRNA 101a and microRNA 133a and downregulation of microRNA21.

  9. Ameliorative effect of green tea against contrast-induced renal tubular cell injury.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Hamid; Hajian, Shabnam; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Kohi, Golnoosh; Nasri, Parto; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species are a mediator of kidney damage by contrast media, and green tea is a potent-free radical scavenger. This study was designed to examine whether green tea could protect against the nephrotoxicity induced by contrast media. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was control; group 2 received contrast medium (intravenous iodixanol, 10 mL/kg, as a single dose); group 3 received contrast medium and then green tea extract for 3 days (10 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal); and group 4 first received green tea and then contrast medium. Histological changes (degeneration, vacuolization of tubular renal cells, dilatation of tubular lumen, and presence of debris in the lumens) were assessed and recorded as scores from zero to 4. The sum of scores were used as the overal renal injury level. Groups 3 and 4 with green tea treatment had significantly higher overall scores than the control group, but significantly lower scores than group 2 with contrast medium only. A similar trend was seen for dilatation and degeneration levels. Vacuolization level was not significantly lower in the green tea groups as compared to the contrast medium group. Debris level was not significantly lower in group 3 than group 2. The differences were not significant between groups 3 and 4.   Conclusions. We observed beneficial effect of green tea against nephrotoxicity of contrast media. Green tea extract may offer an inexpensive and nontoxic intervention strategy in patients with a risk for nephrotoxicity with contrast media.

  10. Citrus Bioflavonoids Ameliorate Hyperoxaluria Induced Renal Injury and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badrinathan, Sridharan; Shiju, Micheal Thomas; Arya, Ramachandran; Rajesh, Ganesh Nachiappa; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Citrus is considered as a medically important plant from ancient times and the bioflavonoids of different variety of citrus fruits were well explored for their biological activities. The study aim was to explore the effect of citrus bioflavonoids (CB) to prevent and cure hyperoxaluria induced urolithiasis. Methods: Twenty four Wistar rats were segregated into 4 Groups. Group 1: Control; Group 2: Urolithic (EG-0.75%); Group 3: Preventive study (EG+CB, day 1-50); Group 4: Curative study (EG+CB, day 30-50). Animals received CB orally (20mg/kg body weight) after performing a toxicity study. Results: Urinary risk factors and serum renal function parameters were significantly reduced by CB administration in both preventive and curative study (p<0.001). Hematoxylin & Eosin and von Kossa staining demonstrated that renal protection was offered by CB against EG insult. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed over expression and abnormal localization of THP and NF-κB in urolithic rats, while it was effectively regulated by CB supplementation. Conclusion: CB prevented and significantly controlled lithogenic factors and CaOx deposition in rats. We propose CB as a potential therapy in management of urolithiasis. PMID:26504765

  11. Gold nanoparticles ameliorate acetaminophen induced hepato-renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Reshi, Mohd Salim; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Jaswal, Amita; Sinha, Neelu; Uthra, Chhavi; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2017-04-04

    Valuable effects of gold particles have been reported and used in complementary medicine for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity. Albino rats were administered APAP at a dose of 2g/kg p.o. once only. After 24h of APAP intoxication, animals were treated with three different doses of AuNPs (50μg/kg, 100μg/kg, 150μg/kg) orally or silymarin at a dose of 50mg/kg p.o., once only. Animals of all the groups were sacrificed after 24h of last treatment. APAP administered group showed a significant rise in the AST, ALT, SALP, LDH, cholesterol, bilirubin, albumin, urea and creatinine in serum which indicated the hepato-renal damage. A significantly enhanced LPO and a depleted level of GSH were observed in APAP intoxicated rats. Declined activities of SOD and Catalase, after acetaminophen exposure indicated oxidative stress in liver and kidney. The activities of ATPase and glucose-6-Phosphatase were significantly inhibited after APAP administration. AuNPs treatment reversed all variables significantly towards normal level and was found nontoxic. Thus it is concluded that gold nanoparticles played a beneficial role in reducing acetaminophen induced toxicity and can be used in the development of drug against hepatic as well as renal diseases, after further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 ameliorates thyroid damage in autoimmune thyroiditis in NOD.H‑2h⁴ mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Mao, Jinyuan; Han, Cheng; Peng, Shiqiao; Li, Chenyan; Jin, Ting; Fan, Chenling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), are upregulated in mice with autoimmune thyroid diseases. However, whether this interaction is involved in the pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, in an iodine‑induced autoimmune thyroiditis model were investigated. NOD.H‑2h4 mice were randomly separated into a control, AIT and AIT+AMD3100 groups. The mice were fed with 0.05% sodium iodide water for 8 weeks to induce AIT. The AMD3100‑treated mice were administered with the CXCR4 antagonist at a dose of 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally three times a week during the experimental period. The percentages of CD19+interleukin (IL)10+ B cells and CD4+IL10+ T cells, and the mRNA expression levels of IL10 in the splenocytes were reduced in the AIT group, compared with the control group, however, they increased following AMD3100 treatment, compared with the untreated AIT group. The percentages of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells and CD8+ interferon (IFN)γ+ T cells, and the mRNA expression levels of IFNγ increased in the AIT group, compared with the control group, however, these were reduced in the AMD3100 group, compared with the AIT group. The AMD3100‑treated mice also had lower serum thyroglobulin antibody titers and reduced lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid, compared with the untreated AIT mice. These results suggested that inhibition of this chemokine axis may offer potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of AIT.

  13. Soluble interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis by a different mode of action from that of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Smeets, R L; Joosten, L A B; Arntz, O J; Bennink, M B; Takahashi, N; Carlsen, H; Martin, M U; van den Berg, W B; van de Loo, F A J

    2005-07-01

    To discern the mode of interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibition of soluble IL-1 receptor accessory protein (sIL-1RAcP) by comparison with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in arthritis. Adenoviral vectors encoding either sIL-1RAcP or IL-1Ra were administered systemically before onset of collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice. Anti-bovine type II collagen IgG and IL-6 were quantified in serum. Proliferative response of splenic T cells was determined in the presence of sIL-1RAcP or IL-1Ra. The effect on IL-1 inhibition of recombinant sIL-1RAcP and IL-1Ra was further examined in vitro, using NF-kappaB luciferase reporter cell lines. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the relative messenger RNA expression of the IL-1 receptors. Adenoviral overexpression of both sIL-1RAcP and IL-1Ra resulted in amelioration of the collagen-induced arthritis. Both IL-1 antagonists reduced the circulating levels of antigen-specific IgG2a antibodies, but only IL-1Ra was able to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. By using purified lymphocyte populations derived from NF-kappaB reporter mice, we showed that sIL-1RAcP inhibits IL-1-induced NF-kappaB activity in B cells but not T cells, whereas IL-1Ra inhibited IL-1 on both cell types. A study in a panel of NF-kappaB luciferase reporter cells showed that the sIL-1RAcP inhibits IL-1 signaling on cells expressing either low levels of membrane IL-1RAcP or high levels of IL-1RII. We show that the sIL-1RAcP ameliorated experimental arthritis without affecting T cell immunity, in contrast to IL-1Ra. Our results provide data in support of receptor competition by sIL-1RAcP as an explanation for the different mode of IL-1 antagonism in comparison with IL-1Ra.

  14. Sorafenib ameliorates renal fibrosis through inhibition of TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lining; Ma, Xiaotao; Gui, Baosong; Ge, Heng; Wang, Li; Ou, Yan; Tian, Lifang; Chen, Zhao; Duan, Zhaoyang; Han, Jin; Fu, Rongguo

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate whether sorafenib can inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis and to study the possible mechanisms of this effect. Eight-week-old rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and were intragastrically administered sorafenib, while control and sham groups were administered vehicle for 14 or 21 days. NRK-52E cells were treated with TGF-β1 and sorafenib for 24 or 48 hours. HE and Masson staining were used to visualize fibrosis of the renal tissue in each group. The expression of α-SMA and E-cadherin in kidney tissue and NRK-52E cells were performed using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The apoptosis rate of NRK-52E cells was determined by flow cytometry analysis. The protein levels of Smad3 and p-Smad3 in kidney tissue and NRK-52E cells were detected by western blot analysis. HE staining demonstrated that kidney interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the sorafenib-treated-UUO groups were significantly decreased compared with the vehicle-treated-UUO group (p<0.05). Masson staining showed that the area of fibrosis was significantly decreased in the sorafenib-treated-UUO groups compared with vehicle-treated-UUO group (p<0.01). The size of the kidney did not significantly increase; the cortex of the kidney was thicker and had a richer blood supply in the middle-dose sorafenib group compared with the vehicle-treated-UUO group (p<0.05). Compared with the vehicle-treated-UUO and TGF-β-stimulated NRK-52E groups, the expression of a-SMA and E-cadherin decreased and increased, respectively, in the UUO kidneys and NRK-52E cells of the sorafenib-treated groups (p<0.05). The apoptotic rate of NRK-52E cells treated with sorafenib decreased for 24 hours in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Compared with the vehicle-treated UUO and TGF-β-stimulated NRK-52E groups, the ratio of p-Smad3 to Smad3 decreased in the sorafenib-treated groups (p<0.05). Our results suggest that sorafenib

  15. Association Between Cytokines and Their Receptor Antagonist Gene Polymorphisms and Clinical Risk Factors and Acute Rejection Following Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Siqing; Xie, Jianfei; Wan, Qiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute rejection (AR) after renal transplantation affects both patient and graft survival. There is growing evidence of the genetic association between cytokine or its receptor antagonist and AR in solid organ transplantation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the role of recipient TNF β, IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) gene polymorphism, as well as traditional clinical variables such as panel-reactive antibody (PRA) levels, donor type, and HLA mismatches in AR following renal transplantation. Material/Methods TNF β (+252A/G), IL-10 (−592A/C), IL-1β (−511C/T) and IL-1ra (86 bp VNTR) gene polymorphisms were determined in 195 renal allograft recipients with and without AR, using PCR. Both these genotypic variants and clinical risk factors were investigated for correlation with AR within the first year after renal transplantation. Results Patients with increased pre-transplant PRA levels (P<0.001) and donor type (P=0.012) were prone to the development of AR. After adjusting for all variables of P<0.2, a PRA level >10% (OR=4.515, 95% confidence intervals=1.738–11.727, P=0.002) and the receipt of a graft from a donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor (OR=2.437, 95% confidence intervals=1.047–5.673, P=0.039) remained significantly associated with AR in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. No correlation could be found between recipients with an episode and absence of acute rejection and the gene polymorphisms of these cytokines investigated in the present study. Conclusions This study shows that the presence of increased pre-transplant levels of PRA and the receipt of a graft from DCD donor other than cytokine gene polymorphisms are significant risk factors for AR in renal transplantation. To reduce the occurrence of AR, clinicians should take necessary measures to lower the PRA levels and pay more attention to patients who received a graft from a DCD donor. PMID:27913812

  16. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adi, Pradeepkiran Jangampalli; Burra, Siva Prasad; Vataparti, Amardev Rajesh; Matcha, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn) or vitamin E (Vit-E) on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) (n = 6) control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight) alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each) or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight) supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidase (LPx) were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  17. Sirt1 activation ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Zhong; Wen, Donghai; Zhang, Min; Xie, Qionghong; Ma, Leting; Guan, Yi; Ren, Yueheng; Chen, Jing; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2014-05-01

    TGF-β signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Smad3, a transcription factor, is a critical fibrogenic mediator of TGF-β. Sirt1 is a NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase that has been reported to modify a number of transcription factors to exert certain beneficial health effects. This study examined the effect of Sirt1 on Smad3 and its role in CKD. Resveratrol attenuated the expression of extracelluar matrix proteins in both the remnant kidney of 5/6th nephrectomized rats and cultured mesangial cells (MMCs) exposed to TGF-β1. The effect of resveratrol was substantially attenuated in cultured MMCs for which Sirt1 had been knocked down by an shRNA lentivirus. Overexpression of Sirt1 attenuated TGF-β1-induced extracelluar matrix expression in cultured cells. Co-immunoprecipitation studies suggested that Sirt1 could bind with Smad3. Resveratrol treatment enhanced this binding and reduced acetylation levels of Smad3. Resveratrol inhibited the transcription activity of Smad3. Knockdown of Sirt1 increased acetylated Smad3 and substantially enhanced the transcriptional activity following TGF-β1. Finally, Sirt1 deficiency aggravated renal function damage and markedly enhanced fibrosis in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized mice. Taken together, these results identify Sirt1 as an important protective factor for renal fibrosis in a CKD rodent model, and the protective function of Sirt1 is attributable to its action on TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. Therefore, we suggest that Sirt1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of CKD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Renal-protective and ameliorating impacts of omega-3 fatty acids against aspartame damaged MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Mistry, Bhupendra; Patel, Rahul; Moon, So Hyun; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2017-09-07

    Aspartame is widely used artificial sweeteners as food additives. Several researchers have pointed that the controversial report on the use of aspartame over more than decades. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and unsaturated fatty acids, and it plays a remarkable role in vision, intelligence, neural development, and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aspartame treated renal cells. Experimental groups were divided into three such as sham control, aspartame treated, and aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-b assay and flow cytometric analysis. The experimental results showed that the aspartame induced altered cell viability were reduced following treatment of aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Altered cell morphology was recovered by omega-3 fatty acids. DNA damage appeared in the highest concentration of aspartame used in this study. DNA damage characteristics such as comet tail and tiny head sections did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids treated cells. Several microvilli and vesicular structures were found in aspartame treated cells. Altered morphology such as rounding, microvilli, and formation of dome-like structures did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids with aspartame treated cells. Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in aspartame treated cells, and these levels were reduced following omega-3 fatty acids treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the omega-3 fatty acids may be a therapeutic agent to reduce the aspartame induced biochemical and morphological alterations in normal renal cells. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Adipose-derived stem cells ameliorate renal interstitial fibrosis through inhibition of EMT and inflammatory response via TGF-β1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Peng, Changliang; Lv, Shasha; Cheng, Jing; Liu, Shanshan; Wen, Qing; Guan, Guangju; Liu, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been successfully used to treat acute kidney injury or acute renal failure. However, the effect of ADSCs on treating renal interstitial fibrosis remains unknown. Here, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of ADSCs on renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) and explored the potential mechanisms. After 7days of UUO, rats were injected with ADSCs (5×10(6)) or vehicle via tail vein. We found that ADSCs administration significantly ameliorated renal interstitial fibrosis, the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammatory response. Furthermore, ADSCs administration could inhibit the activation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway, which might play a crucial role in renal interstitial fibrosis of the UUO model rats. These results suggested that ADSCs treatment attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis possibly through inhibition of EMT and inflammatory response via TGF-β1 signaling pathway. Therefore, ADSCs may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of renal interstitial fibrosis.

  20. Potent ameliorating effect of Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) antagonist YC-1 on combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Chun; Wu, Liucheng; Zhu, Shunxing

    2016-10-05

    Recent studies have implicated that Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and asthma. In the present study, we showed that HIF-1α antagonist YC-1, 3-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, elicited a potent allergy-ameliorating effect in a rat model of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS). We revealed that YC-1 administration markedly impaired the total number and percentage of eosinophil in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL Fluid) of the rats, suggesting that YC-1 might attenuate lung and nasal mucosal inflammation in OVA-sensitized rats. Moreover, histological examination found that OVA-induced pathological alterations were evidently attenuated following YC-1 administration. In addition, immunohistochemistrial analysis indicated that YC-1 treatment decreased the expression of HIF-1α in rat lungs and nasal mucosa. Notably, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), two important regulators of inflammatory responses, were also significantly down-regulated following YC-1 administration. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed that YC-1 impaired the expression of HIF-1α, NF-κB and PPARα in CARAS model. These findings together indicated that YC-1 exerted remarkable anti-allergic effects through the modulation of inflammatory pathways, implying that YC-1 may potentially serve as a novel anti-CARAS medicine in clinical patients.

  1. Mentha piperita in nephrotoxicity--a possible intervention to ameliorate renal derangements associated with gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Mir Azam; Khan, Taous; Asif, Afzal Haq; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-01-01

    Free radical generation has a strong role in the pathogenesis of renal damage associated with the use of gentamicin. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Mentha piperita against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 24 male rabbits were divided into 4 groups receiving normal saline, gentamicin, M. piperita extract and co-therapy of extract and gentamicin respectively. Gentamicin was provided as 80 mg/kg/day intramuscularly and extract was given 200 mg/kg/day orally for a period of 21 days. Serum and urinary biochemical parameters and histological changes were studied for each group. The impact of the extract on the antibacterial action of gentamicin was also evaluated. Animals treated with gentamicin showed derangements in serum and urinary biochemical parameters. These alterations were reversed by treatment with M. piperita extract. The histological changes showed in gentamicin group were also reverted by treatment with the extract. Further the plant did not influence the efficacy of gentamicin with respect to its antimicrobial properties. Co-therapy of M. piperita with gentamicin successfully attenuated biochemical kidney functioning derangements and morphological changes associated with gentamicin.

  2. Mentha piperita in nephrotoxicity – a possible intervention to ameliorate renal derangements associated with gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Mir Azam; Khan, Taous; Asif, Afzal Haq; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Free radical generation has a strong role in the pathogenesis of renal damage associated with the use of gentamicin. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Mentha piperita against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 male rabbits were divided into 4 groups receiving normal saline, gentamicin, M. piperita extract and co-therapy of extract and gentamicin respectively. Gentamicin was provided as 80 mg/kg/day intramuscularly and extract was given 200 mg/kg/day orally for a period of 21 days. Serum and urinary biochemical parameters and histological changes were studied for each group. The impact of the extract on the antibacterial action of gentamicin was also evaluated. Results: Animals treated with gentamicin showed derangements in serum and urinary biochemical parameters. These alterations were reversed by treatment with M. piperita extract. The histological changes showed in gentamicin group were also reverted by treatment with the extract. Further the plant did not influence the efficacy of gentamicin with respect to its antimicrobial properties. Conclusion: Co-therapy of M. piperita with gentamicin successfully attenuated biochemical kidney functioning derangements and morphological changes associated with gentamicin. PMID:24741187

  3. Green Tea Polyphenols Ameliorate the Early Renal Damage Induced by a High-Fat Diet via Ketogenesis/SIRT3 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yi, Weijie; Xie, Xiao; Du, Miying; Bu, Yongjun; Wu, Nannan; Yang, Hui; Tian, Chong; Xu, Fangyi; Xiang, Siyun; Zhang, Piwei; Chen, Zhuo; Zuo, Xuezhi; Ying, Chenjiang

    2017-01-01

    Several reports in the literature have suggested the renoprotective effects of ketone bodies and green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Our previous study found that GTP consumption could elevate the renal expression of the ketogenic rate-limiting enzyme, which was decreased by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Here, we investigated whether ketogenesis can mediate renoprotection by GTPs against an HFD. Wistar rats were fed a standard or HFD with or without GTPs for 18 weeks. The renal oxidative stress level, kidney function, renal expression, and activity levels of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase 2 (HMGCS2) and sirtuin 3(SIRT3) were detected. The increased renal oxidative stress and the loss of renal function induced by the HFD were ameliorated by GTPs. Renal ketogenesis and SIRT3 expression and activity levels, which were reduced by the HFD, were restored by GTPs. In vitro, HEK293 cells were transfected with the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA HMGCS2. GTP treatment could upregulate HMGCS2 and SIRT3 expression. Although SIRT3 expression was not affected by HMGCS2 transfection, the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) level and the acetyl-MnSOD (K122)/MnSOD ratio were reduced in HMGCS2-transfected cells in the context of H2O2. The ketogenesis/SIRT3 pathway mediates the renoprotection of GTPs against the oxidative stress induced by an HFD.

  4. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product Ameliorates Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induced Renal Injury, Inflammation, and Apoptosis via P38/JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu; Gu, Wenyu; Lu, Huan; Liu, Chengying; Yu, Biyun; Xu, Hui; Tang, Yaodong

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated chronic kidney disease is mainly caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) triggered tissue damage. Receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are expressed on renal cells and mediate inflammatory responses in OSA-related diseases. To determine their roles in CIH-induced renal injury, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), the RAGE neutralizing antibody, was intravenously administered in a CIH model. We also evaluated the effect of sRAGE on inflammation and apoptosis. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) normal air (NA), (2) CIH, (3) CIH+sRAGE, and (4) NA+sRAGE. Our results showed that CIH accelerated renal histological injury and upregulated RAGE-HMGB1 levels involving inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6), apoptotic (Bcl-2/Bax), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (phosphorylation of P38, ERK, and JNK) signal transduction pathways, which were abolished by sRAGE but p-ERK. Furthermore, sRAGE ameliorated renal dysfunction by attenuating tubular endothelial apoptosis determined by immunofluorescence staining of CD31 and TUNEL. These findings suggested that RAGE-HMGB1 activated chronic inflammatory transduction cascades that contributed to the pathogenesis of the CIH-induced renal injury. Inhibition of RAGE ligand interaction by sRAGE provided a therapeutic potential for CIH-induced renal injury, inflammation, and apoptosis through P38 and JNK pathways. PMID:27688824

  5. Atherosclerosis following renal injury is ameliorated by pioglitazone and losartan via macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Zhong, Jiayong; Yancey, Patricia G; Zuo, Yiqin; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio; Yang, Haichun; Narita, Ichiei; Kon, Valentina

    2015-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) amplifies atherosclerosis, which involves renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulation of macrophages. RAS influences peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a modulator of atherogenic functions of macrophages, however, little is known about its effects in CKD. We examined the impact of combined therapy with a PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker on atherogenesis in a murine uninephrectomy model. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice underwent uninephrectomy (UNx) and treatment with pioglitazone (UNx + Pio), losartan (UNx + Los), or both (UNx + Pio/Los) for 10 weeks. Extent and characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions and macrophage phenotypes were assessed; RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal mouse cells were used to examine pioglitazone and losartan effects on macrophage phenotype and inflammatory response. UNx significantly increased atherosclerosis. Pioglitazone and losartan each significantly reduced the atherosclerotic burden by 29.6% and 33.5%, respectively; although the benefit was dramatically augmented by combination treatment which lessened atherosclerosis by 55.7%. Assessment of plaques revealed significantly greater macrophage area in UNx + Pio/Los (80.7 ± 11.4% vs. 50.3 ± 4.2% in UNx + Pio and 57.2 ± 6.5% in UNx + Los) with more apoptotic cells. The expanded macrophage-rich lesions of UNx + Pio/Los had more alternatively activated, Ym-1 and arginine 1-positive M2 phenotypes (Ym-1: 33.6 ± 8.2%, p < 0.05 vs. 12.0 ± 1.1% in UNx; arginase 1: 27.8 ± 0.9%, p < 0.05 vs. 11.8 ± 1.3% in UNx). In vitro, pioglitazone alone and together with losartan was more effective than losartan alone in dampening lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, suppressing M1 phenotypic change while enhancing M2 phenotypic change. Combination of pioglitazone and losartan is more effective in reducing renal injury-induced atherosclerosis than either treatment alone. This benefit reflects mitigation in macrophage cytokine

  6. Atherosclerosis following renal injury is ameliorated by pioglitazone and losartan via macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Zhong, Jiayong; Yancey, Patricia G.; Zuo, Yiqin; Linton, MacRae F.; Fazio, Sergio; Yang, Haichun; Narita, Ichiei; Kon, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic kidney disease (CKD) amplifies atherosclerosis, which involves renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulation of macrophages. RAS influences peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a modulator of atherogenic functions of macrophages, however, little is known about its effects in CKD. We examined the impact of combined therapy with a PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker on atherogenesis in a murine uninephrectomy model. Methods Apolipoprotein E knockout mice underwent uninephrectomy (UNx) and treatment with pioglitazone (UNx + Pio), losartan (UNx + Los), or both (UNx + Pio/Los) for 10 weeks. Extent and characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions and macrophage phenotypes were assessed; RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal mouse cells were used to examine pioglitazone and losartan effects on macrophage phenotype and inflammatory response. Results UNx significantly increased atherosclerosis. Pioglitazone and losartan each significantly reduced the atherosclerotic burden by 29.6% and 33.5%, respectively; although the benefit was dramatically augmented by combination treatment which lessened atherosclerosis by 55.7%. Assessment of plaques revealed significantly greater macrophage area in UNx + Pio/Los (80.7 ± 11.4% vs. 50.3 ± 4.2% in UNx + Pio and 57.2 ± 6.5% in UNx + Los) with more apoptotic cells. The expanded macrophage-rich lesions of UNx + Pio/Los had more alternatively activated, Ym-1 and arginine 1-positive M2 phenotypes (Ym-1: 33.6 ± 8.2%, p < 0.05 vs. 12.0 ± 1.1% in UNx; arginase 1: 27.8 ± 0.9%, p < 0.05 vs. 11.8 ± 1.3% in UNx). In vitro, pioglitazone alone and together with losartan was more effective than losartan alone in dampening lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, suppressing M1 phenotypic change while enhancing M2 phenotypic change. Conclusion Combination of pioglitazone and losartan is more effective in reducing renal injury-induced atherosclerosis than either treatment alone. This benefit reflects

  7. Sulfenic Acid Modification of Endothelin B Receptor is Responsible for the Benefit of a Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist in Renal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Prince, Sonia; Fadel, Fouad; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Warnock, David G.; Kolkhof, Peter; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    AKI is associated with high mortality rates and the development of CKD. Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is an important cause of AKI. Unfortunately, there is no available pharmacologic approach to prevent or limit renal IR injury in common clinical practice. Renal IR is characterized by diminished nitric oxide bioavailability and reduced renal blood flow; however, the mechanisms leading to these alterations are poorly understood. In a rat model of renal IR, we investigated whether the administration of the novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist BR-4628 can prevent or treat the renal dysfunction and tubular injury induced by IR. Renal injury induced by ischemia was associated with increased oxidant damage, which led to a cysteine sulfenic acid modification in endothelin B receptor and consequently decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. These modifications were efficiently prevented by nonsteroidal MR antagonism. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the protective effect of BR-4628 against IR was lost when a selective endothelin B receptor antagonist was coadministered. These data describe a new mechanism for reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation during renal IR that can be blocked by MR antagonism with BR-4628. PMID:26361797

  8. Calcium antagonists and converting enzyme inhibitors reduce renal injury by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, L D; Benstein, J A; Parker, M; Tolbert, E; Feiner, H D

    1993-04-01

    Both glomerular hypertension and hypertrophy have been associated with the development of glomerular injury in models of hypertension and reduced renal mass. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antihypertensive therapy on these parameters in the remnant kidney model of progressive glomerular sclerosis. Rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy and were randomly assigned to receive either no therapy, the calcium entry blocker (CEB), nifedipine, or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI), enalapril. Administration of either drug was associated with a reduction in systemic blood pressure and in the severity of glomerular injury assessed eight weeks after renal ablation. Micropuncture studies four weeks after ablation revealed that systemic and glomerular capillary pressure were high in untreated remnant kidney rats and reduced by enalapril. Administration of nifedipine was associated with a decline in systemic pressure, however, plasma renin levels increased, causing efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction and persistence of glomerular hypertension. Morphometric analysis showed that kidney weight, glomerular volume and glomerular capillary radius were lower in nifedipine treated rats than in the other two groups, indicating that the CEB, but not enalapril, inhibited the hypertrophic response to ablation of renal mass. Therefore, both CEIs and CEBs reduce glomerular injury in rats with remnant kidneys but they may act by different mechanisms. CEI reduce glomerular capillary pressure while CEBs inhibit compensatory kidney growth.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of the novel dual endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Sidharta, Patricia N; Lindegger, Nicolas; Ulč, Ivan; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2014-03-01

    Macitentan is under development for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Patients with PAH may suffer from comorbidities such as renal or hepatic impairment. Two prospective, single-center, open-label studies evaluated the pharmacokinetics of macitentan and its metabolites (pharmacologically active ACT-132577 and inactive ACT-373898) in healthy subjects and in subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment or severe renal function impairment (SRFI). After administering a single oral dose of 10 mg macitentan the pharmacokinetic parameters including area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC∞) were derived from plasma concentration-time profiles. Exposure to macitentan and ACT-132577 was lower in hepatically impaired versus healthy subjects, with no correlation with the degree of hepatic impairment. Exposure to ACT-373898 was lower in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment only. Plasma concentration-time profiles for macitentan and ACT-132577 (active) were similar in healthy subjects and subjects with SRFI. AUC∞ of ACT-373898 (inactive) was 7.3-fold higher in subjects with SRFI versus healthy subjects. No safety concerns were raised in either study. Based on these observations, pharmacokinetic alterations of macitentan due to hepatic or renal function impairment are not considered clinically relevant and no dose adjustment is necessary in these patients. © 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Contribution of MATE1 to Renal Secretion of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Memantine.

    PubMed

    Müller, Fabian; Weitz, Dietmar; Derdau, Volker; Sandvoss, Martin; Mertsch, Katharina; König, Jörg; Fromm, Martin F

    2017-09-05

    The weak base memantine is actively secreted into urine, however the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood. Potential candidates involved in memantine renal secretion are organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATE1, MATE2-K). The aim of this in vitro study was the examination of the interaction of memantine with OCT2 and MATEs. Memantine transporter inhibition and transport were examined in HEK cells expressing human OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K. Monolayers of single- (MDCK-OCT2, MDCK-MATE1) and double-transfected MDCK cells (MDCK-OCT2-MATE1) were used for studies on vectorial, basal to apical memantine transport. Memantine inhibited OCT2-, MATE1-, and MATE2-K-mediated metformin transport with IC50 values of 3.2, 40.9, and 315.3 μM, respectively. In HEK cells, no relevant memantine uptake by OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K was detected. Vectorial transport experiments, however, indicated a role of MATE1 for memantine export: After memantine administration to the basal side of the monolayers, memantine cellular accumulation was considerably lower (MDCK-MATE1 vs MDCK control cells, P < 0.01) and memantine transcellular, basal to apical transport was higher in MATE1 expressing cells (MDCK-MATE1 vs MDCK control cells, P < 0.001 at 60 and 180 min). Both effects were abolished upon addition of the MATE inhibitor cimetidine. These experiments suggest a relevant role of MATE1 for renal secretion of memantine. In the clinical setting, renal elimination of memantine could be impaired by coadministration of MATE inhibitors.

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Bhavya B.; Yang, Cheng; Ou, Yang; Feng, Xiaoke; Muhoza, Djamali; Holmes, Alexandrea F.; Theus, Sue; Deshmukh, Sarika; Haun, Randy S.; Kaushal, Gur P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase–3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase–3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26444017

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, Bhavya B; Yang, Cheng; Ou, Yang; Feng, Xiaoke; Muhoza, Djamali; Holmes, Alexandrea F; Theus, Sue; Deshmukh, Sarika; Haun, Randy S; Kaushal, Gur P

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase-3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase-3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. SIRT1 activator ameliorates the renal tubular injury induced by hyperglycemia in vivo and in vitro via inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Ling; Wu, Li-Yan; Zhao, Long; Sun, Li-Na; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, Gang; Guan, Guang-Ju

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to explore the role of SIRT1 in apoptosis in human kidney proximal tubule epithelial (HK-2) cells, and to determine whether resveratrol (RSV, a SIRT1 activator) could ameliorate apoptosis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or in high glucose (HG, 30mM) - stimulated HK-2 cells. Rats were distributed randomly into three groups: 1) control group, 2) DM group, and 3) DM with RSV group (DM+RSV; rats treated with 30mg/kg/d of RSV for 16 weeks). The physical, biochemical, and morphological parameters were then examined. Additionally, the deacetylase activity of SIRT1, and the expression levels of SIRT1 and of representative apoptosis markers, such as p53, acetylated p53, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleaved PARP, were measured. HK-2 cells were stimulated by HG for different lengths of time to study the effect of HG on apoptosis. HK-2 cells were treated with or without RSV (25μM) to investigate if RSV has a protective effect on HG-induced apoptosis. A gene-specific small interfering RNA against SIRT1 was used to study the role of SIRT1 in apoptosis. More apoptosis was found in the DM rats than in the control rats. Similarly, the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and acetylated p53 were significantly higher, and the level of SIRT1 was significantly lower, in the HK-2 cells that were cultured under HG conditions than those in the HK-2 cells that were cultured under low glucose (5.5mM) conditions. Notably, treatment with RSV lessened the HG-induced changes in the levels of apoptosis indicators, and this inhibition of HG-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells by RSV treatment was abolished by SIRT1 silencing. Our study showed that hyperglycemia contributes to apoptosis in rat kidney and HK-2 cells. SIRT1 activation by RSV can reduce urinary albumin excretion and proximal tubule epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Based on our study, SIRT1/p53 axis played an important role in the hyperglycemia induced apoptosis

  14. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone reduces renal interstitial fibrosis after long-term cyclosporine treatment in rat: antagonizing cyclosporine nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cyclosporine-(CsA)-mediated loss of kidney function is a major clinical problem in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone (EPL) prevents chronic CsA-induced renal interstitial volume increase, tubule loss, and functional impairment in a rat model. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats received CsA alone (15 mg/kg/d p.o.), CsA and EPL (approximately 100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or vehicle (control) for 12 weeks. At 11 weeks, chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters were implanted for continuous measurements of arterial blood pressure (BP) and GFR (inulin clearance) in conscious, freely moving animals. Plasma was sampled for analysis and kidney tissue was fixed for quantitative stereological analyses. Results Compared to controls, CsA-treatment reduced relative tubular volume (0.73±0.03 vs. 0.85±0.01, p<0.05) and increased relative interstitial volume (0.080±0.004 vs. 0.045±0.003, p<0.05); EPL attenuated these changes (0.82±0.02, p<0.05, and 0.060±0.006, p<0.05, respectively). CsA-treated rats had more sclerotic glomeruli and a higher degree of vascular depositions in arterioles; both were significantly reduced in CsA+EPL-treated animals. CsA increased BP and reduced body weight gain and GFR. In CsA+EPL rats, weight gain, GFR and BP at rest (daytime) were normalized; however, BP during activity (night) remained elevated. Plasma sodium and potassium concentrations, kidney-to-body weight ratios and CsA whole blood concentration were similar in CsA and CsA+EPL rats. Conclusions It is concluded that in the chronic cyclosporine rat nephropathy model, EPL reduces renal tissue injury, hypofiltration, hypertension, and growth impairment. MR antagonists should be tested for their renoprotective potential in patients treated with calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:23425330

  15. Influence of renal function on anticoagulation control in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation taking vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lobos-Bejarano, José M; Castellanos Rodríguez, Angel; Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Polo-García, José; Del Castillo-Rodríguez, José Carlos; Vargas-Ortega, Diego; Lopez-Pineda, Adriana; Prieto-Valiente, Luis; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been related to poor anticoagulation control and an increased risk of bleeding. This study aims to evaluate the association between impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ) and anticoagulation control in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) on vitamin K antagonists (VKA) therapy. We also assessed whether the predictive value of the SAMe-TT2 R2 score prevailed for subgroups both with and without CKD. This is an ancillary analysis of 1381 patients from the PAULA study, which was a cross-sectional, retrospective and nationwide multicenter study. A total of 370 patients had eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Anticoagulation control levels progressively worsened across each stage of CKD. Multiple linear regression analysis showed CKD as an independent predictor of time in therapeutic range (TTR). In the subgroup of patients with preserved renal function, female sex, diet affecting INR, polypharmacy and amiodarone were associated with poorer TTR. The SAMe-TT2 R2 score had a significant but modest predictive value for TTR<65% (AUC, area under the curve 0.558, P = .002). In the subgroup of patients with CKD, the SAMe-TT2 R2 (>2 points) showed no significant predictive capacity for TTR (AUC 0.528, P = .354). The average TTR was similar for both sexes (P = .255), but with a higher percentage of males subjects with TTR ≥65% (P = .013). Chronic kidney disease is associated with poor anticoagulation control in patients with non-valvular AF taking VKA. The SAMe-TT2 R2 score was not predictive of poor TTR in the subgroup with CKD, although a modest predictive value for poor TTR was found in those without CKD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Glucosamine-induced Sp1 O-GlcNAcylation ameliorates hypoxia-induced SGLT dysfunction in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Han Na; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Mi Ok; Ryu, Jung Min; Han, Ho Jae

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether GlcN could recover the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced dysfunction of Na(+) /glucose cotransporter (SGLT) in renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) under hypoxia. With the rabbit model, the renal ischemia induced tubulointerstitial abnormalities and decreased SGLTs expression in tubular brush-border, which were recovered by GlcN. Thus, the protective mechanism of GlcN against renal ischemia was being examined by using PTCs. Hypoxia decreased the level of protein O-GlcNAc and the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) while increased O-GlcNAcase (OGA) and these were reversed by GlcN. Hypoxia also decreased the expression of SGLTs (SGLT1 and 2) and [(14) C]-α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (α-MG) uptake which were recovered by GlcN and PUGNAc (OGA inhibitor). Hypoxia enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and then ER stress proteins, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). However, the expression of GRP78 increased till 6 h and then decreased whereas CHOP increased gradually. Moreover, decreased GRP78 and increased CHOP were reversed by NAC (antioxidant) and GlcN. GlcN ameliorated hypoxia-induced decrease of O-GlcNAc modification of Sp1 but OGT or Sp1 siRNAs blocked the recovery effect of GlcN on SGLT expression and α-MG uptake. In addition, hypoxia-decreased GRP78 and HIF-1α expression was reversed by GlcN but OGT siRNA or Sp1 siRNA ameliorated the effect of GlcN. When PTCs were transfected with GRP78 siRNA or HIF-1α siRNA, SGLT expression and α-MG uptake was decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that GlcN-induced O-GlcNAc modified Sp1 with stimulating GRP78 and HIF-1α activity ameliorate hypoxia-induced SGLT dysfunction in renal PTCs. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1557-1568, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Klotho gene delivery ameliorates renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by suppressing the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Deng, Minghong; Luo, Yumei; Li, Yunkui; Yang, Qiuchen; Deng, Xiaoqin; Wu, Ping; Ma, Houxun

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether klotho gene delivery attenuated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (rAAV.mKL), was constructed for in vivo investigation of klotho expression. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single tail vein injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Subsequently, the diabetic rats received an intravenous injection of rAAV.mKL, rAAV.green fluorescent protein (GFP) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The Sprague-Dawley rat group received PBS and served as the control group. After 12 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed and ELISA, immunohistochemical and histological analyses, fluorescence microscopy, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blottin were performed. A single dose of rAAV.mKL was found to prevent the progression of renal hypertrophy and fibrosis for at least 12 weeks (duration of study). Klotho expression was suppressed in the diabetic rats, but was increased by rAAV.mKL delivery. rAAV.mKL significantly suppressed diabetes-induced renal hypertrophy and histopathological changes, reduced renal collagen fiber generation and decreased kidney hypertrophy index. In addition, rAAV.mKL decreased the protein expression levels of fibronectin and vimentin, while it downregulated the mRNA expression and activity of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK)I in the kidneys of the diabetic rats. These results indicated that klotho gene delivery ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in diabetic rats, possibly by suppressing the ROCK signaling pathway. This may offer a novel approach for the long-term control and renoprotection of diabetes.

  18. Comparison of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and warfarin on clinical outcomes in atrial fibrillation patients with renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hong; Park, Hyung Wook; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Yoon, Nam Sik; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Mi Ran; Kim, Min Chul; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Kim, Cheol Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Jun, Seung Jin; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Jeong, Hae Chang; Cho, Jae Yeong; Park, Keun-Ho; Sim, Doo sun; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Chun

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients according to renal dysfunction. We analysed 1319 patients who had been taken oral anticoagulants. They were classified into patients taking NOACs (n = 326) and warfarin (n = 993). Renal dysfunction was defined as the estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min by using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The composite clinical outcomes were defined as the composite of death, hospitalization, and new-onset strokes. Safety outcomes were composed of major and minor bleeding. Subgroup analyses for clinical and safety outcomes were performed according to renal dysfunction during median 596 (506-612) follow-up days. The prevalence of renal dysfunction was similar between the two groups. The incidences of death, hospitalization, and strokes were not different between the two groups. However, the incidences of major bleeding was significantly higher in patients taking warfarin. In the subgroup analysis with renal dysfunction, the use of NOACs significantly improved the composite clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio, HR, 0.30, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.11-0.77, interaction P = 0.018) and major bleeding (adjusted HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.07-0.45, interaction P = 0.199) even after the covariate adjustment. However, in patients without renal dysfunction, there were no differences in the incidences of the composite clinical outcomes between the two groups. The benefit of NOACs was more prominent in AF patients with renal dysfunction than without renal dysfunction. These results suggest that NOACs as the first choice oral anticoagulant in AF patients with renal dysfunction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. NLRP3 Deficiency Attenuates Renal Fibrosis and Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Mouse Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Bi, Xiao; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shijian

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing PYD-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, its exact role in glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is still undefined. The present study was performed to identify the function of NLRP3 in modulating renal injury and fibrosis and the potential involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of CKD. Methods. Employing wild-type (WT) and NLRP3−/− mice with or without UUO, we evaluated renal structure, tissue injury, and mitochondrial ultrastructure, as well as expression of some vital molecules involved in the progression of fibrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results. The severe glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced in WT mice by UUO was markedly attenuated in NLRP3−/− mice as evidenced by blockade of extracellular matrix deposition, decreased cell apoptosis, and phenotypic alterations. Moreover, NLRP3 deletion reversed UUO-induced impairment of mitochondrial morphology and function. Conclusions. NLRP3 deletion ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviates renal fibrosis in a murine UUO model of CKD. PMID:28348462

  20. Renal actions of endothelin-1 in newborn piglets: dose-effect relation and the effects of receptor antagonist (BQ-123) and cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin).

