Science.gov

Sample records for antecedent pta factor

  1. Interactions among Hageman factor (HG, Factor XII), plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, Factor XI), plasma prekallikrein (PK, Fletcher factor) and high molecular weight kininogen (HMW-K, Fitzgerald factor) in blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Ratnoff, O D

    1979-01-01

    Studies of plasmas from individuals with Hageman trait (factor XII deficiency), plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) deficiency, Fletcher trait (plasma prekallikrein deficiency) and Fitzgerald trait (high molecular weight-kininogen deficiency) have revealed the importance of these proteins in blood coagulation. The interactions among them, however, are not fully elucidated. We have studied these reactions by two different approaches. (1) In a purified system, high molecular weight kininogen was absolutely required for activation of PTA by HF and ellagic acid (EA). The yield of activated PTA was proportional to the amount of HF, HMW-K, and PTA in the mixtures, suggesting that these three proteins may form a complex in the presence of EA. (2) In experiments with whole plasma, we took advantage of the adsorption of EA to Sephadex gels. When normal plasma or plasma deficient in HF, PK, HMW-K or PTA was exposed to Sephadex-EA and was separated by centrifugation, each supernatant plasma except that deficient in HF shortened the prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT) of HF-deficient plasma. Plasma simultaneously depleted of HMW-K, PK and PTA also shortened the PTT of HF-deficient plasma and of plasma depleted of HF and PK, but had virtually no procoagulant effect upon the PTT of plasma depleted of HF and MHW-K. Thus, exposure of HF in plasma to Sephadex-EA appeared to generate a clot-promoting form of HF in the absence of other clotting factors, but its expression required the presence of HMW-K.

  2. PTA of Infrapopliteal Arteries: Long-term Clinical Follow-up and Analysis of Factors Influencing Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Peregrin, Jan H. Koznar, Boris; Kovac, Josef; Lastovickova, Jarmila; Novotny, Jiri; Vedlich, Daniel; Skibova, Jelena

    2010-08-15

    This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLI who underwent infrapopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The main goal was to evaluate clinical and morphological factors that influence the clinical outcome of PTA in long-term follow-up. A total of 1,445 PTA procedures were performed in 1,268 patients. Main indications for PTA included gangrene, nonhealing ulcers, or rest pain. The mean number of treated arteries was 1.77 artery/limb, and the majority of lesions were type TASC D. The technical success rate of PTA was 89% of intended-to-treat arteries. The main criterion of clinical success was functional limb salvage (LS). One-year follow-up involved 1,069 limbs. Primary and secondary 1-year LS rates were 76.1 and 84.4%, respectively. The effect of clinical and morphological parameters on the 1-year LS was that the only associated disease with an adverse effect on LS rate was DM combined with dialysis. Regarding limb preprocedural status, gangrene was clearly a negative predictor. The most important factor affecting LS was the number of patent arteries post-PTA: patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 patent arteries had 1-year primary LS rates of 56.4, 73.1, 80.4, and 83%, respectively. Long-term follow-up of LS rates demonstrated secondary LS rates of 84.4, 78.8, and 73.3% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Every effort should be made to perform PTA for as many arteries as possible, even if TASC D type, to improve clinical outcome. Our study shows that repeat PTA is capable of keeping the long-term LS rate close to 75%.

  3. Welcome to Team PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Krista

    2012-01-01

    Local PTAs may see their state PTA and National PTA as just a group to which they have to pay membership dues without getting anything in return. They may not see the state PTA as a resource. Perhaps they are not attending their state convention or the National PTA convention because they do not perceive any value. The author has learned from…

  4. Antecedent Classroom Factors and Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; Boyd, Brian A.; Ladwig, Crystal N.; Sellers, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between antecedent classroom factors and the disruptive behaviors of five elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of four types of molar antecedent classroom factors (i.e., instructional setting, instructional activity,…

  5. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  6. Impact of Antecedent Factors on Collaborative Technologies Usage among Academic Researchers in Malaysian Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd Daud, Norzaidi; Zakaria, Halimi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of antecedent factors on collaborative technologies usage among academic researchers in Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Data analysis was conducted on data collected from 156 academic researchers from five Malaysian research universities. This study…

  7. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  8. NOT Your Mother's PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2012-01-01

    The organization that claims to represent the voice and interests of K-12 students and their parents is the Parent Teacher Association, widely known as the PTA. The organization aims to provide "parents and families with a powerful voice to speak on behalf of every child while providing the best tools for parents to help their children be…

  9. NOT Your Mother's PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2012-01-01

    The organization that claims to represent the voice and interests of K-12 students and their parents is the Parent Teacher Association, widely known as the PTA. The organization aims to provide "parents and families with a powerful voice to speak on behalf of every child while providing the best tools for parents to help their children be…

  10. 1971 - 1972 Student Attrition: Antecedent and Consequent Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    In this study of the extensiveness of impact, as measured by number of academic courses terminated, of selected self-related factors on student attrition, 1802 subjects, 1142 males and 660 females, comprised the sample. The factors investigated were: within-district/out-of-district residence; part-time/full-time enrollment status; and sex. Each…

  11. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated embryogenic callus transformation of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) containing the pTA29-barnase gene.

    PubMed

    Li, D D; Shi, W; Deng, X X

    2003-12-01

    Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) calluses were used as explants to develop a new transformation system for citrus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency included mode of pre-cultivation, temperature of cocultivation and presence of acetosyringone (AS). The highest transformation efficiency was obtained with a 4-day pre-cultivation period in liquid medium. Transformation efficiency was higher when cocultivation was performed for 3 days at 19 degrees C than at 23 or 28 degrees C. Almost no resistant callus was obtained if the cocultivation medium lacked AS. The transformation procedure yielded transgenic Valencia plants containing the pTA29-barnase gene, as verified by PCR amplification and confirmed by Southern blotting. Because male sterility is a common factor leading to seedlessness in citrus cultivars with parthenocarpic characteristics, production of seedless citrus genotypes by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is a promising alternative to conventional breeding methods.

  12. What Makes an Outstanding PTA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuersten, Joan

    1998-01-01

    One outstanding PTA created effective communication between school and home in order to facilitate the transition from a traditional school calendar to year-round school. The Home-School Communication Project provides information via a communication folder for families of in-school children; a newsletter for all families; and a PTA telephone…

  13. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Poland, D. T.; Bartel, H. W.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program were to validate in flight the structural integrity of large-scale propfan blades and to measure noise characteristics of the propfan in both near and far fields. All program objectives were met or exceeded, on schedule and under budget. A Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation GII aircraft was modified to provide a testbed for the 2.74m (9 ft) diameter Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan which was driven by a 4475 kw (600 shp) turboshaft engine mounted on the left-hand wing of the aircraft. Flight research tests were performed for 20 combinations of speed and altitude within a flight envelope that extended to Mach numbers of 0.85 and altitudes of 12,192m (40,000 ft). Propfan blade stress, near-field noise on aircraft surfaces, and cabin noise were recorded. Primary variables were propfan power and tip speed, and the nacelle tilt angle. Extensive low altitude far-field noise tests were made to measure flyover and sideline noise and the lateral attenuation of noise. In coopertion with the FAA, tests were also made of flyover noise for the aircraft at 6100m (20,000 ft) and 10,668m (35,000 ft). A final series of tests were flown to evaluate an advanced cabin wall noise treatment that was produced under a separate program by NASA-Langley Research Center.

  14. Enriching Education in the Community through PTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Robert I.

    The Salt Lake City School District, Utah, has successfully involved the public in school improvement through cooperation with the local parent teacher associations (PTA). Four main beliefs foster district collaboration with the PTA: (1) the PTA can provide valuable human resources to public schools, (2) the PTA can participate in the…

  15. A Five-Factor Model framework for understanding childhood personality disorder antecedents.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-12-01

    The present contribution reviews evidence that supports the relevance of childhood antecedents of personality disorders, and advocates that the validity of a Five-Factor Model framework for describing general trait differences in childhood can be extended towards the field of developmental personality difficulties. In addition, we suggest that several traditional childhood Axis I conditions include a substantial trait component that may be responsible for the recurring finding that childhood Axis I disorders are predictive for adult Axis II disorders. Given the valuable information provided by a trait assessment, we further propose to integrate dimensional personality and personality pathology measures as standard tools in mental health assessments at a young age. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A systematic meta-review grading the evidence for non-genetic risk factors and putative antecedents of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Sandra L; Shepherd, Alana M; Laurens, Kristin R; Carr, Vaughan J

    2011-12-01

    Identifying the relative strength of evidence associated with non-genetic risk factors and putative antecedents of schizophrenia will guide research and may inform the design of early detection and intervention strategies. To present and quality assess current evidence for non-genetic risk factors and putative antecedents derived from well-conducted systematic reviews that report pooled data. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Current Contents, and PsycINFO databases were searched systematically, and supplemented by hand searching. Review reporting quality was assessed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist, review methodology was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist, and evidence quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Twenty-four reviews met inclusion criteria. The risk factors with the highest quality evidence, reporting medium effect sizes, were advanced paternal age, obstetric complications, and cannabis use. The strongest evidence among the putative antecedents was identified for motor dysfunction and low IQ. More research is required that applies sound methodological practices, taking into consideration specificity for schizophrenia and possible confounding factors, to robustly identify the non-genetic risk factors and putative antecedents of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Four Generations of PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinckerhoff, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Generation change, intergenerational conflict, whatever one calls it, the society is confronted with different generations that often have a failure to communicate. For PTAs (Parent Teacher Association), an older generation may be leading a PTA while a younger generation constitutes the majority of the parents, or newly minted teachers may be…

  18. The PTA TV Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This updated version of a 1977 manual provides information about the television industry, communications regulations, and citizen recourse to improper broadcasting procedures for use in training Parent Teacher Association (PTA) volunteers to work for effective change within the television industry. The first section discusses the operations of the…

  19. The "PTA" of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Gerard L.

    Three developments in the field of foreign language education seem to have particularly great potential for foreign language teaching and learning in the 1990s: (1) proficiency; (2) technology; and (3) authenticity (PTA). The first of these developments involves the language proficiency movement's debate over the establishment of a common metric…

  20. Situational and Dispositional Factors as Antecedents of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacmar, K. Michele; Carlson, Dawn S.; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined both situational and dispositional antecedents of four ingratiatory behaviors: other-enhancing, opinion conformity, favor rendering, and self-promotion. The two situational variables (i.e., role ambiguity and leader-member exchange) and the four dispositional variables (i.e., self-esteem, need for power, job involvement, and…

  1. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  2. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and

  3. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia's score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia's score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  4. Antecedents of Charter School Success in New York State: Charter School Management Agencies and Additional Factors That Affect English/Language Arts Test Scores in Elementary Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Charter schools frequently receive public as well as federal attention, and there is a growing body of research becoming available examining charter schools. With all this research there is still a need for further studies which deal specifically with antecedents of charter school success. This study examined factors contributing toward the…

  5. Antecedents of Charter School Success in New York State: Charter School Management Agencies and Additional Factors That Affect English/Language Arts Test Scores in Elementary Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Charter schools frequently receive public as well as federal attention, and there is a growing body of research becoming available examining charter schools. With all this research there is still a need for further studies which deal specifically with antecedents of charter school success. This study examined factors contributing toward the…

  6. Combination of ruthenium(II)-arene complex [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)] (RAPTA-C) and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib results in efficient angiostatic and antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Berndsen, Robert H.; Weiss, Andrea; Abdul, U. Kulsoom; Wong, Tse J.; Meraldi, Patrick; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Dyson, Paul J.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja

    2017-01-01

    Ruthenium-based compounds show strong potential as anti-cancer drugs and are being investigated as alternatives to other well-established metal-based chemotherapeutics. The organometallic compound [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)], where pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA-C) exhibits broad acting anti-tumor efficacy with intrinsic angiostatic activity. In the search for an optimal anti-angiogenesis drug combination, we identified synergistic potential between RAPTA-C and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib. This drug combination results in strong synergistic inhibition of cell viability in human endothelial (ECRF24 and HUVEC) and human ovarian carcinoma (A2780 and A2780cisR) cells. Additionally, erlotinib significantly enhances the cellular uptake of RAPTA-C relative to treatment with RAPTA-C alone in human ovarian carcinoma cells, but not endothelial cells. Drug combinations induce the formation of chromosome bridges that persist after mitotic exit and delay abscission in A2780 and A2780cisR, therefore suggesting initiation of cellular senescence. The therapeutic potential of these compounds and their combination is further validated in vivo on A2780 tumors grown on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, and in a preclinical model in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms effective anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative activity in vivo, based on a significant reduction of microvascular density and a decrease in proliferating cells. PMID:28223694

  7. Regulation of fission yeast morphogenesis by PP2A activator pta2.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Manuel; Sanchez-Romero, Maria Antonia; Salas-Pino, Silvia; Daga, Rafael R

    2012-01-01

    Cell polarization is key for the function of most eukaryotic cells, and regulates cell shape, migration and tissue architecture. Fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells are cylindrical and polarize cell growth to one or both cell tips dependent on the cell cycle stage. Whereas microtubule cytoskeleton contributes to the positioning of the growth sites by delivering polarity factors to the cell ends, the Cdc42 GTPase polarizes secretion via actin-dependent delivery and tethering of secretory vesicles to plasma membrane. How growth is restricted to cell tips and how re-initiation of tip growth is regulated in the cell cycle remains poorly understood. In this work we investigated the function of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) in S. pombe morphogenesis by deleting the evolutionary conserved PTPA-type regulatory subunit that we named pta2. pta2-deleted cells showed morphological defects and altered growth pattern. Consistent with this, actin patches and active Cdc42 were mislocalized in the pta2 deletion. These defects were additive to the lack of Cdc42-GAP Rga4. pta2Δ cells show upregulated Cdc42 activity and pta2 interacts genetically with polarisome components Tea1, Tea4 and For3 leading to complete loss of cell polarity and rounded morphology. Thus, regulation of polarity by PP2A requires the polarisome and involves Pta2-dependent control of Cdc42 activity.

  8. The chills as a psychological construct: content universe, factor structure, affective composition, elicitors, trait antecedents, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Maruskin, Laura A; Thrash, Todd M; Elliot, Andrew J

    2012-07-01

    We examined the content universe, factor structure, affective composition, elicitors, trait antecedents, and consequences of "the chills." In Study 1, participants described what it means to get the chills. A second sample sorted all references to physical sensations based on similarity. Cluster analysis identified 4 lower order clusters (goosebumps, tingling, coldness, shivers) and 2 higher order clusters ("goosetingles," "coldshivers"). In Study 2, factor analysis of questionnaire data supported a model with lower and higher order factors that corresponded to the Study 1 clusters. Goosetingles and coldshivers were predicted by approach-related traits (e.g., extraversion) and avoidance-related traits (e.g., neuroticism), respectively. In Study 3, analysis of narrative data replicated the goosetingles-coldshivers structure. Relative to coldshivers, goosetingles involved greater awe, surprise, and enjoyment and less disgust, fear, and sadness. In Study 4, analysis of diary data extended the goosetingles-coldshivers structure to between- and within-person levels of analysis. Goosetingles involved positive affects and was elicited by approach-related stimuli, whereas coldshivers involved negative affects and was elicited by avoidance-related stimuli. In Study 5, manipulation of exposure to self-actualization and self-annihilation elicited goosetingles and coldshivers, respectively. Goosetingles and coldshivers had positive and negative effects, respectively, on interpersonal closeness. In sum, diverse forms of evidence converge to indicate that the chills encompasses distinct approach- and avoidance-related constructs. Failure to distinguish these constructs explains null and inconsistent findings in the nascent literature. Goosetingles and coldshivers are posited to serve the function of signaling that an event in the environment is pertinent to one's most deep-seated hopes or fears. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Corbell PTA's Wild Walk: Fundraiser Cultivates Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    When Corbell Elementary opened its doors in 2006 in Frisco, Texas, its newly formed PTA faced the challenge of implementing a productive fundraiser to get the school off to a great start. The new board chose to focus its efforts on a single fundraiser, rather than a series of smaller ones. They wanted to avoid having the children selling any kind…

  10. National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Derek

    2011-01-01

    People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

  11. The zinc finger protein PtaZFP2 negatively controls stem growth and gene expression responsiveness to external mechanical loads in poplar.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ludovic; Decourteix, Mélanie; Badel, Eric; Huguet, Stéphanie; Moulia, Bruno; Julien, Jean-Louis; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Mechanical cues are essential signals regulating plant growth and development. In response to wind, trees develop a thigmomorphogenetic response characterized by a reduction in longitudinal growth, an increase in diameter growth, and changes in mechanical properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these processes are poorly understood. In poplar, PtaZFP2, a C2H2 transcription factor, is rapidly up-regulated after stem bending. To investigate the function of PtaZFP2, we analyzed PtaZFP2-overexpressing poplars (Populus tremula × Populus alba). To unravel the genes downstream PtaZFP2, a transcriptomic analysis was performed. PtaZFP2-overexpressing poplars showed longitudinal and cambial growth reductions together with an increase in the tangent and hardening plastic moduli. The regulation level of mechanoresponsive genes was much weaker after stem bending in PtaZFP2-overexpressing poplars than in wild-type plants, showing that PtaZFP2 negatively modulates plant responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. Microarray analysis revealed a high proportion of down-regulated genes in PtaZFP2-overexpressing poplars. Among these genes, several were also shown to be regulated by mechanical stimulation. Our results confirmed the important role of PtaZFP2 during plant acclimation to mechanical load, in particular through a negative control of plant molecular responsiveness. This desensitization process could modulate the amplitude and duration of the plant response during recurrent stimuli.

  12. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA): Flight test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.

  13. Antecedents of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Altemeier, W A; O'Connor, S; Vietze, P M; Sandler, H M; Sherrod, K B

    1982-05-01

    The qualities of parents who batter their children have been determined by interviewing known abusers. Because most studies lack controls and because family characteristics may be changed by abuse, a prospective study was instituted. Fourteen hundred low-income mothers were interviewed in a prenatal clinic, and the characteristics of 23 reported for abuse within two years were compared to the characteristics of the remaining mothers. The predominant antecedents of child abuse were: unwanted pregnancy, aggressive tendencies, and aberrant childhood nurture in which disturbed family relationships were more important than outright abuse. Abusive mother had slightly less self-esteem. Factors which increased exposure between parents and children seemed to increase risk for abuse. In contrast to retrospective findings, abusive mothers did not differ in support available from others, age, education, isolation, family alcohol or drug problems, and expectations of child development.

  14. The PTA Story: A Century of Commitment to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This book recounts the historical achievements of the National PTA and its sister organization, the National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers. The PTA is the result of the hard work of such women as Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Alice McLellan Birney, founders of the original National Congress of Mothers, and Selma Sloan Butler, who, with the…

  15. Real-time monitoring of PtaHMGB activity in poplar transactivation assays.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Sánchez, José M; Triozzi, Paolo M; Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Conde, Daniel; Perales, Mariano; Allona, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Precise control of gene expression is essential to synchronize plant development with the environment. In perennial plants, transcriptional regulation remains poorly understood, mainly due to the long time required to perform functional studies. Transcriptional reporters based on luciferase have been useful to study circadian and diurnal regulation of gene expression, both by transcription factors and chromatin remodelers. The high mobility group proteins are considered transcriptional chaperones that also modify the chromatin architecture. They have been found in several species, presenting in some cases a circadian expression of their mRNA or protein. Transactivation experiments have been shown as a powerful and fast method to obtain information about the potential role of transcription factors upon a certain reporter. We designed and validated a luciferase transcriptional reporter using the 5' sequence upstream ATG of Populus tremula × alba LHY2 gene. We showed the robustness of this reporter line under long day and continuous light conditions. Moreover, we confirmed that pPtaLHY2::LUC activity reproduces the accumulation of PtaLHY2 mRNA. We performed transactivation studies by transient expression, using the reporter line as a genetic background, unraveling a new function of a high mobility group protein in poplar, which can activate the PtaLHY2 promoter in a gate-dependent manner. We also showed PtaHMGB2/3 needs darkness to produce that activation and exhibits an active degradation after dawn, mediated by the 26S proteasome. We generated a stable luciferase reporter poplar line based on the circadian clock gene PtaLHY2, which can be used to investigate transcriptional regulation and signal transduction pathway. Using this reporter line as a genetic background, we established a methodology to rapidly assess potential regulators of diurnal and circadian rhythms. This tool allowed us to demonstrate that PtaHMGB2/3 promotes the transcriptional activation of our

  16. An Empirical Look at Walsh and Golins' Adventure Education Process Model: Relationships between Antecedent Factors, Perceptions of Characteristics of an Adventure Education Experience, and Changes in Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibthorp, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Examined potential aspects of Walsh and Golins' (1976) model of the Outward Bound process in the context of current education literature and theory, testing the relationship between participant antecedent factors, perceptions of characteristics of an adventure experience, and self-efficacy. Data on teens from a summer adventure camp indicated that…

  17. Is there an association between prior anti-inflammatory drug exposure and occurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA)? A national multicenter prospective observational case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure in patients with sore throat managed with or without antibiotic therapy influenced the risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter case-control study in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 comparing patients admitted with PTA to matched controls: patients with sore throat but without PTA who were followed up for 10 days after visiting their primary-care physician. In the multivariate stepwise logistic regression model comparing 120 cases with PTA to 143 controls, factors significantly associated with PTA were male gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; p = 0.03), smoking (OR, 2.0; p = 0.03), and prior self-medication with systemic AIAs (OR, 3.5; p = 0.01). Topical treatment was associated with significant protection against PTA (OR, 0.3; p < 0.001). In conclusion, self-medication with systemic AIAs appears to be an independent factor associated with the occurrence of PTA. This is an important message as non-steroidal AIAs access is favored by their over-counter availability in pharmacies. This finding must be interpreted with caution due to the study design and a prospective, randomized study is needed to substantiate these possible causal risk factors.

  18. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Klein, L

    1978-12-01

    Antecedent factors operative in the causation of adolescent pregnancy include: The sexuality of contemporary society, especially the media. Prolongation of educational any vocational preparation in industrialized western society. Normal physical maturation at an early age. Peer and social pressure. Low expectations of life among minority and economically poor individuals. The conspiracy of silence surrounding sexuality and the inability of society to admit and deal realistically with the sexual activity of adolescents. Failure to provide sex education, clarification of values, family-life education, preparation for parenthood, and knowledge of birth-control and family-planning services targeted to teenagers, including adolescent males. Psychological and emotional problems. Failure to provide available and accessible early pregnancy-detection services with adequate counseling and support services. Failure to provide abortion services. Failure to provide supportive services to adolescents who have a child in order to prevent repeated pregnancy. Pregnancy, childbearing, and motherhood represent ultimate feminine fulfillment to many in our society, and unless attainable expectations and desirable alternatives are available, adolescents will continue to see little reason to postpone pregnancy and childbearing.

  19. PTA proves its worth in high-volume hardfacing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, D.; Webber, R.

    1996-02-01

    Imparting wear and corrosion resistance to metal surfaces by providing a hard surface is the basis for hardfacing. The realization of the economic advantage of increased wear by providing a metal deposit on a relatively low-cost substrate has spurred the growth of hardfacing over the last half century. Plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing and laser beam hardfacing are relative newcomers to this arena. Hardfacing with PTA is ideal for high-volume hardfacing where a high degree of quality, reliability and consistency is required. Significant advances in materials and equipment have helped to spur the advancement of the technology and the wider acceptance by industry. It is believed that in the future, PTA hardfacing systems will be developed that rely a great deal on microprocessors and robotics, more so than at present. These would further enhance the product quality and consistency and would enable tailor-made PTA system designs for multiple applications. The quest for new materials for PTA hardfacing that combine wear and corrosion resistance and weldability is expected to continue. Newer applications are constantly being developed as more and more medium- and small-scale operators realize the advantages that can be derived from the use of PTA hardfacing. The basic driving force for these improvements and growth is quality, reliability, productivity and significant long-term cost reduction.

  20. Antecedent influences on behavior disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Iwata, B A

    1997-01-01

    The influence of antecedent events on behavior disorders has been relatively understudied by applied behavior analysts. This lack of research may be due to a focus on consequences as determinants of behavior and a historical disagreement on a conceptual framework for describing and interpreting antecedent variables. We suggest that antecedent influences can be described using terms derived from basic behavioral principles and that their functional properties can be adequately interpreted as discriminative and establishing operations. A set of studies on assessment and treatment of behavior disorders was selected for review based on their relevance to the topic of antecedent events. These studies were categorized as focusing on assessment of antecedent events, antecedent treatments for behavior disorders maintained by either positive or negative reinforcement, and special cases of antecedent events in behavior disorders. Some directions for future research on antecedent influences in the analysis and treatment of behavior disorders are discussed. PMID:9210312

  1. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease among participants of the Millennium Cohort: incidence, deployment-related risk factors, and antecedent episodes of infectious gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Porter, C K; Welsh, M; Riddle, M S; Nieh, C; Boyko, E J; Gackstetter, G; Hooper, T I

    2017-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two pathotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with unique pathology, risk factors and significant morbidity. To estimate incidence and identify IBD risk factors in a US military population, a healthy subset of the US population, using information from the Millennium Cohort Study. Incident IBD was identified from medical encounters from 2001 to 2009 or by self-report. Our primary risk factor of interest, infectious gastroenteritis, was identified from medical encounters and self-reported post-deployment health assessments. Other potential risk factors were assessed using self-reported survey responses and military personnel files. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. We estimated 23.2 and 21.9 diagnoses per 100 000 person-years, respectively, for CD and UC. For CD, significant risk factors included [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 95% confidence interval]: current smoking (aHR: 2.7, 1.4-5.1), two life stressors (aHR: 2.8, 1.4-5.6) and prior irritable bowel syndrome (aHR: 4.7, 1.5-15.2). There was no significant association with prior infectious gastroenteritis. There was an apparent dose-response relationship between UC risk and an increasing number of life stressors. In addition, antecedent infectious gastroenteritis was associated with almost a three-fold increase in UC risk (aHR: 2.9, 1.4-6.0). Moderate alcohol consumption (aHR: 0.4, 0.2-0.6) was associated with lower UC risk. Stressful conditions and the high risk of infectious gastroenteritis in deployment operations may play a role in the development of IBD in military populations. However, observed differences in risk factors for UC and CD warrant further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  3. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  4. Inhibition of Hageman factor activation

    PubMed Central

    Nossel, H. L.; Rubin, H.; Drillings, M.; Hsieh, R.

    1968-01-01

    A method for studying inhibitors of the contact stages of blood coagulation is described. A number of positively charged substances were shown to inhibit the contact stages. The inhibitory substances include spermine, cytochrome c, ribonuclease, and lysozyme. The inhibitory effect of these substances was neutralized by the addition of an activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent, factor XI, (PTA) fraction. Other positively charged substances including protamine, hexadimethrine, polylysine, polyornithine, methylene blue, and ortho-toluidine blue also inhibited the contact stages of coagulation, but the inhibitory effect on coagulation was not neutralized by the activated PTA fraction. Negatively charged substances such as heparin and insulin did not inhibit the contact stages of coagulation. Cytochrome c inhibited Celite adsorption of a partially purified Hageman factor fraction, and cytochrome, ribonuclease, spermine, and lysozome inhibited the adsorption of Hageman factor from PTA-deficient plasma. Very much smaller quantities of Celite completely adsorbed Hageman factor from the fraction rather than from whole plasma, which suggested the possibility that plasma contains an inhibitor or inhibitors of Hageman factor adsorption. Furthermore cytochrome c, spermine, ribonuclease, and lysozyme inhibited the coagulant activity of the following activators of the Hageman and PTA factors: Celite, kaolin, sodium stearate, ellagic acid, and skin. It is suggested that negatively charged sites on these activators are critical for adsorption and activation and that inhibition results from neutralization of the negatively charged sites by the adsorbed inhibtor. Tests with polylysine polymers indicate that inhibitory activity is directly related to molecular size over the molecular weight range of 4000 to 100,000. PMID:5645860

  5. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  6. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  7. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  8. Antecedents of Severe and Nonsevere Medication Errors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Kyung; Mark, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate if differences in antecedents of severe and nonsevere medication errors exist. Design A longitudinal study of 6 months of data from 279 nursing units in 146 randomly selected hospitals in the United States (US). Methods Antecedents of severe and nonsevere medication errors included work environment factors (work dynamics and RN hours), team factors (communication with physicians and nurses’ expertise), person factors (nurses’ education and experience), patient factors (age, health status, and previous hospitalization), and medication-related support services. Generalized estimating equations with a negative binomial distribution were used with nursing units as the unit of analysis. Findings None of the antecedents allowed predicting both types of medication errors. Nurses’ expertise had a negative and medication-related support services had a positive association with nonsevere medication errors. Nurses’ educational level had a significant nonlinear relationship with severe medication errors only: As the percentage of unit BSN-prepared nurses increased, severe medication errors decreased until the percentage of BSN-prepared nurses reached 54%. In contrast, RN experience had a statistically significant relationship with nonsevere medication errors only and nursing units with more experienced nurses reported more nonsevere medication errors. Conclusions Severe and nonsevere medication errors might have different antecedents. Clinical Relevance Error prevention and management strategies should be targeted to specific types of medication errors for best results. PMID:19335680

  9. Risk factors and antecedent life events in the development of anorexia nervosa: a Portuguese case-control study.

    PubMed

    Machado, Bárbara C; Gonçalves, Sónia F; Martins, Carla; Hoek, Hans W; Machado, Paulo P

    2014-07-01

    The aetiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is considered to be multifactorial. This study aims to identify potential risk factors for AN and whether these factors are specific to AN or precede the development of psychiatric disorders in general and to identify specific life events in the 12 months immediately preceding the onset of eating disorder (ED) symptoms. A case-control design was used to compare a group of women who meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for AN (N = 86) with healthy controls (N = 86) and with a group of controls with other psychiatric disorders (N = 68), each group matched to the AN patients by age and parental socioeconomic status bands. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing each person with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview. Women with AN reported significantly higher rates of perfectionism, negative attitudes toward parents' shape and weight, significant concern about feeling fat and a family history of AN or bulimia nervosa. Critical comments about weight, shape or eating was the most notable event in the year preceding AN onset. Perfectionism and a family history of ED emerged as the most convergent findings in the development of AN, along with being critical toward parents' shape and weight, and feeling fat. Critical comments about appearance and eating seem to be an important precipitating factor in AN onset. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Enhanced solvent recovery process boosts PTA production, saves energy

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-16

    Two producers of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) have licensed a new enhanced solvent-recovery process. The process uses a proprietary solvent that boosts the capacity of the acetic acid recovery system while reducing energy usage. Because acid recovery is usually the limiting step in PTA production, increasing it can boost PTA capacity 5--10%. The solvent recovery enhancement (SRE) technology is licensed by Glitsch Technology Corp. (GTC), Houston, The GT-SRE process can be applied in grassroots or existing plants. The GT-SRE process replaces the water used in high and low-pressure absorbers with a phosphine oxide-based solvent. The solvent is most selective to acetic acid, but is also selective to methyl acetate and, to a lesser extent, paraxylene. This selectivity increases recovery of these components from vent streams.

  11. Overview of NASA PTA propfan flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Edwin J.

    1990-01-01

    The progress is covered of the NASA sponsored Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. In PTA, a 9 ft. diameter propfan was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream GII executive jet and is undergoing extensive flight testing to evaluate propfan structural integrity, near and far field noise, and cabin interior noise characteristics. This research testing includes variations in propeller tip speed and power loading, nacelle tilt angle, and aircraft Mach number and altitude. As a result, extensive parametric data will be obtained to verify and improve computer codes for predicting propfan aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and aeroacoustic characteristics. Over 600 measurements are being recorded for each of approx. 600 flight test conditions.

  12. National PTA Selects Outstanding Educator of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Pamela

    1985-01-01

    Principal Gene Bedley of El Camino Real School in Irvine, California, is the 1985 winner of the National PTA Hearst Outstanding Educator of the Year Award. Mr. Bedley believes that education is a shared experience and builds strong relationships with teachers, parents, and children. Some of his techniques are described. (MT)

  13. National PTA Selects Outstanding Educator of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Pamela

    1985-01-01

    Principal Gene Bedley of El Camino Real School in Irvine, California, is the 1985 winner of the National PTA Hearst Outstanding Educator of the Year Award. Mr. Bedley believes that education is a shared experience and builds strong relationships with teachers, parents, and children. Some of his techniques are described. (MT)

  14. Elementary Foreign Language Teacher-PTA Liaison Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Div. of Adult Services.

    A handbook for the organization and implementation of an elementary school foreign language program presents guidelines for teachers and PTA liaisons. The program provides supplemental elementary-level instruction for children in Spanish, French, German, Italian, Chinese, and Arabic. Much of the program planning and organization is conducted by…

  15. Water-soluble and stable dinitrogen phosphine complexes trans-[ReCl(N2)(PTA-H)n(PTA)4-n]n+ (n = 0-4), the first with 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane.

    PubMed

    Smoleński, Piotr; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2008-01-07

    The first dinitrogen complexes with the hydrosoluble PTA ligand, or its protonated form PTA-H, trans-[ReCl(N2)(PTA-H)n(PTA)(4-n)]n+ (n = 0-4), are prepared, shown to be soluble and stable in water, interconvertible by stepwise protonation/deprotonation and to form, upon N2 loss, the corresponding penta-coordinate compounds. Dinitrogen displacement by CO affords trans-[ReCl(CO)(PTA)4].

  16. Toward more effective antecedent strategies for environmental programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ester, P.; Winett, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Antecedent strategies such as information and prompts when used to promote proenvironmental practices, i.e., energy and water conservation, recycling and litter control, use of mass transit or energy saving driving behaviors, are generally believed to be ineffective, particularly in comparison to consequence strategies such as feedback and use of various rewards. A review of forty-one representative studies in behavioral, environmental research indicated that when attention is given to such factors as specificity, proximity, convenience of the behavior, and salience that antecedent strategies can be effective, albeit still considerably less effective than consequence strategies. However, far more striking in the review was the poor design of antecedent strategies, the use primarily of the written medium alone, and the generally singular presentation of the intervention. The development of more effective antecedent strategies is important from a policy perspective since they are generally less expensive to implement than consequence strategies, or may be combined with consequence strategies to optimize outcome. Incorporating concepts and practices from communications and social diffusion theories, as well as more fully exploiting behavioral modeling were discussed as bases for developing more effective antecedent strategies. Examples of media-based and local, personal contact approaches are given to illustrate the potential of more effective antecedent strategies.

  17. Trust in health information websites: A systematic literature review on the antecedents of trust.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeolib

    2016-06-01

    Health websites are important sources of information for consumers. In choosing websites, trust in websites largely determines which website to access and how to best utilize the information. Thus, it is critical to understand why consumers trust certain websites and distrust others. A systematic literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying the antecedents of trust in health information websites. After four rounds of screening process, 20 articles between 2000 and 2013 were harvested. Factors that determine trust are classified into individual difference antecedents, website-related antecedents, and consumer-to-website interaction-related antecedents. The most frequently studied antecedents were socio-demographics, information quality, appearance, and perceived reputation of the website. Each antecedent of trust are discussed in detail and future research directions are proposed.

  18. Developmental antecedents of partner abuse: a prospective-longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Magdol, L; Moffitt, T E; Caspi, A; Silva, P A

    1998-08-01

    Prospective measures of risk factors for partner abuse were obtained from a large birth cohort in 4 domains: socioeconomic resources, family relations, educational achievements, and problem behaviors. Partner abuse outcomes were measured at age 21. Results showed that antecedents of abuse included risk factors from all 4 domains. Risk factors were similar for men and women. Some age 3 antecedents were significant, but the strongest correlations were from age 15. In multivariate analyses, the most consistent predictor was the presence of early problem behaviors. In a cross-validation tests, abuse was moderately predictable by the same antecedents, whether the outcome measure was self-report or reports from partners of sample members. Findings suggest that theories of partner abuse should account for developmental influences from multiple life domains and that primary prevention of partner abuse should begin in adolescence.

  19. Genetics and Physiology of Acetate Metabolism by the Pta-Ack Pathway of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the conversion of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetyl phosphate (AcP), which can be converted to acetate by acetate kinase (Ack), with the concomitant generation of ATP. A ΔackA mutant displayed enhanced accumulation of AcP under aerobic conditions, whereas little or no AcP was observed in the Δpta or Δpta ΔackA mutant. The Δpta and Δpta ΔackA mutants also had diminished ATP pools compared to the size of the ATP pool for the parental or ΔackA strain. Surprisingly, when exposed to oxidative stress, the Δpta ΔackA strain appeared to regain the capacity to produce AcP, with a concurrent increase in the size of the ATP pool compared to that for the parental strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants exhibited enhanced (p)ppGpp accumulation, whereas the strain lacking Pta produced less (p)ppGpp than the wild-type strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants displayed global changes in gene expression, as assessed by microarrays. All strains lacking Pta, which had defects in AcP production under aerobic conditions, were impaired in their abilities to form biofilms when glucose was the growth carbohydrate. Collectively, these data demonstrate the complex regulation of the Pta-Ack pathway and critical roles for these enzymes in processes that appear to be essential for the persistence and pathogenesis of S. mutans.

  20. Evaluation of propeller/nacelle interactions in the PTA program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Lyman, V.; Parker, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced highly-loaded propellers are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan engine. In order to realize these savings, the propeller must be installed so that the aerodynamics of the propeller/nacelle combination do not lead to excessive cyclic blade stresses or installation losses. The on-going, NASA sponsored, Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) has provided the first high-speed wind-tunnel data on an installed propfan complete with an inlet. This paper presents computational techniques that allow: (1) optimization of inlet plane location, (2) contouring of lip and cowl, and (3) estimation of propeller cyclic loads due to a nonuniform flowfield. These computational methods, in spite of the complexity of the configuration and the slipstream effects, provide predictions of aerodynamic performance which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  1. Evaluation of propeller/nacelle interactions in the PTA program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Lyman, V.; Parker, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced highly-loaded propellers are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan engine. In order to realize these savings, the propeller must be installed so that the aerodynamics of the propeller/nacelle combination do not lead to excessive cyclic blade stresses or installation losses. The on-going, NASA sponsored, Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) has provided the first high-speed wind-tunnel data on an installed propfan complete with an inlet. This paper presents computational techniques that allow: (1) optimization of inlet plane location, (2) contouring of lip and cowl, and (3) estimation of propeller cyclic loads due to a nonuniform flowfield. These computational methods, in spite of the complexity of the configuration and the slipstream effects, provide predictions of aerodynamic performance which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  2. Antecedent Moisture and Biological Inertia as Predictors of Plant and Ecosystem Productivity in Arid and Semiarid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Many plant and ecosystem processes in arid and semiarid systems may be affected by antecedent environmental conditions (e.g., precipitation patterns, soil water availability, temperature) that integrate over past days, weeks, months, seasons, or years. However, the importance of such antecedent exogenous effects relative to conditions occurring at the time of the observed process is relatively unexplored. Even less is known about the potential importance of antecedent endogenous effects that describe the influence of past ecosystem states on the current ecosystem state; e.g., how is current ecosystem productivity related to past productivity patterns? We hypothesize that incorporation of antecedent exogenous and endogenous factors can improve our predictive understanding of many plant and ecosystem processes, especially in arid and semiarid ecosystems. Furthermore, the common approach to quantifying the effects of antecedent (exogenous) variables relies on arbitrary, deterministic definitions of antecedent variables that (1) may not accurately describe the role of antecedent conditions and (2) ignore uncertainty associated with applying deterministic definitions. In this study, we employ a stochastic framework for (1) computing the antecedent variables that estimates the relative importance of conditions experienced each time unit into the past, also providing insight into potential lag responses, and (2) estimating the effect of antecedent factors on the response variable of interest. We employ this approach to explore the potential roles of antecedent exogenous and endogenous influences in three settings that illustrate the: (1) importance of antecedent precipitation for net primary productivity in the shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado, (2) dependency of tree growth on antecedent precipitation and past growth states for pinyon growing in western Colorado, and (3) influence of antecedent soil water and prior root status on observed root growth in the Mojave

  3. Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Helgeland, Margareth I; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-01-01

    Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorders (BPDs) were examined in 25 DSM-IV-diagnosed subjects with BPD and 107 non-borderline control subjects on the basis of medical records and 28 years follow-up. Abuse, neglect, environmental instability, paternal psychopathology, and lower score on protective factors differentiated significantly between the groups. Environmental instability and lower score on protective factors such as artistic talents, superior school performance, above average intellectual skills, and talents in other areas were found to be independent predictors of BPD diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that both abuse and neglect, unpredictable and unstable early environment, as well as deficit in protective factors may substantially contribute to the development of BPD in persons constitutionally predisposed for the disorder. The results of the study also suggest that future research should address the impact of social and cultural context, as well as the absence of protective factors, on the development of the BPD.

