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Sample records for antenna theory

  1. Diakoptic Theory for Multielement Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    FOR MULTIELEMENT ANTENNAS 21 formulation of the antenna problem in terIs of this approx- 2L imate impedance matrix can also be dei in a more con- 4 2 2... Mittra , University of llinois, for help- € i New Delhi, India, on November 30. 1933. He oo received the bachelor’s degree in electrical ful suggestions...and with Messerschmidt-Bolkow-Blohm of Germany in Flectromagnetics. R. Mittra , Ed. New York: Pergamon, 1973. the area of dual spin diagnosis and

  2. Plasmas as Antennas - Theory, Experiment and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Gerard

    1999-11-01

    A variety of antennas are employed in telecommunications and radar systems. Some applications pose special problems. Large structures are easily detected by hostile radar. The performance of multi-element HF-VHF arrays is complicated by mutual coupling between large radiating elements. High speed data communications and radar can be limited by signal decay and ringing. A novel solution is an antenna made of plasma that can be made to disappear on microsecond time scales. Recent experiments at the Australian National University (G.G. Borg et. al. App. Phys. Letts. Vol. 74, 3272-3274 [1999]), have shown that highly efficient (25 - 50radiating elements for the range 3 - 300 MHz can be formed using low power (10 - 50 W average) plasma surface waves launched at one end of a tube containing a suitable gas. Only a single capacitive coupler is needed to launch the waves - there is no electrical connection to the other end of the tube. The regimes of wave propagation correlate with expectations from plasma surface wave theory. Actual communications experiments have shown that these plasma antennas can have surprisingly low noise provided they are excited by the rf surface waves and not by a low frequency or DC ohmic current. Applications to HF-VHF communications and radar are being developed. These include both single ruggedised plasma elements and multi-element arrays.

  3. Mode Theory of Multi-Armed Spiral Antennas and Its Application to Electronic Warfare Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radway, Matthew J.

    Since their invention about 55 years ago, spiral antennas have earned a reputation for providing stable impedance and far-field patterns over multi-decade frequency ranges. For the first few decades these antennas were researched for electronic warfare receiving applications, primarily in the 2-18 GHz range. This research was often done under conditions of secrecy, and often by private contractors who did not readily share their research, and now have been defunct for decades. Even so, the body of literature on the two-armed variant of these antennas is rich, often leading non-specialists to the misconception that these antennas are completely understood. Furthermore, early work was highly experimental in nature, and was conducted before modern data collection and postprocessing capabilities were widespread, which limited the range of the studies. Recent research efforts have focused on extending the application of spirals into new areas, as well as applying exotic materials to `improve' their performance and reduce their size. While interesting results have been obtained, in most instances these were incomplete, often compromising the frequency independent nature of these antennas. This thesis expands the role of the multi-armed spiral outside of its traditional niche of receive-only monopulse direction finding. As a first step, careful study of the spiral-antenna mode theory is undertaken with particular attention paid to the concepts of mode filtering and modal decomposition. A technique for reducing the modal impedance of high arm-count spirals is introduced. The insights gained through this theoretical study are first used to improve the far-field performance of the coiled-arm spiral antenna. Specifically, expanding the number of arms on a coiled arm spiral from two to four while providing proper excitation enables dramatically improved broadside axial ratio and azimuthal pattern uniformity. The multiarming technique is then applied to the design of an antenna

  4. Theory and Practice in ICRF Antennas for Long Pulse Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.; Bremond, S.; Mitteau, R.; Chantant, M.; Goniche, M.; Basiuk, V.; Bosia, G.; Gunn, J.P.

    2005-09-26

    Long plasma discharges on the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak were extended in 2004 towards higher powers and plasma densities by combined Lower Hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) waves. RF pulses of 20sx8MW and 60sx4MW were produced. TS is equipped with 3 ICRF antennas, whose front faces are ready for CW operation. This paper reports on their behaviour over high power long pulses, as observed with infrared (IR) thermography and calorimetric measurements. Edge parasitic losses, although modest, are concentrated on a small surface and can raise surface temperatures close to operational limits. A complex hot spot pattern was revealed with at least 3 physical processes involved : convected power, electron acceleration in the LH near field, and a RF-specific phenomenon compatible with RF sheaths. LH coupling was also perturbed in the antenna shadow. This was attributed to RF-induced DC ExB0 convection. This motivated sheath modelling in two directions. First, the 2D topology of RF potentials was investigated in relation with the RF current distribution over the antenna, via a Green's function formalism and full-wave calculation using the ICANT code. In front of phased arrays of straps, convective cells were interpreted using the RF current profiles of strip line theory. Another class of convective cells, specific to antenna box corners, was evidenced for the first time. Within 1D sheath models assuming independent flux tubes, RF and rectified DC potentials are proportional. 2D fluid models couple nearby flux tubes via transverse polarisation currents. Unexpectedly this does not necessarily smooth RF potential maps. Peak DC potentials can even be enhanced. The experience gained on TS and the numerical tools are valuable for designing steady state high power antennas for next step devices. General rules to reduce RF potentials as well as concrete design options are discussed.

  5. Theory of a beam-driven plasma antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Volchok, E. P.; Annenkov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a theory describing generation of electromagnetic waves in a thin beam-plasma system with a characteristic transverse size comparable with the radiation wavelength. In fact, a thin plasma column with a longitudinal density modulation works like a plasma antenna in which an electron beam can excite a superluminal wave of electric current. It has previously been shown that, if the period of this modulation coincides with the wavelength of the most unstable beam-driven mode, radiation at a frequency slightly below the plasma frequency is emitted transversely to the plasma column and generated in thin boundary layers. For the plasma thickness comparable with the skin-depth, generation of the terahertz radiation can reach high efficiency ( ˜10 % ) in such a scheme, but the absolute power of this radiation cannot be increased by increasing the transverse plasma size. In this paper, we study whether the power of such an antenna can be increased in the regime of oblique emission when the magnetized plasma is transparent to the radiated electromagnetic waves and the whole plasma volume may be involved in their generation.

  6. Antennae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-09

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 7 x 7 on the sky of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039, better known as the Antennae, or Ring Tail galaxies. The two galaxies are engaged in a tug-of-war as they collide.

  7. Magneto-Dielectric Wire Antennas Theory and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Tom

    There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical damage in army applications, reduce drag and weight penalties in airborne applications and reduce the visual and RF signatures of the communication node. This dissertation is concerned with a new class of antennas called Magneto-Dielectric wire antennas (MDWA) that provide an ideal solution to this ever-present and growing need. Magneto-dielectric structures (mur > 1; epsilon r > 1) can partially guide electromagnetic waves and radiate them by leaking off the structure or by scattering from any discontinuities, much like a metal antenna of the same shape. They are attractive alternatives to conventional whip and blade antennas because they can be placed conformal to a metallic ground plane without any performance penalty. A two pronged approach is taken to analyze MDWAs. In the first, antenna circuit models are derived for the prototypical dipole and loop elements that include the effects of realistic dispersive magneto-dielectric materials of construction. A material selection law results, showing that: (a) The maximum attainable efficiency is determined by a single magnetic material parameter that we term the hesitivity: Closely related to Snoek's product, it measures the maximum magnetic conductivity of the material. (b) The maximum bandwidth is obtained by placing the highest amount of mu" loss in the frequency range of operation. As a result, high radiation efficiency antennas can be obtained not only from the conventional low loss (low mu") materials but also with highly lossy materials (tan(deltam) >> 1). The second approach used to analyze MDWAs is through solving the Green function problem of the infinite magneto-dielectric cylinder fed by a current loop. This solution sheds light on the leaky and guided waves

  8. Multi-functional Chassis-based Antennas Using Characteristic Mode Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Krishna Kumar

    Designing antennas for handheld devices is quite challenging primarily due to the limited real-estate available, and the fact that internal antennas occupy a large volume. With the need to support a variety of radio systems such as GSM, LTE and WiFi that operate in a wide range of frequency bands, multi-band, wideband and frequency reconfigurable antenna designs have been explored in the literature. Moreover, to support higher data rates, the Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) standard has been introduced, which requires supporting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna technology and carrier aggregation (CA) on a handheld device. Both of these benefit from the use of multiple antennas or multi-port antennas, but with the limited space available, adding more internal antennas may not be easily possible. Additionally, to realize the benefits of these technologies the multiple antenna ports have to be well isolated from each other. This thesis explores the utilization of the ground plane (or chassis) of a handheld device as an antenna to meet some of these challenges. To achieve this, the theory of characteristic modes (TCM) for conducting bodies is relied upon, to determine the eigen-currents supported on the chassis. The orthogonality properties of these eigencurrents, and their corresponding far-field eigenfields (electric and magnetic) makes TCM a good tool to design multiple antennas with high isolation. This is demonstrated in this thesis via the design of four chassis-based antennas that have different functionalities. The first design is a two port MIMO antenna utilizing a combination of eigenmodes to achieve port isolation. The second design is a pattern reconfigurable MIMO antenna that can operate in two states at 2.28 GHz. The third design is a four port antenna that operates in three frequency bands, with two bands below 1 GHz for CA and the remaining two ports for MIMO communication. The final design is a five port antenna that supports MIMO

  9. Antennae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 7' x 7' on the sky of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039, better known as the Antennae, or Ring Tail galaxies. The two galaxies are engaged in a tug-of-war as they collide. The mutual gravitation between them is working to distort each spiral galaxy's appearance as the two merge. The interaction is evidently impetus for an intense burst of new star formation, as can be seen from the many infrared-bright knots and bright galactic nuclei. Compare the 2MASS view of this system with that obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical. Many of the same features are seen, although 2MASS is able to peer through much of the dust seen in the galaxies' disks. The galaxy light looks smoother. Also, in the near-infrared the bright knots of star formation are likely highlighted by the light of massive red supergiant stars. The much more extended 'tidal tails,' which give the Antennae their name, are quite faint in the 2MASS image mosaic.

  10. Design optical antenna and fiber coupling system based on the vector theory of reflection and refraction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Yang, Huajun; Mao, Shengqian

    2015-10-05

    A Cassegrain antenna system and an optical fiber coupling system which consists of a plano-concave lens and a plano-convex lens are designed based on the vector theory of reflection and refraction, so as to improve the transmission performance of the optical antenna and fiber coupling system. Three-dimensional ray tracing simulation are performed and results of the optical aberrations calculation and the experimental test show that the aberrations caused by on-axial defocusing, off-axial defocusing and deflection of receiving antenna can be well corrected by the optical fiber coupling system.

  11. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  12. Antennas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-13

    experimental points. conditions of the theory (complete metallization of the cross section of the waveguide in which the aperture is cut, and the placement...to use the correction coefficient (curve b). If the cross section of the waveguide in which the aperture is disposed has been completely metallized ...A. Konopiiv, L. N. Zakhar’ev CALCULATING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A JUNCTION OF TWO WAVEGUIDES BY MEANS OF A RESONATING COUPLING APERTURE

  13. THE COUPLING AND MUTUAL IMPEDANCE BETWEEN BALANCED WIRE-ARM CONICAL LOG-SPIRAL ANTENNAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CONICAL ANTENNAS, *COUPLED ANTENNAS, * HELICAL ANTENNAS, ANTENNA COMPONENTS, ANTENNA RADIATION PATTERNS, COUPLINGS, DESIGN, ELECTRIC CURRENTS...ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE, MEASUREMENT, POLARIZATION, PROPAGATION, ROTATION, SPIRAL ANTENNAS, THEORY

  14. Theory of nanorod antenna resonances including end-reflection phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wei; Li, Xiangyin; Bornemann, Jens; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-04-01

    We present a fully analytic theory for nanorod resonances including the phase of reflection from the rounded ends using a transmission line approach. It combines the circuit theory response of spherical nanoparticles with standard transmission line theory using the Sommerfeld wave dispersion. The approach agrees well with comprehensive numerical calculations.

  15. Analysis of airborne antenna systems using geometrical theory of diffraction and moment method computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, Richard G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Computer codes have been developed to analyze antennas on aircraft and in the presence of scatterers. The purpose of this study is to use these codes to develop accurate computer models of various aircraft and antenna systems. The antenna systems analyzed are a P-3B L-Band antenna, an A-7E UHF relay pod antenna, and traffic advisory antenna system installed on a Bell Long Ranger helicopter. Computer results are compared to measured ones with good agreement. These codes can be used in the design stage of an antenna system to determine the optimum antenna location and save valuable time and costly flight hours.

  16. Spaser in plasmonic nano-antenna evaluated by an analytical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X. L.; Hong, M. H.; Li, Z. Y.

    2014-04-01

    Surface plasmon amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation (spaser) in plasmonic nanocavities as a novel concept has quickly advanced in recent years. Understanding the nature and mechanism of the spaser system is important for both fundamental studies and the development of new applications. We theoretically investigate the spaser made from a plasmonic nano-antenna embedded with active gain media by using an analytical semiclassical theory. It incorporates the four-level atomic rate equations in association with the classical oscillator model for active materials and Maxwell's equations for fields. The nano-antenna cavity has a large Purcell factor and low absorption loss which is beneficial for the realization of low-threshold spaser. We use the theory to uncover all the characteristics of this nanocavity spaser system, including the enhancement of the local electric field, gain, saturation phenomenon and lasing threshold. It is found that an important quantity named the cavity loss coupling strength coefficient can be explored to provide a new way to design the nanocavity precisely to reduce the absorption power density and enhance the spaser output power density simultaneously. The theory can be commonly used in understanding and designing various micro/nanolaser and spaser systems.

  17. Development of the Theory and Algorithms for Synthesis of Reflector Antenna Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-28

    reflector antennas with distributed sources, IEE Proceedings, v. 136, Pt. H. No.5, 1989, pp.361-366 31 [191 B.S. Westcott , Shaped Reflector Antenna ... reflector antenna systems in geometric optics approximation. During the reporting period the direct and inverse problems of design of reflector antennas ...in design of single and dual reflector antennas ’ by Vladimir Oliker, Elsa Newman 2 , and Laird Prussner Introduction

  18. Theory and Manufacturing Processes of Solar NanoAntenna Electromagnetic Collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dale K. Kotter; Steven D. Novack

    2010-02-01

    DRAFT For Submittal to Journal of Solar Energy - Rev 10.1 ---SOL-08-1091 SOLAR Nantenna Electromagnetic Collectors Dale K. Kotter Idaho National Laboratory Steven D. Novack Idaho National Laboratory W. Dennis Slafer MicroContinuum, Inc. Patrick Pinhero University of Missouri ABSTRACT The research described in this paper explores a new and efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun, using nanoantenna (nantenna) electromagnetic collectors (NECs). NEC devices target mid-infrared wavelengths, where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells are inefficient and where there is an abundance of solar energy. The initial concept of designing NECs was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory to the infrared and visible regions. This approach initially proved unsuccessful because the optical behavior of materials in the terahertz (THz) region was overlooked and, in addition, economical nanofabrication methods were not previously available to produce the optical antenna elements. This paper demonstrates progress in addressing significant technological barriers, including: 1) development of frequency-dependent modeling of double-feedpoint square spiral nantenna elements; 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties; and 3) development of novel manufacturing methods that could potentially enable economical large-scale manufacturing. We have shown that nantennas can collect infrared energy and induce THz currents, and we have also developed cost-effective proof-of-concept fabrication techniques for the large-scale manufacture of simple square loop nantenna arrays. Future work is planned to embed rectifiers into the double-feedpoint antenna structures. This work represents an important first step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity. This could lead to a broadband, high conversion efficiency low-cost solution to complement conventional PV

  19. Theoretical analysis of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna with variational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Qin, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Zhao; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A variational principle code which can calculate self-consistently currents on the conductors is used to assess the coupling characteristic of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna. Taking into account two layers of antenna conductors without lateral frame but with slab geometry, the antenna impedances as a function of frequency and the structure of RF field excited inside the plasma in various phasing cases are discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant No. 2015GB101001) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375236 and 11375235).

  20. Antenna-plasma coupling theory for ICRF heating of large tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, A.; Bers, A.

    1982-03-01

    The coupling characteristics of antenna structure were studied by analyzing a model where a thin current sheet is placed between a fully conducting wall and a sheet of anisotropic conductivity representing the screen. The inhomogeneous plasma in the shadow of the limiter is assumed to extend from the screen onwards away from the antenna. The excitation of the fields inside the plasma are found by analyzing the radiation properties of this current sheet antenna. In all experiments to-date, the cross-sectional plasmas are relatively small so that the RF conductor is a half-loop around the plasma in the poloidal direction. For reactor size plasmas, this cannot be done and the antenna dimensions will be small compared to the plasma cross-sections.

  1. Antenna-plasma coupling theory for ICRF heating of large tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, A.; Bers, A.

    1982-03-01

    The coupling characteristics of antenna structure are studied by analyzing a model where a thin current sheet is placed between a fully conducting wall and a sheet of anisotropic conductivity representing the screen. The inhomogeneous plasma in the shadow of the limiter is assumed to extend from the screen onwards away from the antenna. The excitation of the fields inside the plasma are found by analyzing the radiation properties of this current sheet antenna. We assume that the current distribution of the antenna is given and that the fields excited inside the plasma are absorbed in a single pass. In all experiments to-date the cross-sectional plasmas are relatively small so that the rf conductor is a half-loop around the plasma in the poloidal direction. However, for reactor size plasmas this cannot be done and the antenna dimensions will be small compared to the plasma cross-sections. We, thus, assume an antenna of finite poloidal and toroidal extent with dimensions small compared to the plasma minor radius. We further approximate the coupling geometry by a slab model. The x-axis is taken to be along the plasma inhomogeneity, the y-axis along the poloidal direction and the x-axis along the toroidal magnetic field.

  2. Developments in the application of the geometrical theory of diffraction and computer graphics to aircraft inter-antenna coupling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The need for a systematic methodology for the analysis of aircraft electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems is examined. The available computer aids used in aircraft EMC analysis are assessed and a theoretical basis is established for the complex algorithms which identify and quantify electromagnetic interactions. An overview is presented of one particularly well established aircraft antenna to antenna EMC analysis code, the Aircraft Inter-Antenna Propagation with Graphics (AAPG) Version 07 software. The specific new algorithms created to compute cone geodesics and their associated path losses and to graph the physical coupling path are discussed. These algorithms are validated against basic principles. Loss computations apply the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction and are subsequently compared to measurement data. The increased modelling and analysis capabilities of the newly developed AAPG Version 09 are compared to those of Version 07. Several models of real aircraft, namely the Electronic Systems Trainer Challenger, are generated and provided as a basis for this preliminary comparative assessment. Issues such as software reliability, algorithm stability, and quality of hardcopy output are also discussed.

  3. Ionospheric effects to antenna impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethke, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The reciprocity between high power satellite antennas and the surrounding plasma are examined. The relevant plasma states for antenna impedance calculations are presented and plasma models, and hydrodynamic and kinetic theory, are discussed. A theory from which a variation in antenna impedance with regard to the radiated power can be calculated for a frequency range well above the plasma resonance frequency is give. The theory can include photo and secondary emission effects in antenna impedance calculations.

  4. Radiation and scattering by thin-wire structures in the complex frequency domain. [electromagnetic theory for thin-wire antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Piecewise-sinusoidal expansion functions and Galerkin's method are employed to formulate a solution for an arbitrary thin-wire configuration in a homogeneous conducting medium. The analysis is performed in the real or complex frequency domain. In antenna problems, the solution determines the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, gain and far-field patterns. In scattering problems, the solution determines the absorption cross section, scattering cross section and the polarization scattering matrix. The electromagnetic theory is presented for thin wires and the forward-scattering theorem is developed for an arbitrary target in a homogeneous conducting medium.

  5. Resonant optical antennas.

    PubMed

    Mühlschlegel, P; Eisler, H-J; Martin, O J F; Hecht, B; Pohl, D W

    2005-06-10

    We have fabricated nanometer-scale gold dipole antennas designed to be resonant at optical frequencies. On resonance, strong field enhancement in the antenna feed gap leads to white-light supercontinuum generation. The antenna length at resonance is considerably shorter than one-half the wavelength of the incident light. This is in contradiction to classical antenna theory but in qualitative accordance with computer simulations that take into account the finite metallic conductivity at optical frequencies. Because optical antennas link propagating radiation and confined/enhanced optical fields, they should find applications in optical characterization, manipulation of nanostructures, and optical information processing.

  6. Millimeter-wave integrated-horn antennas. I - Theory. II - Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    Full-wave analysis is employed to determine the far-field pattern and input impedance of a dipole-fed horn antenna in a ground plane, and the theoretical results are compared with mm-wave and microwave data. The theoretical work exploits the Green's function corresponding to the horn structure and the method of moments. It is determined that the horn should have 70 sections/wavelength and 50 secondary modes for optimized accuracy, and certain dipole positions can reduce the resonance to zero. The experimentally derived impedance and radiation patterns agree with the constraints developed theoretically. The 70-degree flare-angle horn with selected dipole positions and horn apertures yields good radiation patterns, cross-polarization levels, and resonant dipole impedances. The conclusions are of interest to the development of the horn antennas etched in Si/GaAs for applications to zero-visibility tracking, radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing.

  7. Electromagnetic Vortex-Based Radar Imaging Using a Single Receiving Antenna: Theory and Experimental Results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tiezhu; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2017-03-19

    Radar imaging based on electromagnetic vortex can achieve azimuth resolution without relative motion. The present paper investigates this imaging technique with the use of a single receiving antenna through theoretical analysis and experimental results. Compared with the use of multiple receiving antennas, the echoes from a single receiver cannot be used directly for image reconstruction using Fourier method. The reason is revealed by using the point spread function. An additional phase is compensated for each mode before imaging process based on the array parameters and the elevation of the targets. A proof-of-concept imaging system based on a circular phased array is created, and imaging experiments of corner-reflector targets are performed in an anechoic chamber. The azimuthal image is reconstructed by the use of Fourier transform and spectral estimation methods. The azimuth resolution of the two methods is analyzed and compared through experimental data. The experimental results verify the principle of azimuth resolution and the proposed phase compensation method.

  8. Millimeter-wave integrated-horn antennas. I - Theory. II - Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    Full-wave analysis is employed to determine the far-field pattern and input impedance of a dipole-fed horn antenna in a ground plane, and the theoretical results are compared with mm-wave and microwave data. The theoretical work exploits the Green's function corresponding to the horn structure and the method of moments. It is determined that the horn should have 70 sections/wavelength and 50 secondary modes for optimized accuracy, and certain dipole positions can reduce the resonance to zero. The experimentally derived impedance and radiation patterns agree with the constraints developed theoretically. The 70-degree flare-angle horn with selected dipole positions and horn apertures yields good radiation patterns, cross-polarization levels, and resonant dipole impedances. The conclusions are of interest to the development of the horn antennas etched in Si/GaAs for applications to zero-visibility tracking, radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing.

  9. Theory of light scattering in subwavelength metallic slot antenna array fabricated on subwavelength thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. B.; Park, D. J.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an analytic model that describes the near-field electromagnetic field profile near a subwavelength-sized metallic slot antenna fabricated on a thin dielectric substrate having a subwavelength thickness reaching λ/1000 in the terahertz frequency region. We found two-dimensional light diffraction induced by the two-dimensional nature of the slot antenna, and back-reflected waves interfered with each other in a complicated manner, resulting in a coupling of the Fourierdecomposed field amplitudes between the diffraction orders along the x and the y directions. We applied these findings to our model by modifying a previously developed model [D. J. Park et al., J. Korean Phys. Soc. 65, 1390 (2014)], and we monitor the effect on far-field transmission. This coupling effect was found to contribute to removal of physically-meaningless spikes or divergences in the transmission spectra, especially for relatively thick substrates.

  10. Electromagnetic Vortex-Based Radar Imaging Using a Single Receiving Antenna: Theory and Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tiezhu; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2017-01-01

    Radar imaging based on electromagnetic vortex can achieve azimuth resolution without relative motion. The present paper investigates this imaging technique with the use of a single receiving antenna through theoretical analysis and experimental results. Compared with the use of multiple receiving antennas, the echoes from a single receiver cannot be used directly for image reconstruction using Fourier method. The reason is revealed by using the point spread function. An additional phase is compensated for each mode before imaging process based on the array parameters and the elevation of the targets. A proof-of-concept imaging system based on a circular phased array is created, and imaging experiments of corner-reflector targets are performed in an anechoic chamber. The azimuthal image is reconstructed by the use of Fourier transform and spectral estimation methods. The azimuth resolution of the two methods is analyzed and compared through experimental data. The experimental results verify the principle of azimuth resolution and the proposed phase compensation method. PMID:28335487

  11. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  12. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  13. An E-plane analysis of aperture-matched horn antennas using the moment method and the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heedy, D. J.; Burnside, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The moment method and the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction are utilized to obtain two separate solutions for the E-plane field pattern of an aperture-matched horn antenna. This particular horn antenna consists of a standard pyramidal horn with the following modifications: a rolled edge section attached to the aperture edges and a curved throat section. The resulting geometry provides significantly better performance in terms of the pattern, impedance, and frequency characteristics than normally obtainable. The moment method is used to calculate the E-plane pattern and BSWR of the antenna. However, at higher frequencies, large amounts of computation time are required. The uniform geometrical theory of diffraction provides a quick and efficient high frequency solution for the E-plane field pattern. In fact, the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction may be used to initially design the antenna; then, the moment method may be applied to fine tune the design. This procedure has been successfully applied to a compact range feed design.

  14. Spectra and dynamics in the B800 antenna: comparing hierarchical equations, Redfield and Förster theories.

    PubMed

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2013-09-26

    We model the spectra (absorption and circular dichroism) and excitation dynamics in the B800 ring of the LH2 antenna complex from Rs. molischianum using different theoretical approaches, i.e., Förster theory, standard and modified versions of the Redfield theory, and the more versatile nonperturbative approach based on hierarchically coupled equations for the reduced density operator. We demonstrate that, although excitations in the B800 ring are localized due to disorder, thermal effects, and phonons, there are still sizable excitonic effects producing shift, narrowing, and asymmetry of the spectra. Moreover, the excitation dynamics reveals the presence of long-lived (up to 1 ps) non-oscillatory coherences between the exciton states maintained due to nonsecular population-to-coherence transfers. The sub-ps decay of the coherences is followed by slow motion of the excitation around the ring, producing equilibration of the site populations with a time constant of about 3-4 ps, which is slower than the B800 → B850 transfer. The exact solution obtained with the hierarchical equations is compared with other approaches, thus illustrating limitations of the Förster and Redfield pictures.

  15. Aircraft antennas/conformal antennas missile antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbach, Klaus

    1987-04-01

    Three major areas of airborne microwave antennas are examined. The basic system environment for missile telemetry/telecommand and fuze functions is sketched and the basic antenna design together with practical examples are discussed. The principle requirements of modern nose radar flat plate antennas are shown to result from missile/aircraft system requirements. Basic principles of slotted waveguide antenna arrays are sketched and practical antenna designs are discussed. The present early warning system designs are sketched to point out requirements and performance of practical radar warning and jamming antennas (broadband spiral antennas and horn radiators). With respect to newer developments in the ECM scenario, some demonstrated and proposed antenna systems (lens fed arrays, phased array, active array) are discussed.

