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Sample records for anterior crucial ligament

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    MedlinePlus

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  2. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100230.htm Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  4. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    PubMed

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  6. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  7. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding. PMID:27200163

  8. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483

  9. Imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Griffith, James Francis; Hung, Esther Hiu Yee; Paunipagar, Bhawan; Law, Billy Kan Yip; Yung, Patrick Shu Hang

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important structure in maintaining the normal biomechanics of the knee and is the most commonly injured knee ligament. However, the oblique course of the ACL within the intercondylar fossa limits the visualization and assessment of the pathology of the ligament. This pictorial essay provides a comprehensive and illustrative review of the anatomy and biomechanics as well as updated information on different modalities of radiological investigation of ACL, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22474639

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury -- aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACL injury - aftercare References Amy E, Micheo W. Anterior cruciate ligament tear. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: ...

  11. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Choices

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Alec A.; Perfetti, Dean C.; Levine, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common surgical procedure; however, there is no consensus to what the best graft option is to replace the injured ACL. The main options available consist of allografts and autografts, which include patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, and quadriceps tendon autografts. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in August 2010 for English-language articles pertaining to ACL grafts. Results: Postoperative outcome variables were analyzed to determine similarities and differences among the different graft options. These variables include stability, strength, function, return to sports, patient satisfaction, complications, and cost. Conclusions: Both allografts and the 3 main options for autografts can provide excellent results in ACL reconstruction and lead to a high percentage of satisfied patients. However, differences exist among the graft choices. Both the similarities and the differences are important to discuss with a patient who will be undergoing ACL reconstruction so that he or she has the best information available when making a choice of graft. PMID:23016071

  12. Anatomic Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Improves Postoperative Clinical Outcomes Combined with Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Man; Zhou, Aiguo; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Dianming

    2016-01-01

    A significant cohort of patients is plagued by postoperative rotational instability after the anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Anatomic anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction was performed in this study with the aim to assess the clinical role of ALL in knee’s stability and joint functions. Sixty patients were recruited and divided into three groups to perform the operations of anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction, and anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + anterolateral ligament reconstruction, respectively. And then postoperative knee’s stability and joint functions were evaluated to compare the clinical outcomes among the three different kind of operations. The postoperative knee’s stability and joint functions of the anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction group and the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group were better than the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction group. No significant difference was observed between the anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction group and the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group. The anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction could improve the clinical outcomes after patients performed the anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. This indicates that the anterolateral ligament plays a crucial role in knee’s stability and joint function, especially the rotational stability. Key points Anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction combined with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed to treat the patients with ACL rupture. Compared to the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction group, the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group achieve a better clinical outcomes. The results suggest that the anterolateral ligament plays a crucial role in knee’s stability and joint function

  13. Prosthetic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repairs: Current Status.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    patellar tendon was (dev eloped to augment or reconstruct the repaired anteriormenu cruciate ligamnent.’ The purpose of this app~roach was to provide an...intercondvlar niotch in the manner of Eriksson. ’ Thus the transfe~rred patellar tendon lay adjacent to the repairedI anterior cruciate ligament and supportedl...splint.’ B y using a hiode- hinli(tionl).ly gradable ligament. autogenous tissue grafts. such ats at portion of the, patella tendon . at asfied with would

  14. Impact biomechanics of lateral knee bracing. The anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Paulos, L E; Cawley, P W; France, E P

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of six different prophylactic braces on ACL ligament strain under dynamic valgus loads using a mechanical surrogate limb validated against human cadaveric specimens. Medical collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament peak forces, medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament tension initiation times, and impact safety factors were calculated for both braced and unbraced conditions. These tests were conducted to determine whether or not application of a prophylactic brace might provide protection to the anterior cruciate ligament under valgus loading conditions. The results of this study indicate that those braces that increased impact duration appear to differentially protect the anterior cruciate ligament more than the medial collateral ligament, and that most of the braces tested appear to provide some degree of protection to the anterior cruciate ligament under direct lateral impacts. These findings should be confirmed clinically.