  4. The Family Antecedents and the Subsequent Outcomes of Early Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arim, Rubab G.; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Willms, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.…

  5. The Family Antecedents and the Subsequent Outcomes of Early Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arim, Rubab G.; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Willms, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.…

  6. Forgiveness as a Psychological Antecedent of Perceived Parental Nurturance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R; And Others

    While forgiveness has long been a crucial concept in the churches' formulations for the establishment and the preservation of spiritual, social, and emotional health, consideration of forgiveness by psychology pales in comparison. Research is needed to identify the psychological factors in mothers and fathers which serve as antecedents of the…

  7. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  8. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    PubMed Central

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies may become distorted by the social contingencies that maintain verbal behavior. Verbal behavior is an exceedingly efficient way in which one organism can change the behavior of another. All other functions of verbal behavior derive from this most basic function, sometimes called verbal governance. Functional verbal antecedents in verbal governance may be extended across time and space when individuals replicate the verbal behavior of others or their own verbal behavior. Differential contact with different verbal antecedents may follow from differential attention to verbal stimuli correlated with consequential events. Once in place, verbal behavior can be shaped by (usually social) consequences. Because these four verbal processes (verbal governance, replication, differential attention, and verbal shaping) share common stimulus and response terms, they produce interlocking contingencies in which extensive classes of behavior come to be dominated by verbal antecedents. Very different consequences follow from verbal behavior depending on whether it is anchored to environmental events, as in scientific verbal practices, or becomes independent of it, as in religious fundamentalism. PMID:22477347

  9. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). This bracken constituent causes acute poisoning, blindness and cancer in animals, and can be transferred to man when bracken is utilized as food. Also milk from cows eating bracken is thought to be the vector for the transfer of PTA to humans, as well as PTA-contaminated drinking waters. Although some studies on the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA have been carried out (mainly in the North of Europe), results are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to study the occurrence and the fate of PTA in soils showing different physico-chemical features, collected in different pedoclimatic areas (from the South of Italy), but having the extensive ("wild") livestock farming as common denominator. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterizes from the physical and chemical point of view (pH, EC, texture, total carbonates, cation exchange capacity, organic C, total N, available nutrients and heavy metal concentration) in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production, occurrence and mobility. PTA concentration in soil samples was always PTA concentration in the corresponding Pteridium samples (2-780 µg/g), ii) the soil organic matter content (ranging from 3.4 to 22.8%), iii) the soil pH (ranging from 5.9 to 6.6), iv) the soil texture, v) the depth (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm), and vi) precipitations (ranging from 780 to 960 mm/a). This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous microbial community

  10. Transbrachial Thrombolysis, PTA and Stenting in the Lower Extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Stefan Fischbach, Roman; Brochhagen, Hans-Georg; Heindel, Walter; Landwehr, Peter

    2003-11-15

    We present an analysis of 37 interventions in the arteries of the lower limbs via a transbrachial arterial approach. Twenty-six patients (42-79 years) underwent 37 interventional procedures in the lower extremities (iliac n = 6, iliac + femoro-popliteal n = 1, femoro-popliteal n = 30) with a vascular approach via the brachial artery (33 left sided, 4 right sided, introducer sheath 4-7 F). The transbrachial approach was chosen to avoid puncture of femoral bypass graft material. Technical success could be achieved in 11/13 thrombolyses, 8/9 PTAs, 7/10 combinations of thrombolysis and percutaneous transluminar angioplasty (PTA) and in the placement of two stents. One patient suffered from periprocedural severe re-thrombosis due to insufficient anticoagulation during fibrinolysis, and twice thrombolysis was incomplete. One puncture-related false aneurysm of the brachial artery had to be corrected surgically. One transient ischemic attack (TIA) and four minor complications occurred. Transbrachial vascular approach for arterial interventions in iliac and femoro-popliteal pathologies is a reasonable alternative to the transaxillary access if transfemoral puncture has to be avoided. The technical success rate is comparable with the results of the transaxillary and transfemoral approach. To minimize, at least theoretically, the risk of cerebral complications, the left- sided approach should be preferred and intravenous heparin should be administered routinely.

  11. Constructing an integrated model of the antecedents of adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dawn; Abraham, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Reviews have called for integrative, theoretically informed models of the 'hundreds of associations' (Miller & Slap, 1989, p. 131) between psychosocial measures and adolescent smoking (e. g. Tyas & Pederson, 1998). Such a model was tested. A prospective, classroom-based survey measuring previously identified correlates of smoking allowed comparison of the strength of relationships between antecedents and smoking status six months later. The prospective sample included 225 13 to 14-year-olds. Measures of behaviour-specific cognitions derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-as well as personality, self-esteem, parental support and parental control, sociodemographic factors, and descriptive norms-were included. Relationships between antecedents were explored using path analyses. High initial rates of smoking were observed. Of the variance in smoking six months later, 56% was explained by seven direct predictors: intention, perceived ease of smoking, estimated number of friends smoking, percentage of older brothers smoking, self-esteem, extraversion and car access. Results emphasize the importance of behaviour-specific cognitions specified by the TPB but suggest that other factors, including extraversion and self-esteem, need to be included in models of the antecedents of smoking. The findings also imply that some antecedents, such as parental support, may indirectly influence adolescent smoking through their effect on other variables.

  12. Antecedents of Young Women's Sexual Risk Taking in Tourist Experiences.

    PubMed

    Berdychevsky, Liza

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.

  13. Use of the Westmead PTA scale to monitor recovery of memory after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Ponsford, Jennie; Willmott, Catherine; Rothwell, Andrew; Kelly, Ann-Maree; Nelms, Robyn; Ng, Kim T

    2004-06-01

    Duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is an important index of severity of head injury. Retrospective assessment of PTA duration is arguably unreliable. Existing objective measures of PTA duration are designed for use over a 24-hour timeframe and, therefore, are not useful for assessing PTA following mild head injury (MHI). A revised version of the Westmead PTA scale was developed for assessing patients with MHI in the Emergency Department (ED) at hourly intervals. The objective of this study was the field testing of this scale in EDs and assessment of validity and reliability of test items. The scale contained 12 items, assessing orientation, memory for a face and name in a photograph and three pictures of objects. This revised scale, administered by nursing staff, was completed at least four times at hourly intervals by 147 adults with MHI in the ED and again at follow-up 1 week later. It was also completed by 109 demographically similar controls. Results were compared with Glasgow Coma scores and retrospective estimates of PTA duration based on patient report and medical records. Thirty-six per cent of MHI participants made errors on the scale in the ED, a significantly greater proportion than in MHI or controls at follow-up. Removal of the items 5 (day of week) and 9 (recall of name of face in photograph) improved the validity of the measure significantly. Scores correlated significantly with Glasgow Coma Scale scores and estimated duration of PTA. The Westmead Scale (minus items 5 and 9) is a valid measure of PTA duration in adult patients with MHI in ED. Its use will allow for more appropriate timing of discharge and accurate prognostic information.

  14. Hydrocracking of Jatropha Oil over non-sulfided PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaosong; Liu, Jing; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2017-01-30

    The PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 catalyst impregnated with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was designed for the transformation of Jatropha oil into benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) aromatics. The produced catalyst was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). The catalytic performance was evaluated by gas chromatography (GC). The liquid products were 70 wt% of the feed oil, and the majority of the liquid products were BTX. The aromatization activity of the catalyst was improved by the addition of PTA and the hierarchical process. The favorable PTA amount was 20 wt% and the yield of BTX was 59 wt% at 380 °C, 3 MPa, H2/oil (v/v) = 1000 and LHSV = 1 h(-1) over the PTA20-NiMo/HZ0.5 catalyst (PTA 20 wt%) without sulfurization.

  15. Hydrocracking of Jatropha Oil over non-sulfided PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaosong; Liu, Jing; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2017-01-01

    The PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 catalyst impregnated with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was designed for the transformation of Jatropha oil into benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) aromatics. The produced catalyst was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). The catalytic performance was evaluated by gas chromatography (GC). The liquid products were 70 wt% of the feed oil, and the majority of the liquid products were BTX. The aromatization activity of the catalyst was improved by the addition of PTA and the hierarchical process. The favorable PTA amount was 20 wt% and the yield of BTX was 59 wt% at 380 °C, 3 MPa, H2/oil (v/v) = 1000 and LHSV = 1 h−1 over the PTA20-NiMo/HZ0.5 catalyst (PTA 20 wt%) without sulfurization. PMID:28134313

  16. Hydrocracking of Jatropha Oil over non-sulfided PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaosong; Liu, Jing; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2017-01-01

    The PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 catalyst impregnated with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was designed for the transformation of Jatropha oil into benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) aromatics. The produced catalyst was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). The catalytic performance was evaluated by gas chromatography (GC). The liquid products were 70 wt% of the feed oil, and the majority of the liquid products were BTX. The aromatization activity of the catalyst was improved by the addition of PTA and the hierarchical process. The favorable PTA amount was 20 wt% and the yield of BTX was 59 wt% at 380 °C, 3 MPa, H2/oil (v/v) = 1000 and LHSV = 1 h-1 over the PTA20-NiMo/HZ0.5 catalyst (PTA 20 wt%) without sulfurization.

  17. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  18. Aircraft Maintenance Organizational Structure Changes: An Antecedent Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE CHANGES: AN ANTECEDENT MODEL ...ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE CHANGES: AN ANTECEDENT MODEL THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of...AN ANTECEDENT MODEL Jeffrey M. Durand, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  19. A new physically-based model considered antecedent rainfall for shallow landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; He, Siming

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall is the most significant factor to cause landslide especially shallow landslide. In previous studies, rainfall intensity and duration are take part in the physically based model to determining the occurrence of the rainfall-induced landslides, but seldom considered the antecedent rainfall. In this study, antecedent rainfall is took into account to derive a new physically based model for shallow landslides prone area predicting at the basin scale. Based on the Rosso's equation of seepage flow considering the antecedent rainfall to construct the hillslope hydrology model. And then, the infinite slope stability theory is using to construct the slope stability model. At last, the model is apply in the Baisha river basin of Chengdu, Sichuan, China, and the results are compared with the one's from unconsidered antecedent rainfall. The results show that the model is simple, but has the capability of consider antecedent rainfall in the triggering mechanism of shallow landslide. Meanwhile, antecedent rainfall can make an obvious effect on shallow landslides, so in shallow landslide hazard assessment, the influence of the antecedent rainfall can't be ignored.

  20. Parental antecedents of adult codependency.

    PubMed

    Crothers, M; Warren, L W

    1996-03-01

    Two aspects of codependency were investigated among 442 undergraduates. First, parental antecedents were examined by subjects completing measures of codependency, perceived parental dysfunctions (compulsivity, chemical dependency, and codependency), and parental styles (coercion, control, and non-nurturance). As expected, correlations between adult codependency and parental coercion, control, non-nurturance, and maternal compulsivity were significant. However, correlations between codependency and parental chemical dependency were not significant. A multiple regression analysis identified parental codependency and maternal coercion as significant predictors of subject codependency. To examine the second aspect of codependency, which assumes that codependency was identified over 40 years ago by Karen Horney, subjects completed a loss of self measure which correlated highly with codependency.

  1. Lifetime antecedents of cognitive reserve.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Sacker, Amanda

    2003-08-01

    We used path analysis on data from the British 1946 birth cohort to model lifetime antecedents of cognitive reserve, represented by the NART at 53 years, and compared this model for verbal memory and psychomotor function at this age, cognitive outcomes that are sensitive to age-associated decline. We showed independent paths from childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupation to cognitive reserve, with that from childhood cognition the strongest, and that from adult occupation the weakest. A similar pattern was found for the verbal memory and psychomotor outcomes, although the pathways were weaker than those to the NART. The pattern was also mirrored by the paths from paternal occupation to childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupation, with that to childhood cognition the strongest, and that to adult occupation the weakest. The direct influence of paternal occupation on cognitive reserve was negligible, and almost entirely mediated by childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment.

  2. Ectopic expression of PtaRHE1, encoding a poplar RING-H2 protein with E3 ligase activity, alters plant development and induces defence-related responses

    PubMed Central

    Mukoko Bopopi, Johnny; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Himanen, Kristiina; Mol, Adeline; Vaessen, Quentin; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2010-01-01

    RING (really interesting new gene)-H2 domain-containing proteins are widely represented in plants and play important roles in the regulation of many developmental processes as well as in plant–environment interactions. In the present report, experiments were performed to unravel the role of the poplar gene PtaRHE1, coding for a RING-H2 protein. In vitro ubiquitination assays indicate a functional E3 ligase activity for PtaRHE1 with the specific E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5a. The overexpression of PtaRHE1 in tobacco resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by a curling of the leaves, the formation of necrotic lesions on leaf blades, growth retardation, and a delay in floral transition. The plant gene expression response to PtaRHE1 overexpression provided evidence for the up-regulation of defence- and/or programmed cell death-related genes. Moreover, genes coding for WRKY transcription factors as well as for mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), were also found to be induced in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type. In addition, histochemical β-glucuronidase staining showed that the PtaRHE1 promoter is induced by plant pathogens and by elicitors such as salicylic acid and cellulase. Taken together, these results suggest that the E3 ligase PtaRHE1 plays a role in the ubiquitination-mediated regulation of defence response, possibly by acting upstream of WIPK and/or in the activation of WRKY factors. PMID:19892745

  3. Development and validation of a new survey: Perceptions of Teaching as a Profession (PTaP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the impact of efforts to train more science teachers such as the PhysTEC Project and to help with early identification of future teachers, we are developing the survey of Perceptions of Teaching as a Profession (PTaP) to measure students' views of teaching as a career, their interest in teaching and the perceived climate of physics departments towards teaching as a profession. The instrument consists of a series of statements which require a response using a 5-point Likert-scale and can be easily administered online. The survey items were drafted by a team of researchers and physics teacher candidates and then reviewed by an advisory committee of 20 physics teacher educators and practicing teachers. We conducted 27 interviews with both teacher candidates and non-teaching STEM majors. The survey was refined through an iterative process of student interviews and item clarification until all items were interpreted consistently and answered for consistent reasons. In this presentation the preliminary results from the student interviews as well as the results of item analysis and a factor analysis on 900 student responses will be shared.

  4. Depressive disorder as a long-term antecedent risk factor for incident back pain: a 13-year follow-up study from the Baltimore Epidemiological Catchment Area sample.

    PubMed

    Larson, S L; Clark, M R; Eaton, W W

    2004-02-01

    The co-occurrence of affective distress and back pain is well documented but the relationship between them is less certain. This study examines the relationship between lifetime occurrence of depressive disorder and incident back pain reported over a 13-year period. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study is a prospective study of a household-residing cohort, selected probabilistically from East Baltimore in 1981. Between 1982-3 (wave 2) and again between 1993-6 (wave 3), a follow-up study of the original cohort was conducted. Questions on depressive disorder and back pain were drawn from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate whether depressive disorder acts as a risk factor for incident back pain. In cross-sectional analyses, lifetime occurrence of depressive disorder was a significant correlate of lifetime prevalence of back pain at wave 1 (OR = 1.6, P = 0.01). During the 13-year follow-up, across three data collection points, there was an increase in the risk for incident back pain when depressive disorder was present at baseline (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.03, 3.4). However, during the short-term follow-up period of 1 year, between baseline and wave 2, depressive disorder at baseline was unrelated to first-ever reports of back pain. Lifetime depressive disorder in both waves 1 (baseline) and 2 (1 year later) was associated with a more than three times greater risk for a first-ever report of back pain during the 12 to 13 year follow-up period, in comparison to those who did not have depressive disorder at waves 1 or 2 (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4, 7.8). Back pain at wave 1 was not significantly associated with an increased risk for depression in the longitudinal analysis (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.5, 1.4). Depressive disorder appears to be a risk factor for incident back pain independent of other characteristics often associated with back pain. Back pain is not a short-term consequence of depressive disorder but emerges over

  5. Enhancement of riboflavin production by overexpression of acetolactate synthase in a pta mutant of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingbo; Chen, Xun; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2007-01-01

    Genetic alterations of carbon flux into the acetoin biosynthesis pathway as a possible means to reduce acid accumulation were investigated in the riboflavin-producing Bacillus subtilis during growth on glucose. The lower rates of cell growth and riboflavin production were found in the pta-disrupted mutant while the rate of acetate formation was reduced. In contrast, acid accumulation was significantly reduced, to one-fifth that of the parental strain RH33::[pRB63](n), and a 50% increase in the riboflavin yield was obtained when the expression of the gene encoding acetolactate synthase was increased in the pta-disrupted mutant. Metabolic analysis, together with enzyme activity assays, indicated that the tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes are significantly increased in response to acetolactate synthase overexpression in pta-disrupted mutant. Moreover, the intracellular ATP-to-ADP ratio also increased 5.8-fold. The high concentration of ATP could explain the increased riboflavin production.

  6. Water and catalytic isomerization of linear allylic alcohols by [RuCp(H2O-κO)(PTA)2](+) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane).

    PubMed

    Scalambra, Franco; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Romerosa, Antonio

    2017-04-12

    A new water soluble complex [RuCp(H2O-κO)(PTA)2](+) (1) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) has been synthesized and fully characterized by NMR and IR. The crystal structure of 1(CF3SO3)·3.5H2O was characterized by single crystal X-ray determination. The catalytic activity of this complex was evaluated for the isomerisation of linear allylic alcohols from 3-buten-2-ol to 1-octen-3-ol into the correspondent ketones under both an inert atmosphere and in air, using as solvents: water, the substrate, mixtures of water/substrate, MeOH and mixtures of MeOH/water. An isomerization experiment on a mixture of all the studied allylic alcohols was also carried out.

  7. Insertion of Self-Expandable Nitinol Stents Without Previous Balloon Angioplasty Reduces Restenosis Compared with PTA Prior to Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Harnek, Jan; Zoucas, Evita; Stenram, Unne; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the development of intimal hyperplasia after deployment of a self-expanding nitinol stent with and without previous percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), with the results after PTA alone. Methods: In nine healthy pigs, the iliac arteries were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 6 arteries) was treated with PTA; group 2 n 6)with insertion of self-expanding stents after PTA; and group 3 (n = 6) with stent insertion without previous PTA. After 8 weeks the vessels were examined with intravascular ultrasonography,histologic examination and morphometric analysis. Results: Although the injury index in group 1 (0.17{+-} 0.57) was lower (p <0.05) than in group 2 (0.26 {+-} 0.06) and group 3 (0.26 {+-} 0.08), PTA-treated arteries showed significantly (p <0.05) reduced mean luminal gain (0.53 {+-} 2.84) compared with arteries treated with PTA prior to stenting (2.58 {+-} 1.38) and compared with stenting alone (4.65 {+-}5.34). Stenting after PTA resulted in a higher (p<0.05) restenosis index (2.63 {+-} 1.06) compared with stenting without PTA (1.35 {+-} 0.59). Group 2 also had a significantly thicker intimap <0.05) and 83% and 74% higher intima/mediaratio (p <0.05) compared with groups 1 and 3, respectively. Conclusion: Insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent without previous PTA results in less intimalhyperplasia than if PTA is performed prior to stenting, suggesting that direct stenting can be used in angioplasty sessions with a favorable outcome.

  8. Long-Term Antecedents and Outcomes of Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived control plays an important role in shaping development throughout adulthood and old age. Using data from the adult lifespan sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, covering 25 years of measurement), we explored long-term antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of perceived control and examined if associations differ with age. Targeting correlates and antecedents of control, findings indicated that higher concurrent levels of social participation, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as well as more positive changes in social participation over the preceding 11 years were each predictive of between-person differences in perceived control. Targeting health outcomes of control, survival analyses revealed that perceived control predicted 14-year hazard rates for disability (n = 996 became disabled) and mortality (n = 1,382 died). The effect for mortality, but not for disability, was independent of socio-demographic and psychosocial factors. Overall, we found very limited support for age-differential associations. Our results provide further impetus to thoroughly examine processes involved in antecedent-consequent relations among perceived control, facets of social life, well-being, and health. PMID:21517184

  9. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production. PMID:27020579

  10. [Clinicopathological study of the 1973 who classification and the WHO/ISUP classification in pTa bladder carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Ryo; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Yoshida, Shinri; Shiota, Takako; Nisikimi, Toshinori; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yokoi, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2010-05-01

    .54-20.48). In pTa bladder carcinoma, the WHO/ISUP classification was more useful prognostic factor than the WHO 1973 classification.

  11. Mutual Concerns of the International Reading Association and the P.T.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Margaret

    Presented in this paper are some suggestions for cooperation between the schools and the Parent Teacher Association (PTA) for the improvement of children's reading ability. Suggestions for how the school can inform the parents about the school's reading program include: undertaking a long range study of the reading program in the school;…

  12. Process mapping of PTA and stent placement in a university hospital interventional radiology department.

    PubMed

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Busse, Reinhard; Güttler, Felix; Reinhold, Thomas; Vollnberg, Bernd; Kentenich, Max; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgräber, Ulf K

    2012-08-01

    To apply the process mapping technique in an interdisciplinary approach in order to visualize, better understand, and efficiently organize percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement procedures in a university hospital's interventional radiology department. After providing an overview of seven established mapping techniques for medical professionals, the process mapping technique was chosen and applied in an interdisciplinary approach including referrers (physicians, nurses, and other staff in referring departments, e.g., vascular surgery), providers (interventional radiologists, nurses, technicians, and staff of the angiography suite), and specialists of the hospital's controlling department. A generally binding and standardized process map was created, describing the entire procedure for a patient in whom the radiological intervention of PTA or stent treatment is contemplated from admission to the department of vascular surgery until discharge after successful treatment. This visualization tool assists in better understanding (especially given natural staff fluctuation over time) and efficiently organizing PTA and stent procedures. Process mapping can be applied for streamlining workflow in healthcare, especially in interdisciplinary settings. By defining exactly what a business entity does, who is responsible, to what standard a process should be completed, and how the success can be assessed, this technique can be used to eliminate waste and inefficiencies from the workplace while providing high-quality goods and services easily, quickly, and inexpensively. Process mapping can be used in a university hospital's interventional radiology department. • Process mapping can describe the patient's entire process from admission to PTA/stent placement until discharge. • Process mapping can be used in interdisciplinary teams (e.g., referrers, providers, and controlling specialists). • Process mapping can be used in order to more efficiently

  13. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Brodmann, Marianne Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Deutschmann, Hannes; Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-02-15

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  14. Redox Imbalance Underlies the Fitness Defect Associated with Inactivation of the Pta-AckA Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Darrell D; Sadykov, Marat R; Thomas, Vinai C; Bayles, Kenneth W; Powers, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (Pta-AckA) pathway is thought to be a vital ATP generating pathway for Staphylococcus aureus. Disruption of the Pta-AckA pathway during overflow metabolism causes significant reduction in growth rate and viability, albeit not due to intracellular ATP depletion. Here, we demonstrate that toxicity associated with inactivation of the Pta-AckA pathway resulted from an altered intracellular redox environment. Growth of the pta and ackA mutants under anaerobic conditions partially restored cell viability. NMR metabolomics analyses and (13)C6-glucose metabolism tracing experiments revealed the activity of multiple pathways that promote redox (NADH/NAD(+)) turnover to be enhanced in the pta and ackA mutants during anaerobic growth. Restoration of redox homeostasis in the pta mutant by overexpressing l- lactate dehydrogenase partially restored its viability under aerobic conditions. Together, our findings suggest that during overflow metabolism, the Pta-AckA pathway plays a critical role in preventing cell viability defects by promoting intracellular redox homeostasis.

  15. A model of psychosocial and cultural antecedents of blood pressure control.

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Hayden B.; Oddone, Eugene Z.

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for stroke, congestive heart failure, and end-stage renal disease. Hypertension is particularly prevalent and deadly among African Americans. Effective treatment for hypertension has been available for decades, yet only one fourth of all individuals have their blood pressure under control. Despite the potential impact of hypertension, interventions to improve control have had limited success. We present a model of how to understand antecedents of blood pressure control according to three interrelated categories: patient characteristics, social and cultural environment, and medical environment. This theoretical paper was conducted using a literature review and a model to explain psychosocial antecedents of blood pressure control is presented. We conclude that improved understanding of important antecedents of blood pressure control coupled with technological advances, such as tailored interventions, provide clinicians with a tool that may lead to improved blood pressure control. These interventions will require the involvement of clinicians and consideration of sociocultural factors to be successful. PMID:11991336

  16. Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Resistance of Nickel Aluminide Coatings Deposited by HVOF and PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benegra, M.; Santana, A. L. B.; Maranho, O.; Pintaude, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the wear resistance of nickel aluminide coatings deposited using plasma transferred arc (PTA) and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) processes. Wear resistance was measured in rubber wheel abrasion tests. In both deposition processes, the same raw material (nickel aluminide powder) was atomized and deposited on a 316L steel plate substrate. After deposition, specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, aiming solubilization and precipitation. Coatings deposited using PTA developed different microstructures as a result of the incorporation of substrate elements. However, despite the presence of these microstructures, they performed better than coatings processed using HVOF before the heat treatment. After thermal cycling, the superficial hardness after the wear tests for both processes was similar, resulting in similar mass losses.

  17. Coreference and Antecedent Representation across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lago, Sol; Sloggett, Shayne; Schlueter, Zoe; Chow, Wing Yee; Williams, Alexander; Lau, Ellen; Phillips, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that speakers of languages such as German, Spanish, and French reactivate the syntactic gender of the antecedent of a pronoun to license gender agreement. As syntactic gender is assumed to be stored in the lexicon, this has motivated the claim that pronouns in these languages reactivate the lexical entry of their…

  18. Differential Antecedents of Infidelity in Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, James D.; Lederer, Doris A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated antecedents of marital infidelity for individuals (N=59) involved with coworkers or others. Data suggested that persons involved with coworkers had more satisfying marriages and scored higher on the Compatibility Index than those involved with others. The number of liaisons was not correlated with age or age at marriage. (JAC)

  19. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  20. Work Family Relations: Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interrelations between conflict and facilitation in work and family domains, with spousal, managerial, and collegial social support serving as antecedents, and professional vigor and burnout as outcomes. Participants were 322 female, married teachers. Regression analyses revealed complex relations between conflict and…

  1. Childhood Depression: Theories, Antecedents and Supportive Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura L.

    Early detection and measurement of the intensity of childhood depression are important concerns for those treating depressed children. To examine issues of childhood depression, a review of the research was conducted which focused on: (1) childhood depression scales and their effectiveness; (2) correlates and antecedents of childhood depression;…

  2. Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

  3. Some Historical Antecedents of Humanistic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Antecedents of humanistic education appear to be economic affluence and technological advancement. Historically, this phenomena occurred in classical Greece; the Renaissance; the agricultural and industrial revolutions in England; the Romantic period; the revolutions in the consciousness created by Marx, Freud, and the existentialists; and the…

  4. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Adolescent Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    Antecedents and consequences of adolescent parenting were examined using a representative national sample of 1,000 adults, selected from the 1960 Project TALENT participants. Three- to four-hour interviews were conducted with these adults. Out of the total group, 10% of the men and 31% of the women had had a child during adolescence. Higher…

  6. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  7. PTA Versus Carbofilm-Coated Stents in Infrapopliteal Arteries: Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, T. Basile, A.; Cejna, M.; Fleischmann, D.; Funovics, M.; Gschwendtner, M.; Haumer, M.; Katzler, I. von; Kettenbach, J.; Lomoschitz, F.; Luft, C.; Minar, E.; Schneider, B.; Schoder, M.; Lammer, J.

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: To determine the primary success and short-term patency of stent application as a primary treatment modality for high-grade lesions of the infrapopliteal arteries compared with treatment with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in critical limb ischemia in a randomized prospective study. Methods: Endovascular therapy was performed on 95 lesions in 51 patients (mean age 72.0 years, range 47-80 years) who presented clinically with Fontaine stages III and IV. One patient underwent treatment in both limbs. After angiographic lesion identification, patients were randomized for treatment by PTA (53 lesions in 27 patients) or stent application (42 lesions in 24 patients). Follow-up by clinical investigation and conventional angiography or spiral CT angiography was performed in 37 patients (57 lesions) 6 to 12 months after the procedure, or when clinically indicated. Evaluation was performed by two observers, double-blinded, with thresholds for lesion restenosis of 50% and 70%. Statistical evaluation was performed on a lesion basis by Kaplan-Meier estimated probability rates, and log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. The primary endpoint was the angiographic patency rate of treated lesions. Results: The inter-reader agreement was high ({kappa} = 0.82). For the stent group the cumulative primary patency at 6 months was 83.7% at the 70% restenosis threshold, and 79.7% at the 50% restenosis threshold. For PTA, the primary patency at 6 months was 61.1% at the 70% restenosis threshold and 45.6% at the 50% restenosis threshold. Both results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Infrapopliteal stent application is an effective treatment modality for high-grade lesions in chronic critical limb ischemia. Compared with PTA, higher patency rates can be expected after 6 months.

  8. PTA scale for children aged 4 to 7 years: Selecting developmentally valid and reliable items.

    PubMed

    Lah, Suncica; David, Pamela; Donohue, Hayley; Epps, Adrienne; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to select developmentally valid and reliable items for inclusion in criterion-referenced (pass > 90%) posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) scale for children aged 4 to 7 years in a prospective cohort study. Fifty-two typically developing children (26 male/26 female) aged 4 to 7 years were administered a set of 10 items (5 orientation, 5 memory) over 3-4 days. The total score obtained on the set of 10 items had poor developmental validity and test-retest reliability. Nevertheless, individual item analysis identified five items (three orientation and two memory items) that were consistently passed by >90% of the children on each day of testing. For these five items the total scores did not differ significantly either between age groups or between days of testing. Test-retest was extremely high (close to 1). The five items had excellent developmental validity and test-retest reliability. This study identified 5 (3 orientation and 2 memory) items that met our selection criterion and form a new PTA scale, the Sydney PTA scale (SYPTAS), for children aged 4 to 7 years.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Helium Pressurization System of Propulsion Test Article (PTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steadman, Todd; Majumdar, Alok; Holt, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    A transient model of the Propulsion Test Article (PTA) Helium Pressurization System was developed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The model included feed lines from the facility interface to the engine purge interface and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1) tanks, the propellant tanks themselves including ullage space and propellant feed lines to their respective pump interfaces. GFSSP's capability was extended to model a control valve to maintain ullage pressure within a specified limit and pressurization processes such as heat transfer between ullage gas, propellant and the tank wall. The purpose of the model is to predict the flow system characteristics in the entire pressurization system during 80 seconds of lower feed system priming, 420 seconds of fuel and LOX pump priming and 150 seconds of engine firing. Subsequent to the work presented here, the PTA model has been updated to include the LOX and RP-1 pumps, while the pressurization option itself has been modified to include the effects of mass transfer. This updated model will be compared with PTA test data as it becomes available.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107.

    PubMed

    Sosio, Margherita; Gallo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Roberta; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Bera, Agnieska; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-23

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA-5024 consists of 8,543,819 bp, with a 71.2% G+C content and 7,860 protein-coding genes.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Roberta; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Bera, Agnieska; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA-5024 consists of 8,543,819 bp, with a 71.2% G+C content and 7,860 protein-coding genes. PMID:24459268

  12. Key organizational commitment antecedents for nurses, paramedical professionals and non-clinical staff.

    PubMed

    Caykoylu, Sinan; Egri, Carolyn P; Havlovic, Stephen; Bradley, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a causal model that explains the antecedents and mediating factors predicting the organizational commitment of healthcare employees in different work roles. This study tests an integrative causal model that consists of a number of direct and indirect relationships for antecedents of organizational commitment. It is proposed that the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment is best understood by focusing on the three interrelated facets of job satisfaction, i.e. satisfaction with career advancement, satisfaction with supervisor, and satisfaction with co-workers. However, the model also advances that these job satisfaction facets have different mediating effects for other antecedents of organizational commitment. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) path analysis showed that the job satisfaction facets of career advancement and satisfaction with supervisor had a direct impact on organizational commitment. Employee empowerment, job-motivating potential, effective leadership, acceptance by co-workers, role ambiguity and role conflict were also important determinants of organizational commitment. Interestingly, post hoc analyses showed that satisfaction with co-workers only had an indirect impact on organizational commitment. While there has been extensive research on organizational commitment and its antecedents in healthcare organizations, most previous studies have been limited either to a single employee group or to a single time frame. This study proposes a practical causal model of antecedents of organizational commitment that tests relationships across time and across different healthcare employee groups.

  13. Is Utilitarianism Risky? How the Same Antecedents and Mechanism Produce Both Utilitarian and Risky Choices.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-07-01

    Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Should flood regimes change in a warming climate? The role of antecedent moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemeskel, Fitsum; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-07-01

    Assessing changes to flooding is important for designing new and redesigning existing infrastructure to withstand future climates. While there is speculation that floods are likely to intensify in the future, this question is often difficult to assess due to inadequate records on streamflow extremes. An alternate way of determining possible extreme flooding is through assessment of the two key factors that lead to the intensification of floods: the intensification of causative rainfall and changes in the wetness conditions prior to rainfall. This study assesses global changes in the antecedent wetness prior to extreme rainfall. Our results indicate a significant increase in the antecedent moisture in Australia and Africa over the last century; however, there was also a decrease in Eurasia and insignificant change in North America. Given the nature of changes found in this study, any future flood assessment for global warming conditions should take into account antecedent moisture conditions.

  15. An assessment of antecedent events influencing noncompliance in an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Call, Nathan A; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Cooper-Brown, Linda J; Boeiter, Eric W

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that various factors can influence noncompliance, including task novelty, rate of presentation, and task preference. This study examined the impact of selected antecedent variables on noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. In two experiments involving 6 typically developing children, the consequences for noncompliance remained constant. During Experiment 1, demands that included noncontingent access to adult attention were contrasted with the same demands that did not include attention within a multielement design. In Experiment 2, demands were altered by decreasing the difficulty or amount of work or providing access to attention. In both experiments, results indicated idiosyncratic responses to the manipulated variables, with decreases in noncompliance observed following introduction of one or more antecedent variables with 5 of the 6 participants. These results suggested that noncompliance can be reduced via changes in antecedent variables, including adding potential positive reinforcers to the task situation, and that it is possible to probe variables that alter noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting.

  16. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James A.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  17. Analysis of the Relationships among Trust Antecedents, Organizational Structures, and Performance Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    groups contained an equally distributed 40 representation of age, experience, military service branch, officer subspecialty, gender , and country of...the extent to which factors leading to perceived trust, also known as “trust antecedents,” are responsible for performance in a given structure. To...Edward H. Powley, Lead Advisor _____________________________________ Dr. Mark E. Nissen, Support Advisor

  18. Antecedents of Psychological Empowerment in the Malaysian Private Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghani, Nik Azida Abd.; Hussin, Tengku Ahmad Badrul Shah bin Raja; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    Psychological empowerment comprising four cognitive dimensions i.e. meaning, competence, autonomy and impact in the context of private higher education institutions is being validated. Five factors considered as antecedents i.e. access to information, resources, organizational support and opportunity to learn and develop, and trust were studied.…

  19. Antecedents of Employees' Involvement in Work-Related Learning: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Baert, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in work-related learning seems to be more complex than a simple supply-demand fit. An interplay of several factors can influence this involvement at different stages of the decision-making process of the employee. The aim of this systematic review is to examine which antecedents of work-related learning have been identified in previous…

  20. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James A.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  1. Antecedents of Teachers' Perceived Effectiveness of School-Based-Managing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam

    2007-01-01

    The difficulty in education to determine causality between means and ends brings various issues and variables to the discussion about the antecedents of school effectiveness. Although teachers' level of professional development is clearly among the factors influencing student outcomes, little is known about the extent to which teachers connect…

  2. Antecedents of Late Birthtiming Decisions of Men and Women in Dual-Career Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloway, N. Maxine; Smith, Rebecca M.

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed 30 recent fathers and mothers to examine antecedent factors associated with late birthtiming decisions of men and women in dual-career marriages. Findings suggest that biological time clock precipitates reassessment of family injunctions about status of education, occupation, finances, and marriage, which, in turn, precipitates issues…

  3. Antecedents of medical workplace violence in South China.

    PubMed

    Wenzhi Cai; Ling Deng; Meng Liu; Min Yu

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during the past 12 months at three general hospitals in south China. The interviews were tape-recorded, then transcribed, and analyzed. The authors' analyses identified five major antecedents of workplace violence. First, 93.0% of medical workplace violence was related to insufficient communication between hospital staff and patients. Second, inadequate medical service quality was found to be a factor in 56.7% of the incidences. Third, unsatisfactory treatment outcome was reported in 60.0%. Fourth, heavy workload accounted for 43.3%. Fifth, patient frustration due to high medical expenses was reported in 40.0% of cases. The authors recommended a reengineering of hospital service delivery to create a more supportive and safer working environment for prevention of workplace violence.

  4. Testicular cancer and antecedent diseases.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, A J; Huttly, S R; Smith, P G

    1987-01-01

    A case-control study of the aetiology of testicular cancer was conducted using information obtained by interview and from case-notes of 259 cases with testicular cancer and two sets of control patients -238 men with diagnoses other than testicular cancer attending the same radiotherapy centres as those attended by the cases, and 251 hospital in-patients not attending radiotherapy departments. Logistic regression analyses were performed, after stratifying by age and region of residence, to estimate the relative risks (RRs) associated with various aspects of prior medical history. The risk of testicular cancer was found to be raised for men with a history of cryptorchidism (RR based on comparison with all controls = 6.3; P less than 0.001), inguinal hernia (RR = 1.6; P = 0.14), mumps orchitis (RR = 12.7; P = 0.006), atopy (RR = 1.8; P = 0.03), and meningitis (RR = 3.0; P = 0.21). Inguinal herniorrhaphy before the age of 15 years was particularly a risk factor for seminoma, whereas the relative risks were similar for seminoma and teratoma for the other factors. The results add to the growing evidence that congenital abnormalities involving the process of testicular descent and closure of the processus vaginalis are risk factors for testicular cancer, and that some types of testicular damage later in life may also be important. The findings of associations with previous atopy and certain infections suggest a possible second aetiological mechanism - that immunological abnormalities may be associated with an increased risk of testis cancer.

  5. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  6. Interior noise in the untreated Gulfstream II Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, H. L.; Prydz, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Interior noise on the Gulfstream II Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was measured using 19 wing, 22 fuselage, and 32 cabin-interior microphones to determine the sources of the cabin noise. Results from ground and flight test acoustic and vibration measurements and analyses show that the major source of cabin noise was the airborne propfan blade passage frequency tones. The radiated sound pressure levels and the richness of the harmonic content of the propfan increased with increasing altitude. The acoustic output of the propfan also depended on the shaft power, helical Mach number, and blade passage frequency.

  7. Application of GPR, EMI, and Lidar to Assess the Role of Antecedent Geology in Barrier Island Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernette, P. A.; Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Bishop, M. P.; Everett, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Barrier island longevity is threatened by the observed and modeled accelerating rates of sea-level rise. It has been suggested that subsurface geologic structure is also an important factor controlling barrier island morphology and long-term island evolution, yet the precise role of antecedent geology on the response and recovery of barrier islands to hurricanes and sea-level rise remains unclear. Thus, this study aims to provide more detailed insight into the role of the antecedent geology on barrier island evolution at two sites along the Texas, USA coast: Follets Island and a portion of North Padre Island. Alongshore and across-island ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductance (EMI) surveys are used in this study to infer subsurface geologic structure. The accuracy of the interpreted geophysical survey data was assessed using selective vibracoring. Information about island morphology is derived from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). Preliminary results suggest that dune height is generally lower and washover frequency higher in areas where the antecedent geologic surface is deeper. Another important factor influencing dune breaching and washover locations is offshore bathymetry. The barrier island is generally narrower in areas where an offshore swale is present. The antecedent geologic structure is an important factor influencing barrier island morphology. Integrating EMI, GPR, and seismic subsurface geologic structure information and surficial morphology information helps improve our understanding of factors affecting barrier island evolution and the role that antecedent geology plays in island morphology.