  16. Applications of Approximation Theory in Antenna Design, Signal Processing and Filtering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-26

    0.2 -0.4- -0.6- -0.8 -1 5 References [BS73] F. Brophy and A.C. Salazar . Consideration of the pad6 approximant technique in the synthesis of...pad6 synthesis of recursive digital filters. In E.B. Saff and R.S. Varga , editors, Pad and Rational Approximation. Academic Press, New York, 1977...677-678, 1979. [Ros48] J.B. Rosser. Theory and Application ofe’ 2 f e- 2 dx. Mapleton House, 1948. Part I. [Var86] R.S. Varga . Scientific computation on

  17. Loaded cavity-backed slot (LCBS) antennas for Reentry Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the linearly-polarized, loaded cavity-backed slot (LCBS) antenna developed for Reentry Vehicles (RVs) and the development process used by the Antenna Development Department. It includes typical antenna engineering design considerations or requirements, fabrication/assembly process, and performance characteristics. Antenna design theory is reduced to the basic concepts useful in designing LCBS antennas for reentry vehicles.

  18. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  19. Control of a Flexible Space Antenna: A Finite Dimensional Perspective Based on Distributed Parameter Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingori, D. L.; Gibson, J. S.; Blelloch, P.; Adamian, A.

    1985-01-01

    The methods presented are based on results from infinite dimensional control theory, but they can be described and used in a finite dimensional context. This blend leads to an approach which employs powerful ideas on convergence, and is also quite practical for systems of realistic complexity. Appropriate reduced order models are generated simultaneously with the development of the compensator. The required models change as a function of changes in the performance demanded, sensor and actuator location, inherent damping, disturbances, etc. Thus they are driven by the control and estimation problems at hand. The compensators which emerge are very close to the ideal compensators which would be obtained with a very large order model. However, some simplification is frequently possible. The method of balanced realizations was found to be effective for this purpose.

  20. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  1. Deployable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A deployable antenna and method for using wherein the deployable antenna comprises a collapsible membrane having at least one radiating element for transmitting electromagnetic waves, receiving electromagnetic waves, or both.

  2. User Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) impact of frequency change of user and spacecraft antenna gain and size; (2) basic personal terminal antennas (impact of 20/30 GHz frequency separation; parametric studies - gain, size, weight; gain and figure of merit (G/T); design data for selected antenna concepts; critical technologies and development goals; and recommendations); and (3) user antenna radiation safety concerns.

  3. Reconfigurable antenna pattern verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor); Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of verifying programmable antenna configurations is disclosed. The method comprises selecting a desired antenna configuration from a plurality of antenna configuration patterns, with the selected antenna configuration forming at least one reconfigurable antenna from reconfigurable antenna array elements. The method validates the formation of the selected antenna configuration to determine antenna performance of the at least one reconfigurable antenna.

  4. Narrow multibeam satellite ground station antenna employing a linear array with a geosynchronous arc coverage of 60 deg. I - Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitay, N.; Gans, M. J.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of using an appropriately squinted linear scan in narrow multibeam satellite ground station antennas employing phased arrays is demonstrated. This linear scan has the potential of reducing the complexity of a narrow-beam planar array to that of a linear array. Calculations for such antennas placed at cities throughout the U.S. show that the peak beam pointing error in covering the 70 deg W to 130 deg W geosynchronous equatorial arc (GEA) is under 5/1000th of a degree. Communication at a 300 MBd rate in the 12/14 GHz band can be made feasible, for a grating lobe-free scan and 0.5 deg beamwidth antenna, by using a relatively simple time equalization.

  5. A modern control theory based algorithm for control of the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna axis servos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    A digital computer-based state variable controller was designed and applied to the 70-m antenna axis servos. The general equations and structure of the algorithm and provisions for alternate position error feedback modes to accommodate intertarget slew, encoder referenced tracking, and precision tracking modes are descibed. Development of the discrete time domain control model and computation of estimator and control gain parameters based on closed loop pole placement criteria are discussed. The new algorithm was successfully implemented and tested in the 70-m antenna at Deep Space Network station 63 in Spain.

  6. Active antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, John F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An antenna, which may be a search coil, is connected to an operational amplifier circuit which provides negative impedances, each of which is in the order of magnitude of the positive impedances which characterize the antenna. The antenna is connected to the inverting input of the operational amplifier; a resistor is connected between the inverting input and the output of the operational amplifier; a capacitor-resistor network, in parallel, is connected between the output and the noninverting input of the operational amplifier; and a resistor is connected from the noninverting input and the circuit common. While this circuit provides a negative resistance and a negative inductance, in series, which appear, looking into the noninverting input of the operational amplifier, in parallel with the antenna, these negative impedances appear in a series loop with the antenna positive impedances, so as to algebraically add. This circuit is tuned by varying the various circuit components so that the negative impedances are very close, but somewhat less, in magnitude, to the antenna impedances. The result is to increase the sensitivity of the antenna by lowering its effective impedance. This, in turn, increases the effective area of the antenna, which may be broadband.

  7. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  8. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35× corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼115×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼2,500× spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d2. Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, Io = qω|xo|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|xo| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency. PMID:25624503

  9. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    DOE PAGES

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; ...

    2015-01-26

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ~200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ~115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ~2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ~10 nm, proportional to 1/d2. Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Additionally, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.« less

  10. Notch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.

    2004-01-01

    Notch antennas, also known as the tapered slot antenna (TSA), have been the topics of research for decades. TSA has demonstrated multi-octave bandwidth, moderate gain (7 to 10 dB), and symmetric E- and H- plane beam patterns and can be used for many different applications. This chapter summarizes the research activities on notch antennas over the past decade with emphasis on their most recent advances and applications. This chapter begins with some discussions on the designs of single TSA; then follows with detailed discussions of issues associated with TSA designs and performance characteristics. To conclude the chapter, some recent developments in TSA arrays and their applications are highlighted.

  11. A plasmonic dipole optical antenna coupled quantum dot infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaverian, Neda; Gu, Guiru; Lu, Xuejun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report a full-wavelength plasmonic dipole optical antenna coupled quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The plasmonic dipole optical antenna can effectively modify the EM wave distribution and convert free-space propagation infrared light to localized surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) within the nanometer (nm) gap region of the full-wavelength dipole antenna. The plasmonic dipole optical antenna coupled QDIP shows incident-angle-dependent photocurrent enhancement. The angular dependence follows the far-field pattern of a full-wavelength dipole antenna. The directivity of the plasmonic dipole optical antenna is measured to be 1.8 dB, which agrees well with the antenna simulation. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the antenna far-field and directivity measurement. The agreement of the detection pattern and the directivity with antenna theory confirms functions of an optical antenna are similar to that of a RF antenna.

  12. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  13. Measurement techniques for antennas in dissipative media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. D.; Smith, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Methods used to simulate dissipative media environments for antennas are reported, and special techniques are developed to determine the electrical properties of antennas in such media. A new device for measuring antenna input admittance is presented which permits a simple measurement of admittance over a broad frequency range where conventional methods are cumbersome in field use. An apparatus for measuring antenna current and charge distributions is described, and the associated probing errors are discussed. Measured admittances and current and charge distributions are compared with current theories for thin wire linear and loop antennas in the dissipative media and are found to be in good agreement.

  14. Endfire tapered slot antennas on dielectric substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yngvesson, K. S.; Schaubert, D. H.; Korzeniowski, T. L.; Kollberg, E. L.; Thungren, T.

    1985-01-01

    Endfire-tapered slot antennas are suitable for many integrated circuit applications, imaging and phased arrays. An investigation of single elements of such antennas, including slots which are exponentially tapered (Vivaldi), linearly tapered, and constant width. For antennas of all types, a good general agreement is obtained for curves of beamwidth-versus-length, normalized to wavelength, when one compares the data with that for traveling-wave antennas published by Zucker (1961). An important condition for this agreement is that the effective dielectric thickness, defined in the text, is in a certain optimum range. This condition is qualitatively explained in terms of the theory for traveling-wave antennas.

  15. Modeling of the EAST ICRF antenna with ICANT Code

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Chengming; Zhao Yanping; Colas, L.; Heuraux, S.

    2007-09-28

    A Resonant Double Loop (RDL) antenna for ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is under construction. The new antenna is analyzed using the antenna coupling code ICANT which self-consistently determines the surface currents on all antenna parts. In this work, the modeling of the new ICRF antenna using this code is to assess the near-fields in front of the antenna and analysis its coupling capabilities. Moreover, the antenna reactive radiated power computed by ICANT and shows a good agreement with deduced from Transmission Line (TL) theory.

  16. Modeling of the EAST ICRF antenna with ICANT Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chengming; Zhao, Yanping; Colas, L.; Heuraux, S.

    2007-09-01

    A Resonant Double Loop (RDL) antenna for ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is under construction. The new antenna is analyzed using the antenna coupling code ICANT which self-consistently determines the surface currents on all antenna parts. In this work, the modeling of the new ICRF antenna using this code is to assess the near-fields in front of the antenna and analysis its coupling capabilities. Moreover, the antenna reactive radiated power computed by ICANT and shows a good agreement with deduced from Transmission Line (TL) theory.

  17. Conformal Antenna Array Design Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    PLANAR ARRAY PHASE C LbP=IowITH CORRECT CONFORMAL ARRAY PHASE C NbPt NOe OF PhS&. SH-IFT UITSPII- NoP*.GT*1O CONRCLT PHASES ARE USED C TAP19PATTLRN...of Antenna Arrays, Radio Science , Vol. 3, May 1968, pp. 401-522. M. T. Ma, "Theory and Application of Antenna Arrays", Wiley, New York, 1974, Chapter

  18. Breakthroughs in Low-Profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-15

    performance, behavior, and design of innovative High Power Microwave (HPM, GW-class) antennas of the forward-traveling, fast-wave, leaky-wave class...wavelength. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Leaky-wave Antennas. High Power Microwaves (HPM) Antennas. Low-profile Conformal Antennas. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...theory built upon equivalent circuit methods and wave matrix theory, which provided useful formalisms upon which we continue to build. During the

  19. DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Bittner, B.J.

    1958-05-20

    A high-frequency directional antenna of the 360 d scaring type is described. The antenna has for its desirable features the reduction in both size and complexity of the mechanism for rotating the antenna through its scanning movement. These advantages result from the rotation of only the driven element, the reflector remaining stationary. The particular antenna structure comprises a refiector formed by a plurality of metallic slats arranged in the configuration of an annular cage having the shape of a zone of revolution. The slats are parallel to each other and are disposed at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage. A directional radiator is disposed inside the cage at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage in the same direction as the reflecting slats which it faces. As the radiator is rotated, the electromagnetic wave is reflected from the slats facing the radiator and thereafter passes through the cage on the opposite side, since these slats are not parallel with the E vector of the wave.

  20. AN INVESTIGATION OF BROADBAND MINIATURE ANTENNAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report considers the application of a negative impedance converter to a short monopole antenna. The theory of short antennas and an analysis of...the negative impedance converter are presented. The frequency- response characteristics of the negative impedance converter are analyzed. The...of the negative impedance converter is explored experimentally. Also considered is the manner in which atmospheric noise level influences the design of antennas intended to operate in the frequency region below the VHF band.

  1. Application of optimal control theory to the design of the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna servos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, L. S.; Nickerson, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) techniques to the design of the 70-m axis servos is described. Linear quadratic optimal control and Kalman filter theory are reviewed, and model development and verification are discussed. Families of optimal controller and Kalman filter gain vectors were generated by varying weight parameters. Performance specifications were used to select final gain vectors.

  2. Superluminal antenna

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, John; Earley, Lawrence M.; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Potter, James M.; Romero, William P.; Wang, Zhi-Fu

    2017-03-28

    A superluminal antenna element integrates a balun element to better impedance match an input cable or waveguide to a dielectric radiator element, thus preventing stray reflections and consequent undesirable radiation. For example, a dielectric housing material can be used that has a cutout area. A cable can extend into the cutout area. A triangular conductor can function as an impedance transition. An additional cylindrical element functions as a sleeve balun to better impedance match the radiator element to the cable.

  3. Radiation Characteristics of Cavity Backed Aperture Antennas in Finite Ground Plane Using the Hybrid FEM/MoM Technique and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1996-01-01

    A technique using hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM)/Method of Moments (MoM), and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) is presented to analyze the radiation characteristics of cavity fed aperture antennas in a finite ground plane. The cavity which excites the aperture is assumed to be fed by a cylindrical transmission line. The electromagnetic (EM) fields inside the cavity are obtained using FEM. The EM fields and their normal derivatives required for FEM solution are obtained using (1) the modal expansion in the feed region and (2) the MoM for the radiating aperture region(assuming an infinite ground plane). The finiteness of the ground plane is taken into account using GTD. The input admittance of open ended circular, rectangular, and coaxial line radiating into free space through an infinite ground plane are computed and compared with earlier published results. Radiation characteristics of a coaxial cavity fed circular aperture in a finite rectangular ground plane are verified with experimental results.

  4. Satellite antenna layout and optimization in electromagnetic compatibility design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinshuo; Xie, Shuguo; Liu, Yan

    2009-12-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the main factors that impact the layout of satellite antenna. The uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) is used to establish mathematical model for calculating the coupling of satellite antenna, and set up the objective function of the placement optimization. The genetic algorithm incorporating high-frequency simulation to minimize antenna coupling by optimally positioning satellite antenna is described in detail. The results of antenna placement on a realistic satellite show that this method is effective in the optimal design of satellite antenna layout for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility.

  5. Astigmatism in reflector antennas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogdell, J. R.; Davis, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Astigmatic phase error in large parabolic reflector antennas is discussed. A procedure for focusing an antenna and diagnosing the presence and degree of astigmatism is described. Theoretical analysis is conducted to determine the nature of this error in such antennas.

  6. Flexible microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano Barrera, Camilo Antonio

    2013-05-01

    Actually the technological community has an interest in developing flexible circuits and antennas with particular characteristics e.g. robust, flexible, lightweight load-bearing, economical and efficient antennas for integrated millimeter wave systems. Microstrip antennas are an excellent solution because those have all the characteristics before mentioned, but they have the problem of being rigid antennas and this makes impossible that those antennas can be use in portable devices. A practical solution is developing flexible microstrip antennas that can be integrated to different devices. One axis of work is the analysis of the electromagnetic field to the microstrip antennas using Bessel function and after generalize for application inflexible microstrip antennas.

  7. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  8. Computer controlled antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raumann, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of small computers using digital techniques for operating the servo and control system of large antennas is discussed. The advantages of the system are described. The techniques were evaluated with a forty foot antenna and the Sigma V computer. Programs have been completed which drive the antenna directly without the need for a servo amplifier, antenna position programmer or a scan generator.

  9. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. II. Antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The excitation of whistler modes from magnetic loop antennas has been investigated experimentally. The field topology of the excited wave driven by a single loop antenna has been measured for different loop orientations with respect to the uniform background field. The fields from two or more antennas at different locations are then created by superposition of the single-loop data. It is shown that an antenna array can produce nearly plane waves which cannot be achieved with single antennas. By applying a phase shift along the array, oblique wave propagation is obtained. This allows a meaningful comparison with plane wave theory. The Gendrin mode and oblique cyclotron resonance are demonstrated. Wave helicity and polarization in space and time are demonstrated and distinguished from the magnetic helicity of the wave field. The superposition of two oblique plane whistler modes produces in a "whistler waveguide" mode whose polarization and helicity properties are explained. The results show that single point measurements cannot properly establish the wave character of wave packets. The laboratory observations are relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.

  10. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. II. Antenna arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2014-12-15

    The excitation of whistler modes from magnetic loop antennas has been investigated experimentally. The field topology of the excited wave driven by a single loop antenna has been measured for different loop orientations with respect to the uniform background field. The fields from two or more antennas at different locations are then created by superposition of the single-loop data. It is shown that an antenna array can produce nearly plane waves which cannot be achieved with single antennas. By applying a phase shift along the array, oblique wave propagation is obtained. This allows a meaningful comparison with plane wave theory. The Gendrin mode and oblique cyclotron resonance are demonstrated. Wave helicity and polarization in space and time are demonstrated and distinguished from the magnetic helicity of the wave field. The superposition of two oblique plane whistler modes produces in a “whistler waveguide” mode whose polarization and helicity properties are explained. The results show that single point measurements cannot properly establish the wave character of wave packets. The laboratory observations are relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.

  11. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  12. Optical antenna gain. 1: transmitting antennas.

    PubMed

    Klein, B J; Degnan, J J

    1974-09-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM(00) mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  13. A reconfigurable plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Bora, Dhiraj

    2010-03-15

    An experiment aimed at investigating the antenna properties of different plasma structures of a plasma column as a reconfigurable plasma antenna, is reported. A 30 cm long plasma column is excited by surface wave, which acts as a plasma antenna. By changing the operating parameters, e.g., working pressure, drive frequency, input power, radius of glass tube, length of plasma column, and argon gas, single plasma antenna (plasma column) can be transformed to multiple small antenna elements (plasma blobs). It is also reported that number, length, and separation between two antenna elements can be controlled by operating parameters. Moreover, experiments are also carried out to study current profile, potential profile, conductivity profile, phase relations, radiation power patterns, etc. of the antenna elements. The effect on directivity with the number of antenna elements is also studied. Findings of the study indicate that entire structure of antenna elements can be treated as a phased array broadside vertical plasma antenna, which produces more directive radiation pattern than the single plasma antenna as well as physical properties and directivity of such antenna can be controlled by operating parameters. The study reveals the advantages of a plasma antenna over the conventional antenna in the sense that different antennas can be formed by tuning the operating parameters.

  14. Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Lukas

    2007-06-29

    In antenna theory, antenna parameters are directly related to the wavelength lambda of incident radiation, but this scaling fails at optical frequencies where metals behave as strongly coupled plasmas. In this Letter we show that antenna designs can be transferred to the optical frequency regime by replacing lambda by a linearly scaled effective wavelength lambda(eff)=n(1)+n(2)lambda/lambda(p), with lambda(p) being the plasma wavelength and n(1), n(2) being coefficients that depend on geometry and material properties. It is assumed that the antenna is made of linear segments with radii R < lambda. Optical antennas hold great promise for increasing the efficiency of photovoltaics, light-emitting devices, and optical sensors.

  15. Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC)-Method of Moments. A User-Oriented Computer Code for Analysis of the Electromagnetic Response of Antennas and Other Metal Structures. Part 1: Program Description-Theory. Part 2: Program Description-Code. Volume 1. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    oriented computer code for analysis of the electromagnetic response of antennas and other metal structuraos Part I. Program Description-Theory Part...ELECTROMAGNETICS CODE L. TYPE OF REPORT A P1RI1O0 COVERED (NEC) - METHOD-M OMENTS; A user-oriented computer Technical document code for analysis of the...Electromignetics Code (NEC-2) Numerical analysis Antenna response Electromagnetic radiation 20, AIMTRACT (Continue on reverse side it necessary a’md Identify by

  16. Breakthroughs in Low-Profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-21

    BREAKTHROUGHS IN LOW-PROFILE LEAKY-WAVE HPM ANTENNAS Prepared by: Robert A. Koslover (PI) Scientific Applications...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Scientific Applications...wave antennas. The theory built upon equivalent circuit methods and wave matrix theory, which provided useful formalisms upon which we continue to

  17. Antenna impedance matching with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hemminger, Thomas L

    2005-10-01

    Impedance matching between transmission lines and antennas is an important and fundamental concept in electromagnetic theory. One definition of antenna impedance is the resistance and reactance seen at the antenna terminals or the ratio of electric to magnetic fields at the input. The primary intent of this paper is real-time compensation for changes in the driving point impedance of an antenna due to frequency deviations. In general, the driving point impedance of an antenna or antenna array is computed by numerical methods such as the method of moments or similar techniques. Some configurations do lend themselves to analytical solutions, which will be the primary focus of this work. This paper employs a neural control system to match antenna feed lines to two common antennas during frequency sweeps. In practice, impedance matching is performed off-line with Smith charts or relatively complex formulas but they rarely perform optimally over a large bandwidth. There have been very few attempts to compensate for matching errors while the transmission system is in operation and most techniques have been targeted to a relatively small range of frequencies. The approach proposed here employs three small neural networks to perform real-time impedance matching over a broad range of frequencies during transmitter operation. Double stub tuners are being explored in this paper but the approach can certainly be applied to other methodologies. The ultimate purpose of this work is the development of an inexpensive microcontroller-based system.

  18. Flexible plasma linear antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiansen; Wang, Shengzheng; Wu, Huafeng; Liu, Yue; Chang, Yongmeng; Chen, Xinqiang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we introduce a type of plasma antenna that was fabricated using flexible materials and excited using a 5-20 kHz alternating current (ac) power supply. The results showed that the antenna characteristics, including the impedance, the reflection coefficient (S11), the radiation pattern, and the gain, can be controlled rapidly and easily by varying both the discharge parameters and the antenna shapes. The scope for reconfiguration is greatly enhanced when the antenna shape is changed from a monopole to a helix configuration. Additionally, the antenna polarization can also be adjusted by varying the antenna shapes.

  19. ADVANCED ANTENNA DESIGN TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SPACE VEHICLE EXPANDABLE PENCIL-BEAM ANTENNA CONCEPTS ARE PRESENTED. A PRELIMINARY SELECTION IS MADE OF SEVEN PENCIL-BEAM AND FAN-BEAM...TYPES HAVING THE GREATEST RANGE FROM TWELVE SPACE VEHICLE ANTENNA CONCEPTS.

  20. Strain powered antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, John P.; Carman, Greg P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of strain powered antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy by mechanically vibrating a piezoelectric or piezomagnetic material. A closed form analytic model of electromagnetic radiation from a strain powered electrically small antenna is derived and analyzed. Fundamental scaling laws and the frequency dependence of strain powered antennas are discussed. The radiation efficiency of strain powered electrically small antennas is contrasted with a conventional electric dipole. Analytical results show that operating at the first mechanical resonance produces the most efficient strain powered radiation relative to electric dipole antennas. A resonant analysis is exploited to determine the material property space that produces efficient strain powered antennas. These results show how a properly designed strain powered antenna can radiate more efficiently than an equally sized electric dipole antenna.

  1. Computer controlled antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raumann, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    Digital techniques are discussed for application to the servo and control systems of large antennas. The tracking loop for an antenna at a STADAN tracking site is illustrated. The augmentation mode is also considered.

  2. Space-Frame Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame antenna is a conceptual antenna structure that would be lightweight, deployable from compact stowage, and capable of deforming itself to a size, shape, and orientation required for a specific use. The space-frame antenna would be a trusslike structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts. The deformation of the antenna to a desired size, shape, and orientation would be effected through coordinated lengthening and shorting of the struts.

  3. Cross resonant optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B

    2009-06-26

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  4. Antenna (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    ANTENNA (Selected Articles),, Englih - pages: 91 Sourc -.- Antenny, Nr.-, 1967_, _p. 4-32, Country of origin:/’(USSR) r / -Translated by: LEO K-ANNER...process, M. S. Neyman formulated the basic requirements for transmitting television antennas, and the principles of their construction, many of which...Subsequently, in 1951, an antenna, basically similar to the antenna in the MTTs, was mounted and put into operation in Kiev (Fig. 1), with the difference that

  5. Advanced Antenna Measurement Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-18

    9.3 GHz slot array shown in Figure 1 and having a nominal directivity of 23 dB. This antenna was measured on an NSI Planar Near-field Scanner using... sidelobe level ; in essence, the antenna radiation pattern. Antenna pattern measurements have historically been conducted by placing a probe in the far...correction. It was noted in the earlier work that the best calibration antenna is one with a low gain so an open ended waveguide was used. This

  6. Antenna performance and resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of the antenna throughout SL-2, SL-3, and SL-4 was investigated along with the antenna resolution of brightness temperature during flight. The target area selected for the test flights was the Gulf of California, as it offered land/water interface. The coordinate transformations and antenna orientation, flight path simulation, and integration over the radiometric target are discussed.

  7. Coherently combining antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dybdal, Robert B. (Inventor); Curry, Samuel J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus includes antenna elements configured to receive a signal including pseudo-random code, and electronics configured to use the pseudo-random code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the antenna elements and to compensate the signals to coherently combine the antenna elements.

  8. Precision Antenna Alignment Procedure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Precise azimuthal alignment of troposcatter system antennas is achieved by centering on the great circle, the combined pattern of intercepting beams...from two troposcatter antennas. The combined antenna pattern is determined to be centered on and symmetric about the great circle when the Doppler

  9. Cavity-backed metasurface antennas and their application to frequency diversity imaging.

    PubMed

    Marks, Daniel L; Yurduseven, Okan; Smith, David R

    2017-04-01

    Frequency diversity antennas with spatially structured radiation patterns reduce the reliance on actively switched elements for beamforming which become increasingly expensive and impractical as frequency increases. As the quality factor Q of a frequency diverse antenna increases, the antenna samples more spatial structure as the number of unique radiated coded spatial patterns correspondingly increases. Antennas that combine hollow cavities and metamaterial apertures achieve both large fractional bandwidth, in excess of 40%, and a high Q of 1600, so that each antenna radiates over 640 unique coded patterns. As compared to switched active antennas, such a passive antenna replaces the 50 antennas and switches that would produce at most (50/2)2=625 unique patterns. Furthermore, the engineered metamaterial apertures enable a radiation efficiency exceeding 60% to be achieved in a single desired polarization. The theory of cavity-backed metasurface antennas is explained, and frequency diverse imaging is demonstrated with a pair of these antennas.

  10. The ALMA antenna procurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, S.; Zivick, Jeff; Inatani, Junji

    2009-10-01

    Visitors who come to the OSF at regular intervals find a growing population of antennas at various stages of assembly and testing. The long path from the start of the definition of antenna specifications to the start of science operations with the antennas was and still is a formidable endeavor. When completed, ALMA will comprise a 12-meter diameter antennas array, the bilateral interferometer array, of a minimum of fifty antennas and in addition, the ACA (Atacama Compact Array), composed of four 12-meter diameter antennas and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas. Out of the fifty antennas of the bilateral interferometer array, one-half are provided by the North American partners of ALMA, the other half by the European partners. The sixteen antennas that will comprise the ACA are provided by the East Asian Partners of ALMA. Here we review some key points of this challenging process and we provide a brief history and status of the ALMA antennas. Because of the length of the description, we will present this in a series of two articles. In this first part we concentrate mostly on the bilateral antenna procurement. A detailed description of the ACA will be presented in the next newsletter.

  11. JPL antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Plans for evaluating, designing, fabricating, transporting and deploying cost effective and STS compatible offset wrap rib antennas up to 300 meters in diameter for mobile communications, Earth resources observation, and for the orbiting VLBI are reviewed. The JPL surface measurement system, intended for large mesh deployable antenna applications will be demonstrated and validated as part of the antenna ground based demonstration program. Results of the offset wrap rib deployable antenna technology development will include: (1) high confidence structural designs for antennas up to 100 meters in diameter; (2) high confidence estimates of functional performance and fabrication cost for a wide range of antenna sizes (up to 300 meters in diameter); (3) risk assessment for fabricating the large size antennas; and (4) 55 meter diameter flight quality hardware that can be cost effectively completed toto accommodate a flight experiment and/or application.

  12. Combined ICR heating antenna for ion separation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2011-01-15

    A combination of one- and two-wave antennas (one and two turns of conductors around a plasma cylinder, respectively) is proposed. This combined antenna localizes an RF field within itself. It is shown that spent nuclear fuel processing systems based on ICR heating of nuclear ash by such a combined antenna have high productivity. A theory of the RF field excitation in ICR ion separation systems is presented in a simple and compact form.

  13. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; Wert, Michael; Leung, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  14. Quasi-Optical Transponder Using FETs and Patch Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-30

    possible to create a new form of active antennas, a part of our transponder, which consist of passive planar antenna elements and active semiconductor ...Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. MTT’-32, pp. 1402-1406, Oct. 1984. [ 151 C. Camacho -Penalosa, and C. Aitchison, "Analysis and design of MESFET gate mixers

  15. Electromagnetic Analysis for Surface Tolerance Effects on Large Space Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, C. R.; Rudduck, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Antenna tolerance theory for periodic-deterministic type surface distortions is discussed. The phase perturbation distribution for a 15 meter quad aperture antenna is determined. The E-plane and H-plane patterns for smooth and periodically distorted reflector surfaces are given.