    PubMed

    Bhat, R; John, E; Chari, G; Shankararao, R; Fornell, L; Gulati, A; Vidyasagar, D

    1995-11-01

    Although the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on intact or perfused adult kidney are well understood, its effects in the fetus and the newborn have not been well studied. We examined the effects of infusions of 25, 50, and 100 ng/kg of ET-1 per minute on mean blood pressure (MBP), cardiac index (CI), renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urine volume (UV) in 7- to 10-day-old piglets (n = 24). In addition, the effects of pretreatment with a receptor antagonist (BQ-123) and with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) were studied in 12 separate piglets. ET-1 produced a dose- and level-dependent decrease in CI (60%), RBF (50% to 75%), GFR (66% to 80%) and MBP 15% to 17%. These changes returned to 75% to 80% of baseline 60 minutes after discontinuation of ET-1. Low-dose infusion (25 ng/kg) did not result in any changes in systemic or renal hemodynamics. Plasma half-life of ET-1 in piglets was 2.1 +/- 0.4 minutes. Pretreatment with the specific ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 completely blocked the ET-1-induced systemic and renal hemodynamic changes. Indomethacin blocked the ET-1-induced rise in MBP but failed to block any renal changes. In fact, indomethacin accentuated the changes induced by ET-1, especially the changes in RBF, RVR, and GFR. Studies of receptor binding in the renal cortex and medulla showed that, in the cortex, the Ki value for ET-1 was 6.32 +/- 1.57, and for ET-3 it was 20.05 +/- 4.38 (p < 0.05); in the medulla, the Ki values were similar for both ET-1 and ET-3. These results indicate that in piglets the renal vascular bed is highly sensitive to ET-1, and its effects are predominantly mediated through ETA receptors.

  1. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  2. Blocking the class I histone deacetylase ameliorates renal fibrosis and inhibits renal fibroblast activation via modulating TGF-beta and EGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; He, Song; Ma, Li; Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Tang, Jinhua; Tolbert, Evelyn; Bayliss, George; Zhao, Ting C; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising anti-fibrosis drugs; however, nonselective inhibition of class I and class II HDACs does not allow a detailed elucidation of the individual HDAC functions in renal fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of MS-275, a selective class I HDAC inhibitor, on the development of renal fibrosis in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and activation of cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts. The UUO model was established by ligation of the left ureter and the contralateral kidney was used as a control. At seven days after UUO injury, kidney developed fibrosis as indicated by deposition of collagen fibrils and increased expression of collagen I, fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). Administration of MS-275 inhibited all these fibrotic responses and suppressed UUO-induced production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta), increased expression of TGF-beta receptor I, and phosphorylation of Smad-3. MS-275 was also effective in suppressing phosphorylation and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling molecule, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Moreover, class I HDAC inhibition reduced the number of renal tubular cells arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, a cellular event associated with TGF-beta1overproduction. In cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts, MS-275 treatment inhibited TGF-beta induced phosphorylation of Smad-3, differentiation of renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and proliferation of myofibroblasts. These results demonstrate that class I HDACs are critically involved in renal fibrogenesis and renal fibroblast activation through modulating TGF-beta and EGFR signaling and suggest that blockade of class I HDAC may be a useful treatment for renal fibrosis.

  3. Dual Inhibiting Senescence and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by Erythropoietin Preserve Tubular Epithelial Cell Regeneration and Ameliorate Renal Fibrosis in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tasanarong, Adis; Kongkham, Supranee; Khositseth, Sookkasem

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the renoprotective effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) treatment could preserve tubular epithelial cell regeneration and ameliorate renal fibrosis by dual inhibition of stress-induced senescence and EMT in unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) mouse model. UUO or sham-operated mice were randomly assigned to receive rhEPO or vehicle treatment and were sacrificed on days 3, 7, and 14. Kidney specimens were fixed for histopathological and immunohistochemical study. The expression of S100A4, TGF-β1, BMP-7, Smad2/3, Smad1/5/8, and p16INK4a was determined by western blot and real-time RT-PCR. Vehicle treated UUO mice had increased tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis within 3 to 14 days. An increase in TGF-β1, Smad2/3, S100A4, and p16INK4a expression and a decrease in BMP-7 and Smad1/5/8 expression were observed in the obstructed kidneys. p16INK4a was positively correlated with TGF-β1/Smad2/3 and negatively correlated with BMP-7/Smad1/5/8 in UUO mice. rhEPO treatment significantly suppressed the upregulation of TGF-β, Smad2/3, S100A4, and p16INK4a and preserved the downregulation of BMP-7 and Smad1/5/8, resulting in markedly reduced TA/IF compared to the vehicle treated mice. The renoprotective effects of rhEPO could ameliorate renal TA/IF by modulating senescence and EMT which could be a part of therapeutic option in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:24350257

  4. An orally active adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, FK838, increases renal excretion and maintains glomerular filtration rate in furosemide-resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Schnackenberg, Christine G; Merz, Emily; Brooks, David P

    2003-01-01

    Loop and thiazide diuretics are common therapeutic agents for the treatment of sodium retention and oedema. However, resistance to diuretics and decreases in renal function can develop during diuretic therapy. Adenosine causes renal vasoconstriction, sodium reabsorption, and participates in the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism for the regulation of glomerular filtration rate.We tested the hypothesis that the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist FK838 is orally active and causes diuresis and natriuresis, but maintains glomerular filtration rate in normal rats or in rats with furosemide resistance.In normal male Sprague – Dawley rats, FK838 dose-dependently increased urine flow and sodium and chloride excretion while sparing potassium. In combination with furosemide, FK838 enhanced the diuretic and natriuretic actions of furosemide to the same extent as hydrochlorothiazide and did not increase the potassium loss in normal rats. In furosemide-resistant rats, FK838 increased urine flow and electrolyte excretion to a greater extent than hydrochlorothiazide. In addition, hydrochlorothiazide significantly decreased glomerular filtration rate, whereas FK838 maintained glomerular filtration rate in furosemide-resistant rats.This study shows that the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist FK838 is orally active and causes potent diuresis and natriuresis and maintains glomerular filtration rate in normal or furosemide-resistant rats. Adenosine A1 receptor antagonists may be novel therapeutics for the treatment of oedema in normal or otherwise diuretic-resistant patients. PMID:12922924

  5. A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)α Agonist and PPARγ Antagonist, Z-551, Ameliorates High-fat Diet-induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Shiomi, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Iwabu, Masato; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Nakayama, Ryo; Orikawa, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Tanaka, Koichiro; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) modulator, Z-551, having both PPARα agonistic and PPARγ antagonistic activities, has been developed for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. We examined the effects of Z-551 on obesity and the metabolic disorders in wild-type mice on the high-fat diet (HFD). In mice on the HFD, Z-551 significantly suppressed body weight gain and ameliorated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolisms. Z-551 inhibited visceral fat mass gain and adipocyte hypertrophy, and reduced molecules involved in fatty acid uptake and synthesis, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation in adipose tissue. Z-551 increased molecules involved in fatty acid combustion, while reduced molecules associated with gluconeogenesis in the liver. Furthermore, Z-551 significantly reduced fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and leptin. To elucidate the significance of the PPAR combination, we examined the effects of Z-551 in PPARα-deficient mice and those of a synthetic PPARγ antagonist in wild-type mice on the HFD. Both drugs showed similar, but weaker effects on body weight, insulin resistance and specific events provoked in adipose tissue compared with those of Z-551 as described above, except for lack of effects on fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. These findings suggest that Z-551 ameliorates HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and impairment of glucose and lipid metabolisms by PPARα agonistic and PPARγ antagonistic activities, and therefore, might be clinically useful for preventing or treating obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. PMID:25907553

  6. Microvesicles derived from human Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stromal cells ameliorate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by suppressing CX3CL1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) could reverse acute and chronic kidney injury by a paracrine or endocrine mechanism, and microvesicles (MVs) have been regarded as a crucial means of intercellular communication. In the current study, we focused on the therapeutic effects of human Wharton-Jelly MSCs derived microvesicles (hWJMSC-MVs) in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury and its potential mechanisms. Methods MVs isolated from conditioned medium were injected intravenously in rats immediately after ischemia of the left kidney for 60 minutes. The animals were sacrificed at 24 hours, 48 hours and 2 weeks after reperfusion. The infiltration of inflammatory cells was identified by the immunostaining of CD68+ cells. ELISA was employed to determine the inflammatory factors in the kidney and serum von Willebrand Factor (VWF). Tubular cell proliferation and apoptosis were identified by immunostaining. Renal fibrosis was assessed by Masson’s tri-chrome straining and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining. The CX3CL1 expression in the kidney was measured by immunostaining and Western blot, respectively. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with or without MVs for 24 or 48 hours under hypoxia injury to test the CX3CL1 by immunostaining and Western blot. Results After administration of hWJMSC-MVs in acute kidney injury (AKI) rats, renal cell apoptosis was mitigated and proliferation was enhanced, inflammation was also alleviated in the first 48 hours. MVs also could suppress the expression of CX3CL1 and decrease the number of CD68+ macrophages in the kidney. In the late period, improvement of renal function and abrogation of renal fibrosis were observed. In vitro, MVs could down-regulate the expression of CX3CL1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under hypoxia injury at 24 or 48 hours. Conclusions A single administration of MVs immediately after ischemic AKI could ameliorate renal injury in

  7. Matcha, a powdered green tea, ameliorates the progression of renal and hepatic damage in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Hur, Jong Moon; Yokozawa, Takako

    2009-08-01

    Matcha, a powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill, has been popularly used in the traditional tea ceremony and foods in Japan. Matcha is well known to be richer in some nutritional elements and epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate than other green teas. In our previous study, epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate exhibited protective effects against renal damage in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of Matcha (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) on the progression of hepatic and renal damage in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats were orally administered Matcha for 16 weeks, and we assessed biochemical parameters in the serum, liver, and kidney and expression levels of major products of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), N(6)-(carboxylmethyl)lysine (CML) and N(6)-(carboxylethyl)lysine (CEL), receptor for AGE (RAGE), and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs)-1 and -2. Serum total protein levels were significantly increased by Matcha administration, whereas the serum albumin and glycosylated protein levels as well as the renal glucose and triglyceride levels were only slightly or not at all affected. However, Matcha treatment significantly lowered the glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver, renal AGE levels, and the serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. In addition, Matcha supplementation resulted in decreases in the renal CML, CEL, and RAGE expressions as well as an increase in hepatic SREBP-2 expression, but not that of SREBP-1. These results suggest that Matcha protects against hepatic and renal damage through the suppression of renal AGE accumulation, by decreases in hepatic glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels, and by its antioxidant activities.

  8. Honokiol ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting extracellular matrix and pro-inflammatory factors in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chih-Kang; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Lin, Yi-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Yang, Chin-Ching; Chen, Min-Wei; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Wu, Kuan-Dun; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Renal fibrosis acts as the common pathway leading to the development of end-stage renal disease. The present study investigated, in vivo and in vitro, the anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects, particularly on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of renal tubular cells, exerted by honokiol, a phytochemical used in traditional medicine, and mechanisms underlying these effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Anti-fibrotic effects in vivo were assayed in a rat model of renal fibrosis [the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model]. A rat tubular epithelial cell line (NRK-52E) was stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and treated with honokiol to explore possible mechanisms of these anti-fibrotic effects. Gene or protein expression was analysed by Northern or Western blotting. Transcriptional regulation was investigated using luciferase activity driven by a connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) promoter. KEY RESULTS Honokiol slowed development of renal fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro. Honokiol treatment attenuated tubulointerstitial fibrosis and expression of pro-fibrotic factors in the UUO model. Honokiol also decreased expression of the mRNA for the chemokine CCL2 and for the intracellular adhesion molecule-1, as well as accumulation of type I (α1) collagen and fibronectin in UUO kidneys. Phosphorylation of Smad-2/3 induced by TGF-β1 and CTGF luciferase activity in renal tubular cells were also inhibited by honokiol. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Honokiol suppressed expression of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory factors and of extracellular matrix proteins. Honokiol may become a therapeutic agent to prevent renal fibrosis. PMID:21265825

  9. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived Extracellular Vesicles Ameliorate Acute Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inhibition of Mitochondrial Fission through miR-30

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Di; Ju, Guanqun; Zhang, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The immoderation of mitochondrial fission is one of the main contributors in ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived extracellular vesicles have been regarded as a potential therapy method. Here, we hypothesized that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human Wharton Jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) ameliorate acute renal IRI by inhibiting mitochondrial fission through miR-30b/c/d. Methods. EVs isolated from the condition medium of MCS were injected intravenously in rats immediately after monolateral nephrectomy and renal pedicle occlusion for 45 minutes. Animals were sacrificed at 24 h after reperfusion and samples were collected. MitoTracker Red staining was used to see the morphology of the mitochondria. The expression of DRP1 was measured by western blot. miR-30 in EVs and rat tubular epithelial cells was assessed by qRT-PCR. Apoptosis pathway was identified by immunostaining. Results. We found that the expression of miR-30 in injured kidney tissues was declined and mitochondrial dynamics turned to fission. But they were both restored in EVs group in parallel with reduced cell apoptosis. What is more, when the miR-30 antagomirs were used to reduce the miRNA levels, all the related effects of EVs reduced remarkably. Conclusion. A single administration of hWJMSC-EVs could protect the kidney from IRI by inhibition of mitochondrial fission via miR-30. PMID:27799943

  10. New α-lipoic acid derivative, DHL-HisZn, ameliorates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hironori; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Kusaka, Jyunya; Goto, Koji; Uchino, Tetyuya; Shingu, Chihiro; Kai, Shinya; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2012-05-15

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs frequently in a variety of clinical settings, such as renal transplantation. In addition, I/R is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). A recent study has reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of AKI, suggesting that reducing ROS generation may prevent renal injury. The present study evaluated the ability of DHL-HisZn, a new α-lipoic acid derivative, to inhibit ROS generation and prevent renal I/R injury in rats. Rats received an intravenous infusion of DHL-HisZn or saline, and then underwent experimentally induced renal I/R injury or sham treatment. Rats were sacrificed after 60 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. To evaluate the renal protective effects of DHL-HisZn, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre) concentrations were determined, kidneys were histologically assessed, and malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was evaluated. In addition, antimycin A (AMA)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with DHL-HisZn to assess its antioxidant effects in vitro. DHL-HisZn treatment attenuated I/R-induced histologic alterations, reduced serum levels of serum BUN and Cre, and decreased MDA levels in the kidneys of rats with renal I/R injury. Furthermore, DHL-HisZn decreased ROS levels in AMA-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that DHL-HisZn may have therapeutic potential against various human I/R conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FTY720 ameliorates renal fibrosis by simultaneously affecting leucocyte recruitment and TGF-β signalling in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tian, T; Zhang, J; Zhu, X; Wen, S; Shi, D; Zhou, H

    2017-10-01

    Renal fibrosis is the common final manifestation of chronic kidney diseases and usually results in end-stage renal failure. In this study, we evaluated the effect of fingolimod (FTY720), an analogue of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), as a treatment for the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis animal model. We treated mice with FTY720 at a dosage of 1 mg/kg/day by intragastric administration from day 1 until day 7. The control group received the same amount of saline. FTY720 reduced significantly the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) in treated UUO mice. FTY720 treatment also caused a significant decrease in interstitial expansion and collagen deposition in the kidney, accompanied by reduced mononuclear cell recruitment and inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, the expression levels of the endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin and vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) were suppressed in the ligated kidney by FTY720 administration, suggesting reduced renal endothelial cell activation. Furthermore, in renal interstitial fibroblast normal rat kidney (NRK)-49F cells, FTY720 significantly affected transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression and collagen synthesis by inhibiting both the Mothers against decapentaplegic homologue (Smad)2/3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (PI3K/AKT/GSK3β) signalling pathways. S1P1 knock-down by siRNA reversed this effect significantly in our fibroblast cell culture model. Therefore, FTY720 attenuates renal fibrosis via two different mechanisms: first, FTY720 suppresses the synthesis of extracellular matrix in interstitial fibroblasts by interfering with TGF-β signalling; and secondly, FTY720 affects endothelial cell activation and chemokine expression, thereby reducing immune cell recruitment into the kidney. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from human umbilical cord ameliorate cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Rokaya H; Rashed, Laila A; Ismaail, Alaa E; Madkour, Naglaa K; Elwakeel, Sherien H

    2014-01-01

    Injury to a target organ can be sensed by bone marrow stem cells that migrate to the site of damage, undergo differentiation, and promote structural and functional repair. This remarkable stem cell capacity prompted an investigation of the potential of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells to cure acute renal failure. On the basis of the recent demonstration that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can differentiate into renal cells, the current study tested the hypothesis that HSCs can contribute to the regeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells after renal injury. HSCs from human umbilical cord blood which isolated and purified by magnetic activated cell sorting were transplanted intraperitoneal into acute renal failure (ARF) rats which was established by a single dose of cisplatin 5 mg/kg for five days. The Study was carried on 48 male white albino rats, of average weight 120-150 gm. The animals were divided into 4 groups, Group one Served as control and received normal saline throughout the experiments. Group two (model control) received a single dose of cisplatin. Group three and four male-albino rats with induced ARF received interapritoneally (HSCs) at two week and four week respectively. Injection of a single dose of cisplatin resulted in a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea levels, histo-pathological examination of kidney tissue from cisplatin showed severe nephrotoxicity in which 50-75% of glomeruli and renal tubules exhibited massive degenerative change. Four weeks after HSC transplantation, Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen decreased 3.5 times and 2.1 times as well as HGF, IGF-1, VEGF and P53 using quantitative real-time PCR increased 4.3 times, 3.2, 2.4 and 4.2 times compared to ARF groups, respectively. The proliferation of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells (500.083±35.167) was higher than that in the cisplatin groups (58.612±15.743). In addition, the transplanted umbilical cord hematopoietic stem cells UC-HSCs could

  13. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from human umbilical cord ameliorate cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Rokaya H; Rashed, Laila A; Ismaail, Alaa E; Madkour, Naglaa K; Elwakeel, Sherien H

    2014-01-01

    Injury to a target organ can be sensed by bone marrow stem cells that migrate to the site of damage, undergo differentiation, and promote structural and functional repair. This remarkable stem cell capacity prompted an investigation of the potential of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells to cure acute renal failure. On the basis of the recent demonstration that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can differentiate into renal cells, the current study tested the hypothesis that HSCs can contribute to the regeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells after renal injury. HSCs from human umbilical cord blood which isolated and purified by magnetic activated cell sorting were transplanted intraperitoneal into acute renal failure (ARF) rats which was established by a single dose of cisplatin 5 mg/kg for five days. The Study was carried on 48 male white albino rats, of average weight 120-150 gm. The animals were divided into 4 groups, Group one Served as control and received normal saline throughout the experiments. Group two (model control) received a single dose of cisplatin. Group three and four male-albino rats with induced ARF received interapritoneally (HSCs) at two week and four week respectively. Injection of a single dose of cisplatin resulted in a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea levels, histo-pathological examination of kidney tissue from cisplatin showed severe nephrotoxicity in which 50-75% of glomeruli and renal tubules exhibited massive degenerative change. Four weeks after HSC transplantation, Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen decreased 3.5 times and 2.1 times as well as HGF, IGF-1, VEGF and P53 using quantitative real-time PCR increased 4.3 times, 3.2, 2.4 and 4.2 times compared to ARF groups, respectively. The proliferation of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells (500.083±35.167) was higher than that in the cisplatin groups (58.612±15.743). In addition, the transplanted umbilical cord hematopoietic stem cells UC-HSCs could

  14. Amelioration of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac and Renal Toxicity by Oxycarotenoid Lutein and Its Mechanism of Action.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Edakkadath Raghavan; Nithya, Thattaruparambil Raveendran; Binitha, Ponnamparambil Purushothaman; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2016-01-01

    We set out to determine the effect of oxycarotenoid lutein on reducing cardiac and renal toxicity induced by doxorubicin (DXR). We started with oral administration in rats of lutein for 15 d before administering DXR (30 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, in a single dose). Animals in all groups were sacrificed 24 h after DXR administration. Serum markers of cardiac injury lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase increased drastically after DXR but decreased after lutein treatment (p < 0.001). Elevated serum urea and creatinine in DXR-treated rats were reduced by lutein treatment (p < 0.001). Lutein increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione levels in cardiac and renal tissues of DXR-treated rats. Pretreatment of lutein reduced DXR-induced rise of oxidative stress markers including lipid peroxidation, tissue hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes in cardiac and renal tissue. These findings were supported by electrocardiogram measurements and histopathological analyses. Results confirmed the protection of lutein against cardiac and renal toxicity induced by DXR in rats.

  15. [Effects and mechanisms of Qifu decoction ameliorating renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis through inhibiting ERK1/2 signaling pathway in unilateral ureteral obstruction rats with yang deficiency].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Yin, Xue-Jiao; Tu, Yue; Wan, Yi-Gang; Liu, Hong; Hu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the effects and mechanisms of Qifu decoction( QFD) on renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) in model rats with yang-deficiency syndrome. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, the Sham group (Group A), the Model group (Group B), the Qifu decoction group (Group C) and the Enalapril group (Group D). The RIF model was established by adenine administrated and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) of the left ureter. After the model was successfully established, the rats in Group C and D were administrated with QFD or the Enalapril suspension,while the rats in Group A and B were administrated with distilled water. All rats were administrated for 3 weeks. Before administration and at the end of week 1, 2 and 3, the rats were weighted, and 24 h urinary protein excretion (Upro), urinary β2-microglobulin (Uβ2-MG) and urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were examined, respectively. All rats were killed after administration for 3 weeks. Blood and renal tissues were collected, renal morphology and tubulointerstitial morphology were evaluated, respectively. Serum cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and uric acid (UA) were detected, respectively. The protein expressions of E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), onnective tissue growth factor (CTGF) extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in kidney were evaluated, respectively. QFD ameliorated serum cAMP level and the rate of cAMP/cGMP, attenuated urinary β2-MG level, NAG level and renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, increased E-cadherin protein expression, and reduced α-SMA, TGF-β1, CTGF and p-ERK1/2 protein expressions in the kidney. However, QFD had no influence on renal function in vivo. In addition, these effects were better than those of the model rats treated by Enalapril. QFD could alleviate yang

  16. Matrine ameliorates adriamycin-induced nephropathy in rats by enhancing renal function and modulating Th17/Treg balance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yixiao; Lin, Hongzhou; Zheng, Wenjie; Ye, Xiaohua; Yu, Lingfang; Zhuang, Jieqiu; Yang, Qing; Wang, Dexuan

    2016-11-15

    Matrine (MAT) is an active alkaloid extracted from Radix Sophora flavescens. The present study was to investigate whether MAT could effectively treat Adriamycin-induced nephropathy (AIN). AIN was induced in rats using a single injection of Adriamycin (ADR). Renal interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-17 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels, and the expression of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) and retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor γt (Rorγt) was measured. AIN rats developed severe albuminuria, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperlipidaemia and podocyte injury. Daily administration of MAT (100mg/kg or 200mg/kg) significantly prevented ADR-induced podocyte injury, decreased AIN symptoms and improved renal pathology manifestations. Of note, treatment with MAT (100mg/kg) plus prednisone (Pre, 5mg/kg) had equivalent efficacy to that of Pre alone (10mg/kg). Additional findings showed that ADR triggered a disordered cytokine network and abnormal expression of Foxp3 and Rorγt in rats, as reflected by increased levels of IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β, Rorγt and decreased levels of IL-10 and Foxp3. Interestingly, MAT weakened the disordered cytokine network and normalized the expression of Foxp3 and Rorγt. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between the values of Foxp3/Rorγt and renal pathology scores. Finally, MAT normalized regulatory T cells (Treg)/ T-helper17 cells (Th17) ratio in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of AIN rats. These data indicate MAT prevents AIN through the modification of disordered plasma lipids and recovery of renal function, and this bioactivity is at least partly attributed to the suppression of renal inflammation and the regulation of the Treg/Th17 imbalance.

  17. The Amelioration of Renal Damage in Skp2-Deficient Mice Canceled by p27 Kip1 Deficiency in Skp2−/− p27−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Sayuri; Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Misaki, Taro; Togawa, Akashi; Ohashi, Naro; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Kotake, Yojiro; Liu, Ning; Niida, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    SCF-Skp2 E3 ubiquitin ligase (Skp2 hereafter) targets several cell cycle regulatory proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin-dependent pathway. However, the target-specific physiological functions of Skp2 have not been fully elucidated in kidney diseases. We previously reported an increase in Skp2 in progressive nephropathy and amelioration of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal injury associated with renal accumulation of p27 in Skp2−/− mice. However, it remains unclear whether the amelioration of renal injury in Skp2−/− mice is solely caused by p27 accumulation, since Skp2 targets several other proteins. Using Skp2−/−p27−/− mice, we investigated whether Skp2 specifically targets p27 in the progressive nephropathy mediated by UUO. In contrast to the marked suppression of UUO renal injury in Skp2−/− mice, progression of tubular dilatation associated with tubular epithelial cell proliferation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with increased expression of collagen and α-smooth muscle actin were observed in the obstructed kidneys in Skp2−/−p27−/− mice. No significant increases in other Skp2 target proteins including p57, p130, TOB1, cyclin A and cyclin D1 were noted in the UUO kidney in Skp2−/− mice, while p21, c-Myc, b-Myb and cyclin E were slightly increased. Contrary to the ameliorated UUO renal injure by Skp2-deficiency, the amelioration was canceled by the additional p27-deficiency in Skp2−/−p27−/− mice. These findings suggest a pathogenic role of the reduction in p27 targeted by Skp2 in the progression of nephropathy in UUO mice. PMID:22558406

  18. Preoperative Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Ameliorates the Accuracy of Differential Diagnosis in Non-Metastatic Infiltrative Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jang Hee; Yoon, Young Eun; Kim, Sook Young; Cho, Young In; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Distinguishing infiltrative renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a challenging issue due to their radiologic similarities. We evaluated systemic inflammatory biomarkers as parameters for distinguishing tumor types. Materials and Methods A computerized search of medical records from November 2005 to October 2015 identified 116 patients with infiltrative renal masses who were difficult to diagnose confirmatively in radiological study. We investigated the diagnostic efficacy among these patients with their preoperative absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), absolute monocyte counts (AMC), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR). Results The infiltrative RCC group demonstrated significantly lower ALC {1449/µL (1140–1896), median [interquartile range (IQR)]} than the TCC group [1860/µL (1433–2342), p=0.016]. LMR [median (IQR)] also was lower in the infiltrative RCC group [2.98 (2.32–4.14) vs. TCC group 4.10 (2.86–6.09); p=0.011]. In subgroup analysis, non-metastatic infiltrative RCC showed lower ALC and LMR and higher NLR than non-metastatic TCC. Within non-metastatic infiltrative renal masses, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that younger patient age and lower LMR were associated with infiltrative RCC [odds ratios (OR) 0.874, p=0.024 and OR 0.461, p=0.048, respectively]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that younger age and lower LMR were highly predictive of non-metastatic RCC (area under the curve=0.919, p<0.001). Conclusion Age and LMR were significantly different between patients with infiltrative renal mass. These are potential markers for distinguishing between infiltrative RCC and TCC without metastasis. PMID:28120570

  19. Berberine ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced renal inflammation and fibronectin by inhibiting the activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi; Chang, Xiuting; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kaipeng; Huang, Juan; Wang, Shaogui; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2013-12-05

    The accumulation of glomerular extracellular matrix proteins, especially fibronectin (FN), is a critical pathological characteristic of diabetic renal fibrosis. Inflammation mediated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). RhoA/ROCK signaling is responsible for FN accumulation and NF-κB activation. Berberine (BBR) treatment significantly inhibited renal inflammation and thus improved renal damage in diabetes. Here, we study whether BBR inhibits FN accumulation and NF-κB activation by inhibiting RhoA/ROCK signaling and the underlying mechanisms involved. Results showed that BBR effectively inhibited RhoA/ROCK signaling activation in diabetic rat kidneys and high glucose-induced glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and simultaneously down-regulated NF-κB activity, which was accompanied by reduced intercellular adhesionmolecule-1, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and FN overproduction. Furthermore, we observed that BBR abrogated high glucose-mediated reactive oxygen species generation in GMCs. BBR and N-acetylcysteine inhibited RhoA/ROCK signaling activation in high glucose-exposed GMCs. Collectively, our data suggest that the renoprotective effect of BBR on DN partly depends on RhoA/ROCK inhibition. The anti-oxidative stress effect of BBR is responsible for RhoA/ROCK inhibition in DN.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  1. Vitamin E ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad2/3 signaling pathway in UUO mice.

    PubMed

    Tasanarong, Adis; Kongkham, Supranee; Duangchana, Soodkate; Thitiarchakul, Supachai; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2011-12-01

    One striking feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF). During chronic renal injury, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is involved in this process causing progression of renal fibrosis. Smad2/3 proteins have been identified to have an important function in the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation through TGF-beta signaling pathway. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of vitamin E on renal fibrosis in mice model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). UUO or sham-operated mice were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) or placebo and were sacrificed on days 3, 7 and 14 after UUO or sham operation. Kidney specimens were fixed for pathological study and immunohistochemistry for TGF-beta1. Protein expression of TGF-beta1 and Smad2/3 was determined by western blot analysis. The mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Vitamin E treated UUO mice had less severity of renal fibrosis than placebo treatment. TA/IF was significantly attenuated by vitamin E treatment. Immunohistochemistry revealed increasing of TGF-beta1 protein expression in the interstitium area of obstructed kidneys. Moreover increasing of TGF-beta1 protein and upregulation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in UUO mice were confirmed by western blot and real time RT-PCR. In contrast, vitamin E treatment significantly inhibited the expression of TGF-beta1 protein and mRNA in UUO mice compared with placebo treatment. Interestingly, Smad2/3 protein expression became progressive increasing in UUO mice on day 3, 7 and 14 compared with sham controls. The expression of Smad2/3 protein was significantly lower in vitamin E treated UUO mice than placebo treatment in any time points. Vitamin E treatment attenuated the progression of renal fibrosis in obstructed kidneys. The renoprotective effect of vitamin E could be mediated by inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.

  2. [Evidence-based usefulness of Ca antagonists and ACEIs and ARBs for the primary and secondary prevention of major cardiovascular and renal events in patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fujino, Takayuki; Hasebe, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2005-10-01

    The benefits of reducing blood pressure (BP) on the risks of major cardiovascular event and preservation of renal function are well established in patients with hypertension. We estimated effects of strategies based on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB) and calcium channel antagonist (CCB), which is predominantly prevalent in Japan in patients with hypertenstion than ACEI/ARB, on the risks of these events, overviewed with data from clinical trials and meta-analysis of these trials including underwent in Japan. ACEI and ARB-based regimens reduced the risks of heart failure and progression of renal dysfunction complicated with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with hypertension compared with control and CCB-based regimens. CCB-based regimens reduced the primary risks of cerebella event and dementia and primary and secondary risks of coronary events in patients with hypertension having many coronary risk factors compared with control and ARB/ACEI-based regimens. Greater risk reductions, however, were produced by regimens that targeted lower (BP) goals, by combined regimens based on ACEI/ARB and CCB and diuretics, demonstrated in mega-trial of ALLHAT and proposed in guideline of JSH 2004.

  3. YM598, an orally active ET(A) receptor antagonist, ameliorates the progression of cardiopulmonary changes and both-side heart failure in rats with cor pulmonale and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Akira; Miyauchi, Takashi; Sakai, Satoshi; Yuyama, Hironori; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sanagi, Masanao; Sudoh, Katsumi; Goto, Katsutoshi; Shikama, Hisataka; Yamaguchi, Iwao

    2004-11-01

    The effects of the novel, selective endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonist YM598 on both-side heart failure were investigated. Right-side heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension was produced by a single subcutaneous injection of 60 mg/kg monocrotaline, and post-ischemic congestive left-side heart failure (CHF) produced by surgical left coronary artery ligation. In right-side heart failure rats, oral YM598 (0.1 and 1 mg/kg for 4 weeks), but not bosentan (30 mg/kg), significantly inhibited the progression of pulmonary hypertension and the development of right ventricular hypertrophy. YM598 also improved hypoxemia and morphological pulmonary lesions in these rats. In CHF rats, moreover, long-term oral administration of YM598 (1 mg/kg/day for approximately 30 weeks) significantly ameliorated their poor survival rate (P < 0.05). In the measurement of cardio-hemodynamic parameters, YM598 improved the contractile/diastolic capacity of the left ventricle and the preload in the right ventricle to the levels seen in sham-operated rats. YM598 also markedly inhibited both ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary congestion, as well as lowering high plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels in CHF rats. These findings suggest that YM598 may have a clinical benefit with regards to ameliorating the cardiopulmonary changes of right-side heart failure, and the cardiac dysfunction and mortality/morbidity of CHF.

  4. The angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist, eprosartan, attenuates the progression of renal disease in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats with accelerated hypertension.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Christian T; Barone, Frank C; Campbell, Wallace G; Nelson, Allen H; Contino, Lisa C; Pullen, Mark A; Grygielko, Eugene T; Edwards, Richard M; Laping, Nicholas J; Brooks, David P

    2002-04-01

    The effects of the angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist, eprosartan, were studied in a model of severe, chronic hypertension. Treatment of male spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rats (SHR-SP) fed a high-fat, high-salt diet with eprosartan (60 mg/kg/day i.p.) for 12 weeks resulted in a lowering of blood pressure (250 +/- 9 versus 284 +/- 8 mm Hg), renal expression of transforming growth factor-beta mRNA (1.5 +/- 0.2 versus 5.4 +/- 1.4) and the matrix components: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (5.2 +/- 1.4 versus 31.4 +/- 10.7), fibronectin (2.2 +/- 0.6 versus 8.2 +/- 2.2), collagen I-alpha 1 (5.6 +/- 2.0 versus 23.8 +/- 7.3), and collagen III (2.7 +/- 0.9 versus 7.6 +/- 2.1). Data were corrected for rpL32 mRNA expression and expressed relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats [=1.0]. Expression of fibronectin protein was also lowered by eprosartan (0.8 +/- 0.1 versus 1.9 +/- 0.5), relative to WKY rats. Eprosartan provided significant renoprotection to SHR-SP rats as measured by decreased proteinuria (22 +/- 2 versus 127 +/- 13 mg/day) and histological evidence of active renal damage (5 +/- 2 versus 195 +/- 6) and renal fibrosis (5.9 +/- 0.7 versus 16.4 +/- 1.9) in vehicle- versus eprosartan-treated rats, respectively. Our results demonstrated that AT(1) receptor blockade with eprosartan can reduce blood pressure and preserve renal structure and function in this model of severe, chronic hypertension. These effects were accompanied by a decreased renal expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and several other extracellular matrix proteins compared with vehicle-treated SHR-SP.

  5. Iodination of vasopressin analogues with agonistic and antagonistic properties: effects on biological properties and affinity for vascular and renal vasopressin receptors.

    PubMed

    Jard, S; Lombard, C; Seyer, R; Aumelas, A; Manning, M; Sawyer, W H

    1987-09-01

    Twelve L- and D-tyrosine-containing vasopressin analogues were prepared in their mono- and diiodinated forms. These include six arginine vasopressin (AVP) vascular (V1) type antagonists/antidiuretic (V2) agonists, four V1/V2 antagonists, and two V1/V2 agonists, one of which is AVP itself. Ten peptides were iodinated on the tyrosyl residue in position 2; two were iodinated on a tyrosyl amide residue replacing the glycyl amide residue at position 9. All peptides were tested both for their biological activities in vivo (rat vasopressor and antidiuretic tests) and for their ability to bind to vasopressin receptors of the V1 (vascular) and V2 (renal) types from rat liver and rat kidney membranes, respectively. It is shown that monoiodination of the tyrosyl residue in the vasopressin analogues that were tested either preserves or reduces to a highly variable extent the in vivo and in vitro biological activities of these analogues. In most cases diiodonitation resulted in a marked decrease in biological activity. The effects of iodination on the affinity of vasopressin analogues for hepatic V1 receptors and renal V2 receptors were more related to the affinity of the noniodinated peptide for these receptors than to the biological properties (antagonist versus agonist) of the tested analogues, the nature (L versus D) of the iodinated tyrosyl residue, or the position (2 versus 9) at which this residue was introduced. The loss of affinity due to iodination was usually more pronounced for peptides exhibiting high affinity for vasopressin receptors. However, we show that among the monoiodinated peptides some (especially monoiodinated [2-D-Tyrosine]-AVP) retained enough affinity for vasopressin binding sites to suggest that their radioiodinated conterparts would be promising labeled ligands for use in studies in vasopressin receptors.

  6. Use of Alendronate Sodium (Fosamax) to Ameliorate Osteoporosis in Renal Transplant Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lee, Shen-Yang; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lai, Ping-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Background Renal transplant patients often have severe bone and mineral deficiencies. While the clinical effects of immunosuppressive agents like calcineurin inhibitors (CIs) and sirolimus on bone turnover are unclear, bisphosphonates are effective in bone recovery in these patients. Gender is significantly associated with osteoporosis and affects bone turnover, which is different in women and men. The effective gender-related site of action of bisphosphonates is unknown. Methods Initially, we enrolled 84 kidney recipients who had received their transplants at least 5 months ago; of these, 8 were excluded and 76 were finally included in the study. First bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, hip, and femoral neck was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) between September 2008 and March 2009. These 76 patients underwent a repeat procedure after a mean period 14 months. Immunosuppressive agents, bisphosphonates, patients' characteristics, and biochemical factors were analyzed on the basis of the BMD determined using DXA. Results After the 14-month period, the BMD of lumbar spine increased significantly (from 0.9 g/cm2 to 0.92 g/cm2, p<0.001), whereas that of the hip and femoral neck did not. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to show that Fosamax improved bone condition, as defined by WHO (p = 0.007). The use of immunosuppressive agents did not affect bone turnover (p>0.05). Moreover, in subgroup analysis, Fosamax increased the BMD at the lumbar spine and the hipbone in males (p = 0.028 and 0.03, respectively) but only at the lumbar spine in females (p = 0.022). Conclusion After a long periods after renal transplantation, the detrimental effects of steroid and immunosuppressive agents on bone condition diminished. Short-term Fosamax administration effectively improves BMD in these patients. The efficacy of Fosamax differed between male and female renal transplant patients. PMID:23185261

  7. H2S improves renal fibrosis in STZ-induced diabetic rats by ameliorating TGF-β1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Lin; Zeng, Ou; Liu, Jun Mao; Yang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Nephropathy develops in many patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the specific mechanisms and therapies remain unclear. For this purpose we investigated the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on renal fibrosis in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats and its underlying mechanisms. Experimental rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group (normal rats), DM group (diabetes rats), DM + NaHS group [diabetes rats treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS)], and NaHS group (normal rats treated with NaHS). The diabetic models were established by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. The NaHS-treated rats were injected with NaHS as an exogenous donor of H2S. At the same time, control group and DM group were administrated with equal doses of normal saline (NS). After eight weeks, the rats' urine samples were collected to measure the renal hydroxyproline content by basic hydrolysis method with a hydroxyproline detection kit. Collagen I and III content was detected by immunohistochemical method, and the pathology morphology of kidney was analyzed by Masson staining. Protein expressions of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), ERK1/2, TIMP1, TIMP2, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-11, and MMP-14 were assessed by western blotting. The results showed that significant fibrosis occurred in the kidney of diabetes rats. NaHS treatment downregulated TGF-β1, ERK1/2, TIMP1, TIMP2, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-11, and MMP-14 expressions in the kidney of these diabetes rats (p<.01). This result suggests that NaHS treatment could attenuate renal fibrosis by TGF-β1 signaling, and its mechanisms may be correlated with ERK1/2 expression and modulation of MMPs/TIMPs expression. Therefore, H2S may provide a promising option for defensing against diabetic renal fibrosis through TGF-β1 signaling, equilibrating the balance between profibrotic and antifibrotic mediators.

  8. Protection from renal ischemia reperfusion injury by an endothelin-A receptor antagonist BQ-123 in relation to nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Hasan; Fadillioglu, Ersin; Emre, Memet Hanifi

    2006-12-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist BQ-123 against renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is related to nitric oxide (NO) production. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: control, I/R, N sup omega nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), BQ, BQ+L-NAME, BQ+L-NAME+L-Arg groups. After urethane anesthesia, 30min renal ischemia and 2h reperfusion were performed in all groups except control group. Mean arterial pressures (MAP) during reperfusion in all L-NAME-treated groups were higher than during pre-ischemia and ischemia, however, MAP at 60th and 120th minute of reperfusion in control and BQ groups were lower than during ischemia. MAP of L-NAME-treated groups were significantly higher than the other groups during reperfusion period. The I/R caused lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, however, BQ-123 treatment prevented oxidant injury. The inhibition of NO production prevented effect of BQ-123 treatment. Also, BQ-123 treatment caused an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Both BQ-123 and L-NAME treatments prevented high xanthine oxidase activity. BQ-123 prevented risen myeloperoxidase activity and L-NAME reversed this effect of BQ-123 just like the addition of L-arginine to the treatment altered the effect of L-NAME. The plasma BUN was affected as increasing manner from L-NAME treatments; on the other hand, plasma Cr and Na concentrations were affected as decreasing manner from BQ-123 treatments. ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ-123 may be revealed a protective agent against renal I/R injury with a possible secondary pathway via its antioxidant effects. We suggest that BQ-123 may mediate the protective effect via a NO-dependent mechanism.