  8. P(TA) macro-, micro-, nanoparticle-embedded super porous p(HEMA) cryogels as wound dressing material.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Silan, Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Super porous poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) cryogel was successfully synthesized by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (p(EGDA)) crosslinker under cryogenic conditions. Poly(Tannic acid) (p(TA)) macro-, micro-, and nanoparticles prepared from a natural polyphenol, tannic acid (TA), were embedded into p(HEMA) cryogel networks to obtain composite p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel. Different size ranges of spherical p(TA) particles, 2000-500μm, 500-200μm, 200-20μm, and 20-0.5μm size, were included in the cryogel network and illustrated by digital camera, optic microscope, and SEM images of the microgel-cryogel network. The swelling properties and moisture content of p(TA) microgel-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel were investigated at wound healing pH conditions such as pH5.4, 7.4, and 9 at 37.5°C, and the highest swelling capacity was found at pH9 with 972±2% swelling in 30s. Higher amounts of DI water were quickly absorbed by p(HEMA)-based cryogel, and moisture retention within the cryogel structure for a longer time period at room temperature is due to existence of p(TA) particles. Degradation profiles of p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel were shown to be controlled by different pH conditions, and a linear release profile was found with total cumulative release of 5.8±0.8mg/g TA up to 12days at pH7.4 and 37.5°C. The antioxidant behavior of degraded p(TA) particles from p(HEMA) cryogel were found as 46±1μgmL(-1) gallic acid equivalent and 165±18mMtroloxequivalentg(-1). The p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel has high hemocompatibility with 0.0158±0.0126% hemolysis ratio, and effective hemostatic properties with 8.1±0.9 blood clotting index.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "A Novel,Highly Efficient and Economic Purification Process Revolutionizing PTA Production"

    SciTech Connect

    Wytcherley, Randi; Balderston, Kristen; Ball,George; Chou, Tai-Li

    2008-06-06

    GTC Technology, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program and in collaboration with Montana State University, has completed pilot scale testing of a revolutionary new process to produce purified terephthalic acid (PTA), a crucial chemical commodity manufactured worldwide. Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is a starting material for the formation of polyester resin. Polyester resin is used to make many valuable commercial products, including clothing, plastic containers and films. In traditional PTA production, critical reactions are carried out at high temperatures and pressures, creating physically harsh and economically costly operating conditions. The chemical halide bromine is an essential ingredient for part of the conventional process. As a result of using bromine, the highly toxic and environmentally insidious compound methyl bromide is formed. The corrosive nature of bromine also mandates the use of specialized and expensive corrosion-resistant materials for plant construction. Plants processing PTA conventionally must also use copious amounts of precious water resources and manage costly water treatment operations. GTC’s new TA purification method employs a unique two-step crystallization process capable of operating at lower temperatures and pressures than traditional methods. Utilization of a highly selective, proprietary organic solvent blend also allows for the flexibility of accepting higher levels of impurities in the initial purification feedstock. The relaxed physical operating conditions combined with the effectiveness of the blended organic solvent allow for the efficient purification of feedstock created in a bromine free manner. Along with the elimination of bromine, the new purification technology drastically reduces energy costs and expensive wastewater treatment. Industry wide implementation in the United States alone could yield energy savings of 22 trillion BTU per year. In 2007, using the

  10. Psychosocial antecedents and consequences of workplace aggression for hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Demir, Defne; Rodwell, John

    2012-12-01

    To test a full model of the antecedents to and consequences of various forms of workplace aggression, considering psychosocial factors, for hospital nursing staff. Cross-sectional survey design. Two hundred and seven nurses and midwives working across wards within a medium to large Australian hospital completed the survey. The survey response rate was 26.9%. High frequencies of nurses reported exposure to workplace bullying and internal and external emotional abuse violence types. In terms of antecedents, bullying was linked to high negative affectivity (NA), as well as low supervisor support and coworker support. Internal emotional abuse was associated with low levels of these support variables, as well as high outside work support and low job control. External threat of assault was related to high job demands and NA. In terms of consequences, bullying and verbal sexual harassment were linked to increased psychological distress levels. Bullying and internal emotional abuse were related to lowered organizational commitment. Changes in job satisfaction were not found for any of the workplace aggression types. NA was a significant covariate for all analyses examining consequences of aggression. Different combinations of work conditions (job demands-resources) and individual levels of NA predicted certain types of aggression. Further, nurse perceptions of psychological distress and organizational commitment were affected by exposure to several types of aggression, even after controlling for NA as a potential perceptual bias. This study therefore extends previous research on workplace bullying as a stressor to other types of workplace aggression for nurses. The findings highlight factors that are important in considering effective prevention and intervention of workplace aggression among nursing staff, particularly those working in hospital settings. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Obstetric Antecedents to Body Cooling Treatment of the Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David B.; Lucke, Ashley M.; McIntire, Donald D.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Chalak, Lina F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obstetric antecedents were analyzed in births where the infant received whole-body cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all live-born singleton infants delivered at or beyond 36 weeks gestation from October 2005 through December 2011. Infants who had received whole-body cooling identified by review of a prospective neonatal registry were compared to a control group comprising the remaining obstetric population delivered at greater than 36 weeks but not cooled. Univariable analysis was followed by a staged, stepwise selection of variables with the intent to rank significant risk factors for cooling. Results A total of 86,371 women delivered during the study period and 98 infants received whole-body cooling (1.1/1,000 livebirths). Of these 98 infants, 80 (88%) newborns had moderate encephalopathy and 10 (12%) had severe encephalopathy prior to cooling. Maternal age less than or equal to 15 years, low parity, maternal body habitus (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2), diabetes, preeclampsia, induction, epidural analgesia, chorioamnionitis, length of labor, and mode of delivery were associated with significantly increased risk of infant cooling during univariable analysis. Catastrophic events to include umbilical cord prolapse (OR 14; 95%CI, 3–72), placental abruption (OR 17; 95%CI, 7–44), uterine rupture (OR 130; 95%CI, 11–1477) were the strongest factors associated with infant cooling after staged-stepwise logistic analysis. Conclusion A variety of intrapartum characteristics were associated with infant cooling for neonatal encephalopathy with the most powerful antecedents being umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and uterine rupture. PMID:24530976

  12. How different types of users develop trust in technology: A qualitative analysis of the antecedents of active and passive user trust in a shared technology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Le, Kim; Deitermann, Annika; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antecedents of trust in technology for active users and passive users working with a shared technology. According to the prominence-interpretation theory, to assess the trustworthiness of a technology, a person must first perceive and evaluate elements of the system that includes the technology. An experimental study was conducted with 54 participants who worked in two-person teams in a multi-task environment with a shared technology. Trust in technology was measured using a trust in technology questionnaire and antecedents of trust were elicited using an open-ended question. A list of antecedents of trust in technology was derived using qualitative analysis techniques. The following categories emerged from the antecedent: technology factors, user factors, and task factors. Similarities and differences between active users and passive user responses, in terms of trust in technology were discussed. PMID:24882059

  13. How different types of users develop trust in technology: a qualitative analysis of the antecedents of active and passive user trust in a shared technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Le, Kim; Deitermann, Annika; Montague, Enid

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antecedents of trust in technology for active users and passive users working with a shared technology. According to the prominence-interpretation theory, to assess the trustworthiness of a technology, a person must first perceive and evaluate elements of the system that includes the technology. An experimental study was conducted with 54 participants who worked in two-person teams in a multi-task environment with a shared technology. Trust in technology was measured using a trust in technology questionnaire and antecedents of trust were elicited using an open-ended question. A list of antecedents of trust in technology was derived using qualitative analysis techniques. The following categories emerged from the antecedent: technology factors, user factors, and task factors. Similarities and differences between active users and passive user responses, in terms of trust in technology were discussed.

  14. Examining External and Internal Poverty as Antecedents of Teen Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…

  15. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  16. Examining External and Internal Poverty as Antecedents of Teen Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…

  17. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  18. Antecedents of Low Vocational Identity in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, Carrie L.; Krieshok, Thomas S.

    This study examined antecedents related to low vocational identity in college freshmen. College students (N=360) completed the 35-item Low Vocational Identity Antecedents Scale (LVIAS) developed for this study, the Vocational Identity Scale (VIS), and other measures. Based on results from this sample, a 15-item LVIAS was developed that…

  19. High speed wind tunnel tests of the PTA aircraft. [Propfan Test Assessment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Little, B. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Propfans, advanced highly-loaded propellers, are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds, giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan-powered aircraft. NASA is currently sponsoring the Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) to provide basic data on the structural integrity and acoustic performance of the propfan. The program involves installation design, wind-tunnel tests, and flight tests of the Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan in a wing-mount tractor installation on the Gulfstream II aircraft. This paper reports on the high-speed wind-tunnel tests and presents the computational aerodynamic methods that were employed in the analyses, design, and evaluation of the configuration. In spite of the complexity of the configuration, these methods provide aerodynamic predictions which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  20. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Michael; Ackerman, Lauren; Baumann, Peter; Potter, David; Yoshida, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD) and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1), where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. (1). Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence? Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1), differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3) or finite (2 and 4), and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2) or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Experiments 3 and 4), wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure. PMID:26500579

  1. Acetate fluxes in Escherichia coli are determined by the thermodynamic control of the Pta-AckA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Enjalbert, Brice; Millard, Pierre; Dinclaux, Mickael; Portais, Jean-Charles; Létisse, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli excretes acetate upon growth on fermentable sugars, but the regulation of this production remains elusive. Acetate excretion on excess glucose is thought to be an irreversible process. However, dynamic 13C-metabolic flux analysis revealed a strong bidirectional exchange of acetate between E. coli and its environment. The Pta-AckA pathway was found to be central for both flux directions, while alternative routes (Acs or PoxB) play virtually no role in glucose consumption. Kinetic modelling of the Pta-AckA pathway predicted that its flux is thermodynamically controlled by the extracellular acetate concentration in vivo. Experimental validations confirmed that acetate production can be reduced and even reversed depending solely on its extracellular concentration. Consistently, the Pta-AckA pathway can rapidly switch from acetate production to consumption. Contrary to current knowledge, E. coli is thus able to co-consume glucose and acetate under glucose excess. These metabolic capabilities were confirmed on other glycolytic substrates which support the growth of E. coli in the gut. These findings highlight the dual role of the Pta-AckA pathway in acetate production and consumption during growth on glycolytic substrates, uncover a novel regulatory mechanism that controls its flux in vivo, and significantly expand the metabolic capabilities of E. coli. PMID:28186174

  2. The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety.

    PubMed

    Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2003-06-01

    Drawing on previous theorizing from both the prejudice and social anxiety literatures, a model of the antecedents and implications of intergroup anxiety is offered. It is argued that a lack of positive previous experiences with outgroup members creates negative expectancies about interracial interactions, which result in intergroup anxiety. This anxiety is posited to result in heightened hostility toward outgroup members and a desire to avoid interacting with outgroup members. Study 1 examined White participants' responses to interacting with Black people using a range of self-report measures; the associations between these responses supported the relationships outlined in the model. Study 2 explored White participants' responses to an anticipated interaction with a Black person or a White person. The findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about an interaction with a Black person, but not a White person, were associated with a lower likelihood of returning for the interaction.

  3. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    PubMed Central

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aims The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI, (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes, and (3) SI as a mediator of classroom practices to academic outcomes. Sample Participants were 126 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years) who took part in a science course during a 3-week residential summer program for talented adolescents. Method Participants completed self-report measures prior to the start of the summer program and at the end of the program. Summer program instructors completed ratings of students’ engagement during the program. Results Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the three study aims. After controlling for initial individual interest, perceived choice, instructor approachability, and course connections to real life were statistically significant predictors of SI during the summer program, with varying relations observed based on the form of SI (triggered, maintained-feeling, maintained-value). SI was positively related to individual interest and perceived competence in science at the end of the program as well as teacher-rated engagement; SI also mediated the relations of classroom practices to these outcomes. Conclusion Results suggest that classroom practices shape SI. In turn, SI supports motivation and engagement. Moreover, differentiated antecedents and outcomes of the three subcomponents of SI were identified, highlighting the utility of this three-component approach for studying SI. PMID:24175684

  4. Antecedents and consequences of situational interest.

    PubMed

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A; Messersmith, Emily E

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of classroom practices to academic outcomes. Participants were 126 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years) who took part in a science course during a 3-week residential summer programme for talented adolescents. Participants completed self-report measures prior to the start of the summer programme and at the end of the programme. Summer programme instructors completed ratings of students' engagement during the programme. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the three study aims. After controlling for initial individual interest, perceived choice, instructor approachability, and course connections to real life were statistically significant predictors of SI during the summer programme, with varying associations observed based on the form of SI (triggered, maintained-feeling, and maintained-value). SI was positively related to individual interest and perceived competence in science at the end of the programme as well as teacher-rated engagement; SI also mediated the associations of classroom practices with these outcomes. Results suggest that classroom practices shape SI. In turn, SI supports motivation and engagement. Moreover, differentiated antecedents and outcomes of the three sub-components of SI were identified, highlighting the utility of this three-component approach for studying SI. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of the phosphotransacetylase-encoding and acetate kinase-encoding genes (pta and ack) from Methanosarcina thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Wissmann, K; Ferry, J G

    1995-01-01

    Phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase catalyze the activation of acetate to acetyl coenzyme A in the first step of methanogenesis from acetate in Methanosarcina thermophila. The genes encoding these enzymes (pta and ack) have been cloned and sequenced. They are arranged on the chromosome with pta upstream of ack (M.T. Latimer, and J. G. Ferry, J. Bacteriol. 175:6822-6829, 1993). The activities of phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase are at least 8- to 11-fold higher in acetate-grown cells than in cells grown on methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine, or trimethylamine. Northern blot (RNA) analyses demonstrated that pta and ack are transcribed as an approximately 2.4-kb polycistronic message and that the regulation of enzyme synthesis occurs at the mRNA level. Primer extension analyses revealed a transcriptional start site located 27 bp upstream from the translational start of the pta gene and 24 bp downstream from a consensus archaeal boxA promoter sequence. S1 nuclease protection assays detected transcripts with four different 3' ends, each of which mapped to the beginning of four consecutive direct repeats. Northern blot analysis using an ack-specific probe detected both the 2.4-kb polycistronic transcript and a smaller 1.4-kb transcript which is the estimated size of monocistronic ack mRNA. A primer extension product was detected with an ack-specific primer; the 5' end of the product was in the intergenic region between the pta and ack genes but did not follow a consensus archaeal boxA sequence. This result, as well as detection of an additional 1.4-kb mRNA species, suggests processing of the polycistronic 2.4-kb transcript. PMID:7896690

  6. Perceived sexual harassment at work: meta-analysis and structural model of antecedents and consequences.

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Morales Domínguez, J F; Depolo, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Although sexual harassment has been extensively studied, empirical research has not led to firm conclusions about its antecedents and consequences, both at the personal and organizational level. An extensive literature search yielded 42 empirical studies with 60 samples. The matrix correlation obtained through meta-analytic techniques was used to test a structural equation model. Results supported the hypotheses regarding organizational environmental factors as main predictors of harassment.

  7. [Mobbing: a meta-analysis and integrative model of its antecedents and consequences].

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Depolo, Marco; Morales Domínguez, J Francisco

    2007-02-01

    Although mobbing has been extensively studied, empirical research has not led to firm conclusions regarding its antecedents and consequences, both at personal and organizational levels. An extensive literature search yielded 86 empirical studies with 93 samples. The matrix correlation obtained through meta-analytic techniques was used to test a structural equation model. Results supported hypotheses regarding organizational environmental factors as main predictors of mobbing.

  8. Work environment antecedents of bullying: A review and integrative model applied to registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Austin, Stéphanie; Boudrias, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    This review paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on work environment antecedents of workplace bullying and proposes an integrative model of bullying applied to registered nurses. A literature search was conducted on the databases PsycInfo, ProQuest, and CINAHL. Included in this review were empirical studies pertaining to work-related antecedents of workplace bullying in nurses. A total of 12 articles were maintained in the review. An examination of these articles highlights four main categories of work-related antecedents of workplace bullying: job characteristics, quality of interpersonal relationships, leadership styles, and organizational culture. A conceptual model depicting the interplay between these factors in relation to bullying is also presented. Suggestions regarding other factors to incorporate within the model (e.g., individual factors, outcomes of bullying) are provided to increase our understanding of bullying in registered nurses. This paper hopes to guide future efforts in order to effectively prevent and/or address this problem and ultimately ensure patient safety and quality of care provided by health care organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Responses of soil water percolation to dynamic interactions among rainfall, antecedent moisture and season in a forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiaoming; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of soil water percolation below the rooting zone and its responses to the dynamic interactions of different factors are important for the control of non-point source pollution. Based on 3600 scenarios in Hydrus-1D simulation, this study revealed the integrated effects of rainfall characteristics (rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity or MRI, time distribution characteristics of rainfall or TDC), antecedent moisture and the season on deep percolation (DP) at a forest site in Taihu Lake Basin, China. Results showed that Hydrus-1D model can well simulate the soil water dynamics at this site. Antecedent moisture had the greatest relative contribution to DP (85.7%), followed by rainfall amount (10.9%) and MRI (3.4%). As the antecedent moisture increased, the relative contribution of the season on DP increased from 0.0% to 16.4%. In comparison, that of MRI decreased from 58.7% to 38.5% and that of rainfall amount followed a bell shape pattern (greatest when the antecedent moisture was 0.26 m3 m-3). The relative contribution of antecedent moisture to DP in summer was the greatest (87.8%), while that of the rainfall was the least. The TDC influenced DP by affecting the responses of DP to other factors. When the rainfall amount was ⩾80 mm and the antecedent moisture content was ⩾0.34 m3 m-3, effect of TDC on DP could be observed. The DP of TDC_B (rainfall intensity linearly increased with time) was the lowest, while that of TDC_E (rainfall intensity kept constant with time) was the greatest. Findings of this study have practical significance for investigating the water and pollutant transport in vadose zone.

  10. Consideration of "g" as a Common Antecedent for Cognitive Ability Test Performance, Test Motivation, and Perceived Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Lam, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Several different analyses were used to test the hypothesis that test-taking motivation, perceived test fairness, and actual test performance are correlated only because they share a common antecedent. First, hierarchical regressions reveal that initial test performance has a unique influence on non-ability factors even after controlling for…

  11. Antecedents and consequences of intra-group conflict among nurses.

    PubMed

    Almost, Joan; Doran, Diane M; McGillis Hall, Linda; Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2010-11-01

    To test a theoretical model linking selected antecedent variables to intra-group conflict among nurses, and subsequently conflict management style, job stress and job satisfaction. A contributing factor to the nursing shortage is job dissatisfaction as a result of conflict among nurses. To develop strategies to reduce conflict, research is needed to understand the causes and outcomes of conflict in nursing work environments. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 277 acute care nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesised model. Nurses' core self-evaluations, complexity of care and relationships with managers and nursing colleagues influenced their perceived level of conflict. Conflict management style partially mediated the relationship between conflict and job satisfaction. Job stress had a direct effect on job satisfaction and core self-evaluation had a direct effect on job stress. Conflict and its associated outcomes is a complex process, affected by dispositional, contextual and interpersonal factors. How nurses manage conflict may not prevent the negative effects of conflict, however, learning to manage conflict using collaboration and accommodation may help nurses experience greater job satisfaction. Strategies to manage and reduce conflict include building interactional justice practices and positive interpersonal relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A novel fast mass transfer anaerobic inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor for PTA wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingwen; Zhao, Jinlong; Li, Kai; Xie, Shitao

    In this paper, a fast mass transfer anaerobic inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor (ILFBBR) was developed to improve purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater treatment. The emphasis of this study was on the start-up mode of the anaerobic ILFBBR, the hydraulic loadings and the operation stability. The biological morphology of the anaerobic biofilm in the reactors was also analyzed. The anaerobic column could operate successfully for 46 days due to the pre-aerating process. The anaerobic column had the capacity to resist shock loadings and maintained a high stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) and terephthalic acid removal rates at a hydraulic retention time of 5-10 h, even under conditions of organic volumetric loadings as high as 28.8 kg COD·m(-3).d(-1). The scanning electron microscope analysis of the anaerobic carrier demonstrated that clusters of prokaryotes grew inside of pores and that the filaments generated by pre-aeration contributed to the anaerobic biofilm formation and stability.

  13. Wind tunnel performance results of an aeroelastically scaled 2/9 model of the PTA flight test prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L.; Rose, Gayle E.; Podboy, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    High speed wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests of the SR-7A advanced prop-fan have been completed in support of the Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. The test showed that the SR-7A model performed aerodynamically very well. At the cruise design condition, the SR-7A prop fan had a high measured net efficiency of 79.3 percent.

  14. Studies on the reactivity of organometallic Ru-, Rh- and Os-pta complexes with DNA model compounds.

    PubMed

    Dorcier, Antoine; Hartinger, Christian G; Scopelliti, Rosario; Fish, Richard H; Keppler, Bernhard K; Dyson, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    The reactions of arene-metal complexes (arene=p-cymene, benzene or pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, metal=Ru, Rh or Os), including 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo-[3.3.1.1]decanephosphine (pta) and chloro co-ligands, with 9-methylguanine, adenine, and a series of nucleosides were studied in water to ascertain the binding modes. The products were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Tandem mass spectrometry was found to provide excellent information on preferential binding sites. In general, the N7 position on guanine (the most basic site) was found to be the preferred donor atom for coordination to the metal complexes. The X-ray structures of the precursor complexes, [(eta5-C10H15)RhCl(pta-Me)2]Cl2, [(eta6-C10H14)OsCl(pta)2]Cl, and [(eta6-C6H6)OsCl2(CH3CN)], are also reported.

  15. Deletion of poxB, pta, and ackA improves 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Zhang, Yongqiang; Xu, Danfeng; Xiang, Gang; Jia, Zongxiao; Fu, Shuilin; Gong, Heng

    2016-03-01

    To date, few studies have focused on reducing the toxic by-product acetate during 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, the effects of deleting the poxB, pta, and ackA genes, which are involved in the two main acetate synthesis pathways, on cell growth and 1,3-propanediol production were investigated. Although acetate synthesis via pyruvate oxidase (PoxB, encoded by poxB) generally seems unnecessary and wasteful, PoxB was shown to play an important role in K. pneumoniae. Deletion of poxB severely inhibited cell growth, and the poxB mutant exhibited an anomalously high accumulation of acetate in aerobic cultures and failed to produce an endogenous supply of carbon dioxide (CO2) in anaerobic cultures. It is interesting that both the aerobic and anaerobic growth defects of the poxB mutant were corrected by further deleting pta and ackA, which blocked the other main acetate synthesis pathway. The poxB-pta-ackA mutant excreted less acetate and showed an excellent ability to produce 1,3-propandiol. The final 1,3-propanediol yield and concentration in a 2-L fed-batch fermentation reached 0.66 (mol/mol) and 76.8 g/L, respectively, which were 16 and 15 % greater, respectively, than those of the parent strain.

  16. Antecedent ADHD, dementia, and metabolic dysregulation: A U.S. based cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith; Fluegge, Kyle

    2017-08-12

    Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association. An unadjusted ten-year lagged measure of a severe ADHD phenotype increases hospitalization risk for an all-listed Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) diagnosis (IRR: 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.35) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) discharge diagnosis (IRR: 1.15, 95% C.I.: 1.05-1.27). However, these relationships may be dependent upon the extent of metabolic dysregulation in a subtype-specific manner, as controlling for diabetes removes the significant association between antecedent ADHD and risk of AD but not LBD. These results indicate that the association between antecedent ADHD and dementia risk may be uniquely influenced by metabolic dysregulation, building upon prior discussion in this journal of a purported link between AD and diabetes. We tie the current findings to environmental risk factors that we have previously implicated in the etiology of ADHD to generate testable hypotheses on the underlying brain neurochemistry that may facilitate the link between metabolic dysregulation and dementia subtype risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An assessment of antecedent events influencing noncompliance in an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Call, Nathan A; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Cooper-Brown, Linda J; Boeiter, Eric W

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that various factors can influence noncompliance, including task novelty, rate of presentation, and task preference. This study examined the impact of selected antecedent variables on noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. In two experiments involving 6 typically developing children, the consequences for noncompliance remained constant. During Experiment 1, demands that included noncontingent access to adult attention were contrasted with the same demands that did not include attention within a multielement design. In Experiment 2, demands were altered by decreasing the difficulty or amount of work or providing access to attention. In both experiments, results indicated idiosyncratic responses to the manipulated variables, with decreases in noncompliance observed following introduction of one or more antecedent variables with 5 of the 6 participants. These results suggested that noncompliance can be reduced via changes in antecedent variables, including adding potential positive reinforcers to the task situation, and that it is possible to probe variables that alter noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. PMID:15293634

  18. Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Scott E; Wang, Gang; Courtright, Stephen H

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides meta-analytic support for an integrated model specifying the antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment. Results indicate that contextual antecedent constructs representing perceived high-performance managerial practices, socio-political support, leadership, and work characteristics are each strongly related to psychological empowerment. Positive self-evaluation traits are related to psychological empowerment and are as strongly related as the contextual factors. Psychological empowerment is in turn positively associated with a broad range of employee outcomes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and task and contextual performance, and is negatively associated with employee strain and turnover intentions. Team empowerment is positively related to team performance. Further, the magnitude of parallel antecedent and outcome relationships at the individual and team levels is statistically indistinguishable, demonstrating the generalizability of empowerment theory across these 2 levels of analysis. A series of analyses also demonstrates the validity of psychological empowerment as a unitary second-order construct. Implications and future directions for empowerment research and theory are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  19. The Historical Antecedents of the UPR School of Tropical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Santana, Raúl; Peña-Carro, Lucy; Rabionet, Silvia E

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with the historical antecedents of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University. It presents a general view of the social, institutional and conceptual factors that were correlated with the establishment of the STM. The authors start by examining the historical continuities and discontinuities present during the imperial transitions between Spanish colonial and U.S. military medicine at the turn of the 20th century. The clarification of these changes is important for the proper understanding of the emergence of tropical medicine in Puerto Rico, marked by the identification of the biological determinant of the so called "peasants' anemia." The essay focuses on two institutional precursor events: the Puerto Rico Anemia Commissions (1904-1908) and the Institute of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1912-1914). Their nature and work paved the way for the establishment of the STM. The notions of tropical medicine and diseases are considered as historical concepts. The support of the Rockefeller Foundation to several significant public health activities in Puerto Rico is also examined. Finally, the social and health conditions which prevailed at the time of the creation of the STM have been summarized. In general, the article provides a sense of historical context deemed essential to understand the emergence and evolution of the STM.

  20. Examining the Antecedents of U.S. Nonmarital Fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Marcia J.; VanOrman, Alicia G.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the dramatic rise in U.S. nonmarital childbearing in recent decades, limited attention has been paid to factors affecting nonmarital fatherhood (beyond studies of young fathers). In this article, we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to examine the antecedents of nonmarital fatherhood, as compared to marital fatherhood. Overall, we find the strongest support across both data sets for education and race/ethnicity as key predictors of having a nonmarital first birth, consistent with prior literature about women’s nonmarital childbearing and about men’s early/teenage fatherhood. Education is inversely related to the risk of nonmarital fatherhood, and minority (especially black) men are much more likely to have a child outside of marriage than white men. We find little evidence that employment predicts nonmarital fertility, although it does strongly (and positively) predict marital fertility. High predicted earnings are also associated with a greater likelihood of marital childbearing but with a lower likelihood of nonmarital childbearing. Given the socioeconomic disadvantage associated with nonmarital fatherhood, this research suggests that nonmarital fatherhood may be an important aspect of growing U.S. inequality and stratification both within and across generations. PMID:23576263

  1. The family antecedents and the subsequent outcomes of early puberty.

    PubMed

    Arim, Rübab G; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample (N = 8,440; 49% girls) included four cohorts of children who were followed biennially for 10 years, starting from age 4-11 to 14-21 years. Data were drawn at different years of age from these cohorts of children. Girls whose fathers were unemployed were more likely to experience early puberty than those whose fathers were employed. For boys, those living with fathers who had not finished secondary school were more likely to experience early puberty. Early maturing girls tended to engage in smoking and drinking at an earlier age compared with their peers. These findings provide support for psychosocial acceleration theory and suggest that different aspects of low family SES may act as a psychosocial stress for early pubertal maturation in boys versus girls, which may lead to engagement in drinking and smoking at a younger age, at least for girls.

  2. The antecedents and prevention of unwanted pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, M; McCann, L; Geis, B D

    1983-01-01

    Much of the research on the antecedents and consequences of birth control has focused on teenagers and members of racial minority groups, but the trends in contraceptive use indicate that the danger of unwanted pregnancy exists for most women throughout the childbearing ages of 14-45, for white and middle class women as well as minority women and women from the lower socioeconomic status levels. There are basically 4 choices open to the unmarried woman who conceives: giving the child up for adoption, keeping the child without marrying, and marriage. There are little data on the mental health consequences of giving a child up for adoption, but there is no question that the experience at the very least upsetting and may cause longterm trauma. Induced abortion is less traumatic, both physically and psychologically, than carrying a pregnancy to term, however, many women suffer from longterm depression following the procedure. The social, economic, and psychological consequences of single motherhood are clearly documented for both teenagers and older women. The most frequently cited problems are delayed or truncated emotional and social activities, unemployment, and role overload resulting from the responsibility of caring for a child without the support of a spouse. The pregnant teenager who does marry has a 50% probability of divorce within 4 years, and even if the couple does stay married they suffer some adverse consequences. In 1978 Zelnick and Kantner estimated that it would be possible to reduce the number of premarital pregnancies and presumably their psychological and economic consequences by at least 40% if all sexually active young women were to use a contraceptive method and to use it consistently. If the majority of all sexually active women were to use the most reliable methods of contraception, the unwanted pregnancy rate would be reduced even more markedly. Yet, reliable contraceptive behavior involves a complex sequence of psychological and behavioral

  3. Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil for Production of Green Diesel over Non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Lei, Jiandu; He, Jing; Deng, Lihong; Wang, Luying; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2015-01-01

    The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was developed to produce green diesel from the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil. The Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 with the co-precipitation method and then impregnanting Ni/Al2O3 with PTA solution. The catalysts were characterized with BET, SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and NH3-TPD. The Ni and W species of the Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst were much more homogeneously distributed on the surface than that of commercial Al2O3. Catalytic performance in the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated by GC. The maximum conversion of Jatropha oil (98.5 wt%) and selectivity of the C15-C18 alkanes fraction (84.5 wt %) occurred at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, 0.8 h−1. The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst is more environmentally friendly than the conventional sulfided hydroprocessing catalyst, and it exhibited the highest catalytic activity than the Ni-PTA catalyst supported with commercial Al2O3 grain and Al2O3 powder. PMID:26162092

  4. Antecedent reactivation by surface and deep anaphora in Norwegian

    PubMed Central

    HESTVIK, ARILD; NORDBY, HELGE; KARLSEN, GEIR

    2005-01-01

    Anaphora are expressions in language that depend on other linguistic entities for their full meaning. They can furthermore be divided into two types according to the level of representation where they find their antecedents: Surface anaphora, which resolve their reference at the sentence representation level, and deep anaphora, which resolve their reference at the non-grammatical level of discourse representation. The linguistic theory of these two anaphor types, and recent findings about processing differences at these two levels, combine to predict that surface anaphora should show fast and immediate reactivation of their antecedents, whereas deep anaphora should have a slower time course of antecedent reaccess. These predictions were confirmed with two lexical decision task experiments with Norwegian stimuli. PMID:15842413

  5. Examining external and internal poverty as antecedents of teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2004-01-01

    To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus of control, subject's educational expectations, and confidence in graduating from high school) and external poverty (parents' highest education). Prevention programs must begin before the eighth grade, instill an internal locus of control, promote academic achievement by enriching children's perception of personal life options for which an education is needed, empower children and their familial models, and prevent internal poverty.

  6. Are aphasic patients who fail the GOAT in PTA? A modified Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test for persons with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Jain, N S; Layton, B S; Murray, P K

    2000-02-01

    Because the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) requires oral or written response, it risks misclassifying as amnestic aphasic patients who are not, in fact, amnestic. To correct for possible classification errors due to anomia, a modified multiple-choice format of the GOAT (AGOAT) was developed. The average GOAT score of 10 control nonaphasic head-injured patients suggested that an AGOAT score of 90 corresponds to the standard GOAT cutoff of 75 for resolution of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). Using this criterion, 8 of 15 aphasic head-injured patients who technically were classified as amnestic on the GOAT were classified as nonamnestic on the AGOAT.

  7. Increased Proliferation as Independent Predictor of Disease Recurrence in Initial Stage pTa Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Johannes; Shalekenov, Sanzhar; Aziz, Atiqullah; van Rhijn, Bastiaan W.G.; Bründl, Johannes; Lausenmeyer, Eva; Schäfer, Julius; Denzinger, Stefan; Giedl, Christian; Burger, Maximilian; Hartmann, Arndt; Evert, Matthias; Otto, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the predictive impact of the proliferation biomarker Ki-67 on the clinical course of patients with initial stage pTa urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients treated by transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TUR-B) for UCB between 1992–2004 in a single-center. Disease recurrence (≥pTa UCB) and absent tumor in histopathology, assessed by TUR-B with a non-malignant result for endoscopic suspect bladder lesion displayed endpoints. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks was performed with an immunostainer using a primary antibody for Ki-67. Semiquantitative evaluation of Ki-67 was performed by three reviewers. Increased proliferation was defined with a cut-off value of ≥50%. Uni- and multivariable binary regression analyses were applied to address prediction of disease recurrence. Results: 215 patients (84% male, median age 69 years at first diagnosis) were evaluable and included to the study. 89 patients stayed disease-free (41%), 126 patients showed recurrence (59%). Recurrence rates of patients with Ki-67 expression <10%, 10–24%, 25–49% and ≥50% were 14.8% vs. 30.8% vs. 63.9% and 80.7%, respectively (p < 0.001). In Kaplan-Meier analysis patients with increased proliferation ≥50% showed a statistically significant worse 10-year recurrence-free survival (19% vs. 57%, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed instillation treatment (p = 0.001) and high proliferation of Ki-67 (p < 0.001) to be independent predictors of recurrence in stage pTa UCB. Conclusions: High proliferation with Ki-67 expression ≥50% was strongly associated with worse recurrence-free survival in patients with initial stage pTa UCB. Stage pTa UCB patients with increased Ki-67 expression should undergo a strictly follow-up regime comparable to stage pT1 bladder carcinoma, while at least patients with Ki-67 expression <10

  8. Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2 Triggers Local and Systemic Immune Response Against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Gruau, Charlotte; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Aziz, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Although induced systemic resistance (ISR) is well-documented in the context of plant-beneficial bacteria interactions, knowledge about the local and systemic molecular and biochemical defense responses before or upon pathogen infection in grapevine is very scarce. In this study, we first investigated the capacity of grapevine plants to express immune responses at both above- and below-ground levels upon interaction with a beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2. We then explored whether the extent of priming state could contribute to the PTA-CT2-induced ISR in Botrytis cinerea-infected leaves. Our data provide evidence that this bacterium colonized grapevine roots but not the above-ground plant parts and altered the plant phenotype that displayed multiple defense responses both locally and systemically. The grapevine roots and leaves exhibited distinct patterns of defense-related gene expression during root colonization by PTA-CT2. Roots responded faster than leaves and some responses were more strongly upregulated in roots than in leaves and vice versa for other genes. These responses appear to be associated with some induction of cell death in roots and a transient expression of HSR, a hypersensitive response-related gene in both local (roots) and systemic (leaves) tissues. However, stilbenic phytoalexin patterns followed opposite trends in roots compared with leaves but no phytoalexin was exuded during plant-bacterium interaction, suggesting that roots could play an important role in the transfer of metabolites contributing to immune response at the systemic level. Unexpectedly, in B. cinerea-infected leaves PTA-CT2-mediated ISR was accompanied in large part by a downregulation of different defense-related genes, including HSR. Only phytoalexins and glutathion-S-transferase 1 transcripts were upregulated, while the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes was maintained at a higher level than the control. This suggests that decreased

  9. Peritonsillar abscess: clinical aspects of microbiology, risk factors, and the association with parapharyngeal abscess.

    PubMed

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers

    2017-03-01

    transportation of appropriate specimens, choice of methodology for detection and quantification of microorganisms, current or recent antibiotic treatment of patients, potential shift in significant pathogens during the course of infection, and factors associated with increased risk of PTA development.  The trend towards de-escalated surgical intervention and increasing reliance on antibiotic treatment, require studies defining the significant pathogens in PTA in order to determine optimal antibiotic regimens. Complications secondary to PTA may be avoided or better controlled with improved knowledge concerning the significant pathogens in PTA. Furthermore, identification of pathogens other than GAS, may lead the way for earlier bacterial diagnosis and timely intervention before abscess formation in sore throat patients. The identification and quantification of risk factors for PTA development constitutes another approach to reduce the incidence of PTA. As clinicians, we noticed that FN was recovered from PTA patients with increasing frequency and that patients infected with Fusobacterium necrophorum (FN) seemed to be more severely affected than patients infected with other bacteria. Furthermore, we occationally observed concomitant PPA in addition to a PTA, which made us hypothesize that PPA and PTA is often closely related and may share significant pathogens. Hence, our aims were: 1. To explore the microbiology of PTA with a special attention to Fusobacterium necrophorum (FN). 2. To elucidate whether smoking, age, gender, and seasons are risk factors for the development of PTA. 3. To characterize patients with PPA, explore the relationship between PPA and PTA, identify the pathogens associated with PPA, and review our management of PPA. In a retrospective study on all 847 PTA patients admitted to the ENT department at Aarhus University Hospital (AUH) from 2001 to 2006, we found that FN was the most prevalent (23%) bacterial strain in pus specimens. FN-positive patients

  10. Childhood Antecedents and Maintaining Factors in Maladaptive Daydreaming.

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Somer, Liora; Jopp, Daniela S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the fantasy activity of 16 individuals who were seeking online peer-support and advice for maladaptive daydreaming (MD). MD is an under-researched mental activity described as persistent vivid fantasy activity that replaces human interaction and/or interferes with important areas of functioning. We employed a grounded theory methodology that yielded seven common themes presented as a sequential descriptive narrative about the nature, precursors, and consequences of MD. The presented "storyline" included the following themes: (1) daydreaming as an innate talent for vivid fantasy; (2) daydreaming and social isolation-a two-way street; (3) the role of trauma in the development of MD; (4) the rewards of daydreaming; (5) the insatiable yearning for daydreaming; (6) shame and concealment; (7) unsuccessful treatment attempts. A main conclusion of our study is that there is an urgent need for early identification of MD and its correct diagnoses in adulthood.

  11. Considering Antecedent Factors for Transplant Recipient Athletes Learning to Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Patient education about managing chronic illness is critical given the growing burden of health care costs on society. Transplant recipients are forced into obtaining and learning how to understand complex information. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to highlight learning barriers and effective techniques used to manage care through…

  12. Considering Antecedent Factors for Transplant Recipient Athletes Learning to Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Patient education about managing chronic illness is critical given the growing burden of health care costs on society. Transplant recipients are forced into obtaining and learning how to understand complex information. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to highlight learning barriers and effective techniques used to manage care through…

  13. Mass spectrometry and UV-VIS spectrophotometry of ruthenium(II) [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex in solution.

    PubMed

    Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; González, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Pablo; Romerosa, Antonio; Havel, Josef

    2009-12-01

    Ruthenium(II) complexes are of great interest as a new class of cancerostatics with advantages over classical platinum compounds including lower toxicity. The stability of the [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex (I) (Cp cyclopentadienyl, mPTA N-methyl 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) in aqueous solution was studied using spectrophotometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Spectrophotometry proves that at least three different reactions take place in water. Dissolution of I leads to fast coordination of water molecules to the Ru(II) cation and then slow hydrolysis and ligand exchange of chloride and mPTA with water, hydroxide or with trifluoromethane sulfonate itself. Via MALDI and LDI of the hydrolyzed solutions the formation of singly positively charged ions of general formula RuCl(p)(Cp)(q)(mPTA)(r)(H2O)(s)(OH)(t) (p = 0-1, q = 0-1, r = 0-2, s = 0-5, t = 0-2) and of some fragment ions was shown. The stoichiometry was determined by analyzing the isotopic envelopes and computer modelling. The [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex can be stabilized in dilute hydrochloric acid or in neutral 0.15 M isotonic sodium chloride solution. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antecedents to workplace injury in the health care industry: A synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Kimmel, Ashley; Savage, Grant; Lukas, Tiana; Walsh, Erin; Halbesleben, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has identified the health care industry as a major source of all U.S. workplace injuries. Studies have shown that injury within the health care workforce is related to high turnover rates, burnout, poor job satisfaction, and leaving the health care workforce permanently, thus contributing to the existing health care workforce shortages. The purpose of this synthesis of the literature was twofold. The first was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the occupational health and safety literature to determine the key antecedents to health care provider injury. The second was to utilize the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) framework to organize the findings. Empirical studies published between 1985 and 2013 examining work-related injuries sustained by nurses and nurses' aides were systematically reviewed and evaluated for inclusion in the synthesis of the literature. Thirty-six studies met the criteria for inclusion. Using the NIOSH framework, antecedent variables to workplace injury were identified and then grouped into three broad categories that were highlighted during the synthesis: organization of work, job characteristics, and safety programs and training. A fourth category, individual characteristics, was added based on its use by many studies. Over half of the studies (n = 20) included factors within the organization of work category. Over two thirds of the studies (n = 26) included job characteristics such as task and demand. Nine studies contained information related to safety programs and training, whereas 17 studies included information on individual factors. The findings suggest that the NIOSH framework, with the addition of individual characteristics, provide a foundation for conceptually organizing occupational health and safety studies. Health care administrators and leaders should be aware and understand the antecedents to workplace injury that will assist their organizations in developing

  15. Modeling Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…

  16. Contextual Antecedents of Informal Feedback in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijt, Janine; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together findings from different research angles on informal feedback in the workplace. We explore the individual and joint influences of three contextual antecedents of seeking feedback: support for learning, psychological safety, and work pressure. Based on our survey of 138 employees from various organizations, hierarchical…

  17. Developmental Trajectories and Antecedents of Distal Parental Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Groups of adolescents were identified on the basis of developmental trajectories of their families' rules and their parents' knowledge of their activities. Characteristics of the adolescent, peer antisociality, and family context were tested as antecedents. In sum, 404 parent-adolescent dyads provided data for adolescents aged 10-16. Most…

  18. Antecedents and Consequences of Work Engagement Among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Sayfouri, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Engaged nurses have high levels of energy and are enthusiastic about their work which impacts quality of health care services. However, in the context of Iran, due to observed burnout, work engagement among nurses necessitates immediate exploration. Objectives: This investigation aimed to identify a suitable work engagement model in nursing profession in hospitals according to the hypothesized model and to determine antecedents and consequences related to work engagement among nurses. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was given to 279 randomly-selected nurses working in two general teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) to measure antecedents and consequences of work engagement using the Saks’s (2005) model. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the model fitness. Results: Two paths were added using LISREL software. The resulting model showed good fitness indices (χ2 = 23.62, AGFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.07) and all the coefficients of the paths were significant (t ≥ 2, t ≤ -2). A significant correlation was found between work engagement and model variables. Conclusions: Paying adequate attention to the antecedents of work engagement can enhance the quality of performance among nurses. Additionally, rewards, organizational and supervisory supports, and job characteristics should be taken into consideration to establish work engagement among nurses. Further researches are required to identify other probable antecedents and consequences of nursing work engagement, which might be related to specific cultural settings. PMID:25763212

  19. Modeling Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…

  20. Student Trust and Its Antecedents in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Amit K.; Whipple, Thomas W.; Bryan, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Based on the belief that long-term marketing costs for colleges can be reduced by focusing on building trust, studied the antecedents to trust in students and alumni. Data collected from 250 students and alumni indicated that strategic plans that improve perceived sincerity, expertise, and congeniality of a college can be successfully used to…

  1. Antecedents of Medical Workplace Violence in South China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Liu, Meng; Yu, Min

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during…

  2. Competition Between Antecedent and Between Subsequent Stimuli in Causal Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcediano, Francisco; Matute, Helena; Escobar, Martha; Miller, Ralph R.