  16. A True Metasurface Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Badawe, Mohamed El; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a true metasurface antenna based on electrically-small resonators. The resonators are placed on a flat surface and connected to one feed point using corporate feed. Unlike conventional array antennas where the distance between adjacent antennas is half wavelength to reduce mutual coupling between adjacent antennas, here the distance between the radiating elements is electrically very small to affect good impedance matching of each resonator to its feed. A metasurface antenna measuring 1.2λ × 1.2λ and designed to operate at 3 GHz achieved a gain of 12 dBi. A prototype was fabricated and tested showing good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results. Through numerical simulation, we show that the metasurface antenna has the ability to provide beam steering by phasing all the resonators appropriately. PMID:26759177

  17. Smart aperture antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, Gregory

    1996-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that reflector surface adaptation can achieve performance characteristics of the order of phase array antennas without their complexity and cost. This study develops a class of antennas capable of variable directivity (beam steering) and power density (beam shaping). The actuation for these antennas is employed by attaching polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film to a metallized Mylar substrate. A voltage drop across the material will cause the material to expand or contract. This movement causes a moment to be developed in the structure which causes the structure to change shape. Several studies of flexible structures with PVDF films have shown that cylindrical antennas can achieve significant deflections and thereby offer beneficial changes to radiation patterns emanating from aperture antennas. In this study, relatively large curved actuators are modelled and a deflection - force relationship is developed. This relationship is then employed in simulations where the far-field radiation patterns of an aperture antenna are manipulated.

  18. Analysis and Synthesis of Microstrip Antennas Including Mutual Coupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    E N 11. TITLE (/b*I* Secwfty OuodlCaUOn~) Analysis and Synthesis of Microstrip Antennas Including Mutual Coupling 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) K~oichiro...GROUP SUB-GROUP Array Antennas, Microstrip Antennas, Array Analysis, Array Synthesis, Array Theory, Microwave Network Analysi! 19. ABSTRACT (Continue...VIRGI-J~NIA TECH ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF [. MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS INCLUDING MUTUAL COUPLING o0000 0 0 a o 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 00 0 00 o00000 0o000 0 0 0 a 0 0 0o

  19. Mechanically-steered disk antenna for mobile satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarrick, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a low-profile disk antenna for vehicular mounting that accommodates L-Band (1525-1660.5 MHz) mobile satellite service requirements. The antenna uses a rotatable printed circuit array mechanically-steered in azimuth via an external tracking system. A shaped elevation beam inherent to the antenna design provides continuous coverage with a minimum gain of 9 dBic between elevation angles of 25-degrees and 60-degrees measured above the horizon. A brief background on the theory, design, and performance for this antenna is discussed.

  20. Multifunctional Antenna Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-25

    Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Multifunctional antennas, reconfigurable antennas, electromagnetics REPORT... Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, (06 2013): 223. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2013.55036 Teng-Kai Chen, Gregory H. Huff. Transmission line analysis...of the Archimedean spiral antenna in free space, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, (04 2014): 1175. doi: 10.1080/09205071

  1. Subsurface Deployable Antenna Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-25

    States Patent No. 6,710,746, issued March 23, 2004, to Anderson et al., discloses an antenna having a reconfigurable length, and a method of...an antenna linear extension and retraction apparatus and method of use for a submersible device. The apparatus includes a body having a cavity... microwave communications while at cruising speed and depth. [0027] It is a still further object of the present invention to provide an antenna array

  2. Troposcatter antenna positioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkemeier, W. P.; Fontaine, A. B.

    1980-08-01

    This report covers results of a contract to provide for a rapid and accurate alignment procedure of troposcatter antennas. An experimental model embodying a microprocessor based computation routine at the receive antenna and a stable transmitted frequency allows for alignment of antennas along the great circle path. The test data show that an alignment accuracy of better than plus or minus 1/3 degree or approximately plus or minus 1/10 of a beamwidth could be accomplished in approximately 10 minutes.

  3. Hyperbola-parabola primary mirror in Cassegrain optical antenna to improve transmission efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Lu; Yang, HuaJun; Jiang, Ping; Mao, Shengqian; Caiyang, Weinan

    2015-08-20

    An optical model with a hyperbola-parabola primary mirror added in the Cassegrain optical antenna, which can effectively improve the transmission efficiency, is proposed in this paper. The optimum parameters of a hyperbola-parabola primary mirror and a secondary mirror for the optical antenna system have been designed and analyzed in detail. The parabola-hyperbola primary structure optical antenna is obtained to improve the transmission efficiency of 10.60% in theory, and the simulation efficiency changed 9.359%. For different deflection angles to the receiving antenna with the emit antenna, the coupling efficiency curve of the optical antenna has been obtained.

  4. The single antenna interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.P.

    1990-01-15

    Air and space borne platforms using synthetic aperture radars (SAR) have made interferometric measurements by using either two physical antennas mounted on one air-frame or two passes of one antenna over a scene. In this paper, a new interferometric technique using one pass of a single-antenna SAR system is proposed and demonstrated on data collected by the NASA-JPL AirSAR. Remotely sensed L-band microwave data are used to show the sensitivity of this technique to ocean surface features as well as a baseline for comparison with work by others using two-antenna systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Antenna applications of superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. C.

    1991-09-01

    The applicability of superconductors to antennas is examined. Potential implementations that are examined are superdirective arrays; electrically small antennas; tuning and matching of these two; high-gain millimeter-wavelength arrays; and kinetic inductance slow wave structures for array phasers and traveling wave array feeds. It is thought that superdirective arrays and small antennas will not benefit directly, but their tuning/matching networks will undergo major improvements. Miniaturization of antennas will not be aided, but much higher gain millimeter-wave arrays will be realizable. Kinetic inductance slow-wave lines appear advantageous for improved array phasers and time delay, as well as for traveling-wave array feeds.

  6. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  7. Turnstile slot antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A turnstile slot antenna is disclosed, the antenna being for and integral with a spacecraft having a substantially cylindrical body portion. The antenna comprises a circumferential slot about the periphery of the spacecraft body portion with an annular wave guide cavity defining a radial transmission line disposed within the spacecraft body portion behind and in communication with the circumferential slot. Feed stubs and associated transmission apparatus are provided to excite the annular cavity in quadrature phase such that an omnidirectional, circularly polarized, rotating radiation pattern is generated. The antenna of the instant invention has utility both as a transmitting and receiving device, and ensures continuous telemetry and command coverage with the spacecraft.

  8. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  9. MSU Antenna Pattern Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Tsan; Kleespies, Thomas J.; Green, J. Philip

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) antenna pattern data for nine MSU Flight Models (FMs) have been successfully rescued from 22-year old 7-track and 9-track magnetic tapes and cartridges. These antenna pattern data were unpacked into user-friendly ASCII format, and are potentially useful for making antenna pattern corrections to MSU antenna temperatures in retrieving the true brightness temperatures. We also properly interpreted the contents of the data and show how to convert the measured antenna signal amplitude in volts into relative antenna power in dB with proper normalization. It is found that the data are of high quality with a 60-dB drop in the co-polarized antenna patterns from the central peak value to its side-lobe regions at scan angles beyond 30 deg. The unpacked antenna pattern data produced in this study provide a useful database for data users to correct the antenna side-lobe contribution to MSU measurements. All of the data are available to the scientific community on a single CD-ROM.

  10. Monitoring fatigue crack growth and opening using antenna sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, I.; Huang, H.

    2010-05-01

    Fatigue cracking is one of the most common failure modes of various load-bearing structures. Even though sensors of many different types have been developed for crack detection, very few can monitor crack growth with a high sensitivity. This paper presents an antenna sensor that is capable of monitoring the growth of fatigue cracks with a sub-millimeter resolution. According to microstrip patch antenna theory, the resonant frequencies of a dual-frequency patch antenna are inversely proportional to the electrical lengths of the corresponding antenna radiation modes. The presence of a crack in the ground plane or the elongation of the antenna patch due to crack opening increases the electric length, thereby causing a shift in its corresponding resonant frequency. As a result, crack propagation and opening can be monitored from the resonant frequency shifts of the patch antenna. The patch antenna's capability of monitoring crack growth was validated using fatigue testing of a compact tension specimen. The specimen preparation, sensor fabrication, and experimental procedure are presented. The experimental results demonstrated that the corresponding resonant frequency of the antenna sensor shifted linearly with crack growth. On average, 1 mm crack growth caused the antenna frequency to shift by 22.1 MHz. The orientation of the crack and the effect of crack closure on the resonant frequencies of the antenna sensor are also discussed.

  11. Recent results for plasma antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Alexeff, Igor; Anderson, Ted; Farshi, Esmaeil; Karnam, Naresh; Pulasani, Nanditha Reddy

    2008-05-15

    Plasma antennas are just as effective as metal antennas. They can transmit, receive, and reflect radio waves just as well as metal antennas. In addition, plasma generated noise does not appear to be a problem.

  12. Observation of an antenna-plasma instability

    SciTech Connect

    Kellogg, P.J.; Monson, S.J. ); Whalen, B.A. )

    1990-06-01

    During a rocket flight to high altitude (585 km) a narrow band signal on an electric antenna was sometimes observed, whose frequency varied as the rocket turned. Such a signal cannot be natural, but apparently must be generated by the interaction of the rocket-antenna system with the ambient plasma. Conditions for development of the instability are investigated. Maximum oscillation amplitude occurs when the antenna is aligned with the Earth's magnetic field. Similar observations have been reported by Gurnett and Mosier (1969). Several attempts are made to understand the nature of this interaction, but without success. The instability treated by Fiala, due to the interaction of an inductive antenna impedance with stray capacitance to a phase shifted point in the preamplifier, can be ruled out. It appears that a negative antenna resistance due to interaction with waves Doppler-shifted through zero is an unlikely explanation. The rocket velocity seems too small to give such an anomalous Doppler shift, and even if the observations of plasma density and temperature are stretched, the positive sheath resistance is larger than calculated negative resistances. Ion transit time instability in the sheath would only work at 10 times higher frequency. Interaction of the flowing plasma with sheath waves around the antenna is suggested and appears promising but the theory is not sufficiently developed for meaningful comparison.

  13. Scanning means for Cassegrainian antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giandomenico, A.; Rusch, W. V. T.

    1967-01-01

    Mechanical antenna beam switching device detects weak signals over atmospheric and equipment noise sources in microwave antennas. It periodically nutates the paraboloidal subdish in a Cassegrainian reflector system.

  14. Deformations in VLBI antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.; Thomsen, P.

    1988-01-01

    A study is presented of deformations in antennas with the emphasis on their influence on VLBI measurements. The GIFTS structural analysis program has been used to model the VLBI antenna in Fairbanks (Alaska). The report identifies key deformations and studies the effect of gravity, wind, and temperature. Estimates of expected deformations are given.

  15. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagherian, A. B.; Mielke, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Use of calculation program START and modeling program P 3D to produce radiation patterns of antennas mounted on a space station is discussed. Basic components of two space stations in the early design stage are simulated and radiation patterns for antennas mounted on the modules are presented.

  16. Milestones in Broadcasting: Antennas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media in Education and Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes the development of antennas in the prebroadcast era (elevated antenna, selectivity to prevent interference between stations, birth of diplex, directional properties, support structures), as well as technological developments used in long-, medium-, and short-wave broadcasting, VHF/FM and television broadcasting, and satellite…

  17. Milestones in Broadcasting: Antennas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media in Education and Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes the development of antennas in the prebroadcast era (elevated antenna, selectivity to prevent interference between stations, birth of diplex, directional properties, support structures), as well as technological developments used in long-, medium-, and short-wave broadcasting, VHF/FM and television broadcasting, and satellite…

  18. Bidirectional zoom antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Antenna comprises two parabolic cylinders placed orthogoanlly to each other. One cylinder serves as main reflector, and the other as subreflector. Cylinders have telescoping sections to vary antenna beamwidth. Beamwidth can be adjusted in elevation, azimuth, or both. Design has no restriction as to choice of polarization.

  19. Quantum nondemolition measurements. [by gravitational wave antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braginskii, V. B.; Vorontsov, Iu. I.; Thorne, K. S.

    1980-01-01

    The article describes new electronic techniques required for quantum nondemolition measurements and the theory underlying them. Consideration is given to resonant-bar gravitational-wave antennas. Position measurements are discussed along with energy measurements and back-action-evading measurements. Thermal noise in oscillators and amplifiers is outlined. Prospects for stroboscopic measurements are emphasized.

  20. Quasi-optical active antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussessian, Alina

    Quasi-optical power combiners such as quasi-optical grids provide an efficient means of combining the output power of many solid-state devices in free space. Unlike traditional power combiners no transmission lines are used, therefore, high output powers with less loss can be achieved at higher frequencies. This thesis investigates four different active antenna grids. The first investigation is into X-band High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) grid amplifiers. Modelling and stability issues of these grids are discussed, and gain and power measurements are presented. A grid amplifier with a maximum efficiency of 22.5% at 10 GHz and a peak gain of 11dB is presented. The second grid is a varactor grid used as a positive feedback network for a grid amplifier to construct a tunable grid oscillator. Reflection measurements for the varactor grid show a tuning range of 1.2 GHz. The third grid is a self- complementary grid amplifier. The goal is to design a new amplifier with a unit cell structure that can be directly modelled using CAD tools. The properties of self- complementary structures are studied and used in the design of this new amplifier grid. The fourth grid is a 12 x 12 terahertz Schottky grid frequency doubler with a measured output power of 24 mW at 1 THz for 3.1-μs 500-GHz input pulses with a peak power of 47 W. A passive millimeter-wave travelling-wave antenna built on a dielectric substrate is also presented. Calculations indicate that the antenna has a gain of 15 dB with 3-dB beamwidths of 10o in the H-plane and 64o in the E-plane. Pattern measurements at 90 GHz support the theory. The antenna is expected to have an impedance in the range of 50/Omega to 80/Omega.

  1. Conformal array antenna subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-04-01

    An antenna subsystem to communicate between Ariane 4 and a data relay satellite was studied, concluding that the original ideas on ring antennas should be corrected due to the wide margin of coverage required in elevation for such antennas, which implies the need of splitting the coverage. Nevertheless, the study of cylindrical and conical conformal arrays was continued in view of their intrinsic interest. Needed coverages with specified gain can be obtained with a set of microstrip circular patch antennas. For the lower stage, a single patch is enough. For geostationary missions, one horizontal array is used, and for heliosynchronous missions two horizontal arrays and a vertical one. The numerical study carried out on omniazimuthal ring antennas shows that a tendency to omnidirectional pattern exists in spite of the directivity of the elementary radiators. A small pointing improvement of the meridian pattern can be obtained by means of conical arrays instead of the cylindrical ones.

  2. RF MEMS Based Reconfigurable Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation will first of all address the advantages of RF MEMS circuit in antenna applications and also the need for electronically reconfigurable antennas. Next, discuss some of the recent examples of RF MEMS based reconfigurable microstrip antennas. Finally, conclude the talk with a summary of MEMS antenna performance.

  3. Autonomous omnidirectional spacecraft antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a low gain Electronically Switchable Spherical Array Antenna is discussed. This antenna provides roughly 7 dBic gain for receive/transmit operation between user satellites and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. When used as a pair, the antenna provides spherical coverage. The antenna was tested in its primary operating modes: directed beam, retrodirective, and Omnidirectional.

  4. Antenna Technologies for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix

    2007-01-01

    This presentation addresses the efforts being performed at GRC to develop antenna technology in support of NASA s Exploration Vision. In particular, the presentation discusses the communications architecture asset-specific data services, as well as wide area coverage, high gain, low mass deployable antennas. Phased array antennas as well as electrically small, lightweight, low power, multifunctional antennas will be also discussed.

  5. Antenna Technologies for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation addresses the efforts being performed at GRC to develop antenna technology in support of NASA s Exploration Vision. In particular, the presentation discusses the communications architecture asset-specific data services, as well as wide area coverage, high gain, low mass deployable antennas. Phased array antennas as well as electrically small, lightweight, low power, multifunctional antennas will be also discussed.

  6. Application of Ruze Equation for Inflatable Aperture Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Inflatable aperture reflector antennas are an emerging technology that NASA is investigating for potential uses in science and exploration missions. As inflatable aperture antennas have not been proven fully qualified for space missions, they must be characterized properly so that the behavior of the antennas can be known in advance. To properly characterize the inflatable aperture antenna, testing must be performed in a relevant environment, such as a vacuum chamber. Since the capability of having a radiofrequency (RF) test facility inside a vacuum chamber did not exist at NASA Glenn Research Center, a different methodology had to be utilized. The proposal to test an inflatable aperture antenna in a vacuum chamber entailed performing a photogrammetry study of the antenna surface by using laser ranging measurements. A root-mean-square (rms) error term was derived from the photogrammetry study to calculate the antenna surface loss as described by the Ruze equation. However, initial testing showed that problems existed in using the Ruze equation to calculate the loss due to errors on the antenna surface. This study utilized RF measurements obtained in a near-field antenna range and photogrammetry data taken from a laser range scanner to compare the expected performance of the test antenna (via the Ruze equation) with the actual RF patterns and directivity measurements. Results showed that the Ruze equation overstated the degradation in the directivity calculation. Therefore, when the photogrammetry study is performed on the test antennas in the vacuum chamber, a more complex equation must be used in light of the fact that the Ruze theory overstates the loss in directivity for inflatable aperture reflector antennas.

  7. Bifocal dual reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    A bifocal dual reflector antenna is similar to and has better scan capability than classical cassegrain reflector antenna. The method used in determining the reflector surfaces is a modification of a design method for the dielectric bifocal lens. The three dimensional dual reflector is obtained by first designing an exact (in geometrical optics sense) two-point corrected two dimensional reflector and then rotating it around its axis of symmetry. A point by point technique is used in computing the reflector surfaces. Computed radiation characteristics of the dual reflector are compared with those of a cassegrain reflector. The results confirm that the bifocal antenna has superior performance.

  8. SPS antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

  9. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  10. SAR antenna calibration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Newell, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration of SAR antennas requires a measurement of gain, elevation and azimuth pattern shape, boresight error, cross-polarization levels, and phase vs. angle and frequency. For spaceborne SAR antennas of SEASAT size operating at C-band or higher, some of these measurements can become extremely difficult using conventional far-field antenna test ranges. Near-field scanning techniques offer an alternative approach and for C-band or X-band SARs, give much improved accuracy and precision as compared to that obtainable with a far-field approach.

  11. Troposcatter Antenna Positioner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    RADC-TR4O.275 LE Augus 1960 TROPOSCATTER ANTENNA POSITIONER University of Wisconsin 0Co W. P. Birknmier I V AMPOVED P0W PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...275 - 7 4.] 󈧕 kL L. d TROPOSCATTER ANTENNA POSITIONR Finalechnical Iep t." 6Sep 7-_Feb _W1 j( W. P /irkemeier F3 16O2 77-CQl48WpA 9. PERFORMING...align troposcatter antennas by swinging the beams while noting the symmetry of the received Doppler spectrum. The measure of symmetry was computed

  12. X-Antenna: A graphical interface for antenna analysis codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. L.; Newman, E. H.; Shamansky, H. T.

    1995-01-01

    This report serves as the user's manual for the X-Antenna code. X-Antenna is intended to simplify the analysis of antennas by giving the user graphical interfaces in which to enter all relevant antenna and analysis code data. Essentially, X-Antenna creates a Motif interface to the user's antenna analysis codes. A command-file allows new antennas and codes to be added to the application. The menu system and graphical interface screens are created dynamically to conform to the data in the command-file. Antenna data can be saved and retrieved from disk. X-Antenna checks all antenna and code values to ensure they are of the correct type, writes an output file, and runs the appropriate antenna analysis code. Volumetric pattern data may be viewed in 3D space with an external viewer run directly from the application. Currently, X-Antenna includes analysis codes for thin wire antennas (dipoles, loops, and helices), rectangular microstrip antennas, and thin slot antennas.

  13. Antenna-coupled microcavities for terahertz emission

    SciTech Connect

    Madéo, J. Todorov, Y.; Sirtori, C.

    2014-01-20

    We have investigated the capacitive coupling between dipolar antennas and metal-dielectric-metal wire microcavities with strong sub-wavelength confinement in the terahertz region. The coupling appears in reflectivity measurements performed on arrays of antenna-coupled elements, which display asymmetric Fano lineshapes. The experimental data are compared to a temporal coupled-mode theory and finite elements electromagnetic simulations. We show that the Fano interferences correspond to coupling between a subradiant mode (microcavity) and a superradiant mode (antennas). This phenomenon allows one to enhance and control the radiative coupling of the strongly confined mode with the vacuum. These concepts are very useful for terahertz optoelectronic devices based on deep-sub-wavelength active regions.

  14. Experimental Results of Schlicher's Thrusting Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the claims by Rex L. Schlicher, et al., (Patent 5,142,86 1) that a certain antenna geometry produces thrust greatly exceeding radiation reaction, when driven by repetitive, fast rise, and relatively slower decay current pulses. In order to test this hypothesis, the antenna was suspended by strings as a 3 in pendulum. Current pulses were fed to the antenna along the suspension path by a very flexible coaxial line constructed from loudspeaker cable and copper braid sheath. When driving the antenna via this cabling, our pulser was capable of sustaining 1200 A pulses at a rate of 30 per second up to a minute. In this way, bursts of pulses could be delivered in synch with the pendulum period in order to build up any motion. However, when using a laser beam passing through a lens attached to the antenna to amplify linear displacement by a factor of at least 25, no correlated motion of the beam spot could be detected on a distant wall. We conclude, in agreement with the momentum theorem of classical electromagnetic theory, that any thrust produced is far below practically useful levels. Hence, within classical electrodynamics, there is little hope of detecting any low level motion that cannot be explained by interactions with surrounding structural steel and the Earth's magnetic field.

  15. Antenna pattern control using impedence surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1991-01-01

    During this research period, September 16, 1990 to March 15, 1991, a design method for selecting a low-loss impedance material coating for a horn antenna pattern control has been developed. This method and the stepped waveguide technique can be employed to accurately compute the electromagnetic wave phenomenon inside the transition region of the horn antenna, with or without the impedance surfaces, from the feed to the radiating aperture. For moment method solutions of the electric and magnetic current distributions on the radiating aperture and the outer surface of the horn antenna, triangular surface-patch modes are introduced to replace the sinusoidal surface-patch modes as expansion and testing functions to provide a more physical expansion of the current distributions. In the synthesis problem, a numerical optimization process is formulated to minimize the error function between the desired waveguide modes and the modes provided by the horn transition with impedance surfaces. Since the modes generated by the horn transition with impedance surface are computed by analytical techniques, the computational error involved in the synthesis of the antenna pattern is minimum. Therefore, the instability problem can be avoided. A preliminary implementation of the techniques has demonstrated that the developed theory of the horn antenna pattern control using the impedance surfaces is realizable.

  16. Microwave antenna holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Seidel, Boris L.

    1992-01-01

    This microwave holography technique utilizes the Fourier transform relation between the complex far field radiation pattern of an antenna and the complex aperture field distribution. Resulting aperture phase and amplitude distribution data can be used to precisely characterize various crucial performance parameters, including panel alignment, panel shaping, subreflector position, antenna aperture illumination, directivity at various frequencies, and gravity deformation effects. The methodology of data processing presented here was successfully applied to the Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-m beam waveguide antennas. The antenna performance was improved at all operating frequencies by reducing the main reflector mechanical surface rms error to 0.43 mm. At Ka-band (32 GHz), the estimated improvement is 4.1 dB, resulting in an aperture efficiency of 52 percent. The performance improvement was verified by efficiency measurements and additional holographic measurements.

  17. A switchable microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitrov, Iu. A.

    1992-03-01

    A switchable microstrip antenna is proposed which maintains nondirected radiation in the horizontal plane for all combinations of states of the switched elements. Theoretical and experimental results of studies of the directivity characteristics are presented.

  18. Calculating impedance vibrator antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminov, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    The technique of analytical reversal of a hypersingular equation is used to solve the equation of an impedance vibrator antenna. A numerical method for solving the equation is developed, and its efficiency is demonstrated.

  19. Superconducting miniaturized planar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischke, A.; Chaloupka, H.; Klein, N.; Splitt, G.

    This contribution reports on experimental as well as theoretical investigations of superconducting 2.4 GHz microstrip antenna. Due to both a new stepped-impedance patch shape and a high permittivity substrate (LaAlO3) the size was reduced to an area of only 6x6 mm. The measured radiation efficiency of antennas fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) is at 77 K in the order of 45 and 65 percent for a substrate height of 0.5 mm and 1 mm respectively. In contrast, a copper antenna yields an efficiency of 3 and 6 percent only. Deviations from a linear transmission behavior of the superconducting antenna can be observed at a current density of 500,000 A/sq cm. An increase in frequency bandwidth from 4 MHz to over 9 MHz results from replacing the single-patch structure by a double-patch structure (stacked patches).

  20. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  1. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.

  2. Electrically driven optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  3. Voyager: Antenna Dish Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-07-09

    This archival photo shows an engineer working on the construction of a large, dish-shaped Voyager high-gain antenna. The picture was taken on July 9, 1976. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21480

  4. Rotary antenna attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Hardy, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Radio frequency attenuator, having negligible insertion loss at minimum attenuation, can be used for making precise antenna gain measurements. It is small in size compared to a rotary-vane attenuator.

  5. Antenna pattern study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Warren

    1988-01-01

    Prediction of antenna radiation patterns has long been an important function in the design of command, communication, and tracking systems for rocket vehicles and spacecraft. An acceptable degree of assurance that a radio link will provide the required quality of data or certainty of correct command execution must be acquired by some means if the system is to be certified as reliable. Two methods have been used to perform this function: (1) Theoretical analysis, based on the known properties of basic antenna element types and their behavior in the presence of conductive structures of simple shape, and (2) Measurement of the patterns on scale models of the spacecraft or rocket vehicle on which the antenna is located. Both of these methods are ordinarily employed in the antenna design process.

  6. NASA technology for large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some leading concepts for deployable antennas are described and an assessment of the state of the art in deployable antennas is presented. The advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) antenna, the wrap rib antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna are covered. In addition, a discussion on the technology development program for two deployable antenna concepts that are responsive to the antenna mission requirements as defined in the NASA mission model is presented.

  7. NASA technology for large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some leading concepts for deployable antennas are described and an assessment of the state of the art in deployable antennas is presented. The advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) antenna, the wrap rib antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna are covered. In addition, a discussion on the technology development program for two deployable antenna concepts that are responsive to the antenna mission requirements as defined in the NASA mission model is presented.

  8. Finline Horn Antennas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    is also given to my second reader, Professor H.M. Lee, for his suggestions on the microstrip to coaxial cable transition for the monopulse comparator...consideranly larger radiating aperture, a highly directive radiation pattern can be achieved. This type of antenna is called an electromagnetic horn. 12...receiver modules are required, as in a pnased array or multichannel direction finding system. B. HELAIED WORK 1. likjA-Fiel Aten Tstn Near-iield antenna

  9. Large Deployable Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Huang, John; Lou, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a 7-meter-diameter reflectarray antenna that has been conceived in a continuing effort to develop large reflectarray antennas to be deployed in outer space. Major underlying concepts were reported in three prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Inflatable Reflectarray Antennas" (NPO-20433), Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 50; "Tape-Spring Reinforcements for Inflatable Structural Tubes" (NPO-20615), Vol. 24, No. 7 (July 2000), page 58; and "Self-Inflatable/Self-Rigidizable Reflectarray Antenna" (NPO-30662), Vol. 28, No. 1 (January 2004), page 61. Like previous antennas in the series, the antenna now proposed would include a reflectarray membrane stretched flat on a frame of multiple inflatable booms. The membrane and booms would be rolled up and folded for compact stowage during transport. Deployment in outer space would be effected by inflating the booms to unroll and then to unfold the membrane, thereby stretching the membrane out flat to its full size. The membrane would achieve the flatness for a Ka-band application. The report gives considerable emphasis to designing the booms to rigidify themselves upon deployment: for this purpose, the booms could be made as spring-tape-reinforced aluminum laminate tubes like those described in two of the cited prior articles.