  15. Anterior cruciate ligament replacement: a review.

    PubMed

    Silver, F H; Tria, A J; Zawadsky, J P; Dunn, M G

    1991-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the major intra-articular mechanical element that limits motion of the tibia with respect to the femur. It is a multi-fasciculated structure composed of crimped aligned collagen fibers. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on ACL structure and mechanical properties in an effort to stimulate the development of a new generation of more effective replacement devices. Replacement of the ACL is achieved using biologic and synthetic grafts. Biologic grafts include illiotibial band, semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, patellar tendon, and meniscus. Bone-patellar-bone complexes used to replace the ACL are revascularized and ultimately replaced by neo-ligament. Synthetic implants including the Integraft, Leads-Keio ligament, Gore-Tex¿ ligament and Kennedy Ligament Augmentation Device (LAD) have either not been approved or approved by the FDA for limited use as a replacement for the ACL. The Kennedy LAD has been found to increase the strength of autogenous tissue during revascularization. Based on the success of autografts and the Kennedy LAD, we conclude that the next generation of ACL replacement devices will consist of a scaffold and a biodegradable augmentation device. The scaffold will have a structure that mimics the normal ACL as well as stimulates revascularization and healing. A biodegradable augmentation device will be employed to mechanically reinforce the scaffold without stress shielding the neo-ligament. By combining the advantages of autografts and a biodegradable augmentation device, a new generation of ACL replacements will be achieved.

  16. [Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in children].

    PubMed

    Tercier, S; Zambelli, P-Y

    2013-07-17

    An increasing number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries are now seen in children and girls seem to be equally affected. Such neglected or untreated lesions could be the cause of early degenerative changes. Recently, many authors support the trend toward early surgical management in skeletally immature patients with complex meniscal tear or recurrent knee instability after proper rehabilitation. Improvement in pediatric knowledge and surgical techniques tend to support a tendency for more surgical treatment in children. The type of management is choosing according to history and physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool not only for diagnosis but also for surgical treatment planning. We usually recommend anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in children with knee instability or with further damages to the joint.

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Bollier, Matthew; Smith, Patrick A

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries have evolved over the past 30 years. A detailed physical examination along with careful review of the magnetic resonance imaging and stress radiographs will guide decision making. Early ACL reconstruction and acute MCL repair are recommended when there is increased medial joint space opening with valgus stress in extension, a significant meniscotibial deep MCL injury (high-riding medial meniscus), or a displaced tibial-sided superficial MCL avulsion (stener lesion of the knee). Delayed ACL reconstruction to allow for MCL healing is advised when increased valgus laxity is present only at 30 degrees of flexion and not at 0 degree. However, at the time of ACL surgery, medial stability has to be re-assessed after the reconstruction is completed. In patients with neutral alignment in the chronic setting, graft reconstruction of both the ACL and MCL is recommended.

  18. Mechanisms of Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shimokochi, Yohei; Shultz, Sandra J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine and summarize previous retrospective and observational studies assessing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms and to examine such reported ACL injury mechanisms based on ACL loading patterns due to knee loadings reported in in vivo, in vitro, and computer simulation studies. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE from 1950 through 2007 using the key words anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms; anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms + retrospective; and anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms + video analysis. Study Selection: We selected retrospective studies and observational studies that specifically examined the noncontact ACL injury mechanisms (n  =  7) and assessed ACL loading patterns in vivo, in vitro, and using computer simulations (n  =  33). Data Extraction: The motion patterns reported as noncontact ACL injury mechanisms in retrospective and observational studies were assessed and critically compared with ACL loading patterns measured during applied external or internal (or both) forces or moments to the knee. Data Synthesis: Noncontact ACL injuries are likely to happen during deceleration and acceleration motions with excessive quadriceps contraction and reduced hamstrings co-contraction at or near full knee extension. Higher ACL loading during the application of a quadriceps force when combined with a knee internal rotation moment compared with an external rotation moment was noted. The ACL loading was also higher when a valgus load was combined with internal rotation as compared with external rotation. However, because the combination of knee valgus and external rotation motions may lead to ACL impingement, these combined motions cannot be excluded from the noncontact ACL injury mechanisms. Further, excessive valgus knee loads applied during weight-bearing, decelerating activities also increased ACL loading. Conclusions: The findings from this review lend support to ACL