    2005-01-01

    In the analysis of stimulus competition in causal judgment, 4 variables have been frequently confounded with respect to the conditions necessary for stimuli to compete: causal status of the competing stimuli (causes vs. effects), temporal order of the competing stimuli (antecedent vs. subsequent) relative to the noncompeting stimulus,…

  3. Antecedents of Medical Workplace Violence in South China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Liu, Meng; Yu, Min

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during…

  4. The Antecedents of the Market Orientation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasmer, D. J.; Bruner, Gordon C. II

    1999-01-01

    Examines three antecedents of the market orientation for colleges and universities facing declines in enrollments and downsizing: (1) institution size (student enrollment); (2) source of funding (public/private); and (3) institutional innovativeness. Of the three, innovativeness was found to play the largest role. Discusses implications for…

  5. Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in Child Compliance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dannell Speights; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellipanni, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of positive antecedent (effective instruction delivery and time-in) and consequent components (contingent praise) on the compliance of 4 children in a clinic setting. Results suggest that the use of effective instruction delivery alone increased compliance above baseline levels for the 4 children and that the…

  6. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  7. Young Children's Social Information Processing: Family Antecedents and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from…

  8. Workplace Incivility: Worker and Organizational Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James E., II; Bartlett, Michelle E.; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Unresolved workplace conflicts represent the largest reducible costs to an organization (Keenan & Newton, 1985). As incivility increases (Buhler, 2003; Pearson, Andersson, & Wegner, 2001; Pearson & Porath, 2005) more research is being conducted (Tepper, Duffy, Henle, & Lambert, 2006; Vickers, 2006). This review examined antecedents (variables that…

  9. Further Evaluation of Antecedent Social Events during Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Luczynski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The value of a reinforcer may change based on antecedent events, specifically the behavior of others (Bruzek & Thompson, 2007). In the current study, we examined the effects of manipulating the behavior of the therapist on problem behavior while all dimensions of reinforcement were held constant. Both participants' levels of problem behaviors…

  10. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support and Antecedents of Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Williams, Sue W.; Gleason-Gomez, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the degree to which teachers' age, perceptions of fair pay, receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, and administrative support, as operationalized by the Competing Values Framework, predicted antecedents of turnover. Teachers' thoughts of leaving their current job and commitment to a center…

  12. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  13. Student Trust and Its Antecedents in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Amit K.; Whipple, Thomas W.; Bryan, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Based on the belief that long-term marketing costs for colleges can be reduced by focusing on building trust, studied the antecedents to trust in students and alumni. Data collected from 250 students and alumni indicated that strategic plans that improve perceived sincerity, expertise, and congeniality of a college can be successfully used to…

  14. Antecedents of Intent to Change Careers among Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Bernath, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the antecedents of intent to change careers among psychologists. Specifically, the research examined the importance of the following predictor variables: a multi-dimensional model of career commitment (career planning, career resilience, and career identity), job satisfaction, and conscientiousness. A…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support and Antecedents of Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Williams, Sue W.; Gleason-Gomez, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the degree to which teachers' age, perceptions of fair pay, receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, and administrative support, as operationalized by the Competing Values Framework, predicted antecedents of turnover. Teachers' thoughts of leaving their current job and commitment to a center…

  16. Information Theory for Information Science: Antecedents, Philosophy, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losee, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an historical overview of the theoretical antecedents leading to information theory, specifically those useful for understanding and teaching information science and systems. Information may be discussed in a philosophical manner and at the same time be measureable. This notion of information can thus be the subject of…

  17. Weld Bead Geometry of Ni-Based Alloy Deposited by PTA Process for Pipe Conduction of Shale Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echavarria-Figueroa, C.; García-Vázquez, F.; Ruiz-Mondragón, J.; Hernández-García, H. M.; González-González, D.; Vargas, A.

    The transportation of shale gas has the problem that the piping used for the extraction does not resist the erosion generated by the amount of solids causing cracks over the surface and it is necessary to extend the life of the pipelines. Plasma transferred arc (PTA) welded coatings are used to improve the surface properties of mechanical parts. Therefore, in this paper is studied the use of Ni-based filler metal as weld bead deposits on A36 steel substrates by PTA. In order to determine the suitable conditions to ensure coating quality on the substrate a design of experiments (DOE) was determined. Welding current, feed rate, and travel speed were used as input parameters and the dilution percentage as the response variable. The composition and properties of hardfacing or overlay deposited are strongly influenced by the dilution obtained. Control of dilution is important, where typically low dilution is desirable. When the dilution is low, the final deposit composition will be closer to that of the filler metal, and the wear and corrosion resistance of the hardfacing will also be maintained. To evaluate the features on the weld beads/substrate interface a microstructural characterization was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and to evaluate the mechanical properties was carried out hardness test.

  18. [Percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of non-penetrating injuries to the subclavian artery. A clinical case].

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, F; Boneschi, M; Giorgetti, P L; Lovaria, A

    1996-05-01

    Non penetrating injuries to the subclavian vessels are uncommon. We present a case of a young patient with an isolated blunt trauma of the right subclavian artery. The patient, a 25 year-old woman, was admitted to our Institute after a motor-vehicle accident, with a physical findings of absent peripheral pulses and right clavicular fracture, confirmed by non-invasive vascular evaluation and X-ray of the chest. Diagnosis was established by an urgent selective angiography that showed a subintimal hematoma with occlusion of the vessel and peripheral ischemia of the arm. The patient clinical status (hemodynamically stable) permitted a conservative management and a transluminal percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) with a trans-femoral catheter balloon. After radiologic treatment, the patient showed good palpable peripheral pulses. Clavicular fracture was treated by esternal stabilization. We believe that in selected patients, without other serious life-threatening injures, the intimal artery injury can be treated by a conservative and now also radiologic Therapy; PTA treatment avoids morbidity and mortality associated with surgical intervention.

  19. Does PtaRHE1, a poplar RING-H2 protein, play a role in water conduction through ABA signaling?

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Jihad; Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2014-01-01

    RING (REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE) proteins with E3 ligase activity are largely represented in plants. They have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes by recognizing target proteins for ubiquitination. PtaRHE1, encoding a poplar RING-H2 domain-containing protein with E3 ligase activity has been previously shown to be expressed during the establishment of secondary vascular system in poplar. In the present report, we demonstrate that the expression of PtaRHE1 and the accumulation of its corresponding protein are modulated by the relative atmospheric and soil humidity and by abscisic acid. Overall, the integrated data are discussed within a working model highlighting a plausible function of PtaRHE1 in the signaling and/or in the regulation of water status in poplar. PMID:24393707

  20. The comparative efficacy of antecedent exercise and methylphenidate: a single-case randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, J M; Allison, D B

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the comparative efficacy of antecedent exercise, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and placebo in the reduction of hyperactive behaviour in a pre-school boy. A single-case alternating treatments experimental design was employed for a total of 82 days. The dependent variable was the Conners' Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire. Antecedent exercise failed to reduce hyperactive behaviour. Methylphenidate produced significantly less hyperactive behaviour than both placebo and antecedent exercise (P = 0.0238). Neither methylphenidate nor antecedent exercise produced notable side-effects as measured by the Monitoring of Side-Effects Scale. These data add to a sparse literature on the effects of antecedent exercise and methylphenidate amongst pre-school children.

  1. Antecedent nonbladder syndromes in case-control study of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warren, John W; Howard, Fred M; Cross, Raymond K; Good, Janine L; Weissman, Myrna M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Langenberg, Patricia; Greenberg, Patty; Clauw, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Probing for clues to the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), we sought antecedent nonbladder syndromes that distinguished incident IC/PBS cases from matched controls. Female incident IC/PBS cases were recruited nationally, and their IC/PBS onset date (index date) was established. The controls were recruited by national random digit dialing and matched to the cases by sex, age, region, and interval between the (assigned) index date and interview. The prevalence of 24 nonbladder syndromes before the index date was assessed, 7 by multiple methods. The cases with IC/PBS had greater antecedent prevalence of 11 syndromes, and 243 of 313 cases (78%) vs 145 of 313 controls (45%) had multiple syndromes (P < .001). Fibromyalgia-chronic widespread pain (FM-CWP), chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome were associated with each other by pairwise and factor analyses using numerous assumptions. Cases with FM-CWP, chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome (n = 141, 45%) were more likely to have other syndromes (ie, migraine, chronic pelvic pain, depression, and allergy). Three other syndrome clusters were identified; each was associated with this FM-CWP cluster. Eleven antecedent syndromes were more often diagnosed in those with IC/PBS, and most syndromes appeared in clusters. The most prominent cluster comprised FM-CWP, chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome; most of the other syndromes and identified clusters were associated with it. Among the hypotheses generated was that some patients with IC/PBS have a systemic syndrome and not one confined to the bladder.

  2. Adoption of clinical decision support systems in a developing country: Antecedents and outcomes of physician's threat to perceived professional autonomy.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouyan; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh; Nezakati, Hossein

    2015-08-01

    The basic objective of this research is to study the antecedents and outcomes of professional autonomy which is a central construct that affects physicians' intention to adopt clinical decision support systems (CDSS). The antecedents are physicians' attitude toward knowledge sharing and interactivity perception (about CDSS) and the outcomes are performance expectancy and intention to adopt CDSS. Besides, we include (1) the antecedents of attitude toward knowledge sharing-subjective norms, social factors and OCB (helping behavior) and (2) roles of physicians' involvement in decision making, computer self-efficacy and effort expectancy in our framework. Data from a stratified sample of 335 Malaysian physicians working in 12 public and private hospitals in Malaysia were collected to test the hypotheses using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The important findings of our research are: (1) factors such as perceived threat to professional autonomy, performance expectancy, and physicians' involvement in making decision about CDSS have significant impact on physicians' intention to adopt CDSS; (2) physicians' attitude toward knowledge sharing, interactivity perception and computer self-efficacy of physicians play a crucial role in influencing their perceived threat to professional autonomy; and (3) social network, shared goals and OCB (helping behavior) impact physicians' attitude toward knowledge sharing. The findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence physicians' intention to adopt CDSS in a developing country. The results can help hospital managers manage CDSS implementation in an effective manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Individual and environmental antecedents of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Mościcka, Agnieszka; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the most common risk factors of bullying at the workplace. In the relevant literature one can find two main classes of bullying risk factors: environmental and individual. The most important environmental predictors of bullying are negative social climate, ineffective social communication and poor work organization. Among individual risk factors of bullying the most frequently pointed are functional features, such as low level of assertiveness, lack of social skills, ineffective coping with difficult situations and the few relatively stable individual characteristics, like neuroticism, trait anxiety, hostility and aggression. Most authors underline the crucial role of environmental factors in the development of bullying, and the individual characteristics of persons involved in this pathological relation are usually seen as the modifiers of bullying process.

  4. Antecedents of Coping with the Disease in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Due to many physical and mental disorders that occur in multiple sclerosis patients, identifying the factors affecting coping based on the experiences of patients using qualitative study is essential to improve their quality of life. This study was conducted to explore the antecedents of coping with the disease in patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted on 11 patients with multiple sclerosis in 2015 in Tehran, Iran. These patients were selected based on purposive sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured and in-depth interviews and coded. These data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis. The rigor of qualitative data using the criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln were assessed. Results: Five main categories were revealed: (1) social support, (2) lenience, (3) reliance on faith, (4) knowledge of multiple sclerosis and modeling, and (5) economic and environmental situation. Each category had several distinct sub-categories. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that coping with multiple sclerosis is a complex, multidimensional and contextual concept that is affected by various factors in relation to the context of Iran. The findings of the study can provide the healthcare professionals with deeper recognition and understanding of these antecedents to improve successful coping in Iranian patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. PMID:28097178

  5. Antenatal and early postnatal antecedents of parent-reported attention problems at 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Downey, L Corbin; O'Shea, T Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl; McElrath, Thomas F; Warner, Diane D; Ware, Janice; Hecht, Jonathan L; Onderdonk, Andrew; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To assess antenatal and early postnatal antecedents of attention problems identified by the Child Behavior Checklist in extremely preterm children. In a cohort of 826 children born between 23 and 27 weeks' gestation, we collected demographic, birth, and postnatal information. We then identified behavior problems by using parent ratings from the Child Behavior Checklist at 2 years' adjusted age. We created time-oriented logistic regression risk models to identify significant risk factors for attention problems and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-compatible attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHP(DSM)). Children were at increased risk of both attention problems if they were born to a woman who had no formal education beyond high school and/or a woman who was exposed to secondhand smoke. Recovery of a single organism from the placenta was associated with increased risk of an attention problem, and fetal stem vessel thrombosis and recovery of Mycoplasma species were associated with increased risk of ADHP(DSM). Infants of multifetal gestations were at reduced risk of both attention problems. The only postnatal risk factor for an attention problem was recovery of bacteria from a tracheal aspirate. Among extremely preterm infants, several potentially modifiable antenatal and perinatal antecedents are associated with increased risk for attention problems and ADHP(DSM) at 2 years adjusted age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antecedent rivers and early rifting: a case study from the Plio-Pleistocene Corinth rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelsdaël, Romain; Ford, Mary; Malartre, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    facies distribution throughout the early rift evolution. We show that the length scale of fluvial facies transitions is greater than and therefore not related to fault spacing. First order facies variations instead occur at the scale of the full antecedent fluvial system. Strike-parallel subsidence variations in individual fault blocks represent a second order controlling factor on stratigraphic architecture. As depocentres enlarged through time, sediments progressively filled palaeorelief, and formed a continuous alluvial plain above active faults. There was limited creation of footwall relief and thus no significant consequent drainage system developed. Here, instead of being diverted toward subsiding zones, the drainage system overfilled the whole rift from the onset of faulting. Moreover, the zones of maximum subsidence on individual faults are aligned across strike parallel to the persistent fluvial axis. This implies that long-term sediment loading influenced the growth of normal faults. We conclude that a major antecedent drainage system inherited from the Hellenide mountain belt supplied high volumes of coarse sediment from the onset of faulting in the western Corinth rift (around 4 Ma). These observations demonstrate that antecedent drainage systems can be important in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of rift basins.

  7. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance.

  8. Further evaluation of antecedent social events during functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, David E; Hardesty, Samantha L; Luczynski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The value of a reinforcer may change based on antecedent events, specifically the behavior of others (Bruzek & Thompson, 2007). In the current study, we examined the effects of manipulating the behavior of the therapist on problem behavior while all dimensions of reinforcement were held constant. Both participants' levels of problem behaviors increased as a function of the altered behavior of the therapist without direct manipulation of states of satiation or deprivation.

  9. Antecedent moisture and temperature conditions modulate the response of ecosystem respiration to elevated CO2 and warming.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Edmund M; Ogle, Kiona; Zelikova, Tamara J; LeCain, Dan R; Williams, David G; Morgan, Jack A; Pendall, Elise

    2015-02-25

    Terrestrial plant and soil respiration, or ecosystem respiration (Reco ), represents a major CO2 flux in the global carbon cycle. However, there is disagreement in how Reco will respond to future global changes, such as elevated atmosphere CO2 and warming. To address this, we synthesized six years (2007-2012) of Reco data from the Prairie Heating And CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment. We applied a semi-mechanistic temperature-response model to simultaneously evaluate the response of Reco to three treatment factors (elevated CO2 , warming, and soil water manipulation) and their interactions with antecedent soil conditions [e.g., past soil water content (SWC) and temperature (SoilT)] and aboveground factors (e.g., vapor pressure deficit, photosynthetically active radiation, vegetation greenness). The model fits the observed Reco well (R(2 ) = 0.77). We applied the model to estimate annual (March-October) Reco , which was stimulated under elevated CO2 in most years, likely due to the indirect effect of elevated CO2 on SWC. When aggregated from 2007 to 2012, total six-year Reco was stimulated by elevated CO2 singly (24%) or in combination with warming (28%). Warming had little effect on annual Reco under ambient CO2 , but stimulated it under elevated CO2 (32% across all years) when precipitation was high (e.g., 44% in 2009, a 'wet' year). Treatment-level differences in Reco can be partly attributed to the effects of antecedent SoilT and vegetation greenness on the apparent temperature sensitivity of Reco and to the effects of antecedent and current SWC and vegetation activity (greenness modulated by VPD) on Reco base rates. Thus, this study indicates that the incorporation of both antecedent environmental conditions and aboveground vegetation activity are critical to predicting Reco at multiple timescales (subdaily to annual) and under a future climate of elevated CO2 and warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The antecedents of buyers' perceived justice in online markets.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min

    2013-07-01

    The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice.

  11. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Exploration of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Applied Implications.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Creativity and innovation are at the core of important outcomes such as economic and sales growth, production of articles and students' learning. Thus, it is not surprising to find research articles on creativity and innovation across different disciplines such as business, psychology, and education. Given the importance of understanding creativity and innovation, we reviewed the empirical literature examining the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy in the work domain. Our review used the theory of individual creative action and social cognitive theory as guiding frameworks to place creative self-efficacy in the creativity and innovation process, define creativity and innovation, explore how creative self-efficacy has been measured, examine the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy, point out gaps in knowledge and offer suggestions for future research and provide some applied implications. One important finding was that creative self-efficacy has made a significant contribution as a process variable explaining how several organizational and personal factors influence creative outcomes via their influence on creative self-efficacy.

  12. Predisposing factors and management of complications in acute tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Gahleitner, Constanze; Hofauer, Benedikt; Stark, Thomas; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    RPA and NF was diagnosed with a sensitivity/specificity of 100%/94% in patients with acute tonsillitis and without suspicion for disease complication after ENT examination, but an age >35 years and serum CRP >15.5mg/dl. Acute tonsillitis represents a frequent disease in the otorhinolaryngology. Some patients exhibit disease aggravations resulting in (descending) peritonsillar abscess (PTA, dPTA), para-/retropharyngeal abscess (PPA, RPA), or necrotising fasciitis (NF). The study analyses the underlying predisposing factors. The retrospective cohort study includes a total of 1636 patients comprising 852 outpatients with acute bacterial tonsillitis, 279 in-patients with acute bacterial tonsillitis, 452 patients with PTA, 31 patients with dPTA/PPA, 12 patients with RPA, and 10 patients with NF. Patients were analysed for disease-related data. While leucocytes do not distinguish the sub-groups, C-reactive protein demonstrated a significant increase resulting in the highest level for RPA and NF (p < 0.0001). PTA and RPA are usually caused by streptococcus, dPTA/PPA by anaerobic bacterias, and NF mixed infections (p < 0.0001). Patients with PTA were younger than dPTA/PPA (p = 0.002) or RPA/NF (p < 0.0001). Subsequently, the rate of internistic comorbidities was significantly increased in RPA/NF (p < 0.0001). ROC-analysis identified cut-offs for age <36 years and CRP <15.5mg/dl to distinguish acute bacterial tonsillitis from RPA.

  13. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-01-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h−1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment. PMID:26503896

  14. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-10-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h-1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  15. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-10-27

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h(-1). The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  16. Antecedents and neuroimaging patterns in cerebral palsy with epilepsy and cognitive impairment: a population-based study in children born at term.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, Kristina; Jacobsson, Bo; Nilsson, Staffan; Himmelmann, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Antecedents of accompanying impairments in cerebral palsy and their relation to neuroimaging patterns need to be explored. A population-based study of 309 children with cerebral palsy born at term between 1983 and 1994. Prepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum variables previously studied as antecedents of cerebral palsy type and motor severity were analyzed in children with cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment and/or epilepsy, and in children with cerebral palsy without these accompanying impairments. Neuroimaging patterns and their relation to identified antecedents were analyzed. Data were retrieved from the cerebral palsy register of western Sweden, and from obstetric and neonatal records. Children with cerebral palsy and accompanying impairments more often had low birthweight (kg) (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.8), brain maldevelopment known at birth (p = 0.007, odds ratio ∞) and neonatal infection (odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.04-28.4). Moreover, neuroimaging patterns of maldevelopment (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 2.9-17.2), cortical/subcortical lesions (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 2.3-12.2) and basal ganglia lesions (odds ratio 7.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-41.3) were more common, wheras white matter injury was found significantly less often (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.5). In most children with maldevelopment, the intrapartum and postpartum periods were uneventful (p < 0.05). Cerebral maldevelopment was associated with prepartum antecedents, whereas subcortical/cortical and basal ganglia lesions were associated with intrapartum and postpartum antecedents. No additional factor other than those related to motor impairment was associated with epilepsy and cognitive impairment in cerebral palsy. Timing of antecedents deemed important for the development of cerebral palsy with accompanying impairments were supported by neuroimaging patterns. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of

  17. Antecedents of Attitudes to Aging: A Study of the Roles of Personality and Well-being.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Christina; Bei, Bei; Gilson, Kim-Michelle; Komiti, Angela; Jackson, Henry; Judd, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    Little research has examined factors that contribute to the formation of attitudes toward one's own aging. The current study aimed to examine personality as defined by the Five-Factor model of personality as an antecedent of attitudes, while taking into account demographic and health factors known to be relevant to such attitudes. Participants aged 60 years or older (N = 421) were part of a longitudinal study of health and well-being in Australia, and completed a postal survey comprising measures of personality, the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire, the SF-12 health survey, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Higher levels of neuroticism were associated with less positive attitudes toward old age as a time of psychological growth, and higher extraversion and agreeableness were significant predictors of less negative attitudes toward psychosocial loss. Baseline measures of self-reported mental and physical health, as well as change in those scores, also made significant contributions to attitudes toward aging. Personality was a significant antecedent of attitudes towards aging, as were mental and physical health. The data highlight the role of potentially modifiable factors, such as mental and physical health. If these factors act as resources that shape an individual's attitudes during the aging process, then one potential foundation for holding positive attitudes to aging is to maintain physical and mental health. This requires interventions and policies that are effective in encouraging health-promoting behaviors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Attitudinal and motivational antecedents of participation in voluntary employee development activities.

    PubMed

    Hurtz, Gregory M; Williams, Kevin J

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated factors influencing ongoing participation in employee development activities. A multiple-indicator structural equation model building on the theory of planned behavior and prior employee development literature was tested with a survey across 4 organizations on 2 occasions. The model uses reactions to past participation and past supportiveness of the social and organizational environment as indirect antecedents of participation, filtered through their impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward future participation. Learning goal orientation also influenced attitudes toward participation. Whereas personal control over participation and higher levels of voluntariness were negatively related to participation, intentions to participate and availability of opportunities arose as strong predictors of higher participation rates. Many significant hypothesized paths were found, and 85% of the variance in participation was explained by the model variables. Increasing employee awareness of opportunities and managing positive attitudes toward those opportunities are recommended as key factors for increasing participation rates.

  19. Identification and characterization of a matrix metalloproteinase (Pta1-MMP) expressed during Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seed development, germination completion, and early seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Ratnaparkhe, Supriya M; Egertsdotter, E M Ulrika; Flinn, Barry S

    2009-07-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications occur during plant growth, development, and in response to environmental stimuli. Key modulators of ECM modification in vertebrates, the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have also been described in a few plants. Here, we report the identification of Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) Pta1-MMP and its characterization during seed development and germination. Pta1-MMP protein has the structural characteristics of other plant MMPs, the recombinant protein exhibits Zn(2+)-dependent protease activity, and is inhibited by EDTA and the active site-binding hydroxamate inhibitor GM6001. The Pta1-MMP gene is expressed in both embryo and megagametophyte, with transcript levels increasing in both during the period from proembryo to early cotyledonary stage, then declining during late embryogenesis and maturation drying. Protein extracts exhibited similar developmental-stage MMP-like activity. Seed germination was stimulated by GA(3) and inhibited by ABA, and the timing of germination completion was mirrored by the presence of MMP-like protease activity in both water- and GA(3)-imbibed embryos. Pta1-MMP gene transcript levels increased in association with radicle protrusion for both GA(3)- and water-treated embryos, in agreement with MMP-like activity. In contrast, by 11 days after imbibition, Pta1-MMP gene transcripts in ABA-treated embryos were at levels similar to the other treatments, although MMP-like activity was not observed. The application of GM6001 during Loblolly pine seed germination inhibited radicle protrusion. Our results suggest that MMP activity may be involved in ECM modification, facilitating the cell division and expansion required during seed development, germination completion, and subsequent seedling establishment.

  20. Family, Employment, and Individual Resource-Based Antecedents of Maternal Work-Family Enrichment from Infancy through Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26641483

  1. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia without evidence of antecedent viral upper respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cristina Moran; Janvier, Jack; Zhang, Kunyan; Fonseca, Kevin; Gregson, Dan; Church, Deirdre; Laupland, Kevin; Rabin, Harvey; Elsayed, Sameer; Conly, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: USA300 community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains causing necrotizing pneumonia have been reported in association with antecedent viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI). METHODS: A case series of necrotizing pneumonia presenting as a primary or coprimary infection, secondary to CA-MRSA without evidence of antecedent viral URI, is presented. Cases were identified through the infectious diseases consultation service records. Clinical and radiographic data were collected by chart review and electronic records. MRSA strains were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural fluid or blood cultures and confirmed using standard laboratory procedures. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, agr typing and multilocus sequence typing. Testing for respiratory viruses was performed by appropriate serological testing of banked sera, or nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal or bronchoalveloar lavage specimens. RESULTS: Ten patients who presented or copresented with CA necrotizing pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA from April 2004 to October 2011 were identified. The median length of stay was 22.5 days. Mortality was 20.0%. Classical risk factors for CA-MRSA were identified in seven of 10 (70.0%) cases. Chest tube placement occurred in seven of 10 patients with empyema. None of the patients had historical evidence of antecedent URI. In eight of 10 patients, serological or nucleic acid testing testing revealed no evidence of acute viral coinfection. Eight strains were CMRSA-10 (USA300). The remaining two strains were a USA300 genetically related strain and a USA1100 strain. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA can occur in the absence of an antecedent URI. Infections due to CA-MRSA are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Clinicians need to have an awareness of this clinical entity, particularly in patients who are in risk

  3. Examination of an antecedent communication intervention to reduce tangibly maintained challenging behavior: a controlled analog analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; Zein, Farah El; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used to compare the effects of the antecedent communication intervention versus a no antecedent communication intervention condition. Immediately following the antecedent manipulations students were exposed to the tangible condition of the functional analysis. Results indicate that the antecedent communication intervention reduced challenging behavior in the subsequent tangible test condition for all three students. The importance of examining antecedent interventions to treat challenging behavior from a function analytic perspective is discussed.

  4. Academic Performance Antecedent Scale: validation with native and recent immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-Jer; Kuo, Kung-Bin; Cheng, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Wang, Han-Yu; Chang, Ya-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yi

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance of the three subscales of the newly developed Academic Performance Antecedent Scale (APAS)--School Factors, Mother's Parenting Style, and Individual Factors--across native and new immigrant children in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 527 Grade 4 students (M age = 10.4 yr., SD = 0.6), 263 boys and 264 girls. The three groups were urban and rural children of Taiwanese natives (n = 343, 65.1%), and 184 children with non-Taiwanese mothers (34.9%). The four-factor structure of the School Factors Subscale, the three-factor structure of the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale, and the five-factor structure of the Individual Factors Subscale all showed at least acceptable fit for the groups. In addition, metric invariance was confirmed for the School Factors and Individual Factors Subscales. Metric invariance was partially obtained for the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale. The findings provide validity evidences for cross-cultural generalizability of the APAS.

  5. The influence of antecedent conditions on flood risk in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; van den Hurk, Bart; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, flood risk management has focused on long-term flood protection measures. However, many countries are often not able to afford hard infrastructure that provides sufficient safety levels due to the high investment costs. As a consequence, they rely more on post disaster response and timely warning systems. Most early warning systems have predominantly focused on precipitation as the main predictive factor, having usually lead times of hours or days. However, other variables could also play a role. For instance, anomalous positive water storage, soil saturation and evapotranspiration are physical factors that may influence the length of the flood build-up period. This period can vary from some days to several months before the event and it is particularly important in flood risk management since longer flood warning lead times during this period could result in better flood preparation actions. This study addresses how the antecedent conditions of historical reported flood events over the period 1980 to 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa relate to flood generation. The seasonal-scale conditions are reflected in the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is calculated using monthly precipitation and temperature data and accounts for the wetness/dryness of an area. Antecedent conditions are separated into a) a short term 'weather-scale' period (0-7 days) and b) a 'seasonal-scale' period (up to 6 months) before the flood event in such a way that they do not overlap. Total 7-day precipitation, which is based on daily meteorological data, was used to evaluate the short-term weather-scale conditions. Using a pair of coordinates, derived from the NatCatSERVICE database on global flood losses, each flood event is positioned on a 0.5°x 0.5° grid cell. The antecedent SPEI conditions of the two periods and their joint influence in flood generation are compared to the same period conditions of the other years of the dataset. First results

  6. A survey of antecedents of attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareing, Carol

    Relationships among attitudes of students toward science, as measured by the WASP (Wareing Attitudes Toward Science Protocol), perceived antecedents of such attitudes, and class achievement or performance indicated by reported grades were investigated for a survey sample of 1,740 students in 87 high school science classes from five communities. Additionally, students' self-reported number of tests administered in a given course, perceived rewards, degree of stress, and internal structure of the course were examined as potential predictor variables. Results indicate a significant correspondence between report card grades, degree of structure, degree of stress, gender, degree of rewards, number of tests, and students' attitudes toward science.

  7. Antecedents of gregarious alcoholism: an a priori model.

    PubMed

    Thurber, S; Snow, M; Thurber, J

    1989-01-01

    Path analysis procedures were used to test a causal model that concerns possible antecedent conditions in relation to gregarious drinking patterns. Selected scales from The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and The Alcohol Use Inventory (AUI) constituted the assessments. The model was partially corroborated with reference to a group of 40 alcoholics (32 males; 8 females; M age = 33) in an outpatient treatment setting. The presumed causal variables accounted for 26% of the variance in self-reported gregarious drinking. Support was obtained for the assumption that certain interpersonal deficiencies may combine with beliefs in social benefits via alcohol usage to produce gregarious alcoholism.

  8. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings.

  9. Safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations: antecedents and consequences of safety behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Muñiz, Beatriz; Montes-Peón, José Manuel; Vázquez-Ordás, Camilo José

    2012-03-01

    The occupational health and safety standard OHSAS 18001 has gained considerable acceptance worldwide, and firms from diverse sectors and of varying sizes have implemented it. Despite this, very few studies have analysed safety management or the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations. The current work aims to analyse the safety climate in these organisations, identify its dimensions, and propose and test a structural equation model that will help determine the antecedents and consequences of employees' safety behaviour. For this purpose, the authors carry out an empirical study using a sample of 131 OHSAS 18001-certified organisations located in Spain. The results show that management's commitment, and particularly communication, have an effect on safety behaviour and on safety performance, employee satisfaction, and firm competitiveness. These findings are particularly important for management since they provide evidence about the factors that should be encouraged to reduce risks and improve performance in this type of organisation.

  10. Antecedents of positive self-disclosure online: an empirical study of US college students’ Facebook usage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant. PMID:28579840

  11. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Antecedents of positive self-disclosure online: an empirical study of US college students' Facebook usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant.

  13. Antecedents and consequences of social identity complexity: intergroup contact, distinctiveness threat, and outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Tausch, Nicole; Cairns, Ed; Hughes, Joanne

    2009-08-01

    Social identity complexity defines people's more or less complex cognitive representations of the interrelationships among their multiple ingroup identities. Being high in complexity is contingent on situational, cognitive, or motivational factors, and has positive consequences for intergroup relations. Two survey studies conducted in Northern Ireland examined the extent to which intergroup contact and distinctiveness threat act as antecedents, and outgroup attitudes as consequences, of social identity complexity. In both studies, contact was positively, and distinctiveness threat negatively, associated with complex multiple ingroup perceptions, whereas respondents with more complex identity structures also reported more favorable outgroup attitudes. Social identity complexity also mediated the effects of contact and distinctiveness threat on attitudes. This research highlights that the extent to which individuals perceive their multiple ingroups in more or less complex and differentiated ways is of central importance to understanding intergroup phenomena.

  14. Obstetric antecedents to body-cooling treatment of the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David B; Lucke, Ashley M; McIntire, Donald D; Sánchez, Pablo J; Leveno, Kenneth J; Chalak, Lina F

    2014-08-01

    Obstetric antecedents were analyzed in births in which the infant received whole-body cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. This retrospective cohort study included all live-born singleton infants delivered at or beyond 36 weeks' gestation from October 2005 through December 2011. Infants who had received whole-body cooling identified by review of a prospective neonatal registry were compared with a control group comprising the remaining obstetric population delivered at greater than 36 weeks but not cooled. Univariable analysis was followed up by a staged, stepwise selection of variables with the intent to rank significant risk factors for cooling. A total of 86,371 women delivered during the study period and 98 infants received whole-body cooling (1.1 per 1000 live births). Of these 98 infants, 80 newborns (88%) had moderate encephalopathy and 10 (12%) had severe encephalopathy prior to cooling. Maternal age of 15 years or younger, low parity, maternal body habitus (body mass index of ≥40 kg/m(2)), diabetes, preeclampsia, induction, epidural analgesia, chorioamnionitis, length of labor, and mode of delivery were associated with significantly increased risk of infant cooling during a univariable analysis. Catastrophic events to include umbilical cord prolapse (odds ratio [OR], 14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3-72), placental abruption (OR, 17; 95% CI, 7-44), uterine rupture (OR, 130; 95% CI, 11-1477) were the strongest factors associated with infant cooling after staged-stepwise logistic analysis. A variety of intrapartum characteristics were associated with infant cooling for neonatal encephalopathy, with the most powerful antecedents being umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and uterine rupture. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying antecedent and illness course variables differentiating bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; McCraw, Stacey; Futeran, Shulamit; Hong, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Clinical differentiation of bipolar conditions (and especially bipolar II disorder) from unipolar conditions is not always straightforward. We sought to identify illness antecedents and correlates that may assist their differentiation and complement clinical symptoms. We undertook detailed comparative analyses of comprehensive data obtained from patients diagnosed with a bipolar or unipolar mood disorder. The sample comprised 138 bipolar (45 bipolar I and 93 bipolar II) and 214 unipolar participants. Univariate analyses identified numerous differentiating variables, while multivariate analyses generated a refined variable list to determine discriminatory capacity. Controlling for all other factors, those with a bipolar (I or II) condition were more likely than the unipolar sub-set to report a family history of bipolar disorder, experiencing bullying at school, to make a suicide/self-harm attempt, and be less likely to be clinically judged as having 'problematic' personality traits. Factors differentiating bipolar II from unipolar sub-sets included the aforementioned variables, as well as higher rates of lifetime heavy drinking and female gender, and briefer depressive episodes in the bipolar II group. Bipolar I and II sub-sets differentiated solely by higher rates of hospitalization in the former group. Some study variables (e.g., hospitalization) may merely reflect DSM-IV diagnostic criteria or consequences rather than illness antecedents or correlates. Other self-reported variables (e.g., bullying) are subject to memory biases, and may reflect higher-order variables (e.g., early problematic personality traits). Study findings provide assistance to determining non-symptom features that may improve discrimination of the bipolar disorders from themselves and from unipolar conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antecedents and sequelae of sudden parental death in offspring and surviving caregivers.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Nadine M; Walker, Monica; Moritz, Grace; Brent, David A

    2008-05-01

    To examine the psychiatric antecedents that put parents at risk for early death, and the psychological sequelae of bereavement in offspring and caregivers. A population-based study. Bereaved families were recruited through the coroner's records and by advertisement. Control families were recruited by random-digit dialing and advertisement. Families with biological offspring from 7 to 25 years of age in which 1 parent died of suicide, accident, or sudden natural death were included (n = 140). Controls (n = 99) had 2 living parents and their biological offspring and had no death of a first-degree relative within the past 2 years. Lifetime psychiatric history for deceased parents (probands) and new-onset psychiatric disorders, self-reported symptoms, and functional status in offspring and surviving caregivers. Bipolar disorder, substance abuse, and personality disorders are more common in probands who died of suicide or accident than in control parents. Bereaved offspring and their caregivers were at increased risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Bereaved offspring had a 3-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.0) increased risk of depression, even after controlling for antecedent and concomitant risk factors. Offspring bereaved by suicide showed similar outcomes compared with those bereaved by other types of death. Bereavement conveys an increased risk of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder above and beyond other vulnerability factors. Better integration of medical and psychiatric care may prevent premature parental death, but once it occurs, physicians should be alert to the increased risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in bereaved offspring and their caregivers.

  17. Antecedents and Sequelae of Sudden Parental Death in Offspring and Surviving Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Walker, Monica; Moritz, Grace; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the psychiatric antecedents that put parents at risk for early death, and the psychological sequelae of bereavement in offspring and caregivers. Design A population-based study. Setting Bereaved families were recruited through the coroner’s records and by advertisement. Control families were recruited by random-digit dialing and advertisement. Participants Families with biological offspring from 7 to 25 years of age in which 1 parent died of suicide, accident, or sudden natural death were included (n=140). Controls (n=99) had 2 living parents and their biological offspring and had no death of a first-degree relative within the past 2 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime psychiatric history for deceased parents (probands) and new-onset psychiatric disorders, self-reported symptoms, and functional status in offspring and surviving caregivers. Results Bipolar disorder, substance abuse, and personality disorders are more common in probands who died of suicide or accident than in control parents. Bereaved offspring and their caregivers were at increased risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Bereaved offspring had a 3-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.3–7.0) increased risk of depression, even after controlling for antecedent and concomitant risk factors. Offspring bereaved by suicide showed similar outcomes compared with those bereaved by other types of death. Conclusions Bereavement conveys an increased risk of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder above and beyond other vulnerability factors. Better integration of medical and psychiatric care may prevent premature parental death, but once it occurs, physicians should be alert to the increased risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in bereaved offspring and their caregivers. PMID:18458185

  18. Impact of antecedent climate on fire regimes in coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Severe fire weather is a major determinant of fire size in coastal California; however, it is unclear to what extent antecedent climate also controls fire activity. This study investigates the relationship between fire activity and climate in central coastal and southern California. Climate variables included the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), total monthly precipitation, mean monthly maximum temperature and the autumn and winter Southern Oscillation Indices (SOI). For both the central coast and the south coast regions there was no significant relationship between growing season PDSI, precipitation or temperature and number of fires. When examined by season, summer temperatures were positively correlated with number of fires in the central coast and autumn PDSI and precipitation were negatively correlated with fire occurrence in the south coast region. Area burned was not correlated with any current year climate variables in southern California although, in the central coast, drought during spring and autumn were correlated, but explained less than 10% of the variation in the area burned. Although there was a modest relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and local climate parameters, there was only a relatively weak relationship with fire activity. The importance of autumn foehn winds is illustrated by the observation that large fires occur most commonly during the autumn, regardless of PDSI. Antecedent climate, however, does appear to play some role in determining the length of the fire season on these landscape as PDSI is consistently related to the occurrence of large fires that occur before or after the autumn months.

  19. Robust Parameter Identification to Perform the Modeling of pta and poxB Genes Deletion Effect on Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Torres, V; Rios-Lozano, M; Badillo-Corona, J A; Chairez, I; Garibay-Orijel, C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design a robust parameter identification algorithm to characterize the effect of gene deletion on Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655. Two genes (pta and poxB) in the competitive pathways were deleted from this microorganism to inhibit pyruvate consumption. This condition deviated the E. coli metabolism toward the Krebs cycle. As a consequence, the biomass, substrate (glucose), lactic, and acetate acids as well as ethanol concentrations were modified. A hybrid model was proposed to consider the effect of gene deletion on the metabolism of E. coli. The model parameters were estimated by the application of a least mean square method based on the instrument variable technique. To evaluate the parametric identifier method, a set of robust exact differentiators, based on the super-twisting algorithm, was implemented. The hybrid model was successfully characterized by the parameters obtained from experimental information of E. coli MG1655. The significant difference between parameters obtained with wild-type strain and the modified (with deleted genes) justifies the application of the parametric identification algorithm. This characterization can be used to optimize the production of different byproducts of commercial interest.