  10. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4-2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 [Formula: see text] for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-[Formula: see text] sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring.

  11. Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

  12. Antenna engineering handbook /2nd edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.; Jasik, H.

    Essential principles, methods, and data for solving a wide range of problems in antenna design and application are presented. The basic concepts and fundamentals of antennas are reviewed, followed by a discussion of arrays of discrete elements. Then all primary types of antennas currently in use are considered, providing concise descriptions of operating principles, design methods, and performance data. Small antennas, microstrip antennas, frequency-scan antennas, conformal and low-profile arrays, adaptive antennas, and phased arrays are covered. The major applications of antennas and the design methods peculiar to those applications are discussed in detail. The employment of antennas to meet the requirements of today's complex electronic systems is emphasized, including earth station antennas, satellite antennas, seeker antennas, microwave-relay antennas, tracking antennas, radiometer antennas, and ECM and ESM antennas. Finally, significant topics related to antenna engineering, such as transmission lines and waveguides, radomes, microwave propagation, and impedance matching and broadbanding, are addressed.

  13. A resonant scanning dipole-antenna probe for enhanced nanoscale imaging.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lars; van 't Oever, Jorick; van Hulst, Niek F

    2013-11-13

    We present a scanning antenna probe that provides 35 nm optical hotspots with a 16-fold excitation enhancement. A resonant optical antenna, tuned to operation in the visible, is carved into the aluminum-coated scanning probe. The antenna resonances, field localization, excitation, and polarization response are probed in the near-field by scanning over single fluorescent nanobeads. At the same time, the distance-dependent coupling of the emission to the antenna mode is mapped. Good agreement with theory is obtained. The presented scanning antenna approach is useful for both nanoscale plasmonic mode imaging and (bio)imaging.

  14. A generalized method for determining radiation patterns of aperture antennas and its application to reflector antennas. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paknys, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The reflector antenna may be thought of as an aperture antenna. The classical solution for the radiation pattern of such an antenna is found by the aperture integration (AI) method. Success with this method depends on how accurately the aperture currents are known beforehand. In the past, geometrical optics (GO) has been employed to find the aperture currents. This approximation is suitable for calculating the main beam and possibly the first few sidelobes. A better approximation is to use aperture currents calculated from the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD). Integration of the GTD currents over and extended aperture yields more accurate results for the radiation pattern. This approach is useful when conventional AI and GTD solutions have no common region of validity. This problem arises in reflector antennas. Two dimensional models of parabolic reflectors are studied; however, the techniques discussed can be applied to any aperture antenna.

  15. Artificial impedance ground planes for low profile antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Ian T.

    Recent interest in artificial impedance surfaces for low-profile antennas has led to extensive research with the goal of optimizing the ground plane's characteristics for a given antenna configuration and broadening the operational bandwidth, or alternatively creating a multi-band functionality. A method of determining the optimal reflection phase for a low-profile dipole antenna over an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) ground plane has been developed based on image theory and is presented with experimental and numerical validation. A new artificial impedance surface has also been developed, which is composed of an annular slot ring on a thin grounded dielectric. The main difference between the proposed ground plane and a conventional EBG is that the high impedance condition exists only in the vicinity of the slot and is therefore best suited for antennas with a current distribution that has a similar shape as the annular slot ring. It is shown that a loop antenna positioned closely over an annular slot loaded ground plane exhibits approximately the same gain as a loop antenna over a conventional EBG ground plane. The advantage of the new structure is its lack of periodicity, which significantly eases manufacturing. Additionally, it is shown that multiple concentric slot rings can be designed into the ground plane, which excites multiple resonances in low-profile wideband antennas. The result is a multi-band high impedance ground plane constructed using a simple arrangement of annular slots. Finally, a manufacturing technique is presented for the application of arbitrarily configured EBG antennas to handheld dual-sensor landmine detection systems. It is shown that creating an EBG antenna using very thin layers of metal will enable it to be used for ground penetrating radar (GPR) when it is co-located with a low frequency metal detector without compromising the operation of the metal detector. The potential benefit of such an antenna would be a lower profile sensor

  16. Directivity of Antenna Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakova, A. A.; Gorobets, N. N.; Katrich, V. A.; Lyashchenko, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Theoretical investigation of directive gains of linear and planar antenna arrays depending on the distance between radiators and wavelength. Design/methodology/approach: Computing methods in applied mathematics in MathCad were used to calculate the twofold integrals of the radiation pattern over power throughout the whole space observed, defining the directivity in the most general terms. Patterns of radiators, i. e. elements of antenna arrays, are specified by mathematical models. The calculation accounts for the subintegral fast oscillating function. Findings: Calculations and analysis of a directive gain according to the number of radiators and distances between them in fractions of wavelength are made. It is shown that at the ratio of distance between radiators to wave-length being d/λ =0.5 the directivity of array of isotropic radiators is 1.5N², N – number of radiators. When increasing the d/λ to 0.65÷0.97 the directivity increases according to the law close to the linear one up to the maximum possible value for the specified number of radiators. With the increase of d/λ to the values greater than one, the directivity is significantly reduced (the “blinding” effect of non-phased antenna arrays) and its dependence with the growth of d/λ is decaying and oscillating in character. By that, the transfer function of antenna arrays has some vital difference from the transfer function of continuous antennas. Conclusions: Antenna arrays distort the waveform and spectrum of radiated and received signals as a result of irregular changes of their directivity depending on wavelength. The detected “blinding” effect of non-phased antenna arrays of large electrical dimensions must be taken into account in wideband and superwideband radio-electronics systems, especially in radio astronomy, telecommunications systems and superwideband radar.

  17. Design and analysis of a folded Fresnel Zone Plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yu; Fujita, Masaharu

    1994-08-01

    Based on the Kirchhoff-Huygens diffraction theory, a simple analytical method of a planar folded Fresnel zone-plate (FZP), that is the case when a planar reflector is placed behind the zone plates, has been developed. According to the numerical calculation results, the design procedure of the FZP antenna has been presented, and its focusing characteristics and gain-optimized conditions have been discussed. The variations of the focal field distribution with the antenna parameters such as zone numbers, focal length and antenna diameter and the radiation power patterns of the FZP have been simulated numerically. To take a good balance of both receiving and transmitting antennas, at 60GHz operating frequency, the focal length should be designed as a half of the antenna diameter and the zone number should be from 10 to 15. The results in this work show that the folded FZP has good focal characteristics and off-axis performance, and its antenna gain can be optimized by the suitable antenna parameter design. The possibility of applying the folded FZP as a low cost and high gain antenna without strict manufacturing requirement for millimeter-wave communications has been shown.

  18. Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement.

    PubMed

    Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Kim, Myungki; Dhuey, Scott; Lakhani, Amit; Choo, Hyuck; Schuck, Peter James; Cabrini, Stefano; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Bokor, Jeffrey; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2011-07-13

    Optical antennas have generated much interest in recent years due to their ability to focus optical energy beyond the diffraction limit, benefiting a broad range of applications such as sensitive photodetection, magnetic storage, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. To achieve the maximum field enhancement for an optical antenna, parameters such as the antenna dimensions, loading conditions, and coupling efficiency have been previously studied. Here, we present a framework, based on coupled-mode theory, to achieve maximum field enhancement in optical antennas through optimization of optical antennas' radiation characteristics. We demonstrate that the optimum condition is achieved when the radiation quality factor (Q(rad)) of optical antennas is matched to their absorption quality factor (Q(abs)). We achieve this condition experimentally by fabricating the optical antennas on a dielectric (SiO(2)) coated ground plane (metal substrate) and controlling the antenna radiation through optimizing the dielectric thickness. The dielectric thickness at which the matching condition occurs is approximately half of the quarter-wavelength thickness, typically used to achieve constructive interference, and leads to ∼20% higher field enhancement relative to a quarter-wavelength thick dielectric layer.

  19. Multibeam antenna study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellamy, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A multibeam antenna concept was developed for providing spot beam coverage of the contiguous 48 states. The selection of a suitable antenna concept for the multibeam application and an experimental evaluation of the antenna concept selected are described. The final analysis indicates that the preferred concept is a dual-antenna, circular artificial dielectric lens. A description of the analytical methods is provided, as well as a discussion of the absolute requirements placed on the antenna concepts. Finally, a comparative analysis of reflector antenna off-axis beam performance is presented.

  20. Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking west. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking southeast. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. Image looking northeast - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Imaging antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, D. B.; Muha, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Many millimeter and far-infrared imaging systems are limited in sensitivity and speed because they depend on a single scanned element. Because of recent advances in planar detectors such as Schottky diodes, superconducting tunnel junctions, and microbolometers, an attractive approach to this problem is a planar antenna array with integrated detectors. A planar line antenna array and optical system for imaging has been developed. The significant advances are a 'reverse-microscope' optical configuration and a modified bow-tie antenna design. In the 'reverse-microscope' configuration, a lens is attached to the bottom of the substrate containing the antennas. Imaging is done through the substrate. This configuration eliminates the troublesome effects of substrate surface waves. The substrate lens has only a single refracting surface, making possible a virtually aplanatic system, with little spherical aberration or coma. The array is characterized by an optical transfer function that is easily measured. An array with 19 dB crosstalk levels between adjacent antennas has been tested and it was found that the array captured 50 percent of the available power. This imaging system was diffraction limited.

  5. Cup Cylindrical Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Darby, William G.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Breen, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    The cup cylindrical waveguide antenna (CCWA) is a short backfire microwave antenna capable of simultaneously supporting the transmission or reception of two distinct signals having opposite circular polarizations. Short backfire antennas are widely used in mobile/satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area networks because of their compactness and excellent radiation characteristics. A typical prior short backfire antenna contains a half-wavelength dipole excitation element for linear polarization or crossed half-wavelength dipole elements for circular polarization. In order to achieve simultaneous dual circular polarization, it would be necessary to integrate, into the antenna feed structure, a network of hybrid components, which would introduce significant losses. The CCWA embodies an alternate approach that entails relatively low losses and affords the additional advantage of compactness. The CCWA includes a circular cylindrical cup, a circular disk subreflector, and a circular waveguide that serves as the excitation element. The components that make it possible to obtain simultaneous dual circular polarization are integrated into the circular waveguide. These components are a sixpost polarizer and an orthomode transducer (OMT) with two orthogonal coaxial ports. The overall length of the OMT and polarizer (for the nominal middle design frequency of 2.25 GHz) is about 11 in. (approximately equal to 28 cm), whereas the length of a commercially available OMT and polarizer for the same frequency is about 32 in. (approximately equal to 81 cm).

  6. Multiple Reflector Scanning Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing

    Narrow beamwidth antenna systems are important to remote sensing applications and point-to-point communication systems. In many applications the main beam of the antenna radiation pattern must be scannable over a region of space. Scanning by mechanically skewing the entire antenna assembly is difficult and in many situations is unacceptable. Performance during scan is, of course, also very important. Traditional reflector systems employing the well-focused paraboloidal -shaped main reflector accomplish scan by motion of a few feeds, or by phase steering a focal plane feed array. Such scanning systems can experience significant gain loss. Traditional reflecting systems with a spherical main reflector have low aperture efficiency and poor side lobe and cross polarization performance. This dissertation introduces a new approach to the design of scanning spherical reflector systems, in which the performance weaknesses of high cross polarization and high side lobe levels are avoided. Moreover, the low aperture utilization common in spherical reflectors is overcome. As an improvement to this new spherical main reflector configuration, a flat mirror reflector is introduced to minimize the mechanical difficulties to scan the main beam. In addition to the reflector system design, reflector antenna performance evaluation is also important. The temperature resolution issue important for earth observation radiometer antennas is studied, and a new method to evaluate and optimize such temperature resolution is introduced.

  7. Electrochemically Programmable Plasmonic Antennas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Zhiping; Fan, Jonathan A

    2016-07-26

    Plasmonic antennas are building blocks in advanced nano-optical systems due to their ability to tailor optical response based on their geometry. We propose an electrochemical approach to program the optical properties of dipole antennas in a scalable, fast, and energy-efficient manner. These antennas comprise two arms, one serving as an anode and the other a cathode, separated by a solid electrolyte. As a voltage is applied between the antenna arms, a conductive filament either grows or dissolves within the electrolyte, modifying the antenna load. We probe the dynamics of stochastic filament formation and their effects on plasmonic mode programming using a combination of three-dimensional optical and electronic simulations. In particular, we identify device operation regimes in which the charge-transfer plasmon mode can be programmed to be "on" or "off." We also identify, unexpectedly, a strong correlation between DC filament resistance and charge-transfer plasmon mode frequency that is insensitive to the detailed filament morphology. We envision that the scalability of our electrochemical platform can generalize to large-area reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces for on-chip and free-space applications.

  8. Satellite dual antenna pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keigler, John E. (Inventor); Hartshorne, Frank A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A satellite antenna pointing system for separately pointing separated transmit and receive high gain antenna systems includes means for separately and sequentially applying a beacon signal to the transmit and receive antenna systems and a broad beam width antenna which has a coverage area greater than the overall coverage region of the spot beam antenna systems. The system includes ground stations located at or near the periphery of the overall coverage region adapted to receive these beacon signals. At a central control station these beacon signals are compared to provide first signals proportional to the ratio of said beacon signals received from said transmit antenna system and said broad beam width antenna and second signals proportional to the ratio of said beacon signals received from said satellite receive antenna system and said broad beam width antenna. The central station generates from said first signals transmit antenna control signals which are sent to the satellite to control the orientation of said transmit antenna system. Likewise, the central control station generates from the second signals receiver antenna control signals which are applied to the satellite to control the orientation of the satellite receive antenna system.

  9. Enhancing the optical cross section of quantum antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Ying, Lei; Chen, Xuewen; Yu, Zongfu

    2017-01-01

    The classical radio-frequency antenna theory indicates that large cross sections can be realized through directional radiation. In this paper, a similar principle is applied in quantum systems, in which quantum antennas, constructed by a cluster of quantum two-level systems, explore the collective excitation of two-level systems to realize large directivity. Both the optical cross section and the coherent time can be dramatically enhanced in free space, far exceeding the case of a single two-level system.

  10. View north of the antenna array, note the communications antenna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of the antenna array, note the communications antenna in the middleground - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Four Antenna Array, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  11. View of antenna tunnel end. Right to Antenna Silo #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of antenna tunnel end. Right to Antenna Silo #1, left to Antenna Silo #2 - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  13. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-06-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  14. Structural synthesis of spiral antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigoda, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses alternative designs of helical antennas used in space vehicles. The dependence of the beam shape on the number of approaches and the mode of excitation of helical antennas is shown.

  15. Alignment of tactical tropo antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Philip A.

    1986-07-01

    Alignment problems of parabolic reflector antennas for troposcatter radio communications are analyzed. Defects of previous alignment techniques are delineated and a new technique for automatic antenna alignment is presented.

  16. Hemispheric ultra-wideband antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-04-01

    This report begins with a review of reduced size ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and the peculiar problems that arise when building a UWB antenna. It then gives a description of a new type of UWB antenna that resolves these problems. This antenna, dubbed the hemispheric conical antenna, is similar to a conventional conical antenna in that it uses the same inverted conical conductor over a ground plane, but it also uses a hemispheric dielectric fill in between the conductive cone and the ground plane. The dielectric material creates a fundamentally new antenna which is reduced in size and much more rugged than a standard UWB conical antenna. The creation of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) software tools in spherical coordinates, as described in SAND2004-6577, enabled this technological advance.

  17. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  18. Analysis of three-dimensional-cavity-backed aperture antennas using a Combined Finite Element Method/Method of Moments/Geometrical Theory of Diffraction technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1995-01-01

    A combined finite element method (FEM) and method of moments (MoM) technique is presented to analyze the radiation characteristics of a cavity-fed aperture in three dimensions. Generalized feed modeling has been done using the modal expansion of fields in the feed structure. Numerical results for some feeding structures such as a rectangular waveguide, circular waveguide, and coaxial line are presented. The method also uses the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) to predict the effect of a finite ground plane on radiation characteristics. Input admittance calculations for open radiating structures such as a rectangular waveguide, a circular waveguide, and a coaxial line are shown. Numerical data for a coaxial-fed cavity with finite ground plane are verified with experimental data.

  19. Cassegrain-Antenna Gain Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, V.; Cha, A. G.; Mittra, R.

    1986-01-01

    Modified antenna feed with dual-shaped subreflectors yields 10-to20-percent improvement in efficiency of existing large-aperture paraboloidal or Cassegrainian antennas. Such offset dual-shaped subreflector (DSS) feed brings gain of existing paraboloid or Cassegrain antennas up to that of reflector antennas of more recent design at cost considerably lower than for reshaping existing reflecting surfaces. Mathematical procedures developed for synthesizing nearly optimum shapes for DSS elements of new feeds.

  20. Endfire tapered slot antenna characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaubert, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Typical configurations and operating characteristics for endfire tapered slot antennas are described. The feed transition modeling and moment method modeling techniques are utilized to predict antenna performance. The radiation pattern and cross polarization properties for the linearly tapered slot antennas are examined. Endfire tapered slot antennas are applicable for wide-band scanning arrays and focal plane arrays for imaging and multiple beam reflector systems.

  1. Unfurlable satellite antennas - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roederer, Antoine G.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahia

    1989-01-01

    A review of unfurlable satellite antennas is presented. Typical application requirements for future space missions are first outlined. Then, U.S. and European mesh and inflatable antenna concepts are described. Precision deployables using rigid panels or petals are not included in the survey. RF modeling and performance analysis of gored or faceted mesh reflector antennas are then reviewed. Finally, both on-ground and in-orbit RF test techniques for large unfurlable antennas are discussed.

  2. Furlable spacecraft antenna development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, R. E.; Wilson, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development of large furlable spacecraft antennas using conical main reflectors is described. Two basic antenna configurations which utilize conical main reflectors have been conceived and are under development. In the conical-Gregorian configuration each ray experiences two reflections in traveling from the feed center to the aperture plane. In the Quadreflex (four reflection) configuration, each ray experiences four reflections, one at each of two subreflector surfaces and two at the main conical reflector surface. The RF gain measurements obtained from 6-ft and 30-in. models of the conical-Gregorian and Quadreflex concepts respectively were sufficiently encouraging to warrant further development of the concepts.

  3. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  4. The JPL mechanically steered antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff B.; Bell, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and developed a mechanically steered antenna for tracking satellites in a mobile environment. This antenna was used to track an L-band beacon on the MARISAT satellite. A description of the antenna and the results of the satellite experiment are given.

  5. Embedded Meta-Material Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-31

    of electronic warfare signal and information processing systems. To realize such systems, the key is to miniaturize antennas that transmit and...single aperture, which can provide significant miniaturization and flexibility to the entire system. To design such miniaturized antennas , new materials...and technologies have to be incorporated. For this purpose, the PI has designed and demonstrated miniaturized antennas by introducing metamaterials

  6. Antenna arrays for producing plane whistler waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, J. Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Linear whistler modes with ω ~= 0 . 3ωce <<ωpe are excited in a large laboratory plasma with magnetic loop antennas. A single antenna always produces a spatially bounded wave packet whose propagation cannot be directly compared to plane wave theories. By superimposing the fields from spatially separated antennas, the wavenumber along the antenna array can be nearly eliminated. 2D arrays nearly produce plane waves. The angle θ of wave propagation has been varied by a phase shift along the array. The refractive index surface n (θ) has been measured. The parallel phase and group velocities for Gendrin modes has been demonstrated. The interference between two oblique plane whistlers creates a whistler ``waveguide'' mode, i.e. standing waves for k ⊥B0 and propagation for k | |B0 . It also describes the reflection of oblique whistlers from a sharp discontinuity in the refractive index or conductivity. Radial reflections are also a dominant factor in small plasma columns of helicon devices. These results are of interest to space and laboratory plasmas. Work supported by NSF/DOE.

  7. Efficient Reflector Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathker, D. A.; Cha, A. G.; Galindo, V.; Reilly, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient antenna applicable to systems where main reflector diameter is at least 500 wavelengths. Design provides 2-to-3-dB improvement in gain divided by noise temperature (G/T) over centerline symmetric designs. Performance improvement largely due to clear-aperture, off-axis dual-reflector design.

  8. Community Antenna Television (CATV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

  9. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  10. Circular Microstrip Antenna with Fractal Slots for Multiband Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sivia Jagtar; Singh, Gurpreet; Bharti, Gurpreet

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a multiband, fractal, slotted, Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna for GSM, WiMAX, C and X bands (satellite communication applications) is presented. A cantor set theory is used to make fractal slots for obtaining the desired multiband. The projected antenna is simulated using Ansys HFSS v13.0 software. Simulation test of this antenna has been carried out for a frequency range of 1 GHz-10 GHz and a peak gain of 9.19 dB at a resonance frequency of 1.9 GHz is obtained. The antenna also resonates at 3.7 GHz, 6.06 GHz and 7.9 GHz with gains of 3.04 dB, 5.19 dB and 5.39 dB respectively. Parameters like voltage standing wave ratio, return loss, and gain are used to compare the results of the projected antenna with conventional CMPA's of same dimensions with full and defective grounds. The projected antenna is fabricated on a glass epoxy material and is tested using Vector Network Analyzer. The performance parameters of the antenna are found to in good agreement with each both using simulated and measured data.

  11. Ultradirective antenna via transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichit, P.-H.; Burokur, S. N.; de Lustrac, A.

    2009-05-01

    Spatial coordinate transformation is used as a reliable tool to control electromagnetic fields. In this paper, we derive the permeability and permittivity tensors of a metamaterial able to transform an isotropically radiating source into a compact ultradirective antenna in the microwave domain. We show that the directivity of this antenna is competitive with regard to conventional directive antennas (horn and reflector antennas), besides its dimensions are smaller. Numerical simulations using finite element method are performed to illustrate these properties. A reduction in the electromagnetic material parameters is also proposed for an easy fabrication of this antenna from existing materials. Following that, the design of the proposed antenna using a layered metamaterial is presented. The different layers are all composed of homogeneous and uniaxial anisotropic metamaterials, which can be obtained from simple metal-dielectric structures. When the radiating source is embedded in the layered metamaterial, a highly directive beam is radiated from the antenna.

  12. Predicting Antenna Parameters from Antenna Physical Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    for a linear array is [Ref. 3: pp. 43-44]: G = erDo (dimensionless) (3.20) G(dB) = 101og1 0 (etD,) (dB) (3.21) As a result of constructing the linear...transmission line. Therefore, the gain of the antenna is: G = erDo (dimensionless) (7.19) G(dB) = 101og1 0 (ecDo) (dB) (7.20) A caged dipole in free...surface, and the distance (r’) from the origin to the projection of point (P) onto the z = 0 plane. The primed angles in Figure 8.1 correspond to the

  13. Mobile terminal antennas for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Farazian, K.; Golshan, N.; Divsalar, D.; Hinedi, S.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using an L-band low gain antenna (LGA) as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters is described. The objective is to select the lowest cost antenna system which can be easily mounted on a helicopter and capable of communicating with a geosynchronous satellite. To ensure that all the antenna options are being considered, the steerable high gain reflector and medium gain array antennas as well as LGA are studied and compared in an exhaustive survey. The high gain reflector antenna in L-band is usually very large in size and heavy in weight. In addition, a bulky and expensive tracking system is needed to steer the antenna beam to the satellite direction. The medium gain antennas (including mechanically and electronically steered arrays) are also more expensive and less reliable than an LGA due to the addition of a beam steering system to track the satellite. The omni-directional LGA is simple, reliable, and inexpensive. It is typically ten times smaller than the medium gain antenna. This makes the position, selection, and mounting on the helicopter relatively easier. Therefore, the LGA is selected as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters. Among the many LGA's (cross-dipole, helix, spiral, and slot antennas), the helix antenna is the most inexpensive. One can also change the size, shape, or pitch angle of the helix to optimize the gain in the desired direction. Therefore, the helix antenna is selected for further study. Both 2-arm and 4-arm helices are studied theoretically and experimentally to determine the antenna's performance and the scattering effects from the helicopter body and the blades. The multipath, Doppler, and Doppler rate issues as well as the periodic fading effects caused by the helicopter rotor blades will be briefly discussed in the paper.

  14. Microstrip reflectarray antenna for the SCANSCAT radar application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1990-01-01

    This publication presents an antenna system that has been proposed as one of the candidates for the SCANSCAT (Scanned Scatterometer) radar application. It is the mechanically steered planar microstrip reflectarray. Due to its thin, lightweight structure, the antenna's mechanical rotation will impose minimum angular momentum for the spacecraft. Since no power-dividing circuitry is needed for its many radiating microstrip patches, this electrically large array antenna demonstrates excellent power efficiency. In addition, this fairly new antenna concept can provide many significant advantages over a conventional parabolic reflector. The basic formulation for the radiation fields of the microstrip reflectarray is presented. This formulation is based on the array theory augmented by the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD). A computer code for analyzing the microstrip reflectarray's performances, such as far-field patterns, efficiency, etc., is also listed in this report. It is proposed here that a breadboard unit of this microstrip reflectarray should be constructed and tested in the future to validate the calculated performance. The antenna concept presented here can also be applied in many other types of radars where a large array antenna is needed.

  15. Simulation and analysis of antennas radiating in a complex environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.; Burnside, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the high-frequency radiation patterns of antennas mounted on curved surfaces is described. The procedure utilizes the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction to examine the antenna system's performance, which is dependent on antenna radiation patterns. Composite ellipsoid models of fuselage shapes are developed and the formation of geodesic paths on the models is studied; the shape of the fuselage affects the radiation patterns. The actual field radiated by the source and scattered by the structure is calculated using the ray field technique. The numerical solution is applied to the analysis of the antenna radiation patterns of a military aircraft, private aircraft, and the Space Shuttle orbiter. Good correlation between the calculated and measured radiation patterns is noted verifying the usefulness and accuracy of the numerical procedure.

  16. Analysis of the Tem Mode Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janaswamy, R.; Schaubert, D. H.; Pozar, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the radiation characteristics of the TEM mode Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) is presented. The theory presented is valid for antennas with air dielectric and forms the basis for analysis of the more popular dielectric-supported antennas. The method of analysis involves two steps. In the first step, the aperture distribution in the flared slot is determined. In the second step, the equivalent magnetic current in the slot is treated as radiating in the presence of a conducting half-plane and the far-field components are obtained. Detailed comparison with experiment is made and excellent agreement is obtained. Design curves for the variation of the 3 dB and 10 dB beamwidths as a function of the antenna length, with the flare angle as a parameter, are presented.

  17. Deployable antenna kinematics using tensegrity structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Byron Franklin

    (Wertz) to develop a new, practical design approach. This kinematic analysis of tensegrity structures blends these differences to provide the design community with a new approach to lightweight, robust, adaptive structures with the high reliability that space demands. Additionally, by applying Screw Theory, a tensegrity structure antenna can be commanded to move along a screw axis, and therefore meeting the requirement to address multiple feed locations.

  18. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher

    2014-07-21

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  19. Elasto optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinet, J.-Y.