  9. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Renal Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rabbits via Induction of HO-1 through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Bo; Shi, Jia; Zhang, Yuan; Gong, Li-Rong; Dong, Shu-An; Cao, Xin-Shun; Wu, Li-Li; Wu, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at select acupoints have been verified to protect against organ dysfunctions during endotoxic shock. And, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 as a phase II enzyme and antioxidant contributed to the protection of kidney in septic shock rats. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway mediated the activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), which was involved in HO-1 induction. To understand the efficacy of electroacupuncture stimulation in ameliorating acute kidney injury (AKI) through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway and subsequent HO-1 upregulation, a dose of LPS 5mg/kg was administered intravenously to replicate the rabbit model of AKI induced by endotoxic shock. Electroacupuncture pretreatment was handled bilaterally at Zusanli and Neiguan acupoints for five consecutive days while sham electroacupuncture at non-acupoints as control. Results displayed that electroacupuncture stimulation significantly alleviated the morphologic renal damage, attenuated renal tubular apoptosis, suppressed the elevated biochemical indicators of AKI caused by LPS, enhanced the expressions of phospho-Akt, HO-1protein, Nrf2 total and nucleoprotein, and highlighted the proportions of Nrf2 nucleoprotein as a parallel. Furthermore, partial protective effects of elecroacupuncture were counteracted by preconditioning with wortmannin (the selective PI3K inhibitor), indicating a direct involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway. Inconsistently, wortmannin pretreatment made little difference to the expressions of HO-1, Nrf2 nucleoprotein and total protein, which indicated that PI3K/Akt may be not the only pathway responsible for electroacupuncture-afforded protection against LPS-induced AKI. These findings provide new insights into the potential future clinical applications of electroacupuncture for AKI induced by endotoxic shock instead of traditional remedies.

  10. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Renal Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rabbits via Induction of HO-1 through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Li-rong; Dong, Shu-an; Cao, Xin-shun; Wu, Li-li; Wu, Li-na

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at select acupoints have been verified to protect against organ dysfunctions during endotoxic shock. And, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 as a phase II enzyme and antioxidant contributed to the protection of kidney in septic shock rats. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway mediated the activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), which was involved in HO-1 induction. To understand the efficacy of electroacupuncture stimulation in ameliorating acute kidney injury (AKI) through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway and subsequent HO-1 upregulation, a dose of LPS 5mg/kg was administered intravenously to replicate the rabbit model of AKI induced by endotoxic shock. Electroacupuncture pretreatment was handled bilaterally at Zusanli and Neiguan acupoints for five consecutive days while sham electroacupuncture at non-acupoints as control. Results displayed that electroacupuncture stimulation significantly alleviated the morphologic renal damage, attenuated renal tubular apoptosis, suppressed the elevated biochemical indicators of AKI caused by LPS, enhanced the expressions of phospho-Akt, HO-1protein, Nrf2 total and nucleoprotein, and highlighted the proportions of Nrf2 nucleoprotein as a parallel. Furthermore, partial protective effects of elecroacupuncture were counteracted by preconditioning with wortmannin (the selective PI3K inhibitor), indicating a direct involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway. Inconsistently, wortmannin pretreatment made little difference to the expressions of HO-1, Nrf2 nucleoprotein and total protein, which indicated that PI3K/Akt may be not the only pathway responsible for electroacupuncture-afforded protection against LPS-induced AKI. These findings provide new insights into the potential future clinical applications of electroacupuncture for AKI induced by endotoxic shock instead of traditional remedies. PMID:26524181

  11. Curcumin Ameliorates Lead (Pb(2+))-Induced Hemato-Biochemical Alterations and Renal Oxidative Damage in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M; El-Toweissy, Mona Y; Ali, Awatef M; Awad Allah, Abd Allah M; Darwish, Hanaa S; Sadek, Ismail A

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the protective role of curcumin (Curc) against hematological and biochemical changes, as well as renal pathologies induced by lead acetate [Pb (CH3COO)2·3H2O] treatment. Male albino rats were intraperitoneally treated with Pb(2+) (25 mg of lead acetate/kg b.w., once a day) alone or in combination with Curc (30 mg of Curc/kg b.w., twice a day) for 7 days. Exposure of rats to Pb(2+) caused significant decreases in hemoglobin (Hb) content, hematocrit (Ht) value, and platelet (Plt) count, while Pb(2+)-related leukocytosis was accompanied by absolute neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia. A significant rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a marked drop of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evident in the kidney, liver, and serum of Pb(2+) group compared to that of control. Furthermore, significantly high levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a sharp drop in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level were also seen in blood after injection of Pb(2+). Additionally, hepatorenal function tests were enhanced. Meanwhile, Pb(2+) produced marked histo-cytological alterations in the renal cortex. Co-administration of Curc to the Pb(2+)-treated animals restored most of the parameters mentioned above to near-normal levels/features. In conclusion, Curc appeared to be a promising agent for protection against Pb(2+)-induced toxicity.

  12. Reducing inflammatory cytokine production from renal collecting duct cells by inhibiting GATA2 ameliorates acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Moriguchi, Takashi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makiko; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Nezu, Masahiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ritsuko

    2017-08-14

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease. Proximal tubules are considered to be the primary origin of pathogenic inflammatory cytokines in AKI. However, it remains unclear whether other cell types, including collecting duct (CD) cells, participate in inflammatory processes. The transcription factor GATA2 is specifically expressed in CD cells and maintains their cellular identity. To explore the pathophysiological function of GATA2 in AKI, we generated renal tubular cell-specific Gata2 deletion (G2CKO) mice and examined their susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Notably, G2CKO mice exhibited less severe kidney damage, with reduced granulo-macrophagic infiltration upon IRI. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a series of inflammatory cytokine genes were down-regulated in GATA2-deficient CD cells, suggesting that GATA2 induces inflammatory cytokine expression in diseased kidney CD cells. Through high-throughput chemical library screening, we identified a potent GATA inhibitor. The chemical reduces cytokine production in CD cells and protects the mouse kidney from IRI. These results revealed a novel pathological mechanism of renal IRI, namely, that CD cells produce inflammatory cytokines and promote IRI progression. In injured kidney CD cells, GATA2 exerts a pro-inflammatory function by upregulating inflammatory cytokine gene expression. GATA2 can therefore be considered a therapeutic target for AKI. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Polydatin ameliorates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing apoptosis and oxidative stress through activating sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiu-Hong; Liu, Hong-Bao; Wang, Jian-Bo

    2016-10-01

    Polydatin, a glucoside of resveratrol, recently has been demonstrated possibly to exert its biological effects by targeting sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, whether Shh signaling pathway is involved in the therapeutic effects of polydatin for renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been evaluated. Our results showed that I/R induced the secretion of Shh, upregulated Patched and Smoothened, and enhanced the nuclear translocation and target gene transcription of Glioblastoma 1 in renal I/R injury models, which were further upregulated after the administration of polydatin significantly and in turn exerted prominent nephroprotective effects against cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. The treatment with cyclopamine (a specific inhibitor of Smoothened) or 5E1 (an anti-Shh antibody) not only markedly inhibited the activation of the Shh pathway, but also dramatically suppressed the nephroprotective effects of polydatin above-mentioned. These results advance our knowledge that polydatin can provide protection for kidneys against I/R injury by enhancing antioxidant capacity and decreasing cell apoptosis through activating Shh signaling pathway.

  14. Berberine ameliorates renal injury by regulating G proteins-AC- cAMP signaling in diabetic rats with nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li Qin; Wang, Feng Ling; Zhu, Ling Na; Lv, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Shan Tang

    2013-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease that is caused by injury to glomerulus and glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) proliferation play a critical role in the pathogenesis of DN. The current studies were undertaken to investigate the protective effects and the possible molecular mechanism of berberine on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to normal control and DN groups of comparable age. Three DN groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of berberine for 8 weeks via daily intragastrically, respectively. The G proteins-adenylyl cyclase (AC)-cAMP signaling pathway and glomerular MCs proliferation were examined in STZ-induced diabetic rat kidney. Enhanced MCs proliferation and remarkable renal injury were concomitant with activation of Gαi and inhibition of Gαs and cAMP in DN model group. Berberine treatment for 8 weeks abolished the above changes by upregulating the expression of Gαs protein and downregulating the expression of Gαi protein, increasing cAMP level, and inhibiting MCs proliferation compared with model group. Taken together, for the first time, these results demonstrated that berberine can relieve renal injury in DN rats through mediating G proteins-AC-cAMP signaling pathway and inhibiting the abnormal proliferation of MCs by increasing cAMP level, suggesting that berberine could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of DN.

  15. A novel and selective melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonist ameliorates obesity and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese rodent models.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yayoi; Okuda, Shoki; Hotta, Natsu; Igawa, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Ikoma, Minoru; Kasai, Shizuo; Ando, Ayumi; Satomi, Yoshinori; Nishida, Mayumi; Nakayama, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Syunsuke; Nagisa, Yasutaka; Takekawa, Shiro

    2017-02-05

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a cyclic neuropeptide expressed predominantly in the lateral hypothalamus, plays an important role in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Mice lacking MCH or MCH1 receptor are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and MCH1 receptor antagonists show potent anti-obesity effects in preclinical studies, indicating that MCH1 receptor is a promising target for anti-obesity drugs. Moreover, recent studies have suggested the potential of MCH1 receptor antagonists for treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study, we show the anti-obesity and anti-hepatosteatosis effect of our novel MCH1 receptor antagonist, Compound A. Repeated oral administration of Compound A resulted in dose-dependent body weight reduction and had an anorectic effect in DIO mice. The body weight lowering effect of Compound A was more potent than that of pair-feeding. Compound A also reduced lipid content and the expression level of lipogenesis-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related genes in the liver of DIO mice. Conversely, intracerebroventricular infusion of MCH caused induction of hepatic steatosis as well as increase in body weight in high-fat diet-fed wild type mice, but not MCH1 receptor knockout mice. The pair-feeding study revealed the MCH-MCH1 receptor system affects hepatic steatosis through a mechanism that is independent of body weight change. Metabolome analysis demonstrated that Compound A upregulated lipid metabolism-related molecules, such as acylcarnitines and cardiolipins, in the liver. These findings suggest that our novel MCH1 receptor antagonist, Compound A, exerts its beneficial therapeutic effect on NAFLD and obesity through a central MCH-MCH1 receptor pathway.

  16. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablet Ameliorates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis via the Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet Fed and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ze-jun; Zhang, Xiao-na; Li, Li; Yang, Wei; Wang, Shan-shan; Guo, Xin; Sun, Pei; Chen, Li-ming

    2015-01-01

    Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) is a Chinese traditional medicine that has been shown to protect podocytes from injury and reduce the proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TGT on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and its potential mechanism in high-fat diet fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into normal control rats (NC group), diabetic rats without drug treatment (DM group), and diabetic rats treated with TGT (1, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 8 weeks. The results showed that 24 h proteinuria and urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) in diabetic rats were decreased by TGT treatment without affecting blood glucose. Masson's trichrome stains showed that apparent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was found in DM group, which was ameliorated by TGT treatment. The expression of α-SMA was significantly decreased, accompanied by increased expression of E-cadherin in TGT-treated rats, but not in untreated DM rats. Further studies showed that TGT administration markedly reduced expression of TLR4, NF-κB, IL-1β, and MCP-1 in TGT-treated diabetic rats. These results showed that TGT could ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the mechanism which may be at least partly associated with the amelioration of EMT through suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. PMID:26347890

  17. Icodextrin eliminates phosphate and ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy and valvular calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease and diabetes mellitus undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Takeyuki; Hayasaki, Takahiro; Hobo, Akinori; Furuta, Shinji; Kabu, Koki; Tonozuka, Yukio; Iida, Yoshiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, cardiovascular disease is a common comorbidity and one of most important factors affecting clinical prognosis. Calcium deposition has been reported to correlate with plasma phosphate. Icodextrin (Ico)-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) has many advantages over glucose (Glu)-based PD. We aimed to identify factors that suppress arteriosclerosis and valvular disease in patients with ESRD and diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing Ico-based PD. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effects of Ico-based PD (n = 20) on phosphate elimination and cardiovascular disease progression in patients with ESRD andDM, and we compared the results with those for Glu-based PD (n = 20). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and aortic valve calcification (AVC) score were significantly decreased and daily phosphate elimination was significantly increased in the Ico group compared with the Glu group. Furthermore, mean daily phosphate elimination was significantly and negatively correlated with the amelioration in LVMI and AVC score. Our study suggests that, compared with glucose, icodextrin has the ability to eliminate more phosphate from the body, indicating that phosphate elimination might potentially be a means of controlling cardiovascular disease in PD patients with DM.

  18. HuangQi Decoction Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis via TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Li; Cao, Ai-Li; Jiang, Ming-Qian; Chen, Xia; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yun-Man; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Peng, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine compound HuangQi decoction is widely used in clinical treatment of chronic kidney disease, but its role on renal interstitial fibrosis and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of HuangQi decoction on renal interstitial fibrosis and its association with the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway Methods: A total of 120 C57/BL mice were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, sham plus high-dose HuangQi decoction (1.08g/kg) group, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model group, and UUO model plus low to high doses of HuangQi decoction (0.12g/kg, 0.36g/kg and 1.08g/kg respectively) groups. Animals were sacrificed 14 days after the administration and ipsilateral kidney tissue was sampled for pathologic examinations. Immunohistochemistry, PCR and western blot were used to detect the expressions of related molecules in the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. TGF-β1 was used in in vitro experiments to induce human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK2). HuangQi decoction improved ipsilateral kidney fibrosis in UUO mice and downregulated the expressions of TGF-β1, TβRI, TβRII, Smad4, Smad2/3, P-Smad2/3, α-SMA, collagen type I, III and IV in a dose-dependent manner while upregulated the expression of Smad7 in the same fashion. Similar results were found in in vitro studies. The protective effect of HuangQi decoction for unilateral ureteral obstruction kidney damage in mice was mediated by downregulating the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Amelioration of cardio-renal injury with aging in dahl salt-sensitive rats by H2-enriched electrolyzed water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have revealed the biological effects of H2 in suppressing organ injuries due to acute inflammation and oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats naturally develop elevated blood pressure (BP) and kidney injury with aging. The present study examined the effect of long-term supplementation of H2 in drinking water on age-related changes. Four-week-old male Dahl SS rats were fed 3 types of water (n = 30 each) for up to 48 weeks: filtered water (FW), water with a high H2 content (492.5 ppb) obtained with water electrolysis (EW), or dehydrogenated EW (DW). Animals were subjected to histological analysis at 16, 24, and 48 weeks. The FW group showed progressive BP elevation and increases in albuminuria and cardiac remodeling during the course of treatment. Histologically, there were significant changes as a function of aging, i.e., glomerular sclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney, and increased cardiomyocyte diameter with interstitial fibrosis in the heart at 48 weeks. These changes were related to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in the respective organs. However, there were no striking differences in BP among the groups, despite histological alterations in the EW group being significantly decreased when compared to FW and DW in both organs, with concurrently lower oxidative stress and inflammatory markers at 48 weeks. Conclusion Long-term ad libitum consumption of H2-enriched electrolyzed water can ameliorate the processes of kidney injury and cardiac remodeling with aging in Dahl SS rats by suppressing, at least partly, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24289332

  20. Thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduces ischemic stroke-induced microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, and ameliorates brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Xiao; Shao, Jiaxiang; Fu, Ningzhen; Shen, Fanxia; Fu, Yi; Xia, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2.6 μmol/ml, per dose). Cerebral infarction volume, inflammatory cytokines release and microglia/macrophages activation were measured using the cresyl violet method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunofluorescence double staining, respectively. Expression of TXA2R was significantly increased in the ipsilateral brain tissue after ischemia/reperfusion, which was also found to co-localize with activated microglia/macrophages in the infarct area. Administration of SQ29548 inhibited microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, including both M1 and M2 phenotypes, and attenuated ischemia-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α up-regulation and iNOS release. TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 inhibited ischemia-induced inflammatory response and furthermore reduced microglia/macrophages activation and ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. PMID:27775054

  1. Role of Mas receptor antagonist (A779) in renal hemodynamics in condition of blocked angiotensin II receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, A; Oryan, S; Nematbakhsh, M

    2016-03-01

    The vasodilatory effect of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) is exerted in the vascular bed via Mas receptor (MasR) gender dependently. However, the crosstalk between MasR and angiotensin II (Ang II) types 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) may change some actions of Ang 1-7 in renal circulation. In this study by blocking AT1R and AT2R, the role of MasR in kidney hemodynamics was described. In anaesthetized male and female Wistar rats, the effects of saline as vehicle and MasR blockade (A779) were tested on mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) when both AT1R and AT2R were blocked by losartan and PD123319, respectively. In male rats, when AT1R and AT2R were blocked, there was a tendency for the increase in RBF/wet kidney tissue weight (RBF/KW) to be elevated by A779 as compared with the vehicle (P=0.08), and this was not the case in female rats. The impact of MasR on renal hemodynamics appears not to be sexual dimorphism either when Ang II receptors were blocked. It seems that co-blockade of all AT1R, AT2R, and MasR may alter RBF/ KW in male more than in female rats. These findings support a crosstalk between MasR and Ang II receptors in renal circulation.

  2. Silencing megalin and cubilin genes inhibits myeloma light chain endocytosis and ameliorates toxicity in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Balamuthusamy, Saravanan; Simon, Eric E; Batuman, Vecihi

    2008-07-01

    Using target-specific short interfering (si) RNAs, we silenced the tandem endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin genes in cultured human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Transfection by siRNA resulted in up to 90% suppression of both megalin and cubilin protein and mRNA expression. In HK-2 cells exposed to kappa-light chain for up to 24 h, light chain endocytosis was reduced in either megalin- or cubilin-silenced cells markedly but incompletely. Simultaneous silencing of both the cubilin and megalin genes, however, resulted in near-complete inhibition of light chain endocytosis, as determined by measuring kappa-light chain protein concentration in cell cytoplasm and by flow cytometry using FITC-labeled kappa-light chain. In these cells, light chain-induced cytokine responses (interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as well as the associated cellular and morphological alterations were also markedly suppressed. The results demonstrate that light chain endocytosis is predominantly mediated by the megalin-cubilin tandem endocytic receptor and identify endocytosis as a key step in light chain cytotoxicity. Blocking light chain endocytosis prevents its nephrotoxic effects on human kidney proximal tubule cells.

  3. Antagonistic effects of chloroquine on autophagy occurrence potentiate the anticancer effects of everolimus on renal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, A; Santini, D; Zappavigna, S; Lombardi, A; Misso, G; Boccellino, M; Desiderio, V; Vitiello, P P; Di Lorenzo, G; Zoccoli, A; Pantano, F; Caraglia, M

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease often asymptomatic and weakly chemo-radiosensitive. Currently, new biologic drugs are used among which everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, that has been approved for second-line therapy. Since mTOR is involved in the control of autophagy, its antitumor capacity is often limited. In this view, chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, is an autophagy inhibitor that blocks the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus alone or in combination with chloroquine on renal cancer cell viability and verified possible synergism. Our results demonstrate that renal cancer cells are differently sensitive to everolimus and chloroquine and the pharmacological combination everolimus/chloroquine was strongly synergistic inducing cell viability inhibition. In details, the pharmacological synergism occurs when chloroquine is administered before everolimus. In addition, we found a flow autophagic block and shift of death mechanisms to apoptosis. This event was associated with decrease of Beclin-1/Bcl-2 complex and parallel reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in combined treatment. At last, we found that the enhancement of apoptosis induced by drug combination occurs through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation, while the extrinsic pathway is involved only partly following its activation by chloroquine. These results provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma after appropriate clinical trial. PMID:25866016

  4. Antagonistic effects of chloroquine on autophagy occurrence potentiate the anticancer effects of everolimus on renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, A; Santini, D; Zappavigna, S; Lombardi, A; Misso, G; Boccellino, M; Desiderio, V; Vitiello, P P; Di Lorenzo, G; Zoccoli, A; Pantano, F; Caraglia, M

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease often asymptomatic and weakly chemo-radiosensitive. Currently, new biologic drugs are used among which everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, that has been approved for second-line therapy. Since mTOR is involved in the control of autophagy, its antitumor capacity is often limited. In this view, chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, is an autophagy inhibitor that blocks the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus alone or in combination with chloroquine on renal cancer cell viability and verified possible synergism. Our results demonstrate that renal cancer cells are differently sensitive to everolimus and chloroquine and the pharmacological combination everolimus/chloroquine was strongly synergistic inducing cell viability inhibition. In details, the pharmacological synergism occurs when chloroquine is administered before everolimus. In addition, we found a flow autophagic block and shift of death mechanisms to apoptosis. This event was associated with decrease of Beclin-1/Bcl(-)2 complex and parallel reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl(-)2 in combined treatment. At last, we found that the enhancement of apoptosis induced by drug combination occurs through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation, while the extrinsic pathway is involved only partly following its activation by chloroquine. These results provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma after appropriate clinical trial.

  5. Low-dose paclitaxel ameliorates renal fibrosis by suppressing transforming growth factor-β1-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Sook; Lee, Jeonghwan; Heo, Nam Ju; Kim, Sejoong; Kim, Dong Ki; Joo, Kwon Wook; Han, Jin Suk

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of microtubule stabilization with low-dose paclitaxel on renal fibrosis, focusing on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) signaling cascade. Forty-eight rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham/vehicle, sham/paclitaxel, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)/vehicle and UUO/paclitaxel. Rats were treated with a 0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of paclitaxel or vehicle twice per week for 14 days. Half of the rats in each group were sacrificed respectively on day 7 and 14 after operation. Inner medullar collecting duct (IMCD) cells stimulated with TGF-β1 were incubated with 0, 1 and 2 nM paclitaxel for 24 and 72 hours. Histological changes were assessed using periodic acid-Schiff and Masson's trichrome. The TGF-β1-induced PAI-1 signaling and status of extracellular matrix proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis. In the UUO kidneys, paclitaxel significantly attenuated tubular damage and interstitial collagen deposition, as well as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), TGF-β1 and PAI-1 protein expression. Paclitaxel also inhibited the UUO-induced activation of Smad2/3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, paclitaxel treatment did not inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) or p38 expression. In TGF-β1-treated IMCD cells, treatment with 1 and 2 nM paclitaxel for 72 h reduced fibronectin, α-SMA and PAI-1 protein expression. Moreover, a 2 nM dose of paclitaxel for 24 h significantly inhibited the TGF-β1-stimulated activation of Smad2/3, JNK and ERK1/2 in IMCD cells. Paclitaxel at low non-cytotoxic doses ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting multiple steps in the TGF-β1-induced PAI-1 signaling including Smads and mitogen-activated protein kinases. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. QCM-4, a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist ameliorates plasma HPA axis hyperactivity, leptin resistance and brain oxidative stress in depression and anxiety-like behavior in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj

    2015-01-02

    Several preclinical studies have revealed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. In our earlier study, we have reported the antidepressive-like effect of 3-methoxy-N-p-tolylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-4) in obese mice subjected to chronic stress. The present study deals with the biochemical mechanisms associated with depression co-morbid with obesity. Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, further subjected for treatment with QCM-4 (1 and 2mg/kg p.o.) and standard antidepressant escitalopram (ESC) (10mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days. Behavioral assays for depression such as sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swim test (FST) and for anxiety such as light and dark test (LDT) and hole board test (HBT) were performed in obese mice. Biochemical assessments including plasma leptin and corticosterone concentration followed by brain oxidative stress parameters malonaldehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were performed. Results confirmed that QCM-4 exhibits antidepressive effect by increasing the sucrose consumption in SPT, reducing immobility time in FST and anxiolytic effect by increasing transitions and time in light chamber in LDT, increasing head dip and crossing score in HBT. Furthermore, QCM-4 attenuated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity by reducing the plasma corticosterone, reversing altered plasma leptin, restoring the imbalance of brain MDA and GSH concentration. In conclusion, QCM-4 showed antidepressive and anxiolytic effect by reversing the behavioral alterations that were supported by biochemical estimations in obese mice.

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorates cadmium-induced renal injury and oxidative stress in experimental rats through the up-regulation of nuclear related factor 2 and antioxidant responsive elements.

    PubMed

    Nazima, Bashir; Manoharan, Vaihundam; Miltonprabu, Selvaraj

    2015-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) preferentially accumulates in the kidney, the major target for Cd-related toxicity. Cd-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been considered crucial mediators for renal injury. The biologically significant ionic form of cadmium (Cd(+)) binds to many bio-molecules, and these interactions underlie the toxicity mechanisms of Cd. The present study was hypothesized to explore the protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) on Cd-induced renal toxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Male Wistar rats were treated with Cd as cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 5 mg·kg(-1) bw, orally) and orally pre-administered with GSP (100 mg·kg(-1) bw) 90 min before Cd intoxication for 4 weeks to evaluate renal damage of Cd and antioxidant potential of GSP. Serum renal function parameters (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) levels in serum and urine, renal oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, enzymatic, and non-enzymatic antioxidants), inflammatory (NF-κB p65, NO, TNF-α, IL-6), apoptotic (caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, Bcl-2), membrane bound ATPases, and Nrf2 (HO-1, keap1, γ-GCS, and μ-GST) markers were evaluated in Cd-treated rats. Pretreatment with GSP revealed a significant improvement in renal oxidative stress markers in kidneys of Cd-treated rats. In addition, GSP treatment decreases the amount of iNOS, NF-κB, TNF-α, caspase-3, and Bax and increases the levels Bcl-2 protein expression. Similarly, mRNA and protein analyses substantiated that GSP treatment notably normalizes the renal expression of Nrf2/Keap1 and its downstream regulatory proteins in the Cd-treated rats. Histopathological and ultra-structural observations also demonstrated that GSP effectively protects the kidney from Cd-induced oxidative damage. These findings suggest that GSP ameliorates renal dysfunction and oxidative stress through the activation of Nrf2 pathway in Cd-intoxicated rats.

  8. Leptin receptor antagonist treatment ameliorates the effects of long-term maternal hypoxia on adrenal expression of key steroidogenic genes in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Ken; Vargas, Vladimir E.; Kaushal, Kanchan M.; Singleton, Krista; Hyatt, Kimberly; Myers, Dean A.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported elevated adipose leptin expression, plasma leptin concentrations, and adrenocortical leptin receptor expression in the long-term hypoxic (LTH) ovine fetus. This study addressed whether leptin antagonist (LA) administration to LTH fetal sheep altered expression of key genes governing cortisol synthesis. Ewes were maintained at high altitude (3,820 meters) from 40 to 130 days gestation (dG), returned to Loma Linda University, and implanted with a maternal tracheal catheter. Reduced Po2 was maintained by nitrogen infusion. On 132 dG, LTH (n = 11) and age-matched, normoxic control (n = 11) fetuses underwent vascular catheter implantation. At 138 dG, fetuses were continuously infused with either saline or the LA (1.5 mg·kg−1·day−1) for 4 days and samples collected for blood gases, ACTH, and cortisol. Fetal adrenal cortex was collected for determination of steriodogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), ACTH, and leptin receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), cytochrome P-450 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17), 21-hydroxylase (CYP21), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), pSTAT3, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) expression. In the saline-infused LTH fetuses, StAR, ACTH receptor, CYP11A1, and CYP17 expression was significantly lower compared with control (P < 0.05), whereas levels of CYP11B1, CYP21, and HSD3B mRNA were similar between groups. LA infusion restored expression of StAR, pSTAT3, CYP11A1, and CYP17, but not ACTH receptor, to normal ontogenic levels in the LTH group while having no effect on control fetuses. Neither fetal plasma ACTH nor cortisol concentrations were altered by LA infusion. We speculate that while leptin plays a role in governing expression of key enzymes and StAR in response to LTH, other factors play a role in modulating cortisol synthesis in these fetuses. PMID:23344230

  9. Effect of the adenosine antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline on glycerol-induced acute renal failure in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bowmer, C. J.; Collis, M. G.; Yates, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    8-Phenyltheophylline (8-PT)(10 mg kg-1) or its vehicle(1 ml kg-1) were administered intravenously or intraperitoneally twice daily over 48 h to rats with acute renal failure (ARF) induced by intramuscular (i.m.) injection of glycerol. Rats treated with 8-PT i.v. had significantly lower plasma urea and creatinine levels at 24 and 48 h compared to untreated animals. The vehicle also reduced plasma urea and creatinine when compared to untreated controls. However, plasma urea levels in 8-PT-treated rats were significantly lower than in vehicle-treated animals at 24 and 48 h after both i.v. and i.p. administration. Plasma creatinine concentrations also tended to be lower in the 8-PT-treated group. [3H]-inulin clearance at 48 h after i.m. glycerol was significantly greater in rats dosed i.p. with 8-PT compared to either untreated or vehicle treated rats. Examination of kidneys taken from rats 48 h after i.m. glycerol showed that 8-PT treatment significantly reduced renal damage and kidney weight compared to the untreated or vehicle-treated groups. In a 7 day study all the rats which received 8-PT i.p. survived whilst in the vehicle and untreated groups the mortality rates were 12 and 21% respectively. In a separate series of experiments 8-PT (10 mg kg-1, i.v. or i.p.) was found to antagonize adenosine-induced bradycardia in conscious rats for up to 5 h. There is no clear explanation for the partial protection afforded by the vehicle but it may be related to either its alkalinity or an osmotic effect produced by the polyethylene glycol component.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3708216

  10. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR), bradykinin (BK), and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF) response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779) and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE) or vehicle (OV) for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg(-1) min(-1)) were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF) in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (P < 0.05). Infusion of 300 ng kg(-1) min(-1) Ang 1-7 increased RBF by 6.9 ± 1.9% in OVE group versus 0.9 ± 1.8% in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats.

  11. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR), bradykinin (BK), and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF) response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779) and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE) or vehicle (OV) for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg−1 min−1) were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF) in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (P < 0.05). Infusion of 300 ng kg−1 min−1 Ang 1-7 increased RBF by 6.9 ± 1.9% in OVE group versus 0.9 ± 1.8% in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats. PMID:26421009

  12. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, on myocardial fibrosis in patients with end-stage renal disease: assessment by ultrasonic integrated backscatter and biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Yasunobu; Nishiue, Takashi; Masaki, Hiroya; Tamura, Koji; Matsumoto, Noriko; Mori, Yasukiyo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2005-10-01

    Myocardial fibrosis commonly occurs in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and has proven to be an important predictor for cardiovascular events. In experimental settings, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonists have been shown to have anti-fibrotic effects on the myocardium independent of their antihypertensive effects. In this study, to investigate whether the AT1-R antagonist losartan would have such anti-fibrotic effects in patients, we administered losartan or, for purpose of comparison, the angiotensin-converting enzyme enalapril or Ca2+-antagonist amlodipine to patients with ESRD. Thirty-nine ESRD patients with hypertension were randomly assigned to receive losartan (n=13), enalapril (n=13), or amlodipine (n=13). Ultrasonic integrated backscatter (IBS) and serological markers of collagen type I synthesis and degradation were used to assess the degree of myocardial fibrosis just before and after 6 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in antihypertensive effects among the three agents. In the enalapril- and amlodipine-treated groups, the mean calibrated IBS values increased significantly after 6 months of treatment (enalapril: -31.6 +/- 1.3 to -29.4 +/- 1.2 dB, p=0.011; amlodipine: -30.6 +/- 1.4 to -27.2 +/- 1.2 dB, p=0.012). However, the mean calibrated IBS values in the losartan-treated group did not increase after 6 months of treatment (-31.2 +/- 1.7 to -31.3 +/- 1.4 dB, p=0.88). The ratio of the serum concentration of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide to the serum concentration of collagen type I pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide was significantly reduced in the losartan-treated group (42.6 +/- 4.6 to 34.4 +/- 3.6, p=0.038). The present study indicates that losartan more effectively suppresses myocardial fibrosis in patients with ESRD than does enalapril or amlodipine despite a comparable antihypertensive effect among the three drugs.

  14. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  15. Dalteparin versus vitamin K antagonists for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer and renal impairment: a Canadian pharmacoeconomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dranitsaris, George; Shane, Lesley G; Crowther, Mark; Feugere, Guillaume; Woodruff, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the risk is further elevated after a primary VTE. To reduce the risk of recurrent events, extended prophylaxis with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) is available for use. However, in a large randomized trial (Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer [CLOT]; Lee et al), extended duration dalteparin reduced the relative risk of recurrent VTE by 52% compared to VKA (p=0.002). A recent subgroup analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment also revealed lower absolute VTE rates with dalteparin (3% vs. 17%; p=0.011). To measure the economic value of dalteparin as an alternative to VKA, a patient-level cost utility analysis was conducted from a Canadian perspective. Methods Resource use data captured during the CLOT trial were extracted and linked to 2015 Canadian unit cost estimates. Health state utilities were then measured using the Time-Trade-Off technique in 24 randomly selected members of the general Canadian public to estimate the gains in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results For the entire CLOT trial population (n=676), the dalteparin group had significantly higher mean costs compared to the VKA group ($Can5,771 vs. $Can2,569; p<0.001). However, the utility assessment revealed that 21 of 24 respondents (88%) selected dalteparin over VKA, with an associated gain of 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10–0.18) QALYs. When the incremental cost of dalteparin was combined with the QALY gain, dalteparin had a cost of $Can23,100 (95% CI: $Can19,200–$Can25,800) per QALY gained. The analysis in patients with renal impairment suggested even better economic value with the cost per QALY gained being <$14,000. Conclusion Extended duration dalteparin is a cost-effective alternative to VKA for the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients with cancer

  16. Late acute humoral rejection in low-risk renal transplant recipients induced with an interleukin-2 receptor antagonist and maintained with standard therapy: preliminary communication.

    PubMed

    Morales, J; Contreras, L; Zehnder, C; Pinto, V; Elberg, M; Araneda, S; Herzog, C; Calabran, L; Aguiló, J; Ferrario, M; Buckel, E; Fierro, J A

    2011-01-01

    Low-risk renal transplant recipients treated with standard immunosuppressive therapy including interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) antagonist show a low incidence of early rejection episodes but few reports have examined the incidence and severity of late rejection processes. This study evaluated retrospectively cellular and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) among 42 recipients selected because they showed low panel-reactive-antibodies, short cold ischemia time, no delayed graft function, and therapy including basiliximab (Simulect) induction. The mean observation time was 6.6 years. Sixty-seven percent of donors were deceased. Ten-year patient and death-censored graft survivals were 81% and 78%, respectively. Seven patients lost their kidneys due to nonimmunologic events. The seven recipients who experienced cellular rejection episodes during the first posttransplant year had them reversed with steroids. Five patients displayed late acute AMR causing functional deterioration in four cases including 1 graft loss. De novo sensitization occurred in 48% of recipients including patients without clinical rejection. In conclusion, long-term follow-up of kidney transplant recipients selected by a low immunologic risk showed a persistent risk of de novo sensitization evolving to acute AMR in 11% of cases. Although immunologic events were related to late immunosuppressive reduction, most graft losses were due to nonimmunologic factors.

  17. Beneficial effects montelukast, cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist, on renal damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Cakir, Suleyman Sami; Dursun, Murat; Cekmen, Mustafa; Polat, Emre Can; Ozcan, Levent; Somay, Adnan; Ozbay, Nurver

    2015-01-01

    Introductıon Ureteral obstruction is a common pathology and caused kidney fibrosis and dysfunction at late period. In this present, we investigated the antifibrotic and antiinflammatory effects of montelukast which is cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, on kidney damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction(UUO) in rats. Mateirıals and Methods 32 rats divided four groups. Group 1 was control, group 2 was sham, group 3 was rats with UUO and group 4 was rats with UUO which were given montelukast sodium (oral 10 mg/kg/day). After 14 days, rats were killed and their kidneys were taken and blood analysis was performed. Tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis scoring were determined histopathologically in a part of kidneys; nitric oxide(NO), malondialdehyde(MDA) and reduced glutathione(GSH) levels were determined in the other part of kidneys. Urea-creatinine levels were investigated at blood analysis. Statistical analyses were made by the Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results There was no difference significantly for urea-creatinine levels between groups. Pathologically, there was serious tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 3 and there was significantly decreasing for tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 4(p<0.005). Also, there was significantly increasing for NO and MDA levels; decreasing for GSH levels in group 3 compared the other groups(p<0.005). Conclusıon We can say that montelukast prevent kidney damage with antioxidant effect, independently of NO. PMID:26005969

  18. Role of adenosine in tubuloglomerular feedback and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Osswald, H; Vallon, V; Mühlbauer, B

    1996-12-01

    1. Adenosine (ADO) can induce renal vasoconstriction and a fall in glomerular filtration rate. When the rate of ATP hydrolysis prevails over the rate of ATP synthesis the kidney generates ADO at an enhanced rate. 2. Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is the vascular response to changes of the NaCl concentration in the tubular fluid at the macula densa segment, which is the result of transepithelial electrolyte reabsorption by the proximal tubule and the loop of Henle. 3. TGF can be inhibited by ADO-A1 receptor antagonists and is potentiated by substances that can elevate extracellular ADO concentrations. These observations led to the hypothesis that ADO is an element of the signal transmission processes in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. 4. Renal ischaemia and nephrotoxic substances can induce acute renal failure (ARF). ADO receptor antagonists have been shown to ameliorate renal function in several different models of ARF in laboratory animals and humans. 5. A number of factors, such as extracellular volume contraction, low NaCl diet, angiotensin II and cyclooxygenase inhibitors enhance to a similar extent: (a) the renal vascular response to endogenous and exogenous ADO; (b) the TGF response of the nephron; and (c) the severity of ARF. All three phenomena are susceptible to antagonism by ADO receptor antagonists. 6. Therefore, we conclude that ADO plays a significant role in normal and pathological states of kidney function.

  19. DNA methylation and histone modifications cause silencing of Wnt antagonist gene in human renal cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ken; Hirata, Hiroshi; Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2008-08-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) is a negative modulator of the Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway, and shown to be inactivated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the molecular mechanism of silencing of sFRP2 is not fully understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the silencing mechanism of sFRP2 in RCC. Expression of sFRP2 was examined in 20 pairs of primary cancers by immunohistochemistry. Kidney cell lines (HK-2, Caki-1, Caki-2, A-498 and ACHN) were analyzed for sFRP2 expression using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. The methylation status at 46 CpG sites of the 2 CpG islands in the sFRP2 promoter was characterized by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Histone modifications were assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using antibodies against AcH3, AcH4, H3K4 and H3K9. sFRP2 was frequently repressed in primary cancers and in RCC cells. The majority of sFRP2 negative cells had a methylated promoter. Meanwhile, sFRP2 expression was repressed by a hypomethylated promoter in Caki-1 cells, and these cells had a repressive histone modification at the promoter. In Caki-1 cells, sFRP2 was reactivated by trichostatin A (TSA). Repressive histone modifications were also observed in RCC cells with hypermethylated promoters, but sFRP2 was reactivated only by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) and not by TSA. However, the activation of the silenced sFRP2 gene could be achieved in all cells using a combination of DAC and TSA. This is the first report indicating that aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications work together to silence the sFRP2 gene in RCC cells.

  20. Efficacy and safety of valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, in hypertension after renal transplantation: a randomized multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Andrés, A; Morales, E; Morales, J M; Bosch, I; Campo, C; Ruilope, L M

    2006-10-01

    The prevalence of posttransplant hypertension is high, and it appears to be a major risk factor for graft and patient survival. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), in the treatment of posttransplant hypertension. A multinational, multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on the treatment of hypertension (systolic blood pressure [BP] >/= 140 and/or diastolic BP >/= 90 mm Hg) in adult cyclosporin-treated renal transplant recipients randomized to receive either valsartan (80 mg once daily) or a matching placebo for 8 weeks. After the first 4 weeks, furosemide 20 mg twice daily was added on a open basis if systolic BP remained >/= 130 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP remained >/= 85 mm Hg. One hundred fifteen (valsartan = 57, placebo = 58) uncontrolled hypertensive patients despite monotherapy for hypertension, other than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or ARB, were randomized. In the valsartan group, significant decreases were seen in systolic BP (from 153 +/- 11 to 140.9 +/- 18.35 mm Hg at 4 weeks, and 136.5 +/- 15 mm Hg at 8 weeks) and diastolic BP (from 93 +/- 9 to 85.2 +/- 11.28 mm Hg at 4 weeks, and 83.8 +/- 9.2 mm Hg at 8 weeks). There was no significant change in the placebo group. In the valsartan group, a statistically but not clinically significant reduction was observed in the mean hemoglobin concentration (12.9 +/- 1.6 g/dL versus 13.8 +/- 1.6 g/dL at 4 weeks, P < .01; and 12.3 +/- 1.6 versus 13.8 +/- 1.7 at 8 weeks; P < .001) as well as a significant increase in serum potassium (4.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L versus 4.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/L at 4 weeks, P < .01) vs placebo. Valsartan is effective in the treatment of posttransplant hypertension and is well tolerated.