  20. Control of acetate production rate in Escherichia coli by regulating expression of single-copy pta using lacI(Q) in multicopy plasmid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Gu; Liao, James C

    2008-02-01

    A tightly regulated gene expression system composed of a single-copy target gene under the control of a lac promoter derivative and lacI gene in a multicopy plasmid is proposed, and its ability to control the flux of a metabolic pathway is demonstrated. A model system to control the flux of acetyl-CoA to acetyl phosphate was constructed by integrating pta, a gene encoding phosphotransacetylase, under a tac promoter into the chromosome of E. coli with a pta-negative background and transforming a multicopy plasmid containing the lac iota(Q) gene into the strain. The production rate of acetate was shown to be tightly controlled when varying the concentration of the inducer (IPTG) in the model system.

  1. Starting up a Firm or Not: Differences in the Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varamäki, Elina; Joensuu, Sanna; Viljamaa, Anmari

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) and their antecedents have been extensively studied in student populations. The results suggest that higher education does not promote the formation of EI in students. This article examines the antecedents of intentions in two different student populations: those who are currently starting a firm and those who are…

  2. Antecedents of Absorptive Capacity: A New Model for Developing Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei-Zadeh, Mohammad; Darwish, Tamer K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated framework to indicate which antecedents of absorptive capacity (AC) influence its learning processes, and to propose testing of this model in future work. Design/methodology/approach Relevant literature into the antecedents of AC was critically reviewed and analysed with the objective…

  3. Starting up a Firm or Not: Differences in the Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varamäki, Elina; Joensuu, Sanna; Viljamaa, Anmari

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) and their antecedents have been extensively studied in student populations. The results suggest that higher education does not promote the formation of EI in students. This article examines the antecedents of intentions in two different student populations: those who are currently starting a firm and those who are…

  4. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Retirement Planning and Decision-Making: A Meta-Analysis and Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Morales, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement…

  6. Brief Experimental Analysis of Antecedent Variables Related to Noncompliance in Young Children in an Outpatient Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Tracy J.; Wacker, David P.; Cooper, Linda; Richman, David; Kayser, Krista

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a methodology for analyzing the interactive effects of two different antecedent variables on child noncompliance in an outpatient clinic. Phase 1 of this study consisted of antecedent manipulations to identify situations that occasioned problematic behaviors (i.e., presence or absence of the…

  7. Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs on the Antecedents to Bullying: A Concept Mapping Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Joel A.; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, researchers gathered Canadian pre-service teachers' beliefs on the antecedents to bullying. Concept mapping (Kane & Trochim, 2007) was used to analyze the data. This study's findings identified pre-service teachers to have accurate beliefs, inaccurate beliefs, and a lack of knowledge about the antecedents to bullying. Concept…

  8. Antecedents and Consequences of Retirement Planning and Decision-Making: A Meta-Analysis and Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Morales, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement…

  9. Peritonsillar abscess (PTA): clinical characteristics, microbiology, drug exposures and outcomes of a large multicenter cohort survey of 412 patients hospitalized in 13 French university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter survey in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 describing 412 patients. Median age was 29 year (range, 2-84) and current smoking habit was reported by 177 (43 %) patients. Most of the patients (92 %) had consulted a physician for sore throat within 10 days before admission for PTA diagnosis. Additional symptoms such as visible tonsil abnormalities (83 %), tender cervical adenopathy (57 %) and fever ≥ 38.5 °C (53 %) were also reported. A total of 65 % patients (269/412) reported recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure by medical prescription (70 %), self-medication (22 %), or both (8 %); 61 % and 27 % reported recent exposure to antibiotic and topical treatments for sore throat, respectively. Non-steroidal AIAs were used most often (45 %), particularly arylpropionic derivatives. A rapid diagnosis antigen test (RDT) for Streptococcus pyogenes was performed in 70 (17 %) patients and was positive in 17 (24 %), of whom 9 (53 %) were exposed to AIAs and 14 (82 %) to antibiotics. To treat PTA, antibiotic therapy was given to 392 (95 %) patients. Of 333 antibiotic prescriptions, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and metronidazole were the most prescribed antibiotics (42 and 17 %, respectively). Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed in 119 (29 %) cases and tonsillectomy in 75 (18 %) cases. The clinical outcome was favorable during the hospital stay in 404 (98 %) patients. In conclusion, patients with sore throat are often exposed to AIAs before PTA diagnosis, and antibiotic prescription was not often based on the RDT positivity.

  10. Anaerobic-aerobic treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) effluent; a techno-economic alternative to two-stage aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Pophali, G R; Khan, R; Dhodapkar, R S; Nandy, T; Devotta, S

    2007-12-01

    This paper addresses the treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) effluent using anaerobic and aerobic processes. Laboratory studies were carried out on flow proportionate composite wastewater generated from the manufacturing of PTA. An activated sludge process (ASP-two stage and single stage) and an upflow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AFFFBR) were used, individually and in combination. The performance of a full-scale ETP under existing operating conditions was also studied. Full scale ETP studies revealed that the treatment of PTA effluent using a two-stage ASP alone does not meet treated effluent quality within the prescribed Indian Standards. The biomass produced in the two stage ASP was very viscous and fluffy and the sludge volume index (SVI) was very high (200-450 ml/g). However, pretreatment of PTA effluent using an upflow AFFFBR ensured substantial reduction in BOD (63%) and COD (62%) with recovery of biogas at 1.8-1.96 l/l effluent treated at a volumetric loading rate (VLR) 4-5 kg COD/m(3) d. The methane content in the biogas varied between 55% and 60%. The pretreated effluent from the upflow AFFFBR was then treated through a single stage ASP. The biomass produced in the ASP after anaerobic treatment had very good settlability (SVI: 75-90 ml/g) as compared to the two stage ASP and the treated effluent quality with respect to BOD, COD and SS was within the prescribed Indian Standards. The alternative treatment process comprising an upflow AFFFBR and a single stage ASP ensured net power saving of 257 kW and in addition generated 442 kW of power through the AFFFBR.

  11. Comparative 16S rRNA gene surveys of granular sludge from three upflow anaerobic bioreactors treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Scalfone, N B; Angenent, L T

    2011-01-01

    The microbial communities from three upflow anaerobic bioreactors treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater were characterized with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing surveys. Universal bacterial and archaeal primers were used to compare the bioreactor communities to each other. A total of 1,733 bacterial sequences and 383 archaeal sequences were characterized. The high number of Syntrophus spp. and Pelotomaculum spp. found within these reactors indicates efficient removal of benzoate and terephthalate. Under anaerobic conditions benzoate can be degraded through syntrophic associations between these bacteria and hydrogen-scavenging microbes, such as Desulfovibrio spp. and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which remove H(2) to force the thermodynamically unfavourable reactions to take place. The authors did not observe a relatively high percentage of hydrogenotrophic methanogens with the archaeal gene survey because of a high acetate flux (acetate is a main component in PTA wastewater and is the main degradation product of terephthalate/benzoate fermentation), and because of the presence of Desulfovibrio spp. (a sulfate reducer that scavenges hydrogen). The high acetate flux also explains the high percentage of acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosaeta among the archaeal sequences. A group of uncultured bacteria (OD1) may be involved in the degradation of p-toluate (4-methyl benzoate), which is a component of PTA wastewater.

  12. Antecedents of Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Kenny, Michael J.; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H.; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. OBJECTIVES: To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. METHODS: This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. RESULTS: Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥37.5°C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained. PMID:23071210

  13. Antecedents of neonatal encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Karin B; Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Kenny, Michael J; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F

    2012-11-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥ 36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤ 3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥ 37.5 °C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained.

  14. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  15. Internal marketing and the antecedents of nurse satisfaction and loyalty.

    PubMed

    Peltier, James W; Pointer, Lucille; Schibrowsky, John A

    2008-01-01

    Employee satisfaction and retention are critical issues that influence the success of any organization. Yet, one of the most critical problems facing the worldwide health care industry is the shortage of qualified nurses. Recent calls have been made within the traditional nursing literature for research that utilizes marketing and business models to better understand nurse satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study is to develop scales that can be used to empirically test a model of the proposed antecedents of nurse job satisfaction and loyalty which have been used widely in the internal marketing and the relationship-marketing literature. Specifically, the study will investigate the degree to which structural bonding, social bonding, financial bonding activities, and quality of care impact how well nurses are satisfied with their job and their commitment to the organization. The results show that quality of care most impacted nurse satisfaction and loyalty, followed by structural, social, and financial bonds.

  16. Explaining potential antecedents of workplace social support: reciprocity or attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A; Johnson, Adam L; Semmer, Norbert K; Hendricks, Elizabeth A; Webster, Heather A

    2004-10-01

    Effects of social support are an important topic in occupational stress theories and research, yet little is known about support's potential antecedents. Based on reciprocity theory, the authors hypothesized that the social support received is related to the extent the employee performs organizational citizenship behaviors directed at individuals and to one's social competence; based on the notion of personal attraction, the authors hypothesized that employees' physical attractiveness and sense of humor would be associated with the amount of social support received. In a survey of 123 high school employees and separate ratings of their attractiveness, reciprocity variables were related but attraction variables were not related to social support availability. Further research should examine reciprocity in predicting social support.

  17. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    PubMed

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations—such as the readiness potential—as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  19. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed.

  20. The immediate antecedents of myocardial infarction in active men

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, T.; Shephard, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The antecedents of myocardial infarction have been reviewed in 102 patients (117 episodes) undergoing a program of rehabilitation. The year prior to the first attack was characterized by business and social problems, with some weight gain; in the week before the attach there was added tiredness, poor general health and, in some cases, increasing anginal pain. Heavy lifting and/or unusual exercise were common immediately before or during an attack; five attacks were related to the shovelling of wet snow. Both bed and the normal place of work were uncommon sites for an attack. More than 50% of patients had 30 minutes' warning of infarction. The relevance of these findings to a safe program of therapeutic exercise is discussed. PMID:4717086

  1. Positive antecedent and consequent components in child compliance training.

    PubMed

    Speights Roberts, Dannell; Tingstrom, Daniel H; Olmi, D Joe; Bellipanni, Kimberly D

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of positive antecedent (effective instruction delivery and time-in) and consequent components (contingent praise) on the compliance of 4 children in a clinic setting. Results suggest that the use of effective instruction delivery alone increased compliance above baseline levels for the 4 children and that the additions of time-in and contingent praise further increased compliance for 3 of the 4 children. All three positive treatment components resulted in compliance greater than 80% for all children. Compliance levels were maintained at 1-month follow-up for 2 children. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits to using all of the positive components in compliance training.

  2. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity.

  3. Risk factors of post renal transplant anaemia among Sudanese patients, a study in three renal transplant centres

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a relative lack of recent information about late post kidney transplantation anaemia (PTA), especially in the developing countries; data are scarce about the prevalence and risk factors of PTA. Sudan was a leading country in Africa and Arab world in kidney transplantation. The first kidney transplantation in Sudan was in 1973. Methods This is a cross-sectional hospital analytic study enrolling all kidney transplanted recipients following in the transplant referral clinics at Ahmed Gassim, Selma and Ibn Sina Hospitals, Khartoum/Sudan, in the period from 1/8/2010 to 1/9/2010, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 114 patients, anaemia was defined as Hb levels of < 13 g/dl for male patients and < 12 g/dl for female patients, exclusion criteria were pregnancy, below 18 years old patients, multiple organ transplantation, and patients with less than one year from the transplantation. Results The study showed that 39.5% of the patients were anaemic. Univariate analysis showed that late PTA is significantly associated with not using Erythropoietin (EPO) in the pre-transplant period (p = < 0.001), history of rejection (p = 0.003), longer time from transplantation (p = 0.015), and eGFR (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that eGFR (p = < 0.001) and not use of EPO in the pre transplant period (p < 0.001) are strong predictors of PTA. The use of Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/Angiotensin receptors blockers (ACEI/ARB), immunosuppressive treatments, presence or absence of co-morbidities, donor type and donor age are not significantly associated with late PTA. Conclusion The study concluded that late PTA is common and under recognized. Risk factors for late PTA include renal dysfunction, history of rejection, longer duration of transplantation and not using EPO in the pre-transplant period. Renal dysfunction and not using EPO in the pre-transplant period are major predictors of late PTA. PMID:21827693

  4. Antecedents of Manic versus Other First-Psychotic Episodes in 263 Bipolar-I Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perez, Jesus; Faedda, Gianni L.; Amore, Mario; Maggini, Carlo; Tohen, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Since initial episode-type can predict later morbidity in bipolar disorder, we tested the hypothesis that clinical antecedents might predict initial episode-types. Method We studied 263 first-episode, adult, DSM-IV-TR type-I bipolar disorder (BD-I) subjects within the McLean-Harvard-International First-Episode Project. Based on blinded assessments of antecedents from SCID examinations and clinical records, we compared first-lifetime Manic vs. Other (mixed, depressive, or nonaffective) major psychotic-episodes. Results We identified 32 antecedents arising at early, intermediate or later times, starting 12.3±10.7 years prior to first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes. Based on multivariate modeling, antecedents associated significantly and independently with Other (n=113) more than Manic (n=150) first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes ranked by Odds Ratio: more early attentional disturbances, more late depression, more early perplexity, more detoxification, more early unstable-mixed affects, more antidepressants, more early dysphoria, more intermediate depression, more early impulsivity, more late anhedonia, longer early-to-intermediate intervals, more intermediate substance abuse, more family history of major depression, and younger at earliest antecedents. Antecedents selectively preceding Manic more than Other first-psychotic episodes included more late behavioral problems and more risk of familial BD-I. Conclusion Clinical antecedents in adult, BD-I patients, beginning a decade before first major-episodes and progressing through sequential stages were dissimilar in Manic versus Other first-psychotic-episodes. PMID:23837831

  5. Effects of antecedent exercise on academic engagement and stereotypy during instruction.

    PubMed

    Neely, Leslie; Rispoli, Mandy; Gerow, Stephanie; Ninci, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Antecedent physical exercise has emerged as a potentially promising treatment for reducing challenging behavior and increasing academic behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise conducted prior to instructional sessions (antecedent physical exercise) on academic engagement and stereotypy during instructional sessions for two children diagnosed with ASD. Functional analysis results suggested stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement for both participants. A multielement design was employed to evaluate academic engagement and stereotypy during instructional sessions following randomly sequenced conditions involving either (a) no antecedent exercise, (b) brief durations of antecedent exercise, or (c) antecedent exercise that continued until the participant engaged in a systematically determined behavioral indicator of satiation. Both participants demonstrated higher levels of academic engagement and reduced levels of stereotypy during the instructional sessions which followed antecedent physical exercise that continued until behavioral indicators of satiation occurred. This study replicates previous research suggesting that individuals with ASD may benefit from physical exercise prior to academic instruction and further suggests that the duration of antecedent exercise may be optimally individualized based on behavioral indicators of satiation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Effects of antecedent land cover on physical, chemical, and biological responses to urbanization in streams across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffney, T. F.; Qian, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams were assessed across gradients of urbanization in 9 metropolitan areas of the conterminous US (Boston, MA; Raleigh; NC, Birmingham, AL; Atlanta, GA; Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Gradients of urbanization were established on the basis of a multimetric index of urban intensity that combined land cover, population, and road density. Simple regression models established that the condition of biological communities (e.g., invertebrate responses) showed statistically significant degradation as urbanization increased in six (Boston, Raleigh, Birmingham, Atlanta, Salt Lake, and Portland) of the nine metropolitan areas. Multiple regression models incorporating basin-scale land cover (e.g., forest, agricultural land) and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature, chemistry, hydrology) did not substantially improve the explanatory power of the regressions and could not explain differences in responses among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical models incorporating basin- and regional-scale predictors demonstrated that regional-scale climate (air temperature and precipitation) and antecedent land cover (i.e., land cover being converted to urban) predicted invertebrate responses to urbanization. The lack of identifiable urban responses for Milwaukee-Green Bay, Denver, and Dallas-Fort Worth were associated with high levels of antecedent agriculture (row crops and grazing) that degraded the biological communities and obscured the effects of urbanization. Urbanization was associated with increases in conductivity, nutrients, pesticides, and hydrologic variability. Levels of these variables at background sites were higher in regions with high antecedent agriculture; consequently, the effects of urbanization appeared to be

  7. Antecedents of Suicide among Youth Aged 11-15: A Multistate Mixed Methods Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Logan, Joseph E; Leemis, Ruth W

    2016-11-14

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent's decision to take his/her own life. Data from a random sample of 482 youth (ages 11-15) suicide cases captured in the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed. The sample had fewer girls than boys (31 vs. 69 %) and comprised primarily White youth (79 %), but also African Americans (13 %), Asians (4 %), and youth of other races (4 %). Narrative data from coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement investigative reports were coded and analyzed to identify common behavioral patterns that preceded suicide. Emergent themes were quantified and examined using content and constant comparative analysis. Themes regarding antecedents across multiple levels of the social ecology emerged. Relationship problems, particularly with parents, were the most common suicide antecedent. Also, a pattern demonstrating a consistent progression toward suicidal behavior emerged from the data. Narratives indicated that youth were commonly exposed to one or more problems, often resulting in feelings of loneliness and burdensomeness, which progressed toward thoughts and sometimes plans for or attempts at suicide. Continued exposure to negative experiences and thoughts/plans about suicide, and/or self-injurious acts resulted in an acquired capacity to self-harm, eventually leading to suicide. These findings provide support for theories of suicidal behavior and highlight the importance of multi-level, comprehensive

  8. Temporal effects of antecedent exercise on students' disruptive behaviors: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Folino, Anthony; Ducharme, Joseph M; Greenwald, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Although a growing body of literature indicates that antecedent exercise is effective at reducing disruptive behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining the temporal effects of antecedent exercise. The present investigation involved 4 students (age range 11 to 14years) enrolled in a self-contained special education behavior classroom due to severe aggressive, disruptive, and oppositional behaviors. In an alternating treatment design with baseline, students were first exposed to baseline conditions and then to 2 experimental conditions (i.e., an antecedent exercise condition and a control condition) in a randomized fashion. Results indicated that 30min of moderate to intense aerobic exercise resulted in approximately 90min of behavioral improvements. In addition, there appeared to be an inverse relation between arousal levels and behavioral difficulties. The potential utility of antecedent exercise as a treatment alternative in schools for students with severe disruptive behavior is discussed.

  9. Antecedents to Member Participation within Small Groups: A Review of Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Stephen Joel; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on member characteristics and conditions that increase the likelihood of group participation. Describes positive consequences of small group participation and antecedents to participation including attitudes, atmosphere, leader characteristics, expectations, and group structure. (JAC)

  10. The Role of Antecedent Positive and Negative Comments in the Control of Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, William H.; Winston, Andrew S.

    1974-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of positive and negative adult preference statements in controlling children's behavior was studied. Results indicated that the adult's antecedent negative comments exerted greater control over the children than did the positive comments. (ST)

  11. Cutting Balloon Angioplasty (CBA) Versus Conventional Balloon Angioplasty (PTA) in the Pre-Dilatation of Carotid Artery Stenosis: Our Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cotroneo, Antonio Raffaele Iezzi, Roberto

    2007-11-15

    A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) for the predilatation of tight fibrocalcified carotid stenosis before carotid artery stenting (CAS). We also compared the intraprocedural results of CBA with those of conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in terms of postdilatation rate. The study population was composed of 32 patients who underwent CAS requiring predilatation before stent implantation. In detail, predilatation was performed by using a conventional balloon (PTA) in 14 patients (group A) and a cutting balloon (CBA) in 18 patients (group B). Intraprocedural and periprocedural mortality, major and minor procedural and neurologic complications, arterial damage, and embolic debris found in the distal filter were recorded. We statistically compared the rate of postdilatation obtained in the two groups. Technical success was obtained in 100% of the cases. No death, major neurologic or periprocedural complications, or arterial damage were recorded in either group. Minor neurologic reactions were recorded in 1 patient from group A (4%) and in 1 patient from group B (3%). Embolic debris was found in the distal filter in 2 patients from group A (8%) and in 3 patients from group B (10%). Postdilatation was necessary in 14 patients from group A (100%) and in 9 patients from group B (50%) (p < 0.05). Although limited to a small number of patients, compared with PTA, CBA seems to be a safe and effective procedure for the predilatation of tight fibrocalcified carotid stenoses before stent placement and may decrease the need for postdilatation in this patient population.

  12. The tonoplast-localized sucrose transporter in Populus (PtaSUT4) regulates whole-plant water relations, responses to water stress, and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Frost, Christopher J; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Harding, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    The Populus sucrose (Suc) transporter 4 (PtaSUT4), like its orthologs in other plant taxa, is tonoplast localized and thought to mediate Suc export from the vacuole into the cytosol. In source leaves of Populus, SUT4 is the predominantly expressed gene family member, with transcript levels several times higher than those of plasma membrane SUTs. A hypothesis is advanced that SUT4-mediated tonoplast sucrose fluxes contribute to the regulation of osmotic gradients between cellular compartments, with the potential to mediate both sink provisioning and drought tolerance in Populus. Here, we describe the effects of PtaSUT4-RNA interference (RNAi) on sucrose levels and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) induction, photosynthesis, and water uptake, retention and loss during acute and chronic drought stresses. Under normal water-replete growing conditions, SUT4-RNAi plants had generally higher shoot water contents than wild-type plants. In response to soil drying during a short-term, acute drought, RNAi plants exhibited reduced rates of water uptake and delayed wilting relative to wild-type plants. SUT4-RNAi plants had larger leaf areas and lower photosynthesis rates than wild-type plants under well-watered, but not under chronic water-limiting conditions. Moreover, the magnitude of shoot water content, height growth, and photosynthesis responses to contrasting soil moisture regimes was greater in RNAi than wild-type plants. The concentrations of stress-responsive RFOs increased in wild-type plants but were unaffected in SUT4-RNAi plants under chronically dry conditions. We discuss a model in which the subcellular compartmentalization of sucrose mediated by PtaSUT4 is regulated in response to both sink demand and plant water status in Populus.

  13. Blood fluidity and outcome after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA): role of plasma viscosity and low platelet count in predicting restenosis.

    PubMed

    van der Loo, Bernd; Kovacevic, Tamara; Krieger, Elisabeth; Banyai, Susanne; Banyai, Martin; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R; Jagacic, Dorijan; Rousson, Valentin; Koppensteiner, Renate

    2005-01-01

    Rheological abnormalities are well known in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We wanted to determine whether rheological variables are related to restenosis after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). In 114 patients (62 men; median age 70 years) undergoing femoropopliteal PTA for symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation, whole blood viscosity, hematocrit, fibrinogen, platelet count, leukocytes and C-reactive protein were determined the day after the procedure and at 1, 3, and 12 months. The primary endpoint was restenosis >50% documented by duplexsonography up to 12 months. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the risk of restenosis for postinterventional values of rheological variables. Forty-eight patients (42%) developed restenosis at 12 months. Patients with restenosis had higher baseline plasma viscosity (PV) (medians, 1.71 vs. 1.65 millipascal seconds [mPa.s]; p = 0.04) and lower platelet count (224 vs. 240 x 10(3)/microl; p = 0.03) than patients without restenosis. The hazard ratio (HR; 95% CI) of incident restenosis was 9.2 (1.12-76; p = 0.03) for PV and 0.99 (0.99-1.0; p = 0.07) for PLT. When examining jointly both high PV and low platelet count (PLT), patients with PV > 1.66 mPa.s and PLT < 233 x 10(3)/microl (i.e. variables split at their respective median) had an increased risk of restenosis (log-rank test p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that plasma viscosity (p = 0.02), low platelet count (p = 0.01), lesion length (p = 0.0037) and lack of hypertension (p = 0.01) were associated with restenosis at 12 months. No associations were found between restenosis and the other rheological and inflammatory variables studied. Our data suggest that increased PV and low PLT contribute to restenosis after femoropopliteal PTA.

  14. Medication-related errors: a literature review of incidence and antecedents.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Gaya; Blegen, Mary A

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety has become a major concern for both society and policymakers. Since nurses are intimately involved in the delivery of medications and are ultimately responsible during the medication administration phase, it is important for nursing to understand factors contributing to medication administration errors. The purpose of this chapter is to identify the incidence of these errors and the associated factors in an attempt to better understand the problem and lessen future error occurrence. Literature review revealed both active failures and latent conditions established in Reason's theory remain prevalent in current literature where active failures often display themselves in the form of incorrect drug calculations, lack of individual knowledge, and failure to follow established protocol. Latent conditions are evidenced as time pressures, fatigue, understaffing, inexperience, design deficiencies, and inadequate equipment and may lie dormant within a system until combined with active failures to create opportunity for error. Although medication error research has shifted in emphasis toward identification of system problems inherent in error occurrence, no one force emerges as a clear antecedent, reinforcing the need for further research and replication of existing studies with emphasis placed on more dependable reporting measures through which nurses are not threatened by reprisal.

  15. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    PubMed

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (<1 day per year). Finally, a smaller trajectory accounting for 8.1% of the sample had high levels of absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors.

  16. Unraveling care integration: Assessing its dimensions and antecedents in the Italian Health System.

    PubMed

    Calciolari, Stefano; Ilinca, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, consensus has grown on the need to organize health systems around the concept of care integration to better confront the challenges associated with demographic trends and financial sustainability. However, care integration remains an imprecise umbrella term in both the academic and policy arenas. In addition, little substantive knowledge exists on the success factors for integration initiatives. We propose a composite measure of care integration and a conceptual framework suggesting its relationships with three types of antecedents: contextual, cultural, and organizational factors. Our framework was tested using data from the Italian National Health System (NHS). We administered an ad-hoc questionnaire to all Italian local health units (LHUs), with a 60.4% response rate, and used structural equation modeling to assess the relationships between the relevant latent constructs. The results validated our measure of care integration and supported the hypothesized relationships. In particular, integration was found to be fostered by results-oriented institutional settings, a professional culture conducive to inclusiveness and shared goals, and organizational arrangements promoting clear expectations among providers. Thus, integration improves care and mediates the effects of specific operating means on care enhancement.

  17. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  18. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks’ Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, Deborah K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Wallace, David K.; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks’ gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks’ gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  19. A qualitative and quantitative examination of the antecedents of customer incivility.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Jones, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Customer incivility is known to have a negative impact on employees working in service jobs. Despite an understanding of the negative outcomes of customer incivility (e.g., burnout, disengagement, absenteeism), little research has investigated antecedents of this low-intensity deviant behavior. This is a clear oversight, given that understanding antecedents of customer incivility is essential for determining methods for reducing this stressor. As such, we conducted 2 studies examining these antecedents. For Study 1, we used a qualitative approach, assessing customer incivility from the perspective of the customer. Three overall themes (with 13 subthemes) emerged that could potentially lead to customer incivility: characteristics of the customer, characteristics of the organization/environment, and characteristics of the service employee. In Study 2, we conducted a quantitative study to investigate-from the perspective of the service employee-customer incivility antecedents that could be potentially controlled by the organization, either through changing the work environment or the employee (through training and selection). The results of a 2 time-point survey study showed that the service environment, service rep incivility, service orientation, agreeableness, and neuroticism served as antecedents to customer incivility. Practical implications are discussed, identifying options for organizational leaders interested in reducing customer incivility, and advice is provided for researchers seeking to further examine the antecedents of customer incivility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-12-22

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.

  1. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  2. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p < .05). Endurance behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type.

  3. Investigating the strategic antecedents of agility in humanitarian logistics.

    PubMed

    L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  4. Antecedents of approach-avoidance goals in sport.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rebecca L; Kavussanu, Maria

    2008-03-01

    We investigated antecedents of mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals in sport. University athletes (n = 230) aged 18-25 years (mean 20.3 years, s = 1.5) completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived parental motivational climate, perceived team motivational climate, perceived competence, and demographics. Multiple regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were positively predicted by perceived competence, mastery team climate, learning/enjoyment parental climate, and gender, with males being higher on these goals than females. Mastery-avoidance goals were predicted positively by learning/enjoyment parental climate and negatively by gender, with females being higher on these goals than males. Performance-approach goals were positively predicted by perceived competence, performance team climate, and gender, with males being higher on these goals than females. Finally, performance-avoidance goals were predicted positively by worry-conducive parental climate. These findings suggest that a mastery or performance climate is related to whether athletes adopt a mastery or performance goal, whereas the perception of competence is associated with whether athletes adopt approach-focused goals. Gender should be considered in future examinations of the approach-avoidance achievement goals in sport.

  5. Antecedent precipitation index determined from CST estimates of rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental calculation of a satellite-based antecedent precipitation index (API). The index is also derived from daily rain images produced from infrared images using an improved version of GSFC's Convective/Stratiform Technique (CST). API is a measure of soil moisture, and is based on the notion that the amount of moisture in the soil at a given time is related to precipitation at earlier times. Four different CST programs as well as the Geostationary Operational Enviroment Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index developed by Arkin in 1979 are compared to experimental results, for the Mississippi Valley during the month of July. Rain images are shown for the best CST code and the ARK program. Comparisons are made as to the accuracy and detail of the results for the two codes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of running the CST on a synoptic scale. The Mississippi Valley case is well suited for testing the feasibility of monitoring soil moisture by means of CST. Preliminary comparisons of CST and ARK indicate significant differences in estimates of rain amount and distribution.

  6. A prospective study of acute idiopathic neuropathy. II. Antecedent events.

    PubMed

    Winer, J B; Hughes, R A; Anderson, M J; Jones, D M; Kangro, H; Watkins, R P

    1988-05-01

    The incidence of antecedent events and serological evidence of preceding infection were studied in 100 patients with acute idiopathic neuropathy and age and sex matched control subjects in South-East England. Symptoms of respiratory infections occurred within one month before onset of neuropathic symptoms in 38% of patients and 12% of controls (p less than 0.001) and symptoms of gastrointestinal infections in 17% of patients and 3% of controls (p less than 0.005). Immunisations, insect bites and animal contact were equally common in the patient and control subjects. Eight per cent of patients had undergone an operation within the preceding 3 months. Six per cent of patients had co-existing "autoimmune" diseases. Serological evidence of recent infection was identified in 31% of patients. Campylobacter jejuni (14%) and cytomegalovirus (11%) were both significantly more frequently demonstrated in patients than controls. Serological evidence of recent infection with mycoplasma (1%), Epstein Barr virus (1-2%) and parvovirus B19 (4%) was also identified in the patients but not more frequently than in the controls. Possible explanations for the association of these agents with acute idiopathic neuropathy include possession of antigens shared with myelin and inhibition of suppressor mechanisms.

  7. Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age 18 through age 25 in a sample of 511 young adults. The developmental antecedents of these different romantic relationship experiences in both distal and proximal family and peer domains were also examined. Analyses included both person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches. Findings show 5 distinct clusters varying in timing, duration, and frequency of participation in romantic relationships that range from those who had only recently entered into a romantic relationship to those who had been in the same relationship from age 18 to age 25. These relationship outcome trajectory clusters were predicted by variations in competence in early relationships with family and peers. Interpersonal experiences in family and peer contexts in early childhood through adolescence thus may form a scaffold on which later competence in romantic relationships develops. Findings shed light on both normative and nonnormative developmental transitions of romantic relationships in young adulthood. PMID:23421803

  8. Romantic relationship patterns in young adulthood and their developmental antecedents.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2013-11-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age 18 through age 25 in a sample of 511 young adults. The developmental antecedents of these different romantic relationship experiences in both distal and proximal family and peer domains were also examined. Analyses included both person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches. Findings show 5 distinct clusters varying in timing, duration, and frequency of participation in romantic relationships that range from those who had only recently entered into a romantic relationship to those who had been in the same relationship from age 18 to age 25. These relationship outcome trajectory clusters were predicted by variations in competence in early relationships with family and peers. Interpersonal experiences in family and peer contexts in early childhood through adolescence thus may form a scaffold on which later competence in romantic relationships develops. Findings shed light on both normative and nonnormative developmental transitions of romantic relationships in young adulthood.

  9. Antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Eva S.; Keller, Melanie M.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Taxer, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students’ motivation and discipline and teachers’ enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers’ subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2–3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students’ motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers’ anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers’ subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers’ enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students’ motivation and discipline level on teachers’ emotions were partially mediated by teachers’ appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers’ emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals. PMID:26042067

  10. Antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach.

    PubMed

    Becker, Eva S; Keller, Melanie M; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C; Taxer, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students' motivation and discipline and teachers' enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers' subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2-3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students' motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers' enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers' anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers' subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers' enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students' motivation and discipline level on teachers' emotions were partially mediated by teachers' appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers' emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals.

  11. Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John T; Dennis, Michelle F; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Paul A; Brightwood, Amy; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2014-09-01

    The current study assessed antecedents and consequences of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adult smokers with ADHD (n = 17) completed 870 smoking and 622 nonsmoking electronic diary entries over a 7-day observation period of their naturalistic smoking behavior. Data collection occurred from 2011 to 2012. Generalized estimating equations indicated that ADHD smokers were more likely to smoke when urge to smoke, negative affect, boredom, stress, worry, and restlessness were elevated. In addition, participants were more likely to smoke in situations that elicited higher levels of nervousness and frustration. ADHD symptoms, in general, did not differ between smoking and nonsmoking contexts, though hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were elevated prior to smoking in frustrating situations. Additional situational antecedent variables were associated with smoking, including being in the presence of others smoking, being in a bar or restaurant, while outside, and while consuming caffeinated or alcoholic beverages. Participants also reported a significant improvement in urge to smoke, negative affect, stress, hunger, and ADHD symptoms after smoking a cigarette. Findings suggest certain contextual factors that may maintain ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with ADHD and identify potential treatment targets in smoking cessation interventions for this at-risk group. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  12. Affective Antecedents of the Perceived Effectiveness of Antidrug Advertisements: An Analysis of Adolescents’ Momentary and Retrospective Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Kathleen D.; Luciana, Monica; Cuthbert, Bruce N.; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived message effectiveness is often used as a diagnostic tool to determine whether a health message is likely to be successful or needs modification before use in an intervention. Yet, published research on the antecedents of perceived effectiveness is scarce and, consequently, little is known about why a message is perceived to be effective or ineffective. The present study’s aim was to identify and test the affective antecedents of perceived effectiveness of antidrug television messages in a sample of 190 adolescents in the 15–19 year age range. Factor-analytical tests of retrospective message evaluation items suggested two dimensions of perceived effectiveness, one that contained items such as convincingness whereas the other contained pleasantness items. Using retrospective data as well as real time valence and arousal ratings, we found that arousal underlies perceived convincingness and valence underlies perceived pleasantness. The results indicated activation of appetitive and defensive motivational systems, which suggests a clear motivational component to the concept of perceived message effectiveness. PMID:21499729

  13. When the customer shouldn't be king: antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers.

    PubMed

    Gettman, Hilary J; Gelfand, Michele J

    2007-05-01

    Much of the work in today's service industries requires women to deal with people outside of their organizations, namely, customers and clients, yet research on sexual harassment has focused almost exclusively on sexual harassment within organizations. Because the threat of harassment also operates at the boundaries of organizations, our existing models based solely on harassment inside organizations may be too restricted to adequately explain the harassment experiences of women in today's economy. To address this, the authors introduce a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers (CSH) and describe 2 field studies conducted to test components of the model. In Study 1, they developed a model of antecedents and consequences of CSH and illustrated that certain contextual factors (client power and gender composition of the client base) affect levels of CSH and that CSH is related to a number of job and psychological outcomes among professional women. Study 2 revealed that CSH is related to lower job satisfaction among nonprofessional women, above and beyond that which is accounted for by internal sexual harassment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. Using the theory of planned behaviour to model antecedents of surgical checklist use: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mascherek, Anna C; Gehring, Katrin; Bezzola, Paula; Schwappach, David L B

    2015-10-07

    Compliance with surgical checklist use remains an obstacle in the context of checklist implementation programs. The theory of planned behaviour was applied to analyse attitudes, perceived behaviour control, and norms as psychological antecedents of individuals' intentions to use the checklist. A cross-sectional survey study with staff (N = 866) of 10 Swiss hospitals was conducted in German and French. Group mean differences between individuals with and without managerial function were computed. Structural equation modelling and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to investigate the structural relation between attitudes, perceived behaviour control, norms, and intentions. Significant mean differences in favour of individuals with managerial function emerged for norms, perceived behavioural control, and intentions, but not for attitudes. Attitudes and perceived behavioural control had a significant direct effect on intentions whereas norms had not. Individuals with managerial function exhibit stronger perceived behavioural control, stronger norms, and stronger intentions. This could be applied in facilitating checklist implementation. The structural model of the theory of planned behaviour remains stable across groups, indicating a valid model to describe antecedents of intentions in the context of surgical checklist implementation.

  15. PtaRHE1, a Populus tremula × Populus alba RING-H2 protein of the ATL family, has a regulatory role in secondary phloem fibre development.

    PubMed

    Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Moussawi, Jihad; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Van Acker, Rebecca; Kohler, Annegret; Candiracci, Julie; Twyffels, Laure; Spokevicius, Antanas V; Bossinger, Gerd; Laurans, Françoise; Brunel, Nicole; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Boerjan, Wout; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2015-06-01

    REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE (RING) proteins play important roles in the regulation of many processes by recognizing target proteins for ubiquitination. Previously, we have shown that the expression of PtaRHE1, encoding a Populus tremula × Populus alba RING-H2 protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, is associated with tissues undergoing secondary growth. To further elucidate the role of PtaRHE1 in vascular tissues, we have undertaken a reverse genetic analysis in poplar. Within stem secondary vascular tissues, PtaRHE1 and its corresponding protein are expressed predominantly in the phloem. The downregulation of PtaRHE1 in poplar by artificial miRNA triggers alterations in phloem fibre patterning, characterized by an increased portion of secondary phloem fibres that have a reduced cell wall thickness and a change in lignin composition, with lower levels of syringyl units as compared with wild-type plants. Following an RNA-seq analysis, a biological network involving hormone stress signalling, as well as developmental processes, could be delineated. Several candidate genes possibly associated with the altered phloem fibre phenotype observed in amiRPtaRHE1 poplar were identified. Altogether, our data suggest a regulatory role for PtaRHE1 in secondary phloem fibre development.

  16. Antecedents of open source software adoption in health care organizations: a qualitative survey of experts in Canada.

    PubMed

    Marsan, Josianne; Paré, Guy

    2013-08-01

    Open source software (OSS) adoption and use in health care organizations (HCOs) is relatively low in developed countries, but several contextual factors have recently encouraged the consideration of the possible role of OSS in information technology (IT) application portfolios. This article aims at developing a research model for investigating the antecedents of OSS adoption decisions in HCOs. Based on a conceptual framework derived from a synthesis of the literature on IT adoption in organizations, we conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with IT experts from all levels of the Province of Quebec's health and social services sector in Canada. We also interviewed 10 IT suppliers in the province. A qualitative data analysis of the interviews was performed to identify major antecedents of OSS adoption decisions in HCOs. Eight factors associated with three distinct theoretical perspectives influence OSS adoption. More specifically, they are associated with the classical diffusion of innovations theory, the theory of resources, as well as institutional theory and its spin-off, the organizing vision theory. The factors fall under three categories: the characteristics of OSS as an innovation, the characteristics of the HCO with respect to its ability to absorb OSS, and the characteristics of the external environment with respect to institutional pressures and public discourse surrounding OSS. We shed light on two novel factors that closely interact with each other: (1) interest of the health care community in the public discourse surrounding OSS, and (2) clarity, consistency and richness of this discourse, whether found in magazines or other media. OSS still raises many questions and presents several challenges for HCOs. It is crucial that the different factors that explain an HCO's decision on OSS adoption be considered simultaneously. Doing so allows a better understanding of HCOs' rationale when deciding to adopt, or not to adopt, OSS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  17. Antecedents of New-Onset Major Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents at High Familial Risk.