    It is shown that elasto optical properties of some transparent media make possible to couple elastic with optical resonators. Large single crystals with high quality factors lead to narrow band resonant antennas, whereas optical fibers lead to wideband antennas. The sensitivities are evaluated. Les propriétés élasto-optiques de certains milieux transparents permettent le couplage entre des résonateurs optiques et élastiques. Il est possible de concevoir des antennes à bande étroite utilisant des monocristaux de grande taille à très faibles pertes acoustiques, et des antennes à large bande utilisant des fibres optiques. On a calculé des ordres de grandeur pour les sensibilités des deux systèmes.

  20. Millimeter Wave Antenna Technology,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    development work will be required. Milli- meter wave antennas play a key role in the rationale for millimeter system designs beas ihspatial resolution...results in their popularity for multiple bea applications. In their design, care ust be exercised to minimize reflection losses at the lens surfaces...Alternatively, the radome surface may be treated to repel the water, and rivulet flow results. Since the water is more randomly distribu- ted, the gain loss is

  1. Antenna (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-04

    dispersion of the main maximum of the beam pattern of a sectional traveling wave antenna when there are errors of the wave number in the system and phase... errors at the sites of contact between the sections. A condition of ootimality of sectioning and a con- dition in which the limiting directive gain is...missing are obtained. The effectiveness of the sampling of phase errors is studied. r, Introduct ion Production conditions force us to assemble large

  2. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  3. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 introduces several new technologies including a multibeam antenna (MBA) operating at Ka-band. The satellite is introduced briefly, and then the MBA, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz received and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems utilizing orthogonal linear polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 deg beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz high mobility electron transmitter (HEMT) low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  4. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-04-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 introduces several new technologies including a multibeam antenna (MBA) operating at Ka-band. The satellite is introduced briefly, and then the MBA, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz received and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems utilizing orthogonal linear polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 deg beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz high mobility electron transmitter (HEMT) low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  5. JPL Large Advanced Antenna Station Array Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with study requirements, two antennas are described: a 30 meter standard antenna and a 34 meter modified antenna, along with a candidate array configuration for each. Modified antenna trade analyses are summarized, risks analyzed, costs presented, and a final antenna array configuration recommendation made.

  6. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  7. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  8. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  9. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  10. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  11. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  12. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  13. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  14. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  15. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  16. A Mars Riometer: Antenna Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Craig D.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on NASA Grant NAG5-9706. This project explored riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) antenna designs that would be practical for a Mars surface or balloon mission. The riometer is an important radio science instrument for terrestrial aeronomy investigations. The riometer measures absorption of cosmic radio waves by the overhead ionosphere. Studies have shown the instrument should work well on Mars, which has an appreciable daytime ionosphere. There has been concern that the required radio receiver antenna (with possibly a 10 meter scale size) would be too large or too difficult to deploy on Mars. This study addresses those concerns and presents several antenna designs and deployment options. It is found that a Mars balloon would provide an excellent platform for the riometer antenna. The antenna can be incorporated into the envelope design, allowing self-deployment of the antenna as the balloon inflates.

  17. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  18. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  19. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  20. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  1. Optical antenna gain. 2: receiving antennas.

    PubMed

    Degnan, J J; Klein, B J

    1974-10-01

    Expressions are derived for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna when used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver which include losses due to (1) blockage of the incoming light by the central obscuration, (2) the spillover of energy at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distributions (uniform, Gaussian, and matched) in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. The results are presented in several graphs that allow the rapid evaluation of receiver gain for an arbitrary set of telescope and detector parameters. It is found that, for uniform illumination by the LO, the optimum SNR is obtained when the detector radius is approximately 0.74 times the Airy disk radius. The use of an optimized Gaussian (spot size = 0.46 times the Airy disk radius) improves the receiver gain by less than 1 dB. Theuse results are insensitive to the size of the central obscuration.

  2. Deployable antenna phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, J.; Bernstein, J.; Fischer, G.; Jacobson, G.; Kadar, I.; Marshall, R.; Pflugel, G.; Valentine, J.

    1979-01-01

    Applications for large deployable antennas were re-examined, flight demonstration objectives were defined, the flight article (antenna) was preliminarily designed, and the flight program and ground development program, including the support equipment, were defined for a proposed space transportation system flight experiment to demonstrate a large (50 to 200 meter) deployable antenna system. Tasks described include: (1) performance requirements analysis; (2) system design and definition; (3) orbital operations analysis; and (4) programmatic analysis.

  3. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...Distribution A An antenna for mounting on a ground plane includes a dielectric substrate for mounting on the ground plane. A conductive patch...GAIN MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the

  4. Analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of microstrip antennas covered by a dielectric substrate is formulated in terms of coupled integro-differential equations with the current distribution on the conducting patch as an unknown quantity. The Galerkin method is used to solve for the unknown patch current. Using the present formulation, the radiation pattern, the resonant frequency, and the bandwidth of a rectangular microstrip antenna are computed. Design data for a rectangular microstrip antenna are also presented.

  5. Design Method for a Low-Profile Dual-Shaped Reflector Antenna with an Elliptical Aperture by the Suppression of Undesired Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Yoshio; Kuroda, Shinji; Kusakabe, Kenji; Naito, Izuru; Konishi, Yoshihiko; Makino, Shigeru; Tsuchiya, Makio

    A design method is proposed for a low-profile dual-shaped reflector antenna for the mobile satellite communications. The antenna is required to be low-profile because of mount restrictions. However, reduction of its height generally causes degradation of antenna performance. Firstly, an initial low-profile reflector antenna with an elliptical aperture is designed by using Geometrical Optics (GO) shaping. Then a Physical Optics (PO) shaping technique is applied to optimize the gain and sidelobes including mitigation of undesired scattering. The developed design method provides highly accurate design procedure for electrically small reflector antennas. Fabrication and measurement of a prototype antenna support the theory.

  6. Metamaterial-based "sabre" antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafdallah Ouslimani, Habiba; Yuan, Tangjie; Kanane, Houcine; Priou, Alain; Collignon, Gérard; Lacotte, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The "sabre" antenna is an array of two monopole elements, vertically polarized with omnidirectional radiation patterns, and placed on either side of a composite material on the tail of an airplane. As an in-phase reflector plane, the antenna uses a compact dual-layer high-impedance surface (DL-HIS) with offset mushroom-like Sivenpiper square shape unit cells. This topology allows one to control both operational frequency and bandgap width, while reducing the total height of the antenna to under λ0/36. The designed antenna structure has a wide bandwidth higher than 24% around 1.4 GHz. The measurements and numerical simulations agree very well.

  7. Optical resonant Archimedean spiral antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanqing; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jiasen

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the field enhancement properties of optical resonant Archimedean spiral antennas by using a finite difference time domain method. Due to the spiral structure, the antennas show a circular dichroism in the electric field enhancement, especially for a large turning angle. A large magnetic field enhancement is also obtained with a confinement in the nanometer size. When the turning angle equals π for a linearly polarized incident beam, the polarization of the enhanced field in the spiral antenna can be perpendicular to the incident polarization with a similar enhancement factor to the optical resonant dipole antennas.

  8. Electronic switching spherical array antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockton, R.

    1978-01-01

    This work was conducted to demonstrate the performance levels attainable with an ESSA (Electronic Switching Spherical Array) antenna by designing and testing an engineering model. The antenna was designed to satisfy general spacecraft environmental requirements and built to provide electronically commandable beam pointing capability throughout a hemisphere. Constant gain and beam shape throughout large volumetric coverage regions are the principle characteristics. The model is intended to be a prototype of a standard communications and data handling antenna for user scientific spacecraft with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Some additional testing was conducted to determine the feasibility of an integrated TDRSS and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna system.

  9. Antenna system for MSAT mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Ingmar; Patenaude, Yves; Stipelman, Leora

    1988-01-01

    Spar has evaluated and compared several antenna concepts for the North American Mobile Satellite. The paper describes some of the requirements and design considerations for the antennas and demonstrates the performance of antenna concepts that can meet them. Multiple beam reflector antennas are found to give best performance and much of the design effort has gone into the design of the primary feed radiators and beam forming networks to achieve efficient beams with good overlap and flexibility. Helices and cup dipole radiators have been breadboarded as feed element candidates and meausured results are presented. The studies and breadboard activities have made it possible to proceed with a flight program.

  10. Project Echo: Antenna Steering System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klahn, R.; Norton, J. A.; Githens, J. A.

    1961-01-01

    The Project Echo communications experiment employed large, steerable,transmitting and receiving antennas at the ground terminals. It was necessary that these highly directional antennas be continuously and accurately pointed at the passing satellite. This paper describes a new type of special purpose data converter for directing narrow-beam communication antennas on the basis of predicted information. The system is capable of converting digital input data into real-time analog voltage commands with a dynamic accuracy of +/- 0.05 degree, which meets the requirements of the present antennas.

  11. Near Field Antenna Measurement System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    beam pointing accuracy and .6 dB gain accuracy. These antennas are both planar arrays with the X-band antenna scanning with ferrite phase shifters in...AD-A114 125 M[ES AIRCRAFT CO FULLERTON CA F/ 17/9 NEAR FIELD ANTENNA MEASUREMENT SYSTEM. (U) MAR 82 A E HOLLEY DAABO7-7?-C-1 87 UNCLASSIFIED NL...IllIHE El. onhEnoh IIIIhh --h h I~m I I Research and Development Technical Report I DAABO7-77-C-0587-F1 NEAR FIELD ANTENNA I MEASUREMENT SYSTEM I A.E

  12. Essential Characteristics of Plasma Antennas Filled with He-Ar Penning Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Naifeng; Li, Wenzhong; Wang, Shiqing; Li, Jian; Ci, Jiaxiang

    2012-09-01

    Based on the essential theory of Penning gases, the discharge characteristics of He-Ar Penning gases in insulating tubes were analyzed qualitatively. The relation between the effective length of an antenna column filled with He-Ar Penning gases and the applied radio frequency (RF) power was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The distribution of the plasma density along the antenna column in different conditions was studied. The receiving characteristics of local frequency modulated (FM) electromagnetic waves by the plasma antenna filled with He-Ar Penning gases were compared with those by an aluminum antenna with the same dimensions. Results show that it is feasible to take plasma antennas filled with He-Ar Penning gases as receiving antennas.

  13. Far-field characteristics of the square grooved-dielectric lens antenna for the terahertz band.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wu; Zeng, Wei

    2016-09-10

    In order to improve the gain and directionality of a terahertz antenna, a square grooved-dielectric lens antenna based on a Fresnel zone plate is proposed. First, a diagonal horn, which is adopted as the primary feed antenna, is designed. Then, the far-field characteristics of the lens antenna are studied by using Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory and the paraxial approximation. The effects of the full-wave period, the focus diameter ratio, the subregion, and the dielectric substrate thickness on radiation characteristics are studied. The experimental results show that the proposed lens antenna has axisymmetric radiation patterns. The gain is over 26.1 dB, and the 3 dB main lobe beam width is lower than 5.6° across the operation band. The proposed lens antenna is qualified for applications in terahertz wireless communication systems.

  14. Impact of Optical Baffle on Antenna Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T.; Pogorzelski, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major concerns of antenna design for spacecraft applications is the effect of surrounding structures which can reflect and diffract the antenna's radiated energy and cause degradation in the antenna directivity, beam shape, and sidelobe levels.

  15. Impact of Optical Baffle on Antenna Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T.; Pogorzelski, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major concerns of antenna design for spacecraft applications is the effect of surrounding structures which can reflect and diffract the antenna's radiated energy and cause degradation in the antenna directivity, beam shape, and sidelobe levels.

  16. Large Space Antenna Systems Technology, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, W. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Mission applications for large space antenna systems; large space antenna structural systems; materials and structures technology; structural dynamics and control technology, electromagnetics technology, large space antenna systems and the Space Station; and flight test and evaluation were examined.

  17. Ferrite attenuator modulation improves antenna performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, J. C.; Larson, S. G.; Shorkley, F. H.; Williams, B. T.

    1970-01-01

    Ferrite attenuator inserted into appropriate waveguide reduces the gain of the antenna element which is causing interference. Modulating the ferrite attenuator to change the antenna gain at the receive frequency permits ground tracking until the antenna is no longer needed.

  18. Radar transponder antenna pattern analysis for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliff, Roger

    1989-01-01

    In order to improve tracking capability, radar transponder antennas will soon be mounted on the Shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). These four antennas, each being identical cavity-backed helices operating at 5.765 GHz, will be mounted near the top of the SRB's, adjacent to the intertank portion of the external tank. The purpose is to calculate the roll-plane pattern (the plane perpendicular to the SRB axes and containing the antennas) in the presence of this complex electromagnetic environment. The large electrical size of this problem mandates an optical (asymptotic) approach. Development of a specific code for this application is beyond the scope of a summer fellowship; thus a general purpose code, the Numerical Electromagnetics Code - Basic Scattering Code, was chosen as the computational tool. This code is based on the modern Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, and allows computation of scattering of bodies composed of canonical problems such as plates and elliptic cylinders. Apertures mounted on a curved surface (the SRB) cannot be accomplished by the code, so an antenna model consisting of wires excited by a method of moments current input was devised that approximated the actual performance of the antennas. The improvised antenna model matched well with measurements taken at the MSFC range. The SRB's, the external tank, and the shuttle nose were modeled as circular cylinders, and the code was able to produce what is thought to be a reasonable roll-plane pattern.

  19. Analysis of radiation performances of plasma sheet antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bo; Zhang, Zu-Fan; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    A novel concept of plasma sheet antennas is presented in this paper, and the radiation performances of plasma sheet antennas are investigated in detail. Firstly, a model of planar plasma antenna (PPA) fed by a microstrip line is developed, and its reflection coefficient is computed by the JE convolution finite-difference time-domain method and compared with that of the metallic patch antenna. It is found that the design of PPA can learn from the theory of the metallic patch antenna, and the impedance matching and reconstruction of resonant frequency can be expediently realized by adjusting the parameters of plasma. Then the PPA is mounted on a metallic cylindrical surface, and the reflection coefficient of the conformal plasma antenna (CPA) is also computed. At the same time, the influence of conformal cylinder radius on the reflection coefficient is also analyzed. Finally, the radiation pattern of a CPA is given, the results show that the pattern agrees well with the one of PPA in the main radiation direction, but its side lobe level has deteriorated significantly.

  20. View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. Orientation Target #2 in background. Image looking northeast - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. View of Antenna #2 (foreground), and Antenna #1 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #2 (foreground), and Antenna #1 surface doors. Orientation Target #1 in background. Image looking northwest - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Flight termination system equipment. Volume 1: Antennas and antenna couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This document is the result of the efforts of the Flight Termination System Ad Hoc Committee of the Range Safety Group, Range Commanders Council. The Flight Termination System Equipment Catalog provides a ready reference to missile antennas and antenna couplers used at U.S. missile ranges and test facilities. Since use of each antenna/antenna coupler must be approved by the Range Commander with the in-flight range safety responsibility, inclusion in this catalog does not constitute sanction of such use nor approval for use on other missiles/space vehicles on the same range or on the same missile/space vehicle on other ranges. This catalog is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all flight termination antennas/antenna couplers available on the open market. The information contained in this publication has been provided by the manufacturer or extracted from manufacturers' specifications and is provided only as a guide. No conclusions are to be implied or assumed relative to the merits of one antenna/antenna coupler versus another. Where applicable, a history of the flight usage has been provided.

  3. Millimeter and submillimeter wave antenna structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebiez, Gabriel M. (Inventor); Rutledge, David B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An integrated circuit antenna structure for transmitting or receiving millimeter and/or submillimeter wave radiation having an antenna relatively unimpaired by the antenna mounting arrangment is disclosed herein. The antenna structure of the present invention includes a horn disposed on a substrate for focusing electromagnetic energy with respect to an antenna. The antenna is suspended relative to the horn to receive or transmit the electromagnetic energy focused thereby.

  4. Microelectromechanical Systems Actuator Based Reconfigurable Printed Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A polarization reconfigurable patch antenna is disclosed. The antenna includes a feed element, a patch antenna element electrically connected to the feed element, and at least one microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator, with a partial connection to the patch antenna element along an edge of the patch antenna element. The polarization of the antenna can be switched between circular polarization and linear polarization through action of the at least one MEMS actuator.

  5. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y. Chen, Y. N.; Madeo, J.; Vasanelli, A.; Sirtori, C.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  6. Terahertz antenna electronic chopper

    SciTech Connect

    Sterczewski, L. A. Grzelczak, M. P.; Plinski, E. F.

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we present an electronic circuit used to bias a photoconductive antenna that generates terahertz radiation. The working principles and the design process for the device are discussed in detail. The noise and shape of the wave measurements for a built device are considered. Furthermore, their impact on a terahertz pulse and its spectra is also examined. The proposed implementation is simple to build, robust and offers a real improvement over THz instrumentation due to the frequency tuning. Additionally, it provides for galvanic isolation and ESD protection.

  7. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Mielke, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress on the development of modeling software, testing software against caclulated data from program VPAP and measured patterns, and calculating roll plane patterns for general aviation aircraft is reported. Major objectives are the continued development of computer software for aircraft modeling and use of this software and program OSUVOL to calculate principal plane and volumetric radiation patterns. The determination of proper placement of antennas on aircraft to meet the requirements of the Microwave Landing System is discussed. An overview of the performed work, and an example of a roll plane model for the Piper PA-31T Cheyenne aircraft and the resulting calculated roll plane radiation pattern are included.

  8. Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

    1977-01-01

    Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

  9. Matched pair conical spiral antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    A matched pair of VHF (220-260 MHz) conical spiral antennas for use in a rocket-tracking interferometer array was designed and tested. While gain, bandwidth, impedance, and pattern measurements met specifications, the phase match between antennas at low elevations was not equal to the design goal.

  10. Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

    1977-01-01

    Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

  11. Antennas in plasmas - The problem of boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the difficulties associated with definition of appropriate boundary conditions for use in analyses of antennas and other structures immersed in plasmas. Distinctions may be made according to whether cold plasma, microscopic, or macroscopic theory is to be employed; whether the plasma is to be considered uniform or inhomogeneous, and whether or not there is a static magnetic field. The properties and limitations of these models, and the commonly-used boundary conditions of specular reflection and velocity diffusion (for opaque boundaries), and transparency (for grids or wires) are discussed. As a specific illustrative example, a series of approximations to the impedance of a magnetoplasma capacitor are reviewed.

  12. Frequency scanning microstrip antenna (S-band)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandran, M.; Gupta, S. C.

    1983-10-01

    A frequency-scanning microstrip antenna using microstrip radiating resonators is described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. The experimental results in the S-band are in good agreement with the theory, showing that it is possible to scan the main lobe at an angle of + or - 30 deg by variation of frequency of + or - 125 MHz, where 3-dB beam width is less than 30 deg. Directivity of 12.8 dB and gain of 8.5 dB were observed.

  13. Antennas in plasmas - The problem of boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the difficulties associated with definition of appropriate boundary conditions for use in analyses of antennas and other structures immersed in plasmas. Distinctions may be made according to whether cold plasma, microscopic, or macroscopic theory is to be employed; whether the plasma is to be considered uniform or inhomogeneous, and whether or not there is a static magnetic field. The properties and limitations of these models, and the commonly-used boundary conditions of specular reflection and velocity diffusion (for opaque boundaries), and transparency (for grids or wires) are discussed. As a specific illustrative example, a series of approximations to the impedance of a magnetoplasma capacitor are reviewed.

  14. Paraboloidal Antenna Radiates Fan Or Pencil Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1989-01-01

    Shape of beam determined by type of feed. Theory and experiments show same paraboloidal antenna reflector used to radiate pencil beam or fan beam, depending on configuration of feed. Although pencil-shaped beam desirable in many applications, fan-shaped beam preferred in some scanning-radar and mapping-radar systems. Experiment performed with paraboloidal reflector having focal length of 48 in. (1.22 m) and diameter of 3.65 m. Shows fan beams generated in this way and not seriously distorted by feed offsets tested. Also shows because reflector in near field of feed, fan beam not necessarily focused by placing feed at focal plane.

  15. Small high directivity ferrite antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, T. M. B.

    A centimeter-wavelength antenna of millimetric dimensions, which uses the intrinsic angular sensitivity of ferrites, is described, with an emphasis on the modification of the material's permeability. The construction of both the ferrite film lens antenna and the ferrite film cassegrain antenna are detailed; both can be devised in a number of configurations for appropriate beam positioning and rf filtering. The antenna design, discussed primarily in the context of smart missiles, electronic warfare, and satellite systems, presents the possibility of magnetically switching between the transmit and receive modes within the antenna structure itself. Finally, it is noted that for a simple 2-dipole array the angular resolution can be two orders of magnitude higher than with the conventional techniques.

  16. Electrically connected resonant optical antennas.

    PubMed

    Prangsma, Jord C; Kern, Johannes; Knapp, Alexander G; Grossmann, Swen; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2012-08-08

    Electrically connected resonant optical antennas hold promise for the realization of highly efficient nanoscale electro-plasmonic devices that rely on a combination of electric fields and local near-field intensity enhancement. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a concept by attaching leads to the arms of a two-wire antenna at positions of minimal near-field intensity with negligible influence on the antenna resonance. White-light scattering experiments in accordance with simulations show that the optical tunability of connected antennas is fully retained. Analysis of the electric properties demonstrates that in the antenna gaps direct current (DC) electric fields of 10(8) V/m can consistently be achieved and maintained over extended periods of time without noticeable damage.

  17. Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators.

    PubMed

    Agio, Mario

    2012-02-07

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled us to fabricate sub-wavelength architectures that function as antennas for improving the exchange of optical energy with nanoscale matter. We describe the main features of optical antennas for enhancing quantum emitters and review the designs that increase the spontaneous emission rate by orders of magnitude from the ultraviolet up to the near-infrared spectral range. To further explore how optical antennas may lead to unprecedented regimes of light-matter interactions, we draw a relationship between metal nanoparticles, radio-wave antennas and optical resonators. Our analysis points out how optical antennas may function as nanoscale resonators and how these may offer unique opportunities with respect to state-of-the-art microcavities.

  18. Adaptive multibeam antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. I.

    1984-01-01

    An adaptive multibeam antenna array is considered which will enhance the advantages of a plain one. By providing simultaneous reception of signals from different directions and their sequential processing. The optimization of the array control for maximum interference suppression in the radiation pattern is emphasized. The optimum control is sought with respect to the signal-to-interference power ratio as a genaralized criterion. Sampled useful signals and transmission coefficients are found to be complex-conjugate quantities, assuming compatible formation of beams, so that synphasal equiamplitude addition of signals from all array element is attainable by unique settings of the weight factors. Calculations are simplified by letting the useful signal power in the 1-th beam be approximately equal to the k-th weight factor, before optimizing the weight vector for maximum signal-to-interference ratio. A narrowband interference described by power P and vector V of signal distribution over the array is considered as an example, to demonstrate the algorithm of synthesis. The algorithm, using the Butler matrix, was executed experimentally on a computer for a linear equidistant antenna array of 32 elements with compatible formation of beams.

  19. Transcatheter Microwave Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Dickey G. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  20. Soret Fishnet Metalens Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Orazbayev, Bakhtiyar; Beruete, Miguel; Pacheco-Peña, Víctor; Crespo, Gonzalo; Teniente, Jorge; Navarro-Cía, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    At the expense of frequency narrowing, binary amplitude-only diffractive optical elements emulate refractive lenses without the need of large profiles. Unfortunately, they also present larger Fresnel reflection loss than conventional lenses. This is usually tackled by implementing unattractive cumbersome designs. Here we demonstrate that simplicity is not at odds with performance and we show how the fishnet metamaterial can improve the radiation pattern of a Soret lens. The building block of this advanced Soret lens is the fishnet metamaterial operating in the near-zero refractive index regime with one of the edge layers designed with alternating opaque and transparent concentric rings made of subwavelength holes. The hybrid Soret fishnet metalens retains all the merits of classical Soret lenses such as low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing. It is designed for the W-band of the millimeter-waves range with a subwavelength focal length FL = 1.58 mm (0.5λ0) aiming at a compact antenna or radar systems. The focal properties of the lens along with its radiation characteristics in a lens antenna configuration have been studied numerically and confirmed experimentally, showing a gain improvement of ~2 dB with respect to a fishnet Soret lens without the fishnet metamaterial. PMID:25950243

  1. Transcatheter Microwave Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Dickey G. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  2. Variable-beamwidth monopulse antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The merits of nine methods for zooming microwave amplitude-sensing monopulse antenna patterns are discussed. Of these, six are directly related to the TDRSS (Tracking Data Relay Satellite System) and are compatible with a deployable-mesh pseudo-paraboloidal main reflector. The remaining three methods utilize radically different geometrical configurations that depart considerably from the TDRSS parameters existing at this time. Preservation of the monopulse postulates is considered to be of prime importance for any variable-beamwidth candidate, however, it is allowed that approximate satisfaction of the postulates should be accepted for practical reasons. All of the methods discussed admit free choice of the polarization state, and the zooming function is never predicated on polarization. Exploration of the zooming techniques was carried out almost entirely by means of the Kirchhoff-Kottler vector diffraction program. The program generates electric and magnetic field intensity, associated phase, and time-average Poynting vector power flow in the intermediate near-field and far-field zones in both receive and transmit modes of operation. A few of the concepts have been verified experimentally with excellent agreement between theory and practice.

  3. Microstrip antenna on tunable substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Mohanan, P.

    1995-05-01

    The tunable patch antenna configurations are becoming popular and attractive in many aspects. This was mainly due to the advent of ferrite thin film technology and tunable substrate materials. The integration of monolithic microwave circuits and antennas are becoming easy today. In the development of magnetic tuning of microstrip patch on ferrite substrate is presented by Rainville and Harackewiez. Radiation characteristics of such antennas are presented by Pozer. Band width and radiation characteristics of such tunable antennas are measured and compared. Usually the substrate losses are considered in the analysis and metallization losses are assumed to be ideal. The analysis of magnetic tunable radiator including metallization and ferrite substrate losses are presented. However, all such tuning and integration of circuits and antennas are mainly on ferrite substrate due to magnetic tuning. Recently, Varadan et al. established that the BaxSr1-xTiO3 series ferroelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) are well suited for microwave phase shifter applications. It could be possible to change the dielectric constant of these materials more than 50% depending on the BST composition, by changing the applied bias voltage. Also, the porosity of BST can be controlled during processing to produce dielectric constants in the range of 15 to 1500, with some trade off in tunability. In this paper, we are presenting the possibility of designing a microstrip patch antenna on such tunable substrate. Such antennas are having the major advantage of electronic tunability and compact size.

  4. Directive properties of antennas for transmission into a material half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. S.

    1984-03-01

    The directive properties of antennas for transmission into a material half-space are investigated. In a practical situation, the antennas might be located in air with the directive transmission into the earth. The field of a general antenna over the half-space is expressed as a spectrum of plane waves. The integrals representing the field are evaluated asymptotically to obtain the 'geometrical optics' field of the antenna, and this field is used to define quantities that describe the directive properties of the antenna (pattern function, gain, and directivity). Numerical results are presented for infinitesimal electric and magnetic horizontal dipole antennas in a dielectric half-space, region 1, with directive transmission into the adjacent dielectric half-space, region 2, and the ratio of permittivities epsilon-2/epsilon-1 greater than one. The theory for the infinitesimal dipoles completely explains the directive properties previously obtained for the resonant circular-loop antenna over a material half-space. Measured field patterns and gains for dipole and loop antennas near an interface between air and fresh water are in good agreement with the theory.