  1. Wnt antagonist DKK1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene that induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Hinoda, Yuji; Nakajima, Koichi; Kawamoto, Ken; Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Ueno, Koji; Yamamura, Soichiro; Zaman, Mohd S; Khatri, Gaurav; Chen, Yi; Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Deng, Guoren; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2011-04-15

    The functional significance of Wnt antagonist DKK1 has not been investigated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, we hypothesized that DKK1 may be a tumor suppressor gene and is epigenetically silenced, thus decreased DKK1 may cause progression of RCC. To assess the function of DKK1, we established stable DKK1 transfected cells and monitored them regarding cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and invasive capability. RCC cell lines had decreased levels of DKK1, which were increased after treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, the level of dimethyl H3K9 and trimethyl H3K27 was decreased after 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine/trichostatin A treatment in RCC cell lines. Increased methylation was also associated with higher pathological stages in primary RCC tissues. T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor activity and nuclear beta-catenin expression were not changed in DKK1 transfectants. Also the expression of cyclinD1 and c-Myc was not changed in DKK1 transfectants. These results suggest that DKK1 may not be involved in the beta-catenin dependent pathway. We also evaluated the expression of various related genes. Cleaved caspase3, p53, p21 and puma expression were significantly upregulated in the DKK1 transfected cells. The population of apoptotic cells was increased in stable DKK1 cells and tumor growth suppression was also observed in nude mice with DKK1 transfected cells. In conclusion, this is the first report to show that DKK1 expression is epigenetically silenced in kidney cancer and its reexpression induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RCC.

  2. Chemopreventive efficacy of hesperidin against chemically induced nephrotoxicity and renal carcinogenesis via amelioration of oxidative stress and modulation of multiple molecular pathways.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Aisha; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Nafees, Sana; Rashid, Summya; Saidullah, Bano; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, chemopreventive efficacy of hesperidin was evaluated against ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced renal oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in wistar rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe/kg b.wt). Renal cancer was initiated by the administration of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN 200mg/kg b.wt ip) and promoted by Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe/kg b.wt ip) twice weekly for 16 weeks. Efficacy of hesperidin against Fe-NTA-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities viz. reduced renal GSH, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and renal toxicity markers (BUN, Creatinine, KIM-1). Administration of Fe-NTA significantly depleted antioxidant renal armory, enhanced renal lipid peroxidation as well as the levels of BUN, creatinine and KIM-1. However, simultaneous pretreatment of hesperidin restored their levels in a dose dependent manner. Expression of apoptotic markers caspase-3, caspase-9, bax, bcl-2 and proliferative marker PCNA along with inflammatory markers (NFκB, iNOS, TNF-α) were also analysed to assess the chemopreventive potential of hesperidin in two-stage renal carcinogenesis model. Hesperidin was found to induce caspase-3, caspase-9, bax expression and downregulate bcl-2, NFκB, iNOS, TNF-α, PCNA expression. Histopathological findings further revealed hesperidin's chemopreventive efficacy by restoring the renal morphology. Our results provide a powerful evidence suggesting hesperidin to be a potent chemopreventive agent against renal carcinogenesis possibly by virtue of its antioxidant properties and by modulation of multiple molecular pathways.

  3. p38 MAPK inhibitors ameliorate target organ damage in hypertension: Part 2. Improved renal function as assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, Stephen C; Nerurkar, Sandhya S; Schaeffer, Thomas R; Mirabile, Rosanna C; Boyce, Rogely W; Adams, David F; Jucker, Beat M; Willette, Robert N

    2003-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of progressive renal disease. Using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we evaluated chronic treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor, trans-1-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl-methoxypyridimidin-4-yl)imidazole (SB-239063), on renal function in a hypertension model of progressing renal dysfunction. Spontaneously hypertensive-stroke prone rats were placed on a high salt/fat diet (SFD) or maintained on normal chow diet (ND). SFD animals with albuminuria at 4 to 8 weeks (> or =10 mg/day inclusion criteria), were randomized into p38 MAPK inhibitor treatment (SB-239063, 1200 ppm in diet) or vehicle groups. The progression of blood pressure and albuminuria during the treatment period (approximately 6 weeks) was decreased by 12 and 60%, respectively, in the SFD + SB-239063 versus SFD control group. Renal perfusion and filtration were assessed by in vivo MRI at the end of the study. Relative cortical perfusion was increased in the SFD + SB-239063 group compared with the SFD control group as reflected by a 29% decrease in time to peak of contrast agent in the cortex. Additionally, the regional renal glomerular filtration rate index (Kcl) was increased by 39% in the SFD + SB-239063 versus SFD control group and was normalized to the ND control group. Greater functional heterogeneity was observed in the SFD control versus SFD + SB-239063 or ND control group. All alterations of renal function were supported by histopathological findings. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB-239063, attenuates functional and structural renal degeneration in a hypertensive model of established renal dysfunction.

  4. Amelioration of Renal Inflammation, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis Underlies the Protective Effect of Low Dosage of Atorvastatin in Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jaikumkao, Krit; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Thongnak, La-ongdao; Wanchai, Keerati; Arjinajarn, Phatchawan; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Lungkaphin, Anusorn

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic. However, its therapeutic use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. The mechanisms of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity are principally from renal inflammation and oxidative stress. Since atorvastatin, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, exerts lipid-lowering effects, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as anti-apoptotic effects, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of atorvastatin against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were used and nephrotoxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin, 100 mg/kg/day, for 15 days. Atorvastatin, 10 mg/kg/day, was administered by orally gavage 30 min before gentamicin injection on day 1 to 15 (pretreatment) or on day 10 to15 (delayed treatment). For only atorvastatin treatment group, it was given on day 1 to 15. At the end of the experiment, kidney weight, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine as well as renal inflammation (NF-κB, TNFαR1, IL-6 and iNOS), renal fibrosis (TGFβ1), ER stress (calpain, GRP78, CHOP, and caspase 12) and apoptotic markers (cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) as well as TUNEL assay were determined. Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed by marked elevations in serum urea and creatinine, kidney hypertrophy, renal inflammation, fibrosis, ER stress and apoptosis and attenuation of creatinine clearance. Atorvastatin pre and delayed treatment significantly improved renal function and decreased renal NF-κB, TNFαR1, IL-6, iNOS and TGFβ1 expressions. They also attenuated calpain, GRP78, CHOP, caspase 12, Bax, and increased Bcl-2 expressions in gentamicin-treated rat. These results indicate that atorvastatin treatment could attenuate gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, substantiated by the reduction of inflammation, ER stress and apoptosis. The effect of atorvastatin in protecting from renal damage induced by gentamicin seems to be more effective when it

  5. Effect of a reduction in uric acid on renal outcomes during losartan treatment: a post hoc analysis of the reduction of endpoints in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Trial.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yan; Ottenbros, Stefan A; Laverman, Goos D; Brenner, Barry M; Cooper, Mark E; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Grobbee, Diederick E; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; de Zeeuw, Dick; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J

    2011-07-01

    Emerging data show that increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentration is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Treatment with the antihypertensive drug losartan lowers SUA. Whether reductions in SUA during losartan therapy are associated with renoprotection is unclear. We therefore tested this hypothesis. In a post hoc analysis of 1342 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy participating in the Reduction of Endpoints in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Trial, we determined the relationship between month 6 change in SUA and renal endpoints, defined as a doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. Baseline SUA was 6.7 mg/dL in placebo and losartan-treated subjects. During the first 6 months, losartan lowered SUA by -0.16 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.30 to -0.01; P=0.031) as compared with placebo. The risk of renal events was decreased by 6% (95% CI: 10% to 3%) per 0.5-mg/dL decrement in SUA during the first 6 months. This effect was independent of other risk markers, including estimate glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria. Adjustment of the overall treatment effects for SUA attenuated losartan's renoprotective effect from 22% (95% CI: 6% to 35%) to 17% (95% CI: 1% to 31%), suggesting that approximately one fifth of losartan's renoprotective effect could be attributed to its effect on SUA. Losartan lowers SUA levels compared with placebo treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy. The degree of reduction in SUA is subsequently associated with the degree in long-term renal risk reduction and explains part of losartan's renoprotective effect. These findings support the view that SUA may be a modifiable risk factor for renal disease.

  6. Conversion to Sirolimus Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Nephropathy in the Rat: Focus on Serum, Urine, Gene, and Protein Renal Expression Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, José; Nunes, Sara; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Fernandes, João; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2014-01-01

    Protocols of conversion from cyclosporin A (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) have been widely used in immunotherapy after transplantation to prevent CsA-induced nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these protocols remain nuclear. This study aimed to identify the molecular pathways and putative biomarkers of CsA-to-SRL conversion in a rat model. Four animal groups (n = 6) were tested during 9 weeks: control, CsA, SRL, and conversion (CsA for 3 weeks followed by SRL for 6 weeks). Classical and emergent serum, urinary, and kidney tissue (gene and protein expression) markers were assessed. Renal lesions were analyzed in hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome stains. SRL-treated rats presented proteinuria and NGAL (serum and urinary) as the best markers of renal impairment. Short CsA treatment presented slight or even absent kidney lesions and TGF-β, NF-κ β, mTOR, PCNA, TP53, KIM-1, and CTGF as relevant gene and protein changes. Prolonged CsA exposure aggravated renal damage, without clear changes on the traditional markers, but with changes in serums TGF-β and IL-7, TBARs clearance, and kidney TGF-β and mTOR. Conversion to SRL prevented CsA-induced renal damage evolution (absent/mild grade lesions), while NGAL (serum versus urine) seems to be a feasible biomarker of CsA replacement to SRL. PMID:24971338

  7. Dahuang Fuzi Decoction ameliorates tubular epithelial apoptosis and renal damage via inhibiting TGF-β1-JNK signaling pathway activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yue; Sun, Wei; Wan, Yi-Gang; Gao, Kun; Liu, Hong; Yu, Bing-Yin; Hu, Hao; Huang, Yan-Ru

    2014-10-28

    Dahuang Fuzi Decoction (DFD) is a traditional well-prescribed formula for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. This study was carried out to examine the effects of DFD in adenine-induced tubular epithelial apoptosis and renal damage, in comparison with allopurinol (AP), then to clarify the therapeutic mechanisms in vivo. A rat model of renal damage was created by adenine. Rats in Normal and Vehicle groups received distilled water, while rats in DFD and AP groups received DFD and AP, respectively. Proteinuria; urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels; the blood biochemical parameters; renal histopathology damage; transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-staining; the key molecular protein expressions in mitochondrial and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-c-JunNH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways were examined, respectively. Adenine administration induced severe renal damages, as indicated by the mass proteinuria, the heavy urinary NAG, and the marked histopathological injury in tubules and interstitium. This was associated with the activation of TGF-β1-JNK signaling pathway and tubular epithelial apoptosis. DFD treatment, however, significantly prevented proteinuria and urinary NAG elevation, and attenuated tubular epithelial apoptosis. It suppressed the protein expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, whereas it enhanced the protein expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, it also suppressed the protein levels of TGF-β1 as well as phosphorylated-JNK (p-JNK). DFD alleviated adenine-induced tubular epithelial apoptosis and renal damage in vivo, presumably through the suppression of TGF-β1-JNK pathway activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ameliorative effect of naringin in acetaminophen-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in laboratory rats: role of FXR and KIM-1.

    PubMed

    Adil, Mohammad; Kandhare, Amit D; Ghosh, Pinaki; Venkata, Shivakumar; Raygude, Kiran S; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is an analgesic and antipyretic agent commonly known agent to cause hepatic and renal toxicity at a higher dose. Naringin, a bioflavonoid possesses multiple pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. To evaluate the effect of naringin against the APAP-induced hepatic and renal toxicity. Male Wistar albino rats (180-220 g) were divided into various groups, and toxicity was induced by APAP (700 mg/kg, p.o., 14 days). Naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.) or Silymarin (25 mg/kg) was administered to rats 2 h before APAP oral administration. Various biochemical, molecular and histopathological parameter were accessed in hepatic and renal tissue. Naringin pretreatment significantly decreased (p < 0.05) serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol and triglycerides as compared with APAP control rats. Decreased level of serum albumin, uric acid, and high-density lipoprotein were also significantly restored (p < 0.05) by naringin pretreatment. It also significantly restores (p < 0.05) the altered level of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in hepatic and renal tissue. Moreover, altered mRNA expression of hepatic farnesoid X receptor and renal injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were significantly restored (p < 0.05) by naringin treatment. Naringin treatment also reduced histological alteration induced by APAP in the liver and kidney. Naringin exerts its hepato- and nephroprotective effect via modulation of oxido-nitrosative stress, FXR and KIM-1 mRNA expression.

  9. Treatment with enalapril and not diltiazem ameliorated progression of chronic kidney disease in rats, and normalized renal AT1 receptor expression as measured with PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Basma; deKemp, Rob A; Croteau, Etienne; Hadizad, Tayebeh; Burns, Kevin D; Beanlands, Rob S; DaSilva, Jean N

    2017-01-01

    ACE inhibitors are considered first line of treatment in patients with many forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Other antihypertensives such as calcium channel blockers achieve similar therapeutic effectiveness in attenuating hypertension-related renal damage progression. Our objective was to explore the value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of renal AT1 receptor (AT1R) to guide therapy in the 5/6 subtotal-nephrectomy (Nx) rat model of CKD. Ten weeks after Nx, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 10mg/kg/d enalapril (NxE), 30mg/kg/d diltiazem (NxD) or left untreated (Nx) for an additional 8-10 weeks. Kidney AT1R expression was assessed using in vivo [18F]fluoropyridine-losartan PET and in vitro autoradiography. Compared to shams, Nx rats exhibited higher systolic blood pressure that was reduced by both enalapril and diltiazem. At 18-20 weeks, plasma creatinine and albuminuria were significantly increased in Nx, reduced to sham levels in NxE, but enhanced in NxD rats. Enalapril treatment decreased kidney angiotensin II whereas diltiazem induced significant elevations in plasma and kidney levels. Reduced PET renal AT1R levels in Nx were normalized by enalapril but not diltiazem, and results were supported by autoradiography. Reduction of renal blood flow in Nx was restored by enalapril, while no difference was observed in myocardial blood flow amongst groups. Enhanced left ventricle mass in Nx was not reversed by enalapril but was augmented with diltiazem. Stroke volume was diminished in untreated Nx compared to shams and restored with both therapies. [18F]Fluoropyridine-Losartan PET allowed in vivo quantification of kidney AT1R changes associated with progression of CKD and with various pharmacotherapies.

  10. Berberine ameliorates renal injury in diabetic C57BL/6 mice: Involvement of suppression of SphK-S1P signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peiqing; Liu, Weihua; Xu, Suowen; Xie, Xi; Jiang, Qin; Li, Wenyuan; Huang, Heqing

    2010-10-15

    Berberine (BBR) was previously found to have beneficial effects on renal injury in experimental diabetic rats. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects are not fully understood. Sphingosine kinase-Sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK-S1P) signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BBR on renal injury and the activation of SphK-S1P signaling pathway in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with nephropathy. Alloxan-induced diabetic mice were treated orally with BBR (300 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 12 weeks. BBR inhibited the increases in fasting blood glucose, kidney/body weight ratio, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and 24-h albuminuria in diabetic mice. It also prevented renal hypertrophy, TGF-beta1 synthesis, FN and Col IV accumulation. Moreover, BBR down-regulated the elevated staining, activity and levels of mRNA and protein of SphK1, and S1P production as well. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of BBR on the activation of SphK-S1P signaling pathway in diabetic mouse kidney is a novel mechanism by which BBR partly exerts renoprotective effects on DN.

  11. The PROTECT pilot study: a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist rolofylline in patients with acute heart failure and renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Gad; Dittrich, Howard C; Weatherley, Beth Davison; Bloomfield, Daniel M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Metra, Marco; Massie, Barry M

    2008-10-01

    Rolofylline, an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, facilitates diuresis and preserves renal function in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) with renal impairment. Although not powered around any specific hypothesis, this pilot study was designed to identify an efficacious dose while refining inclusion criteria and end points. A total of 301 patients hospitalized for AHF with an estimated creatinine clearance of 20 to 80 mL/min and elevated natriuretic peptide levels were enrolled within 24 hours of presentation to placebo or rolofylline 10, 20, or 30 mg administered as 4-hour infusions for 3 days in addition to intravenously administered loop diuretics. Post hoc analyses for end points chosen for subsequent Phase III studies were performed. Compared with placebo, rolofylline produced trends toward greater proportions of patients with marked or moderately improved dyspnea and fewer patients with worsening heart failure or renal function. Serum creatinine increased in patients receiving placebo and remained stable or tended to decrease in those receiving rolofylline. On day 14 the absolute differences between placebo and rolofylline for change in creatinine increased with increasing rolofylline dose, reflecting the lesser increase in creatinine in rolofylline-treated patients (r = -0.12, P = .030). Treatment with 30 mg, the dose selected for the pivotal trials, was associated with a trend toward reduced 60-day mortality or readmission for cardiovascular or renal cause (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-1.04). These results demonstrate that adenosine A(1) receptor blockade with rolofylline can prevent renal impairment in patients with AHF and may positively affect acute symptoms and 60-day outcome. A 2000-patient trial of this agent is now under way.

  12. Gallic acid ameliorates renal functions by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats and cultured rat proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Amjid; Ahsan, Haseeb; Mujeeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad

    2015-10-05

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients that accounts for about 40% of deaths in type 2 diabetes. p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a serine-threonine kinase, plays an important role in tissue inflammation and is known to be activated under conditions of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. The role of p38 MAPK has been demonstrated in DN, and its inhibition has been suggested as an alternative approach in the treatment of DN. In the present study, we investigated the nephroprotective effects of an anti-inflammatory phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), in high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) induce type 2 diabetic wistar albino rats. GA (25 mg/kgbw and 50 mg/kgbw, p.o.) treatment for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes led to a significant reduction in the levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria as well as a significant reduction in the levels of creatinine clearance. GA significantly inhibited the renal p38 MAPK and nuclear factor kappa B (N-κB) activation as well as significantly reduced the levels of renal transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and fibronectin. Treatment with GA resulted in a significant reduction in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines viz. interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, GA significantly lowered renal pathology and attenuated renal oxidative stress. In cultured rat NRK 52E proximal tubular epithelial cells, GA treatment inhibited high glucose induced activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB as well as suppressed proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. The results of the present study provide in vivo and in vitro evidences that the p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN, and GA attenuates the p38 MAPK-mediated renal dysfunction in HFD/STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  13. Single-center evaluation of the single-dose pharmacokinetics of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist azilsartan medoxomil in renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Preston, Richard A; Karim, Aziz; Dudkowski, Caroline; Zhao, Zhen; Garg, Dyal; Lenz, Oliver; Sica, Domenic A

    2013-05-01

    Azilsartan medoxomil (AZL-M) is a potent angiotensin II receptor blocker that decreases blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. It is a pro-drug and not detected in blood after oral administration because of rapid hydrolysis to the active moiety, azilsartan (AZL). AZL undergoes further metabolism to the major metabolite M-II and minor metabolites. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of AZL and its major metabolite. This was a single-center, open-label, phase I parallel-group study which examined the single-dose (40-mg) pharmacokinetics of AZL and M-II in 24 subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis (n = 6 per group), respectively, and healthy matched subjects (n = 24). Renal impairment/disease did not cause clinically meaningful increases in exposure to AZL. M-II exposure was higher in all renally impaired subjects and highest in those with severe impairment (approx fivefold higher vs. control). M-II is pharmacologically inactive; increased exposure was not considered important in dose selection for AZL-M in subjects with renal impairment. Hemodialysis did not significantly remove AZL or M-II. Renal impairment had no clinically meaningful effect on the plasma protein binding of AZL or M-II. Single doses of AZL-M 40 mg were well tolerated in all subject groups. Based on the pharmacokinetic and tolerability findings, no dose adjustment of AZL-M is required for subjects with any degree of renal impairment, including end-stage renal disease.

  14. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Kodera, Ryo; Shikata, Kenichi; Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Oda, Kaori; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kajitani, Nobuo; Hirota, Daisho; Ono, Tetsuichiro; Usui, Hitomi Kataoka; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. •DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. •DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. •DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose.

  15. A nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey N; Tyree, Curtis; Hu, Junlian; Berger, Elaine; Marschke, Keith; Nakane, Masaki; Coghlan, Michael J; Clemm, Dave; Lane, Ben; Rosen, Jon

    2003-01-01

    Selective intracellular receptor antagonists are used clinically to ameliorate hormone-dependent disease states. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have high levels of the glucocorticoid, cortisol, and suffer significant consequences from this overexposure. High levels of this hormone are also implicated in exacerbating diabetes and the stress response. Selectively inhibiting this hormone may have clinical benefit in these disease states. To this end, we have identified the first selective, nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist. This compound is characterized by a tri-aryl methane core chemical structure. This GR-specific antagonist binds with nanomolar affinity to the GR and has no detectable binding affinity for the highly related receptors for mineralocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, and progestins. We demonstrate that this antagonist inhibits glucocorticoid-mediated transcriptional regulation. This compound binds competitively with steroids, likely occupying a similar site within the ligand-binding domain. Once bound, however, the compound fails to induce critical conformational changes in the receptor necessary for agonist activity.

  16. Rutin ameliorates renal fibrosis and proteinuria in 5/6-nephrectomized rats by anti-oxidation and inhibiting activation of TGFβ1-smad signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Lu, Jin-Shan; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, was reported to have beneficial effect on drug induced nephropathy. The present study aimed to introduce 5/6 nephrectomized rat model to further evaluate its renal protective effect. Methods: Adult Wistar rats were induced to develop chronic renal failure through 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx). After that, animals were treated orally with saline, rutin at 15 and 45 mg/kg, and losartan (10 mg/kg) daily for 20 weeks; sham-operated animals were also involved as control. After treatment for 8 and 20 weeks, blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical examination; all the kidney remnants were collected for histological examination. The protein levels of TGF-β1, smad2 and phosphorylated-smad2 (p-smad2) in kidney were measured. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen IV in kidney tissues. Results: Results suggested that rutin could reduce the proteinurea, blood urine nitrogen and blood creatinine in 5/6 Nx animals significantly, as well as oxidation stress in the kidney. By histological examination, rutin administration alleviated glomerular sclerosis scores and tubulointerstitial injuries in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry also suggested rutin could reduce the expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen IV in kidney tissues. By western blot, we found the rutin could reduce the TGF-β1, p-smad2 expression in the kidney tissues of rats. Conclusions: This study suggests that the rutin can improve renal function in 5/6 Nx rats effectively. Its effect may be due to its anti-oxidation and inhibiting TGFβ1-Smad signaling. PMID:26191162

  17. Licorice and its active compound glycyrrhizic acid ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through inactivation of p53 by scavenging ROS and overexpression of p21 in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, S-M; Kim, M-S; Jo, Y-S; Jeon, Y-M; Bae, J-S; Pae, H-O; Jeon, B-H

    2017-02-01

    Nephrotoxicity is one of the major side effects that limit the use of cisplatin in cancer therapy. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in renal cells is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated p53 activation. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer) is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in Korea, China and Japan. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effects of licorice extract (LE) and its active compound glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. HK-2 cells were pretreated with LE or GA for 1 h and then treated with 40 μM of cisplatin for indicated times under the serum-free condition. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3 activity. The intracellular ROS levels were determined by DCFH-DA assay. The expression and phosphorylation levels of protein were evaluated by Western blot and densitometry analysis. When treating HK-2 cells with LE or GA, both of them alleviated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. LE and GA inhibited caspase-3 activity and polymerase (PARP) cleavage in cisplatin-treated cells. LE and GA also inhibited p53 expression and its phosphorylation as well as ROS production in cells exposed to cisplatin. Meanwhile, LE and GA enhanced cisplatin-induced p21 expression, which then led to S-phase arrest in cell cycle and limited cell growth. Presumably, increased p21 expression may contribute to cellular prevention from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, because p21 is the key molecule to cytoprotection during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. These results suggest that LE and GA ameliorate cisplatin-induced apoptosis through reduction of ROS-mediating p53 activation and promotion of p21 expression in HK-2 cells.

  18. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Hata, N; Misawa, Y; Okuyama, H

    2000-01-03

    We have noted that n-3 fatty acid-rich oils, such as fish oil, perilla oil and flaxseed oil as well as ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA) prolonged the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) rats by approximately 10% as compared with linoleate (n-6)-rich safflower oil. Rapeseed oil with a relatively low n-6/n-3 ratio unusually shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, suggesting the presence of minor components unfavorable to SHRSP rats. This study examined the effects of dietary oils and DHA on renal injury and gene expression related to renal injury in SHRSP rats. Rats fed rapeseed oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets developed more severe proteinuria than those fed soybean oil-supplemented diet used as a control, but there were no significant differences in blood pressure. In contrast, the DHA-supplemented diet inhibited the development of proteinuria and suppressed hypertension. The mRNA levels for renal TGF-beta, fibronectin and renin were higher in the rapeseed oil and safflower oil groups after 9 weeks of feeding of the experimental diet than in the soybean oil and DHA groups. The fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids was markedly affected by these diets. These results indicate that the renal injury observed in the groups fed safflower oil with a high n-6/n-3 ratio and rapeseed oil with presumed minor components is accompanied by increased expression of the TGF-beta, renin and fibronectin genes, and that dietary DHA suppresses renal injury and gene expression as compared with soybean oil.

  19. Role of Mas receptor antagonist (A779) on pressure diuresis and natriuresis and renal blood flow in the absence of angiotensin II receptors type 1 and 2 in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, A; Oryan, S; Nematbakhsh, M

    2014-10-01

    Sexual differences in blood pressure are associated with angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) and its receptor and enzyme function targeting. Blockade of angiotensin II (AngII) receptors type 1 and 2 (AT1R and AT2R) inhibits some actions of Ang1-7. We described the role of Ang1-7 receptor (MasR) antagonist (A779) on kidney hemodynamics when AT1R and AT2R are blocked with losartan and PD123319. In anaesthetized male and female rats after blockade of both AT1R and AT2R, the renal perfusion pressure (RPP) was controlled in two levels of 80 and 100 mmHg via an adjustable clamp placed around the aorta above the level of the renal arteries. Then, the effects of saline vehicle and MasR blocker (A779) were tested on pressure natriuresis and diuresis, renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR). In the absence of AT1R and AT2R; RVR, RBF/wet kidney tissue weight, and serum level of renin did not alter in both genders either MasR was blocked or not. However, urine flow rate (UF) and sodium excretion (UNaV) increased significantly at the pressure level of 100 mmHg in the presence of MasR in male (P<0.05) but not in female rats. When AT1R and AT2R were blocked, the impact of MasR is gender-related in pressure natriuresis and diuresis, and pressure natriuresis and diuresis in male rats (not female) increases in the presence of MasR.

  20. ACE-inhibitor or AT2-antagonist therapy of renal transplant recipients is associated with an increase in serum potassium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mitterbauer, Christa; Heinze, Georg; Kainz, Alexander; Kramar, Reinhard; Hörl, Walter H; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2008-05-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) are frequently prescribed to renal transplant recipients with a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of ACEI/ARB use and serum potassium levels in renal graft recipients. We conducted an open cohort study of 2041 first renal allograft recipients, transplanted at the Medical University of Vienna between 1990 and 2003. Serum potassium levels were compared over an up to 10 years of observation period between subjects with versus without ACEI/ARB therapy using a mixed effects general linear model. The analysis was adjusted for several covariables known to influence serum potassium such as the use of diuretics, beta blockers, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) based immunosuppression, estimated GFR, time since renal transplantation, diabetes, years on dialysis and recipient age. The overall adjusted estimated serum potassium difference between recipients with versus without ACEI/ARB therapy was 0.08 mmol/l (P < 0.001). The use of diuretics was associated with a 0.11 mmol/l (P < 0.001) lower potassium concentration whereas each GFR decrease by 10 ml/min led to an increase of 0.04 mmol/l (P < 0.001). CNI intake increased serum potassium by 0.06 mmol/l (P = 0.002). Furthermore, serum potassium increased by 0.17 mmol/l within the first decade after transplantation (P < 0.001) while holding the other covariables constant. No effect modification between ACEI/ARB and time since transplantation was observed. Nineteen subjects (2.4%) discontinued the ACEI/ARB therapy due to hyperkalaemia. In summary, relevant hyperkalaemia associated with ACEI/ARB therapy is negligible in renal transplant recipients during long-term follow-up. The hyperkalaemic effect of ACEI/ARB is balanced by the use of diuretics.

  1. A low toxicity synthetic cinnamaldehyde derivative ameliorates renal inflammation in mice by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and its related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ka, Shuk-Man; Kuoping Chao, Louis; Lin, Jung-Chen; Chen, Shui-Tein; Li, Wen-Tai; Lin, Chien-Nan; Cheng, Jen-Che; Jheng, Huei-Ling; Chen, Ann; Hua, Kuo-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Uncontrolled inflammation is a leading cause of various chronic diseases. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is a major bioactive compound isolated from the essential oil of the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum kaneh that exhibits anti-inflammatory activity; however, the use of CA is limited by its cytotoxicity. Here, we synthesized three CA derivatives and identified 4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde-galactosamine (HCAG) as a low toxicity anti-inflammatory compound in vitro (HCAG IC50 ≫ 1600 µM; CA IC50=40 µM) and in vivo. HCAG reduced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in LPS-activated macrophages by inhibiting MAPK and PKC-α/δ phosphorylation, decreasing ROS generation and reducing NF-κB activation. HCAG also reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β secretion by inhibiting the ATP-mediated phosphorylation of AKT and PKC-α/δ. In a mouse model of LPS-induced renal inflammation, we observed reduced albuminuria and a mild degree of glomerular proliferation, glomerular sclerosis and periglomerular inflammation in the HCAG-treated mice compared with the vehicle-treated mice. The underlying mechanisms for these renoprotective effects involved: (1) inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation; (2) decreased superoxide anion levels and apoptosis; and (3) suppressed activation of NF-κB and related downstream inflammatory mediators.

  2. Exogenous MSCs ameliorate hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in renal tubular epithelial cells through JAK/STAT signaling pathway-mediated regulation of HMGB1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yan; Ma, Junjie; Lai, Xingqiang; Fang, Jiali; Li, Guanghui; Xu, Lu; Pan, Guanghui; Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the repair mechanism of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury (HRI) in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) by exogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in HK-2 cells after HRI and treatment of MSCs, JAK inhibitor WP1066 and STAT inhibitor SOCS3 was investigated using Western blot analysis. HK-2 cells were transfected with siRNA STAT3 and analyzed for expression of STAT3, JAK2 and HMGB1 using fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed using the MTT assay and flow cytometry. After HRI, the JAK/STAT pathway in HK-2 cells was activated, resulting in the upregulation of JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, p-JAK1, p-JAK2, p-JAK3, STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, p-STAT1, p-STAT2 and p-STAT3. After treatment with MSC conditioned medium (MSCs CM), WP1066, or SOCS, the expression of these proteins was significantly down-regulated. When the cells were transfected with siRNA STAT3, the expression of STAT3 at protein and mRNA levels and JAK2 and HMGB1 at mRNA level was down-regulated; the cell viability was reduced and apoptosis increased. It is concluded that exogenous MSCs reduce HRI of HK-2 cells by suppressing the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and down-regulating the expression of HMGB1.

  3. Tangeretin ameliorates oxidative stress in the renal tissues of rats with experimental breast cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Arivazhagan; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2014-09-02

    Tangeretin, a citrus polymethoxyflavone, is an antioxidant modulator which has been shown to exhibit a surfeit of pharmacological properties. The present study was hypothesized to explore the therapeutic activity of tangeretin against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced kidney injury in mammary tumor bearing rats. Recently, we have reported the chemotherapeutic effect of tangeretin in the breast tissue of DMBA induced rats. Breast cancer was induced by "air pouch technique" with a single dose of 25mg/kg of DMBA. Tangeretin (50mg/kg/day) was administered orally for four weeks. The renoprotective nature of tangeretin was assessed by analyzing the markers of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence in DMBA induced rats. Tangeretin treatment revealed a significant decline in the levels of lipid peroxides, inflammatory cytokines and markers of DNA damage, and a significant improvement in the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Similarly, mRNA, protein and immunohistochemical analysis substantiated that tangeretin treatment notably normalizes the renal expression of Nrf2/Keap1, its downstream regulatory proteins and the inflammatory cytokines in the DMBA induced rats. Histological and ultrastructural observations also evidenced that the treatment with tangeretin effectively protects the kidney from DMBA-mediated oxidative damage, hence, proving its nephroprotective nature.

  4. An oral absorbent, surface-deacetylated chitin nano-fiber ameliorates renal injury and oxidative stress in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Anraku, Makoto; Tabuchi, Ryo; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Nagae, Tomone; Iohara, Daisuke; Tomida, Hisao; Uekama, Kaneto; Maruyama, Toru; Miyamura, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Otagiri, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report that surface-deacetylated chitin nano-fibers (SDACNFs) are more effective in decreasing renal injury and oxidative stress than deacetylated chitin powder (DAC) in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. An oral administration of low doses of SDACNFs (40mg/kg/day) over a 4 week period resulted in a significant decrease in serum indoxyl sulfate, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels, compared with a similar treatment with DAC or AST-120. The SDACNFs treatment also resulted in an increase in antioxidant potential, compared with that for DAC or AST-120. Immunohistochemical analyses also demonstrated that SDACNFs treated CRF rats showed a decrease in the amount of accumulated 8-OHdG compared with the CRF group. These results suggest that the ingestion of SDCH-NF results in a significant reduction in the levels of pro-oxidants, such as uremic toxins, in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby inhibiting the subsequent development of oxidative stress in the systemic circulation.

  5. Kisspeptin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Roseweir, Antonia Kathryn; Millar, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin is now known to be an important regulator of the hypothalamic--pituitary-gonadal axis and is the target of a range of regulators, such as steroid hormone feedback, nutritional and metabolic regulation. Kisspeptin binds to its cognate receptor, KISS1R (also called GPR54), on GnRH neurons and stimulates their activity, which in turn provides an obligatory signal for GnRH secretion-thus gating down-stream events supporting reproduction. The development of peripherally active kisspeptin antagonists could offer a unique therapeutic agent for treating hormone-dependent disorders of reproduction, including precocious puberty, endometriosis, and metastatic prostate cancer. The following chapter discusses the advances made in the search for both peptide and small molecule kisspeptin antagonists and their use in delineating the role of kisspeptin within the reproductive system. To date, four peptide antagonists and one small molecule antagonist have been designed.

  6. The Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway Mediates the Antagonist Effect of L-Arginine On Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Zhou, Xinmei

    2017-08-30

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is the most common cause of acute renal injury. I/R-induced oxidative stress is involved in the development of acute renal injury, which can be reversed by supplementation with L-arginine, a precursor of nitric oxide (NO). This study was conducted to evaluate alterations in the expression of transcription factors [nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1)] and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the kidney of I/R-induced injury rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Group 1, Sham; group 2, I/R; group 3, L-arginine; and group 4, L-arginine+zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The levels of serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum nitric oxide (NO), histic malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined, and the expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, NF-κB, and HSP70 were evaluated. The treatment of rats with L-arginine produced a significant reduction in the levels of BUN, Scr, MDA and a significant enhancement in the level of NO and in the activity of SOD compared to renal I/R groups. The expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and HSP70 were strongly increased, and the expression of NF-κB and production of ROS were significantly decreased in the L-arginine group compared to that of the I/R group. ZnPP increased renal damage and displayed effects opposite to those of L-arginine. These findings suggested that L-arginine/NO reduces renal dysfunction associated with I/R of the kidney and may act as a trigger to regulate the NF-κB, HSP70 and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling cascades. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract ameliorates membranous glomerulonephritis by attenuating oxidative stress and renal inflammation via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Liu, Chungang; Huang, Yan; He, Liying; Cai, Xueying; Lu, Jiahui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Di

    2016-04-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a common pathogenesis of nephritic syndrome in adult patients. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) serves as the main transcription factor for the inflammatory response mediated nephropathy. Cordyceps militaris, containing various pharmacological components, has been used as a kind of crude drug and folk tonic food for improving immunity and reducing inflammation. The current study aims to investigate the renoprotective activity of Cordyceps militaris aqueous extract (CM) in the cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA)-induced rat model of membranous glomerulonephritis. Significant renal dysfunction was observed in MGN rats; comparatively, 4-week CM administration strongly decreased the levels of 24 h urine protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, and increased the levels of serum albumin and total serum protein. Strikingly, recovery of the kidney histological architecture was noted in CM-treated MGN rats. A significant improvement in the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, and a reduced malondialdehyde concentration were observed in the serum and kidney of CM-treated rats. Altered levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukins, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor-α, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, and nuclear transcriptional factor subunit NF-κB p65 reverted to normal levels upon treatment with CM. The present data suggest that CM protects rats against membranous glomerulonephritis via the normalization of NF-κB activity, thereby inhibiting oxidative damage and reducing inflammatory cytokine levels, which further provide experimental evidence in support of the clinical use of CM as an effective renoprotective agent.

  8. The effect of ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonist therapy on serum uric acid levels and potassium homeostasis in hypertensive renal transplant recipients treated with CsA.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Gruber, U; Böhmig, G; Köller, E; Mayer, G

    2001-05-01

    The angiotensin II (AT II) type I receptor antagonist losartan has been reported to increase urinary uric acid and potassium excretion. These effects might be beneficial in cyclosporin (CsA)-treated renal transplant recipients, who frequently suffer from hyperuricaemia and hyperkalaemia. In this prospective, open, randomized, two-way cross-over study we included 13 hypertensive CsA-treated patients after renal transplantation and administered either the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors enalapril or losartan. Laboratory parameters, 24-h urinary protein excretion, and mean 24-h arterial blood pressure (MAP) were checked after 3 weeks treatment with enalapril, after a wash-out period of 2 weeks, and before and after a 3-week treatment course with losartan. Both drugs slightly reduced MAP (losartan from 97+/-6 to 94+/-9 and enalapril to 93+/-8 mmHg). Serum potassium levels significantly increased during enalapril therapy (from 4.3+/-0.5 to 4.8+/-0.4 mmol/l, P<0.05), as did, although not significantly, uric acid concentrations (from 7.8+/-1.9 to 8.2+/-1.8 mg/dl, P=0.5). Losartan, on the contrary, only mildly affected serum potassium (4.3+/-0.5 vs 4.5+/-0.5 mmol/l, P=0.25) and serum uric acid decreased (from 7.8+/-2.4 to 7.3+/-1.8 mg/dl, P=0.6). Serum aldosterone and urinary aldosterone excretion were significantly reduced only during ACE inhibitor treatment, which might explain the variable effects on potassium homeostasis. Losartan may be a useful agent to reduce blood pressure and serum uric acid levels in renal transplant recipients treated with CSA: Furthermore, in this high-risk population, the effects on serum potassium levels are less marked with losartan than with enalapril.

  9. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... an artery by a blood clot Renal artery stenosis Renal cell cancer Angiomyolipomas (noncancerous tumors of the ...

  10. Characterization of the effect of chronic administration of a calcium-sensing receptor antagonist, ronacaleret, on renal calcium excretion and serum calcium in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Stephen; Dollery, Colin T; Hossain, Mohammad; Kurtinecz, Milena T; Desjardins, John P; Favus, Murray J; Kumar, Rajiv; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A

    2013-09-01

    Ronacaleret is an orally-active calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonist that has the potential for therapeutic utility in the stimulation of PTH release, notably as a bone anabolic agent comparable to recombinant human PTH(1-34) (rhPTH(1-34)). A recent study has shown that, despite the ability to increase circulating PTH levels in postmenopausal women in a dose-dependent manner, minimal effects of ronacaleret on bone mineral density have been observed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the PTH profile as well as calcium metabolism parameters as a marker of PTH biological activity following the administration of ronacaleret or rhPTH(1-34). Administration of ronacaleret led to lower peak levels of PTH than were observed with rhPTH(1-34), however, greater total PTH exposure was observed. Further, chronic administration of either agent was associated with increases in urinary calcium excretion and serum calcium levels, with the magnitude of the changes following ronacaleret significantly greater than that for rhPTH(1-34). The greater magnitude of effects observed with ronacaleret is likely due to the greater total PTH exposure, and is potentially reflective of a state comparable to mild hyperparathyroidism. It is not clear whether the administration of all calcilytics would lead to a similar result, or is due to characteristics specific to ronacaleret.

  11. The pathophysiology of endothelin in complications after solid organ transplantation: a potential novel therapeutic role for endothelin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Raina, Amresh; Horn, Edward T; Benza, Raymond L

    2012-11-15

    Although short-term allograft survival after solid organ transplantation has improved during the past two decades, improvement in long-term graft survival has been less pronounced. Common complications after transplantation include chronic allograft rejection, nephrotoxicity from calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), and systemic hypertension, which all impact posttransplantation morbidity and mortality. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, inducer of fibrosis, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, may play a key role in both the development of CNI-induced nephrotoxicity and endothelial vasculopathy in chronic allograft rejection. ET-1 levels increase after isograft implantation, and ET-1 plays a key role in CNI-induced renal vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and hypertension. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) can reduce or prevent CNI-induced hypertension after renal transplantation. In addition, ERAs can ameliorate CNI-induced renal vasoconstriction and improve proteinuria and preserve renal function in animal models of renal transplantation. ET-1 may also play a significant role in cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and in animal models, ERAs improve pulmonary function and ischemic-reperfusion injury in lung transplantation and hepatic function and structure in liver transplantation. Emerging pharmacokinetic data suggest that the selective ERA ambrisentan may be used safely in conjunction with the most commonly used immunosuppressive agents tacrolimus and mycophenolate, albeit with appropriate dose adjustment. The weight of available evidence pointing toward a potential beneficial role of ERAs in ameliorating common complications after solid organ transplantation must be balanced with potential toxicities of ERAs but suggests that a randomized clinical trial of ERAs in transplant patients is warranted.