    PubMed

    Rice, Frances; Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Eyre, Olga; Bevan-Jones, Rhys; Thapar, Ajay K; Collishaw, Stephan; Harold, Gordon T; Thapar, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in individuals at high familial risk of depression and is associated with poor long-term mental health, social, and educational outcomes. To examine the developmental pathways that lead to first-episode adolescent-onset MDD (incident cases) in those at high familial risk and to postulate a theoretically informed model that enables simultaneous testing of different pathways to incident adolescent-onset MDD composed of contributions from familial/genetic and social risk factors, as well as effects via specific clinical antecedents. This investigation was a 4-year longitudinal study (April 2007 to March 2011) among offspring of depressed parents in the general community. Analyses were conducted between September 1, 2015, and May 27, 2016. Participants were 337 families in whom the index parent (315 mothers and 22 fathers) had experienced at least 2 episodes of MDD (recruited through primary care) and among whom there was a biologically related child in the age range of 9 to 17 years living with the index parent (197 girls and 140 boys with a mean [SD] age of 12.4 [2.0] years) at baseline. Offspring with MDD before the study or at baseline (n = 27), offspring with an episode of MDD that had remitted by follow-up (n = 4), and offspring with missing baseline MDD data (n = 2) were excluded. Ninety-two percent (279 of 304) of families completed the follow-up. The primary outcome was new-onset offspring MDD, and the secondary outcome was the total DSM-IV MDD symptom score. On average, children and adolescents had a mean (SD) of 1.85 (1.74) (range, 0-8.5) DSM-IV symptoms of MDD at follow-up. Twenty (6 males and 14 females) had new-onset MDD, with a mean (SD) age at onset of 14.4 (2.0) years (range, 10-18 years). Irritability (β = 0.12, P = .03) and fear and/or anxiety (β = 0.38, P < .001) were significant independent clinical antecedents of new adolescent-onset MDD, but disruptive behavior (

  18. Antecedents and consequences of emotional work in midwifery: A prospective field study.

    PubMed

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Buchnic, Rinat; Granot, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Given the effort made in today's birthing rooms to increase women's childbirth satisfaction, special attention is directed to midwives' expressions of authenticity (namely to display emotions that he/she actually experience) in birth encounters. To explore antecedents and consequences of emotional work strategies expressed in a specific birth encounter, to (1) understand the specific factors in a midwife-birthing woman encounter, namely parity (whether or not it is a first birth), use of epidural analgesia, induction of labor, and instrumental birth that stimulate the use of deep or surface acting; (2) test the link between emotional work strategies and birthing experience, and (3) assess whether associations between the midwife's choice of strategy (deep acting or surface acting), and the woman's childbirth experience is moderated by the birthing woman's perception of the midwife's emotional work strategies. A prospective-correlational field study. 104 births, selected by a convenience sampling method-including 24 midwives and 104 birthing women, in one birthing room in Israel. Data were collected by validated questionnaires at two time points: immediately after labor and 48h after labor. Linear mixed model analyses revealed that of the antecedents to emotional work strategies, epidural analgesia was negatively associated with surface acting (β=-.301, p<.05); primigravida was significantly associated with deep acting (β=611, p<.01) and negatively associated with surface acting (β=-.433, p<.01); induction of birth was not associated with deep or surface acting (p>.05), and instrumental birth was significantly associated with deep acting (β=-.590, p<.05) and positively associated with surface acting (β=.444, p<.05). Regarding consequences of emotional work strategies, the midwife's engagement with surface acting was negatively related to the woman's birthing experience (β=-.155, p<.05), whereas the relationship between midwife's engagement in deep acting and

  19. Development of pyrF-Based Genetic System for Targeted Gene Deletion in Clostridium thermocellum and Creation of a pta Mutant ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shital A.; Olson, Daniel G.; Argyros, D. Aaron; Miller, Bethany B.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Murphy, Daniel M.; McCool, Jesse D.; Warner, Anne K.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.

    2010-01-01

    We report development of a genetic system for making targeted gene knockouts in Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose. A toxic uracil analog, 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), was used to select for deletion of the pyrF gene. The ΔpyrF strain is a uracil auxotroph that could be restored to a prototroph via ectopic expression of pyrF from a plasmid, providing a positive genetic selection. Furthermore, 5-FOA was used to select against plasmid-expressed pyrF, creating a negative selection for plasmid loss. This technology was used to delete a gene involved in organic acid production, namely pta, which encodes the enzyme phosphotransacetylase. The C. thermocellum Δpta strain did not produce acetate. These results are the first examples of targeted homologous recombination and metabolic engineering in C. thermocellum, a microbe that holds an exciting and promising future in the biofuel industry and development of sustainable energy resources. PMID:20693441

  20. The Motivating Effect of Antecedent Stimuli on the Web Shop: A Conjoint Analysis of the Impact of Antecedent Stimuli at the Point of Online Purchase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…

  1. The Motivating Effect of Antecedent Stimuli on the Web Shop: A Conjoint Analysis of the Impact of Antecedent Stimuli at the Point of Online Purchase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…

  2. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  4. Examining antecedents and consequences of gambling passion: the case of gambling on horse races.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling.

  5. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  6. Survivor identity after colorectal cancer: antecedents, prevalence and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Baade, Peter; Meng, Xingqiong; Youl, Pip; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2012-09-01

    Cancer survivor identity has become a dominant paradigm in describing people with cancer and in driving the focus of programmes and research in supportive care. This study investigated antecedents of survivor identity adoption and population-based prevalence. A prospective survey of a population-based sample of 1966 (57% response) patients with colorectal cancer assessed socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, optimism, benefit finding, cancer threat appraisal, psychological distress and satisfaction with life at 5 months post-diagnosis as predictors of survivor identity 5 years subsequently. Prevalence of survivor identity at 5 years post-diagnosis and psychological and lifestyle outcomes (n = 786) were later assessed. Fifty-five per cent of people identified as a cancer survivor, 39.4% as a person who had had (or has) cancer, 1.4% as a cancer patient and 1.2% as a cancer victim. People who were older and who reported higher personal growth after diagnosis were more likely to assume a survivor identity at 5 years. At 5 years, survivors had higher benefit finding and better satisfaction with life. Cancer survivors uniquely reported a significant decrease in somatization and acceptance, and increases in satisfaction with life and physical activity over time. For patients with colorectal cancer, the cancer survivor identity is common but not universal 5 years after diagnosis; and may evolve from looking for benefit after cancer through personal growth. People who adopt a cancer survivor identity report more positive adjustment outcomes after cancer and this has implications for the design of clinical and community support interventions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Patterns of antecedents of catastrophic reactions in nursing home residents with dementia in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hye-A; Watson, Nancy M

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of antecedents of catastrophic reactions (CRs) in nursing home residents with dementia in the United States. A total of 229 catastrophic reaction events were the sample for this study. Ten antecedent variables were selected and analyzed using cluster analysis to address the patterns of antecedents of CRs in dementia. Data were obtained from field observation and a structured recording form over a 6-week period covering all 7 days of the week and all three shifts (i.e., 21 shifts in total) in two nursing homes in the United States. This study showed that there were two distinct patterns of antecedent conditions at the time of, or immediately prior to, CRs in dementia: (a) a cluster of antecedents that consists of components of the physical environment including public location, olfactory stimulation, use of media, sundowning hours, and being in a dementia unit ("Stimulation in Early Evening"); and (b) a cluster of antecedents that is composed of mixed components of the physical and social environment including olfactory stimulation, activities of daily living (ADL)-related care activities, demands of tasks, and being in a dementia unit ("Stress due to Care, Tasks, and Odors"). The findings suggest that elders who are exposed to overstimulation in sundowning hours or experience stress from care activities and task performance beyond their baseline competency are likely to be at risk of presenting with CRs. Health care providers need to be aware that a CR is a multi-factorial phenomenon in which multiple contextual antecedents are involved and that creation of a therapeutic physical and social milieu is an important nursing goal in preventing the occurrence of CRs in nursing home residents with dementia. [Asian Nursing Research 2009;3(3):99-110].

  8. Magnetically isolated Cu(II)Gd(III) pairs in the series [Cu(acacen)Gd(pta)(3)], [Cu(acacen)Gd(hfa)(3)], [Cu(salen)Gd(pta)(3)], and [Cu(salen)Gd(hfa)(3)], [acacen = N,N'-ethylenebis(acetylacetoniminate(-)), salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideniminate(-)), hfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dionate(-), pta = 1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethylhexane-2,4-dionate(-)].

    PubMed

    Ryazanov, M; Nikiforov, V; Lloret, F; Julve, M; Kuzmina, N; Gleizes, A

    2002-04-08

    [Cu(salen)Gd(pta)(3)] (1), [Cu(acacen)Gd(pta)(3)] (2), and [Cu(acacen)Gd(hfa)(3)] (3) are three heterobimetallic [Cu(II)Gd(III)] complexes of general formula [Cu(SB)Gd(beta-dik)(3)], in which a N,N',O,O' Schiff base (SB) ligand [acacen = N,N'-ethylenebis(acetylacetoniminate(-)), salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminate(-))] tetracoordinates Cu(II) and chelates Gd(III) as a tris(beta-diketonate) complex [hfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dionate(-); pta = 1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethylhexane-2,4-dionate(-)]. They crystallize as a triclinic structure (space group P). The cell parameters are a = 9.8616(10) A, b = 12.1976(13) A, c = 18.4187(22) A, alpha = 90.671(14) degrees, beta = 100.588(13) degrees, gamma = 103.684(12) degrees, V = 2113 A(3), and Z = 2 for 1; a = 9.7560(11) A, b = 12.2924(13) A, c = 18.9368(22) A, alpha = 88.449(14) degrees, beta = 87.269(14) degrees, gamma = 67.629(12) degrees, V = 2098 A(3), and Z = 2 for 2; and a = 12.5726(15) A, b = 15.5985(18) A, c = 18.3724(21) A, alpha = 85.963(13) degrees, beta = 85.411(14) degrees, gamma = 80.766(14) degrees, V = 3539 A(3), and Z = 4 for 3. The Cu(O,O')Gd bridging cores show folding angles about O,O' in the range 139 degrees -147 degrees and intramolecular Cu small middle dot small middle dot small middle dotGd distances of about 3.3 A. In the solid state, the molecules form centrosymmetric pseudodimers [Cu(SB)Gd(beta-dik)(3)](2), through the overlap of the Cu(SB) entities. Resulting intradimer Cu...Cu distances are 5.941(1) A for 1, 4.831(1) A for 2, and 4.511(1) and 3.868(1) A for 3 which comprises two symmetrically independent dimers. The temperature dependence of complexes 1-3 was investigated in the range 1.8-300 K and revealed weak ferromagnetic interactions. Results are discussed in light of the structural features and of available magnetostructural data for other heterobimetallic [Cu(II)Gd(III)] complexes, including [Cu(salen)Gd(hfa)(3)] (4) (Ramade, I.; Kahn, O.; Jeannin, Y.; Robert, F

  9. Antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment at 24 months in extremely low gestational age newborns.

    PubMed

    Helderman, Jennifer B; O'Shea, Thomas M; Kuban, Karl C K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Hecht, Jonathan L; Dammann, Olaf; Paneth, Nigel; McElrath, T F; Onderdonk, Andrew; Leviton, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Extremely low gestational age neonates are more likely than term infants to develop cognitive impairment. Few studies have addressed antenatal risk factors of this condition. We identified antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment determined by the Mental Development Index (MDI) portion of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II), at 24 months corrected age. We studied a multicenter cohort of 921 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation during 2002 to 2004 and assessed their placentas for histologic characteristics and microorganisms. The mother was interviewed and her medical record was reviewed. At 24 months adjusted age, children were assessed with BSID-II. Multinomial logistic models were used to estimate odds ratios. A total of 103 infants (11%) had an MDI <55, and 99 infants (11%) had an MDI between 55 and 69. No associations were identified between organisms recovered from the placenta and developmental delay. Factors most strongly associated with MDI <55 were thrombosis of fetal vessels (OR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.7), maternal BMI >30 (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5), maternal education ≤12 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), nonwhite race (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.8), birth weight z score < -2 (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1, 6.9), and male gender (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6, 4.5). Antenatal factors, including thrombosis of fetal vessels in the placenta, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal obesity, convey information about the risk of cognitive impairment among extremely premature newborns.

  10. Antenatal Antecedents of Cognitive Impairment at 24 Months In Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Thomas M.; Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Dammann, Olaf; Paneth, Nigel; McElrath, T. F.; Onderdonk, Andrew; Leviton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates are more likely than term infants to develop cognitive impairment. Few studies have addressed antenatal risk factors of this condition. We identified antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment determined by the Mental Development Index (MDI) portion of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II), at 24 months corrected age. METHODS: We studied a multicenter cohort of 921 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation during 2002 to 2004 and assessed their placentas for histologic characteristics and microorganisms. The mother was interviewed and her medical record was reviewed. At 24 months adjusted age, children were assessed with BSID-II. Multinomial logistic models were used to estimate odds ratios. RESULTS: A total of 103 infants (11%) had an MDI <55, and 99 infants (11%) had an MDI between 55 and 69. No associations were identified between organisms recovered from the placenta and developmental delay. Factors most strongly associated with MDI <55 were thrombosis of fetal vessels (OR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.7), maternal BMI >30 (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5), maternal education ≤12 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), nonwhite race (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.8), birth weight z score < −2 (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1, 6.9), and male gender (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6, 4.5). CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal factors, including thrombosis of fetal vessels in the placenta, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal obesity, convey information about the risk of cognitive impairment among extremely premature newborns. PMID:22331342

  11. A simulation study of the recession coefficient for antecedent precipitation index. [soil moisture and water runoff estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The antecedent precipitation index (API) is a useful indicator of soil moisture conditions for watershed runoff calculations and recent attempts to correlate this index with spaceborne microwave observations have been fairly successful. It is shown that the prognostic equation for soil moisture used in some of the atmospheric general circulation models together with Thornthwaite-Mather parameterization of actual evapotranspiration leads to API equations. The recession coefficient for API is found to depend on climatic factors through potential evapotranspiration and on soil texture through the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Climatologial data for Wisconsin together with a recently developed model for global isolation are used to simulate the annual trend of the recession coefficient. Good quantitative agreement is shown with the observed trend at Fennimore and Colby watersheds in Wisconsin. It is suggested that API could be a unifying vocabulary for watershed and atmospheric general circulation modelars.

  12. Falls in institutionalized older adults: risks, consequences and antecedents.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias Dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova (Tukey), Chi-square, Mann Whitney. Statistically significance was p <0.05. Data were processed in SPSS version 19.0. A total of 66.7% (30) falls occurred, 20% (9) of them in the external area, with 66.7% (30) of the participants having hypertension as a previous disease and, as consequence, the fracture was highlighted with 11.2% (5). The Berg Scale had different scores when compared to the falls suffered by the elderly and previous diseases influenced the occurrence of falls (p <0.05). It is necessary to implement public financing policies or partnerships that allow environments adaptations aiming at reducing the risks of falls. Analisar a ocorrência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados quanto aos riscos, consequências e antecedentes. Estudo transversal, realizado com 45 idosos em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos em João Pessoa/PB, Brasil, em junho e julho de 2016. Aplicou-se questionário sociodemográfico e Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg classificando risco de quedas quando escore inferior a 45. Realizou-se estatística descritiva e testes: t independente, Anova (Tukey), Qui-quadrado, Mann Whitney. Considerado significativamente estatístico p < 0,05 e processados no SPSS versão 19.0. As quedas ocorreram em 66,7% (30), sendo 20% (9) na área externa, 66,7% (30) com doença prévia hipertensão e como consequência destacou-se fratura com 11,2% (5). A Escala de Berg avaliou pontuações diferentes (p < 0,05) quando comparadas às quedas sofridas pelos idosos, e as doenças pr

  13. Prevalence and childhood antecedents of Depersonalization Syndrome in a UK Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, William E.; Kwok, Charlie H. T.; Hunter, Elaine C. M.; Richards, Marcus; David, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Depersonalization syndrome is characterised by a sense of unreality about the self (depersonalization: DP) and/or the outside world (derealization: DR). Prevalence estimates vary widely. Little is known about childhood antecedents of the disorder although emotional abuse is thought to play a role. Methods Longitudinal data from 3275 participants of a UK population based birth cohort (the MRC National Survey of Health and Development) were used to: i) assess the prevalence of DP syndrome at age 36, measured by the Present State Examination (PSE); and ii) examine the effects of a range of socio-demographic, childhood adversity and emotional responses as potential risk factors for DP. Results Thirty three survey members were classified with DP, yielding a prevalence of 0.95% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.56 to 1.34). There were no associations with socioeconomic status, parental death or divorce; self reported accidents, childhood depression, tendency to daydream or reactions to criticism. However, teacher-estimated childhood anxiety was a strong independent predictor of adult depersonalization, and there were strong cross-sectional relationships between DP and anxiety and depression caseness. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study assessing nationwide prevalence of the DP syndrome and uses longitudinal data to explore childhood risk factors for adult DP. The prevalence of adult DP was slightly lower than reported by other surveys. The study found that childhood anxiety was the only significant predictor of the adult DP syndrome, supporting the view that depersonalisation disorder forms part of the spectrum of responses to anxiety. PMID:21181112

  14. The antecedents, attributes and consequences of trust among nurses and nurse managers: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    McCabe, T J; Sambrook, Sally

    2014-05-01

    Although trust has been investigated in the health context, limited research explores nurse and nurse manager perceptions of trust. To explore the concept of trust amongst nurses and nurse managers at individual, interpersonal and organisational levels. Our paper reports the findings from an interpretivist study conducted within the British National Health Service, involving thirty-nine semi-structured interviews with nurses and nurse managers. Large acute and small community organisation within the British National Health Service. 28 nurses and 11 nurse managers working within an Acute and a Community sector organisation - 20 and 19 in each organisation. Participants were selected through a process of purposive sampling, reflecting variations in terms of age, grade, ward and tenure. We utilise a concept analysis framework in exploring the antecedents, attributes and consequences of trust amongst nurses and nurse managers at individual, interpersonal and organisational levels. Key findings suggest that trust is formed within the immediate ward environment, and is significantly influenced by the role of line manager. Other positively influencing factors include professionalism and commitment to the nursing profession. These form the basis for the teamwork, delegation, support, open communication systems, confidentiality and discretion essential to delivering quality patient care. Negatively influencing factors include new management concepts, practices and styles overseen by managers recruited from the private sector. New management concepts were associated with reductions in the number of qualified nurses and increasing numbers of untrained nursing staff, reduced direct patient contact, less opportunities for professional training and development and deteriorating terms and conditions of employment. Our findings offer insight for managers, nurses and human resource practitioners to help build high trust relationships in a health care context. Of particular import

  15. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line is given.

  16. Characterisation of aggression in Huntington's disease: rates, types and antecedents in an inpatient rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anahita; Sewell, Katherine; Fisher, Caroline A

    2017-10-01

    To systematically review aggression in an inpatient Huntington's cohort examining rates, types and antecedents. Although the prevalence of aggression in Huntington's disease is high, research into this problematic behaviour has been limited. Few studies have investigated the nature of aggressive behaviour in Huntington's disease or antecedents that contribute to its occurrence. A systematic, double-coded, electronic medical file audit. The electronic hospital medical records of 10 people with Huntington's disease admitted to a brain disorders unit were audited for a 90-day period using the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified for Neurorehabilitation framework, yielding 900 days of clinical data. Nine of 10 clients exhibited aggression during the audit period. Both verbal (37·1%) aggression and physical aggression were common (33·8%), along with episodes of mixed verbal and physical aggression (15·2%), while aggression to objects/furniture was less prevalent (5·5%). The most common antecedent was physical guidance with personal care, far exceeding any other documented antecedents, and acting as the most common trigger for four of the nine clients who exhibited aggression. For the remaining five clients, there was intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents. In Huntington's sufferers at mid- to late stages following disease onset, particular care should be made with personal care assistance due to the propensity for these procedures to elicit an episode of aggression. However, given the degree of intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents observed in the present study, individualised behaviour support plans and sensory modulation interventions may be the most useful in identifying triggers and managing aggressive episodes. Rates of aggression in Huntington's disease inpatients can be high. Knowledge of potential triggers, such as personal care, is important for nursing and care staff, so that attempts can be

  17. In flight measurement of steady and unsteady blade surface pressure of a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan installed on the PTA aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parzych, D.; Boyd, L.; Meissner, W.; Wyrostek, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was performed by Hamilton Standard, Division of United Technologies Corporation, under contract by LeRC, to measure the blade surface pressure of a large scale, 8 blade model prop-fan in flight. The test bed was the Gulfstream 2 Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft. The objective of the test was to measure the steady and periodic blade surface pressure resulting from three different Prop-Fan air inflow angles at various takeoff and cruise conditions. The inflow angles were obtained by varying the nacelle tilt angles, which ranged from -3 to +2 degrees. A range of power loadings, tip speeds, and altitudes were tested at each nacelle tilt angle over the flight Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.80. Unsteady blade pressure data tabulated as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency and the steady (non-varying) pressure component are presented.

  18. Motivational Antecedents of Preventive Proactivity in Late Life: Linking Future Orientation and Exercise1

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Eva; Kahana, Boaz; Zhang, Jianping

    2007-01-01

    Future orientation is considered as a motivational antecedent of late-life proactivity. In a panel study of 453 old-old adults, we linked future orientation to exercise, a key component of late-life proactivity. Findings based on hierarchical linear modeling reveal that future orientation at baseline predicts changes in exercise during the subsequent four years. Whereas exercise behavior generally declined over time, future orientation and female gender were associated with smaller decline. These results suggest that future-oriented thinking has a lasting impact on health promotion behavior. Future orientation thus represents a dispositional antecedent of preventive proactivity as proposed in our successful aging model. PMID:18080009

  19. Motivational Antecedents of Preventive Proactivity in Late Life: Linking Future Orientation and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kahana, Eva; Kahana, Boaz; Zhang, Jianping

    2005-12-01

    Future orientation is considered as a motivational antecedent of late-life proactivity. In a panel study of 453 old-old adults, we linked future orientation to exercise, a key component of late-life proactivity. Findings based on hierarchical linear modeling reveal that future orientation at baseline predicts changes in exercise during the subsequent four years. Whereas exercise behavior generally declined over time, future orientation and female gender were associated with smaller decline. These results suggest that future-oriented thinking has a lasting impact on health promotion behavior. Future orientation thus represents a dispositional antecedent of preventive proactivity as proposed in our successful aging model.

  20. Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial.

    PubMed Central

    Kellam, S G; Anthony, J C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether interventions aimed at aggressive/disruptive classroom behavior and poor academic achievement would reduce the incidence of initiation of smoking. METHODS: An epidemiologically based, universal randomized preventive trial involved 2311 children in 2 classroom-based preventive interventions or controls. Each intervention was directed at 1 of the aforementioned 2 antecedents over first and second grades in 19 urban schools. RESULTS: Smoking initiation was reduced in both cohorts for boys assigned to the behavioral intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting early risk antecedents such as aggressive behavior appears to be an important smoking prevention strategy. PMID:9772850

  1. Sequential treatment of PTA wastewater in a two-stage UASB process: focusing on p-toluate degradation and microbial distribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Woo, Seung Han; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2012-05-15

    Two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process was investigated as an efficient process configuration option for the treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. To study its feasibility in a defined condition, synthetic wastewater containing only the major pollutants (i.e., acetate, benzoate, terephthalate and p-toluate) was used. By focusing the role of the second stage on the p-toluate degradation, improved overall COD and p-toluate removal capacities of 4.18 and 1.35 g-thCOD/L·day could be achieved together with a complete COD removal efficiency. In this situation, all the pollutants except p-toluate were completely degraded in the first stage while 38 and 62% of p-toluate originally present in the wastewater were consecutively degraded in the individual stages. The concomitant methane production rate in each stage was 0.91 and 0.35 L/L·day respectively, and the methane yield on p-toluate was determined to be 0.12 L/g-thCOD. Batch tests using the granules obtained from each stage revealed that the acidogenic microorganisms enriched in both stages had a universal ability to degrade all aromatic pollutants present in the PTA wastewater. Moreover, image analysis using scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization technique elucidated that the distribution of acidogens and methanogens within the granule was varied in each stage, which influenced the mass transfer regime resulting in the different pollutant degradation rates during the batch tests.

  2. Relationship of cytokeratin 20 and CD44 protein expression with WHO/ISUP grade in pTa and pT1 papillary urothelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Desai, S; Lim, S D; Jimenez, R E; Chun, T; Keane, T E; McKenney, J K; Zavala-Pompa, A; Cohen, C; Young, R H; Amin, M B

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of immunoreactivity of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and CD44 across the spectrum of urothelial neoplasia using the WHO/ISUP consensus classification. A total of 120 papillary urothelial pTa and pT1 tumors (8 papillomas, 8 neoplasms of low malignant potential, and 42 low-grade and 62 high-grade carcinomas) were immunostained by using CK20 and CD44 antibodies. The relationships of tumor grade, pathologic stage, recurrences, and progression in stage with CK20 and CD44 immunoreactivity were assessed. WHO/ISUP grade correlated with tumor stage (P < 0.005), recurrence (P = 0.02), and progression in stage (P = 0.031). Normal urothelium showed CK20 immunoreactivity restricted to a few umbrella cells. Expression of CD44 in normal urothelium was restricted to the basal cell layer. Loss of CD44 immunoreactivity and increasing CK20 positivity were significantly associated with increasing tumor grade and stage (P < 0.005). An inverse relationship was observed in the staining patterns of CK20 and CD44 within individual cases, as well as in the aggregate data, with 79.2% of tumors with CD44 loss showing CK20 positivity (P < 0.001). In conclusion, CK20 and CD44 immunoreactivity are significantly related to the WHO/ISUP grade and to each other, and our data suggest their potential combined utility in predicting biologic behavior in patients with papillary urothelial pTa and pT1 neoplasms.

  3. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  4. Syntheses, structures, and antimicrobial activity of new remarkably light-stable and water-soluble tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate silver(I) derivatives of N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane salt - [mPTA]BF4.

    PubMed

    Smoleński, Piotr; Pettinari, Claudio; Marchetti, Fabio; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Lupidi, Giulio; Badillo Patzmay, Gretta Veronica; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2015-01-20

    Two new silver(I) complexes of formula [Ag(mPTA)4](Tpms)4(BF4) (1) and [Ag(Tpms)(mPTA)](BF4) (2) (mPTA = N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane cation, Tpms = tris(pyrazol-1-yl)methanesulfonate anion) have been synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analyses, (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR, ESI-MS, and IR spectroscopic techniques. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of 1 discloses a noncoordinated nature of the Tpms species, existing as counterions around the highly charged metal center [Ag(mPTA)](5+), 1 being the first reported coordination compound bearing a κ(0)-Tpms. 1 features high solubility and stability in water (S25 °C ≈ 30 mg·mL(-1)). The two complexes interact with calf thymus DNA via intercalation mode, binding to the BSA with decrease of its tryptophan fluorescence with a static quenching mechanism. The two new silver complexes exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities screened in vitro against the standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans.

  5. A covariance structure model test of antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and a prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Shope, J T; Butchart, A T; Campanelli, P C; Caspar, R A

    1989-01-01

    As part of an alcohol misuse prevention evaluation, questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. A conceptual model of the antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and the effectiveness of a prevention effort was tested using covariance structure modeling techniques. The factor loadings for the model were all moderate to high, indicating that the observed variables served well as measurement instruments for the latent variables. The hypothesized structural relationships among the latent variables of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem were supported by the data. The full model explained 45 percent of the variance in alcohol misuse in the analysis based on the total sample. The direct effect of the intervention on alcohol misuse was small but significant in the hypothesized direction. The direct effects of the intervention on susceptibility to peer pressure and internal health locus of control were not significant. The model was tested separately for groups of students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure in order to test the interaction between susceptibility to peer pressure and exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol. The percentage of variance accounted for in alcohol misuse did not increase upon testing the model separately for students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure. Observed differences in the significance of the parameter estimates between the high and low susceptibility to peer pressure groups suggest that different approaches to the design and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs may be necessary for different subgroups of students.

  6. Antecedents and consequences of fear of childbirth in nulliparous and parous women.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Capurso, Michele; Sommella, Ciro; Lelli, Franco; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the differences in the role of specific personal and interpersonal risk factors in predicting fear of childbirth (FOC) and to examine whether FOC predicts postnatal maternal adaptation in nulliparous and parous women. A prospective correlational design with two time periods (pre- and postnatal) was carried out with 158 women, 85 nulliparous and 73 parous. Women at Week 32 of gestation completed a demographic questionnaire, the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (K.Wijma, B. Wijma, & M. Zar, 1998), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C.D. Spielberger, R.L. Gorsuch, & R.E. Lushene, 1970), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (L.R. Derogatis, 1983), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (G.B. Spanier, 1976), and the Reciprocal Attachment Questionnaire (M. West, A. Sheldon, & L. Reiffer, 1987). Three months after delivery, the women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J.L. Cox, J.M. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987) and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (R. Abidin, 1986). Pearson's correlations and a series of multiple regressions were conducted. The results indicated that in the prenatal period, higher state anxiety, β = .35, p < .001, lower dyadic adjustment, β = -.26, p = .03, and higher insecurity in attachment relationships, β = .39, p < .001, predicted FOC in first-time mothers only. In the postnatal period, FOC predicted postnatal maternal risk for depression, β = .39, p = .02, and parenting stress, β = .42, p = .02, for nulliparous women only. The specific antecedents and consequences of FOC in nulliparous and parous women should be taken into consideration when developing specific interventions.

  7. Exploring marriage-parenting typologies and their contextual antecedents and developmental sequelae.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2004-01-01

    To identify types of families, latent-class analysis was applied to (reported) marriage and (observed) parenting measures obtained during the infancy, toddler, and/or preschool years for 828 two-parent families participating in the NICHD Study of Child Care. Five types of families were identified: Consistently Supportive (i.e., good parenting, good marriage, 15% of sample), Consistently Moderate (i.e., moderate marriage, moderate parenting. 43%), Consistently Risky (i.e., poor parenting, poor marriage, 16%), Good Parenting/Poor Marriage (19%), and Poor Parenting/Good Marriage (7%). When groups were compared in terms of contextual antecedents (measured at child age 1 month) and child cognitive-academic and socioemotional functioning in first grade, results indicated (a) that contextual risks increased linearly and children's functioning decreased linearly as one moved across the first three aforementioned groups; and after controlling for group differences in background factors (b) that children in the Good-Parenting/Poor-Marriage families outperformed those in the Poor Parenting/Good Marriage; (c) that there was evidence of "added value" developmentally when children experienced two sources of support (i.e., good marriage and good parenting) rather than just one (i.e., good marriage or good parenting); but (d) that there was only modest evidence of protective buffering whereby children experiencing just good parenting (but not just good marriages) outperformed children experiencing poor parenting and poor marriages. Results are discussed in terms of the relative influence of marriage and parenting on child development and the potential benefits of applying typological approaches to the study of marriage-parenting family subsystems.

  8. Vegetation anomalies caused by antecedent precipitation in most of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannopoulou, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Dorigo, W. A.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Depoorter, M.; Waegeman, W.

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying environmental controls on vegetation is critical to predict the net effect of climate change on global ecosystems and the subsequent feedback on climate. Following a non-linear Granger causality framework based on a random forest predictive model, we exploit the current wealth of multi-decadal satellite data records to uncover the main drivers of monthly vegetation variability at the global scale. Results indicate that water availability is the most dominant factor driving vegetation globally: about 61% of the vegetated surface was primarily water-limited during 1981-2010. This included semiarid climates but also transitional ecoregions. Intra-annually, temperature controls Northern Hemisphere deciduous forests during the growing season, while antecedent precipitation largely dominates vegetation dynamics during the senescence period. The uncovered dependency of global vegetation on water availability is substantially larger than previously reported. This is owed to the ability of the framework to (1) disentangle the co-linearities between radiation/temperature and precipitation, and (2) quantify non-linear impacts of climate on vegetation. Our results reveal a prolonged effect of precipitation anomalies in dry regions: due to the long memory of soil moisture and the cumulative, non-linear, response of vegetation, water-limited regions show sensitivity to the values of precipitation occurring three months earlier. Meanwhile, the impacts of temperature and radiation anomalies are more immediate and dissipate shortly, pointing to a higher resilience of vegetation to these anomalies. Despite being infrequent by definition, hydro-climatic extremes are responsible for up to 10% of the vegetation variability during the 1981-2010 period in certain areas, particularly in water-limited ecosystems. Our approach is a first step towards a quantitative comparison of the resistance and resilience signature of different ecosystems, and can be used to benchmark Earth

  9. An Experimental Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Reactance in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…

  10. Antecedents and Correlates of the Popular-Aggressive Phenomenon in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified correlates and developmental antecedents that distinguish popular-aggressive elementary school children from other youth. Drawing on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1022), popular-aggressive children were identified through teacher ratings over…

  11. Antecedents of Compliance in 2-Year-Olds From a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha Farrell; Crichton, Leslie

    In order to identify antecedents of infant's compliance with mothers' directions on how to solve four tasks (graded in terms of stressfulness to the infant), 194 high-risk mothers and their 2-year-old children were observed on videotape and assessed with a six-point rating scale. Data collected prenatally and postnatally at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months…

  12. Racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination, its antecedents, and its effect on job-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Mindy E; Palmieri, Patrick A; Drasgow, Fritz; Ormerod, Alayne J

    2012-01-01

    A general model of workplace prejudice acts, their antecedents, and their consequences is proposed and examined in the context of racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination (REHD). Antecedents proposed and tested here include context and climate, whereas consequences proposed and tested here include work, supervisor, and opportunity satisfaction and turnover intentions. The theoretical model is first tested and cross-validated in two ethnically diverse subsamples (approximately 2,000 each). Then, hierarchical multigroup modeling was conducted to determine whether the relationships among REHD, its antecedents, and its outcomes are equivalent across five racial/ethnic groups (N = 1,000 per group) in the U.S. military. This addresses the issue of differential exposure (i.e., varying amounts of stressors across groups) versus differential vulnerability (i.e., discrepant impact of a stressor on outcomes across groups) across racial/ethnic groups. Consistent with expectations, results suggest that although racial/ethnic groups differ in their mean exposure to REHD, the relationships among REHD and its outcomes are the same across race/ethnicity, supporting the differential exposure view. In addition, the results show some differences between antecedents and REHD across race/ethnicity.

  13. Evidence-Based Practice: Quality Indicator Analysis of Antecedent Exercise in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasner, Melanie; Reid, Greg; MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a quality indicator analysis of studies exploring the effects of antecedent exercise on self-stimulatory behaviors of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Google Scholar, SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, and PubMed/MedLine databases from 1980 to October…

  14. Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

  15. Teachers' Everyday Professional Development: Mapping Informal Learning Activities, Antecedents, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…

  16. The Antecedents of Friendships in Moderately Diverse Classrooms: Social Preference, Social Impact, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antecedents of cross-racial/ethnic friendships and same-racial/ethnic friendships. The sample consisted of 444 (161 African American, 108 European American, 100 Asian American, and 75 Latino) children who were in the fourth grade from 39 classrooms in 10 public elementary schools. Results of Mixed Linear…

  17. Responsive and Proactive Stakeholder Orientation in Public Universities: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…

  18. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line fitted to the data was: API (cm) = 31.99 -0.114 TB (K), where API is the antecedent precipitation index and TB is the S194 brightness temperature.

  19. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  20. The Use of Structural Analysis to Develop Antecedent-Based Interventions for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine P.; Randolph, Jena K.; Kay, Denise; Gage, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Evidence continues to maintain that the use of antecedent variables (i.e., instructional practices, and environmental characteristics) increase prosocial and adaptive behaviors of students with disabilities (e.g., Kern et al. in J Appl Behav Anal 27(1):7-19, 1994; Stichter et al. in Behav Disord 30:401-418, 2005). This study extends the literature…

  1. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  2. Parent-Child and Triadic Antecedents of Children's Social Competence: Cultural Specificity, Shared Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…

  3. The Undefined Role of the Antecedent: Addressing the Measurement Quagmires in Applied Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine Peck; Conroy, Maureen A.; Boyd, Brian A.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have examined trends in the antecedent research literature through discussion of key conceptual models considered to guide this research (Conroy & Stichter, 2003; Smith & Iwata, 1997; Smith, Iwata, & Michael, 2000) as well as related trends in measurement (Mahon, Shores, & Buske, 1999). Despite varied points…

  4. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  5. Exploring a Decrease in Recognition Performance for Non-Antecedents Following the Processing of Anaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Stephen; Nordlie, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Recognition judgments to the non-antecedents of a repeated-noun anaphor are slower and less accurate after than before the processing of the anaphor. Disagreement exists as to whether this pattern of performance reflects a bias shift carried out by a memory process associated with the recognition of a word that has previously occurred in the…

  6. ERP Evidence for the Rapid Assignment of an (Appropriate) Antecedent to PRO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demestre, Josep; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects listened to sentences containing a controlled infinitival complement. Subject and object control items were used, both with 2 potential antecedents in the upper clause. Half of the sentences had a gender agreement violation between the null subject of the infinitival complement and an…

  7. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  8. Teachers' Everyday Professional Development: Mapping Informal Learning Activities, Antecedents, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…

  9. Parent Behavior Antecedents, Cognitive Correlates and Multidimensionality of Locus of Control in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mark W.

    A discussion of parent behavior antecedents, cognitive correlates, and the multidimensionality of locus of control in young children includes reports of several different experiments. Results indicated that development of internal control expectancies is correlated with cognitive-intellectual development. Maternal behaviors were studied through a…

  10. Parent-Child and Triadic Antecedents of Children's Social Competence: Cultural Specificity, Shared Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…

  11. Antecedents and Concomitants of Parenting Stress in Adolescent Mothers in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karen S.; Holdsworth, Michelle J. A.; HoganBruen, Kathy D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to examine variables associated with different short-term trajectories in multiply disadvantaged adolescent mothers by investigating antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress. Method: We followed 49 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18 at study outset) who were wards in Illinois foster care using a longitudinal…

  12. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  13. Proform-Antecedent Linking in Listeners with Language Impairments and Unimpaired Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Samantha Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores how listeners extract meaning from personal and reflexive pronouns in spoken language. To be understood, words like her and herself must be linked to a prior element in the speech stream (or antecedent). This process draws on syntactic knowledge and verbal working memory processes. I present two original research studies…

  14. Exploring the Antecedents of Learning-Related Emotions and Their Relations with Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra Corina; Tempelaar, Dirk; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Recent work suggests that learning-related emotions (LREs) play a crucial role in performance especially in the first year of university, a period of transition for most students; however, additional research is needed to show how these emotions emerge. We developed a framework which links a course-contextualized antecedent--academic control in…

  15. Integrating Real-Time Antecedent Rubrics via Blackboard™ into a Community College General Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the innovative and effective delivery of online course content by community colleges, but not much has been done on how learning management systems (LMS) can deliver real-time (immediate data delivery) antecedents that inform students of performance requirements. This pilot study used Blackboard's™ interactive…

  16. Antecedents and Correlates of Course Cancellation in a University "Drop and Add" Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babad, Elisha; Icekson, Tamar; Yelinek, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    Most institutions of higher education allow students to drop or add courses in the first 2-3 weeks of each term (D&A). Arguing that course cancellation is not merely an administrative issue involving enrollment trends but represents complex decision making processes taken by students, this study investigated antecedents and correlates of course…

  17. An Experimental Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Reactance in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…

  18. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  19. A Longitudinal Panel Study on Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Holger; Frese, Michael; Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of the antecedents and outcomes of work-home interference (WHI) suggest that work characteristics (e.g., job stressors, working hours) increase the probability that an individual experiences work-home interference. Since work-home interference is considered as a role stressor, these experiences should be detrimental for…

  20. Responsive and Proactive Stakeholder Orientation in Public Universities: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…

  1. Brief Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Tics in the General Education Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…

  2. An Empirical Investigation of Dispositional Antecedents and Performance-Related Outcomes of Credit Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernerth, Jeremy B.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Walker, H. Jack; Whitman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using…

  3. Entrepreneurial Mindset in Department of Defense (DoD) Organizations: Antecedents and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    include such facets as flexibility, innovativeness, and action-orientation (Chittipeddi and Wallett , 1991); goal-orientation and optimism (Kuratko et al...Pursues the best opportunities Focus on adaptive execution Engages everyone’s energy Chittipeddi and Wallett (1991) Flexibility...of an organization (Chittipeddi and Wallett , 1991). Therefore, the antecedents identified in the private sector studies may be applicable to public

  4. The Situational Antecedents of Pride and Happiness: Developmental and Domain Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.; Chlouverakis, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether young children can differentiate between the situational antecedents of happiness and pride and the effect of the type of situation on the attribution of pride. One hundred and fifty 7-, 9- and 11-year-olds were asked to rate the extent to which two types of situations would elicit a protagonist's feelings of happiness…

  5. Job Level, Demands, and Resources as Antecedents of Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRenzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Chisty H.

    2011-01-01

    Although substantial research has examined the conflict that employees experience between their work and family roles, the literature has not investigated the prevalence and antecedents of work-family conflict for individuals who work at different levels of an organization. This study examines differences in work-family conflict (work interference…

  6. A Longitudinal Panel Study on Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Holger; Frese, Michael; Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of the antecedents and outcomes of work-home interference (WHI) suggest that work characteristics (e.g., job stressors, working hours) increase the probability that an individual experiences work-home interference. Since work-home interference is considered as a role stressor, these experiences should be detrimental for…

  7. Dispositional Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Skill in Organizations: A Four-Study Investigation with Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongmei; Ferris, Gerald R.; Zinko, Robert; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Weitz, Bart; Xu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    We developed a four-study research plan to examine the dispositional antecedents of political skill and its job performance consequences, and also to incorporate the mediating role of reputation, drawing upon a recent theoretical model of political skill in organizations. Study 1 established the psychometric properties of the two reputation scales…

  8. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line fitted to the data was: API (cm) = 31.99 -0.114 TB (K), where API is the antecedent precipitation index and TB is the S194 brightness temperature.