  5. Antenna sunshield membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogorad, Alexander (Inventor); Bowman, Jr., Charles K. (Inventor); Meder, Martin G. (Inventor); Dottore, Frank A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An RF-transparent sunshield membrane covers an antenna reflector such as a parabolic dish. The blanket includes a single dielectric sheet of polyimide film 1/2-mil thick. The surface of the film facing away from the reflector is coated with a transparent electrically conductive coating such as vapor-deposited indium-tin oxide. The surface of the film facing the reflector is reinforced by an adhesively attached polyester or glass mesh, which in turn is coated with a white paint. In a particular embodiment of the invention, polyurethane paint is used. In another embodiment of the invention, a layer of paint primer is applied to the mesh under a silicone paint, and the silicone paint is cured after application for several days at room temperature to enhance adhesion to the primer.

  6. Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    S77-E-5033 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped against a wall of grayish clouds. The view was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) and downlinked to flight controllers on the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  7. Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    S77-E-5022 (20 May 1996)--- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over clouds and water. The view was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) and downlinked to flight controllers on the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  8. Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    S77-E-5027 (20 May 1996)--- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over clouds and water. The view was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) and downlinked to flight controllers on the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  9. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-10

    STS077-705-004 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) portion of the Spartan 207 payload begins to inflate, backdropped against clouds over the Pacific Ocean. The view was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera during the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  10. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-10

    STS077-705-051 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour and its subsequent inflation process, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over mountains. The view was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera during the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  11. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-10

    STS077-705-012 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) portion of the Spartan 207 payload is backdropped over Earth as it continues its inflation process. The view was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera during the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  12. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-022 (20 May 1996) --- After leaving the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload goes through the final stages its inflation process, backdropped over clouds and blue water. The view was photographed with a large format still camera on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  13. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-010 (20 May 1996) --- Soon after leaving the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload goes through its inflation process, backdropped over clouds. The view was photographed with a large format still camera on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  14. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-044 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over the Grand Canyon. After the IAE completed its inflation process in free-flight, this view was photographed with a large format still camera. The activity came on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  15. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-10

    STS077-705-016 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) part of the Spartan 207 payload nears completion of its inflation process over California?s Pacific Coast near Santa Barbara and Point Conception. The view was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera during the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  16. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-094 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over the Mississippi River and metropolitan St. Louis. The metropolitan area lies just below the gold-colored Spartan at bottom of photo. The view was photographed with a large format still camera on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  17. Metal Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  18. L-band orthogonal-mode crossed-slot antenna and VHF crossed-loop antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, T.

    1972-01-01

    A low gain, circularly polarized, L-band antenna; a low gain, linealy polarized, L-band antenna; and a low gain, circularly polarized, upper hemisphere, VHF satellite communications antenna intended for airborne applications are described. The text includes impedance and antenna radiation pattern data, along with physical description of the construction of the antennas.

  19. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  20. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  1. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  2. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  3. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  4. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  5. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In addition, any MedRadio antenna used...

  7. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  9. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the...

  10. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  12. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  13. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  14. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  15. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  17. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the...

  18. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the...

  19. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  2. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna....

  3. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power...

  4. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In addition, any MedRadio antenna used...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  7. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  9. The collinear coaxial array antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, D. J.; Williams, D.

    1981-03-01

    A design of a coaxial vertical antenna proposed in the ARRL antenna handbook is analyzed. A numerical analysis was carried out using the moment method. A variety of antenna configurations in the 160 MHz design frequency are analyzed and current distribution, gain, polar diagrams and impedances are calculated. The analysis is carried out for simple configurations and extended to a case with 16 repeated center sections. The effects of using lossy cable in the construction is also investigated. A defect in the original ARRL design is rectified. An array of an overall length 5.33 wavelengths is shown to have a gain of 10.69 dB.

  10. Large inflated-antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, W. F.; Keafer, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that for inflatable antenna systems, technology feasibility can be demonstrated and parametric design and scalability (scale factor 10 to 20) can be validated with an experiment using a 16-m-diameter antenna attached to the Shuttle. The antenna configuration consists of a thin film cone and paraboloid held to proper shape by internal pressure and a self-rigidizing torus. The cone and paraboloid would be made using pie-shaped gores with the paraboloid being coated with aluminum to provide reflectivity. The torus would be constructed using an aluminum polyester composite that when inflated would erect to a smooth shell that can withstand loads without internal pressure.

  11. Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Twin-Axial Wire Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L, Bldg 102T...A An antenna includes a polymer coating having a VLF/LF element and an HF/VHF element embedded therein. A blocking choke is interposed between the...VLF/LF element and the antenna feed t block HF/VHF signals. Small chokes are regularly positioned on the VLF/LF element to eliminate resonances caused

  12. Smart antennas based on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrigo, Martino; Dragoman, Mircea; Dragoman, Daniela

    2014-09-21

    We report two configurations of smart graphene antennas, in which either the radiation pattern of the antenna or the backscattering of the periodic metallic arrays is controlled by DC biases that induce metal-insulator reversible transitions of graphene monolayers. Such a transition from a high surface resistance (no bias) to a low surface resistance state (finite bias voltage) causes the radiation pattern of metallic antennas backed with graphene to change dramatically, from omnidirectional to broadside. Moreover, reflectarrays enhance the backscattered field due to the same metal-dielectric transition.

  13. Kurs antenna on the Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-23

    ISS014-E-07953 (22 Nov. 2006) ---This photo shows the position of the KURS antennae on 23 Progress as seen by spacewalkers Michael Lopez-Alegria and Mikhail Tyurin during Russian EVA 17 on Nov. 22. During docking of the Progress to the International Space Station on Oct. 26, 2006, flight controllers were unable to confirm if the antenna had retracted as commanded. On the right-hand side of the photo, there is a visible clearance between the antennae's satellite dish and handrail 2745 on the ISS Service Module.

  14. Conical quadreflex antenna analytical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, P. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A method for evaluating the performance of a four-reflection or quadreflex antenna is reported. Geometrical optics was used initially to determine the ideal feed pattern required to produce uniform illumination on the aperture of the conical reflector and the reverse problem of quickly finding the aperture illumination given an arbitrary feed pattern. The knowledge of the aperture illumination makes it possible to compute the antenna efficiency, which is useful for comparing antenna performance during tradeoff studies. Scattering calculations, using physical optics techniques, were then used to more accurately determine the performance of a specific design.

  15. Moths smell with their antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  16. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  17. Intense terahertz antenna array with interdigital electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Shi, Wei; Xu, Ming; Chen, Yong

    2008-12-01

    In this work a powerful terahertz antenna array with interdigital electrodes is fabricated, and the performance of one antenna unit is compared with a conventional resonant dipole antenna. The antenna unit has a better capacity of generating THz wave compared with a conventional resonant dipole antenna at the same bias electrical field and the same laser energy. However only 23 % of THz wave transmitted through the ceramic substrate of antenna array, if there is a hole drilled through ceramic substrate to release the THz wave, the THz amplitude of entire interdigital antenna array with 8 antenna units can be more than 10 times larger than that of resonant dipole antenna. To get this result, the pump beam is focused into a linear beam by a cylindrical lens to trigger the antenna array, and the linear THz wave is focused by a polyethylene lens before it reaches ZnTe crystal.

  18. Attitude determination from single-antenna carrier-phase measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahder, Thomas B.

    2002-04-01

    A model of carrier phase measurement (as carried out by a satellite navigation receiver) is formulated based on electromagnetic theory. The model shows that the phase of the open-circuit voltage induced in the receiver antenna with respect to a local oscillator (in the receiver) depends on the relative orientation of the receiving and transmitting antennas. The model shows that using a single receiving antenna, and making carrier phase measurements to seven satellites, the three-axis attitude of a user platform (in addition to its position and time) can be computed relative to an initial point. This measurement model can also be used to create high-fidelity satellite signal simulators that take into account the effect of platform rotation as well as translation.

  19. Scattering Effects of Solar Panels on Space Station Antenna Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John C.; Hwu, Shian U.; Johnson, Larry A.; Elmore, James D.; Lu, Ba P.; Kelley, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Characterizing the scattering properties of the solar array panels is important in predicting Space Station antenna performance. A series of far-field, near-field, and radar cross section (RCS) scattering measurements were performed at S-Band and Ku-Band microwave frequencies on Space Station solar array panels. Based on investigation of the measured scattering patterns, the solar array panels exhibit similar scattering properties to that of the same size aluminum or copper panel mockup. As a first order approximation, and for worse case interference simulation, the solar array panels may be modeled using perfect reflecting plates. Numerical results obtained using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) modeling technique are presented for Space Station antenna pattern degradation due to solar panel interference. The computational and experimental techniques presented in this paper are applicable for antennas mounted on other platforms such as ship, aircraft, satellite, and space or land vehicle.

  20. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application.

  1. Secondary pattern computation of an offset reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Reflector antennas are widely used in communications satellite systems because they provide high gain at low cost. In analyzing reflector antennas the computation of the secondary pattern is the main concern. A computer program for calculating the secondary pattern of an offset reflector has been developed and implemented at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The theoretical foundation for this program is based on the use of geometrical optics to describe the fields from the feed to the reflector surface and to the aperture plane. The resulting aperture field distribution is then transformed to the far-field zone by the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Comparing this technique with other well-known techniques (the geometrical theory of diffraction, physical optics (Jacobi-Bessel), etc.) shows good agreement for large (diameter of 100 lambda or greater) reflector antennas.

  2. Scattering Effects of Solar Panels on Space Station Antenna Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John C.; Hwu, Shian U.; Johnson, Larry A.; Elmore, James D.; Lu, Ba P.; Kelley, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Characterizing the scattering properties of the solar array panels is important in predicting Space Station antenna performance. A series of far-field, near-field, and radar cross section (RCS) scattering measurements were performed at S-Band and Ku-Band microwave frequencies on Space Station solar array panels. Based on investigation of the measured scattering patterns, the solar array panels exhibit similar scattering properties to that of the same size aluminum or copper panel mockup. As a first order approximation, and for worse case interference simulation, the solar array panels may be modeled using perfect reflecting plates. Numerical results obtained using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) modeling technique are presented for Space Station antenna pattern degradation due to solar panel interference. The computational and experimental techniques presented in this paper are applicable for antennas mounted on other platforms such as ship, aircraft, satellite, and space or land vehicle.

  3. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  4. Measurements of AAFE RADSCAT antenna characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, A. E.; Jones, W. L., Jr.; Jones, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Antenna characteristics (active and passive) for a modified AAFE-RADSCAT parabolic dish antenna are documented for a variety of antenna configurations. The modified antenna was a replacement for the original unit which was damaged in January 1975. Pattern measurements made at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center are presented, with an analysis of the results. Antenna loss measurements are also presented and summarized.

  5. Simulation and analysis of airborne antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. J.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1984-12-01

    The objective is to develop an accurate and efficient analytic solution for predicting high frequency radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas. This is an analytic study of airborne antenna patterns using the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD). The aircraft is modeled in its most basic form so that the solution is applicable to general-type aircraft. The fuselage is modeled as a perfectly conducting composite ellipsoid; whereas, the wings, stabilizers, nose, fuel tanks, and engines, are simulated as perfectly conducting flat plates that can be attached to the fuselage and/or to each other. The composite-ellipsoid fuselage model is necessary to successfully simulate the wide variety of real world fuselage shapes. Since the antenna is mounted on the fuselage, it has a dominant effect on the resulting radiation pattern so it must be simulated accurately, especially near the antenna. Various radiation patterns are calculated for commercial, private, and military aircraft, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The application of this solution to numerous practical airborne antenna problems illustrates its versatility and design capability. In most cases, the solution accuracy is verified by the comparisons between the calculated and measured data.

  6. Simulation and analysis of airborne antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. J. G.

    An accurate and efficient analytic solution for predicting high frequency radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas is described. This is an analytic study of airborne antenna patterns using the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD). The aircraft is modelled in its most basic form so that the solution is applicable to general-type aircraft. The fuselage is modelled as a perfectly conducting composite ellipsoid; whereas, the wings, stabilizers, nose, fuel tanks, and engines, etc., are simulated as perfectly conducting flat plates that can be attached to the fuselage and/or to each other. The composite-ellipsoid fuselage model is necessary to successfully simulate the wide variety of real world fuselage shapes. Since the antenna is mounted on the fuselage, it has a dominant effect on the resulting radiation pattern so it must be simulated accurately, especially near the antenna. Various radiation patterns are calculated for commercial, private, and military aircraft, and the space shuttle Orbiter. The application of this solution to numerous practical airborne antenna problems illustrates its versatility and design capability. In most cases, the solution accuracy is verified by the comparisons between the calculated and measured data.

  7. A Laboratory Approximation of Whistler Mode Antenna Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. M. M.; Stenzel, R.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic loop antennas whose dipole moment, n, is oriented both along and across B0,are used to excite cw whistler modes in a large laboratory plasma for parameters ω ≈ 0.3 ωce « ωpe. These whistler "vortices" resemble m = 0 helicons in bounded plasmas when n parallel to B0 and m = 1 helicon modes when n is perpendicular to B0. Both dipole orientations produce conical phase fronts that cannot be directly compared to plane wave theories and are inclined at the Gendrin angle. The magnetic field topology exhibits evidence of linkage and helicity, whose sign is defined by propagation direction. The wave fields are force free. Using linear superposition, as demonstrated in Physics of Plasmas 7, 519-526 (2000), the measured fields are added in a variety of configurations to produce, for example, directional radiation patterns, whistler standing waves, and nearly plane whistler waves. The configurations are produced by adding the spatially and temporally shifted observed single-antenna magnetic field topology. The directional antenna configuration is shown to be more efficient than rotating field antennas. Whistler standing waves produce no perfect nodes and have wave polarizations varying spatially between linear and circular. Nearly plane whistler waves are created when the angle θ of wave propagation has been varied by a phase shift along an array of spatially separated antennas. These results are of interest to space and laboratory plasmas. (Work supported by DOE/NSF.)

  8. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4–2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mu~{\\rm l}/{\\rm MHz}$\\end{document} for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mu~{\\rm l}/{\\rm MHz}$\\end{document} sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring. PMID:27170865

  9. Simulation and analysis of airborne antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to develop an accurate and efficient analytic solution for predicting high frequency radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas. This is an analytic study of airborne antenna patterns using the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD). The aircraft is modeled in its most basic form so that the solution is applicable to general-type aircraft. The fuselage is modeled as a perfectly conducting composite ellipsoid; whereas, the wings, stabilizers, nose, fuel tanks, and engines, are simulated as perfectly conducting flat plates that can be attached to the fuselage and/or to each other. The composite-ellipsoid fuselage model is necessary to successfully simulate the wide variety of real world fuselage shapes. Since the antenna is mounted on the fuselage, it has a dominant effect on the resulting radiation pattern so it must be simulated accurately, especially near the antenna. Various radiation patterns are calculated for commercial, private, and military aircraft, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The application of this solution to numerous practical airborne antenna problems illustrates its versatility and design capability. In most cases, the solution accuracy is verified by the comparisons between the calculated and measured data.

  10. Planar microstrip YAGI antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, John

    1993-06-01

    A directional microstrip antenna includes a driven patch surrounded by an isolated reflector and one or more coplanar directors, all separated from a ground plane on the order of 0.1 wavelength or less to provide end fire beam directivity without requiring power dividers or phase shifters. The antenna may be driven at a feed point a distance from the center of the driven patch in accordance with conventional microstrip antenna design practices for H-plane coupled or horizontally polarized signals. The feed point for E-plane coupled or vertically polarized signals is at a greater distance from the center than the first distance. This feed point is also used for one of the feed signals for circularly polarized signals. The phase shift between signals applied to feed points for circularly polarized signals must be greater than the conventionally required 90 degrees and depends upon the antenna configuration.

  11. NASA Antenna Gets its Bearings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The historic "Mars antenna" at NASA's Deep Space Network site in Goldstone, Calif. has finished a major, delicate surgery that lasted seven months. The operation on the giant, 70-meter-wide (230-fo...

  12. Planar microstrip YAGI antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A directional microstrip antenna includes a driven patch surrounded by an isolated reflector and one or more coplanar directors, all separated from a ground plane on the order of 0.1 wavelength or less to provide end fire beam directivity without requiring power dividers or phase shifters. The antenna may be driven at a feed point a distance from the center of the driven patch in accordance with conventional microstrip antenna design practices for H-plane coupled or horizontally polarized signals. The feed point for E-plane coupled or vertically polarized signals is at a greater distance from the center than the first distance. This feed point is also used for one of the feed signals for circularly polarized signals. The phase shift between signals applied to feed points for circularly polarized signals must be greater than the conventionally required 90 degrees and depends upon the antenna configuration.

  13. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  14. Evolutionary optimization of optical antennas.

    PubMed

    Feichtner, Thorsten; Selig, Oleg; Kiunke, Markus; Hecht, Bert

    2012-09-21

    The design of nanoantennas has so far been mainly inspired by radio-frequency technology. However, the material properties and experimental settings need to be reconsidered at optical frequencies, which would entail the need for alternative optimal antenna designs. Here we subject a checkerboard-type, initially random array of gold cubes to evolutionary optimization. To illustrate the power of the approach, we demonstrate that by optimizing the near-field intensity enhancement, the evolutionary algorithm finds a new antenna geometry, essentially a split-ring-two-wire antenna hybrid that surpasses by far the performance of a conventional gap antenna by shifting the n=1 split-ring resonance into the optical regime.

  15. The new 34-meter antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    The new 34-m high efficiency Azimuth - Elevation antenna configuration, including its features, dynamic characteristics and performance at 8.4-GHz frequencies is described. The current-technology features of this antenna produce a highly reliable configuration by incorporation of a main wheel and track azimuth support, central pintle pivot bearing, close tolerance surface panels and all-welded construction. Also described are basic drive controls that, as slaved to three automatic microprocessors, provide accurate and safe control of the antenna's steering tasks. At this time antenna installations are completed at Goldstone and Canberra and have operationally supported the Voyager - Uranus encounter. A third installation is being constructed currently in Madrid and is scheduled for completion in late 1986.

  16. SIW Based Wideband Horn Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amit, Dr.; Vala, Alpesh; Goswami, Riddhi; Mahant, Keyur

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have proposed CSRR (complementary split ring resonator) loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) horn antenna. The whole system is designed on a single substrate, having advantages of small size, low profile, and low cost, etc. The design process and simulation results of a CSRR-loaded SIW horn antenna at K-band and Ka-band are presented. The proposed antenna is an outstanding choice for K, Ka bands and even higher frequency synthesis. It has well-behaved gain and suitable reflection coefficient value less than 1.5 (-10dB S11 and VSWR<1.5). The simulated gain of antenna attains 7.48±1dB over majority of the bandwidth and with radiation efficiency of 85%. The simulation has been done using full-wave package, High Frequency Structure Simulator Software (HFSS) based on Finite element method (FEM).

  17. Reflection-Zone-Plate Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, John M.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave antenna, based on reflection holography, designed and tested. Modified to produce arbitrary beam patterns by controlling relief pattern. Antenna planar or contoured to supporting structure. Low off-axis radar cross section at frequencies removed from operational frequency. Interference pattern produced by spherical wave intersecting plane wave consists of concentric circles similar to Newton's rings. Pattern identical to Fresnel zone plate, which has lens properties. Plane wave incident on hologram, or zone plate, focused to point.

  18. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOEpatents

    Reindel, John

    1990-01-01

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  19. Near Field Antenna Measurement System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-11

    programs in providing technical direction for many of the research and development programs In the microwave areas. While associated with the Antenna...Associations: Prior to joining Hughes, Mr. Hoiley worked on microwave antenna projects at the Naval Research Laboratory and special purpose computer equipment...Laboratory Communications and Rada r Division Education: BSEE and MSEE, Texa s A and M University Experience: 11 years at Hughe s Hug hes Positions: Mr. Lange

  20. Omnidirectional antenna for radar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitiello, R.

    The development of an omnidirectional antenna for sidelobe blanking is described. The results of electrical measurements for an S-band and L-band configuration are given. The antenna architecture consists of eight printed radiating elements arranged in a biconical fashion. The single radiating element is a pseudo log periodic microstrip array fed by means of capacitive coupling. Modularity and flexibility are the outstanding characteristics of the design.

  1. Trends in Array Antenna Research,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    is written: 81. Ruze, J. (1952) Physical Limitations on Antennas. MIT Research Lab . Electronics Tech. Rept. 248. 82. Miller, C. J. (19G4...MIT Radiation Lab ., Cambridge, MA, Hep 479. Ruze, J. (19f>5) Lateral feed displacement in a paraboloid, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation...field effects such U the use of a filter near small diffrating obstacles, and in the presence of fields with pseudo- random phase variations. The

  2. Antennas for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1991-01-01

    A NASA sponsored program, called the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system, has prompted the development of several innovative antennas at L-band frequencies. In the space segment of the MSAT system, an efficient, light weight, circularly polarized microstrip array that uses linearly polarized elements was developed as a multiple beam reflector feed system. In the ground segment, a low-cost, low-profile, and very efficient microstrip Yagi array was developed as a medium-gain mechanically steered vehicle antenna. Circularly shaped microstrip patches excited at higher-order modes were also developed as low-gain vehicle antennas. A more recent effort called for the development of a 20/30 GHz mobile terminal antenna for future-generation mobile satellite communications. To combat the high insertion loss encountered at 20/30 GHz, series-fed Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) microstrip array antennas are currently being developed. These MMIC arrays may lead to the development of several small but high-gain Ka-band antennas for the Personal Access Satellite Service planned for the 2000s.

  3. Antennas for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, John

    1991-12-01

    A NASA sponsored program, called the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system, has prompted the development of several innovative antennas at L-band frequencies. In the space segment of the MSAT system, an efficient, light weight, circularly polarized microstrip array that uses linearly polarized elements was developed as a multiple beam reflector feed system. In the ground segment, a low-cost, low-profile, and very efficient microstrip Yagi array was developed as a medium-gain mechanically steered vehicle antenna. Circularly shaped microstrip patches excited at higher-order modes were also developed as low-gain vehicle antennas. A more recent effort called for the development of a 20/30 GHz mobile terminal antenna for future-generation mobile satellite communications. To combat the high insertion loss encountered at 20/30 GHz, series-fed Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) microstrip array antennas are currently being developed. These MMIC arrays may lead to the development of several small but high-gain Ka-band antennas for the Personal Access Satellite Service planned for the 2000s.

  4. Dielectrically Loaded HTS Spiral Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, J.; Hanna, D.; Vlasov, Y. A.; Larkins, G. L.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work is to fabricate, test, and study a dielectrically loaded high temperature superconductor (HTS) spiral antenna that would operate in the frequency band of 10 MHz to 200 MHz. The antenna is formed by depositing and patterning a YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin film on top of 4-inch-diameter sapphire and Yittria Stabilized ZrO2 substrates. The presence of the HTS material guarantees low conductor loss in the antenna. A thick epitaxial layer of strontium titanate (STO) is then deposited on top of the YBCO for high dielectric constant loading. This set-up can be simulated using the Fidelity software routine, a Finite Difference Time Domain based program from Zeland, Inc. We have simulated the performance of this antenna structure, first in free space and then after loading with the dielectric slabs. Important parameters such as feed point impedance and antenna gain are studied for different simulation conditions. The dielectric ensures reduced feed point impedance as well as improvement of the low frequency response of the antenna.

  5. Electromagnetic antenna modeling (EAM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Malcolm; Powers, Robert; Tsitsopoulos, Paul

    1994-12-01

    The determination of foreign communications capabilities and intent is an important assessment function performed by the USAF National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC). In this context, Rome Laboratory became the NAIC engineering agent for the development of an NAIC requirement for the rapid analysis and evaluation of antenna structures based on often vague to sometimes detailed dimensional information. To this end, the Rome Laboratory sponsored development of the Electromagnetic Antenna Modeling (EAM) System, a state-of-the-art Pascal program with an MS Windows graphical user interface (GUI) pre- and post-processor. Users of NAIC capabilities initiate antenna analysis efforts that range from simple parametric studies to more complex, detailed antenna design and communication-system evaluations. Accordingly, EAM provides a modeling capability 'matched' to the sophistication of the individual analyst, with features appropriate for users ranging from nontechnical analysts to experienced antenna engineers. This capability is particularly valuable in the military-intelligence environment, in which high-speed assessments are required. In particular, EAM meets the specific antenna-analysis requirements of NAIC with a versatile graphical user interface.

  6. Millimeter-wave double-dipole antennas for high-gain integrated reflector illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovic, Daniel F.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-05-01

    A double-dipole antenna backed by a ground plane has been fabricated for submillimeter wavelengths. The double-dipole antenna is integrated on a thin dielectric membrane with a planar detector at its center. Measured feed patterns at 246 GHz agree well with theory and demonstrate a rotationally symmetric pattern with high coupling efficiency to Gaussian beams. The input impedance is around 50 ohms, and will match well to a Schottky diode or SIS detector. The double-dipole antenna served as the feed for a small machined parabolic reflector. The integrated reflector had a measured gain of 37 dB at 119 microns. This makes the double-dipole antenna ideally suited as a feed for high resolution tracking or for long focal length Cassegrain antenna systems.

  7. Coupling characteristics of the ITER relevant lower hybrid antenna in Tore Supra: experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preynas, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J. P.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.

    2011-12-01

    A new concept of lower hybrid antenna for current drive has been proposed for ITER [Bibet et al, Nuclear Fusion 1995]: the Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) antenna that relies on a periodic combination of active and passive waveguides. An actively cooled PAM antenna at 3.7 GHz has been recently installed on the tokamak Tore Supra. The paper summarizes the comprehensive experimental characterization of the linear coupling properties of the PAM antenna to the Tore Supra plasmas. These experimental results are systematically compared with the linear wave coupling theory via the linear ALOHA code. Good agreement between experimental results and ALOHA have been obtained. The detailed validation of the coupling modelling is an important step toward the validation of the PAM concept in view of further optimizing the electromagnetic properties of the future ITER antenna.

  8. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  9. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  10. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  11. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-129 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over the Atlantic Ocean and Hampton Roads, Virginia. (Hold photograph vertically with land mass at top.) Virginia Beach and part of Newport News can be delineated in the upper left quadrant of the frame. The view was photographed with a large format still camera on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  12. NASA technology for large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed by NASA in conjunction with industry for potential large, deployable space antennas with applications in communication, radio astronomy and earth observation is reviewed. Concepts for deployable antennas that have been developed to the point of detail design are summarized, including the advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna, the maypole (hoop/column) antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna. The assessment of state-of-the-art deployable antenna technology is discussed, and the approach taken by the NASA Large Space Systems Technology (LSST) Program to the development of technology for large space antenna systems is outlined. Finally, the further development of the wrap-rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) concept, which meet mission model requirements, to satisfy LSST size and frequency requirements is discussed.

  13. NASA technology for large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed by NASA in conjunction with industry for potential large, deployable space antennas with applications in communication, radio astronomy and earth observation is reviewed. Concepts for deployable antennas that have been developed to the point of detail design are summarized, including the advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna, the maypole (hoop/column) antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna. The assessment of state-of-the-art deployable antenna technology is discussed, and the approach taken by the NASA Large Space Systems Technology (LSST) Program to the development of technology for large space antenna systems is outlined. Finally, the further development of the wrap-rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) concept, which meet mission model requirements, to satisfy LSST size and frequency requirements is discussed.