  12. Effects of Long-term Blockade of Vasopressin Receptor Types 1a and 2 on Cardiac and Renal Damage in a Rat Model of Hypertensive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Heitaro; Morooka, Hanako; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2015-11-01

    The effects of chronic blockade of vasopressin type 1a receptors (V1aR) and the additive effects of a type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist on the treatment of hypertension-induced heart failure and renal injury remain to be unknown. In this study, Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats were chronically treated with a vehicle (CONT), a V1aR antagonist (OPC21268; OPC), a V2R antagonist (tolvaptan; TOLV), or a combination of OPC21268 and tolvaptan (OPC/TOLV) from the pre-hypertrophic stage (6 weeks). No treatment altered blood pressure during the study. Significant improvements were seen in median survival for the OPC and TOLV, and the OPC/TOLV showed a further improvement in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Echocardiography showed suppressed left ventricular hypertrophy in the OPC and OPC/TOLV at 11 weeks with improved function in all treatment groups by 17 weeks. In all treatment groups, improvements were seen in the following: myocardial histological changes, creatinine clearance, urinary albumin excretion, and renal histopathologic damage. Also, key mRNA levels were suppressed (eg, endothelin-1 and collagen). In conclusion, chronic V1aR blockade ameliorated disease progression in this rat model, with additive benefits from the combination of V1aR and V2R antagonists. It was associated with protection of both myocardial and renal damage, independent of blood pressure.

  13. Cirsimarin and cirsimaritin, flavonoids of Microtea debilis (Phytolaccaceae) with adenosine antagonistic properties in rats: leads for new therapeutics in acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hasrat, J A; De Bruyne, T; De Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G; Vlietinck, A J

    1997-11-01

    In traditional medicine Microtea debilis is used against proteinuria. In ligand-binding studies extracts of Microtea debilis have been shown to inhibit the binding of [3H]1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine ([3H]DPCPX) to adenosine-A1 receptors in rat forebrain membranes. Subsequently, cirsimarin, a flavonoid, was isolated as the active component and was shown to function as adenosine antagonist at the adenosine-A1 receptor in-vitro. In this study we have investigated the adenosine-A2 receptor activity of cirsimarin the in-vivo inhibition of the effects of adenosine by cirsimarin in rats, the absorption of cirsimarin and the inhibition of the binding of [3H]DPCPX to the adenosine-A1 receptor by urine samples obtained after oral administration of crude extract of Microtea debilis, cirsimarin or cirsimaritin to rats. Cirsimarin inhibited the binding of [3H]5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine ([3H]NECA) to adenosine-A2 receptors in rat striatum with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 6.5 +/- 0.3 microM. The decrease of heart rate and blood pressure induced by adenosine was significantly inhibited by cirsimarin. After oral administration of 8 and 80 mg kg-1 cirsimarin, the compound could not be detected in either plasma or urine, but the presence of cirsimaritin was established. By use of beta-glucuronidase, glucuronides of cirsimaritin were also detected in the urine. The concentrations of cirsimaritin in the plasma were 0.126 +/- 0.04, 0.138 +/- 0.015, and 0.120 +/- 0.022 microM, respectively, 2, 5 and 12 h after administration of 8 mg kg-1 cirsimarin. The concentrations of cirsimaritin in the urine at the same times after administration of the same dose were 2.05 +/- 1.86, 5.05 +/- 2.6 and 2.06 +/- 0.09 microM, respectively. The inhibition of the binding of [3H]DPCPX to the adenosine-A1 receptor by urine samples collected 2, 5 and 12 h after oral administration of 8 mg kg-1 cirsimarin or a crude extract of Microtea debilis containing approximately 8 mg kg-1 cirsimarin and 2

  14. High Fat High Cholesterol Diet (Western Diet) Aggravates Atherosclerosis, Hyperglycemia and Renal Failure in Nephrectomized LDL Receptor Knockout Mice: Role of Intestine Derived Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S.; Righi, Samuel; Krieg, Richard; Kang, Le; Carl, Daniel; Wang, Jing; Massey, H. Davis; Sica, Domenic A.; Gehr, Todd W. B.; Ghosh, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    A high fat meal, frequently known as western diet (WD), exacerbates atherosclerosis and diabetes. Both these diseases are frequently associated with renal failure. Recent studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leaks into the circulation from the intestine in the setting of renal failure and after WD. However, it is not clear how renal function and associated disorders are affected by LPS. This study demonstrates that circulatory LPS exacerbates renal insufficiency, atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance. Renal insufficiency was induced by 2/3 nephrectomy in LDL receptor knockout mice. Nx animals were given normal diet (Nx) or WD (Nx+WD). The controls were sham operated animals on normal diet (control) and WD (WD). To verify if LPS plays a role in exaggerating renal insufficiency, polymyxin (PM), a known LPS antagonist, and curcumin (CU), a compound known to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD), was given to Nx animals on western diet (Nx+WD+PM and Nx+WD+CU, respectively). Compared to control, all other groups displayed increased circulatory LPS. The Nx+WD cohort had the highest levels of LPS. Nx group had significant renal insufficiency and glucose intolerance but not atherosclerosis. WD had intense atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance but it did not show signs of renal insufficiency. Compared to other groups, Nx+WD had significantly higher cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration in the kidney, renal insufficiency, glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. PM treatment blunted the expression of cytokines, deterioration of renal function and associated disorders, albeit not to the levels of Nx, and was significantly inferior to CU. PM is a non-absorbable antibiotic with LPS binding properties, hence its beneficial effect can only be due to its effect within the GI tract. We conclude that LPS may not cause renal insufficiency but can exaggerate kidney failure and associated disorders following renal insufficiency. PMID:26580567

  15. Renoprotective Effects of a Highly Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist in a Mouse Model of Adriamycin-induced Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of adenosine in the normal kidney increases markedly during renal hypoxia, ischemia, and inflammation. A recent study reported that an A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) antagonist attenuated the progression of renal fibrosis. The adriamycin (ADX)-induced nephropathy model induces podocyte injury, which results in severe proteinuria and progressive glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a highly selective A3AR antagonist (LJ1888) in ADX-induced nephropathy. Three groups of six-week-old Balb/c mice were treated with ADX (11 mg/kg) for four weeks and LJ1888 (10 mg/kg) for two weeks as following: 1) control; 2) ADX; and 3) ADX + LJ1888. ADX treatment decreased body weight without a change in water and food intake, but this was ameliorated by LJ1888 treatment. Interestingly, LJ1888 lowered plasma creatinine level, proteinuria, and albuminuria, which had increased during ADX treatment. Furthermore, LJ1888 inhibited urinary nephrin excretion as a podocyte injury marker, and urine 8-isoprostane and kidney lipid peroxide concentration, which are markers of oxidative stress, increased after injection of ADX. ADX also induced the activation of proinflammatory and profibrotic molecules such as TGF-β1, MCP-1, PAI-1, type IV collagen, NF-κB, NOX4, TLR4, TNFα, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, but they were remarkably suppressed after LJ1888 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that LJ1888 has a renoprotective effect in ADX-induced nephropathy, which might be associated with podocyte injury through oxidative stress. Therefore, LJ1888, a selective A3AR antagonist, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent in renal glomerular diseases which include podocyte injury and proteinuria. PMID:27510383

  16. ACTH Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Adrian John; Forfar, Rachel; Hussain, Mashal; Jerman, Jeff; McIver, Ed; Taylor, Debra; Chan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1) Cushing’s disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome – especially while preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumor, or in refractory cases, or (2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia – as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article, we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role. PMID:27547198

  17. Glyoxalase I retards renal senescence.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoichiro; Inagi, Reiko; Miyata, Toshio; Nagai, Ryoji; Arai, Makoto; Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Itokawa, Masanari; Fujita, Toshiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2011-12-01

    Although kidney functions deteriorate with age, little is known about the general morphological alterations and mechanisms of renal senescence. We hypothesized that carbonyl stress causes senescence and investigated the possible role of glyoxalase I (GLO1), which detoxifies precursors of advanced glycation end products in the aging process of the kidney. We observed amelioration of senescence in GLO1-transgenic aged rats (assessed by expression levels of senescence markers such as p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1), and p16(INK4A)) and a positive rate of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SABG) staining, associated with reduction of renal advanced glycation end product accumulation (estimated by the amount of carboxyethyl lysine). GLO1-transgenic rats showed amelioration of interstitial thickening (observed as an age-related presentation in human renal biopsy specimens) and were protected against age-dependent decline of renal functions. We used GLO1 overexpression or knockdown in primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells to investigate the effect of GLO1 on cellular senescence. Senescence markers were significantly up-regulated in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells at late passage and in those treated with etoposide, a chemical inducer of senescence. GLO1 cellular overexpression ameliorated and knockdown enhanced the cellular senescence phenotypes. Furthermore, we confirmed the association of decreased GLO1 enzymatic activity and age-dependent deterioration of renal function in aged humans with GLO1 mutation. These findings indicate that GLO1 ameliorates carbonyl stress to retard renal senescence. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emerging cardiovascular indications of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Yasir; Iqbal, Javaid; Pitt, Bertram; Adlam, David; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Zannad, Faiez

    2015-04-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism is a well-established treatment modality for patients with hypertension, heart failure, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) post-myocardial infarction (MI). There are emerging data showing potential benefits of MR antagonists in other cardiovascular conditions. Studies have shown association between MR activation and the development of myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome, and cerebrovascular diseases. This review examines the preclinical and clinical data of MR antagonists for novel indications including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, valvular heart disease, metabolic syndrome, renal disease, and stroke. MR antagonists are not licensed for these conditions yet; however, emerging data suggest that indication for MR antagonists are likely to broaden; further studies are warranted.

  19. CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) Antagonist, a Novel Pathway to Prevent Chronic Allograft Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Wenrui; Zeng, Song; Zhang, Zijian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaopeng

    2016-11-25

    BACKGROUND Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) remains a major problem for long-term graft survival and different pathways participate in its development. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is significantly upregulated following renal injury and fibrotic response. We investigated the effect of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, on the development of CAN in rat models. MATERIAL AND METHODS CAN rat models (n=20) were established using male Fisher 344 to Lewis rats. Rats in the experimental group (n=10) were treated with AMD3100 (1 mg/kg/day subcutaneously, 0-12 weeks), rats in the control group (n=10) were treated with saline. The serum creatinine levels were monitored every week. Kidney grafts were harvested 12 weeks after modeling for histological analysis. We used chronic allograft damage index (CADI) scores to evaluate each group. Q-PCR and Western blotting were used to measure CXCR4, TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in renal allograft tissue. RESULTS CXCR4 expression was increased significantly in the control group which developed intense chronic changes after 12 weeks. Histological changes of CAN in the experimental group were ameliorated by AMD3100 which also had better graft function compare to the control group. AMD3100 significantly blunted the increase in the mRNA expression level of CXCR4, TGF-β1/Smad3, and α-SMA. A significant reduction in TGF-β1 and α-SMA protein content was observed only in the experimental group as shown in a representative Western blot. CONCLUSIONS Based on these findings, CXCR4 expression may mediate in part the development of CAN. AMD3100 may ameliorate histological changes of CAN and maintain better allograft function. It blunts downstream effects of TGF-β1 signaling and fibroblast activation. Therefore, antagonism of CXCR4 may provide a novel way to prevent the development of CAN.

  20. Renal denervation and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Kindermann, Ingrid; Linz, Dominik; Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix

    2014-06-01

    Renal denervation has been developed in order to lower systolic blood pressure in resistant hypertension by a reduction in renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerve activity. In heart failure sympathetic activation, in particular, renal norepinephrine release is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. Initial studies have shown that renal denervation is able to reduce not only blood pressure but also heart rate, and is associated with a reduction in myocardial hypertrophy, improved glucose tolerance, and ameliorated microalbuminuria. Since some experimental and observational data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect, it is possible that renal denervation might also play a therapeutic role in arrhythmias often occurring in chronic heart failure. The first proof-of-concept studies are planned to evaluate the clinical effect of this pathophysiologically plausible method, which might be able to change clinical practice.

  1. [Pediatric renal transplant in Japan].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kazuharu

    2010-09-01

    Transplantation is the optimal renal replacement therapy for children with end-stage renal disease. Compared with dialysis, successful transplantation in children and adolescents not only ameliorates uremic symptoms but also allows for significant improvement of delayed growth, sexual maturation, and psychosocial functioning. The child with a well-functioning kidney can enjoy a quality of life that cannot be achieved with dialysis therapy. The 5- and 10-year patient/graft survival rate in transplant recipients are 97.9/88.8% and 96.2%/79.4% based on Japanese Renal Transplant Registry Society data. This article reviews recent reports of pediatric renal transplantation including ABO-incompatible and preemptive renal transplantation in Japan.

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in patients with hypertension or congestive heart failure. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, in part, by ameliorating the adverse effects of aldosterone on vascular function. Although spironolactone and eplerenone are increasingly utilized in patients with cardiovascular disease, widespread clinical use is limited by the development of gynecomastia with spironolactone and hyperkalemia with both agents. This suggests that the development of newer agents with favorable side effect profiles is warranted. PMID:18729003

  3. Zonal heterogeneity in action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on renal microcirculation: role of intrarenal bradykinin.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Hayashi, K; Arakawa, K; Naitoh, M; Kubota, E; Honda, M; Matsumoto, A; Suzuki, H; Yamamoto, T; Kajiya, F; Saruta, T

    1999-11-01

    The present study examined the role of intrarenal bradykinin in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced dilation of renal afferent (AFF) and efferent arterioles (EFF) in vivo, and further evaluated whether ACEI-stimulated bradykinin activity differed in superficial (SP) and juxtamedullary nephrons (JM). Arterioles of canine kidneys were visualized with an intravital charge-coupled device camera microscope. E4177 (an angiotensin receptor antagonist, 30 microg/kg) dilated AFF and EFF in SP (15 +/- 3% and 19 +/- 5%) and JM (15 +/- 3% and 18 +/- 4%). Subsequently, cilazaprilat (30 microg/kg) caused further dilation of both AFF (29 +/- 4%) and EFF (36 +/- 4%) in JM, whereas in SP it dilated only EFF (29 +/-3%). Similarly, in the presence of E4177, cilazaprilat caused further increases in sodium excretion. This cilazaprilat-induced vasodilation and natriuresis was abolished by a bradykinin antagonist (N(alpha)-adamantaneacetyl-D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]b radykinin). In parallel with these results, cilazaprilat increased renal bradykinin content, more greatly in the medulla than in the cortex (5.7 +/- 0.4 versus 4.6 +/- 0.1 ng/g). Similarly, cilazaprilat elicited greater bradykinin-dependent increases of nitrite/nitrate in the medulla. In conclusion, zonal heterogeneity in renal bradykinin/nitric oxide levels and segmental differences in reactivity to bradykinin contribute to the diverse responsiveness of renal AFF and EFF to ACEI. ACEI-enhanced kinin action would participate in the amelioration of glomerular hemodynamics and renal sodium excretion by ACEI.

  4. Combination decongestion therapy in hospitalized heart failure: loop diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Mentz, Robert J; Greene, Stephen J; Senni, Michele; Sato, Naoki; Nodari, Savina; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Congestion is the most common reason for admissions and readmissions for heart failure (HF). The vast majority of hospitalized HF patients appear to respond readily to loop diuretics, but available data suggest that a significant proportion are being discharged with persistent evidence of congestion. Although novel therapies targeting congestion should continue to be developed, currently available agents may be utilized more optimally to facilitate complete decongestion. The combination of loop diuretics, natriuretic doses of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists represents a regimen of currently available therapies that affects early and persistent decongestion, while limiting the associated risks of electrolyte disturbances, hemodynamic fluctuations, renal dysfunction and mortality.

  5. Renoprotective effect of vasopressin v2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan in Dahl rats with end-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Mayuko; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Onoda, Sho; Ishimitsu, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Tolvaptan is a highly selective and orally effective arginine vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, and is potentially useful for the treatment of heart failure (HF) patients. However, the renoprotective effect of long-term tolvaptan therapy and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We evaluated the effects of chronic treatment with tolvaptan on renal dysfunction, podocyte injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, Rho-kinase, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) pathway in the renal cortex of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive (DS) rats with end-stage severe HF. DS and Dahl salt-resistant rats were fed a high-salt diet at 6 weeks of age. DS rats were treated with vehicle and tolvaptan (0.05% concentration in diet) from the age of 11 to 18 weeks. Vehicle-treated DS rats developed proteinuria, renal dysfunction, glomerulosclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis, which were ameliorated by tolvaptan without changing blood pressure. Decreased expression of nephrin and podocin and increased desmin-positive area in failing rats were restored by tolvaptan. Upregulation of NAD(P)H oxidase p22(phox), p47(phox), and gp91(phox), EMT markers such as transforming growth factor-β1, vimentin, and fibronectin expression, and Rho-kinase and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in DS rats were significantly suppressed by tolvaptan. Tolvaptan administration resulted in significant inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression, and nuclear factor-κB phosphorylation. We concluded that long-term tolvaptan therapy may improve renal dysfunction, glomerulosclerosis, podocyte injury, and inflammation associated with oxidative stress, as well as EMT, ERK, and the Rho-kinase pathway in the failing heart of DS rats. Thus, tolvaptan may be a therapeutic strategy for end-stage severe HF.

  6. Tangeretin ameliorates renal failure via regulating oxidative stress, NF-κB-TNF-α/iNOS signalling and improves memory and cognitive deficits in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Zhao, Yu-Mei; Deng, Zhi-Kuan

    2017-09-04

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant global health concern with limited treatment options. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses have been implicated in the pathology of CKD. Patients with CKD are frequently affected with neurological complications that affect both the central and peripheral nervous system. Identification of effective treatment strategies are of much clinical value in the therapy of CKD. Tangeretin, a plant-derived flavonoid has been described to retain extensive pharmacological properties. In the present study, we explored whether tangeretin exerted protective effects in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. CKD was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Separate groups of 5/6 Nx rats were treated with tangeretin (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg b.wt.) or enalapril for 30 days (starting 5 days after surgery for 35 days). Control animals were not subjected to Nx nor were treated with tangeretin or enalapril. Renal dysfunction, as evinced by raised serum urea, serum creatinine, proteinuria, and histological alterations were significantly reduced by tangeretin and enalapril treatment. 5/6 Nx animals exhibited raised levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species. Elevated TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines-IL-6 and IL-1β with upregulated NF-κB/TNF-α/iNOS signalling pathways were effectively down-regulated by tangeretin. Cognitive disturbances and memory impairments observed in Nx rats were substantially improved by tangeretin. Collectively, the experimental data indicate that the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of tangeretin effectively improved renal function and reduced the cognitive and memory impairments in CKD-induced animals.

  7. Sprouty1 haploinsufficiency prevents renal agenesis in a model of Fraser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pitera, Jolanta E; Woolf, Adrian S; Basson, M Albert; Scambler, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Deficiency of the extracellular matrix molecule FRAS1, normally expressed by the ureteric bud, leads to bilateral renal agenesis in humans with Fraser syndrome and blebbed (Fras1(bl/bl)) mice. The metanephric mesenchyme of these mutants fails to express sufficient Gdnf, which activates receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling, contributing to the phenotype. To determine whether modulating RTK signalling may overcome the abnormal nephrogenesis characteristic of Fraser syndrome, we introduced a single null Sprouty1 allele into Fras1(bl/bl) mice, thereby reducing the ureteric bud's expression of this anti-branching molecule and antagonist of RTK signalling. This prevented renal agenesis in Fras1(bl/bl) mice, permitting kidney development and postnatal survival. We found that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling contributed to this genetic rescue, and exogenous FGF10 rescued defects in Fras1(bl/bl) rudiments in vitro. Whereas wild-type metanephroi expressed FRAS1 and the related proteins FREM1 and FREM2, FRAS1 was absent and the other proteins were downregulated in rescued kidneys, consistent with a reciprocally stabilized FRAS1/FREM1/FREM2 complex. In addition to contributing to knowledge regarding events during nephrogenesis, the demonstrated rescue of renal agenesis in a model of a human genetic disease raises the possibility that enhancing growth factor signaling might be a therapeutic approach to ameliorate this devastating malformation.

  8. Nitric oxide protects against ischemic acute renal failure through the suppression of renal endothelin-1 overproduction.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Hayato; Takaoka, Masanori; Kubo, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Tomoaki; Tsutsui, Hidenobu; Takayama, Junji; Matsumura, Yasuo

    2004-11-01

    To elucidate the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of ischemic acute renal failure, we investigated the effects of FK409, a spontaneous nitric oxide donor, and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury and endothelin-1 overproduction in post-ischemic kidneys. Ischemic acute renal failure was induced by occlusion of the left renal artery and vein for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. At 24 hours after reperfusion, renal function in untreated acute renal failure rats markedly decreased and histological examination revealed severe renal damage of the kidney. Increases in renal endothelin-1 contents were evident in the acute renal failure rats at 2 and 24 hours after reperfusion, respectively. Pretreatment with FK409 (1 or 3 mg/kg, intravenously) dose-dependently ameliorated renal injuries and suppressed the elevation of endothelin-1 content induced by ischemia/reperfusion. In contrast, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 or 10 mg/kg, intravenously) pretreatment dose-dependently aggravated renal injuries of acute renal failure rats, and the effect is accompanied by further increase in the renal endothelin-1 contents. These results suggest that both exogenous and endogenous nitric oxide have protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction and tissue damage, probably through the suppression of endothelin-1 overproduction in post-ischemic kidneys.

  9. Effect of eplerenone on hypertension-associated renal damage in rats: potential role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ).

    PubMed

    Miana, M; de Las Heras, N; Rodriguez, C; Sanz-Rosa, D; Martin-Fernandez, B; Mezzano, S; Lahera, V; Martinez-Gonzalez, J; Cachofeiro, V

    2011-02-01

    Several factors, including mineralocorticoids, have been implicated in the renal damage associated with hypertension. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists improve renal damage associated with different pathologies. Therefore, our hypothesis was that mineralocorticoid receptor blockade ameliorates renal damage associated with hypertension and that this improvement may be mediated by PPAR-γ. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with either vehicle or eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, at two different doses: 30 and 100 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. Age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as a normotensive reference group. SHR showed tubulointersticial fibrosis and mild tubular atrophy. These alterations were accompanied by increases in renal cortex gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and phosphorylated Smad2 protein levels, factors involved in the fibrotic response. Interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene expression were also increased. By contrast, lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and PPAR-γ protein levels were decreased in SHR as compared with normotensive animals. Only the high dose of eplerenone was able to reduce blood pressure and partially prevent LOX down-regulation in SHR. Both eplerenone doses significantly ameliorated interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, reduced TGF-β, CTGF and cytokine gene expression, and decreased Smad2 activation, while normalizing PPAR-γ protein levels. Mineralocorticoid receptor activation participates in hypertension-associated renal damage. This effect seems to involve stimulation of both fibrotic and inflammatory processes mediated (at least in part) by a down-regulation of PPAR-γ that can favour an up-regulation of the TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway.

  10. Hypogonadism and renal failure: An update.

    PubMed

    Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Wilken, Nathan A; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.

  11. TRPV1 Antagonist Suppresses Allergic Conjunctivitis in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Young; Lee, Hyun Soo; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-10-11

    To determine the immunologic functions of TRPA1 or TRPV1 in allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA), after which TRPA1 antagonist or TRPV1 antagonist was administered before topical OVA challenge. Expression of TRPV1 or TRPA1 in AC was examined by western blotting and multicolor immunofluorescence. Clinical signs, OVA-specific IgE, infiltration of inflammatory cells into conjunctivae (CJs), and Th2 cytokine in draining lymph nodes (LNs) were evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA. TRPV1 expression was increased in CJs and LNs from AC mice, but TRPA1 expression was only increased in LNs. TRPV1 antagonist but not TRPA1 antagonist attenuated the clinical signs of AC and OVA-specific IgE in sera. TRPV1 antagonist furthermore inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into CJ and the production of Th2 cytokines in LNs. TRPV1 antagonist but not TRPA1 antagonist may ameliorate AC by suppressing the Th2 response in LNs.

  12. Nitro-oleic acid ameliorates oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation triggered oxidative stress in renal tubular cells via activation of Nrf2 and suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nie, Huibin; Xue, Xia; Liu, Gang; Guan, Guangju; Liu, Haiying; Sun, Lina; Zhao, Long; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Nitroalkene derivative of oleic acid (OA-NO2), due to its ability to mediate revisable Michael addition, has been demonstrated to have various biological properties and become a therapeutic agent in various diseases. Though its antioxidant properties have been reported in different models of acute kidney injury (AKI), the mechanism by which OA-NO2 attenuates intracellular oxidative stress is not well investigated. Here, we elucidated the anti-oxidative mechanism of OA-NO2 in an in vitro model of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Human tubular epithelial cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R) injury. Pretreatment with OA-NO2 (1.25 μM, 45 min) attenuated OGD/R triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and subsequent mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. This action was mediated via up-regulating endogenous antioxidant defense components including superoxide dismutase (SOD1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase modulatory subunits (GCLM). Moreover, subcellular fractionation analyses demonstrated that OA-NO2 promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2- related factor-2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2 siRNA partially abrogated these protective effects. In addition, OA-NO2 inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and p22(phox) up-regulation after OGD/R injury, which was not relevant to Nrf2. These results contribute to clarify that the mechanism of OA-NO2 reno-protection involves both inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and induction of SOD1, Nrf2-dependent HO-1, and GCLM.

  13. Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the α₇ nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the α₄β₂ nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  14. Third Generation Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; Why We Need a Fourth

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The first mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, spironolactone, was developed almost 60 years ago to treat primary aldosteronism and pathological edema. Its use waned in part due to its lack of selectivity. Subsequently knowledge of the scope of MR function was expanded along with clinical evidence of the therapeutic importance of MR antagonists to prevent the ravages of inappropriate MR activation. Forty-two years elapsed between the first and MR-selective second generation of MR antagonists. Fifteen years later, despite serious shortcomings of the existing antagonists, a third generation antagonist has yet to be marketed. Progress has been slowed by the lack of appreciation of the large variety of cell types that express the MR and its diverse cell-type-specific actions, as well as its uniquely complex interactions actions at the molecular level. New MR antagonists should preferentially target the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of MR and perhaps its excitatory effects on sympathetic nervous system, but not the renal tubular epithelium or neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. This review briefly describes efforts to develop a third generation MR antagonist and why fourth generation antagonists and selective agonists based on structural determinants of tissue and ligand-specific MR activation should be contemplated. PMID:26466326

  15. Long-term administration of advanced glycation end-product stimulates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and sparking the development of renal injury.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Wan-Ju; Yang, Hsin-Yi; Pai, Man-Hui; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chen, Jiun-Rong

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the enhanced interaction of AGE with their cellular receptor (RAGE) have been implicated in the progression of chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the AGE/RAGE-induced nephrotoxic effects are associated with inflammasome activation and endothelial dysfunction. Chronic renal injury was examined in BALB/c mice by the long-term administration of carbonyl-AGE for 16 weeks. Endothelial dysfunction was detected by measuring the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the levels of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in kidneys. Results showed that administration of methylglyoxal-bovine serum albumin (MG-BSA) AGE accelerated renal MG, carboxyethyl lysine, carboxymethyl lysine and malondialdehyde formation and, in parallel, the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly increased. Expression of RAGE and NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins (TXNIP, NLRP3, procaspase-1 and caspase-1) and IL (interleukin)-1β secretion were upregulated, whereas the levels of EPCs, eNOS and NO were lower in MG-BSA-treated mice. This induction by MG-BSA was significantly inhibited by RAGE antagonist. Our results firstly reveal a possible mechanism of AGE-mediated renal dysfunction upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Therapeutic blockade of RAGE may ameliorate renal and endothelial functions in subjects under high AGE burden.

  16. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Cazzola, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Parasympathetic activity is increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma and appears to be the major reversible component of airway obstruction. Therefore, treatment with muscarinic receptor antagonists is an effective bronchodilator therapy in COPD and also in asthmatic patients. In recent years, the accumulating evidence that the cholinergic system controls not only contraction by airway smooth muscle but also the functions of inflammatory cells and airway epithelial cells has suggested that muscarinic receptor antagonists could exert other effects that may be of clinical relevance when we must treat a patient suffering from COPD or asthma. There are currently six muscarinic receptor antagonists licenced for use in the treatment of COPD, the short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (SAMAs) ipratropium bromide and oxitropium bromide and the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) aclidinium bromide, tiotropium bromide, glycopyrronium bromide and umeclidinium bromide. Concerns have been raised about possible associations of muscarinic receptor antagonists with cardiovascular safety, but the most advanced compounds seem to have an improved safety profile. Further beneficial effects of SAMAs and LAMAs are seen when added to existing treatments, including LABAs, inhaled corticosteroids and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors. The importance of tiotropium bromide in the maintenance treatment of COPD, and likely in asthma, has spurred further research to identify new LAMAs. There are a number of molecules that are being identified, but only few have reached the clinical development.

  17. Acute Radiation Sickness Amelioration Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    it was found that metoclopramide , the most efficacious of the existing anti-emetic drugs, also acted as an antagonist at 5-HT3 receptors. Unlike the...newer, more specific 5-HT3 antagonists listed above, however, metoclopramide also acts as an antagonist at dopamine type-2 receptors. It is known...that the dopamine-blocking actions of metoclopramide are responsible for the undesirable side effects produced by this drug and a number of other less

  18. Neuronal death enhanced by N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Stefovska, Vanya; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate promotes neuronal survival during brain development and destroys neurons after injuries in the mature brain. Glutamate antagonists are in human clinical trials aiming to demonstrate limitation of neuronal injury after head trauma, which consists of both rapid and slowly progressing neurodegeneration. Furthermore, glutamate antagonists are considered for neuroprotection in chronic neurodegenerative disorders with slowly progressing cell death only. Therefore, humans suffering from Huntington's disease, characterized by slowly progressing neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia, are subjected to trials with glutamate antagonists. Here we demonstrate that progressive neurodegeneration in the basal ganglia induced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionate or in the hippocampus by traumatic brain injury is enhanced by N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists but ameliorated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate antagonists. These observations reveal that N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists may increase neurodestruction in mature brain undergoing slowly progressing neurodegeneration, whereas blockade of the action of glutamate at α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors may be neuroprotective. PMID:11058158

  19. Attenuation of Folic Acid-Induced Renal Inflammatory Injury in Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kent; Okamoto, Koji; Negishi, Kousuke; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Nakao, Akihide; Fujita, Toshiro; Toda, Akiko; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Kita, Yoshihiro; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao; Noiri, Eisei

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent lipid mediator with various biological activities, plays an important role in inflammation by recruiting leukocytes. In this study we used platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR)-deficient mice to elucidate the role of PAF in inflammatory renal injury induced by folic acid administration. PAFR-deficient mice showed significant amelioration of renal dysfunction and pathological findings such as acute tubular damage with neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation observed with antibody to 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (day 2), and interstitial fibrosis with macrophage infiltration associated with expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the kidney (day 14). Acute tubular damage was attenuated by neutrophil depletion using a monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5), demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils to acute phase injury. Macrophage infiltration was also decreased when treatment with a PAF antagonist (WEB2086) was started after acute phase. In vitro chemotaxis assay using a Boyden chamber demonstrated that PAF exhibits a strong chemotactic activity for macrophages. These results indicate that PAF is involved in pathogenesis of folic acid-induced renal injury by activating neutrophils in acute phase and macrophages in chronic interstitial fibrosis. Inhibiting the PAF pathway might be therapeutic to kidney injury from inflammatory cells. PMID:16651609

  20. CCR2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Struthers, Mary; Pasternak, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of CCR2 has been considered as a target for multiple therapeutic diseases including autoimmune disease, atherosclerosis, pain, and metabolic disease, based in part on the critical role this receptor plays on monocyte migration. Numerous companies have reported programs to identify CCR2 antagonists. Common challenges to the development of CCR2 agents have included poor activity at the rodent receptor and selectivity for both other chemokine receptors and ion channels. This review summarizes the rationale for targeting CCR2 in disease, the recent progress in the identification of potent and select CCR2 antagonists, and the current status of clinical trials for CCR2 agents.

  1. Chronic administration of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor suppresses renal production of endothelin-1 in dogs with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Wada, Atsuyuki; Ohnishi, Masato; Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Fujii, Masanori; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Takayama, Tomoyuki; Wang, Xinwen; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Masahiko

    2002-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) play important roles in the regulation of body fluid balance in congestive heart failure (CHF). Renal production of ET-1 increases in CHF and it is a significant independent predictor of sodium excretion. ANP inhibits the ET system through cGMP, a second messenger of ANP. However, in severe CHF, plasma cGMP levels reached a plateau despite the activation of ANP secretion. Thus, ANP does not seem to sufficiently oppose exaggerated ET-1 actions in severe CHF, partially due to the accelerated degradation of cGMP, through phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). We examined the chronic effects of a PDE5 inhibitor, T-1032 (1 mg/kg per day, n=5), on renal function and renal production of ET-1 in dogs with CHF induced by rapid ventricular pacing (270 beats/min). Vehicle dogs were given a placebo (n=5) and normal dogs (n=5) served as normal controls without pacing. In this experimentally produced CHF, plasma levels of ET-1, ANP and cGMP were elevated and renal production of cGMP was increased compared with the normal group, associated with increases in renal expression of preproET-1 mRNA and the number of ET-1-positive cells in glomeruli. In the T-1032 group, systemic and renal production of cGMP were further increased compared with the vehicle group despite no significant difference in plasma ANP levels between the two groups. Subsequently, the agent significantly improved urine flow rate, sodium excretion rate and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) associated with reductions in renal expression of preproET-1 mRNA and the number of ET-1-positive cells compared with the vehicle group. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the number of ET-1-positive cells and GFR (r=-0.802 and P<0.001 respectively). Our results indicate that chronic PDE5 inhibition ameliorates the antagonistic relationship between renal ANP and ET-1 through the cGMP pathway, subsequently preventing renal dysfunction during the

  2. Synthesis and Anti-Renal Fibrosis Activity of Conformationally Locked Truncated 2-Hexynyl-N6-Substituted-(N)-Methanocarba-nucleosides as A3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonists and Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Truncated N6-substituted-(N)-methanocarba-adenosine derivatives with 2-hexynyl substitution were synthesized to examine parallels with corresponding 4′-thioadenosines. Hydrophobic N6 and/or C2 substituents were tolerated in A3AR binding, but only an unsubstituted 6-amino group with a C2-hexynyl group promoted high hA2AAR affinity. A small hydrophobic alkyl (4b and 4c) or N6-cycloalkyl group (4d) showed excellent binding affinity at the hA3AR and was better than an unsubstituted free amino group (4a). A3AR affinities of 3-halobenzylamine derivatives 4f–4i did not differ significantly, with Ki values of 7.8–16.0 nM. N6-Methyl derivative 4b (Ki = 4.9 nM) was a highly selective, low efficacy partial A3AR agonist. All compounds were screened for renoprotective effects in human TGF-β1-stimulated mProx tubular cells, a kidney fibrosis model. Most compounds strongly inhibited TGF-β1-induced collagen I upregulation, and their A3AR binding affinities were proportional to antifibrotic effects; 4b was most potent (IC50 = 0.83 μM), indicating its potential as a good therapeutic candidate for treating renal fibrosis. PMID:24456490

  3. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  4. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  5. Barnidipine, a long-acting slow onset calcium antagonist.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, C

    2000-11-01

    Barnidipine is a stereochemically pure dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with a high potency. The drug showed a slow onset and long-lasting vasorelaxating effect in vitro, and strong antihypertensive activity in hypertension models. Barnidipine was shown to have a high vasoselectivity and offered protection in cardiac and renal ischaemia models. The in vitro drug:drug interaction profile suggests a low potential for clinically relevant interactions with concomitant medication. It can be anticipated that barnidipine is an attractive calcium antagonist, offering good blood pressure control without compensatory baroreflex activity.

  6. Treatment of severe hypothyroidism in a patient with progressive renal failure leads to significant improvement of renal function.

    PubMed

    van Welsem, M E; Lobatto, S

    2007-06-01

    The case of a 41-year-old patient with end-stage renal failure and diabetes mellitus Type 1 who was being prepared for renal replacement therapy is described. After severe hypothyroidism was diagnosed, thyroid hormone substitution therapy was started. Subsequently, a substantial decline in serum creatinine was observed. Creatinine clearance rose from 19 to 40 ml/min and renal replacement therapy was no longer imminent. Several studies have described the pathophysiology of diminished renal function in hypothyroidism. Few studies or case reports have shown amelioration of end-stage renal failure as seen in our patient. The etiology is presumed to be multifactorial, in which hemodynamic effects and a direct effect of thyroid hormone on the kidney play an important role. Diagnosing signs of hypothyroidism and therapy with thyroid hormone in progressive renal failure could be very important in delaying the need for renal replacement therapy.

  7. Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  8. Advantages of an antagonist: bicuculline and other GABA antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Graham AR

    2013-01-01

    The convulsant alkaloid bicuculline continues to be investigated more than 40 years after the first publication of its action as an antagonist of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historical perspective highlights key aspects of the discovery of bicuculline as a GABA antagonist and the sustained interest in this and other GABA antagonists. The exciting advances in the molecular biology, pharmacology and physiology of GABA receptors provide a continuing stimulus for the discovery of new antagonists with increasing selectivity for the myriad of GABA receptor subclasses. Interesting GABA antagonists not structurally related to bicuculline include gabazine, salicylidene salicylhydrazide, RU5135 and 4-(3-biphenyl-5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazole. Bicuculline became the benchmark antagonist for what became known as GABAA receptors, but not all ionotropic GABA receptors are susceptible to bicuculline. In addition, not all GABAA receptor antagonists are convulsants. Thus there are still surprises in store as the study of GABA receptors evolves. PMID:23425285

  9. Indications for Opioid Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Coppes, O J Michael; Sang, Christine N

    2017-06-01

    As opioids have become more common in clinical practice for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain, so too has the need for a deeper understanding of the clinical applications of opioid antagonists. The purpose of this review is to present both the longstanding and potential new indications for the use of drugs that block the effects of opioid receptors. There is a growing body of data demonstrating the modulation of pain by opioid antagonists. Additional clinical studies that show their direct antinociceptive effects and/or enhancement of the analgesic potency of opioid agonists are warranted. We briefly discuss the well-established role that these agents play in the reversal of life-threatening opioid toxicity and explore both existing and expanding clinical applications, including their apparent paradox that they may themselves be associated with analgesia.

  10. alpha2-Adrenoreceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P; Imbert, T

    2001-06-01

    A review of the literature relating to the therapeutic potential of alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists published between 1990 and 2000 is presented. Although extensively studied since the early 1970s in a wide spectrum of therapeutic applications, the distinction of alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes and some emerging evidence concerning new applications in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, obesity and schizophrenia, have refreshed an interest in this class of agents.

  11. Role of the renal sympathetic nervous system in mediating renal ischaemic injury-induced reductions in renal haemodynamic and excretory functions.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ibrahim M; Ameer, Omar Z; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdullah, Nor A; Yam, Mun F; Najim, Hafsa S; Khan, Abdul Hye; Johns, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the role of renal sympathetic innervation in the deterioration of renal haemodynamic and excretory functions during the early post-ischaemic phase of renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral renal ischaemia by clamping the left renal artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion. Following acute renal denervation clearance experiments were performed. In a different set of experiments, the renal nerves were electrically stimulated at increasing frequencies and responses in renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance were recorded. Denervated post-ischaemic acute renal failure (ARF) rats showed higher urine flow rate, absolute and fractional sodium excretions, urinary sodium to urinary potassium, glomerular filtration rate and basal renal blood flow but lower basal renal vascular resistance (all p < 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats). Potassium excretion was significantly lower in denervated group as per fractional (p < 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats) but not absolute potassium excretion (p > 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats). The rise in mean arterial pressure and renal vasoconstrictor response to renal nerve stimulation were blunted in denervated ischaemic ARF rats (all p < 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats). Renal histopathology in denervated ARF rats manifested a significantly lower medullary congestion, inflammation and tubular injury compared to innervated counterparts (p < 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats). The findings strongly suggest the involvement of renal sympathetic tone in the post-ischaemic events of ischaemic ARF, as the removal of its action to a degree ameliorated the post-ischaemic renal dysfunctions.