  9. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  10. The Costs of Today's Jobs: Job Characteristics and Organizational Supports as Antecedents of Negative Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…

  11. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  12. Evaluation of Increasing Antecedent Specificity in Goal Statements on Adherence to Positive Behavior-Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohrs, Corey M.; Shriver, Mark D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies. Teaching staff were recruited from 2 different school settings where there were routine expectations to use behavior-specific praise in the classroom, but adherence was poor. In a concurrent multiple baseline design, the…

  13. Brief Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Tics in the General Education Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…

  14. Family and Religious Antecedents of Civic Involvement in Middle Class African American Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    We examined family and religiousspiritual antecedents and correlates of current and intended civic involvement in 76 middle class African American late adolescents (M = 18.43 years) who had been followed longitudinally for 3 years. Adolescents' spirituality/religiosity and mothers' current involvement influenced the overall ratings and more…

  15. Effects of Fishing Education Programs on Antecedents of Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemer, William F.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates fishing and aquatic stewardship outcomes associated with different levels of program exposure among n=619 participants in a national fishing education program (Hooked on Fishing-Not on Drugs) designed for youth in Grades 6-8. Supports the assumption that such programs are more likely to influence antecedents to environmentally…

  16. Antecedents of Early Marital and Fertility Behavior: Impact of Adolescent Attitudes on Early Marriage and Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kimball P.; Cosby, Arthur G.

    A process model which included the influences of social origin, encouragement, and the formation of adolescent period attitudes as antecedents of early marital and fertility behavior was constructed and evaluated using three-wave panel data obtained from 176 nonmetropolitan females from selected Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and South Carolina high…

  17. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test…

  18. The Antecedents of Organizational Commitment: The Case of Australian Casual Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Therese A.; Bakalis, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the increasing attention of organizational commitment in the management literature, most studies predominantly focus on full-time workers in traditional work settings. This paper examined the antecedents of organizational commitment among casual academics working in the tertiary education sector in Australia.…

  19. Students' Emotions during Homework in Mathematics: Testing a Theoretical Model of Antecedents and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettmers, Swantje; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The experience of pleasant and unpleasant emotions in academic situations is known to affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to extend previous research by examining the antecedents and consequences of student emotions in the homework context. Multilevel analyses of a longitudinal dataset containing 3483 grade 9 and grade 10…

  20. Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

  1. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  2. Evidence-Based Practice: Quality Indicator Analysis of Antecedent Exercise in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasner, Melanie; Reid, Greg; MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a quality indicator analysis of studies exploring the effects of antecedent exercise on self-stimulatory behaviors of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Google Scholar, SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, and PubMed/MedLine databases from 1980 to October…

  3. Integrating Real-Time Antecedent Rubrics via Blackboard™ into a Community College General Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the innovative and effective delivery of online course content by community colleges, but not much has been done on how learning management systems (LMS) can deliver real-time (immediate data delivery) antecedents that inform students of performance requirements. This pilot study used Blackboard's™ interactive…

  4. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  5. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  6. Antecedents and Concomitants of Parenting Stress in Adolescent Mothers in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karen S.; Holdsworth, Michelle J. A.; HoganBruen, Kathy D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to examine variables associated with different short-term trajectories in multiply disadvantaged adolescent mothers by investigating antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress. Method: We followed 49 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18 at study outset) who were wards in Illinois foster care using a longitudinal…

  7. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  8. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  9. The Antecedents of Organizational Commitment: The Case of Australian Casual Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Therese A.; Bakalis, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the increasing attention of organizational commitment in the management literature, most studies predominantly focus on full-time workers in traditional work settings. This paper examined the antecedents of organizational commitment among casual academics working in the tertiary education sector in Australia.…

  10. Evaluation of Increasing Antecedent Specificity in Goal Statements on Adherence to Positive Behavior-Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohrs, Corey M.; Shriver, Mark D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies. Teaching staff were recruited from 2 different school settings where there were routine expectations to use behavior-specific praise in the classroom, but adherence was poor. In a concurrent multiple baseline design, the…

  11. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  12. Effects of Fishing Education Programs on Antecedents of Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemer, William F.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates fishing and aquatic stewardship outcomes associated with different levels of program exposure among n=619 participants in a national fishing education program (Hooked on Fishing-Not on Drugs) designed for youth in Grades 6-8. Supports the assumption that such programs are more likely to influence antecedents to environmentally…

  13. Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G S; Laird, R D; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Criss, M M

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected at age 5 years were used to measure antecedent parenting (harsh/reactive, positive/proactive), family background (e.g., socioeconomic status), and mother-rated child behavior problems. Consistent with expectation, monitoring was anteceded by a proactive parenting style and by advantageous family-ecological characteristics, and psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and by mothers' earlier reports of child externalizing problems. Consistent with prior research, monitoring was associated with fewer delinquent behavior problems. Links between psychological control and adjustment were more complex: High levels of psychological control were associated with more delinquent problems for girls and for teens who were low in preadolescent delinquent problems, and with more anxiety/depression for girls and for teens who were high in preadolescent anxiety/depression.

  14. A Study on the Conceptualization of Librarians' Career Movement and Identification of Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Younghee

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, the surrounding environment and organizations are constantly requiring individuals to engage in lifelong learning and develop boundaryless careers. In this paper, the antecedents of career movement for librarians or those working in related organizations will be identified and conceptualized. To this end, this study establishes a…

  15. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  16. The Costs of Today's Jobs: Job Characteristics and Organizational Supports as Antecedents of Negative Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…

  17. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  18. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  19. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  20. Motivational antecedents of incident reporting: evidence from a survey of nurses and physicians.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Briner, Matthias; Wehner, Theo; Manser, Tanja

    2013-11-12

    Underreporting is a major issue when using incident reporting systems to improve safety in hospitals. Based on a psychological framework, this study investigated the motivational antecedents of the willingness to report into incident reporting systems in healthcare. Individual, organisational and system-related influences on the willingness to report incidents were investigated in a survey of physicians and nurses from five Swiss hospitals. The motivational antecedents were tested using structural equation modelling. The sample consisted of 818 respondents, 546 nurses and 230 physicians; the response rate was 32%. The willingness to report was assessed by using a self-report scale, validated with the self-reported number of reported incidents during the previous year. The most important influence on the willingness to report was the transparency of the incident reporting system procedures to potential users, such as. knowing how and what kind of events to report. At the individual level, the perceived effectiveness of reporting was a relevant antecedent. At the organisational level, management support positively influenced the willingness to report. Different antecedents were found to be relevant for nurses and physicians. Implications are discussed that open up alternatives for the design and implementation of incident reporting systems in healthcare. For example, the results of the study point to opportunities for making incident reporting systems more transparent and participatory and to allow for experience of how they actually improve patient safety.

  1. An Empirical Investigation of Dispositional Antecedents and Performance-Related Outcomes of Credit Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernerth, Jeremy B.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Walker, H. Jack; Whitman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using…

  2. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  3. Risk Factors for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder: Evidence from a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the social, family background, and individual antecedents of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the extent to which CD and ODD symptoms were predicted by common environmental risk factors, and the extent to which the antecedents of CD and ODD accounted for the comorbidity between the two disorders.…

  4. Classification of antecedents towards safety use of health information technology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Lizawati; Ismail, Zuraini

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of safety use of health information technology (IT). The first objective is to identify the antecedents towards safety use of health IT by conducting systematic literature review (SLR). The second objective is to classify the identified antecedents based on the work system in Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model and an extension of DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted from peer-reviewed scholarly publications between January 2000 and July 2014. SLR was carried out and reported based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The related articles were identified by searching the articles published in Science Direct, Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases. Data extracted from the resultant studies included are to be analysed based on the work system in Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, and also from the extended DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. 55 articles delineated to be antecedents that influenced the safety use of health IT were included for review. Antecedents were identified and then classified into five key categories. The categories are (1) person, (2) technology, (3) tasks, (4) organization, and (5) environment. Specifically, person is attributed by competence while technology is associated to system quality, information quality, and service quality. Tasks are attributed by task-related stressor. Organisation is related to training, organisation resources, and teamwork. Lastly, environment is attributed by physical layout, and noise. This review provides evidence that the antecedents for safety use of health IT originated from both social and technical aspects. However, inappropriate health IT usage potentially increases the incidence of errors and produces new safety risks. The review cautions future

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions.

    PubMed

    Bednall, Timothy C; Bove, Liliana L; Cheetham, Ali; Murray, Andrea L

    2013-11-01

    This meta-analysis sought to identify the strongest antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions. It synthesized the results of 24 predictive correlational studies of donation behavior and 37 studies of donation intentions. The antecedents were grouped into six research programs: (1) the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its extensions, (2) prosocial motivation, (3) affective expectations, (4) donor site experience, (5) past donation behavior, and (6) donor demographics. Antecedent categories were cross-validated by multiple coders, and combined effect sizes were analyzed using a random-effects model. For donation behavior, medium positive associations were found with five of the constructs from the extended TPB: intentions to donate, perceived behavioral control, attitude toward donation, self-efficacy and donor role identity. Other antecedents displaying a positive association with donation behavior included anticipated regret for not donating, number of past donations and donor age. Donor experiences at the collection site in the form of temporary deferral or adverse reactions had a medium negative association with behavior. For donation intentions, strong positive associations were observed for perceived behavioral control, attitude, self-efficacy, role identity and anticipated regret. Medium positive associations were observed for personal moral norm, subjective norm, satisfaction, and service quality. All other potential antecedents had weak or non-significant associations with behavior and intentions. Several of these associations were moderated by between-study differences, including donor experience, the period of data collection in which donation behavior was observed, and the use of a nominal (yes/no return) versus a ratio measure of donation behavior. Collectively, the results underscore the importance of enhancing donors' attitudes towards donation and building their perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy to donate. Further

  6. Rainfall-runoff properties of tephra: Simulated effects of grain-size and antecedent rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robbie; Thomas, Robert E.; Peakall, Jeff; Manville, Vern

    2017-04-01

    Rain-triggered lahars (RTLs) are a significant and often persistent secondary volcanic hazard at many volcanoes around the world. Rainfall on unconsolidated volcaniclastic material is the primary initiation mechanism of RTLs: the resultant flows have the potential for large runout distances (> 100 km) and present a substantial hazard to downstream infrastructure and communities. RTLs are frequently anticipated in the aftermath of eruptions, but the pattern, timing and scale of lahars varies on an eruption-by-eruption and even catchment-by-catchment basis. This variability is driven by a set of local factors including the grain size distribution, thickness, stratigraphy and spatial distribution of source material in addition to topography, vegetation coverage and rainfall conditions. These factors are often qualitatively discussed in RTL studies based on post-eruption lahar observations or instrumental detections. Conversely, this study aims to move towards a quantitative assessment of RTL hazard in order to facilitate RTL predictions and forecasts based on constrained rainfall, grain size distribution and isopach data. Calibrated simulated rainfall and laboratory-constructed tephra beds are used within a repeatable experimental set-up to isolate the effects of individual parameters and to examine runoff and infiltration processes from analogous RTL source conditions. Laboratory experiments show that increased antecedent rainfall and finer-grained surface tephra individually increase runoff rates and decrease runoff lag times, while a combination of these factors produces a compound effect. These impacts are driven by increased residual moisture content and decreased permeability due to surface sealing, and have previously been inferred from downstream observations of lahars but not identified at source. Water and sediment transport mechanisms differ based on surface grain size distribution: a fine-grained surface layer displayed airborne remobilisation

  7. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K

    2017-02-01

    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (p<0.05) in burn injured wounds. Histological analysis supported objective clinical findings with marked scar-like collagen proliferation within the dermis, increased vascular density, and prolonged and increased cellular infiltration. Observed differences in contracture also correlated with earlier and more prominent myofibroblast differentiation as demonstrated by α-SMA staining. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been

  8. Antecedents and precipitants of patient-related violence in the emergency department: Results from the Australian VENT Study (Violence in Emergency Nursing and Triage).

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline V; Kable, Ashley; Hazelton, Mike

    2017-08-01

    Workplace violence is one of the most significant and hazardous issues faced by nurses globally. It is a potentially life-threatening and life-affecting workplace hazard often downplayed as just "part of the job" for nurses. A cross-sectional design was used and data were collected using a purpose developed survey tool. Surveys were distributed to all members of the College of Emergency Nurses' Australasia (CENA) in 2010 and 537 eligible responses were received (RR=51%). Patient-related violence was reported by 87% of nurses in the last six months. Precipitants and antecedents for episodes of violence were reported in three categories: nurse-related; patient-related and emergency-department specific factors. Triaging was identified as the highest risk nursing activity, and the triage area identified as the highest risk location in the department. Patients who presented with alcohol intoxication, substance misuse or mental health issues were identified as the groups at greatest risk for potential violence. Patient-related violence was reported by the majority of emergency nurses surveyed. A number of precipitants and antecedents perceived to be risk factors by participants were found to be significant and are unavoidable in the working lives of emergency department nurses. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement and prediction of propeller flow field on the PTA aircraft at speeds of up to Mach 0.85. [Propfan Test Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, Abdullah S.

    1988-01-01

    High speed subsonic transports powered by advanced propellers provide significant fuel savings compared to turbofan powered transports. Unfortunately, however, propfans must operate in aircraft-induced nonuniform flow fields which can lead to high blade cyclic stresses, vibration and noise. To optimize the design and installation of these advanced propellers, therefore, detailed knowledge of the complex flow field is required. As part of the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) program, a 1/9 scale semispan model of the Gulfstream II propfan test-bed aircraft was tested in the NASA-Lewis 8 x 6 supersonic wind tunnel to obtain propeller flow field data. Detailed radial and azimuthal surveys were made to obtain the total pressure in the flow and the three components of velocity. Data was acquired for Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 0.85. Analytical predictions were also made using a subsonic panel method, QUADPAN. Comparison of wind-tunnel measurements and analytical predictions show good agreement throughout the Mach range.

  10. Acetylcholine-like and trimethylglycine-like PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) derivatives for the development of innovative Ru- and Pt-based therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Valeria; Fogagnolo, Marco; Marchi, Andrea; Marvelli, Lorenza; Sforza, Fabio; Bergamini, Paola

    2014-05-19

    The PTA N-alkyl derivatives (PTAC2H4OCOMe)X (1X: 1a, X = Br; 1b, X = I; 1c, X = PF6; 1d, X = BPh4), (PTACH2COOEt)X (2X: 2a, X = Br; 2b, X = Cl; 2c, X = PF6), and (PTACH2CH2COOEt)X (3X: 3a, X = Br; 3c, X = PF6), presenting all the functional groups of the natural cationic compounds acetylcholine or trimethylglycine combined with a P-donor site suitable for metal ion coordination, were prepared and characterized by NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The X-ray crystal structures of 1d and 2c were determined. Ligands 1c, 2b, and 3c were coordinated to Pt(II) and Ru(II) to give the cationic complexes cis-[PtCl2(L)2]X2 and [RuCpCl(PPh3)(L)]X (L = 1, 2, 3, X = Cl or PF6) designed with a structure targeted for anticancer activity. The X-ray crystal structure of [CpRu(PPh3)(PTAC2H4OCOMe)Cl]PF6 (1cRu) was determined. The antiproliferative activity of the ligands and the complexes was evaluated on three human cancer cell lines.

  11. In-flight near- and far-field acoustic data measured on the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) testbed and with an adjacent aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1993-01-01

    Flight tests to define the far-field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full-scale SR-7L advanced turboprop that was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream 2 aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long-distance propagation models to predict en route noise. In-flight data were taken for seven test cases. Near-field acoustic data were taken on the Gulfstream fuselage and on a microphone boom that was mounted on the Gulfstream wing outboard of the propeller. Far-field acoustic data were taken by an acoustically instrumented Learjet that flew in formation with the Gulfstream. These flight tests were flown from El Paso, Texas, and from the NASA Lewis Research Center. A comprehensive listing of the aeroacoustic results from these flight tests which may be used for future analysis are presented.

  12. Gender Attitudes in Early Childhood: Behavioral Consequences and Cognitive Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, May Ling D.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Amodio, David M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors that predicted children's gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N = 246; Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive…

  13. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…

  14. Electronic Textbooks: Antecedents of Students' Adoption and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpend, Regis; Gattiker, Thomas F.; Lowe, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty and students are increasingly faced with the opportunity to use electronic versions of textbooks (e-texts). Despite the advantages of e-texts and recent advances in technology, evidence suggests that students are still reluctant to adopt and use e-texts. This situation leads us to investigate two research questions: What factors contribute…

  15. Explaining Motivational Antecedents of Citizenship Behavior among Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Solhaug, Trond; Turmo, Are

    2015-01-01

    A typical preservice teacher will experience demanding teaching situations during practicum. In such situations, interpersonal support from fellow students may be an important factor if experiences gained during teaching practice are to make a constructive contribution to personal growth for the teacher. Human support from other preservice…

  16. The Social Antecedents of Anger Proneness in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, R. Jay; Russell, David; Glover, Regan; Hutto, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Anger has been shown to be an important factor in occupational maladjustment, family conflict, physical and sexual assault, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. It has also been linked with such adverse health outcomes as hypertension, heart disease, and cancer. Focusing on anger proneness, conceptualized as a relatively enduring propensity to…

  17. Electronic Textbooks: Antecedents of Students' Adoption and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpend, Regis; Gattiker, Thomas F.; Lowe, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty and students are increasingly faced with the opportunity to use electronic versions of textbooks (e-texts). Despite the advantages of e-texts and recent advances in technology, evidence suggests that students are still reluctant to adopt and use e-texts. This situation leads us to investigate two research questions: What factors contribute…

  18. The Social Antecedents of Anger Proneness in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, R. Jay; Russell, David; Glover, Regan; Hutto, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Anger has been shown to be an important factor in occupational maladjustment, family conflict, physical and sexual assault, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. It has also been linked with such adverse health outcomes as hypertension, heart disease, and cancer. Focusing on anger proneness, conceptualized as a relatively enduring propensity to…

  19. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…

  20. Behavioral Features of Early Reactivity: Antecedents and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports a study of 110 newborn infants' responses to the heelstick procedure to draw blood samples, and of the responses of 40 of those infants to their first inoculations at two months of age. Discusses measures of distress; stability of reactivity across time; and individual differences and health of the infant as factors in reactivity. (NH)

  1. Antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog-bite injuries and their developmental trends: 101 cases in rural China.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Li, S; Xiang, H; Lu, S; Schwebel, D C

    2014-02-01

    Study the contextual antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog bites in rural China. A total of 101 caregivers from rural Anhui Province, China, whose children had suffered dog-bite injuries in the past year, participated in a structured interview about the circumstances, antecedents and consequences of their child's injury. Contextual circumstances identified frequently included outside-home environment and presence of peers but not adult supervisors. Frequent antecedents were dogs' initiation of the encounter, children walking to/from school, and dogs unleashed. Consequences to children identified frequently were rabies vaccines, restricted activity, and fear of dogs. Developmental trends emerged, with bite circumstances differing by children's ages. These results offer data on common antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog bites in rural China, a necessary prerequisite for development of empirically supported prevention programs in a vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antecedents and correlates of the popular-aggressive phenomenon in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Rodkin, Philip C; Roisman, Glenn I

    2010-01-01

    This study identified correlates and developmental antecedents that distinguish popular-aggressive elementary school children from other youth. Drawing on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1022), popular-aggressive children were identified through teacher ratings over Grades 3-6. Potential correlates included social competence as rated by observers, mothers, and teachers. Potential developmental antecedents included cognitive functioning, maternal sensitivity, and participation in child care through age 4.5. Multinomial regressions allowed for the determination of group differences net of covariates such as gender, ethnicity, maternal education, and income-to-needs. Results showed that popular-aggressive elementary school children were distinguished from other youth as having had an extensive child-care history. Discussion focuses on developmental associations between child-care quantity and aggression.

  3. Individual and contextual antecedents of workplace aggression in aged care nurses and certified nursing assistants.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Correlations between Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data and an antecedent precipitation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, G. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Passive microwave brightness temperatures from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) can be used to infer the soil moisture content over agricultural areas such as the southern Great Plains of the United States. A linear regression analysis between three transforms of the five dual polarized SMMR wavelengths of 0.81, 1.36, 1.66, 2.80 and 4.54 cm and an antecedent precipitation index representing the precipitation history showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 for pixel aggregates of 25-50 km. The use of surface air temperatures to approximate the temperature of the emitting layer was not required to obtain high correlation coefficients between the transforms and the antecedent precipitation index.

  5. [Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment].

    PubMed

    Mañas, Miguel A; Salvador, Carmen; Boada, Joan; González, Esperanza; Agulló, Esteban

    2007-08-01

    Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. The role of organisational commitment in public administration and its repercussions on the institution are examined in this study. It reports part of a larger research project that studies job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. Data were collected from 697 public-sector employees, using questionnaires. Results showed that job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were strong predictors of organisational commitment. Higher levels of job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were associated with more favourable perceptions of organisational commitment. Furthermore, this study highlights the impact of dynamic work on the employee's commitment.

  6. Post-renal transplantation anemia at 12 months: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongli; Song, Turun; Fu, Lei; Rao, Zhengsheng; Zeng, Dongyang; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Xianding; Xie, Libo; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Li; Lin, Tao

    2015-09-01

    To investigate any association between post-transplantation anemia (PTA) and clinical outcomes following living donor kidney transplantation. We retrospectively evaluated 887 patients who received living donor kidney transplantations at our medical center between January 2006 and December 2012 to evaluate whether PTA, defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels of <130 g/l in men and <120 g/l in women, at 12 months is associated with post-transplant outcomes, including graft function, death-censored graft survival, or patient survival. The prevalence of PTA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months was 84.3, 39.5, 26.2, and 21.6 %, respectively. Donor age [hazard ratio (HR), 1.03; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.05] and acute rejection (HR 2.13; 95 % CI 1.28-3.54) were found to be independent risk factors for PTA at 12 months. Recipient age (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.95-1.00), pre-transplantation Hb levels (HR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.98-1.00), and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) at 12 months (HR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.94-0.97) were found to confer slight protection against PTA at 12 months. PTA at 12 months was associated with increased graft loss (HR 1.046; 95 % CI 1.045-1.046). For each increase in anemia degree, there was a 2.77-fold greater risk of graft loss (HR 2.77; 95 % CI 1.50-5.13). When stratified according to eGFR, PTA was found to be a predictor of graft loss in patients with an eGFR of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (HR 4.57; 95 % CI 1.98-10.56) but not in patients with an eGFR of >60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (HR 1.89; 95 % CI 0.13-27.78). PTA was not found to be a predictor of patient survival. Anemia is common after kidney transplantation, and its prevalence declines with time after transplantation. Presence of anemia at 12 months post-transplant was an independent predictor of graft loss, with higher risk of graft loss in patients with anemia and poorer kidney functions.

  7. Increased hair cortisol and antecedent somatic complaints in children with a first epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, Ioannis; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Gnardellis, Charalampos; Loli, Nomiki; Theodorou, Virginia; Mantzou, Aimilia; Soukou, Faye; Sinani, Olga; Chrousos, George P

    2017-03-01

    Stress is the most frequent seizure-precipitating factor reported by patients with epilepsy, while stressful life events may increase seizure susceptibility in humans. In this study, we investigated the relations between both biological and behavioral measures of stress in children with a first epileptic seizure (hereafter called seizure). We hypothesized that hair cortisol, a biomarker of chronic stress reflecting approximately 3months of preceding exposure, might be increased in children with a first seizure. We also employed standardized questionnaires to examine presence of stress-related behavioral markers. This was a cross-sectional clinical study investigating stress-related parameters in children with a first seizure (First Epileptic Seizure Group (FESG), n=22) in comparison to healthy children without seizures (Control Group, n=29). Within 24h after a first seizure, hair samples were collected from children for the determination of cortisol. In parallel, perceived stress and anxiety and depressive symptoms were examined with appropriate self- and parent-completed questionnaires, and history of stressful life events during the past year was recorded. Emotional and behavioral problems were also assessed by parent-reported validated and widely-used questionnaires. Higher hair cortisol measurements were observed in the FESG than control children (7.5 versus 5.0pg/mg respectively, p=0.001). The former were more likely to complain of somatic problems than the latter (59.8 vs. 55.4 according to DSM-oriented Scale, p=0.021); however, there were no differences in perceived stress and anxiety or depressive symptoms between the two groups. Using ROC analysis of hair cortisol measurements for predicting disease status, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were observed for a cut-off point of 5.25pg/mg. Increased hair cortisol indicates chronic hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis prior to the first seizure. This might have contributed to

  8. Understanding the Antecedents of Korean High School Students’ Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy: Parental Influence, Peer Influence, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, NamAuk; Yoo, Jina

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents’ drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. PMID:22980099

  9. Understanding the antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy: parental influence, peer influence, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, Namauk; Yoo, Jina

    2011-12-29

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents' drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy.

  10. Antecedent manipulations in a tangible condition: effects of stimulus preference on aggression.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, M M; Wilczynski, S M; Moore, J W; Fusilier, I; Trahant, D

    2001-01-01

    After a functional analysis indicated that aggression of an 8-year-old boy with autism was maintained by access to preferred items, antecedent manipulations involving the relative preference of restricted and noncontingently available stimuli were conducted. Restricting highly preferred items evoked the highest rates of aggression regardless of the preference level of the noncontingently available alternative items. Restricting less preferred stimuli was associated with moderate rates of aggression even when the alternative items were more preferred. PMID:11421319

  11. What is Informal Learning and What are its Antecedents? An Integrative and Meta-Analytic Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Christopher P. Cerasoli George M. Alliger Jamie S. Donsbach The Group for Organizational Effectiveness John E. Mathieu University of...Christopher P. Cerasoli, George M. Alliger , Jamie S. Donsbach; John E. Mathieu; Scott I. Tannenbaum; Karin A. Orvis 5c. PROJECT NUMBER...What are its Antecedents? An Integrative and Meta-Analytic Review Christopher P. Cerasoli, George M. Alliger Jamie S. Donsbach The Group for

  12. Developmental antecedents of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Le Grange, Daniel; O'Connor, Meredith; Hughes, Elizabeth K; Macdonald, Jacqui; Little, Keriann; Olsson, Craig A

    2014-11-01

    This study capitalizes on developmental data from an Australian population-based birth cohort to identify developmental markers of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in adolescence. The aims were twofold: (1) to develop a comprehensive path model identifying infant and childhood developmental correlates of Abnormal Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in adolescence, and (2) to explore potential gender differences. Data were drawn from a 30-year longitudinal study that has followed the health and development of a population based cohort across 15 waves of data collection from infancy since 1983: The Australian Temperament Project. Participants in this analysis were the 1,300 youth who completed the 11th survey at 15-16 years (1998) and who completed the eating disorder inventory at this time point. Developmental correlates of Abnormal Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in mid-adolescence were temperamental persistence, early gestational age, persistent high weight, teen depression, stronger peer relationships, maternal dieting behavior, and pubertal timing. Overall, these factors accounted for 28% of the variance in Abnormal Eating Attitudes and Behaviors at 15-16 years of age. Depressive symptoms, maternal dieting behavior, and early puberty were more important factors for girls. Late puberty was a more important factor for boys. Findings address an important gap in our understanding of the etiology of Abnormal Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in adolescence and suggest multiple targets for preventive intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Enhancement of the antiproliferative activity of [RuCp(PPh3)2(dmoPTA-1κP)](+)via its coordination to one {CoCl2} unit: synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [RuCp(PPh3)2-μ-dmoPTA-1κP:2κ(2)N,N'-CoCl2](OTf)·0.25H2O.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Zenaida; Lorenzo-Luis, Pablo; Scalambra, Franco; Padrón, José M; Romerosa, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Synthesis, characterization and the antiproliferative activity of a new bimetallic complex [RuCp(PPh3)2-μ-dmoPTA-1κP:2k(2)N,N'-CoCl2]OTf·0.25H2O are described. The stability of the complex was studied under air and N2 atmospheres and in CDCl3, DMSO, water and the cell culture medium, at room temperature and 40 °C. The complex showed an enhanced antiproliferative activity (up to six-fold) when compared with its parent complex [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](2+) against human lung, cervix, breast, and colon solid tumor cell lines.

  14. The effects of preterm birth and its antecedents on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Bensley, Jonathan G; De Matteo, Robert; Harding, Richard; Black, Mary J

    2016-06-01

    Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. It prematurely exposes the developing cardiovascular system to the hemodynamic transition that occurs at birth and to the subsequent functional demands of life ex utero. This review describes the current knowledge of the effects of preterm birth, and some of its common antecedents (chorioamnionitis, intra-uterine growth restriction, and maternal antenatal corticosteroid administration), on the structure of the myocardium. A thorough literature search was conducted for articles relating to how preterm birth, and its antecedents, affect development of the heart. Given that sheep are an excellent model for the studies of cardiac development, this review has focused on experimental studies in sheep as well as clinical findings. Our review of the literature demonstrates that individuals born preterm are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, including increased mean arterial pressure, abnormally shaped and sub-optimally performing hearts and changes in the vasculature. The review highlights how antenatal corticosteroids, intra-uterine growth restriction, and exposure to chorioamnionitis also have the potential to impact cardiac growth in the preterm newborn. Preterm birth and its common antecedents (antenatal corticosteroids, intra-uterine growth restriction, and chorioamnionitis) have the potential to adversely impact cardiac structure immediately following birth and in later life. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  16. Prenatal and childhood antecedents of suicide: 50-year follow-up of the 1958 British Birth Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, M-C; Gunnell, D; Power, C

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to elucidate early antecedents of suicide including possible mediation by early child development. Using the 1958 birth cohort, based on British births in March 1958, individuals were followed up to adulthood. We used data collected at birth and at age 7 years from various informants. Suicides occurring up to 31 May 2009 were identified from linked national death certificates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate risk factors. Altogether 12399 participants (n = 44 suicides) had complete data. The strongest prenatal risk factors for suicide were: birth order, with risk increasing in later-born children [p trend = 0.063, adjusted hazard ratio (HR)], e.g. for fourth- or later-born children [HR = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-5.75]; young maternal age (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 0.34-4.13 for ⩽19 years and HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.91 for >29 years, p trend = 0.034); and low (<2.5 kg) birth weight (HR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.03-5.95). The strongest risk factors at 7 years were externalizing problems in males (HR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.03-8.47, p trend = 0.050) and number of emotional adversities (i.e. parental death, neglected appearance, domestic tension, institutional care, contact with social services, parental divorce/separation and bullying) for which there was a graded association with risk of suicide (p trend = 0.033); the highest (HR = 3.12, 95% CI 1.01-9.62) was for persons with three or more adversities. Risk factors recorded at birth and at 7 years may influence an individual's long-term risk of suicide, suggesting that trajectories leading to suicide have roots in early life. Some factors are amenable to intervention, but for others a better understanding of causal mechanisms may provide new insights for intervention to reduce suicide risk.

  17. Longitudinal changes in the antecedent and early manifest course of bipolar disorder-A narrative review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Andrea; Leopold, Karolina; Ritter, Philipp; Böhme, Anne; Severus, Emanuel; Bauer, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Prospective study designs ideally allow patients to be followed from the first manifestations of the illness or even from an at-risk stage. It can thus provide data on the predictive value of changes in clinical symptomatology, cognition or further biological markers to broaden our understanding of the etiopathology and symptomatic trajectory of bipolar disorders. The scope of this narrative review is to summarize evidence from prospectively collected data on psychopathological and other clinical and biological changes in the early developmental course of bipolar disorders. The narrative review was based on a literature search conducted in February 2016 within the PubMed library for prospective study data of persons in antecedent and early manifest stages of manifest bipolar disorder published within the last 15 years. A total of 19 prospective studies were included. Regarding psychopathological features; personality, temperament and character traits as well as changes in sleep and circadian rhythm, the evidence suggests that risk factors for the development of bipolar disorder can already be described and should be studied further to understand their interaction, mediation with other factors and timing in the developmental process of bipolar disorder. Apart from the positive family history, childhood anxiety, sleep problems, subthreshold (hypo)manic symptoms and certain character traits/emotionality should be identified and monitored already in clinical practice as their presence likely increases risk of bipolar disorder. Up to date no substantiated evidence was found from prospective studies addressing cognitive features, life events, immunological parameters and morphological central nervous system changes as potential risk factors for bipolar disorder. For an improved understanding of episodic disorders, longitudinal data collection is essential. Since the etiology of bipolar disorders is complex, a number of potential risk factors have been proposed

  18. Semi-arid vegetation response to antecedent climate and water balance windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoma, David P.; Munson, Seth M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Bunting, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Questions Can we improve understanding of vegetation response to water availability on monthly time scales in semi-arid environments using remote sensing methods? What climatic or water balance variables and antecedent windows of time associated with these variables best relate to the condition of vegetation? Can we develop credible near-term forecasts from climate data that can be used to prepare for future climate change effects on vegetation? Location Semi-arid grasslands in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Methods We built vegetation response models by relating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS imagery in Mar–Nov 2000–2013 to antecedent climate and water balance variables preceding the monthly NDVI observations. We compared how climate and water balance variables explained vegetation greenness and then used a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance models to forecast monthly NDVI for three holdout years. Results Water balance variables explained vegetation greenness to a greater degree than climate variables for most growing season months. Seasonally important variables included measures of antecedent water input and storage in spring, switching to indicators of drought, input or use in summer, followed by antecedent moisture availability in autumn. In spite of similar climates, there was evidence the grazed grassland showed a response to drying conditions 1 mo sooner than the ungrazed grassland. Lead times were generally short early in the growing season and antecedent window durations increased from 3 mo early in the growing season to 1 yr or more as the growing season progressed. Forecast accuracy for three holdout years using a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance variables outperformed forecasts made with a naïve NDVI climatology. Conclusions We determined the influence of climate and water balance on vegetation at a fine temporal scale, which presents an opportunity to forecast vegetation

  19. Factors influencing hearing outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing ossicular chain reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Govil, Nandini; Kaffenberger, Thomas M; Shaffer, Amber D; Chi, David H

    2017-08-01

    Ossicular chain disruption in children leads to conductive hearing loss. Few studies have focused on factors influencing successful results in pediatric ossicular chain reconstruction (OCR). We aim to determine whether demographic or surgical factors affect hearing outcomes in pediatric OCR. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 120 patients undergoing OCR at our institution, a tertiary care hospital, between 2003 and 2014, with median length of follow-up of 2.2 years (range 0.1-9.3 years). Pediatric patients (<18 years old at time of surgical procedure) who had current procedural terminology (CPT) codes of OCR, and available pre- and post-operative audiograms were included in the study. Demographic information, surgical details, and pre- and post-operative pure-tone averages (PTA), speech reception thresholds (SRT), and air-bone gaps (ABG) were recorded from clinic notes, audiograms and operative reports. Differences between PTA, SRT and ABG pre- and post-operatively, as well as demographic and surgical factors, were evaluated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Factors influencing revision were evaluated using Log-rank tests. A total of 120 patients (123 ears) were included. 35.8% of cases were revised, most commonly due to displaced prostheses. 28.5% of surgeries resulted in normal hearing (PTA ≤25 dB) post-operatively. Post-operative SRT and ABG were significantly better in patients with partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) compared with those with total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) (p = 0.016, 0.027). Titanium prostheses resulted in better post-operative PTA and larger changes in PTA compared with all other materials (p = 0.034, p = 0.038). In our experience, children with titanium prostheses had better hearing outcomes than those with other materials, and children with PORP had better hearing outcomes than those with TORP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood antecedents and risk for adult mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-01-03

    Progress in treating and preventing mental disorders may follow from research that integrates development, genetics, and neuroscience. This review first delineates how longitudinal research has identified three particular groups of disorders shown to differ on the basis of symptom trajectories and risk-factor profiles. In the next section, the review describes how research on genetic contributions to psychopathology has elucidated the nature of risk for two groups of disorders, the neurodevelopmental and psychotic disorders. In the third section, the review describes how research on environmental contributions to psychopathology has targeted early temperament, its associated perturbations in information-processing functions, and its relations to a third group of disorders, the emotional disorders. For all three groups of disorders, such integrative research has generated ideas about novel interventions. The hope is that over the coming decade such ideas will lead to novel treatments that alter the trajectory of risk in developmental psychopathology.

  1. Quality of Working Life: An Antecedent to Employee Turnover Intention

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to measure the level of quality of work life (QWL) among hospital employees in Iran. Additionally, it aimed to identify the factors that are critical to employees’ QWL. It also aimed to test a theoretical model of the relationship between employees’ QWL and their intention to leave the organization. Methods: A survey study was conducted based on a sample of 608 hospital employees using a validated questionnaire. Face, content and construct validity were conducted on the survey instrument. Results: Hospital employees reported low QWL. Employees were least satisfied with pay, benefits, job promotion, and management support. The most important predictor of QWL was management support, followed by job proud, job security and job stress. An inverse relationship was found between employees QWL and their turnover intention. Conclusion: This study empirically examined the relationships between employees’ QWL and their turnover intention. Managers can take appropriate actions to improve employees’ QWL and subsequently reduce employees’ turnover. PMID:24596835

  2. Examining Antecedents of Knowledge-Sharing Factors on Research Supervision: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosravi, Arash; Ahmad, Mohammad Nazir

    2016-01-01

    The use of an effective supervision mechanism is crucial between a student and supervisor. The essential knowledge shared and transferred between these two parties must be observed and understood very well in order to ensure that students are produced at good level of quality for future professional knowledge workers. The aim of this study was to…

  3. Examining Antecedents of Knowledge-Sharing Factors on Research Supervision: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosravi, Arash; Ahmad, Mohammad Nazir

    2016-01-01

    The use of an effective supervision mechanism is crucial between a student and supervisor. The essential knowledge shared and transferred between these two parties must be observed and understood very well in order to ensure that students are produced at good level of quality for future professional knowledge workers. The aim of this study was to…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Alpha Contracting: Antecedents, Processes, Issues, Success Factors and Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    exploit available resources and opportunities effectively (Jap, 1999). In order to achieve a proposed win-win outcome, Garret (2005), proposes that a...expeditionary contracting. Garret , G. A. (2005). Negotiations: Skills, tools, and best practices. Chicago: CCH Incorporated. Gill, M. A. (2009

  5. The Antecedents of Schizophrenia: A Review of Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Joy; Isohanni, Matti; Jones, Peter; McGrath, John

    2009-01-01

    Background: Birth cohort (BC) studies demonstrate that individuals who develop schizophrenia differ from the general population on a range of developmental indices. The aims of this article were to summarize key findings from BC studies in order to identify areas of convergence and to outline areas requiring further research. Method: We define BC studies as studies based on general population BCs where data are collected prospectively from birth or childhood and which identify schizophrenia or related disorders as an outcome. To identify such studies, we searched various electronic databases using the search parameters (schizo* OR psych*) AND (birth cohort). We also checked the references of relevant articles and previous reviews. Results: We identified 11 BCs from 7 countries that have examined schizophrenia as an outcome in adulthood. There is relatively consistent evidence that, as a group, children who later develop schizophrenia have behavioral disturbances and psychopathology, intellectual and language deficits, and early motor delays. Evidence with respect to alterations in language, educational performance, and physical growth has also been identified in some studies. BC studies have also contributed evidence about a wide range of putative risk factors for schizophrenia. Conclusions: BC studies have provided important, convergent insights into how the developmental trajectory of individuals who develop schizophrenia differs from their peers. The combination of new paradigms and larger cohorts, with the tools of modern epidemiology and biomedical science, is advancing our understanding of the developmental pathways to schizophrenia. PMID:18658128

  6. New Graduate Nurses' Professional Commitment: Antecedents and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Sylvie; Chênevert, Denis; Kilroy, Steven

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the factors that increase new graduate nurses' professional commitment and how this professional commitment in turn affects professional turnover intentions, anxiety, and physical health symptoms. The study was carried out in association with the nursing undergraduate's affiliation of Quebec, Canada. A three-wave longitudinal design was employed among nursing students. Nurses were surveyed before they entered the labor market, and then twice after they started working. Participants were contacted by post at their home address. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Professional commitment explains why good work characteristics and the provision of organizational resources related to patient care reduce nurses' anxiety and physical symptoms, and increase their professional turnover intentions. Pre-entry professional perceptions moderate the effects of work characteristics on professional commitment such that when participants hold positive pre-entry perceptions about the profession, the propensity to develop professional commitment is higher. There is a worldwide shortage of nurses. From a nurse training perspective, it is important to create realistic perceptions of the nursing role. In hospitals, providing a good work environment and resources conducive to their professional ethos is critical for ensuring nurses do not leave the profession early on in their careers. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. A prospective study of childhood and adolescent antecedents of homelessness among a community population of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Doherty, Elaine E; Robertson, Judith A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2012-06-01

    Much is known about contemporaneous correlates of homelessness from studies of homeless individuals. However, few studies have prospectively examined early antecedents and prevalence of homelessness in community populations. We use data from a 35-year study of a community population of African Americans to examine relationships between homelessness and prior structural, family, school, and behavioral influences. Nearly 22% of males and 16% of females reported homelessness between ages 15 and 42, providing a rare estimate within an African American urban community population. In bivariate analyses, lower school bonds, depressed mood, violent behavior, and running away in adolescence are predictive for both males and females. Teen parenting and angry mood are unique influences for females, while for males, poor first grade classroom conduct and adolescent substance use are unique risks. In multivariate analyses, poor classroom conduct and weaker school bonds predict homelessness among males, while teen parenting does so for females. Running away before age 15 is strongly predictive of later homelessness for both males and females. These results reveal the relative influence of multiple, interrelated early risks on homelessness and confirm our hypothesis that factors linked to other poor outcomes also relate to homelessness, underscoring another benefit to early prevention efforts.

  8. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The impact of antecedent trauma exposure and mental health symptoms on the post-deployment mental health of Afghanistan-deployed Australian troops.