  14. Design and synthesis of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array on Kapton substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges Rabobason, Yvon; Rigas, Grigorios; Swaisaenyakorn, Srijittar; Mirkhaydarov, Bobur; Ravelo, Blaise; Shkunov, Maxim; Young, Paul; Benjelloun, Nabil

    2016-06-01

    Flexible front- and back-end RF/analogue system antennas were recently emerged. However, little flexible antenna system design is available so far, in planar hybrid technology with surface mounted components. This paper describes the design feasibility of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array system. It acts as a switching antenna implemented in hexapole configuration. The system is comprised of a key element RF switch terminated by two identical patch antennas associated to half-wave elementary transmission lines (TLs). A detailed theory illustrating the global S-parameter model determination in function of the given RF-switch return and insertion losses is established. In difference to the conventional microwave circuit theory, the proposed equivalent S-parameter model is originally built with the non-standard optimized antenna load. Thus, the synthesis method of the terminal antenna input impedance and the output access line characteristic impedance is formulated in function of the specified return and optimal transmission losses. The design method and theoretical approach feasibility is verified with the demonstrator of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array printed on Kapton substrate. The circuit prototype is implemented in hybrid planar technology integrating patch antenna operating at about 6 GHz and a packaged GaAs RF switch associated to the RF/DC signal decoupling accessory mounted surface components. Simulations of the designed circuit transmission and isolation losses from 5.5 GHz to 7 GHz were carried out by using the commercial RF switch S-parameter touchstone model provided by the manufacturer. The simulated and measured return losses are compared and discussed. Then, the measured radiation patterns confirm the proposed switched antenna concept feasibility.

  15. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  16. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  17. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  18. E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

  19. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  20. Transmitter and receiver antenna gain analysis for laser radar and communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive and fairly self-contained study of centrally obscured optical transmitting and receiving antennas is presented and is intended for use by the laser radar and communication systems designer. The material is presented in a format which allows the rapid and accurate evaluation of antenna gain. The Fresnel approximation to scalar wave theory is reviewed and the antenna analysis proceeds in terms of the power gain. Conventional range equations may then be used to calculate the power budget. The transmitter calculations, resulting in near and far field antenna gain patterns, assumes the antenna is illuminated by a laser operating in the fundamental cavity mode. A simple equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn which display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the outgoing beam as a function of antenna size and central obscuration. The use of telescope defocusing as an approach to spreading the beam for target acquisition is compared to some alternate methods.

  1. Systems analysis for DSN microwave antenna holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed systems for Deep Space Network (DSN) microwave antenna holography are analyzed. Microwave holography, as applied to antennas, is a technique which utilizes the Fourier Transform relation between the complex far-field radiation pattern of an antenna and the complex aperture field distribution to provide a methodology for the analysis and evaluation of antenna performance. Resulting aperture phase and amplitude distribution data are used to precisely characterize various crucial performance parameters, including panel alignment, subreflector position, antenna aperture illumination, directivity at various frequencies, and gravity deformation. Microwave holographic analysis provides diagnostic capacity as well as being a powerful tool for evaluating antenna design specifications and their corresponding theoretical models.

  2. Imaging Antenna Structure For Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebeiz, G.; Rutledge, D.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated-circuit antenna structure contains two-dimensional array of antennas and antenna reflectors. In receiving mode, each antenna acts as part of detector for one picture element in millimeter- or submillimeter-wavelength imaging radar system. Millimeter-wave imaging system used to view objects through fog, smoke, or smog with resolution intermediate between microwave and visible-light imaging systems. Antenna elements, supports, and reflectors made by integrated-circuit techniques. Structures fabricated on front and back substrates separately. Substrates then joined. Inexpensive way to provide large number of small antenna elements required for imaging, all mounted rigidly in way that does not degrade operation.

  3. Microstrip antenna gain enhancement with metamaterial radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attachi, S.; Saleh, C.; Bouzouad, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a high gain patch antenna using multilayer FSS radome is proposed for millimeter-wave applications. The antenna operating frequency is 43.5 GHz. The antenna/radome system consists of one, two, three, or four layers of metasurfaces placed in the near-field region of a microstrip patch antenna. The antenna/radome system gain is improved by 9 dBi compared to the patch antenna alone, and the radiation pattern half-power beamwidth is reduces to 20° in both E- and H-planes.

  4. Satellite Communications with NRAO Green Bank Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, John M.; Ford, H. Alyson; Watts, Galen

    2014-11-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Green Bank facility has several medium and large antennas that are available for satellite communications. The 100 meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), the largest and most sensitive antenna on site, is capable of receiving signals at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. In addition to the GBT are the fully operational 43 meter, 20 meter, and 13.7 meter antennas, and three mothballed 26 meter antennas. A transmitter could be fitted to any of these antennas for spacecraft uplinks. We discuss the characteristics of these antennas and possible operational models for future planetary science mission support.

  5. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  7. A trajectory preprocessor for antenna pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    A trajectory-preprocessing algorithm has been devised which matches antenna angular position, velocity, and acceleration to those of a target. This eliminates vibrations of the antenna structure caused by discontinuities in velocity and acceleration commands, and improves antenna-pointing performance by constraining antenna motion to a linear regime. The algorithm permits faster acquisition times and preserves antenna-tracking capability in situations where there would otherwise be an unacceptably sudden change in antenna velocity or acceleration. A simulation of DSS 13 shows that this preprocessor would reduce servo error to 1 mdeg during acquisition of a low-Earth-orbiting satellite.

  8. Circular Waveguide Slotted Antenna with Inclined Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekretarov, S. S.; Vavriv, D. M.

    2009-03-01

    The novel design of a Ku-band circular waveguide slotted antenna is proposed. In contrast to standard antennas of this type, the main beam of the developed antenna is inclined from its surface normal by the value noticeably exceeding the beam width, which is necessary e.g. to reduce the radar cross section of the antenna in the direction towards an illuminated target. The design features of such antennas are considered. The practical desing of the antenna developed is presented along with the comparison of the simulation and experimental results.

  9. Multilayer Microstrip Slot And Dipole Array Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulintseff, Ann N.

    1994-01-01

    Multilayer antenna structure contains interleaved linear subarrays of microstrip dipole and slot radiating antenna elements to provide compact, dual-band antenna. Structure also contains associated microstrip transmission lines, plus high-power amplifiers for transmission and low-noise amplifiers for reception. Overall function is to transmit in horizontal polarization at frequency of 29.634 GHz and receive in vertical polarization at 19.914 GHz, in direction 44 degrees from broadside to antenna. Antenna structure is part of apparatus described in "Steerable K/Ka-band Antenna for Land-Mobile Satellite Applications," NPO-18772.

  10. DSS 43 antenna gain analysis for Voyager Uranus encounter: 8.45-GHz radio science data correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Imbriale, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    A malfunction of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter antenna in Australia forced the antenna to operate with a mispositioned subreflector during the Voyager Uranus encounter period (January 24, 1986). Because of changing main reflector shape and quadripod position as a function of elevation angle, the antenna gain and pointing were not as expected, and the 8.45 GHz received signal level changed during the pass. The study described here used the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) analysis to determine actual antenna gain and pointing during that period in an attempt to reconstruct the radio science data. It is found that the 1.4 dB of signal variation can be accounted for by antenna geometry changes and pointing error. Suggested modifications to the values measured during the pass are presented. Additionally, an extremely useful tool for the analysis of gravity deformed reflectors was developed for use in future antenna design and analysis projects.

  11. Information-Theoretic Limits on Broadband Multi-Antenna Systems in the Presence of Mutual Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taluja, Pawandeep Singh

    2011-12-01

    Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems have received considerable attention over the last decade due to their ability to provide high throughputs and mitigate multipath fading effects. While most of these benefits are obtained for ideal arrays with large separation between the antennas, practical devices are often constrained in physical dimensions. With smaller inter-element spacings, signal correlation and mutual coupling between the antennas start to degrade the system performance, thereby limiting the deployment of a large number of antennas. Various studies have proposed transceiver designs based on optimal matching networks to compensate for this loss. However, such networks are considered impractical due to their multiport structure and sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the system. In this dissertation, we investigate two aspects of compact transceiver design. First, we consider simpler architectures that exploit coupling between the antennas, and second, we establish information-theoretic limits of broadband communication systems with closely-spaced antennas. We begin with a receiver model of a diversity antenna selection system and propose novel strategies that make use of inactive elements by virtue of mutual coupling. We then examine the limits on the matching efficiency of a single antenna system using broadband matching theory. Next, we present an extension to this theory for coupled MIMO systems to elucidate the impact of coupling on the RF bandwidth of the system, and derive optimal transceiver designs. Lastly, we summarize the main findings of this dissertation and suggest open problems for future work.

  12. Antenna-load interactions at optical frequencies: impedance matching to quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Olmon, R L; Raschke, M B

    2012-11-09

    resonance, (ii) subsequent transformation of that mode into a nanoscale spatial localization, and (iii) near-field coupling via an enhanced local density of states to a quantum load. These three steps define the goal of efficient transformation of incident radiation into a quantum excitation in an impedance-matched fashion. We review the physical basis of the light-matter interaction at the transition from the RF to optical regime, discuss the extension of antenna theory as needed for the design of impedance-matched optical antenna-load coupled systems, and provide several examples of the state of the art in design strategies and suggest future extensions. We furthermore suggest new performance metrics based on the combination of electric vector field, field enhancement and capture cross section measurement to aid in comparison between different antenna designs and optimization of optical antenna performance within the physical parameter space.

  13. Antenna-load interactions at optical frequencies: impedance matching to quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmon, R. L.; Raschke, M. B.

    2012-11-01

    resonance, (ii) subsequent transformation of that mode into a nanoscale spatial localization, and (iii) near-field coupling via an enhanced local density of states to a quantum load. These three steps define the goal of efficient transformation of incident radiation into a quantum excitation in an impedance-matched fashion. We review the physical basis of the light-matter interaction at the transition from the RF to optical regime, discuss the extension of antenna theory as needed for the design of impedance-matched optical antenna-load coupled systems, and provide several examples of the state of the art in design strategies and suggest future extensions. We furthermore suggest new performance metrics based on the combination of electric vector field, field enhancement and capture cross section measurement to aid in comparison between different antenna designs and optimization of optical antenna performance within the physical parameter space.

  14. Study of an End-Fed Dipole Antenna Excited by a Rectangular Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhtiyarov, D. A.; Gorbachev, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of analysis of a dipole antenna fed via a rectangular waveguide and based on a recently proposed end-fed dipole. Both the radiation resistance and the complex input impedance of such an antenna are determined using the mirror image theory and the induced EMF method. The principles used for an optimal choice of the radius of the antenna conductors and the size of the wide wall of the waveguide are discussed. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is correct.

  15. Design Criteria and Numerical Simulation of an Antenna System for One Dimensional Limited Scan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-02

    Antenna System for One-Dimensional Limited Scan GIORGIO V. BORGIOTTI 2 December 1975 D D C n(_APR 6 ,976 iifi uteEinnsJlil V Approval for public...YSTEM FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL LIMITED SCAN. /,/ In Hi 01 * <’ il* _ ’ ..wji.li m ’ Giorgio V /yfeorgiotti I SSSSSS i THII n ijC i »m»mw-——mnaa...Idontlty AT Aloe* nummof) Limited scan arrays Antenna systems Phased arrays Antenna theory STRACT (Canlln> •vor«« aid* It nocoaoory and tdonnly br

  16. Reflection measurement of waveguide-injected high-power microwave antennas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chengwei; Peng, Shengren; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    A method for reflection measurements of High-power Microwave (HPM) antennas excited with overmoded waveguides is proposed and studied systemically. In theory, principle of the method is proposed and the data processing formulas are developed. In simulations, a horn antenna excited by a TE11 mode exciter is examined and its reflection is calculated by CST Microwave Studio and by the method proposed in this article, respectively. In experiments, reflection measurements of two HPM antennas are conducted, and the measured results are well consistent with the theoretical expectations.

  17. Characteristics of a Teflon Rod Antenna for Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Irradiation on Living Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsukawa, Toshiaki; Doi, Akitaka; Teranaka, Masato; Takashima, Hitoshi; Goda, Fuminori; Idehara, Toshitaka; Kanemaki, Tomohiro; Nishizawa, Seiji; Namba, Tunetoyo

    2003-11-01

    The development of a millimeter- and submillimeter-wave catheter for irradiation on living bodies using a Teflon rod dielectric antenna is described. The power sources of electromagnetic wave are an Impatt oscillator (90 GHz, 0.3 W) and a gyrotron (302 GHz, 30 W). Irradiation tests using various Teflon rod dielectric antennas were performed on cow livers, living rats and a cancerous tumor implanted in living mice. Irradiation results were considered by microwave theory and ray optics.

  18. Space shuttle engineering and operations support. Isolation between the S-band quad antenna and the S-band payload antenna. Engineering systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    The isolation between the upper S-band quad antenna and the S-band payload antenna on the shuttle orbiter is calculated using a combination of plane surface and curved surface theories along with worst case values. A minimum value of 60 db isolation is predicted based on recent antenna pattern data, antenna locations on the orbiter, curvature effects, dielectric covering effects and edge effects of the payload bay. The calculated value of 60 db is significantly greater than the baseline value of 40 db. Use of the new value will result in the design of smaller, lighter weight and less expensive filters for S-band transponder and the S-band payload interrogator.

  19. Compact Low Frequency Radio Antenna

    DOEpatents

    Punnoose, Ratish J.

    2008-11-11

    An antenna is disclosed that comprises a pair of conductive, orthogonal arches and a pair of conductive annular sector plates, wherein adjacent legs of each arch are fastened to one of the annular sector plates and the opposite adjacent pair of legs is fastened to the remaining annular sector plate. The entire antenna structure is spaced apart from a conductive ground plane by a thin dielectric medium. The antenna is driven by a feed conduit passing through the conductive ground plane and dielectric medium and attached to one of the annular sector plates, wherein the two orthogonal arched act as a pair of crossed dipole elements. This arrangement of elements provides a radiation pattern that is largely omni-directional above the horizon.

  20. Josephson Traveling-Wave Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurin, V. V.; Vdovicheva, N. K.; Shereshevskii, I. A.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of obtaining coherent radiation from systems with a great number of Josephson junctions, which is based on the concept of traveling-wave antennas. The traveling wave in a line ensures identity of the electrodynamic conditions, under which the junctions operate, whereas the energy leakage to radiation in the lateral direction prevents saturation of the nonlinearity of the individual junctions having a small dynamic range. Simple analytical models, which demonstrate feasibility of the traveling-wave regime, are considered. A code for direct numerical simulation of Josephson microchips including microantennas, lumped elements, and power supply circuits have been developed. Using the direct numerical simulation, a version of the Josephson antenna, which is similar to the simplest single-wire antenna, is studied and the possibility to realize the traveling-wave regime is demonstrated.

  1. Antenna Technology Shuttle Experiment (ATSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Mettler, E.; Miller, L. J.; Rahmet-Samii, Y.; Weber, W. J., III

    1987-01-01

    Numerous space applications of the future will require mesh deployable antennas of 15 m in diameter or greater for frequencies up to 20 GHz. These applications include mobile communications satellites, orbiting very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrophysics missions, and Earth remote sensing missions. A Lockheed wrap rip antennas was used as the test article. The experiments covered a broad range of structural, control, and RF discipline objectives, which is fulfilled in total, would greatly reduce the risk of employing these antenna systems in future space applications. It was concluded that a flight experiment of a relatively large mesh deployable reflector is achievable with no major technological or cost drivers. The test articles and the instrumentation are all within the state of the art and in most cases rely on proven flight hardware. Every effort was made to design the experiments for low cost.

  2. Kurs antenna on the Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-22

    ISS014-E-14451 (22 Feb. 2007) --- A close-up view of the Kurs antenna on the Progress vehicle docked to the International Space Station's Zvezda Service Module was photographed during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) on Feb. 22, 2007. During the 6-hour, 18-minute spacewalk, astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (out of frame), Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer; and cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin (out of frame), flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, were able to retract the stuck antenna which did not properly retract when the Progress docked to the station on Oct. 26, 2006. Moving the antenna was necessary to ensure it would not interfere with the undocking scheduled in April.

  3. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more » mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  4. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.

  5. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more » mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  6. Conformal Antennas and Integrated Design Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Conformal Antennas and Integrated Design Procedures Mauro Bandinelli, Aldo Citriniti , Antonio Guidoni IDS Ingegneria Dei Sistemi SpA Via Livornese...UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Bandinelli, M.; Citriniti , A.; Guidoni, A. (2006) Conformal Antennas and Integrated Design Procedures. In Multifunctional

  7. High-temperature superconductor antenna investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasack, Vincent G.

    1990-01-01

    The use of superconductors to increase antenna radiation efficiency and gain is examined. Although the gain of all normal-metal antennas can be increased through the use of superconductors, some structures have greater potential for practical improvement than others. Some structures suffer a great degradation in bandwidth when replaced with superconductors, while for others the improvement in efficiency is trivial due to the minimal contribution of the conductor loss mechanism to the total losses, or the already high efficiency of the structure. The following antennas and related structures are discussed: electrically small antennas, impedance matching of antennas, microstrip antennas, microwave and millimeter-wave antenna arrays, and superdirective arrays. The greatest potential practical improvements occur for large microwave and millimeter-wave arrays and the impedance matching of antennas.

  8. The Helios experiment 5 antenna mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Experiment 5 Antenna deployment problem onboard Helios A, the failure analysis, and changes in design, test, and operation which led to a successful deployment of both antennas during the early Helios B mission phase are described.

  9. High-temperature superconductor antenna investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasack, Vincent G.

    1990-10-01

    The use of superconductors to increase antenna radiation efficiency and gain is examined. Although the gain of all normal-metal antennas can be increased through the use of superconductors, some structures have greater potential for practical improvement than others. Some structures suffer a great degradation in bandwidth when replaced with superconductors, while for others the improvement in efficiency is trivial due to the minimal contribution of the conductor loss mechanism to the total losses, or the already high efficiency of the structure. The following antennas and related structures are discussed: electrically small antennas, impedance matching of antennas, microstrip antennas, microwave and millimeter-wave antenna arrays, and superdirective arrays. The greatest potential practical improvements occur for large microwave and millimeter-wave arrays and the impedance matching of antennas.

  10. High-temperature superconductor antenna investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasack, Vincent G.

    1990-01-01

    The use of superconductors to increase antenna radiation efficiency and gain is examined. Although the gain of all normal-metal antennas can be increased through the use of superconductors, some structures have greater potential for practical improvement than others. Some structures suffer a great degradation in bandwidth when replaced with superconductors, while for others the improvement in efficiency is trivial due to the minimal contribution of the conductor loss mechanism to the total losses, or the already high efficiency of the structure. The following antennas and related structures are discussed: electrically small antennas, impedance matching of antennas, microstrip antennas, microwave and millimeter-wave antenna arrays, and superdirective arrays. The greatest potential practical improvements occur for large microwave and millimeter-wave arrays and the impedance matching of antennas.

  11. Computer modeling of tactical high frequency antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Bobby G., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to compare the performance of three tactical high frequency antennas to be used as possible replacement for the Tactical Data Communications Central (TDCC) antennas. The antennas were modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code, Version 3 (NEC3), and the Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program (PAT7) for several different frequencies and ground conditions. The performance was evaluated by comparing gain at the desired takeoff angles, the voltage standing wave ratio of each antenna, and its omni-directional capability. The buried antenna models, the ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole, were most effective when employed over poor ground conditions. The best performance under all conditions tested was demonstrated by the HT-20T. Each of these antennas have tactical advantages and disadvantages and can optimize communications under certain conditions. The selection of the best antenna is situation dependent. An experimental test of these models is recommended to verify the modeling results.

  12. Wrap-rib antenna concept development overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, A. A., Jr.; Garcia, N. F.

    1983-01-01

    The wrap rib antenna design of a parabolic reflector large space antenna is discussed. Cost estimates, design/mission compatibility, deployment sequence, ground based tests, and fabrication are discussed.

  13. Integrated resonant tunneling diode based antenna

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Tiggers, Chris P.; Plut, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An antenna comprising a plurality of negative resistance devices and a method for making same comprising employing a removable standoff layer to form the gap between the microstrip antenna metal and the bottom contact layer.

  14. A Study of Microstrip Antennas for Multiple Band and High Frequency Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    34 Report No. RADC-TR-81-98. [61 Desoer , Charles A. and Ernest S. Kuh, " Basic Circuit Theory ," 1969 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. 4" 111-12 p. LIST OF FIGURES...improvement in the future. Throughout this report a basic understanding of phased array theory and terminology is assumed. As mentioned above, many excellent...Y. T. Lo, W. F. Richards, P. Simon, and D. D. Harrison, " Theory and Applications for Microstrip Antennas," Proceedings of the Printed Circuit Antenna

  15. Large Space Antenna Systems Technology, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, W. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers are presented which provide a comprehensive review of space missions requiring large antenna systems and of the status of key technologies required to enable these missions. Topic areas include mission applications for large space antenna systems, large space antenna structural systems, materials and structures technology, structural dynamics and control technology, electromagnetics technology, large space antenna systems and the space station, and flight test and evaluation.

  16. Optical antenna for photofunctional molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Uosaki, Kohei

    2012-02-06

    Optical antennas can enhance the efficiency of photon-molecule interactions. To design efficient antenna structures, it is essential to consider physicochemical aspects in addition to electromagnetic considerations. Specifically, chemical interactions between optical antennas and molecules have to be controlled to enhance the overall efficiency. For this purpose, sphere-plane nanostructures are suitable optical antennas for molecular-modified functional electrode systems when a well-defined electrode is utilized as a platform.

  17. Automatic Phase-Compensation Modules For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terry, John D.; Kunath, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Automatic amplitude-controlling and phase-shifting modules developed in order to adaptively compensate for distortions in reflectors of microwave communication antennas. Antenna of type in question includes phased array of radiating antenna elements in focal plane of off-axis paraboloidal or similar reflector. Module lies on path of radio-frequency feed between each antenna element and radio-frequency transmitting/receiving equipment.

  18. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form n output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated.

  19. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  20. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1991-05-28

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form an output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated. 6 figures.

  1. High-gain Antenna & Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    Areas of rocky Martian terrain are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 2. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are at lower left. The dark disk at center is the high-gain antenna, and the silver cylindrical objects at upper right are part of the antenna's mechanism. An area of relatively smooth terrain is seen at upper right, which may offer clues to how this area was formed, and may be a future target for Sojourner's studies. The black area at lower right and small strip at top center is missing data. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00625

  2. Antenna reconfiguration verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor); Carlson, Douglas R. (Inventor); Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of testing the electrical functionality of an optically controlled switch in a reconfigurable antenna is provided. The method includes configuring one or more conductive paths between one or more feed points and one or more test point with switches in the reconfigurable antenna. Applying one or more test signals to the one or more feed points. Monitoring the one or more test points in response to the one or more test signals and determining the functionality of the switch based upon the monitoring of the one or more test points.

  3. Microstrip Patch Antenna And Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a microstrip feeder structure for supplying properly phased signals to each radiator element in a microstrip antenna array that may be utilized for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves. In one disclosed embodiment. the microstrip feeder structure includes a plurality of microstrip sections many or all of which preferably have an electrical length substantially equal to one-quarter wavelength at the antenna operating frequency. The feeder structure provides a low loss feed structure that may be duplicated multiple times through a set of rotations and translations to provide a radiating array of the desired size.

  4. Pattern measurements of a low-sidelobe horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Gulkis, S.; Bednarczyk, S. M.; Marlin, H. W.; Smoot, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and results of power pattern measurements of a corrugated horn antenna designed for low sidelobes are reported. The power pattern was measured to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum in both the E- and H-planes. The measured patterns were found to be in good agreement with predictions from existing theory for the performance of corrugated scalar feeds.

  5. The Helicopter Antenna Radiation Prediction Code (HARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klevenow, F. T.; Lynch, B. G.; Newman, E. H.; Rojas, R. G.; Scheick, J. T.; Shamansky, H. T.; Sze, K. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first nine months effort in the development of a user oriented computer code, referred to as the HARP code, for analyzing the radiation from helicopter antennas is described. The HARP code uses modern computer graphics to aid in the description and display of the helicopter geometry. At low frequencies the helicopter is modeled by polygonal plates, and the method of moments is used to compute the desired patterns. At high frequencies the helicopter is modeled by a composite ellipsoid and flat plates, and computations are made using the geometrical theory of diffraction. The HARP code will provide a user friendly interface, employing modern computer graphics, to aid the user to describe the helicopter geometry, select the method of computation, construct the desired high or low frequency model, and display the results.

  6. Airborne antenna radiation pattern code user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Walter D.; Kim, Jacob J.; Grandchamp, Brett; Rojas, Roberto G.; Law, Philip

    1985-01-01

    The use of a newly developed computer code to analyze the radiation patterns of antennas mounted on a ellipsoid and in the presence of a set of finite flat plates is described. It is shown how the code allows the user to simulate a wide variety of complex electromagnetic radiation problems using the ellipsoid/plates model. The code has the capacity of calculating radiation patterns around an arbitrary conical cut specified by the user. The organization of the code, definition of input and output data, and numerous practical examples are also presented. The analysis is based on the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD), and most of the computed patterns are compared with experimental results to show the accuracy of this solution.

  7. Coupling characteristics of the ITER-relevant lower hybrid antenna in Tore Supra: experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preynas, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J. P.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Achard, J.; Berger-By, G.; Belo, J.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Ohsako, T.; Prou, M.

    2011-02-01

    A new concept of lower hybrid antenna for current drive has been proposed for ITER (Bibet et al 1995 Nucl. Fusion 35 1213-23): the passive active multijunction (PAM) antenna that relies on a periodic combination of active and passive waveguides. An actively cooled PAM antenna at 3.7 GHz has recently been installed on the tokamak Tore Supra. This paper summarizes the comprehensive experimental characterization of the coupling properties of the PAM antenna to the Tore Supra plasmas. In this paper, the electromagnetic properties of the antenna are measured at a reduced power (<1 MW) to allow a systematic comparison with linear wave coupling theory and the associated modelling based on the linear ALOHA code. In a wide range of edge electron densities at the antenna aperture (spanning a factor 20 from 0.5 × nc to 10 × nc where nc is the slow wave density cut-off, nc = 1.7 × 1017 m-3 at 3.7 GHz) and antenna phasing, the ALOHA simulations reproduce the experimental results observed on Tore Supra. In addition, reduced power reflection coefficients (<5%) are measured at a low edge density, close to nc, i.e. in the range 0.5-3 × nc. Measurement and analysis with ALOHA of the antenna-plasma scattering matrices provide explanation of the good coupling properties of the PAM antenna close to nc by highlighting the crucial role of the slow wave intercoupling between active and passive waveguides through the plasma edge. This detailed validation of the coupling modelling is an important step towards the validation of the PAM concept in view of further optimizing the electromagnetic properties of the future ITER antenna.

  8. Microwave performance characterization of large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathker, D. A. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Performance capabilities of large microwave space antenna configurations with apertures generally from 100 wavelengths upwards are discussed. Types of antennas considered include: phased arrays, lenses, reflectors, and hybrid combinations of phased arrays with reflectors or lenses. The performance characteristics of these broad classes of antennas are examined and compared in terms of applications.

  9. New Concepts in Electromagnetic Materials and Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2014-0233 NEW CONCEPTS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC MATERIALS AND ANTENNAS Jeffrey Allen, Naftali Herscovici, Brad Kramer, and...Bae-Ian Wu Antennas & Electromagnetics Technology Branch Multispectral Sensing & Detection Division JANUARY 2015 Final Report...Signature// //Signature// BRADLEY A. KRAMER, Program Manager TONY C. KIM, Branch Chief Antenna & Electromagnetic Technology

  10. Slotted Antenna with Uniaxial Dielectric Covering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-08

    1 of 12 SLOTTED ANTENNA WITH UNIAXIAL DIELECTRIC COVERING STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be...therefor. CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present... invention is directed to a slotted antenna having enhanced broadband characteristics. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] Slotted cylinder antennas

  11. Predictive Algorithm For Aiming An Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek K.

    1993-01-01

    Method of computing control signals to aim antenna based on predictive control-and-estimation algorithm that takes advantage of control inputs. Conceived for controlling antenna in tracking spacecraft and celestial objects, near-future trajectories of which are known. Also useful in enhancing aiming performances of other antennas and instruments that track objects that move along fairly well known paths.