  12. Calcium antagonists and vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F B

    1990-04-01

    A critical review of the clinical data supports the conclusion that nimodipine decreases the severity of neurologic deficits and improves outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The mechanisms by which mortality and morbidity are reduced are still controversial. First, the frequency of vasospasm is not altered (Figs. 5 and 6). Second, the consistent reversal of vasospasm once present has not been demonstrated either angiographically or by noninvasive cerebral blood flow studies. These observations suggest that there is either modification of microcirculatory flow (i.e., dilation of pial conducting vessels or decreased platelet aggregation) or a direct neuronal protective effect. As suggested previously, support for either mechanism is not resolute, and further investigation is necessary. Currently, nimodipine has been the most thoroughly investigated calcium antagonist both from an experimental and clinical perspective. Oral administration has had few reported complications. Therefore, the benefit/risk ratio clearly supports the prophylactic use of this calcium antagonist in patients of all clinical grades after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Evidence also indicates that starting nimodipine after the onset of delayed ischemic deficits is of benefit. Finally, it can be predicted that in the future additional calcium antagonists with more selective vascular or neuronal effects will be developed for use in neurologic disorders.

  13. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E.; Carlson, Noel G.; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L.; Heiney, Kristina M.; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague–Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI. PMID:25855780

  14. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI.

  15. Clopidogrel attenuates lithium-induced alterations in renal water and sodium channels/transporters in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, János; Heiney, Kristina M; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Carlson, Noel G; Müller, Christa E; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    Lithium (Li) administration causes deranged expression and function of renal aquaporins and sodium channels/transporters resulting in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Extracellular nucleotides (ATP/ADP/UTP), via P2 receptors, regulate these transport functions. We tested whether clopidogrel bisulfate (CLPD), an antagonist of ADP-activated P2Y(12) receptor, would affect Li-induced alterations in renal aquaporins and sodium channels/transporters. Adult mice were treated for 14 days with CLPD and/or Li and euthanized. Urine and kidneys were collected for analysis. When administered with Li, CLPD ameliorated polyuria, attenuated the rise in urine prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and resulted in significantly higher urinary arginine vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone levels as compared to Li treatment alone. However, urine sodium excretion remained elevated. Semi-quantitative immunoblotting revealed that CLPD alone increased renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2), Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and the subunits of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) in medulla by 25-130 %. When combined with Li, CLPD prevented downregulation of AQP2, Na-K-ATPase, and NKCC2 but was less effective against downregulation of cortical α- or γ-ENaC (70 kDa band). Thus, CLPD primarily attenuated Li-induced downregulation of proteins involved in water conservation (AVP-sensitive), with modest effects on aldosterone-sensitive proteins potentially explaining sustained natriuresis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong labeling for P2Y(12)-R in proximal tubule brush border and blood vessels in the cortex and less intense labeling in medullary thick ascending limb and the collecting ducts. Therefore, there is the potential for CLPD to be directly acting at the tubule sites to mediate these effects. In conclusion, P2Y(12)-R may represent a novel therapeutic target for Li-induced NDI.

  16. Endothelin receptor antagonists influence cardiovascular morphology in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Nabokov, A V; Amann, K; Wessels, S; Münter, K; Wagner, J; Ritz, E

    1999-02-01

    In is generally held that renal failure results in blood pressure (BP)-independent structural changes of the myocardium and the vasculature. The contribution, if any, of endothelin (ET) to these changes has been unknown. We morphometrically studied random samples of the left ventricle myocardium and small intramyocardial arteries in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized (SNx) male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either the selective ETA receptor antagonist BMS182874 (30 mg/kg/day) or the nonselective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist Ro46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) in comparison with either sham-operated rats, untreated SNx, or SNx rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day). Eight weeks later, systolic BP was lower in trandolapril-treated SNx compared with untreated SNx animals. No decrease in BP was seen following either ET receptor antagonist at the dose used. A significantly increased volume density of the myocardial interstitium was found in untreated SNx rats as compared with sham-operated controls. Such interstitial expansion was prevented by trandolapril and either ET receptor antagonist. SNx caused a substantial increase in the wall thickness of small intramyocardial arteries. The increase was prevented by trandolapril or BMS182874 treatment. The arteriolar wall:lumen ratio was significantly lower in all treated groups when compared with untreated SNx. In contrast, only trandolapril, but not the ET receptor antagonists, attenuated thickening of the aortic media in SNx animals. The ETA-selective and ETA/ETB-nonselective receptor antagonists appear to prevent development of myocardial fibrosis and structural changes of small intramyocardial arteries in experimental chronic renal failure. This effect is independent of systemic BP.

  17. A re-appraisal of volume status and renal function impairment in chronic heart failure: combined effects of pre-renal failure and venous congestion on renal function.

    PubMed

    Sinkeler, Steef J; Damman, Kevin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-03-01

    The association between cardiac failure and renal function impairment has gained wide recognition over the last decade. Both structural damage in the form of systemic atherosclerosis and (patho) physiological hemodynamic changes may explain this association. As regards hemodynamic factors, renal impairment in chronic heart failure is traditionally assumed to be mainly due to a decrease in cardiac output and a subsequent decrease in renal perfusion. This will lead to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and a compensatory increase in tubular sodium retention. The latter is a physiological renal response aimed at retaining fluids in order to increase cardiac filling pressure and thus renal perfusion. In heart failure, however, larger increases in cardiac filling pressure are needed to restore renal perfusion and thus more volume retention. In this concept, in chronic heart failure, an equilibrium exists where a certain degree of congestion is the price to be paid to maintain adequate renal perfusion and function. Recently, this hypothesis was challenged by new studies, wherein it was found that the association between right-sided cardiac filling pressures and renal function is bimodal, with worse renal function at the highest filling pressures, reflecting a severely congested state. Renal hemodynamic studies suggest that congestion negatively affects renal function in particular in patients in whom renal perfusion is also compromised. Thus, an interplay between cardiac forward failure and backward failure is involved in the renal function impairment in the congestive state, presumably along with other factors. Only few data are available on the impact of intervention in volume status on the cardio-renal interaction. Sparse data in cardiac patients as well as evidence from cohorts with primary renal disease suggest that specific targeting of volume overload may be beneficial for long-term outcome, in spite of a certain further decrease in renal function, at least

  18. Overexpression of catalase prevents hypertension and tubulointerstitial fibrosis and normalization of renal angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 expression in Akita mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yixuan; Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chenier, Isabelle; Maachi, Hasna; Filep, Janos G.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among oxidative stress, hypertension, renal injury, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression in type 1 diabetic Akita mice. Blood glucose, blood pressure, and albuminuria were monitored for up to 5 mo in adult male Akita and Akita catalase (Cat) transgenic (Tg) mice specifically overexpressing Cat, a key antioxidant enzyme in their renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). Same-age non-Akita littermates and Cat-Tg mice served as controls. In separate studies, adult male Akita mice (14 wk) were treated with ANG 1–7 (500 μg·kg−1·day−1 sc) ± A-779, an antagonist of the Mas receptor (10 mg·kg−1·day−1 sc), and euthanized at the age of 18 wk. The left kidneys were processed for histology and apoptosis studies. Renal proximal tubules were isolated from the right kidneys to assess protein and gene expression. Urinary angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II (ANG II), and ANG 1–7 were quantified by specific ELISAs. Overexpression of Cat attenuated renal oxidative stress; prevented hypertension; normalized RPTC ACE2 expression and urinary ANG 1–7 levels (both were low in Akita mice); ameliorated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, kidney hypertrophy, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and tubular apoptosis; and suppressed profibrotic and proapoptotic gene expression in RPTCs of Akita Cat-Tg mice compared with Akita mice. Furthermore, daily administration of ANG 1–7 normalized systemic hypertension in Akita mice, which was reversed by A-779. These data demonstrate that Cat overexpression prevents hypertension and progression of nephropathy and highlight the importance of intrarenal oxidative stress and ACE2 expression contributing to hypertension and renal injury in diabetes. PMID:23552863

  19. Celecoxib offsets the negative renal influences of cyclosporine via modulation of the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2/endothelin ET(B) receptor cascade.

    PubMed

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M; Helmy, Maged W; Ali, Rabab M; El-Mas, Mahmoud M

    2014-03-01

    Endothelin (ET) signaling provokes nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A (CSA). We tested the hypotheses that (i): celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, counterbalances renal derangements caused by CSA in rats and (ii) the COX-2/endothelin ET(B) receptor signaling mediates the CSA-celecoxib interaction. Ten-day treatment with CSA (20 mg/kg/day) significantly increased biochemical indices of renal function (serum urea, creatinine), inflammation (interleukin-2, IL-2) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β₁, TGF-β₁). Histologically, CSA caused renal tubular atrophy along with interstitial fibrosis. These detrimental renal effects of CSA were largely reduced in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day). We also report that cortical glomerular and medullary tubular protein expressions of COX-2 and ET(B) receptors were reduced by CSA and restored to near-control values in rats treated simultaneously with celecoxib. The importance of ET(B) receptors in renal control and in the CSA-celecoxib interaction was further verified by the findings (i) most of the adverse biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological profiles of CSA were replicated in rats treated with the endothelin ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 (0.1 mg/kg/day, 10 days), and (ii) the BQ788 effects, like those of CSA, were alleviated in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib. Together, the data suggest that the facilitation of the interplay between the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2 pathway and the endothelin ET(B) receptors constitutes the cellular mechanism by which celecoxib ameliorates the nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats.

  20. Tetrahydroindolizinone NK1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianming; Lu, Huagang; Morriello, Gregori J; Carlson, Emma J; Wheeldon, Alan; Chicchi, Gary G; Kurtz, Marc M; Tsao, Kwei-Lan C; Zheng, Song; Tong, Xinchun; Mills, Sander G; DeVita, Robert J

    2010-04-01

    A new class of potent NK(1) receptor antagonists with a tetrahydroindolizinone core has been identified. This series of compounds demonstrated improved functional activities as compared to previously identified 5,5-fused pyrrolidine lead structures. SAR at the 7-position of the tetrahydroindolizinone core is discussed in detail. A number of compounds displayed high NK(1) receptor occupancy at both 1 h and 24 h in a gerbil foot tapping model. Compound 40 has high NK(1) binding affinity, good selectivity for other NK receptors and promising in vivo properties. It also has clean P(450) inhibition and hPXR induction profiles. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, (/sup 3/H)NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine.

  2. Notch2 activation ameliorates nephrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Eriko; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Kim, Eunhee; Sasaki, Yu; Trejo, Juan Alejandro Oliva; Seki, Takuto; Nonaka, Kanae; Asao, Rin; Nagai-Hosoe, Yoshiko; Akiba-Takagi, Miyuki; Hidaka, Teruo; Takagi, Masatoshi; Koyanagi, Akemi; Mizutani, Shuki; Yagita, Hideo; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-02-01

    Activation of Notch1 and Notch2 has been recently implicated in human glomerular diseases. Here we show that Notch2 prevents podocyte loss and nephrosis. Administration of a Notch2 agonistic monoclonal antibody ameliorates proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in a mouse model of nephrosis and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In vitro, the specific knockdown of Notch2 increases apoptosis in damaged podocytes, while Notch2 agonistic antibodies enhance activation of Akt and protect damaged podocytes from apoptosis. Treatment with triciribine, an inhibitor of Akt pathway, abolishes the protective effect of the Notch2 agonistic antibody. We find a positive linear correlation between the number of podocytes expressing activated Notch2 and the number of residual podocytes in human nephrotic specimens. Hence, specific activation of Notch2 rescues damaged podocytes and activating Notch2 may represent a novel clinical strategy for the amelioration of nephrosis and glomerulosclerosis.

  3. Renal Protective Effects of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine, is reported to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, including renal diseases. These beneficial effects are thought to be due to this compound's antioxidative properties: resveratrol is known to be a robust scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition to scavenging ROS, resveratrol may have numerous protective effects against age-related disorders, including renal diseases, through the activation of SIRT1. SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, was identified as one of the molecules through which calorie restriction extends the lifespan or delays age-related diseases, and this protein may regulate multiple cellular functions, including apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, inflammation, glucose/lipid metabolism, autophagy, and adaptations to cellular stress, through the deacetylation of target proteins. Previous reports have shown that resveratrol can ameliorate several types of renal injury, such as diabetic nephropathy, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and unilateral ureteral obstruction, in animal models through its antioxidant effect or SIRT1 activation. Therefore, resveratrol may be a useful supplemental treatment for preventing renal injury. PMID:24379901

  4. Regulation of elongation phase of mRNA translation in diabetic nephropathy: amelioration by rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Lee, Myung Ja; Feliers, Denis; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2007-12-01

    High glucose and high insulin, pathogenic factors in type 2 diabetes, induce rapid synthesis of the matrix protein laminin-beta1 in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells by stimulation of initiation phase of mRNA translation. We investigated if elongation phase of translation also contributes to high glucose and high insulin induction of laminin-beta1 synthesis in proximal tubular epithelial cells. High glucose or high insulin rapidly increased activating Thr56 dephosphorylation of eEF2 and inactivating Ser366 phosphorylation of eEF2 kinase, events that facilitate elongation. Studies with inhibitors showed that PI3 kinase-Akt-mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway controlled changes in phosphorylation of eEF2 and eEF2 kinase induced by high glucose or high insulin. Renal cortical homogenates from db/db mice in early stage of type 2 diabetes showed decrease in eEF2 phosphorylation and increment in eEF2 kinase phosphorylation in association with renal hypertrophy and glomerular and tubular increase in laminin-beta1 content. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, abolished diabetes-induced changes in phosphorylation of eEF2, eEF2 kinase, and p70S6 kinase and ameliorated renal hypertrophy and laminin-beta1 protein content, without affecting hyperglycemia. These data show that mTOR is an attractive target for amelioration of diabetes-induced renal injury.

  5. Salt supplementation ameliorates developmental kidney defects in COX-2(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Patrick; Frölich, Stefanie; Goren, Itamar; Nüsing, Rolf M

    2017-06-01

    Deficiency of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in the early postnatal period causes impairment of kidney development leading to kidney insufficiency. We hypothesize that impaired NaCl reabsorption during the first days of life is a substantial cause for nephrogenic defects observed in COX-2(-/-) mice and that salt supplementation corrects these defects. Daily injections of NaCl (0.8 mg·g(-1)·day(-1)) for the first 10 days after birth ameliorated impaired kidney development in COX-2(-/-) pups resulting in an increase in glomerular size and fewer immature superficial glomeruli. However, impaired renal subcortical growth was not corrected. Increasing renal tubular flow by volume load or injections of KCl did not relieve the renal histomorphological damage. Administration of torsemide and spironolactone also affected nephrogenesis resulting in diminished glomeruli and cortical thinning. Treatment of COX-2(-/-) pups with NaCl/DOCA caused a stronger mitigation of glomerular size and induced a slight but significant growth of cortical tissue mass. After birth, renal mRNA expression of NHE3, NKCC2, ROMK, NCCT, ENaC, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase increased relative to postnatal day 2 in wild-type mice. However, in COX-2(-/-) mice, a significantly lower expression was observed for NCCT, whereas NaCl/DOCA treatment significantly increased NHE3 and ROMK expression. Long-term effects of postnatal NaCl/DOCA injections indicate improved kidney function with normalization of pathologically enhanced creatinine and urea plasma levels; also, albumin excretion was observed. In summary, we present evidence that salt supplementation during the COX-2-dependent time frame of nephrogenesis partly reverses renal morphological defects in COX-2(-/-) mice and improves kidney function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Renal Scintigraphy

    MedlinePlus

    ... size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Renal Scintigraphy Sponsored by ...

  7. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Morris, Laurel S; Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M; Bullmore, Edward T; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W; Voon, Valerie

    2017-02-28

    Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50-mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly-drug-dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network-based statistical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol-dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly-drug-dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol-dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly-substance-dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology.

  8. Small Molecule CXCR3 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Stephen P; Cox, Rhona J

    2016-04-14

    Chemokines and their receptors are known to play important roles in disease. More than 40 chemokine ligands and 20 chemokine receptors have been identified, but, to date, only two small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists have been approved by the FDA. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 was identified in 1996, and nearly 20 years later, new areas of CXCR3 disease biology continue to emerge. Several classes of small molecule CXCR3 antagonists have been developed, and two have shown efficacy in preclinical models of inflammatory disease. However, only one CXCR3 antagonist has been evaluated in clinical trials, and there remain many opportunities to further investigate known classes of CXCR3 antagonists and to identify new chemotypes. This Perspective reviews the known CXCR3 antagonists and considers future opportunities for the development of small molecules for clinical evaluation.

  9. Noradrenergic antagonists mitigate amphetamine-induced recovery.

    PubMed

    Hylin, M J; Brenneman, M M; Corwin, J V

    2017-09-15

    Brain injury, including that due to stroke, leaves individuals with cognitive deficits that can disrupt daily aspect of living. As of now there are few treatments that shown limited amounts of success in improving functional outcome. The use of stimulants such as amphetamine have shown some success in improving outcome following brain injury. While the pharmacological mechanisms for amphetamine are known; the specific processes responsible for improving behavioral outcome following injury remain unknown. Understanding these mechanisms can help to refine the use of amphetamine as a potential treatment or lead to the use of other methods that share the same pharmacological properties. One proposed mechanism is amphetamine's impact upon noradrenaline (NA). In the current, study noradrenergic antagonists were administered prior to amphetamine to pharmacologically block α- and β-adrenergic receptors. The results demonstrated that the blockade of these receptors disrupted amphetamines ability to induce recovery from hemispatial neglect using an established aspiration lesion model. This suggests that amphetamine's ability to ameliorate neglect deficits may be due in part to noradrenaline. These results further support the role of noradrenaline in functional recovery. Finally, the development of polytherapies and combined therapeutics, while promising, may need to consider the possibility that drug interactions can negate the effectiveness of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alteration of the Intestinal Environment by Lubiprostone Is Associated with Amelioration of Adenine-Induced CKD

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Eikan; Fukuda, Shinji; Shima, Hisato; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Fukuda, Noriko N.; Suzuki, Takehiro; Suzuki, Chitose; Yuri, Akinori; Kikuchi, Koichi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of uremic toxins is involved in the progression of CKD. Various uremic toxins are derived from gut microbiota, and an imbalance of gut microbiota or dysbiosis is related to renal failure. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between the gut microbiota and renal failure are still obscure. Using an adenine-induced renal failure mouse model, we evaluated the effects of the ClC-2 chloride channel activator lubiprostone (commonly used for the treatment of constipation) on CKD. Oral administration of lubiprostone (500 µg/kg per day) changed the fecal and intestinal properties in mice with renal failure. Additionally, lubiprostone treatment reduced the elevated BUN and protected against tubulointerstitial damage, renal fibrosis, and inflammation. Gut microbiome analysis of 16S rRNA genes in the renal failure mice showed that lubiprostone treatment altered their microbial composition, especially the recovery of the levels of the Lactobacillaceae family and Prevotella genus, which were significantly reduced in the renal failure mice. Furthermore, capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis showed that lubiprostone treatment decreased the plasma level of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, which are derived from gut microbiota, and a more recently discovered uremic toxin, trans-aconitate. These results suggest that lubiprostone ameliorates the progression of CKD and the accumulation of uremic toxins by improving the gut microbiota and intestinal environment. PMID:25525179

  11. Alteration of the Intestinal Environment by Lubiprostone Is Associated with Amelioration of Adenine-Induced CKD.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Eikan; Fukuda, Shinji; Shima, Hisato; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Fukuda, Noriko N; Suzuki, Takehiro; Suzuki, Chitose; Yuri, Akinori; Kikuchi, Koichi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-08-01

    The accumulation of uremic toxins is involved in the progression of CKD. Various uremic toxins are derived from gut microbiota, and an imbalance of gut microbiota or dysbiosis is related to renal failure. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between the gut microbiota and renal failure are still obscure. Using an adenine-induced renal failure mouse model, we evaluated the effects of the ClC-2 chloride channel activator lubiprostone (commonly used for the treatment of constipation) on CKD. Oral administration of lubiprostone (500 µg/kg per day) changed the fecal and intestinal properties in mice with renal failure. Additionally, lubiprostone treatment reduced the elevated BUN and protected against tubulointerstitial damage, renal fibrosis, and inflammation. Gut microbiome analysis of 16S rRNA genes in the renal failure mice showed that lubiprostone treatment altered their microbial composition, especially the recovery of the levels of the Lactobacillaceae family and Prevotella genus, which were significantly reduced in the renal failure mice. Furthermore, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis showed that lubiprostone treatment decreased the plasma level of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, which are derived from gut microbiota, and a more recently discovered uremic toxin, trans-aconitate. These results suggest that lubiprostone ameliorates the progression of CKD and the accumulation of uremic toxins by improving the gut microbiota and intestinal environment.

  12. Enhanced autophagy ameliorates cardiac proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, Md. Shenuarin; Pattison, J. Scott; Osinska, Hanna; James, Jeanne; Gulick, James; McLendon, Patrick M.; Hill, Joseph A.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Basal autophagy is a crucial mechanism in cellular homeostasis, underlying both normal cellular recycling and the clearance of damaged or misfolded proteins, organelles and aggregates. We showed here that enhanced levels of autophagy induced by either autophagic gene overexpression or voluntary exercise ameliorated desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC). To increase levels of basal autophagy, we generated an inducible Tg mouse expressing autophagy-related 7 (Atg7), a critical and rate-limiting autophagy protein. Hearts from these mice had enhanced autophagy, but normal morphology and function. We crossed these mice with CryABR120G mice, a model of DRC in which autophagy is significantly attenuated in the heart, to test the functional significance of autophagy activation in a proteotoxic model of heart failure. Sustained Atg7-induced autophagy in the CryABR120G hearts decreased interstitial fibrosis, ameliorated ventricular dysfunction, decreased cardiac hypertrophy, reduced intracellular aggregates and prolonged survival. To determine whether different methods of autophagy upregulation have additive or even synergistic benefits, we subjected the autophagy-deficient CryABR120G mice and the Atg7-crossed CryABR120G mice to voluntary exercise, which also upregulates autophagy. The entire exercised Atg7-crossed CryABR120G cohort survived to 7 months. These findings suggest that activating autophagy may be a viable therapeutic strategy for improving cardiac performance under proteotoxic conditions. PMID:24177425

  13. Enhanced autophagy ameliorates cardiac proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Md Shenuarin; Pattison, J Scott; Osinska, Hanna; James, Jeanne; Gulick, James; McLendon, Patrick M; Hill, Joseph A; Sadoshima, Junichi; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    Basal autophagy is a crucial mechanism in cellular homeostasis, underlying both normal cellular recycling and the clearance of damaged or misfolded proteins, organelles and aggregates. We showed here that enhanced levels of autophagy induced by either autophagic gene overexpression or voluntary exercise ameliorated desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC). To increase levels of basal autophagy, we generated an inducible Tg mouse expressing autophagy-related 7 (Atg7), a critical and rate-limiting autophagy protein. Hearts from these mice had enhanced autophagy, but normal morphology and function. We crossed these mice with CryABR120G mice, a model of DRC in which autophagy is significantly attenuated in the heart, to test the functional significance of autophagy activation in a proteotoxic model of heart failure. Sustained Atg7-induced autophagy in the CryABR120G hearts decreased interstitial fibrosis, ameliorated ventricular dysfunction, decreased cardiac hypertrophy, reduced intracellular aggregates and prolonged survival. To determine whether different methods of autophagy upregulation have additive or even synergistic benefits, we subjected the autophagy-deficient CryABR120G mice and the Atg7-crossed CryABR120G mice to voluntary exercise, which also upregulates autophagy. The entire exercised Atg7-crossed CryABR120G cohort survived to 7 months. These findings suggest that activating autophagy may be a viable therapeutic strategy for improving cardiac performance under proteotoxic conditions.

  14. The role of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the amelioration of MK-801-induced learning and memory deficits by the novel atypical antipsychotic drug lurasidone.

    PubMed

    Horisawa, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Toma, Satoko; Ikeda, Atsushi; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Ono, Michiko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Taiji, Mutsuo

    2013-05-01

    Lurasidone is a novel atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors. We previously reported that lurasidone and the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-656104-A improved learning and memory deficits induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in the rat passive avoidance test. In this study, we first examined the role of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone in its pro-cognitive effect to ameliorate MK-801-induced deficits in the rat passive avoidance test. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19, (2S)-(+)-5-(1,3,5-trimethylpyrazol-4-yl)-2-(dimethylamino) tetralin, (3 mg/kg, s.c.) completely blocked the attenuating effects of lurasidone (3 mg/kg, p.o.), highlighting the importance of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the pro-cognitive effect of lurasidone. AS19 (3 mg/kg, s.c.) also blocked the ameliorating effect of SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the same experimental paradigm. To further extend our observation, we next tested whether 5-HT7 receptor antagonism still led to the amelioration of MK-801-induced deficits when combined with D2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, and found that SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced deficits even in the presence of the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Taken together, these results suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone plays an important role in its effectiveness against MK-801-induced deficits, and may contribute to its pharmacological actions in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Intermedin ameliorates IgA nephropathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhong; Tian, Jihua; Guo, Haixiu; Mi, Yang; Zhang, Ruijing; Li, Rongshan

    2016-05-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent form of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of IgAN has been reported. Intermedin (IMD) is a newly discovered peptide that is closely related to adrenomedullin. We have recently reported that IMD can significantly reduce renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by diminishing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. The present study was designed to explore whether IMD ameliorates IgAN via oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent mechanisms. Our results showed that IMD administration resulted in the prevention of albuminuria and ameliorated renal pathomorphological changes. These findings were associated with (1) decreased renal TGF-β1 and collagen IV expression, (2) an increased SOD level and reduced MDA level, (3) the inhibition of the renal activation of NF-κB p65 and (4) the downregulation of the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, MCP-1 and MMP-9) in the kidney. These results indicate that IMD in the kidney protects against IgAN by reducing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation.

  16. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-05-09

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  17. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  18. Carvedilol Ameliorates Early Diabetic Nephropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, Mohamed A.; Ibrahim, Salwa A.; Amin, Entesar F.; Kamel, Maha Y.; Abdelwahab, Soha A.; Hassan, Magdy K.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy results in end-stage renal disease. On the other hand, carvedilol has been reported to have various pharmacological properties. The aim of this study therefore is to evaluate the possible protective effect of carvedilol on streptozotocin-induced early diabetic nephropathy and various mechanisms underlie this effect in rats. Single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) was administered to induce early diabetic nephropathy in Wistar rats. Oral administration of carvedilol at a dose level of 1 and 10 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks resulted in nephroprotective effect as evident by significant decrease in serum creatinine level, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and kidney index as well as renal levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 with a concurrent increase in creatinine clearance and renal reduced glutathione level compared to diabetic untreated rats. The protective effect of carvedilol was confirmed by renal histopathological examination. The electron microscopic examination indicated that carvedilol could effectively ameliorate glomerular basement membrane thickening and podocyte injury. In conclusion, carvedilol protects rats against streptozotocin-induced early diabetic nephropathy possibly, in part, through its antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities, and ameliorating podocyte injury. PMID:24991534

  19. Ghrelin Protects against Renal Damages Induced by Angiotensin-II via an Antioxidative Stress Mechanism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Keiko; Wakino, Shu; Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hosoya, Koji; Komatsu, Motoaki; Kaneko, Yuka; Shinozuka, Keisuke; Washida, Naoki; Kanda, Takeshi; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Hayashi, Koichi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We explored the renal protective effects by a gut peptide, Ghrelin. Daily peritoneal injection with Ghrelin ameliorated renal damages in continuously angiotensin II (AngII)-infused C57BL/6 mice as assessed by urinary excretion of protein and renal tubular markers. AngII-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and senescent changes were attenuated by Ghrelin. Ghrelin also inhibited AngII-induced upregulations of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), ameliorating renal fibrotic changes. These effects were accompanied by concomitant increase in mitochondria uncoupling protein, UCP2 as well as in a key regulator of mitochondria biosynthesis, PGC1α. In renal proximal cell line, HK-2 cells, Ghrelin reduced mitochondria membrane potential and mitochondria-derived ROS. The transfection of UCP2 siRNA abolished the decrease in mitochondria-derived ROS by Ghrelin. Ghrelin ameliorated AngII-induced renal tubular cell senescent changes and AngII-induced TGF-β and PAI-1 expressions. Finally, Ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-null mice exhibited an increase in tubular damages, renal ROS levels, renal senescent changes and fibrosis complicated with renal dysfunction. GHSR-null mice harbored elongated mitochondria in the proximal tubules. In conclusion, Ghrelin suppressed AngII-induced renal damages through its UCP2 dependent anti-oxidative stress effect and mitochondria maintenance. Ghrelin/GHSR pathway played an important role in the maintenance of ROS levels in the kidney. PMID:24747517

  20. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  1. Endothelial colony-forming cells ameliorate endothelial dysfunction via secreted factors following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Collett, Jason A; Mehrotra, Purvi; Crone, Allison; Shelley, W Christopher; Yoder, Mervin C; Basile, David P

    2017-05-01

    Damage to endothelial cells contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI) by leading to impaired perfusion. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) are endothelial precursor cells with high proliferative capacity, pro-angiogenic activity, and in vivo vessel forming potential. We hypothesized that ECFC may ameliorate the degree of AKI and/or promote repair of the renal vasculature following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) with high proliferative potential were compared with pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) with low proliferative potential in rats subjected to renal I/R. PMVEC administration reduced renal injury and hastened recovery as indicated by serum creatinine and tubular injury scores, while PAEC did not. Vehicle-treated control animals showed consistent reductions in renal medullary blood flow (MBF) within 2 h of reperfusion, while PMVEC protected against loss in MBF as measured by laser Doppler. Interestingly, PMVEC mediated protection occurred in the absence of homing to the kidney. Conditioned medium (CM) from human cultured cord blood ECFC also conveyed beneficial effects against I/R injury and loss of MBF. Moreover, ECFC-CM significantly reduced the expression of ICAM-1 and decreased the number of differentiated lymphocytes typically recruited into the kidney following renal ischemia. Taken together, these data suggest that ECFC secrete factors that preserve renal function post ischemia, in part, by preserving microvascular function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Food Restriction Ameliorates the Development of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Gina; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Nin, Veronica; Edwards, Marika; Chini, Claudia C S; Hopp, Katharina; Harris, Peter C; Torres, Vicente E; Chini, Eduardo N

    2016-05-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of kidney cysts that ultimately leads to loss of renal function and kidney failure. At present, the treatment for ADPKD is largely supportive. Multiple studies have focused on pharmacologic approaches to slow the development of the cystic disease; however, little is known about the role of nutrition and dietary manipulation in PKD. Here, we show that food restriction (FR) effectively slows the course of the disease in mouse models of ADPKD. Mild to moderate (10%-40%) FR reduced cyst area, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and injury in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular and biochemical studies in these mice indicate that FR ameliorates ADPKD through a mechanism involving suppression of the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway and activation of the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Our data suggest that dietary interventions such as FR, or treatment that mimics the effects of such interventions, may be potential and novel preventive and therapeutic options for patients with ADPKD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Food Restriction Ameliorates the Development of Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Gina; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Nin, Veronica; Edwards, Marika; Hopp, Katharina; Harris, Peter C.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of kidney cysts that ultimately leads to loss of renal function and kidney failure. At present, the treatment for ADPKD is largely supportive. Multiple studies have focused on pharmacologic approaches to slow the development of the cystic disease; however, little is known about the role of nutrition and dietary manipulation in PKD. Here, we show that food restriction (FR) effectively slows the course of the disease in mouse models of ADPKD. Mild to moderate (10%–40%) FR reduced cyst area, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and injury in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular and biochemical studies in these mice indicate that FR ameliorates ADPKD through a mechanism involving suppression of the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway and activation of the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Our data suggest that dietary interventions such as FR, or treatment that mimics the effects of such interventions, may be potential and novel preventive and therapeutic options for patients with ADPKD. PMID:26538633

  4. Platelet-activating factor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Negro Alvarez, J M; Miralles López, J C; Ortiz Martínez, J L; Abellán Alemán, A; Rubio del Barrio, R

    1997-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine, exhibits potent proinflammatory properties. PAF is produced by numerous cell types, including endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, basophils, eosinophils and mastocytes. Since the discovery and identification of the chemical structure of PAF, a large variety of specific PAF-receptor antagonists, both natural and synthetic compounds, have been described. Intensive research has been conducted and development programs set up by more 25 pharmaceutical companies world-wide, studying the therapeutic interest of more than 50 PAF-receptors antagonists in various pathophysiological conditions. Medline (1966-1996), Embase (Excerpta Medica; 1974-1996), and other biomedical and drug directory databases were searched to identify English-language articles (basic science, clinical trial research, and review articles) and abstracts of conference proceedings on PAF receptor antagonists and related terms. The most important PAF receptor antagonists are reviewed with their effectiveness in various experimental tests. Fundamentally, PAF antagonists may be divided in two groups: natural and synthetic compounds. Natural (Ginkgolides, Kadsurenone, Chantancin, Phomactin, Swietemohonin A, Prehispalone, THC-7-oic acid, Aglafoline, FR 900452, PCA 4248 and SCH 37370), and synthetic antagonists (CV-3988, CV-6209, SRI 63-072, SRI 63-441, UR-10324, UR-11353, E-5880, CL 184005, 6-Mono and Bis-aryl phosphate antagonists, TCV-309, Ro-74719, WEB 2086, Y 24180, BN 50726, BN 50727, BN 50730, BN 50739, Ro 24-4736, Ro 24-0238, RP 55778, RP 59227, RP 66681, YM 264, YM 461, SM 10661, SR 27417, UK 74505, BB 182, BB 823, BB 654, SDZ 64-412, SDZ 65-123, L 652731, L 659898, L 668750, L 671284, L680573, L 680574, CIS 19, ABT-299 and Pinusolide) have a great variability in their chemical structure that might have importance in their different pharmacological profile. The great majority of these

  5. The pharmacological properties of lipophilic calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, P A

    1998-01-01

    Several types of calcium antagonists (CA) (verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine and related drugs) may be used as antihypertensives. In practice, the dihydropyridines (nifedipine and related drugs) are the CA used most frequently as antihypertensives. Apart from the lowering of blood pressure CA may lead to other, theoretically beneficial, effects: regression of left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, renal protection, weak natriuretic, weak antiplatelet, anti-ischaemic and antiatherogenic activity. Several new dihydropyridine CA have been introduced in recent years. The advantages of the newer compounds, such as amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, lacidipine and lercanidipine, may include: vasoselectivity, hence little or no cardiodepressant activity; an improved kinetic profile, resulting in a slow onset and long duration of action, fewer side-effects such as reflex tachycardia and headache, owing to the slow onset of the antihypertensive action. For a few newer CA a predominant effect on specialized circulatory beds (renal, coronary and cerebral) has been claimed. The new CA, which are clearly lipophilic, deserve special attention. Owing to the lipophilic character of such compounds considerable concentration occurs in lipid-containing membrane depots. The CA thus concentrated are slowly released from these depots and, subsequently, reach their targets, the L-type calcium channels. This phenomenon explains both the slow onset and the long duration of action of these CA. Owing to the slow onset of action reflex tachycardia is virtually absent. The long duration of action allows satisfactory control of blood pressure in hypertensives by means of a single daily dose. A few lipophilic dihydropyridine CA are vasoselective. This property implies that at therapeutic, vasodilatory dosages no cardiodepressant activity occurs. Lercanidipine is a recently introduced example of a lipophilic and vasoselective dihydropyridine CA. It is an effective vasodilator

  6. Increased Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase and Cystathionine-β-Synthase in Renal Oncocytomas, Renal Urothelial Carcinoma, and Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Rodney E; Abdulsattar, Jehan; Wei, Eric X; Cotelingam, James; Coppola, Domenico; Herrera, Guillermo A

    2017-07-01

    Renal oncocytomas (ROs), and clear cell (RCC) and urothelial carcinomas (UC), are common renal neoplasms. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of NAD(+) synthesis and its expression is increased in several tumors. Nampt concomitantly regulates hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme levels, including cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS). We used tissue microarrays to examine Nampt and the H2S-synthesizing enzyme CBS protein levels in benign kidney, RCC, UC and ROs. Compared to benign kidney, all three neoplasms showed increased Nampt and CBS protein levels, with the levels increasing in RCC at higher Fuhrman grades. H2S is known to ameliorate chronic renal failure but, as yet, no role for H2S in renal neoplasia has been demonstrated. Here, we showed, for the first time, that Nampt, CBS and, likely, H2S likely play a role in malignant and benign neoplastic renal disease. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic effects of renal denervation.

    PubMed

    Thomopoulos, Costas; Spanoudi, Filio; Kyriazis, Ioannis; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    In the present review article we address the issue of the potential effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on metabolic states associated with resistant hypertension. So far, there is an established pathophysiological background denoting that abnormalities in glucose metabolism especially in obese patients and in those with sleep apnea are constantly accompanied by increased sympathetic firing, as assessed by markers of sympathetic activity. Since resistant hypertension is also characterized by enhanced sympathetic activity, it seems logical and biologically plausible, that RSD might favorably influence impaired glucose metabolism, sleep disorders and increased body adiposity beyond BP lowering. Despite the limited evidence from clinical trials, there are promising data suggesting that RSD indeed ameliorates glucose metabolism-related measures in resistant hypertension. Well-designed randomized trials recruiting a larger number of patients with hypertension, and focused on metabolic parameters, may refine the role of RSD as a potential intervention to treat dysmetabolic states associated with hypertension.

  8. Renal Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Yendt, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal calculi is reviewed in general terms followed by the results of investigation of 439 patients with renal calculi studied by the author at Toronto General Hospital over a 13-year period. Abnormalities of probable pathogenetic significance were encountered in 76% of patients. Idiopathic hypercalciuria was encountered in 42% of patients, primary hyperparathyroidism in 11%, urinary infection in 8% and miscellaneous disorders in 8%. The incidence of uric acid stones and cystinuria was 5% and 2% respectively. In the remaining 24% of patients in whom no definite abnormalities were encountered the mean urinary magnesium excretion was less than normal. Of 180 patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria, only 24 were females. In the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism, the importance of detecting minimal degrees of hypercalcemia is stressed; attention is also drawn to the new observation that the upper limit of normal for serum calcium is slightly lower in females than in males. The efficacy of various measures advocated for the prevention of renal calculi is also reviewed. In the author's experience the administration of thiazides has been particularly effective in the prevention of calcium stones. Thiazides cause a sustained reduction in urinary calcium excretion and increase in urinary magnesium excretion. These agents also appear to affect the skeleton by diminishing bone resorption and slowing down bone turnover. PMID:5438766

  9. Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects.

    PubMed

    Al-Amoudi, Nadia Saleh; Abu Araki, Huda A

    2013-02-21

    In the existing literature, the evidence regarding the effects of certain oils on the amelioration of hyperglycemia contains ambiguities and contradictions; and with regard to other oils, the quantity of existing studies is scant. To assess the influence of sesame, garden rocket, organic olive, thyme, fenugreek, hazelnut, and cod liver oil on serum glucose, liver function, and kidney functions. Male albino rats were injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW). The duration of the experiment was 28 days. Maximum recovery of occurred wasting attributable to diabetes was found in the sesame and cod liver groups. With respect to ameliorating and/or preventing the side effects of diabetes on liver function, this experiment showed that thyme, organic olive, cod liver, and fenugreek oils were efficacious. Turning to serum lipid profile, organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented the changes of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. Vegetable and cod liver oil diets resulted in a marked amelioration of renal dysfunction, but they were unable to prevent this side effect. Similar, oil diets were unable to mask the increase in serum glucose due to diabetes mellitus. On the basis of these findings, it could be recommended that when attempting oil diet treatment for the side effects of diabetes, a blend of the various specific treatments which showed best results should be employed in order to achieve improvement with respect to all parameters; and in part, this is because a synergism between the various treatments can be expected.

  10. Aliskiren-associated acute renal failure with hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Venzin, R M; Cohen, C D; Maggiorini, M; Wüthrich, R P

    2009-03-01

    We report the first case of acute renal failure with hyperkalemia associated with the recently marketed direct renin inhibitor aliskiren. To optimize blood pressure control, the antihypertensive medication of a 76-year-old hypertensive female patient was changed from the angiotensin II receptor antagonist irbesartan to aliskiren. Spironolactone was continued, as serum creatinine and potassium levels were initially normal. Two weeks later the patient presented with acute oliguric renal failure, symptomatic hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis, necessitating emergency dialytic treatment. Unrecognized pre-existing renal insufficiency (CKD Stage 2 - 3) and the continuation of spironolactone were identified as predisposing risk factors.