    PubMed

    Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie R; Grace, Blair S; Saccone, Elizabeth J; Davy, Carol P; Lorimer, Michelle; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2017-10-01

    Both traumatic deployment experiences and antecedent traumas increase personnel's risk of developing PTSD and depression. However, only cross-sectional studies have assessed whether antecedent trauma moderates stress reactions to deployment experiences. This study prospectively examines whether antecedent trauma moderates the association between deployment trauma and post-deployment PTSD and depressive symptoms after accounting for antecedent mental health problems, in a large Australian Defence Force (ADF) sample. In the ADF Middle East Area of Operations Prospective Study, currently-serving military personnel deployed to Afghanistan across 2010-2012 (n = 1122) completed self-reported measures at pre-deployment and post-deployment. Within multivariable regressions, associations between deployment trauma and PTSD and depressive symptoms at post-deployment were stronger for personnel with greater antecedent trauma. However, once adjusting for antecedent mental health problems, these significant interaction effects disappeared. Instead, deployment-related trauma and antecedent mental health problems showed direct associations with post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent trauma was also indirectly associated with post-deployment mental health problems through antecedent mental health problems. Similar associations were seen with prior combat exposure as a moderator. Antecedent and deployment trauma were reported retrospectively. Self-reports may also suffer from social desirability bias, especially at pre-deployment. Our main effects results support the pervasive and cumulative negative effect of trauma on military personnel, regardless of its source. While antecedent trauma does not amplify personnel's psychological response to deployment trauma, it is indirectly associated with increased post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent mental health should be considered within pre-deployment prevention programs, and deployment-trauma within post

  10. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of malfunctioning Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula: analysis of factors adversely affecting long-term patency.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Koji; Higashino, Takanori; Kuwata, Yoichiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Hirota, Shozo; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2003-07-01

    Our objective was to identify the factors adversely affecting long-term patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for hemodialysis Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistulas. Between November 1995 and March 2000, 91 PTA procedures were performed on 50 patients with 57 Brescia-Cimino fistulas. A retrospective study based on the chart review was performed. The initial technical success rate for all procedures and the primary and secondary patency rates for all fistulas were calculated. Regarding fistulas successfully maintained by the primary PTA, the primary and secondary patency rates were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method between two patient groups. They were classified on the basis of several factors, including age (older, over 70 years, and younger group), age of the fistulas (older, over 6 months, and younger group), with or without diabetes mellitus (DM), solitary or multiple lesions, long or short segment lesion, stenosis or occlusion, and with or without arterial and/or anastomotic lesions. Initial technical success rates for all procedures and fistulas were 91.2 and 89.5%, respectively. Cumulative primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 47.3 and 67.3%, respectively. In the comparative study, the secondary patency rate for the older group was lower than that of the younger group with statistical significance ( p=0.029). The higher age is the only factor that reduces the long-term patency rate after PTA.

  11. Family Factors Related to Competence in Young, Disadvantaged Mexican-American Children. Part of the Final Report on Head Start Evaluation and Research: 1968-69 to the Office of Economic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, James M.; McKenzie, Richard E.

    As part of the continuing search for the environmental antecedents of competence in young children, this study investigated several parameters of a population of disadvantaged Mexican-American children. The factors of child competence on which this study focused were behavioral adjustment and linguistic ability. The antecedents of competence were…

  12. The Influence of Antecedent Soil Moisture on Springtime Runoff in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2009-12-01

    As the changing climate influences precipitation, air temperature, and snowmelt, measurements in the Sierra Nevada are illustrating the contribution of antecedent soil moisture on the timing and volume of springtime runoff. Delays in runoff correspond to low antecedent soil moisture from the preceding fall when snow fell on dry soil. In the Tuolumne River streamgage at the Little Grand Canyon just above Hetch Hetchy reservoir, no delay occurred between runoff and snowmelt in 2007 when the soil was wetter due to a cooler summer and fall rains. However, a 26-day delay in runoff was observed after the onset of snowmelt in 2008 when the soil was drier than the preceding fall at the time of the first snowfall due to a hotter and drier summer. If soils are dry prior to snowfall then the soil moisture is first replenished by springtime snowmelt, which not only delays runoff, but also reduces runoff volume to less than that estimated from snow pack. Typical runoff forecasts rely heavily on snow survey data and snowpack conditions, and the exclusion of soil moisture data could lead to an overestimate of the amount of runoff and compromise reservoir operations. In an average snowfall year, for example, the Kaweah Basin in the southern Sierra Nevada could lose as much as 20 percent of its snow water equivalent and the Merced Basin could lose 12 percent of its snow water equivalent simply to recharge soil moisture. Analyses of measured soil moisture in the Sierra Nevada, corresponding high elevation streamflow records, regional hydrologic modeling, and analysis of future climate projections to define the nature of summer and fall temperature and precipitation, will be used to illustrate the important role antecedent soil moisture plays in the timing and volume of springtime runoff in a changing climate.

  13. Why continuous simulation? The role of antecedent moisture in design flood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathiraja, S.; Westra, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-06-01

    Continuous simulation for design flood estimation is increasingly becoming a viable alternative to traditional event-based methods. The advantage of continuous simulation approaches is that the catchment moisture state prior to the flood-producing rainfall event is implicitly incorporated within the modeling framework, provided the model has been calibrated and validated to produce reasonable simulations. This contrasts with event-based models in which both information about the expected sequence of rainfall and evaporation preceding the flood-producing rainfall event, as well as catchment storage and infiltration properties, are commonly pooled together into a single set of "loss" parameters which require adjustment through the process of calibration. To identify the importance of accounting for antecedent moisture in flood modeling, this paper uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model calibrated to 45 catchments in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Flood peaks derived using the historical daily rainfall record are compared with those derived using resampled daily rainfall, for which the sequencing of wet and dry days preceding the heavy rainfall event is removed. The analysis shows that there is a consistent underestimation of the design flood events when antecedent moisture is not properly simulated, which can be as much as 30% when only 1 or 2 days of antecedent rainfall are considered, compared to 5% when this is extended to 60 days of prior rainfall. These results show that, in general, it is necessary to consider both short-term memory in rainfall associated with synoptic scale dependence, as well as longer-term memory at seasonal or longer time scale variability in order to obtain accurate design flood estimates.

  14. The Relationship Between Anaphor Features and Antecedent Retrieval: Comparing Mandarin Ziji and Ta-Ziji

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Brian; Chow, Wing-Yee; Xiang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we report two self-paced reading experiments that investigate antecedent retrieval processes in sentence comprehension by contrasting the real-time processing behavior of two different reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese. Previous work has suggested that comprehenders initially evaluate the fit between the morphologically simple long-distance reflexive “ziji” and the closest available subject position, only subsequently considering more structurally distant antecedents (Gao et al., 2005; Liu, 2009; Li and Zhou, 2010; Dillon et al., 2014; cf. Chen et al., 2012). In this paper, we investigate whether this locality bias effect obtains for other reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese, or if it is associated specifically with the morphologically simple reflexive ziji. We do this by comparing the processing of ziji to the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji (lit. s/he-self). In Experiment 1, we investigate the processing of ziji, and replicate the finding of a strong locality bias effect for ziji in self-paced reading measures. In Experiment 2, we investigate the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji in the same structural configurations as Experiment 1. A comparison of our experiments reveals that ta-ziji shows a significantly weaker locality bias effect than ziji does. We propose that this results from the difference in the number of morphological and semantic features on the anaphor ta-ziji relative to ziji. Specifically, we propose that the additional retrieval cues associated with ta-ziji reduce interference from irrelevant representations in memory, allowing it to more reliably access an antecedent regardless its linear or structural distance. This reduced interference in turn leads to a diminished locality bias effect for the morphologically complex anaphor ta-ziji. PMID:26779079

  15. Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freemon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…

  16. Wearing the cloak: antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity.

    PubMed

    Hewlin, Patricia Faison

    2009-05-01

    This study examines a select set of relationships proposed in P. F. Hewlin's (2003) conceptual model of antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity. Results from a survey study of 238 employees working in multiple industries indicate that perceived nonparticipative work environments, minority status, self-monitoring, and collectivism are related to creating facades of conformity. Emotional exhaustion serves as a mediator between creating facades of conformity and members' intention to leave the organization. Collectivism moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and intention to leave. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Modeling activities in air traffic control systems: antecedents and consequences of a mid-air collision.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.

  18. Antecedents and effects of consumer involvement in fish as a product group.

    PubMed

    Juhl, H J; Poulsen, C S

    2000-06-01

    The importance of the symbolic value and of the product utility for a consumer's involvement in fish products was determined by applying a model to data collected in Denmark in 1999. The relative importance of these two antecedents of product involvement differed between two segments of consumers important to marketing strategies. However, the potential effects of involvement did not differ between the segments. Rather, the customer's involvement ensures that sign value and utility have effects such as greater enjoyment of shopping and higher frequency of usage.

  19. Antecedents to Psychological Reactance: The Impact of Threat, Message Frame, and Choice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijiang

    2015-01-01

    A 2 (Threat: high vs. low) × 2 (Frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (Choice: yes vs. no) × 2 (Behavior: prevention vs. detection) factorial design Web-based experiment (N = 814) was conducted to investigate the impact of threat to freedom, message frame, and behavioral choice as antecedents to psychological reactance. The intertwined model for reactance measure was replicated. Results showed that threat to freedom and the loss frame increased, and the gain frame and choice mitigated psychological reactance. The advantages of choice and the gain frame were most salient when threat was high.

  20. Antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Sprague, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations was explored at eight sites in the 2.9 million square kilometers (km2) Mississippi River basin, USA. Antecedent flow conditions were quantified as the ratio between the mean daily flow of the previous year and the mean daily flow from the period of record (Qratio), and the Qratio was statistically related to nitrate anomalies (the unexplained variability in nitrate concentration after filtering out season, long-term trend, and contemporaneous flow effects) at each site. Nitrate anomaly and Qratio were negatively related at three of the four major tributary sites and upstream in the Mississippi River, indicating that when mean daily streamflow during the previous year was lower than average, nitrate concentrations were higher than expected. The strength of these relationships increased when data were subdivided by contemporaneous flow conditions. Five of the eight sites had significant negative relationships (p ≤ 0.05) at high or moderately high contemporaneous flows, suggesting nitrate that accumulates in these basins during a drought is flushed during subsequent high flows. At half of the sites, when mean daily flow during the previous year was 50 percent lower than average, nitrate concentration can be from 9 to 27 percent higher than nitrate concentrations that follow a year with average mean daily flow. Conversely, nitrate concentration can be from 8 to 21 percent lower than expected when flow during the previous year was 50 percent higher than average. Previously documented for small, relatively homogenous basins, our results suggest that relationships between antecedent flows and nitrate concentrations are also observable at a regional scale. Relationships were not observed (using all contemporaneous flow data together) for basins larger than 1 million km2, suggesting that above this limit the overall size and diversity within these basins may necessitate the use of more

  1. Relationship quality and relationship context as antecedents of person- and task-focused interpersonal citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Settoon, Randall P; Mossholder, Kevin W

    2002-04-01

    A model hypothesizing relationship quality and relationship context as antecedents of two complementary forms of interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB) was tested. Measures with coworkers as the frame of reference were used to collect data from 273 individuals working in 2 service-oriented organizations. As hypothesized, variables reflecting relationship quality were associated with person-focused ICB, as mediated by empathic concern. Also as hypothesized, a relationship context variable, network centrality, exhibited a direct relationship with task-focused ICB. Unexpectedly, network centrality was directly associated with person-focused ICB. and empathic concern was associated with task-focused ICB. The results are discussed, and implications for research and practice are offered.

  2. Survivor reactions to reorganization: antecedents and consequences of procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice.

    PubMed

    Kernan, Mary C; Hanges, Paul J

    2002-10-01

    This study tested a model of survivor reactions to reorganization, which incorporated multiple predictors and consequences of procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. The 3 justice types had different correlates: all 4 antecedents (employee input, victim support, implementation, and communication quality) predicted interpersonal fairness, implementation and communication quality were associated with informational fairness, and employee input was the sole predictor of procedural justice. Procedural justice was strongly related to all 4 outcome variables, and interpersonal and informational justice added unique variance to the prediction of trust in management. The reorganization effort was still predictive of employee outcomes, although primarily through procedural justice approximately I year after its completion.

  3. Maternal empathy, self-confidence, and stress as antecedents of preschool children's behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lorraine O; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2007-04-01

    To test psychosocial antecedents (maternal stress, self-confidence, and empathy) of preschoolers' behavior problems. One hundred and twenty-two postpartum mothers completed a 24-month longitudinal mail survey. A structural equation model that included empathy was tested. Stress, but not maternal self-confidence or empathy, was directly related to child behavior problems (t=1.98, p=.05). Maternal empathy in combination with self-confidence or stress, however, moderated adverse effects on behavior problems (p=.03). Predictors explained 16% of variance of behavior problems. Empathy was protective when stress was high. Empathy training may enhance high-risk parent education.

  4. Factors Associated With Rehabilitation Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparing Functional Outcomes Between TBIMS Centers Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling.

    PubMed

    Dahdah, Marie N; Hofmann, Melissa; Pretz, Christopher; An, Viktoriya; Barnes, Sunni A; Bennett, Monica; Dreer, Laura E; Bergquist, Thomas; Shafi, Shahid

    To examine differences in patient outcomes across Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) rehabilitation centers and factors that influence these differences using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Sixteen TBIMS centers. A total of 2056 individuals 16 years or older with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received inpatient rehabilitation. Multicenter observational cohort study using HLM to analyze prospectively collected data. Functional Independence Measure and Disability Rating Scale total scores at discharge and 1 year post-TBI. Duration of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) demonstrated a significant inverse relationship with functional outcomes. However, the magnitude of this relationship (change in functional status for each additional day in PTA) varied among centers. Functional status at discharge from rehabilitation and at 1 year post-TBI could be predicted using the slope and intercept of each TBIMS center for the duration of PTA, by comparing it against the average slope and intercept. HLM demonstrated center effect due to variability in the relationship between PTA and functional outcomes of patients. This variability is not accounted for in traditional linear regression modeling. Future studies examining variations in patient outcomes between centers should utilize HLM to measure the impact of additional factors that influence patient rehabilitation functional outcomes.

  5. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Career Factors Inventory on a Community College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Merril A.; Tovar, Esau

    2004-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 4.0 to validate the 21-item Career Factors Inventory on a community college student sample. The multidimensional inventory assesses types and levels of career indecision antecedents. The sample consisted of 512 ethnically diverse freshmen students; 46% were men and 54% were women.…

  6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Career Factors Inventory on a Community College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Merril A.; Tovar, Esau

    2004-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 4.0 to validate the 21-item Career Factors Inventory on a community college student sample. The multidimensional inventory assesses types and levels of career indecision antecedents. The sample consisted of 512 ethnically diverse freshmen students; 46% were men and 54% were women.…

  7. Work-family conflict, part I: Antecedents of work-family conflict in national collegiate athletic association division I-A certified athletic trainers.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Bruening, Jennifer E; Casa, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) involves discord that arises when the demands of work interfere with the demands of family or home life. Long work hours, minimal control over work schedules, and time spent away from home are antecedents to WFC. To date, few authors have examined work-family conflict within the athletic training profession. To investigate the occurrence of WFC in certified athletic trainers (ATs) and to identify roots and factors leading to quality-of-life issues for ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A setting. Survey questionnaire and follow-up, in-depth, in-person interviews. Division I-A universities sponsoring football. A total of 587 ATs (324 men, 263 women) responded to the questionnaire. Twelve ATs (6 men, 6 women) participated in the qualitative portion: 2 head ATs, 4 assistant ATs, 4 graduate assistant ATs, and 2 AT program directors. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether workload and travel predicted levels of WFC. Analyses of variance were calculated to investigate differences among the factors of sex, marital status, and family status. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and then analyzed using computer software as well as member checks and peer debriefing. The triangulation of the data collection and multiple sources of qualitative analysis were utilized to limit potential researcher prejudices. Regression analyses revealed that long work hours and travel directly contributed to WFC. In addition to long hours and travel, inflexible work schedules and staffing patterns were discussed by the interview participants as antecedents to WFC. Regardless of sex (P = .142), marital status (P = .687), family status (P = .055), or age of children (P = .633), WFC affected Division I-A ATs. No matter their marital or family status, ATs employed at the Division I-A level experienced difficulties balancing their work and home lives. Sources of conflict primarily stemmed from the consuming

  8. Impacts of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow: A study at hillslopes using high-frequency monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhenyang; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    In order to evaluate influences of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow, a more than 2 years observation was conducted at 12 sites within a 7-km2 catchment, by applying the high-frequency monitoring approach. Totally 65 rainfall events were selected to compare among sites, and preferential flow was inferred when (i) responses of soil moisture did not follow a linear sequence with depth, and (ii) penetration velocity of wetting front in at least one horizon exceeded the threshold, which was set to be 5-10 times of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil matrix at different depths. Results showed that frequency of preferential flow was 40.7% in average, but varied from 17.9% to 74.3% among the sites. Correlations between the frequency and rainfall features, i.e. rainfall amount, duration, maximum and average intensity, were well fitted by logarithmic curves. Rainfall amount, which was most prominently correlated with frequency (R2=0.93), was regarded as the dominant driving factor of preferential flow, while average intensity was in second (R2=0.90). Antecedent soil moisture was also significantly correlated with the frequency. However, this should largely be attributed to the differences of soil moisture among sites, since varying range of soil moisture at a specific site was not wide enough to influence the frequency significantly. Further examination suggested that topography and surface cover (dead leaves and humus) were the controlling factors of both infiltration amount and occurrence of preferential flow, as water was more readily to infiltrate into soils and preferential flow was more readily to occur when slope gradient was small and surface cover was thick, while soil moisture was more likely to be a consequence of water storage capacity, rather than an inducer of preferential flow. This knowledge could be helpful in understanding the partitioning of surface runoff and infiltration, as well as runoff

  9. [Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying: a longitudinal analysis with a structural equation model].

    PubMed

    Carretero Domínguez, Noelia; Gil-Monte, Pedro Rafael; Luciano Devis, Juan Vicente

    2011-11-01

    Most studies focusing on the antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying have used a cross-sectional design, which impedes determining the causality of the relationships. In the present work, we analyzed, by means of structural equation models, the relationship between workplace bullying and some variables that are considered antecedents (interpersonal conflicts, role ambiguity, role conflict, and workplace social support) or consequences (health complaints and inclination to absenteeism from work) of this phenomenon. Multicenter study with two phases. The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the "Mobbing-UNIPSICO" questionnaire, and the other variables with frequency scales. The cross-sectional models indicated a significant association between role conflict, workplace social support, and workplace bullying in both study periods. Concerning the longitudinal relationships, only workplace social support was a significant predictor of workplace bullying, which, in turn, was a cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of workers' health complaints. Our results show the mediating effect of workplace bullying between certain work conditions and health complaints, and it is recommendable to replicate these findings in a multi-occupational sample.

  10. Small is big: Interactive Trumps passive information in breaking information barriers and impacting behavioral antecedents

    DOE PAGES

    Beck, Ariane L.; Lakkaraju, Kiran; Rai, Varun; ...

    2017-01-18

    The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory ofmore » Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly. The passive information randomized control trial delivered via Amazon Mechanical Turk tests the effectiveness of delivering the same content in a single message versus multiple shorter messages. The interactive information delivery uses an online (mobile and PC) trivia-style gamification platform. Both experiments use the same content and are carried out over a two-week time period. Lastly, our findings suggest that interactive, gamified information has greater impact than passive information, and that shorter multiple messages of passive information are more effective than a single passive message.« less

  11. Small Is Big: Interactive Trumps Passive Information in Breaking Information Barriers and Impacting Behavioral Antecedents.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ariane L; Lakkaraju, Kiran; Rai, Varun

    2017-01-01

    The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory of Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly. The passive information randomized control trial delivered via Amazon Mechanical Turk tests the effectiveness of delivering the same content in a single message versus multiple shorter messages. The interactive information delivery uses an online (mobile and PC) trivia-style gamification platform. Both experiments use the same content and are carried out over a two-week time period. Our findings suggest that interactive, gamified information has greater impact than passive information, and that shorter multiple messages of passive information are more effective than a single passive message.

  12. Correlation between hypocenter depth, antecedent precipitation and earthquake-induced landslide spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Eisuke

    2017-04-01

    Since Keefer published the paper on earthquake magnitude and affected area, maximum epicentral/fault distance of induced landslide distribution in 1984, showing the envelope of plots, a lot of studies on this topic have been conducted. It has been generally supposed that landslides have been triggered by shallow quakes and more landslides are likely to occur with heavy rainfalls immediately before the quake. In order to confirm this, we have collected 22 case records of earthquake-induced landslide distribution in Japan and examined the effect of hypocenter depth and antecedent precipitation. Earthquake magnitude by JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) of the cases are from 4.5 to 9.0. Analysis on hycpocenter depth showed the deeper quake cause wider distribution. Antecedent precipitation was evaluated using the Soil Water Index (SWI), which was developed by JMA for issuing landslide alert. We could not find meaningful correlation between SWI and the earthquake-induced landslide distribution. Additionally, we found that smaller minimum size of collected landslides results in wider distribution especially between 1,000 to 100,000 m2.

  13. Identifying Patterns of Situational Antecedents to Heavy Drinking among College Students.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Braitman, Abby L; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students. Participants were 549 (65.8% women) college student drinkers. Latent profile analysis identified three classes based on likelihood of heavy drinking across eight situational precipitants. The "High Situational Endorsement" group reported the greatest likelihood of heavy drinking in most situations assessed. This class experienced the greatest level of alcohol-related harms as compared to the "Low Situational Endorsement" and "Moderate Situational Endorsement" groups. The Low Situational Endorsement class was characterized by the lowest likelihood of heavy drinking across all situational antecedents and they experienced the fewest alcohol-related harms, relative to the other classes. Class membership was related to drinking motivations with the "High Situational Endorsement" class endorsing the highest coping- and conformity-motivated drinking. The "High Situational Endorsement" class also reported experiencing more mental health symptoms than other groups. The current study contributed to the larger drinking literature by identifying profiles that may signify a particularly risky drinking style. Findings may help guide intervention work with college heavy drinkers.

  14. Small Is Big: Interactive Trumps Passive Information in Breaking Information Barriers and Impacting Behavioral Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory of Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly. The passive information randomized control trial delivered via Amazon Mechanical Turk tests the effectiveness of delivering the same content in a single message versus multiple shorter messages. The interactive information delivery uses an online (mobile and PC) trivia-style gamification platform. Both experiments use the same content and are carried out over a two-week time period. Our findings suggest that interactive, gamified information has greater impact than passive information, and that shorter multiple messages of passive information are more effective than a single passive message. PMID:28099478

  15. Development of perceived job insecurity across two years: associations with antecedents and employee outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Mäkikangas, Anne; Mauno, Saija; De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2014-04-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study among 848 university employees investigated the individual development of perceived job insecurity (JI) in the context of changes occurring in the Finnish universities during the follow-up time. Adopting a person-oriented approach through latent profile analysis, 8 classes of employees with similar mean levels and mean-level changes in JI were identified. Two of these classes (75% of the participants) indicated stable (low, moderately high) JI, and the remaining 6 classes (25% of the participants) showed change (decreasing, increasing, curvilinear) in the level of JI across time. We then examined possible differences between these classes with respect to individual antecedents and outcomes of JI. Of the antecedents, the type of employment contract distinguished best between the JI classes. Of the outcomes, moderately high stable JI was associated with low stable vigor and high stable levels of exhaustion and turnover intentions across time. In addition, it seemed that a decrease in JI was associated with a decrease in exhaustion and turnover intentions and vice versa. Altogether the findings suggest that developmental JI classes exhibit a substantial amount of heterogeneity, which is simultaneously reflected in occupational well-being.

  16. Antecedents to the integration process for recovery in older patients and spouses after a cardiovascular procedure.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Diane L

    2014-02-01

    Social isolation, psychological state and knowledge needs are important antecedents to the process of integration for recovery from cardiovascular (CV) procedures. The purpose of this study is to measure these antecedents at 6 and 12 weeks after CV procedures in patients (greater 65 years) and their spouses. This descriptive study enrolled 318 subjects; 87 patients/73 spouses responded. There was higher spousal anxiety at 6 weeks (4.64 ± 4.2) compared with 12 weeks (3.65 ± 3.3, t = -2.17, P < 0.032). Patients rated 10 and 7 self-care knowledge needs at 6 and 12 weeks as 'very important' with significant reductions in importance for 4 needs by 12 weeks. Spouses rated 14 and 10 knowledge needs as 'very important' at 6 and 12 weeks. There were three spouse care knowledge needs that were not met at 6 weeks. Data identified higher anxiety levels in spouses, and spouse needs that were unmet at 6 weeks after CV procedures.

  17. Antecedents of CIOs' Innovation Capability in Hospitals: Results of an Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Jan-David; Esdar, Moritz; Thye, Johannes; Hübner, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    CIOs' innovation capability is regarded as a precondition of successful HIT adoption in hospitals. Based on the data of 142 CIOs, this study aimed at identifying antecedents of perceived innovation capability. Eight features describing the status quo of the hospital IT management (e.g. use of IT governance frameworks), four features of the hospital structure (e.g. functional diversification) and four CIO characteristics (e.g. duration of employment) were tested as potential antecedents in an exploratory stepwise regression approach. Perceived innovation capability in its entirety and its three sub-dimensions served as criterion. The results show that CIOs' perceived innovation capability could be explained significantly (R2=0.34) and exclusively by facts that described the degree of formalism and structure of IT management in a hospital, e.g. intensive and formalised strategic communication, the existence of an IT strategy and the use of IT governance frameworks. Breaking down innovation capability into its constituents revealed that "innovative organisational culture" contributed to a large extent (R2=0.26) to the overall result sharing several predictors. In contrast, "intrapreneurial personality" (R2=0.11) and "openness towards users" (R2=0.18) could be predicted less well. These results hint at the relationship between working in a well-structured, formalised and strategy oriented environment and the overall feeling of being capable to promote IT innovation.

  18. Identifying Patterns of Situational Antecedents to Heavy Drinking among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Braitman, Abby L.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students. Method Participants were 549 (65.8% women) college student drinkers. Results Latent profile analysis identified three classes based on likelihood of heavy drinking across eight situational precipitants. The “High Situational Endorsement” group reported the greatest likelihood of heavy drinking in most situations assessed. This class experienced the greatest level of alcohol-related harms as compared to the “Low Situational Endorsement” and “Moderate Situational Endorsement” groups. The Low Situational Endorsement class was characterized by the lowest likelihood of heavy drinking across all situational antecedents and they experienced the fewest alcohol-related harms, relative to the other classes. Class membership was related to drinking motivations with the “High Situational Endorsement” class endorsing the highest coping- and conformity-motivated drinking. The “High Situational Endorsement” class also reported experiencing more mental health symptoms than other groups. Conclusions The current study contributed to the larger drinking literature by identifying profiles that may signify a particularly risky drinking style. Findings may help guide intervention work with college heavy drinkers. PMID:28163666

  19. Conceptualizing a "Strong Start": Antecedents of Positive Child Outcomes at Birth and into Early Childhood. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2007-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Cassandra; Moore, Kristin; Manlove, Jennifer; Mincieli, Lisa; Cottingham, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This research brief presents the results of an extensive review of research studies to identify maternal and family antecedents (conditions and characteristics before and during pregnancy) of healthy infant and child outcomes. The researchers identified seven major categories of antecedents associated with a strong start in life: the mother's…

  20. [Clinical efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor in the treatment of sudden deafness].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Xiao, Dajiang; Wu, Sihai; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    To study the clinical efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) in the treatment of sudden deafness. A retrospective analysis was performed on 115 cases of hospitalized patients who were suffered from sudden deafness. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment medicine. Control group: patients were treated with intravenous vasodilators, energy mixture, steroid pulse therapy, and methylcobalamin neurotrophic therapy. NGF group: intramuscular NGF treatment was added on the basis of conventional therapy mentioned above. Both treatments lasted 14 days, the total efficiency were compared. Patients were further divided into sub-groups according to age, duration and the level of pre-treatment PTA, and the treatment efficiency was further compared. By SPSS 11.0 statistical analysis, a P < 0.05 was considered as statistical significant difference. (1) The total efficiency of NGF group was significantly higher than control group. (2) Regard of age, the efficiency of NGF treatment group was significantly higher than control group. (3) For the patients whose duration were less than 7 d, or the PTA < or = 60 dBHL, the efficiency of NGF group were significantly higher. For the patients whose duration were more than 7 d, or the PTA>60 dBHL, the efficiency of NGF therapy was not superior to the traditional treatment. NGF can significantly improve the symptom of patients with short duration or low PTA. For this kind of patients, NGF adjuvant therapy should be recommended. For the patients with longer duration and higher level of PTA, NGF therapy is not advocated. NGF treatment should not be in consideration of the age.

  1. Diffusion of Nutrients in an Isolated Wetland Resulting From Shallow Pore Water Gradients Affected by Antecedent Soil Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Jawitz, J. W.; Dunne, E. J.; Perkins, D. B.

    2007-05-01

    Historically sequestered nutrients in wetland soils may be gradually released to the water column through the process commonly referred to as internal loading. The watershed for Lake Okeechobee, FL (USA) is heavily agricultural and excess nutrients in this area are drained to the Lake by ditches and canals. Formerly isolated, wetlands in this area have also been extensively ditched and drained. In this study, diffusive fluxes of nutrients were calculated using Fick's First Law from shallow pore water gradients, and later compared to fluxes measured by an incubated laboratory experiment on 10-cm intact soil cores from the same sites. Three intact soil cores from a wetland located on an operational beef farm were used to measure total phosphorus (TP), along with soil properties such as porosity, bulk density, and pH. Simultaneously, pore water concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) were also measured at the same three sites for a period of twelve months, and compared to surface water concentrations during flooded periods. A strong correlation between concentration gradients in pore water SRP and those observed in soil TP, suggests that shallow pore water concentrations reflect antecedent soil conditions. If this is true, then fluxes associated with diffusion and advection could greatly affect the total ground water fluxes across the soil-water interface. Fickian diffusive fluxes, estimated six times over a twelve month sampling period, were found to vary between 7-38 mg.m-2.d-1 for TOC, 1-18 mg.m-2.d-1 for TKN, and 0.04-0.86 mg.m-2.d-1 for SRP. While factors such as wetland stage and hydroperiod may have affected the fluxes, it is ultimately the concentration gradients across the soil-water interface that drives diffusive fluxes.

  2. The diagnostic accuracy of the Revised Westmead PTA Scale as an adjunct to the Glasgow Coma Scale in the early identification of cognitive impairment in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shores, E A; Lammél, A; Hullick, C; Sheedy, J; Flynn, M; Levick, W; Batchelor, J

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is predominantly done using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). While the GCS is universally accepted for assessment of severity of traumatic brain injury, it may not be appropriate to rely on the GCS alone when assessing patients with mTBI in prehospital settings and emergency departments. To determine whether administering the Revised Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia (PTA) Scale (R-WPTAS) in addition to the GCS would increase diagnostic accuracy in the early identification of cognitive impairment in patients with mTBI. Data were collected from 82 consecutive participants with mTBI who presented to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma centre in Australia. A matched sample of 88 control participants who attended the emergency department for reasons other than head trauma was also assessed. All patients were assessed using the GCS, R-WPTAS and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Patients with mTBI scored poorly compared with control patients on all measures. The R-WPTAS showed greater concurrent validity with the neuropsychological measures than the GCS and significantly increased prediction of group membership of patients with mTBI with cognitive impairment. The R-WPTAS significantly improves diagnostic accuracy in identifying patients with mTBI who may be in PTA. Administration takes less than 1 min, and since early identification of a patient's cognitive status facilitates management decisions, it is recommended for routine use whenever the GCS is used.

  3. Altered DNA Binding and Amplification of Human Breast Cancer Suppressor Gene BRCA1 Induced by a Novel Antitumor Compound, [Ru(η6-p-phenylethacrynate)Cl2(pta)

    PubMed Central

    Chakree, Korawan; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Dyson, Paul J.; Ratanaphan, Adisorn

    2012-01-01

    The ruthenium-based complex [Ru(η6-p-phenylethacrynate)Cl2(pta)] (pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo-[3.3.1.1]decane), termed ethaRAPTA, is an interesting antitumor compound. The elucidation of the molecular mechanism of drug activity is central to the drug development program. To this end, we have characterized the ethaRAPTA interaction with DNA, including probing the sequence specific modified DNA structural stability and DNA amplification using the breast cancer suppressor gene 1 (BRCA1) of human breast and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines as models. The preference of ethaRAPTA base binding is in the order A > G > T > C. Once modified, the ethaRAPTA-induced BRCA1 structure has higher thermal stability than the modified equivalents of its related compound, RAPTA-C. EthaRAPTA exhibits a higher efficiency than RAPTA-C in inhibiting BRCA1 amplification. With respect to both compounds, the inhibition of BRCA1 amplification is more effective in an isolated system than in cell lines. These data provide evidence that will help to understand the process of elucidating the pathways involved in the response induced by ethaRAPTA. PMID:23202946

  4. Improving riverine constituent concentration and flux estimation by accounting for antecedent discharge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Ball, William P.

    2017-04-01

    Regression-based approaches are often employed to estimate riverine constituent concentrations and fluxes based on typically sparse concentration observations. One such approach is the recently developed WRTDS (;Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season;) method, which has been shown to provide more accurate estimates than prior approaches in a wide range of applications. Centered on WRTDS, this work was aimed at developing improved models for constituent concentration and flux estimation by accounting for antecedent discharge conditions. Twelve modified models were developed and tested, each of which contains one additional flow variable to represent antecedent conditions and which can be directly derived from the daily discharge record. High-resolution (∼daily) data at nine diverse monitoring sites were used to evaluate the relative merits of the models for estimation of six constituents - chloride (Cl), nitrate-plus-nitrite (NOx), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS). For each site-constituent combination, 30 concentration subsets were generated from the original data through Monte Carlo subsampling and then used to evaluate model performance. For the subsampling, three sampling strategies were adopted: (A) 1 random sample each month (12/year), (B) 12 random monthly samples plus additional 8 random samples per year (20/year), and (C) flow-stratified sampling with 12 regular (non-storm) and 8 storm samples per year (20/year). Results reveal that estimation performance varies with both model choice and sampling strategy. In terms of model choice, the modified models show general improvement over the original model under all three sampling strategies. Major improvements were achieved for NOx by the long-term flow-anomaly model and for Cl by the ADF (average discounted flow) model and the short-term flow-anomaly model. Moderate improvements were achieved for SS, TP, and TKN

  5. The role of antecedent drainage networks and isolated normal fault propagation on basin stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, E.; Brocklehurst, S. H.; Gawthorpe, R.

    2010-12-01

    The stratigraphy of an extensional basin reflects a history of fault activity, erosion, drainage network evolution, and sediment transport and deposition. Here a three-dimensional numerical model of erosion and clastic sedimentation is applied to investigate the effect of displacement on a normal fault to the distribution of deposition in an extensional basin. Material is eroded from the hinterland through a stream-power incision law and deposited in the basin using a modified diffusion algorithm. Experiments are implemented for 3Ma, in which the initial 1Ma are used to permit a drainage network to evolve to a topographic steady state. This system is then perturbed by the introduction of a propagating isolated normal fault at varying displacement rates (1.0m/kyr - 2.0m/kyr) to demonstrate the influence of fault propagation on drainage capture, network re-organisation, sediment routing and deposition. Faster displacement rates and smaller antecedent drainage networks cause footwall-derived deltas to be cut-off more rapidly from the hinterland source area. Drainage networks are re-organised such that sediment is then transported around the fault tips into axially sourced deltas. Sediments may continue to be deposited in the hanging wall at the fault centre, but this material has not been sourced directly from the adjacent footwall, even though the stratigraphic architecture might suggest that this is the case. Drainage networks are modified by drainage reversals in the antecedent channels, and the development of areas of abandoned/trapped drainage. These changes in sediment supply due to network re-organisation are also reflected in the basin stratigraphy, with rapid back-stepping of deltas when the source is removed in the adjacent footwall. Later incision and headward erosion of the footwall channels may cause re-capture of earlier channels, while network re-organisation may also cause depositional in-filling of earlier channels. The drainage divide shifts

  6. The Sequential Introduction of Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in a Compliance Training Package with Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellipanni, Kimberly D.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Roberts, Dannell S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the separate and combined effects of the antecedent manipulations of effective instruction delivery and time-in, as well as the effects of the addition of the consequent manipulation of contingent praise in a compliance training package for four elementary students displaying low levels of compliance. Four teachers were trained to…

  7. Examining the "Neglected Side of the Work-Family Interface": Antecedents of Positive and Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Mannon, Susan E.; Kiger, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by Dilworth by examining antecedents of both positive and negative family-to-work spillover--a long-neglected area of research. It also uses an extended definition of domestic labor that includes emotion work and status enhancement. Using data from a random sample of dual-earner couples, the study found gender…

  8. An Evaluation of Antecedent Exercise on Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement Using a Three-Component Multiple Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule…

  9. Use of an Antecedent Analysis and a Force Sensitive Platform to Compare Stereotyped Movements and Motor Tics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schroeder, Stephen; Zarcane, Troy; Fowler, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Stereotyped movements displayed by 6 participants and tics displayed by 6 children were evaluated using an antecedent behavioral analysis and a force sensitive platform. We found that tics occurred more often in an alone condition when compared to high preference toy and play conditions, whereas stereotyped movements were more variable across…

  10. Middle Childhood Antecedents to Progressions in Male Adolescent Substance Use: An Ecological Analysis of Risk and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Yoerger, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study examined antecedents to early patterned alcohol and tobacco use and marijuana experimentation between ages 11 and 16 for an at-risk male sample. Findings suggested that family, peer, and child characteristics were inextricably connected within an ecology of development. A structural equation prediction model suggested a higher order…

  11. Antecedents and Outcomes of Level and Rates of Change in Perceived Control: The Moderating Role of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Okun, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive…

  12. Early Antecedents of Social Competence in Elementary School of Later Peer Reputation and Sociometric Status in Dutch Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.

    Noting that a child's peer competence and sociometric status not only are important indices of the child's current social functioning, but may also predict adolescent adaptation, this study examined the antecedents in peer competence and sociometric status in early and late elementary school years of five peer reputation dimensions. These five…

  13. Brief Report: Comparative Effects of Antecedent Exercise and Lorazepam on the Aggressive Behavior of an Autistic Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, David B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This case study of a 24-year-old man with autistic disorder and mental retardation who exhibited aggression found that antecedent exercise significantly decreased aggression; drug therapy with an anxiolytic (lorazepam) alone had no significant effect on aggression; and exercise plus medication decreased aggression to a somewhat lesser degree than…

  14. Antecedents and Outcomes of Level and Rates of Change in Perceived Control: The Moderating Role of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Okun, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive…

  15. Childhood Antecedents of Being a Cigarette Smoker in Early Adulthood. The Finnish "From a Boy to a Man" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Solja; Sourander, Andre; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Susser, Ezra; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify childhood psychiatric symptoms as antecedents of cigarette smoking at age 18. Methods: In 1989, a general population sample of 2946 8-year-old boys born in Finland in 1981 was assessed using the Rutter's parent and teacher questionnaires, and the Child Depression Inventory. This birth cohort was followed up in 1999, when the…

  16. Antecedents and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Mother-Son Conflict and Warmth during Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Nonparametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four…

  17. An Interdisciplinary Meta-Analysis of the Potential Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Protege Perceptions of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian Turner de Tormes; Allen, Tammy D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Baranik, Lisa E.; Sauer, Julia B.; Baldwin, Sean; Morrison, M. Ashley; Kinkade, Katie M.; Maher, Charleen P.; Curtis, Sara; Evans, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarized youth, academic, and workplace research on the potential antecedents (demographics, human capital, and relationship attributes), correlates (interaction frequency, relationship length, performance, motivation, and social capital), and consequences (attitudinal, behavioral, career-related, and health-related outcomes)…

  18. Childhood Antecedents of Being a Cigarette Smoker in Early Adulthood. The Finnish "From a Boy to a Man" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Solja; Sourander, Andre; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Susser, Ezra; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify childhood psychiatric symptoms as antecedents of cigarette smoking at age 18. Methods: In 1989, a general population sample of 2946 8-year-old boys born in Finland in 1981 was assessed using the Rutter's parent and teacher questionnaires, and the Child Depression Inventory. This birth cohort was followed up in 1999, when the…

  19. The Relationship between Use and Perception: The Case of Catalan Variants of a Subject Coreferential with an Antecedent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa Carreras, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between use and perception of five Catalan variants of the variable "subject coreferential with an antecedent." This will be done by examining the results of a cloze test and three perception surveys answered in 1997 by 26 respondents. Two different correct constructions were then presented as…

  20. Perceived Deep-Level Dissimilarity: Personality Antecedents and Impact on Overall Job Attitude, Helping, Work Withdrawal, and Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Joshi, Aparna

    2008-01-01

    The current research extends three research areas in relational demography: considering deep-level dissimilarity in theory building, assessing dissimilarity perceptions directly in theory testing, and examining the antecedents of dissimilarity perceptions. The results, based on two field studies using diverse samples, demonstrate the effects of…