  19. Essentials of anterior cruciate ligament rupture management.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Stephen A; Sawyer, Gregory A; Hulstyn, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common knee injury and an understanding of current medical knowledge regarding its management is essential. Accurate and prompt diagnosis requires an awareness of injury mechanisms and risk factors, common symptoms and physical/radiologic findings. Early mobilization and physical therapy improves outcomes regardless of treatment modality. Many older patients regain sufficient stability and function after non-operative rehabilitation. Early ACL reconstruction is appropriate for younger patients and those who engage in activities requiring frequent pivoting and rapid direction changes. ACL surgery involves reconstruction of the torn ligament tissue with various replacement graft options, each with advantages and disadvantages. The guidance of a knowledgeable and experienced therapist is required throughout an intensive and prolonged rehabilitation course. Generally excellent outcomes and low complication rates are expected, but treatment does not prevent late osteoarthritis.

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Nikolaos K

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a traumatic event that can lead to significant functional impairment and inability to participate in high-level sports-related activities. ACL reconstruction is considered the treatment of choice for symptomatic ACL-deficient patients and can assist in full functional recovery. Furthermore, ACL reconstruction restores ligamentous stability to normal, and, therefore, can potentially fully reinstate kinematics of the knee joint. As a consequence, the natural history of ACL injury could be potentially reversed via ACL reconstruction. Evidence from the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of ACL reconstruction in preventing the development of knee cartilage degeneration. This editorial aims to present recent high-level evidence in an attempt to answer whether ACL injury inevitably leads to osteoarthritis and whether ACL reconstruction can prevent this development or not. PMID:28361013

  1. Extensor retinaculum augmentation reinforces anterior talofibular ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Umur; Glisson, Richard R; Nunley, James A

    2006-01-01

    Repair of the anterior talofibular ligament often is augmented with the inferior extensor retinaculum because it is thought to reinforce the primary ligament repair. The additional dissection and suturing extend the duration of surgery, and not all surgeons routinely include inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation in anterior talofibular ligament repairs. To determine whether there is a reasonable basis for this surgery, we ascertained the degree to which inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation reinforced the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair. Matched pairs of cadaveric ankles had controlled inversion while monitoring resistance to inversion, first with the anterior talofibular ligament sectioned, then with primary anterior talofibular ligament repair alone or with inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation. The resistance to ankle inversion was greater at 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees rotation in ankles that had inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation. Anterior talofibular ligament failure occurred at similar inversion angles in both treatment groups, but the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair required more torque to fail in the augmented group. With these ankle loading conditions, inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation provided protection to the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair, indicating that broader clinical use of augmentation may be warranted.

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction without drill holes.

    PubMed

    Brief, L P

    1991-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in adolescents with open physes remains a difficult problem for the orthopedic surgeon, especially in view of growing teenage participation in contact sports. Traditionally, treatment of ACL tears in adolescents has been conservative; the patient is advised to delay surgery up to several years for fear of damaging physes by drilling holes across them. Unfortunately, this waiting period may inflict irreparable knee damage. This paper suggests an ACL reconstruction technique that utilizes no drill holes, thus causing no harm to physes or other essential knee structures. A graft consisting of semitendinosus and gracilis (SG) tendons is passed under the anterior horn of the medial meniscus through the knee joint, then brought out through the posterior capsule and secured to the lateral femoral metaphysis. The graft is augmented with an iliotibial band tenodesis. Designed primarily but not exclusively for teenagers with open physes, the procedure has produced encouraging results thus far in a small series.

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Nikolaos K.; Howell, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most common procedures in sports medicine. Several areas of controversy exist in ACL tear management which have engaged surgeons and researchers in debates towards identifying an ideal approach for these patients. This instructional review discusses the principles of ACL reconstruction in an attempt to provide guidelines and initiate a critical thinking approach on the most common areas of controversy regarding ACL reconstruction. Using high-level evidence from the literature, as presented in randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, operative versus conservative treatment, timing of surgery, and rehabilitation are discussed. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of autografts, such as patellar tendon and hamstrings as well as allografts are presented. Key considerations for the anatomical, histological, biomechanical and clinical data (‘IDEAL’) graft positioning are reviewed. Cite this article: Paschos NK, Howell SM. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment. EFORT Open Rev 2016;398-408. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160032. PMID:28461919

  4. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury. PMID:23016083

  5. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Maria A; McGraw, Michael H; Wells, Lawrence; Jaramillo, Diego

    2014-09-01

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed.