  11. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao; Yi, Weijie; Zhang, Piwei; Wu, Nannan; Yan, Qiaoqiao; Yang, Hui; Tian, Chong; Xiang, Siyun; Du, Miying; Getachew Assefa, Eskedar; Zuo, Xuezhi; Ying, Chenjiang

    2017-05-14

    Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR) or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD), DR, high-fat diet (HFD), and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw)/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA)-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG) elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  12. IL-1 receptor antagonist ameliorates inflammasome-dependent inflammation in murine and human cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Iannitti, Rossana G.; Napolioni, Valerio; Oikonomou, Vasilis; De Luca, Antonella; Galosi, Claudia; Pariano, Marilena; Massi-Benedetti, Cristina; Borghi, Monica; Puccetti, Matteo; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Colombo, Carla; Fiscarelli, Ersilia; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Majo, Fabio; Cariani, Lisa; Russo, Maria; Porcaro, Luigi; Ricciotti, Gabriella; Ellemunter, Helmut; Ratclif, Luigi; De Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola; Dinarello, Charles A.; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Romani, Luigina

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated inflammasome activation contributes to respiratory infections and pathologic airway inflammation. Through basic and translational approaches involving murine models and human genetic epidemiology, we show here the importance of the different inflammasomes in regulating inflammatory responses in mice and humans with cystic fibrosis (CF), a life-threatening disorder of the lungs and digestive system. While both contributing to pathogen clearance, NLRP3 more than NLRC4 contributes to deleterious inflammatory responses in CF and correlates with defective NLRC4-dependent IL-1Ra production. Disease susceptibility in mice and microbial colonization in humans occurrs in conditions of genetic deficiency of NLRC4 or IL-1Ra and can be rescued by administration of the recombinant IL-1Ra, anakinra. These results indicate that pathogenic NLRP3 activity in CF could be negatively regulated by IL-1Ra and provide a proof-of-concept evidence that inflammasomes are potential targets to limit the pathological consequences of microbial colonization in CF. PMID:26972847

  13. BMP antagonists enhance myogenic differentiation and ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in a DMD mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, SongTing; Hoogaars, Willem M H; de Gorter, David J J; van Heiningen, Sandra H; Lin, Herbert Y; Hong, Charles C; Kemaladewi, Dwi U; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; ten Dijke, Peter; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    2011-02-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle wasting disease characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis. The progressive pathology of DMD can be explained by an insufficient regenerative response resulting in fibrosis and adipose tissue formation. BMPs are known to inhibit myogenic differentiation and in a previous study we found an increased expression of a BMP family member BMP4 in DMD myoblasts. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate whether inhibition of BMP signaling could be beneficial for myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration processes in a DMD context. All tested BMP inhibitors, Noggin, dorsomorphin and LDN-193189, were able to accelerate and enhance myogenic differentiation. However, dorsomorphin repressed both BMP and TGFβ signaling and was found to be toxic to primary myoblast cell cultures. In contrast, Noggin was found to be a potent and selective BMP inhibitor and was therefore tested in vivo in a DMD mouse model. Local adenoviral-mediated overexpression of Noggin in muscle resulted in an increased expression of the myogenic regulatory genes Myog and Myod1 and improved muscle histology. In conclusion, our results suggest that repression of BMP signaling may constitute an attractive adjunctive therapy for DMD patients.

  14. IL-1 receptor antagonist ameliorates inflammasome-dependent inflammation in murine and human cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, Rossana G; Napolioni, Valerio; Oikonomou, Vasilis; De Luca, Antonella; Galosi, Claudia; Pariano, Marilena; Massi-Benedetti, Cristina; Borghi, Monica; Puccetti, Matteo; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Colombo, Carla; Fiscarelli, Ersilia; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Majo, Fabio; Cariani, Lisa; Russo, Maria; Porcaro, Luigi; Ricciotti, Gabriella; Ellemunter, Helmut; Ratclif, Luigi; De Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola; Dinarello, Charles A; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Romani, Luigina

    2016-03-14

    Dysregulated inflammasome activation contributes to respiratory infections and pathologic airway inflammation. Through basic and translational approaches involving murine models and human genetic epidemiology, we show here the importance of the different inflammasomes in regulating inflammatory responses in mice and humans with cystic fibrosis (CF), a life-threatening disorder of the lungs and digestive system. While both contributing to pathogen clearance, NLRP3 more than NLRC4 contributes to deleterious inflammatory responses in CF and correlates with defective NLRC4-dependent IL-1Ra production. Disease susceptibility in mice and microbial colonization in humans occurs in conditions of genetic deficiency of NLRC4 or IL-1Ra and can be rescued by administration of the recombinant IL-1Ra, anakinra. These results indicate that pathogenic NLRP3 activity in CF could be negatively regulated by IL-1Ra and provide a proof-of-concept evidence that inflammasomes are potential targets to limit the pathological consequences of microbial colonization in CF.

  15. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  16. Dietary amelioration of Helicobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wallace, Alison J

    2015-06-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability, and cultural acceptability. This review, therefore, highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (eg, honey and propolis); probiotics; dairy products; vegetables; fruits; oils; essential oils; and herbs, spices, and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and preclinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adriamycin cardiotoxicity amelioration by alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Krivit, W

    1979-01-01

    Adriamycin has become a potent member of the cancer chemotherapeutic program. However, the full utilization of adriamycin is limited by its cardiotoxicity. In experimental animals, alpha-tocopherol has been shown by some to ameliorate or prevent cardiac dysfunction without impairing antitumor effectiveness. During adriamycin therapy, future clinical research should consist of biochemical measurements of vitamin E in plasma, lipoperoxidation in red cells and platelets, while cars to indicate deficiency, should be considered as one method of ameliorating toxicity.

  18. Autophagy activation attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Li; Cui, Li-Yan; Yang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a common clinical complication but lacks effective therapies. This study investigated the role of autophagy in renal I/R injury and explored potential mechanisms in an established rat renal I/R injury model. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, I/R, I/R pretreated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor), or I/R pretreated with rapamycin (autophagy activator). All rats were subjected to clamping of the left renal pedicle for 45 min after right nephrectomy, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The Sham group underwent the surgical procedure without ischemia. 3-MA and rapamycin were injected 15 min before ischemia. Renal function was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Tissue samples from the kidneys were scored histopathologically. Autophagy was indicated by light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, and p62 levels and the number of autophagic vacuoles. Apoptosis was evaluated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and expression of caspase-3. Autophagy was activated after renal I/R injury. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA before I/R aggravated renal injury, with worsened renal function, higher renal tissue injury scores, and more tubular apoptosis. In contrast, rapamycin pretreatment ameliorated renal injury, with improved renal function, lower renal tissue injury scores, and inhibited apoptosis based on fewer TUNEL-positive cells and lower caspase-3 expression. Our results demonstrate that autophagy could be activated during I/R injury and play a protective role in renal I/R injury. The mechanisms were involved in the regulation of several autophagy and apoptosis-related genes. Furthermore, autophagy activator may be a promising therapy for I/R injury and AKI in the future. PMID:25898836

  19. Naringin ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and associated mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and inflammation in rats: Possible mechanism of nephroprotection

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Tatireddy, Srujana; Koneru, Meghana; Borkar, Roshan M.; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Srinivas, R.; Shyam Sunder, R.; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-05-15

    Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity has been well documented, although its underlying mechanisms and preventive strategies remain to be investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of naringin, a bioflavonoid, on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific renal function parameters (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) and histopathology of kidney tissues were evaluated to assess the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Renal oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants), inflammatory (NF-kB [p65], TNF-α, IL-6 and MPO) and apoptotic (caspase 3, caspase 9, Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and DNA fragmentation) markers were also evaluated. Significant decrease in mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial redox activity indicated the gentamicin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Naringin (100 mg/kg) treatment along with gentamicin restored the mitochondrial function and increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), nuclear protein expression of NF-κB (p65) and NF-κB-DNA binding activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were significantly decreased upon naringin treatment. In addition, naringin treatment significantly decreased the amount of cleaved caspase 3, Bax, and p53 protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. Naringin treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules. U-HPLS-MS data revealed that naringin co-administration along with gentamicin did not alter the renal uptake and/or accumulation of gentamicin in kidney tissues. These findings suggest that naringin treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis in

  20. Acute renal injury induced by valacyclovir hydrochloride: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanning; Cong, Yuxi; Teng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Acyclovir has been a frequently used antiviral agent in the clinical treatment of leukemia, acute encephalitis, malignant tumor and herpes simplex. The adverse effects of this drug have been widely described in clinical practice. In the present study, a case of a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed with herpes simplex, who developed acute renal injury following treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride, is described. Kidney biopsy, light microscopy and laboratory examination were performed, and all findings revealed the signs of evident vacuolar degeneration of capillary endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells, erythrocyte aggregation in partial renal tubule and microvilli exfoliation from epithelial cells. Renal interstitial edema was clearly identified. The clinical evidence observed from this female patient indicated that renal functions should be closely monitored during valacyclovir hydrochloride administration. A variety of effective measures, such as hydration, alkalizing urine, promoting the discharge of medication and the use of antagonists are recommended following the administration of antiviral agents. PMID:28101180

  1. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The term “ultima ratio” has multiple, though related, meanings. The motto “ultima ratio regum,” cast on the cannons of the French army of King Louis XIV, meant that war is the last argument of kings, that is, the one to be used after all diplomatic arguments have failed. Along similar lines, we propose that, given the current evidence, renal denervation should be used as a last resort, after state-of-the-art drug treatment optimized at expert centers failed to control blood pressure. PMID:22851728

  2. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  3. Serotonin-dopamine antagonism ameliorates impairments of spontaneous alternation and locomotor hyperactivity induced by repeated electroconvulsive seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Noriaki; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2010-08-01

    We have shown that seven consecutive administrations of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) produce impairment of spontaneous alternation behavior in a Y-maze test and a locomotor hyperactivity in an open-field test even 24h after the last administration in rats. To clarify the mechanisms of the behavioral impairments, we investigated the effect of drugs acting on dopaminergic and serotonergic nervous systems. The dopamine-2 (D(2)) receptor antagonists haloperidol and sulpiride abolished locomotor hyperactivity, but did not show effects on the impairment of spontaneous alternation behavior. The serotonin-2 (5-HT(2)) receptor antagonist ketanserin suppressed the impairment of spontaneous alternation behavior without affecting locomotor hyperactivity. The 5-HT(2) and D(2) receptor antagonist risperidone significantly ameliorated both behavioral impairments. These results suggest that 5-HT(2) receptors and D(2) receptors are associated with repeated ECS-induced impairment of spontaneous alternation behavior and locomotor hyperactivity, respectively.

  4. Pathophysiological role of the glyoxalase system in renal hypoxic injury.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takanori; Nangaku, Masaomi; Inagi, Reiko

    2008-04-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive dicarbonyl compound mainly produced by metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, binds to proteins or nucleic acids and forms advanced glycation end products. MG is efficiently metabolized by the glyoxalase system where MG is converted by glyoxalase I (GLO I) to S-D-lactoylglutathione. Although the glyoxalase system has been shown to play a pathological role in various diseases, including diabetic complications, its detailed pathophysiological function remains to be elucidated. We are interested in renal hypoxic diseases, but very little information is available regarding the association between the glyoxalase system and renal hypoxic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the biological role of GLO I in renal hypoxic diseases by using the rat ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model. I/R induced the reduction of renal GLO I activity associated with morphological changes and renal dysfunction. Interestingly, the rats that overexpress human GLO I (GLO I Tg rats) showed amelioration of these manifestations in renal I/R (e.g., improvement of the tubulointerstitial injury and renal function). Accumulation of renal MG adducts, carboxyethyllysine, induced by I/R also decreased in GLO I Tg rats compared to wild-type rats. These results demonstrate that GLO I has renoprotective effects in I/R injury via reduction of protein modification by MG.

  5. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  6. Inhibition of RXR and PPARγ ameliorates diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Waki, Hironori; Kamon, Junji; Murakami, Koji; Motojima, Kiyoto; Komeda, Kajuro; Miki, Hiroshi; Kubota, Naoto; Terauchi, Yasuo; Tsuchida, Atsuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Yamauchi, Naoko; Ide, Tomohiro; Hori, Wataru; Kato, Shigeaki; Fukayama, Masashi; Akanuma, Yasuo; Ezaki, Osamu; Itai, Akiko; Nagai, Ryozo; Kimura, Satoshi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Shudo, Koichi; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    PPARγ is a ligand-activated transcription factor and functions as a heterodimer with a retinoid X receptor (RXR). Supraphysiological activation of PPARγ by thiazolidinediones can reduce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, but these drugs can also cause weight gain. Quite unexpectedly, a moderate reduction of PPARγ activity observed in heterozygous PPARγ-deficient mice or the Pro12Ala polymorphism in human PPARγ, has been shown to prevent insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet. In this study, we investigated whether functional antagonism toward PPARγ/RXR could be used to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. We show herein that an RXR antagonist and a PPARγ antagonist decrease triglyceride (TG) content in white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. These inhibitors potentiated leptin’s effects and increased fatty acid combustion and energy dissipation, thereby ameliorating HF diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Paradoxically, treatment of heterozygous PPARγ-deficient mice with an RXR antagonist or a PPARγ antagonist depletes white adipose tissue and markedly decreases leptin levels and energy dissipation, which increases TG content in skeletal muscle and the liver, thereby leading to the re-emergence of insulin resistance. Our data suggested that appropriate functional antagonism of PPARγ/RXR may be a logical approach to protection against obesity and related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:11581301

  7. Inhibition of RXR and PPARgamma ameliorates diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, T; Waki, H; Kamon, J; Murakami, K; Motojima, K; Komeda, K; Miki, H; Kubota, N; Terauchi, Y; Tsuchida, A; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, N; Yamauchi, N; Ide, T; Hori, W; Kato, S; Fukayama, M; Akanuma, Y; Ezaki, O; Itai, A; Nagai, R; Kimura, S; Tobe, K; Kagechika, H; Shudo, K; Kadowaki, T

    2001-10-01

    PPARgamma is a ligand-activated transcription factor and functions as a heterodimer with a retinoid X receptor (RXR). Supraphysiological activation of PPARgamma by thiazolidinediones can reduce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, but these drugs can also cause weight gain. Quite unexpectedly, a moderate reduction of PPARgamma activity observed in heterozygous PPARgamma-deficient mice or the Pro12Ala polymorphism in human PPARgamma, has been shown to prevent insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet. In this study, we investigated whether functional antagonism toward PPARgamma/RXR could be used to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. We show herein that an RXR antagonist and a PPARgamma antagonist decrease triglyceride (TG) content in white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. These inhibitors potentiated leptin's effects and increased fatty acid combustion and energy dissipation, thereby ameliorating HF diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Paradoxically, treatment of heterozygous PPARgamma-deficient mice with an RXR antagonist or a PPARgamma antagonist depletes white adipose tissue and markedly decreases leptin levels and energy dissipation, which increases TG content in skeletal muscle and the liver, thereby leading to the re-emergence of insulin resistance. Our data suggested that appropriate functional antagonism of PPARgamma/RXR may be a logical approach to protection against obesity and related diseases such as type 2 diabetes.

  8. Celecoxib offsets the negative renal influences of cyclosporine via modulation of the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor cascade

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Helmy, Maged W.; Ali, Rabab M.; El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2014-03-01

    Endothelin (ET) signaling provokes nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A (CSA). We tested the hypotheses that (i): celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, counterbalances renal derangements caused by CSA in rats and (ii) the COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor signaling mediates the CSA-celecoxib interaction. Ten-day treatment with CSA (20 mg/kg/day) significantly increased biochemical indices of renal function (serum urea, creatinine), inflammation (interleukin-2, IL-2) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β{sub 1}, TGF-β{sub 1}). Histologically, CSA caused renal tubular atrophy along with interstitial fibrosis. These detrimental renal effects of CSA were largely reduced in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day). We also report that cortical glomerular and medullary tubular protein expressions of COX-2 and ET{sub B} receptors were reduced by CSA and restored to near-control values in rats treated simultaneously with celecoxib. The importance of ET{sub B} receptors in renal control and in the CSA-celecoxib interaction was further verified by the findings (i) most of the adverse biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological profiles of CSA were replicated in rats treated with the endothelin ET{sub B} receptor antagonist BQ788 (0.1 mg/kg/day, 10 days), and (ii) the BQ788 effects, like those of CSA, were alleviated in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib. Together, the data suggest that the facilitation of the interplay between the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2 pathway and the endothelin ET{sub B} receptors constitutes the cellular mechanism by which celecoxib ameliorates the nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. - Highlights: • Celecoxib abolishes nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. • Blockade of ETB receptors by BQ788 mimicked the nephrotoxic effects of CSA. • CSA or BQ788 reduces renal protein expression of COX-2 and endothelin ETB receptors. • Enhanced TGFβ1/IL-2/COX2/ETB

  9. Renal denervation mitigates cardiac remodeling and renal damage in Dahl rats: a comparison with β-receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Heitaro; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Miyaji, Yuki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2016-04-01

    Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) contributes to cardiac remodeling and the transition to heart failure (HF). Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) may ameliorate this damage by improving renal function and sympathetic cardioregulation in hypertensive HF patients with renal injury. The efficacy may be comparable to that of chronic β-blocker treatment. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats were subjected to RDN in the hypertrophic stage. Another group of Dahl rats were subjected to sham operations and treated chronically with vehicle (CONT) or β-blocker bisoprolol (BISO). Neither RDN nor BISO altered the blood pressure; however, BISO significantly reduced the heart rate (HR). Both RDN and BISO significantly prolonged survival (22.2 and 22.4 weeks, respectively) compared with CONT (18.3 weeks). Echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and improved LV function, and histological analysis demonstrated the amelioration of LV myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in the RDN and BISO rats at the HF stage. Tyrosine hydroxylase and β1-adrenergic receptor (ADR) expression levels in the LV myocardium significantly increased only in the RDN rats, whereas the α1b-, α1d- and α2c-ADR expression levels increased only in the BISO rats. In both groups, renal damage and dysfunction were also reduced, and this reduction was accompanied by the suppression of endothelin-1, renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNAs. RDN ameliorated the progression of both myocardial and renal damage in the hypertensive rats independent of blood pressure changes. The overall effects were similar to those of β-receptor blockade with favorable effects on HR and α-ADR expression. These findings may be associated with the restoration of the myocardial SNS and renal protection.

  10. CRF receptor 1 antagonism and brain distribution of active components contribute to the ameliorative effect of rikkunshito on stress-induced anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Mogami, Sachiko; Sadakane, Chiharu; Nahata, Miwa; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Yamada, Chihiro; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Rikkunshito (RKT), a Kampo medicine, has been reported to show an ameliorative effect on sustained hypophagia after novelty stress exposure in aged mice through serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonism. We aimed to determine (1) whether the activation of anorexigenic neurons, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, is involved in the initiation of hypophagia induced by novelty stress in aged mice; (2) whether the ameliorative effect of RKT is associated with CRF and POMC neurons and downstream signal transduction; and (3) the plasma and brain distribution of the active components of RKT. The administration of RKT or 5-HT2CR, CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1), and melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists significantly restored the decreased food intake observed in aged male C57BL/6 mice in the early stage after novelty stress exposure. Seven components of RKT exhibited antagonistic activity against CRFR1. Hesperetin and isoliquiritigenin, which showed antagonistic effects against both CRFR1 and 5-HT2CR, were distributed in the plasma and brain of male Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of RKT. In conclusion, the ameliorative effect of RKT in this model is assumed to be at least partly due to brain-distributed active components possessing 5-HT2CR and CRFR1 antagonistic activities. PMID:27273195

  11. CRF receptor 1 antagonism and brain distribution of active components contribute to the ameliorative effect of rikkunshito on stress-induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Sachiko; Sadakane, Chiharu; Nahata, Miwa; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Yamada, Chihiro; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-06-08

    Rikkunshito (RKT), a Kampo medicine, has been reported to show an ameliorative effect on sustained hypophagia after novelty stress exposure in aged mice through serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonism. We aimed to determine (1) whether the activation of anorexigenic neurons, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, is involved in the initiation of hypophagia induced by novelty stress in aged mice; (2) whether the ameliorative effect of RKT is associated with CRF and POMC neurons and downstream signal transduction; and (3) the plasma and brain distribution of the active components of RKT. The administration of RKT or 5-HT2CR, CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1), and melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists significantly restored the decreased food intake observed in aged male C57BL/6 mice in the early stage after novelty stress exposure. Seven components of RKT exhibited antagonistic activity against CRFR1. Hesperetin and isoliquiritigenin, which showed antagonistic effects against both CRFR1 and 5-HT2CR, were distributed in the plasma and brain of male Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of RKT. In conclusion, the ameliorative effect of RKT in this model is assumed to be at least partly due to brain-distributed active components possessing 5-HT2CR and CRFR1 antagonistic activities.

  12. The Effects of Heart Failure on Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Suneel M; Koyner, Jay L

    2010-01-01

    Summary Heart-kidney interactions have been increasingly recognized by clinicians and researchers involved in the study and treatment of heart failure and kidney disease. A classification system has been developed to categorize the different manifestations of cardiac and renal dysfunction. Recent work has highlighted the significant negative prognostic effect of worsening renal function on outcomes for individuals with heart failure. The etiology of the concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction remains unclear; however, increasing evidence supports alternatives to the established theory of underfilling, including effects of venous congestion and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. Conventional therapy focuses on blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with expanding use of direct renin and aldosterone antagonists. Novel therapeutic interventions using extracorporeal therapy and antagonists of the adenosine pathway show promise and require further investigation. PMID:20621250

  13. Diphenyl diselenide, a simple organoselenium compound, decreases methylmercury-induced cerebral, hepatic and renal oxidative stress and mercury deposition in adult mice.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Andressa Sausen; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Rotta, Mariana dos Santos; Bohrer, Denise; Mörschbächer, Vanessa; Puntel, Robson Luís; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-04-06

    Oxidative stress has been pointed out as an important molecular mechanism in methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication. At low doses, diphenyl diselenide ((PhSe)2), a structurally simple organoselenium compound, has been shown to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Here we have examined the possible in vivo protective effect of diphenyl diselenide against the potential pro-oxidative effects of MeHg in mouse liver, kidney, cerebrum and cerebellum. The effects of MeHg exposure (2 mg/(kg day) of methylmercury chloride 10 ml/kg, p.o.), as well as the possible antagonist effect of diphenyl diselenide (1 and 0.4 mg/(kg day); s.c.) on body weight gain and on hepatic, cerebellar, cerebral and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid content, mercury concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were evaluated after 35 days of treatment. MeHg caused an increase in TBARS and decreased NPSH levels in all tissues. MeHg also induced a decrease in hepatic ascorbic acid content and in renal GPx and CAT activities. Diphenyl diselenide (1 mg/kg) conferred protection against MeHg-induced hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and at both doses prevented the reduction in hepatic NPSH levels. Diphenyl diselenide also conferred a partial protection against MeHg-induced oxidative stress (TBARS and NPSH) in liver and cerebellum. Of particular importance, diphenyl diselenide decreased the deposition of Hg in cerebrum, cerebellum, kidney and liver. The present results indicate that diphenyl diselenide can protect against some toxic effects of MeHg in mice. This protection may be related to its antioxidant properties and its ability to reduce Hg body burden. We posit that formation of a selenol intermediate, which possesses high nucleophilicity and high affinity for MeHg, accounts for the ability of diphenyl diselenide to ameliorate Me

  14. Caffeine ameliorates hemodynamic derangements and portosystemic collaterals in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Jung; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Wang, Sun-Sang; Hsin, I-Fang; Lin, Te-Yueh; Huang, Hui-Chun; Chang, Ching-Chih; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Ho, Hsin-Ling; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2015-05-01

    Portal hypertension (PH), a pathophysiological derangement of liver cirrhosis, is characterized by hyperdynamic circulation, angiogenesis, and portosystemic collaterals. These may lead to lethal complications, such as variceal bleeding. Caffeine has been noted for its effects on liver inflammation, fibrogenesis, and vasoreactiveness. However, the relevant influences of caffeine in cirrhosis and PH have not been addressed. Spraque-Dawley rats with common bile duct ligation-induced cirrhosis or sham operation received prophylactic or therapeutic caffeine treatment (50 mg/kg/day, the first or 15th day since operation, respectively) for 28 days. Compared to vehicle (distilled water), caffeine decreased cardiac index, increased systemic vascular resistance, reduced portal pressure (PP), superior mesenteric artery flow, mesenteric vascular density, portosystemic shunting (PSS), intrahepatic angiogenesis, and fibrosis without affecting liver and renal biochemistry. The beneficial effects were reversed by selective adenosine A1 agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) or A2A agonist GCS21680. Both prophylactic and therapeutic caffeine treatment decreased portal resistance and PP in thioacetamide (200mg/kg, thrice-weekly for 8 weeks)-induced cirrhotic rats. Caffeine down-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phospho-VEGFR2, and phospho-Akt mesenteric protein expression. Caffeine adversely affected viability of hepatic stellate and sinusoidal endothelial cells, which was reversed by CPA and GCS21680. On the other hand, caffeine did not modify vascular response to vasoconstrictors in splanchnic, hepatic, and collateral vascular beds. Caffeine decreased PP, ameliorated hyperdynamic circulation, PSS, mesenteric angiogenesis, hepatic angiogenesis, and fibrosis in cirrhotic rats. Caffeine may be a feasible candidate to ameliorate PH-related complications in cirrhosis. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver

  15. The complex roles of Wnt antagonists in RCC.

    PubMed

    Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2011-10-25

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of all the genitourinary cancers, as it is generally refractory to current treatment regimens, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Targeted therapies against critical signaling pathways associated with RCC pathogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor and mammalian target of rapamycin, have shown limited efficacy so far. Thus, Wnt signaling, which is known to be intricately involved in the pathogenesis of RCC, has attracted much interest. Several Wnt signaling components have been examined in RCC, and, while studies suggest that Wnt signaling is constitutively active in RCC, the molecular mechanisms differ considerably from other human carcinomas. Increasing evidence indicates that secreted Wnt antagonists have important roles in RCC pathogenesis. Considering these vital roles, it has been postulated--and supported by experimental evidence--that the functional loss of Wnt antagonists, for example by promoter hypermethylation, can contribute to constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway, resulting in carcinogenesis through dysregulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. However, subsequent functional studies of these Wnt antagonists have demonstrated the inherent complexities underlying their role in RCC pathogenesis.

  16. Biological Membrane-Packed Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treat Acute Kidney Disease by Ameliorating Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiaodong; Hong, Quan; Wang, Weiwei; Zheng, Wei; Li, Ou; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei; Wu, Di

    2017-01-01

    The mortality of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI remains high because no effective therapy exists. We investigated a new therapeutic method using MSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential and anti-apoptotic mechanisms of action of MSCs in the treatment of AKI induced by glycerol in vivo and in vitro. We used Duragen as a biological membrane to pack MSCs on the glycerol-injured renal tissue in vivo. The anti-apoptotic mechanism was investigated. In vitro, HK-2 cells were incubated with ferrous myoglobin and MSCs-conditioned medium, followed by cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. We founded that packing MSCs on the injured renal tissue preserved renal function, ameliorated renal tubular lesions, and reduced apoptosis in the mice with glycerol-induced AKI. The MSC-conditioned medium improved HK-2 cell viability and inhibited apoptosis. These effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Biological membrane packing of MSCs on the renal tissue has a therapeutic rescue function by inhibiting cell apoptosis in vivo. MSCs protect renal cells from apoptosis induced by myoglobin in vitro. We have thus demonstrated MSCs reduced rhabdomyolysis-associated renal injury and cell apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:28117405

  17. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A.; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  18. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice.

    PubMed

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. Renal protective effects of chronic exercise and antihypertensive therapy in hypertensive rats with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Kohzuki, M; Kamimoto, M; Wu, X M; Xu, H L; Kawamura, T; Mori, N; Nagasaka, M; Kurosawa, H; Minami, N; Kanazawa, M; Saito, T; Yoshida, K

    2001-10-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure are restricted to mild physical activity and tend to a lack of exercise. However, there have been few reports regarding the influence of chronic exercise on the progression of renal disease. Similarly, there are few animal models concerned with the effect of exercise training on improving renal function. Therefore, we assessed the renal effects of moderate chronic treadmill exercise in a remnant kidney model of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with chronic renal failure. We also assessed the effects of exercise and antihypertensive therapy on renal function. Eight-week-old SHR were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy by removal of the left kidney and excision of two-thirds of the right kidney. The rats were divided into four groups: (i) no exercise (Non-EX); (ii) moderate exercise with treadmill running (20 m/min, 0 grade incline for 60 min) (EX); (iii) EX with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril (2 mg/kg per day, i.p.); and (iv) EX with an angiotensin receptor antagonist, losartan (5 mg/kg per day, i.p.), for 4 weeks. Chronic EX significantly attenuated the increase in proteinuria (P < 0.01) and significantly protected against increases in the index of glomerular sclerosis (IGS). Both enalapril and losartan with EX significantly decreased blood pressure (P < 0.001), and further decreased the IGS. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, only antihypertensive drug remained in the model as a significant predictor of IGS (P < 0.0001). In contrast, exercise, antihypertensive drug and mean systolic blood pressure (weeks 1-4) remained in the model as a significant predictors of mean proteinuria (weeks 1-4) (all P < 0.0001). These results suggest that exercise does not worsen renal function and has renal-protective effects in this model of rats. Moreover, the antihypertensive therapy has additional renal-protective effects in this model of rats.

  20. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  1. Secreted calmodulin-like skin protein ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaaki; Tajima, Hirohisa; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2014-06-18

    Humanin, a short bioactive peptide, inhibits cell death in a variety of cell-based death models through Humanin receptors in vitro. In vivo, Humanin ameliorates both muscarinic receptor antagonist-induced memory impairment in normal mice and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-relevant mouse models including aged transgenic mice expressing a familial AD-linked gene. Recently, calmodulin-like skin protein (CLSP) has been shown to be secreted from skin tissues, contain a region minimally similar to the core region of Humanin, and inhibit AD-related neuronal death through the heterotrimeric Humanin receptor on the cell surface in vitro. As CLSP is much more potent than Humanin and efficiently transported through blood circulation across the blood-brain barrier to the central nervous system, CLSP is considered as a physiological agonist that binds to the heterotrimeric Humanin receptor and triggers the Humanin-induced signals in central nervous system. However, it remains unknown whether CLSP ameliorates memory impairment in mouse dementia models as Humanin does. In this study, we show that recombinant CLSP, administered intracerebroventricularly or intraperitoneally, ameliorates scopolamine-induced dementia in mice.

  2. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to Aβ-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-α level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications.

  3. Palliation of bone cancer pain by antagonists of platelet-activating factor receptors.

    PubMed

    Morita, Katsuya; Shiraishi, Seiji; Motoyama, Naoyo; Kitayama, Tomoya; Kanematsu, Takashi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Dohi, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC) model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients.

  4. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  5. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  6. Angiotensin and thromboxane in the enhanced renal adrenergic nerve sensitivity of acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Robinette, J B; Conger, J D

    1990-01-01

    The roles of intrarenal angiotensin (A) and thromboxane (TX) in the vascular hypersensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) and paradoxical vasoconstriction to renal perfusion pressure (RPP) reduction in the autoregulatory range in 1 wk norepinephrine (NE)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats were investigated. Renal blood flow (RBF) responses were determined before and during intrarenal infusion of an AII and TXA2 antagonist. Saralasin or SQ29548 alone partially corrected the slopes of RBF to RNS and RPP reduction in NE-ARF rats (P less than 0.02). Saralasin + SQ29548 normalized the RBF response to RNS. While combined saralasin + SQ29548 eliminated the vasoconstriction to RPP reduction, similar to the effect of renal denervation, appropriate vasodilatation was not restored. Renal vein norepinephrine efflux during RNS was disproportionately increased in NE-ARF (P less than 0.001) and was suppressed by saralasin + SQ29548 infusion (P less than 0.005). It is concluded that the enhanced sensitivity to RNS and paradoxical vasoconstriction to RPP reduction in 1 wk NE-ARF kidneys are the result of intrarenal TX and AII acceleration of neurotransmitter release to adrenergic nerve activity. PMID:2243129

  7. Two Cases of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Renal Phosphate Excretion in Legionella Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shuhei; Kono, Keiji; Fujii, Hideki; Nakai, Kentaro; Goto, Shunsuke; Nishi, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    We encountered 2 cases of hypophosphatemia due to Legionella pneumonia. Both cases showed increased urinary phosphate excretion and renal tubular dysfunction, which ameliorated with recovery from Legionella pneumonia. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 level was suppressed, whereas serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were normal. Delayed elevation of serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels was observed with improvement in renal tubular function. These findings suggested hypophosphatemia might be mediated by renal tubular dysfunction. PMID:27066493

  8. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both) before, during and after fermentation. The fixed acid level of the juice is determined prior to fermentation and...

  9. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both) before, during and after fermentation. The fixed acid level of the juice is determined prior to fermentation and...

  10. A College Program to Ameliorate Developmental Lag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, William F.

    1984-01-01

    An information systems approach to instruction to reduce freshman attrition at Morehead State University is described. The diagnostic-prescriptive approach to alleviate the cause and effect of developmental lag has provided an educational plan to ameliorate the low academic functioning of students and increase their intellectual development. (MLW)

  11. Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Pretreatment Ameliorates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced AKI by Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway and Allevi-ating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Huang, XuDong; Zhang, LiXia; Yang, XinJun; Wang, LiHui; Chen, YunShuang; Wang, JingHua; Wu, GuangLi

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most severe complications of rhabdomyolysis (RM). The underlying mechanisms and potential preventions need to be investigated. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) was reported to ameliorate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, but the effect of PHC on RM-reduced AKI is unknown. In this study, we established a rat model of RM-induced AKI using an intramuscular glycerol injection in the hind limbs. Rats were pretreated with PHC before the glycerol injection, and the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnPP was introduced to evaluate the effect of HO-1 on RM-induced AKI. PHC pretreatment ameliorated the pathological renal injury and renal dysfunction, and decreased the renal apoptosis rate in RM-induced AKI. PHC significantly up-regulated HO-1 expression, increased HO-1 enzymatic activity and decreased the accumulation of myoglobin in renal tissues. This effect was partly inhibited by ZnPP. PHC pretreatment also effectively up-regulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 at both the gene and protein levels. These results suggest that the protective effects of PHC pretreatment on RM-induced AKI occur at least in part through activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in rat renal tissues. PMID:26987113

  12. Dietary phosphate restriction ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in adenine-induced kidney disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Van, Tan Vu; Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Shiota, Asuka; Tanaka, Terumi; Tanimura, Ayako; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia causes endothelial dysfunction as well as vascular calcification. Management of serum phosphate level by dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders is considered to be beneficial to prevent chronic kidney disease patients from cardiovascular disease, but it has been unclear whether keeping lower serum phosphate level can ameliorate endothelial dysfunction. In this study we investigated whether low-phosphate diet can ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in adenine-induced kidney disease rats, one of useful animal model of chronic kidney disease. Administration of 0.75% adenine-containing diet for 21 days induced renal failure with hyperphosphatemia, and impaired acetylcholine-dependent vasodilation of thoracic aortic ring in rats. Then adenine-induced kidney disease rats were treated with either control diet (1% phosphate) or low-phosphate diet (0.2% phosphate) for 16 days. Low-phosphate diet ameliorated not only hyperphosphatemia but also the impaired vasodilation of aorta. In addition, the activatory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1177 and Akt at serine 473 in the aorta were inhibited by in adenine-induced kidney disease rats. The inhibited phosphorylations were improved by the low-phosphate diet treatment. Thus, dietary phosphate restriction can improve aortic endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease with hyperphosphatemia by increase in the activatory phosphorylations of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt. PMID:22798709

  13. ACCESSORY RENAL VESSELS

    PubMed Central

    Ali Mohammed, Ammar Mohammed; Elseed Abdalrasol, Rami Gusm; Alamin Abdalhai, Khatim; Gommaa Hamad, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radiologic techniques performing in recent years. We report the presence of unilateral doubled renal vessels, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver, on the right side; additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta. In addition the right suprarenal gland received arteries from right renal and inferior phrenic arteries only. The right inferior phrenic originated from the right renal artery. PMID:23322980

  14. Diallyl disulfide ameliorates gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; González-Orozco, Ana E; Maldonado, Perla D; Barrera, Diana; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio

    2003-07-18

    Experimental evidences suggest a role of reactive oxygen species in gentamicin-induced nephropathy in rats. Therefore, we investigated if diallyl disulfide, a garlic-derived compound with antioxidant properties, has a renoprotective effect in this experimental model. Four groups of rats were studied: (1) control, (2) gentamicin treated subcutaneously with gentamicin (70 mg/kg/12 h/4 days), (3) diallyl disulfide treated intragastrically with diallyl disulfide (50 mg/kg/24 h/4 days), and (4) gentamicin + diallyl disulfide treated with gentamicin + diallyl disulfide. Gentamicin induced (a) nephrotoxicity, (b) increase in renal oxidative stress, and (c) decrease in the activity of manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. Diallyl disulfide ameliorated these changes induced by gentamicin. The mechanism by which diallyl disulfide has a renoprotective effect in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure in rats may be related, at least in part, to the amelioration in the oxidative stress and the preservation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney.

  15. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists improve motor impairments in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Marcus C; Nayyar, Tultul; Deutch, Ariel Y; Ansah, Twum A

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that ritanserin, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist may reduce motor deficits in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD). To better understand the potential antiparkinsonian actions of ritanserin, we compared the effects of ritanserin with the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 and the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 on motor impairments in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP-treated mice exhibited decreased performance on the beam-walking apparatus. These motor deficits were reversed by acute treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa). Both the mixed 5-HT(2A/C) antagonist ritanserin and the selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist M100907 improved motor performance on the beam-walking apparatus. In contrast, SB 206553 was ineffective in improving the motor deficits in MPTP-treated mice. These data suggest that 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists may represent a novel approach to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

  16. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P; Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F; Evins, A. Eden; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-01-01

    Background The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be mediated through release of various neurotransmitters both centrally and systemically. People who smoke report positive effects such as pleasure, arousal, and relaxation as well as relief of negative affect, tension, and anxiety. Opioid (narcotic) antagonists are of particular interest to investigators as potential agents to attenuate the rewarding effects of cigarette smoking. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of opioid antagonists in promoting long-term smoking cessation. The drugs include naloxone and the longer-acting opioid antagonist naltrexone. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for trials of naloxone, naltrexone and other opioid antagonists and conducted an additional search of MEDLINE using ’Narcotic antagonists’ and smoking terms in April 2013. We also contacted investigators, when possible, for information on unpublished studies. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials comparing opioid antagonists to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. We included in the meta-analysis only those trials which reported data on abstinence for a minimum of six months. We also reviewed, for descriptive purposes, results from short-term laboratory-based studies of opioid antagonists designed to evaluate psycho-biological mediating variables associated with nicotine dependence. Data collection and analysis We extracted data in duplicate on the study population, the nature of the drug therapy, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. Abstinence at end of treatment was a secondary outcome. We extracted cotinine- or carbon monoxide-verified abstinence where available. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis, pooling risk ratios using a Mantel

  17. Mineralcorticoid antagonists in heart failure.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Emilia; Krum, Henry

    2014-10-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have become mandated therapy in patients with reduced ejection fraction (systolic) heart failure (HF) across all symptom classes. These agents should also be prescribed in the early post-myocardial infarction setting in those with reduced ejection fraction and either HF symptoms or diabetes. This article explores the pathophysiological role of aldosterone, an endogenous ligand for the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR), and summarizes the clinical data supporting guideline recommendations for these agents in systolic HF. The use of MRAs in novel areas beyond systolic HF ejection is also explored. Finally, the current status of newer agents will be examined.

  18. NK-1 Antagonists and Itch.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja; Luger, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is an important mediator of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in the skin. It targets multiple cells such as keratinocytes, mast cells, and fibroblasts which are involved in the cutaneous generation of pruritus. This suggests that SP is an interesting target for therapy. In fact, in recent case reports and case series, SP antagonists demonstrated a significant antipruritic effect in acute and chronic pruritus such as drug-induced pruritus, paraneoplastic pruritus, prurigo nodularis, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and brachioradial pruritus.