  12. Circular polarisation characteristics of stacked microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Talty, T.; Lee, K. F.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental results on the circular polarization (CP) characteristics of a two-layer electromagnetically coupled (EMCP) antenna are presented. Compared to the single CP patch antenna, the two-layer EMCP antenna with proper spacings can provide better axial ratio and directivity.

  13. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations must... polarization of each transmitted signal. (iii) Licensees shall comply with the antenna standards table shown in..., 1981, may continue to use its existing antenna system, subject to periodic renewal until April 1, 1992...

  14. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations must... polarization of each transmitted signal. (iii) Licensees shall comply with the antenna standards table shown in..., 1981, may continue to use its existing antenna system, subject to periodic renewal until April 1, 1992...

  15. Coplanar waveguide feed for microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.; Williams, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) loop is shown to be an effective low VSWR feed for microstrip antennas. The low VSWR transition between the CPW and the antenna is obtained without the use of a matching circuit, and it is relatively insensitive to the position of the antenna and the feed.

  16. Antenna Construction and Propagation of Radio Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on antenna construction and propagation of radio waves is designed to provide communicators with instructions in the selection and/or construction of the proper antenna(s) for use with current field radio equipment. Introductory materials include…

  17. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... repairs of the defective instrument. (d) If an authorized antenna monitor is replaced by another antenna..., antenna monitor phase and current indications, and the field strength at each monitoring point. (3) With the new monitor substituted for the old, all indications specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section...

  18. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 54432... authorized under the rules of this part must employ a directional antenna adjusted with the center of...

  19. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet...

  20. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 55733, Sept. 11, 2012. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured...

  1. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  2. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  3. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet...

  4. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Except for the 2390-2400 MHz band, no antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use....

  5. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  6. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations...

  7. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  9. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  10. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service....

  11. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  12. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  13. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  14. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  15. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area....

  16. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  17. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements....

  18. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet...

  19. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  20. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  1. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements....

  2. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  3. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements....

  4. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  6. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations...

  7. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements....

  8. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  9. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed...

  10. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area....

  11. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  12. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  13. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service....

  14. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  15. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Except for the 2390-2400 MHz band, no antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use....

  16. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service....

  17. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service....

  18. Small X-Band Oscillator Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Miranda, Felix A.; Clark, Eric B.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    A small, segmented microstrip patch antenna integrated with an X-band feedback oscillator on a high-permittivity substrate has been built and tested. This oscillator antenna is a prototype for demonstrating the feasibility of such devices as compact, low-power-consumption building blocks of advanced, lightweight, phased antenna arrays that would generate steerable beams for communication and remotesensing applications.

  19. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet...

  20. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  1. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service....

  2. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  3. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  4. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet...

  5. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  6. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area....

  7. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  8. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations...

  9. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements....

  10. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed...

  11. Wireless link design using a patch antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E

    2000-08-11

    A wireless link was designed using a patch antenna. In the process, several different models were tested. Testing proved a patch antenna was a viable solution for building a wireless link within the design specifications. Also, this experimentation provided a basis for future patch antenna design.

  12. Research on Radiation Characteristic of Plasma Antenna through FDTD Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianming; Fang, Jingjing; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The radiation characteristic of plasma antenna is investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach in this paper. Through using FDTD method, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in free space in stretched coordinate. And the iterative equations of Maxwell equation are derived. In order to validate the correctness of this method, we simulate the process of electromagnetic wave propagating in free space. Results show that electromagnetic wave spreads out around the signal source and can be absorbed by the perfectly matched layer (PML). Otherwise, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in plasma by using the Boltzmann-Maxwell theory. In order to verify this theory, the whole process of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma under one-dimension case is simulated. Results show that Boltzmann-Maxwell theory can be used to explain the phenomenon of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma. Finally, the two-dimensional simulation model of plasma antenna is established under the cylindrical coordinate. And the near-field and far-field radiation pattern of plasma antenna are obtained. The experiments show that the variation of electron density can introduce the change of radiation characteristic. PMID:25114961

  13. Research on radiation characteristic of plasma antenna through FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianming; Fang, Jingjing; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The radiation characteristic of plasma antenna is investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach in this paper. Through using FDTD method, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in free space in stretched coordinate. And the iterative equations of Maxwell equation are derived. In order to validate the correctness of this method, we simulate the process of electromagnetic wave propagating in free space. Results show that electromagnetic wave spreads out around the signal source and can be absorbed by the perfectly matched layer (PML). Otherwise, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in plasma by using the Boltzmann-Maxwell theory. In order to verify this theory, the whole process of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma under one-dimension case is simulated. Results show that Boltzmann-Maxwell theory can be used to explain the phenomenon of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma. Finally, the two-dimensional simulation model of plasma antenna is established under the cylindrical coordinate. And the near-field and far-field radiation pattern of plasma antenna are obtained. The experiments show that the variation of electron density can introduce the change of radiation characteristic.

  14. Analysis of a high power microwave radial line slot antenna.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengren; Yuan, Chengwei; Shu, Ting

    2013-07-01

    A traditional radial line slot antenna (RLSA) is a high gain planar array. To improve the power handling capacity, we design a radial line slow wave structure which replaces a traditional dielectric sheet in the radial waveguide of the traditional RLSA. This high power microwave (HPM) RLSA is fed from a double-layered radial line waveguide to realize the directional radiation of the microwave. However, the track of the widen slot array on the upper waveguide could cause large reflection, which disturbs the normal antenna operation, accordingly a reflection canceling slot is added to the lower waveguide, the key technology employed in the design of the HPM RLSA and the antenna return-loss is effectively improved. This article mainly gives the design theory of this antenna, which is confirmed by the simulations and experiments. At 9.4 GHz, the calculated aperture efficiency reaches more than 40%, the reflectance is less than 0.1, the radiation efficiency is more than 99% and its measured power-handling capacity exceeds 700 MW.

  15. Waveguide-fed optical hybrid plasmonic patch nano-antenna.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Leila; Foster, Amy C

    2012-07-30

    We propose a novel optical hybrid plasmonic patch nano-antenna for operation at the standard telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. The nano-antenna is designed to be compatible with a hybrid plasmonic waveguide through matching of both the operational mode and the wave impedance. The antenna is designed to receive the optical signal from a planar waveguide and redirect the signal out of plane, and is therefore useful for inter- or intra-chip optical communications and sensing. The transmission line model in conjunction with surface plasmon theory is used to develop analytical formulas for design and analysis, and a 3-dimensional full-wave numerical method is used to validate the design. The proposed device provides a bandwidth of more than 15 THz, a gain of 5.6 dB, and an efficiency of 87%. Furthermore, by designing an 8 × 8 array of the proposed antenna, a directivity of 20 dBi and steering of the beam angle are achieved by controlling the relative phase shift between elements of the array.

  16. The Antenna Bride and Bridegroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    ALMA Achieves Major Milestone With Antenna-Link Success The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project, reached a major milestone on 2 March, when two 12-m ALMA prototype antennas were first linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object. "This achievement results from the integration of many state-of-the-art components from Europe and North America and bodes well for the success of ALMA in Chile", said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. ESO PR Photo 10/07 ESO PR Photo 10/07 The Prototype Antennas The milestone achievement, technically termed 'First Fringes', came at the ALMA Test Facility (ATF), located near Socorro in New Mexico. Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Saturn were collected by two ALMA prototype antennas, then processed by new, high-tech electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. The planet's radio emissions at a frequency of 104 gigahertz were tracked by the ALMA system for more than an hour. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of the multi-antenna imaging system ALMA. In such a system, the signals recorded by each antenna are electronically combined with the signals of every other antenna to form a multitude of pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed in the year 2012, ALMA will have 66 antennas. "Our congratulations go to the dedicated team of scientists, engineers and technicians who produced this groundbreaking achievement for ALMA. Much hard work and many long hours went into this effort, and we appreciate it all. This team should be very proud today," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. "With this milestone behind us, we now can proceed with increased confidence toward completing ALMA," he added. ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of

  17. Antenna surface contour control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahl, Elvin L. (Inventor); Miller, James B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a system for automatically controlling the surface contour of a deployable and restowable antenna having a mesh reflector surface supported by a circular, folding hoop affixed to a central, telescoping column. The antenna, when deployed, forms a quad-aperture reflector with each quadrant of the mesh surface shaped to provide an offset parabolic radio frequency (RF) reflector. The hoop is supported and positioned by quartz support cords attached to the top of a column and by lower graphite hoop control cords that extend between the hoop and base of the column. The antenna, an RF reflective surface, is a gold plated molybdenum wire mesh supported on a graphite cord truss structure that includes the hoop control cords and a plurality of surface control cords attached at selected points on the surface and to the base of the column. The contour of the three-dimensional surface of the antenna is controlled by selectively adjusting the lengths of the surface control cords and the graphite hoop control cords by means of novel actuator assemblies that automatically sense and change the lengths of the lower hoop control cords and surface control cords.

  18. RF/Optical Hybrid Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrez, T. M.

    2015-05-01

    This article details analyses performed on several variations of a proposed radio frequency (RF)/optical hybrid antenna. The goal was to determine the structural impact of adding an assembly of optical mirrors to the antenna; stresses in the structural members and reflector surface deformation were used to assess this impact. The results showed that the structure could handle the added assembly, and the surface RMS increased, as expected, with larger increases seen as the antenna translates in elevation from the rigging angle of 45 deg (a predetermined location chosen to optimize panel settings during installation). In addition, actuators are located behind each optical mirror to reoptimize the mirror positions after they deflect due to the antenna being tipped in elevation. The necessary actuator motion was calculated for each mirror for a range of elevation angles, and it was found that the required motions are achievable by commonly used actuators. Resonant frequency analysis was also performed on the quadripod and tripod (for DSS-13 at Goldstone) to determine the effect that adding optical components on the apex has on the structure and its first mode; it was found that the impact is minimal to both the stresses seen in the structure and its first mode.

  19. GPS antenna multipath rejection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinius, A. M.

    1995-08-01

    A GPS antenna multipath rejection performance evaluation was conducted. Ground reference station antennas and aviation patches were tested for their ability to reject a multipath signal. Different types of ground plane structures were used such as choke rings, ground planes, and mock sections of fuselage. Frequencies transmitted were L1 (1575 MHz), L2 (1227 MHz), and the median GLONASS frequency (1609 MHz). Receive amplitude and phase were measured on each antenna. Subsequently, these data were converted to absolute gain for a right hand and left hand circularly polarized signal as a function of satellite elevation angle. Two types of multipath signals were considered: ground bounce multipath and building or structure bounce multipath. Ground bounce multipath typically occurs at low satellite elevation angles while structure bounce multipath can occur at any satellite elevation angle. Separate analysis methods were used to assess an antenna's ability to reject either type of multipath. This report describes the data collection methods, data reduction and analysis, and the results.

  20. High-directivity acoustic antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Sum, H. M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Acoustic antenna with unique electronic steering control is used to identify and define aerodynamic noise sources in free field, particularly in wind tunnel which is quite reverberant. Provision is made for high directivity as well as improved discrimination against unwanted background noise such as reverberation or echoes.

  1. Photogrammetry Of A Parabolic Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, W. D.; Lansing, F. L.; Stoller, F. W.; Lobb, V. B.

    1988-01-01

    Surface measured with accuracy better than 10 to the negative fifth power times diameter. Report describes use of advanced close-range photogrammetry to determine deviations of 34-m-diameter antenna main reflector and subreflector from nominal paraboloidal shapes. Measurements enable removal of linear offsets and angular misalignments of subreflector, with consequent increase of 4 percent in aperture efficiency.

  2. Error margin for antenna gain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, V.

    2002-01-01

    The specification of measured antenna gain is incomplete without knowing the error of the measurement. Also, unless gain is measured many times for a single antenna or over many identical antennas, the uncertainty or error in a single measurement is only an estimate. In this paper, we will examine in detail a typical error budget for common antenna gain measurements. We will also compute the gain uncertainty for a specific UHF horn test that was recently performed on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) antenna range. The paper concludes with comments on these results and how they compare with the 'unofficial' JPL range standard of +/- ?.

  3. Phased array antenna for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Shayla E.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a distributed phased array antenna at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center as a possible upgrade for the Space Shuttle Orbiter S-band phase modulation communications system. The antenna consists of an eight-element transmit section, eight-element receive section, and a single L-band receive element. The antenna design is constrained by the existing Orbiter system and space environment. The solution to the interface design problems led to an antenna system which provides improved link margins and yet supports previous operational configurations. This paper describes the system development, antenna hardware, and the interface consideration which led to the final design.

  4. Compact antennas for lower hybrid wave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, S.; Takamura, S.; Okuda, T.

    1981-01-01

    A T-shaped antenna loaded with alumina was designed and constructed for lower hybrid wave heating of toroidal plasmas. The theoretical power spectra showed that a T-shaped antenna can be used for both ion and electron heating, and the accuracy of the calculation was verified by measuring the antenna's impedance. The dependence of the impedance on the power fed to the antenna was also investigated, and it was found that the RF pressure affected the coupling between the antenna and the plasma.

  5. Antenna pattern control using impedance surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of a moment method code for the analysis of horn antennas was accomplished. The code can analyze the antenna with or without lossy material coatings. It predicts the antenna gain, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) on the feeding waveguide, the existing modes on the radiating aperture, and radiation patterns of the antenna. Many computations were performed on three pyramidal horn antennas, and their radiation and VSWR's are presented and compared with experimental data. Although the code is still being finalized, some discussions on using the code are included.

  6. Low Cost Large Space Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.; Freeland, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The mobile communication community could significantly benefit from the availability of low-cost, large space-deployable antennas. A new class of space structures, called inflatable deployable structures, will become an option for this industry in the near future. This new technology recently made significant progress with respect to reducing the risk of flying large inflatable structures in space. This progress can be attributed to the successful space flight of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment in May of 1996, which prompted the initiation of the NASA portion of the joint NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program, which will develop the technology to be used in future mobile communications antennas along with other users. The NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program was initiated in 1997 as a direct result of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment. The program adds a new NASA initiative to a substantial DOD program that involves developing a series of ground test hardware, starting with 3 meter diameter units and advancing the manufacturing techniques to fabricate a 25 meter ground demonstrator unit with surface accuracy exceeding the requirements for mobile communication applications. Simultaneously, the program will be advancing the state of the art in several important inflatable technology areas, such as developing rigidizable materials for struts and tori and investigating thin film technology issues, such as application of coatings, property measurement and materials processing and assembly techniques. A very important technology area being addressed by the program is deployment control techniques. The program will sponsor activities that will lead to understanding the effects of material strain energy release, residual air in the stowed structure, and the design of the launch restraint and release system needed to control deployment dynamics. Other technology areas directly applicable to developing inflatable mobile communication antennas in the near

  7. Non-Gimbaled Antenna Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, Jeannine S.

    1997-01-01

    The small satellite community has been interested in accessing fixed ground stations for means of space-to-ground transmissions, although a problem arises from the limited global coverage. There is a growing interest for using the Space Network (SN) or Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) as the primary support for communications because of the coverage it provides. This thesis will address the potential for satellite access of the Space Network with a non-gimbaled antenna configuration and low-power, coded transmission. The non-gimbaled antenna and the TDRS satellites, TDRS-East, TDRS-West, and TDRS-Zone of Exclusion, were configured in an orbital analysis software package called Satellite Tool Kit to emulate the three-dimensional position of the satellites. The access potential, which is the average number of contacts per day and the average time per contact, were obtained through simulations run over a 30-day period to gain all the possible orientations. The orbital altitude was varied from 600 km through 1200 km with the results being a function of orbital inclination angles varying from 20 deg through 100 deg and pointing half-angles of I0 deg through 40 deg. To compare the validity of the simulations, Jet Propulsion Laboratory granted the use of the TOPEX satellite. The TOPEX satellite was configured to emulate a spin-stabilized antenna with its communications antenna stowed in the zenith-pointing direction. This mimicked the antenna pointing spin-stabilized satellite in the simulations. To make valid comparisons, the TOPEX orbital parameters were entered into Satellite Tool Kit and simulated over five test times provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  8. A millimeter-wave integrated-circuit antenna based on the Fresnel zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouker, Mark A.; Smith, Glenn S.

    1992-05-01

    A moderate-gain, easily constructed, millimeter-wave IC antenna based on the Fresnel zone plate has been developed. The gain and beamwidth of the antenna can be varied by adjusting the diameter and focal length of the zone plate. A theory is developed which accurately predicts the on-axis gain, beamwidth, and sidelobe levels of antennas with zone-plate focal lengths greater than 8-9 lambda. Graphs are presented to aid in the design of other IC zone-plate antennas. The performance of the antenna without the reflector and lambda/4 spacer was investigated. The gain of the antenna with nothing behind the zone plate is found to approach that of the fully configured antenna with the lambda/4 spacer and reflector. The reflection from the open rings which is responsible for this phenomenon is enhanced as the dielectric constant of the substrate is increased. Thus, on substrates with high permittivity the reflector and lambda/4 spacer may not be necessary.

  9. The spectral shift between near- and far-field resonances of optical nano-antennas.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Christoph; Hebestreit, Erik; Mühlig, Stefan; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Burger, Sven; Lederer, Falk; Pertsch, Thomas

    2014-04-21

    Within the past several years a tremendous progress regarding optical nano-antennas could be witnessed. It is one purpose of optical nano-antennas to resonantly enhance light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, e.g. the interaction of an external illumination with molecules. In this specific, but in almost all schemes that take advantage of resonantly enhanced electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of nano-antennas, the precise knowledge of the spectral position of resonances is of paramount importance to fully exploit their beneficial effects. Thus far, however, many nano-antennas were only optimized with respect to their far-field characteristics, i.e. in terms of their scattering or extinction cross sections. Although being an emerging feature in many numerical simulations, it was only recently fully appreciated that there exists a subtle but very important difference in the spectral position of resonances in the near-and the far-field. With the purpose to quantify this shift, Zuloaga et al. suggested a Lorentzian model to estimate the resonance shift. Here, we devise on fully analytical grounds a strategy to predict the resonance in the near-field directly from that in the far-field and disclose that the issue is involved and multifaceted, in general. We outline the limitations of our theory if more sophisticated optical nano-antennas are considered where higher order multipolar contributions and higher order antenna resonances become increasingly important. Both aspects are highlighted by numerically studying relevant nano-antennas.

  10. Optical slot antenna and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonsang; Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Park, Q.-Han

    2017-02-01

    We present an optical slot antenna and its application. By measuring transmission spectra and far-field radiation pattern of metallic slots with nanometer scale, we show that a metallic nanoslot has the properties of an antenna, which are resonance, polarization, and bidirectional far-field radiation pattern, and can be regarded as a magnetic dipole in optical region. Additionally, we also make the unidirectional radiation by adapting the geometry of RF Yagi-Uda antenna and applying slot antenna. By the aid of phase analysis based on 3-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation, we can increase the front-to-back ratio of an optical slot Yagi-Uda antenna up to about 5. As the application of a slot antenna, we integrate a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide with a slot antenna. A surface plasmon waveguide mode propagating in MIM structure is well-coupled to a slot antenna and radiates into free-space in form of dipole radiation. By adding an auxiliary structure that has the role of reflector as like a slot Yagi-Uda antenna, the direction of radiation from a slot antenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be controlled efficiently. Besides the possibility of integration with a waveguide, we expect that a slot antenna can be applied to active devices such as light emitting diodes or lasers for the future.

  11. Low profile antennas for MSAT applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafai, L.; Moheb, H.; Chamma, W.; Barakat, M.

    1995-01-01

    For MSAT applications, a number of different antennas have been designed and investigated. They include low gain omnidirectional antennas and medium gain to high gain directional antennas. The latter include both portable and vehicular antennas. While portable units are desirable to be low profile and low cost, the vehicular antennas have proved to be the most challenging antenna types for the mobile satellite application. The results of our efforts in design of such antennas are described briefly. Low profile designs are emphasized in most cases, and microstrip type radiators are therefore selected. The single radiator provides low gain omnidirectional patterns and is optimized for low cost applications. It provides low gains around 2-6 dBic and is useful mostly for the data transmission. Medium to high gain antennas are developed as arrays of omnidirectional elements. Again, different designs are optimized to meet the needs of different applications. For portable units, the array configuration can be flexible and is optimized for maximum broadside gains. For vehicular units, however the configurations are desirable to be low profile, or compact, and have means for scanning the antenna beam. For simplicity, fixed beam antennas with mechanical beam scan are selected. For these antennas, as well, different designs, having low profile or compact size, are selected and optimized to meet the MSAT gain and G/T requirements.

  12. A phased array tracking antenna for vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmori, Shingo; Mano, Kazukiko; Tanaka, Kenji; Matsunaga, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Makio

    1990-01-01

    An antenna system including antenna elements and a satellite tracking method is considered a key technology in implementing land mobile satellite communications. In the early stage of land mobile satellite communications, a mechanical tracking antenna system is considered the best candidate for vehicles, however, a phased array antenna will replace it in the near future, because it has many attractive advantages such as a low and compact profile, high speed tracking, and potential low cost. Communications Research Laboratory is now developing a new phased array antenna system for land vehicles based on research experiences of the airborne phased array antenna, which was developed and evaluated in satellite communication experiments using the ETS-V satellite. The basic characteristics of the phased array antenna for land vehicles are described.

  13. Recent developments in millimeter-wave antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S.; Mittra, R.; Trinh, T.; Paleta, R.

    Several types of antennas for use at millimeter-wave frequencies are presented. The first is a leaky-wave structure consisting of a rectangular dielectric rod with metallic strips on one side. This structure radiates a fan-shaped beam in the near-broadside range and can be frequency scanned. A modification of this antenna is the horn-image guide antenna. This antenna consists of a leaky-wave structure, as described above, that is mounted in a metal trough. A metal flare is added along the trough for increased beamwidth control and directivity. This antenna produces a beam which is narrow in both planes and has substantially higher gain than the leaky-wave antenna alone. A particular advantage of both these types of antennas is their integrability with a dielectric waveguide integrated circuit.

  14. Land vehicle antennas for satellite mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, H. A.; Paschen, D.; Pieper, B. V.

    1985-01-01

    Antenna designs applicable to future satellite mobile vehicle communications are examined. Microstrip disk, quadrifilar helix, cylindrical microstrip, and inverted V and U crossed-dipole low gain antennas (3-5 dBic) that provide omnidirectional coverage are described. Diagrams of medium gain antenna (9-12 dBic) concepts are presented; the antennas are classified into three types: (1) electronically steered with digital phase shifters; (2) electronically switched with switchable power divider/combiner; and (3) mechanically steered with motor. The operating characteristics of a conformal antenna with electronic beam steering and a nonconformal design with mechanical steering are evaluated with respect to isolation levels in a multiple satellite system. Vehicle antenna pointing systems and antenna system costs are investigated.

  15. Land vehicle antennas for satellite mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, H. A.; Paschen, D.; Pieper, B. V.

    1985-01-01

    Antenna designs applicable to future satellite mobile vehicle communications are examined. Microstrip disk, quadrifilar helix, cylindrical microstrip, and inverted V and U crossed-dipole low gain antennas (3-5 dBic) that provide omnidirectional coverage are described. Diagrams of medium gain antenna (9-12 dBic) concepts are presented; the antennas are classified into three types: (1) electronically steered with digital phase shifters; (2) electronically switched with switchable power divider/combiner; and (3) mechanically steered with motor. The operating characteristics of a conformal antenna with electronic beam steering and a nonconformal design with mechanical steering are evaluated with respect to isolation levels in a multiple satellite system. Vehicle antenna pointing systems and antenna system costs are investigated.

  16. Foldable nanopaper antennas for origami electronics.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Masaya; Komoda, Natsuki; Otsuka, Kanji; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2013-05-21

    Foldable antennas are required for small-sized electronic devices with high portability. Antennas on plastic substrates provide high flexibility and high sensitivity but are not foldable. Antennas on paper substrates are foldable, but their sensitivity is poor because of their coarse surfaces. In this paper, nanopapers with smooth surfaces and high foldability are fabricated from 30 nm wide cellulose nanofibers for use as foldable antenna substrates. Silver nanowires are then printed on the nanopapers to act as antenna lines. These nanopaper antennas with silver nanowires exhibit high sensitivity because of their smooth surfaces and high foldability because of their network structures. Also, their high foldability allows the mechanical tuning of their resonance points over a wide frequency range without using additional components such as condensers and coils. Nanopaper antennas with silver nanowires are therefore suitable for the realization of future foldable electronics.

  17. Foldable nanopaper antennas for origami electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Masaya; Komoda, Natsuki; Otsuka, Kanji; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2013-05-01

    Foldable antennas are required for small-sized electronic devices with high portability. Antennas on plastic substrates provide high flexibility and high sensitivity but are not foldable. Antennas on paper substrates are foldable, but their sensitivity is poor because of their coarse surfaces. In this paper, nanopapers with smooth surfaces and high foldability are fabricated from 30 nm wide cellulose nanofibers for use as foldable antenna substrates. Silver nanowires are then printed on the nanopapers to act as antenna lines. These nanopaper antennas with silver nanowires exhibit high sensitivity because of their smooth surfaces and high foldability because of their network structures. Also, their high foldability allows the mechanical tuning of their resonance points over a wide frequency range without using additional components such as condensers and coils. Nanopaper antennas with silver nanowires are therefore suitable for the realization of future foldable electronics.

  18. Improvement of antenna decoupling in radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchidin, Liliana; Topor, Raluca; Tamas, Razvan D.; Dumitrascu, Ana; Danisor, Alin; Berescu, Serban

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna design, which can be used for pulse radiation in UWB communication. The Vivaldi antenna is a special tapered slot antenna with planar structure which is easily to be integrated with transmitting elements and receiving elements to form a compact structure. When the permittivity is very large, the wavelength of slot mode is so short that the electromagnetic fields concentrate in the slot to form an effective and balanced transmission line. Due to its simple structure and small size the Vivaldi antennas are one of the most popular designs used in UWB applications. However, for a two-antenna radar system, there is a high mutual coupling between two such antennas due to open configuration. In this paper, we propose a new method for reducing this effect. The method was validated by simulating a system of two Vivaldi antennas in front of a standard target.

  19. Broad band antennas and feed methods

    DOEpatents

    Benzel, David M.; Twogood, Richard E.

    2017-04-18

    Two or more Vivaldi antennas, consisting of two plates each, each with the antenna's natural impedance of approximately 100 ohms, are placed in parallel to achieve a 50 ohm impedance in the case of two antennas or other impedances (100/n ohms) for more than two antennas. A single Vivaldi antenna plate (half Vivaldi antenna) over a ground plane can also be used to achieve a 50 ohm impedance, or two or more single plates over a ground plane to achieve other impedances. Unbalanced 50 ohm transmission lines, e.g. coaxial cables, can be used to directly feed, the dual Vivaldi (four plate) antenna in a center fed angled center departure, or more desirably, a center fed offset departure configuration.

  20. Full scale LANDSAT-D antenna pattern measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design verification of the LANDSAT-D antenna subsystem is addressed. In particular, the analysis of the antenna radiation patterns utilizing a full scale mockup of the LANDSAT-D satellite is discussed. Test antennas included two S-Band shaped beam antennas, two S-Band omni unit radiators (to operate in array), a GPS antenna, an X-Band shaped beam antenna, and one S-Band high-gain parabolic antenna.