  6. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Conclusions: Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction. PMID:23016072

  7. LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Dimitrios Ph.; Bourlos, Dimitrios N.; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S.; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Babis, George C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is of critical importance. Various grafts have been used so far, with autografts long considered the optimal solution for the treatment of ACL-deficient knees. Limited data are available on the long-term survivorship of synthetic grafts. Purpose: To compare the functional outcome and survivorship of ACL reconstructions performed using the LARS (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system) ligament and the ABC (active biosynthetic composite) purely polyester ligament. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The results of 72 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the LARS ligament and 31 cases with an ABC purely polyester ligament were reviewed. The mean follow-up periods for the LARS and ABC groups were 9.5 and 5.1 years, respectively. A survivorship analysis of the 2 synthetic grafts was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test (Mantel-Cox, 95% CI). Lysholm, Tegner activity, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores as well as laxity measurements obtained using a KT-1000 arthrometer were recorded for all intact grafts, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison reasons. Results: The rupture rates for LARS and ABC grafts were 31% (95% CI, 20%-42%) and 42% (95% CI, 25%-59%), respectively. For intact grafts, the mean Lysholm score was good for both groups (90 for the LARS group and 89 for the ABC group), with the majority of patients returning to their preinjury level of activities, and the mean IKDC score was 90 for the LARS group and 86 for the ABC group. Conclusion: The rupture rates of both LARS and ABC grafts were both high. However, the LARS ligament provided significantly better survivorship compared with the ABC ligament at short- to midterm follow-up (95% CI). PMID:27453894

  8. LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Dimitrios Ph; Bourlos, Dimitrios N; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Babis, George C

    2016-06-01

    Graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is of critical importance. Various grafts have been used so far, with autografts long considered the optimal solution for the treatment of ACL-deficient knees. Limited data are available on the long-term survivorship of synthetic grafts. To compare the functional outcome and survivorship of ACL reconstructions performed using the LARS (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system) ligament and the ABC (active biosynthetic composite) purely polyester ligament. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The results of 72 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the LARS ligament and 31 cases with an ABC purely polyester ligament were reviewed. The mean follow-up periods for the LARS and ABC groups were 9.5 and 5.1 years, respectively. A survivorship analysis of the 2 synthetic grafts was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test (Mantel-Cox, 95% CI). Lysholm, Tegner activity, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores as well as laxity measurements obtained using a KT-1000 arthrometer were recorded for all intact grafts, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison reasons. The rupture rates for LARS and ABC grafts were 31% (95% CI, 20%-42%) and 42% (95% CI, 25%-59%), respectively. For intact grafts, the mean Lysholm score was good for both groups (90 for the LARS group and 89 for the ABC group), with the majority of patients returning to their preinjury level of activities, and the mean IKDC score was 90 for the LARS group and 86 for the ABC group. The rupture rates of both LARS and ABC grafts were both high. However, the LARS ligament provided significantly better survivorship compared with the ABC ligament at short- to midterm follow-up (95% CI).

  9. Infections in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stucken, Charlton; Garras, David N.; Shaner, Julie L.; Cohen, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a safe, common, and effective method of restoring stability to the knee after injury, but evolving techniques of reconstruction carry inherent risk. Infection after ACL reconstruction, while rare, carries a high morbidity, potentially resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December 2012) as well as from textbook chapters. Results: Treatment with culture-specific antibiotics and debridement with graft retention is recommended as initial treatment, but with persistent infection, consideration should be given to graft removal. Graft type likely has no effect on infection rates. Conclusion: The early diagnosis of infection and appropriate treatment are necessary to avoid the complications of articular cartilage damage and arthrofibrosis. PMID:24427432

  10. Postoperative Infection After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Alberto; Karnatzikos, Georgios; Chaurasia, Sanyam; Abhishek, Mudhigere; Bulgherhoni, Erica; Lane, John