  19. Targeting renal purinergic signalling for the treatment of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kishore, B K; Carlson, N G; Ecelbarger, C M; Kohan, D E; Müller, C E; Nelson, R D; Peti-Peterdi, J; Zhang, Y

    2015-06-01

    Lithium still retains its critical position in the treatment of bipolar disorder by virtue of its ability to prevent suicidal tendencies. However, chronic use of lithium is often limited by the development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a debilitating condition. Lithium-induced NDI is due to resistance of the kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP), leading to polyuria, natriuresis and kaliuresis. Purinergic signalling mediated by extracellular nucleotides (ATP/UTP), acting via P2Y receptors, opposes the action of AVP on renal collecting duct (CD) by decreasing the cellular cAMP and thus AQP2 protein levels. Taking a cue from this phenomenon, we discovered the potential involvement of ATP/UTP-activated P2Y2 receptor in lithium-induced NDI in rats and showed that P2Y2 receptor knockout mice are significantly resistant to Li-induced polyuria, natriuresis and kaliuresis. Extension of these studies revealed that ADP-activated P2Y12 receptor is expressed in the kidney, and its irreversible blockade by the administration of clopidogrel bisulphate (Plavix(®)) ameliorates Li-induced NDI in rodents. Parallel in vitro studies showed that P2Y12 receptor blockade by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 sensitizes CD to the action of AVP. Thus, our studies unravelled the potential beneficial effects of targeting P2Y2 or P2Y12 receptors to counter AVP resistance in lithium-induced NDI. If established in further studies, our findings may pave the way for the development of better and safer methods for the treatment of NDI by bringing a paradigm shift in the approach from the current therapies that predominantly counter the anti-AVP effects to those that enhance the sensitivity of the kidney to AVP action. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Targeting Renal Purinergic Signalling for the Treatment of Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, B. K.; Carlson, N. G.; Ecelbarger, C. M.; Kohan, D. E.; Müller, C. E.; Nelson, R. D.; Peti-Peterdi, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium still retains its critical position in the treatment of bipolar disorder by virtue of its ability to prevent suicidal tendencies. However, chronic use of lithium is often limited by the development nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a debilitating condition. Lithium-induced NDI is due to resistance of the kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP), leading to polyuria, natriuresis and kaliuresis. Purinergic signalling mediated by extracellular nucleotides (ATP/UTP), acting via P2Y receptors, opposes the action of AVP on renal collecting duct (CD) by decreasing the cellular cAMP and thus AQP2 protein levels. Taking a cue from this phenomenon, we discovered the potential involvement of ATP/UTP-activated P2Y2 receptor in lithium-induced NDI in rats, and showed that P2Y2 receptor knockout mice are significantly resistant to Li-induced polyuria, natriuresis and kaliuresis. Extension of these studies revealed that ADP-activated P2Y12 receptor is expressed in the kidney, and its irreversible blockade by the administration of clopidogrel bisulfate (Plavix®) ameliorates Li-induced NDI in rodents. Parallel in vitro studies showed that P2Y12 receptor blockade by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 sensitizes CD to the action of AVP. Thus, our studies unraveled the potential beneficial effects of targeting P2Y2 or P2Y12 receptors to counter AVP resistance in lithium-induced NDI. If established in further studies, our findings may pave the way for the development of better and safer methods for the treatment of NDI by bringing a paradigm shift in the approach from the current therapies that predominantly counter the anti-AVP effects to those that enhance the sensitivity of the kidney to AVP action. PMID:25877068

  1. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Angiotensin-(1-7) Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment and Memory Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Uekawa, Ken; Hasegawa, Yu; Senju, Satoru; Nakagata, Naomi; Ma, Mingjie; Nakagawa, Takashi; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2016-04-23

    This work was performed to test our hypothesis that angiotensin-(1-7) can ameliorate cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular reactivity in 5XFAD mice, a useful model of Alzheimer's disease. 5XFAD mice received intracerebroventricular infusion of (1) vehicle, (2) angiotensin-(1-7), or (3) angiotensin-(1-7)+A779, a specific Mas receptor antagonist, for 4 weeks. Angiotensin-(1-7), through Mas receptor, significantly ameliorated cognitive impairment in 5XFAD mice. As estimated by acetazolamide-induced increase in cerebral blood flow, angiotensin-(1-7), through Mas receptor, enhanced cerebrovascular reactivity in 5XFAD mice. In conclusion, angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis improves cognitive function and cerebrovascular function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Protein restriction and malnutrition in renal disease: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Maroni, B J

    1997-01-01

    The protein and energy requirements of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients are similar to normal subjects and evidence indicates that both nephrotic and nonnephrotic CRF patients can activate normal homeostatic responses allowing them to achieve a neutral nitrogen balance when dietary protein intake is restricted. The benefits of low-protein (and phosphorus) diets (LPDs) include the amelioration of uremia symptoms and some of its metabolic complications and possibly a slowing of the rate of progression of renal failure. When LPDs are prescribed, patients should be monitored to assess dietary compliance and to ensure nutritional adequacy. Recent evidence that the protein intake of patients with progressive CRF decreases when they consume unrestricted diets should not be interpreted as an argument against the use of LPDs. Rather, it is a persuasive argument to restrict dietary protein intake in order to minimize complications of renal failure while maintaining nutritional status.

  3. Impact of chronic renal failure on nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Maroni, B J

    1998-01-01

    Evidence indicates that both nephrotic and nonnephrotic chronic renal failure (CRF) patients can activate normal compensatory responses when dietary protein intake is restricted and that their protein and energy requirements are similar to normal subjects. When properly implemented, low-protein diets are safe and the benefits include the amelioration of uremic symptoms and some of their metabolic complications and possibly a reduction in the rate of progression of renal failure. To ensure dietary adequacy and compliance, patients should be monitored when treated with low-protein diets. Recent evidence that the protein intake of patients with progressive CRF declines when they consume unrestricted diets should not be considered as an argument against the use of low-protein diets. Rather, it is a persuasive argument in favor of restricting dietary protein intake to minimize the complications of renal failure.

  4. Glutamate NMDA receptor antagonists rapidly reverse behavioral and synaptic deficits caused by chronic stress exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nanxin; Liu, Rong-Jian; Dwyer, Jason M.; Banasr, Mounira; Lee, Boyoung; Son, Hyeon; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite widely reported clinical and preclinical studies of rapid antidepressant actions of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists, there has been very little work examining the effects of these drugs in stress models of depression that require chronic administration of antidepressants, or the molecular mechanisms that could account for the rapid responses. Methods We used a rat 21-day chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model to test the rapid actions of NMDA receptor antagonists on depressant-like behavior, neurochemistry, and spine density and synaptic function of prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. Results The results demonstrate that acute treatment with the non-competitive NMDA channel blocker ketamine or the selective NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981 rapidly ameliorates CUS-induced anhedonia and anxiogenic behaviors. We also find that CUS exposure decreases the expression levels of synaptic proteins and spine number and the frequency/amplitude of synaptic currents (EPSCs) in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC, and that these deficits are rapidly reversed by ketamine. Blockade of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein synthesis cascade abolishes both the behavioral and biochemical effects of ketamine. Conclusions The results indicate that the structural and functional deficits resulting from long-term stress exposure, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of depression, are rapidly reversed by NMDA receptor antagonists in an mTOR-dependent manner. PMID:21292242

  5. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...

  6. Primary renal carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Kanodia, K V; Vanikar, A V; Patel, R D; Suthar, K S; Kute, V B; Modi, P R; Trivedi, H L

    2013-09-01

    Primary renal carcinoid tumor is extremely rare and, therefore, its pathogenesis and prognosis is not well known. We report a primary renal carcinoid in a 26-year-old man treated by radical nephrectomy.

  7. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  8. Renal vein thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys. Possible Complications Complications may include: Acute renal failure (especially if thrombosis occurs in a dehydrated child) ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood ... embolus Renal Tumor Review Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: ...

  9. Synthetic peptide antagonists of glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Unson, C G; Andreu, D; Gurzenda, E M; Merrifield, R B

    1987-01-01

    Several glucagon analogs were synthesized in an effort to find derivatives that would bind with high affinity to the glucagon receptor of rat liver membranes but would not activate membrane-bound adenylate cyclase and, therefore, would serve as antagonists of the hormone. Measurements on a series of glucagon/secretin hybrids indicated that replacement of Asp9 in glucagon by Glu9, found in secretin, was the important sequence difference in the N terminus of the two hormones. Further deletion of His1 and introduction of a C-terminal amide resulted in des-His1-[Glu9]glucagon amide, which had a 40% binding affinity relative to that of native glucagon but caused no detectable adenylate cyclase activation in the rat liver membrane. This antagonist completely inhibited the effect of a concentration of glucagon that alone gave a full agonist response. It had an inhibition index of 12. The pA2 was 7.2. An attempt was made to relate conformation with receptor binding. The peptides were synthesized by solid-phase methods and purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on C18-silica columns. PMID:3035568

  10. Vitamin K antagonists: beyond bleeding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Thilo; Floege, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is the most widely used oral anticoagulant in clinical use today. Indications range from prosthetic valve replacement to recurrent thromboembolic events due to antiphospholipid syndrome. In hemodialysis (HD) patients, warfarin use is even more frequent than in the nonrenal population due to increased cardiovascular comorbidities. The use of warfarin in dialysis patients with atrial fibrillation requires particular caution because side effects may outweigh the assumed benefit of reduced stroke rates. Besides increased bleeding risk, coumarins exert side effects which are not in the focus of clinical routine, yet they deserve special consideration in dialysis patients and should influence the decision of whether or not to prescribe vitamin K antagonists in cases lacking clear guidelines. Issues to be taken into consideration in HD patients are the induction or acceleration of cardiovascular calcifications, a 10-fold increased risk of calciphylaxis and problems related to maintaining a target INR range. New anticoagulants like direct thrombin inhibitors are promising but have not yet been approved for ESRD patients. Here, we summarize the nontraditional side effects of coumarins and give recommendations about the use of vitamin K antagonists in ESRD patients.

  11. Rolofylline, an adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Massie, Barry M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R; Cotter, Gad; Weatherley, Beth Davison; Cleland, John G F; Givertz, Michael M; Voors, Adriaan; DeLucca, Paul; Mansoor, George A; Salerno, Christina M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Dittrich, Howard C

    2010-10-07

    Worsening renal function, which is associated with adverse outcomes, often develops in patients with acute heart failure. Experimental and clinical studies suggest that counterregulatory responses mediated by adenosine may be involved. We tested the hypothesis that the use of rolofylline, an adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, would improve dyspnea, reduce the risk of worsening renal function, and lead to a more favorable clinical course in patients with acute heart failure. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients hospitalized for acute heart failure with impaired renal function. Within 24 hours after presentation, 2033 patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive daily intravenous rolofylline (30 mg) or placebo for up to 3 days. The primary end point was treatment success, treatment failure, or no change in the patient's clinical condition; this end point was defined according to survival, heart-failure status, and changes in renal function. Secondary end points were the post-treatment development of persistent renal impairment and the 60-day rate of death or readmission for cardiovascular or renal causes. Rolofylline, as compared with placebo, did not provide a benefit with respect to the primary end point (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.35). Persistent renal impairment developed in 15.0% of patients in the rolofylline group and in 13.7% of patients in the placebo group (P=0.44). By 60 days, death or readmission for cardiovascular or renal causes had occurred in similar proportions of patients assigned to rolofylline and placebo (30.7% and 31.9%, respectively; P=0.86). Adverse-event rates were similar overall; however, only patients in the rolofylline group had seizures, a known potential adverse effect of A1-receptor antagonists. Rolofylline did not have a favorable effect with respect to the primary clinical composite end point, nor did it improve renal function or 60-day

  12. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tao; Guo, Jin-he; Teng, Gao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of metabolic diseases of multiple etiologies. Although great progress has been made, researchers are still working on the pathogenesis of T2DM and how to best use the treatments available. Aside from several novel pharmacological approaches, catheter-based sympathetic renal denervation (RDN) has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. In this article, we will summarize herein the role sympathetic activation plays in the progression of T2DM and review the recent clinical RDN experience in glucose metabolism. We performed systematic review in online databases, including PubMed, EmBase, and Web of Science, from inception until 2015. Studies were included if a statistical relationship was investigated between RDN and T2DM. The quality of each included study was assessed by Newcastle–Ottawa scale score. To synthesize these studies, a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model was applied as appropriate. Then, we calculated heterogeneity, performed sensitivity analysis, tested publication bias, and did meta-regression analysis. Finally, we identified 4 eligible articles. In most studies, RDN achieved via novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency energy has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. But the DREAMS-Study showed that RDN did not change median insulin sensitivity nor systemic sympathetic activity. Firstly, the current published studies lacked a proper control group, along with the sample capacity was small. Also, data obtained in the subgroups of diabetic patients were not separately analyzed and the follow-up period was very short. In addition, a reduction in blood pressure accounts for the improvements in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance cannot be excluded. If the favorable result of better glucose metabolism is confirmed in large-scale, randomized studies

  13. Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the existing literature, the evidence regarding the effects of certain oils on the amelioration of hyperglycemia contains ambiguities and contradictions; and with regard to other oils, the quantity of existing studies is scant. Objective To assess the influence of sesame, garden rocket, organic olive, thyme, fenugreek, hazelnut, and cod liver oil on serum glucose, liver function, and kidney functions. Methods Male albino rats were injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW). The duration of the experiment was 28 days. Maximum recovery of occurred wasting attributable to diabetes was found in the sesame and cod liver groups. Results With respect to ameliorating and/or preventing the side effects of diabetes on liver function, this experiment showed that thyme, organic olive, cod liver, and fenugreek oils were efficacious. Turning to serum lipid profile, organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented the changes of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. Vegetable and cod liver oil diets resulted in a marked amelioration of renal dysfunction, but they were unable to prevent this side effect. Similar, oil diets were unable to mask the increase in serum glucose due to diabetes mellitus. Conclusion On the basis of these findings, it could be recommended that when attempting oil diet treatment for the side effects of diabetes, a blend of the various specific treatments which showed best results should be employed in order to achieve improvement with respect to all parameters; and in part, this is because a synergism between the various treatments can be expected. PMID:23497544

  14. Angiotensin receptors modulate the renal hemodynamic effects of nitric oxide in conscious newborn lambs

    PubMed Central

    Vinturache, Angela E.; Smith, Francine G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to elucidate the roles of both angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors – type 1 (AT1Rs) and type 2 (AT2Rs) – separately and together in influencing hemodynamic effects of endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) during postnatal development. In conscious, chronically instrumented lambs aged ~1 week (8 ± 1 days, N = 8) and ~6 weeks (41 ± 2 days, N = 8), systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP) and venous pressure (MVP), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were measured in response to the l‐arginine analog, l‐NAME after pretreatment with either the AT1R antagonist, ZD 7155, the AT2R antagonist, PD 123319, or both antagonists. The increase in SAP, DAP, and MAP by l‐NAME was not altered by either ATR antagonist in either age group. The increase in RBF after l‐NAME was, however, altered by both ATR antagonists in an age‐dependent manner, which was mediated predominantly through AT2Rs in newborn lambs. These findings reveal that there is an age‐dependent interaction between the renin–angiotensin (RAS) and the NO pathway in regulating renal but not systemic hemodynamics through both ATRs, whereas AT2Rs appear to be important in the renal hemodynamic effects of NO early in life. PMID:24872358

  15. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C L; Lucas, M J

    2001-09-01

    Women with renal disease who conceive and continue a pregnancy are at significant risk for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Risk is inversely related to the degree of renal insufficiency. Pregnancy-induced changes in the urinary tract can temporarily increase renal function compromise, such as nephrosis, but most often results in no net increase in dysfunction. Common complications of pregnancy--such as hypertension and hypovolemia--can be associated with acute renal injury or aggravation of pre-existing disease.

  16. Pharmacological characterization of renal vascular dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Imbs, J L

    1980-01-01

    We present an in vitro method for studying the renal effects of dopamine in the isolated rat kidney. The organ is perfused in an open circuit and can be maintained satisfactorily for up to 180 min. The responses to dopamine were studied in the presence of phenoxybenzamine (10(-5) M) and sotalol (10(-5) M) while stable renal vasoconstriction was maintained by perfusion with prostaglandine F2 alpha. Dopamine induced dose-dependent renal vasodilation with an ED50 of 2.53 X 10(-6) moles/liter, which was not modified by reserpine pretreatment. (+) Butaclamol but not (-) butaclamol shifted the dopamine dose-response curve to the right in a parallel fashion, indicating competitive antagonism. Haloperidol and sulpiride at concentrations without intrinsic effect on vascular resistance also acted as competitive inhibitors for dopamine. Calculation of empirical pA2 values yielded the following relative potencies for these antagonists: (+) butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than sulpiride. The renal vascular dopamine receptors are tentatively classified as being of the D1 type.

  17. [Idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Ait Bolbarod, A; el Mrini, M; Kadiri, R; Benjelloun, S

    1996-06-01

    The authors report a case of idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis was established angiographically in a 24 year old man presenting gross hematuria. Embolization of the fistula was performed. Efficiency of this treatment was appreciated clinically and by duplex renal ultrasonography. The characteristics of renal arteriovenous fistulas are reviewed.

  18. Cardio-renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome. PMID:27635229

  19. [Renal leiomyoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Guessous, H; Rabii, R; Benjelloun, M; Benlemlih, A; Skali, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of renal leiomyoma observed in a 56-year-old man. This cyst presented in the from of loin pain. Computed tomography revealed a homogeneous renal tumor. Treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy. Histological examination of the specimen showed benign renal leiomyoma.

  20. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the urotensin II receptor antagonist palosuran in macroalbuminuric, diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sidharta, Patricia N; Wagner, Frank D; Bohnemeier, Holger; Jungnik, Arvid; Halabi, Atef; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Chadha-Boreham, Harbajan; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2006-09-01

    In patients with renal disease increased urotensin II plasma levels have been observed. We have investigated whether palosuran, a potent, selective, and competitive antagonist of the urotensin II receptor, has effects in patients who are prone to the development of renal disease. Macroalbuminuric, diabetic patients, categorized by renal function, were treated with oral doses of 125 mg palosuran twice daily for 13.5 days in addition to treatment with either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. The 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate was determined twice at baseline and after 13.5 days of treatment. Plasma concentrations of palosuran were determined for 12 hours after the first and last drug intake. Renal hemodynamics was measured before and after 12.5 days of treatment. Tolerability and safety parameters were monitored. An overall clinically significant reduction of 24.3% (geometric mean) (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 45.0) in the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate was observed (P = .014). No effect was observed on renal hemodynamic parameters. Palosuran was rapidly absorbed with maximum plasma concentrations at 1 hour after drug administration. The accumulation factor was 1.7 (geometric mean) (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.1). Palosuran was well tolerated. The good tolerability profile and the decrease in the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate may benefit diabetic patients with renal failure with regard to their disease progression. Larger placebo-controlled trials in this patient population are needed to investigate whether urotensin II receptor antagonists, given as monotherapy or combination therapy, may improve the current treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Cholinergic antagonists in a solitary wasp venom.

    PubMed

    Piek, T; Mantel, P

    1986-01-01

    The venom of the solitary wasp Philanthus triangulum contains a cholinergic antagonist of the nicotinic receptor of the rectus abdominis muscle of the frog, Xenopus laevis. The venom of African P. triangulum contains two different cholinergic factors, a competitive and a non-competitive antagonist. The venom of the European P. triangulum may not contain a competitive antagonist of the nicotinic receptor of X. laevis, but only a very strong non-competitive antagonist. The possible non-synonymity of both groups of P. triangulum is discussed.

  2. Short-term Safety and Efficiency of Cryoablation for Renal Sympathetic Denervation in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Meng; Shen, Li; Wu, Yi-Zhe; Yao, Zhi-Feng; Yin, Jia-Sheng; Chen, Jia-Hui; Jia, Jian-Guo; Qiao, Ling-Juan; Liu, Peng; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal sympathetic nerves are involved in the reflective activation of the sympathetic nervous system in circulatory control. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) ameliorated treatment-resistant hypertension safely, but 10%–20% of treated patients are nonresponders to radiofrequency denervation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficiency of cryoablation for sympathetic denervation in a swine model and to explore a new way of RDN. Methods: Seven swines randomly assigned to two groups: Renal cryoablation (CR) group and control group. The control group underwent renal angiogram only. The CR group underwent renal angiogram plus bilateral renal cryoablation. Renal angiograms via femoral were performed before denervation, after denervation and prior to the sacrifice to access the diameter of renal arterial and the pressure of aorta abdominalis. Euthanasia of the swine was performed on 28-day to access norepinephrine (NE) changes of the renal cortex and the changes of renal nerves. Results: Cryoablation did not induce severe complications at any time point. There was no significant change in diameter of renal artery. CR reduced systolic blood pressure (BP) from 145.50 ± 9.95 mmHg at baseline to 119.00 ± 14.09 mmHg. There was a slight but insignificant decrease in diastolic BP. The main nerve changes at 28-day consisted of necrosis with perineurial fibrosis at the site of CR exposure in conjunction with the nerve vacuolation. Compared with the control group, renal tissue NE of CR group decreased by 89.85%. Conclusions: Percutaneous catheter-based cryoablation of the renal artery is safe. CR could effectively reduce NE storing in the renal cortex, and the efficiency could be maintained 28-day at least. PMID:25758274

  3. The use of melanocortin antagonists in cachexia of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Jarrad M; Marks, Daniel L

    2005-10-01

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome that frequently develops in the setting of chronic diseases including cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AIDS, renal failure and liver failure. Loss of lean body mass is believed to be a significant factor contributing to morbidity and mortality in these chronic diseases; however, there are currently no treatments available that have proven to be effective in reversing the progressive loss of lean body mass in cachectic patients. Evidence from animal models suggests a compelling link between inflammation, the central melanocortin system and cachexia. This review summarises the current evidence supporting the role of the melanocortin 4 (MC4) receptor subtype in cachexia, and discusses the development and use of small-molecule MC4 antagonists, which have proved to be effective in preventing the loss of lean body mass in animal models of cachexia. MC4 antagonists represent an attractive therapeutic approach for cachexia that may attenuate the loss of lean body mass in cachectic patients.

  4. Safety profile of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: Spironolactone and eplerenone.

    PubMed

    Lainscak, Mitja; Pelliccia, Francesco; Rosano, Giuseppe; Vitale, Cristiana; Schiariti, Michele; Greco, Cesare; Speziale, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Spironolactone was first developed over 50 years ago as a potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with undesirable side effects; it was followed a decade ago by eplerenone, which is less potent but much more mineralocorticoid receptor-specific. From a marginal role as a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone has been shown to be an extraordinarily effective adjunctive agent in the treatment of progressive heart failure. Also, spironolactone is safe and protective in arterial hypertension, particularly in patients with so-called resistant hypertension. Eplerenone is the second oral aldosterone antagonist available for the treatment of arterial hypertension and heart failure. Treatment with eplerenone has been associated with decreased blood pressure and improved survival for patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Due to the selectivity of eplerenone for the aldosterone receptor, severe adverse effects such as gynecomastia and vaginal bleeding seem to be less likely in patients who take eplerenone than in those who take spironolactone. The most common and potentially dangerous side effect of spironolactone--hyperkalemia--is also observed with eplerenone but the findings from clinical trials do not indicate more hyperkalemia induced drug withdrawals. Treatment with eplerenone should be initiated at a dosage of 25mg once daily and titrated to a target dosage of 50mg once daily preferably within 4 weeks. Serum potassium levels and renal function should be assessed prior to initiating eplerenone therapy, and periodic monitoring is recommended, especially in patients at high risk of developing hyperkalemia.

  5. Inhibition of antipyrine metabolism by beta-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bax, N D; Lennard, M S; Tucker, G T

    1981-12-01

    1 The effects of two beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (propranolol and metoprolol), and of the beta-adrenoceptor agonist, terbutaline, on the plasma kinetics of antipyrine were studied in five normal subjects. In addition, the influence of propranolol on the clearance of antipyrine to three of its major metabolites was investigated. 2 At the same level of beta-adrenoceptor blockade, assessed by lowering of exercise tachycardia, propranolol decreased antipyrine clearance by 37.3 +/- 9.9 s.d. % (P less than 0.001) and metoprolol decreased it by 18.0 +/- 4.7 s.d. % (P less than 0.01). Terbutaline had no effect on antipyrine clearance. The volume of distribution of antipyrine was unchanged following treatment with all three drugs. 3 Only the metabolic clearance of antipyrine to its 3-hydroxymethyl product was impaired to a statistically significant degree by propranolol. However, four of the five subjects also showed impaired clearance to 4-hydroxyantipyrine and three of the five to norantipyrine after propranolol treatment. In four of the five subjects propranolol lowered the renal clearance of antipyrine. 4 Inhibition of the metabolism of antipyrine by beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be related to their lipid-solubility and extent of metabolism and is independent of their effect on beta-adrenoreceptors.

  6. Ameliorative effects of arctiin from Arctium lappa on experimental glomerulonephritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Du, Jian; Ye, Qi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu-Guang

    2009-11-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) remains the most common cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome in the world and up to 40% of untreated patients will progress to end-stage renal disease. Although the treatment of MGN with immunosuppressants or steroid hormones can attenuate the deterioration of renal function, numerous treatment-related complications have also been established. In this study, the ameliorative effects of arctiin, a natural compound isolated from the fruits of Arctium lappa, on rat glomerulonephritis induced by cationic bovine serum albumin (cBSA) were determined. After oral administration of arctiin (30, 60, 120 mg/kgd) for three weeks, the levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and 24-h urine protein content markedly decreased, while endogenous creatinine clearance rate (ECcr) significantly increased. The parameters of renal lesion, hypercellularity, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), fibrinoid necrosis, focal and segmental proliferation and interstitial infiltration, were reversed. In addition, we observed that arctiin evidently reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity, and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These findings suggest that the ameliorative effects of arctiin on glomerulonephritis is carried out mainly by suppression of NF-kappaB activation and nuclear translocation and the decreases in the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, while SOD is involved in the inhibitory pathway of NF-kappaB activation. Arctiin has favorable potency for the development of an inhibitory agent of NF-kappaB and further application to clinical treatment of glomerulonephritis, though clinical studies are required.

  7. Renal artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    González, J; Esteban, M; Andrés, G; Linares, E; Martínez-Salamanca, J I

    2014-01-01

    A renal artery aneurysm is defined as a dilated segment of renal artery that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal renal artery. Although rare, the diagnosis and incidence of this entity have been steadily increasing due to the routine use of cross-sectional imaging. In certain cases, renal artery aneurysms may be clinically important and potentially lethal. However, knowledge of their occurrence, their natural history, and their prognosis with or without treatment is still limited. This article aims to review the recent literature concerning renal artery aneurysms, with special consideration given to physiopathology, indications for treatment, different technical options, post-procedure complications and treatment outcomes.

  8. A new alcohol antagonist: Phaclofen

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, A.M. ); Harris, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The ability of the GABA{sub B} receptor antagonist, phaclofen to alter behavioral effects of ethanol was evaluated by loss of righting reflex (sleep time), motor incoordination (bar holding), spontaneous locomotion (open field activity) and hypothermia. Pretreatment with phaclofen significantly decreased the effects of ethanol on motor incoordination, locomotor activity and hypothermia. However, phaclofen had no effect on either pentobarbital- or diazepam-induced motor incoordination. Phaclofen slightly increased the ED{sub 50} for loss of the righting reflex but did not alter either the duration of reflex loss produced by ethanol or blood ethanol levels at awakening. Our results suggest phaclofen is rapidly inactivated resulting in difficulty in observing antagonism of long duration ethanol effects. These findings suggest that the GABA{sub B} system may play a role in mediating several important actions of ethanol.

  9. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Melani, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of COPD pharmacological treatment. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a major class of inhaled bronchodilators. Some LAMA/device systems with different characteristics and dosing schedules are currently approved for maintenance therapy of COPD and a range of other products are being developed. They improve lung function and patient-reported outcomes and reduce acute bronchial exacerbations with good safety. LAMAs are used either alone or associated with long-acting β₂-agonists, eventually in fixed dose combinations. Long-acting β₂-agonist/LAMA combinations assure additional benefits over the individual components alone. The reader will obtain a view of the safety and efficacy of the different LAMA/device systems in COPD patients.

  10. The renoprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in experimental chronic renal failure is not dependent on enhanced kinin activity.

    PubMed

    Nabokov, A; Amann, K; Gassmann, P; Schwarz, U; Orth, S R; Ritz, E

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to ameliorate the progression of glomerulosclerosis both in experimental models of uraemia and in patients with renal failure. It has not been documented, however, whether this is due to a decrease in angiotensin II generation or is a consequence of elevated local level of bradykinin. Morphometric investigation of renal tissue was performed in 5/6 nephrectomized (SNx) rats, i.e. untreated or treated with the ACE inhibitor ramipril (SNx-RAM), the B2 kinin receptor antagonist HOE 140 (SNx-HOE), or a combination of both (SNx-RAM + HOE) over 8 weeks. A further group of SNx received delayed treatment with ramipril from week 5 onward (SNx-RAMD). In addition, a sham-operated (SHAM) control group was studied. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in both SNx-RAM and SNx-RAM + HOE groups compared to (untreated) SNx. The glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) was substantially higher in the (untreated) SNx group (0.24 +/- 0.04) vs SHAM (0.02 +/- 0.01). A significantly higher GSI was found in the SNx-HOE group (0.45 +/- 0.08) as compared to (untreated) SNx. However, in the SNx-RAM, SNx-RAM + HOE, and SNx-RAMD groups, the GSI was lowered to a similar extent (0.1 +/- 0.02, 0.09 +/- 0.02, and 0.07 +/- 0.01 respectively). In addition, a concomitant attenuation of tubulointerstitial damage was noted in all the above groups. Increased kinin activity does not appear to play a major role in the renoprotective effect of ACE inhibitors in the remnant kidney model.

  11. Trichosanthes dioica fruit ameliorates experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats through the alleviation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-08-01

    The present work was focused to evaluate the ameliorative property of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruit (AQ T. dioica fruit) against arsenic-induced toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. AQ T. dioica fruit was administered orally to rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 20 consecutive days prior to oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for the evaluation of body weights, organ weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile, and hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with AQ T. dioica fruit at both doses markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, hematological profiles, and serum biochemical profile in arsenic-treated animals. Further, AQ T. dioica fruit pretreatment significantly modulated all the aforesaid hepatic and renal biochemical perturbations and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic-intoxicated rats. Therefore, from the present findings, it can be concluded that T. dioica fruit possessed remarkable value in amelioration of arsenic-induced hepatic and renal toxicity, mediated by alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms in male albino rats.

  12. Client Perceptions of Two Antagonist Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Thomas A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a questionnaire administered to participants in an antagonist drug outpatient clinic and an antagonist drug work-release program to obtain awareness of acceptance of the program participants. Naltrexone patients recommended an alternative method of administering the drug and changing the money system to award deserving inmates…

  13. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Nathalia O; de Oliveira, Thiago S; Naves, Lara M; Filgueira, Fernando P; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Schoorlemmer, Gerard H M; de Castro, Carlos H; Freiria-Oliveira, André H; Xavier, Carlos H; Colugnati, Diego B; Rosa, Daniel A; Blanch, Graziela T; Borges, Clayton L; Soares, Célia M A; Reis, Angela A S; Cravo, Sergio L; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2014-01-01

    Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT), but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g) were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1), i.v.). A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF). Renal vascular conductance (RVC) was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6), OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1), i.v.) induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR) reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1) b.wt., i.v.) was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6), hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1) • h(-1), i.v.; n = 7) and renal denervation (RX) reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7) completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively), whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  14. A Clinical Study on Administration of Opioid Antagonists in Terminal Cancer Patients: 7 Patients Receiving Opioid Antagonists Following Opioids among 2443 Terminal Cancer Patients Receiving Opioids.

    PubMed

    Uekuzu, Yoshihiro; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Futamura, Akihiko; Ito, Akihiro; Mori, Naoharu; Murai, Miyo; Ohara, Hiroshi; Awa, Hiroko; Chihara, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    There have been few detailed reports on respiratory depression due to overdoses of opioids in terminal cancer patients. We investigated the situation of treatment with opioid antagonists for respiratory depression that occurred after administration of opioid at optimal doses in terminal cancer patients, to clarify pathological changes as well as causative factors. In 2443 terminal cancer patients receiving opioids, 7 patients (0.3%) received opioid antagonists: 6, morphine (hydrochloride, 5; sulfate, 1); 1, oxycodone. The median dosage of opioids was 13.3 mg/d, as converted to morphine injection. Respiratory depression occurred on this daily dose in 4 patients and after changed dose and route in 3 patients. Opioids were given through the vein in 6 patients and by the enteral route in 1 patient. Concomitant drugs included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in 3 patients and zoledronic acid in 2 patients. In morphine-receiving patients, renal functions were significantly worsened at the time of administration of an opioid antagonist than the day before the start of opioid administration. These findings indicate that the proper use of opioids was safe and acceptable in almost all terminal cancer patients. In rare cases, however, a risk toward respiratory depression onset is indicated because morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide become relatively excessive owing to systemic debility due to disease progression, especially respiratory and renal dysfunctions. At the onset of respiratory depression, appropriate administration of an opioid antagonist mitigated the symptoms. Thereafter, opioid switching or continuous administration at reduced dosages of the same opioids prevented the occurrence of serious adverse events.

  15. Açai berry extract attenuates glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Unis, Amina

    2015-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most common problems encountered in hospitalized critically ill patients. In recent years great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of ARF. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of Açai berry extract (ABE) on glycerol-induced ARF in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral ABE in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days before or 7 days after induction of ARF by a single intramuscular glycerol injection reported a significant improvement in kidney functions tests [decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] when compared to the ARF model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers [renal catalase (CAT), renal reduced glutathione (GSH)] and renal histopathological changes in the ABE-treated groups when compared to ARF model groups. The most significant improvement was reported in the groups where ABE was administered in a dose 200 mg/kg/day. These results indicate that ABE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in ARF.

  16. [Ameliorative effects on retinal disorder in diabetic SHRSP (stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat)].

    PubMed

    Nagisa, Yasutaka; Shintani, Asae; Nakagawa, Shizue

    2002-10-01

    The results of the EUCLID highlighted the importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of candesartan cilexetil(TCV-116), a potent angiotensin II receptor antagonist, in ameliorating retinal disorders in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHRSP) with storeptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetes. Retinal VEGF mRNA expression was significantly higher and the latencies of oscillatory potentials were significantly elongated in STZ-treated SHRSP compared with a non-treated SHRSP group matched for age. Treatment with TCV-116(3 mg/kg) significantly diminished retinal VEGF mRNA expression and the latencies of oscillatory potentials, but had no effect on plasma glucose concentrations. These results suggest that TCV-116 is effective in preventing the development of diabetic retinopathy already in the early stages.

  17. Effect of chronic antioxidant therapy with superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, tempol, on progression of renal disease in rats with renal mass reduction.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Yasmir; Ferrebuz, Atilio; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in the progression of renal damage and antioxidants are potentially useful therapeutic options in chronic renal disease. We investigated if treatment with tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic that has beneficial effects in several experimental models of hypertension and acute kidney injury, ameliorates the chronic renal damage resulting in renal mass reduction. Rats with surgical 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly assigned to receive no treatment (CRF group, n = 10) or tempol, 1 mmol/l in the drinking water (CRF-tempol group, n = 10). Sham-operated rats (n = 10) served as controls. All rats were followed for 12 weeks post-nephrectomy. Tempol treatment reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and halved the number of superoxide-positive cells in the remnant kidney; however, the number of hydrogen peroxide-positive cells increased and the overall renal oxidative stress (MDA and nitrotyrosine abundance) and inflammation (interstitial p65 NF-kappaB, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration) were unchanged. Proteinuria, renal function and glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in the remnant kidney were similar in the CRF and CRF-tempol groups. In conclusion, tempol administration, at the dose used in these studies, decreased plasma MDA and heightened superoxide dismutation in the kidney, but was incapable of reducing renal oxidative stress or improving renal function or structure in the remnant kidney model.

  18. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage protein enhances intraluminal debris clearance and ameliorates acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoko; Kitada, Kento; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Takai, Ryosuke; Zhang, Xizhong; Tsugawa, Yoji; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Mori, Mayumi; Yoshihara, Yasunori; Doi, Kent; Maehara, Natsumi; Kusunoki, Shunsuke; Takahata, Akiko; Noiri, Eisei; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yahagi, Naoki; Nishiyama, Akira; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Takano, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with prolonged hospitalization and high mortality, and it predisposes individuals to chronic kidney disease. To date, no effective AKI treatments have been established. Here we show that the apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) protein on intraluminal debris interacts with kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and promotes recovery from AKI. During AKI, the concentration of AIM increases in the urine, and AIM accumulates on necrotic cell debris within the kidney proximal tubules. The AIM present in this cellular debris binds to KIM-1, which is expressed on injured tubular epithelial cells, and enhances the phagocytic removal of the debris by the epithelial cells, thus contributing to kidney tissue repair. When subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI, AIM-deficient mice exhibited abrogated debris clearance and persistent renal inflammation, resulting in higher mortality than wild-type (WT) mice due to progressive renal dysfunction. Treatment of mice with IR-induced AKI using recombinant AIM resulted in the removal of the debris, thereby ameliorating renal pathology. We observed this effect in both AIM-deficient and WT mice, but not in KIM-1-deficient mice. Our findings provide a basis for the development of potentially novel therapies for AKI.

  19. Ameliorative Effect of Chrysin on Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H.; Adham, Sirin A.; Al Za’abi, Mohammed; Waly, Mostafa I.; Yasin, Javed; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Schupp, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chrysin (5, 7- dihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid with several pharmacological properties that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. in this work, we investigated some effects of three graded oral doses of chrysin (10, 50 and 250 mg/kg) on kidney structure and function in rats with experimental chronic renal disease (CKD) induced by adenine (0.25% w/w in feed for 35 days), which is known to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. Using several indices in plasma, urine and kidney homogenates, adenine was found to impair kidney function as it lowered creatinine clearance and increased plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity. Furthermore, it raised plasma concentrations of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate, some inflammatory cytokines and urinary albumin concentration. Renal morphology was severely damaged and histopathological markers of inflammation and fibrosis were especially increased. In renal homogenates, antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were all adversely affected. Most of these adenine – induced actions were moderately and dose -dependently mitigated by chrysin, especially at the highest dose. Chrysin did not cause any overt adverse effect on the treated rats. The results suggest that different doses of chrysin produce variable salutary effects against adenine-induced CKD in rats, and that, pending further pharmacological and toxicological studies, its usability as a possible ameliorative agent in human CKD should be considered. PMID:25909514

  20. Ameliorative effect of chrysin on adenine-induced chronic kidney disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Adham, Sirin A; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Waly, Mostafa I; Yasin, Javed; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Schupp, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chrysin (5, 7- dihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid with several pharmacological properties that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. in this work, we investigated some effects of three graded oral doses of chrysin (10, 50 and 250 mg/kg) on kidney structure and function in rats with experimental chronic renal disease (CKD) induced by adenine (0.25% w/w in feed for 35 days), which is known to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. Using several indices in plasma, urine and kidney homogenates, adenine was found to impair kidney function as it lowered creatinine clearance and increased plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity. Furthermore, it raised plasma concentrations of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate, some inflammatory cytokines and urinary albumin concentration. Renal morphology was severely damaged and histopathological markers of inflammation and fibrosis were especially increased. In renal homogenates, antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were all adversely affected. Most of these adenine - induced actions were moderately and dose -dependently mitigated by chrysin, especially at the highest dose. Chrysin did not cause any overt adverse effect on the treated rats. The results suggest that different doses of chrysin produce variable salutary effects against adenine-induced CKD in rats, and that, pending further pharmacological and toxicological studies, its usability as a possible ameliorative agent in human CKD should be considered.

  1. Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson’s disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

  2. Past, present and future of A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E; Franco, Rafael

    2011-12-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)R) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson's disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D₂ and adenosine A(2A) receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A(2A)R antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson's patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A(2A)R antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized antiparkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic that is currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D₂ receptors (D₂Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A(2A) adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A(2A) receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs.

  3. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  4. Renal scintiscanning. A review

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E. Rhys

    1970-01-01

    Renal scintiscanning is a simple investigation that does not require special preparation and is well tolerated by patients. Radiopharmaceuticals used in linear scanning are accumulated in the renal cortex. This accumulation is diminished: (a) when the cortex is destroyed, e.g. by pyelonephritis, injury, etc.; and (b) when the amount available to the cortex is reduced, e.g. by ischaemia. The scintigram depicts the kidneys unimpeded by bowel contents, gives a qualitative assessment of renal function and shows the distribution of zones of normal function. Recent technical improvements show great promise in deriving a quantitative measure of renal function in some circumstances. The location of normally functioning cortex is often important in the management of renal diseases and the value of scintiscanning is then considerable. It is occasionally useful in planning surgery. The anatomy of the renal collecting system can be shown only by urography. High dose techniques achieve this even in the face of renal failure, and scintiscanning has few indications in investigating lesions that distort the renal anatomy, e.g. tumours and cysts. Renal scintiscanning is a very valuable additional method to urography, arteriography and renography in investigation of renal disorders. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4905447

  5. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1–2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50–60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion’s pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  6. C-peptide ameliorates kidney injury following hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Chima, Ranjit S; Maltese, Giuseppe; Lamontagne, Timberly; Piraino, Giovanna; Denenberg, Alvin; O'Connor, Michael; Zingarelli, Basilia

    2011-05-01

    Reperfusion injury following hemorrhagic shock is accompanied by the development of a systemic inflammatory state that may lead to organ failure. Insulin connecting peptide (C-peptide) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in sepsis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and to ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic animals. Hence, we investigated the effect of C-peptide on kidney injury after hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that C-peptide would exert renoprotective effects by blunting inflammation. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in male rats (3-4 months old) by withdrawing blood from the femoral artery to a mean arterial pressure of 50 mmHg. Animals were kept in shock for 3 h, at which time they were rapidly resuscitated by returning their shed blood. At the time of resuscitation and every hour thereafter, one group of animals received C-peptide (280 nmol/kg), whereas another group received vehicle. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in significant rise in plasma levels of creatinine and elevated kidney neutrophil infiltration as evaluated by myeloperoxidase activity in vehicle-treated rats in comparison with sham rats, thus suggesting kidney injury. Treatment with C-peptide significantly attenuated the rise in creatinine and kidney myeloperoxidase activity when compared with vehicle group. At a molecular level, these effects of C-peptide were associated with reduced expression of the c-Fos subunit and reduced activation of the proinflammatory kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and subsequently reduced DNA binding of activator protein 1 in the kidney. Thus, our data suggest that C-peptide may exert renoprotective effects after hemorrhagic shock by modulating activator protein 1 signaling.

  7. Ameliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain by betahistine: Mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-naïve rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPKα (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase α) pathways, and ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidaemia through modulation of AMPKα-SREBP-1-PPARα-dependent pathways (SREBP-1: Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) in the liver. Although reduced locomotor activity was observed from antipsychotic treatment in rats, betahistine did not affect locomotor activity. Importantly, betahistine co-treatment did not influence the effects of antipsychotics on serotonergic receptors in the key brain regions for antipsychotic therapeutic efficacy. However, betahistine co-treatment reverses the upregulated dopamine D2 binding caused by chroni