    2015-01-01

    Context: Infection after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is uncommon; if it occurs, it can lead to disastrous complications. Objective: To analyze post-ACLR infections and identify related complications to provide the most effective treatment protocol. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Among approximately 1850 ACLRs performed by a single surgeon over the past 20 years, 7 cases of post-ACLR infection were identified (incidence, 0.37%). Five patients presenting with low-severity infection were successfully treated without any complication or residual functional disability. The remaining 2 patients, although successfully treated, presented with minor residual limitations. From a literature review, 16 studies including 246 cases of infection were reported among 35,795 ACLRs, making the rate of infection 0.68% (range, 0.14%-2.6%). Conclusion: With proper treatment protocols, post-ACLR infection is rare but can compromise outcomes. PMID:26603553

  11. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Growing Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    AlHarby, Saleh W.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the adult patients are thoroughly studied and published in orthopedic literature. Until recently, little was known about similar injuries in skeletally growing patients. The more frequent involvement of this age group in various athletic activities and the improved diagnostic modalities have increased the awareness and interest of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients. ACL reconstruction in growing skeleton is controversial and carries some risks to the tibial and femoral growth plate. A guarded approach to ACL reconstruction is recommended in skeletally immature patients. Modification of activity of ACL injured young patient, proper rehabilitation and prudent planning of adolescent age ACL reconstruction carries the least risks of growth plate violation. PMID:21475528

  12. Gross, Arthroscopic, and Radiographic Anatomies of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Foundations for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery.

    PubMed

    Irarrázaval, Sebastián; Albers, Marcio; Chao, Tom; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the more studied structures in the knee joint. It is not a tubular structure, but is much narrower in its midsubstance and broader at its ends, producing an hourglass shape. The ACL is composed of 2 functional bundles, the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles, that are named for their location of insertion on the anterior surface of the tibial plateau. Although the relative contribution in terms of total cross-sectional area of the ACL has been noted to be equal in regards to each bundle, dynamically these bundles demonstrate different properties for knee function.

  13. Features extraction in anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments analysis.

    PubMed

    Zarychta, P

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this research is finding the feature vectors of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL). These feature vectors have to clearly define the ligaments structure and make it easier to diagnose them. Extraction of feature vectors is obtained by analysis of both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. This procedure is performed after the extraction process of both ligaments. In the first stage in order to reduce the area of analysis a region of interest including cruciate ligaments (CL) is outlined in order to reduce the area of analysis. In this case, the fuzzy C-means algorithm with median modification helping to reduce blurred edges has been implemented. After finding the region of interest (ROI), the fuzzy connectedness procedure is performed. This procedure permits to extract the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament structures. In the last stage, on the basis of the extracted anterior and posterior cruciate ligament structures, 3-dimensional models of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament are built and the feature vectors created. This methodology has been implemented in MATLAB and tested on clinical T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices of the knee joint. The 3D display is based on the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Digital infrared thermal imaging following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Barker, Lauren E; Markowski, Alycia M; Henneman, Kimberly

    2012-03-01

    This case describes the selective use of digital infrared thermal imaging for a 48-year-old woman who was being treated by a physical therapist following left anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with a semitendinosus autograft.

  15. Messenger ribonucleic acid levels in disrupted human anterior cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ian K Y; Marchuk, Linda; Hart, David A; Frank, Cyril B

    2003-02-01

    Thirty patients had anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction for ongoing instability. Two groups were defined according to gross morphologic features identified during reconstruction: anterior cruciate ligament disruptions with scars attached to a structure in the joint and disruptions without reattachments. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for a subset of extracellular matrix molecules, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors was done on samples of scarred anterior cruciate ligament tissue removed during reconstructive surgery. Results of the nonattached scar group showed significantly increased mRNA levels for Type I collagen, and an increased Type I to Type III collagen ratio compared with that for the attached scar group. In the first year after injury, decorin mRNA levels in the nonattached scar group also were significantly higher than in the attached scar group. Biglycan mRNA levels in the nonattached scar group correlated closely with Type I collagen mRNA levels. These results suggest differences in cellular expression in torn anterior cruciate ligaments that attach to structures in the joint versus those which do not. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been delineated, different molecular signals may influence the gross morphologic features of anterior cruciate ligament disruptions or alternatively, differing gross morphologic features may be subject to different mechanical loads leading to altered molecular expression. However, the finding of endogenous cellular activity in injured anterior cruciate ligaments raises the possibility that this activity may be enhanced to improve outcomes.

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in professional dancers.

    PubMed

    Meuffels, Duncan E; Verhaar, Jan A N

    2008-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL) is a common sport injury; however, there are no data concerning dance and ACL injury. We report the incidence, injury mechanism, and clinical follow-up of ACL injury in professional dancers. In a retrospective cohort study involving the three major dance companies in the Netherlands, by interviewing all 253 dancers who had had a full-time contract during 1991-2002, dancers with symptomatic ACL injury or past ACL reconstruction were identified and examined. 6 dancers (2 of whom were women) had had a symptomatic ACL rupture and reconstruction. Interestingly, all had been on the left side and had had a similar trauma mechanism: while dancing a classical variation they landed, after a jump, on their left leg, in the turned out position with a valgus force on their knee. There was a higher risk of ACL injury in the classical company than in the two contemporary companies. The risk of dancers having a rupture of the left ACL during a 10-year career in this classical company was 7%. ACL injuries are not an infrequently seen type of injury in professional classical dancers, with a very specific mechanism of injury--a landing on the left leg in exorotation. More attention and prophylactic measures should be given to this specific injury mechanism.

  17. Intraoperative anterior cruciate ligament graft contamination.

    PubMed

    Pasque, Charles B; Geib, Timothy M

    2007-03-01

    Intraoperative anterior cruciate ligament graft contamination is a rare but potentially devastating occurrence for any surgeon to encounter. Most instances in our experience have happened when a surgeon first enters practice or is operating in a new environment with new staff. Based on the currently available literature and the senior author's personal experience with 3 cases, intraoperative cleansing of the graft followed by implantation is a reasonable option. The protocol used successfully in these 3 cases includes getting the graft off of the floor immediately, removing any suture material in the graft, cleansing the graft for 15 to 30 minutes each in chlorohexidine and triple antibiotic solution, followed by a normal saline rinse. All graft sutures should then be replaced. The graft should then be resized and the tibial and femoral tunnels adjusted if needed. After implantation of the graft, additional intraoperative and postoperative intravenous antibiotic and/or oral antibiotic administration is also recommended for the first 1 to 2 weeks. Close clinical follow-up is also very important the first 6 weeks postoperatively and should include candid communication with the patient and family.

  18. Principles of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    It is known that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction needs to be combined with detailed postoperative rehabilitation in order for patients to return to their pre-injury activity levels, and that the rehabilitation process is as important as the reconstruction surgery. Literature studies focus on how early in the postoperative ACL rehabilitation period rehabilitation modalities can be initiated. Despite the sheer number of studies on this topic, postoperative ACL rehabilitation protocols have not been standardized yet. Could common, “ossified” knowledge or modalities really prove themselves in the literature? Could questions such as “is postoperative brace use really necessary?”, “what are the benefits of early restoration of the range of motion (ROM)?”, “to what extent is neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) effective in the protection from muscular atrophy?”, “how early can proprioception training and open chain exercises begin?”, “should strengthening training start in the immediate postoperative period?” be answered for sure? My aim is to review postoperative brace use, early ROM restoration, NMES, proprioception, open/closed chain exercises and early strengthening, which are common modalities in the very comprehensive theme of postoperative ACL rehabilitation, on the basis of several studies (Level of Evidence 1 and 2) and to present the commonly accepted ways they are presently used. Moreover, I have presented the objectives of postoperative ACL rehabilitation in tables and recent miscellaneous studies in the last chapter of the paper. PMID:25232521

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament surgery in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various methods regarding allograft knee replacements have been described. The animal models, which are generally used for this purpose include sheep, dogs, goats, and pigs, and accrue significant costs for study protocols. The authors herein describe an efficient and cost-effective model to study either native or tissue-engineered allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement in a New Zealand rabbit model with the potential for transgenic and cell migration studies. Methods ACL reconstructions were performed in rabbits under general anesthesia. For fresh allograft implantations, two animals were operated in parallel. Each right extensor digitorum longus tendon was harvested and prepared for implantation. After excision of the ACL, tibial and femoral bone tunnels were created to implant each graft in the native ACL position. Results During a 2-year period, the authors have successfully undertaken this surgery in 61 rabbits and have not noticed any major complications attributed to this surgical technique. In addition, the authors have observed fast recovery in the animals postoperatively. Conclusion The authors recommend this surgical procedure as an excellent model for the study of knee surgery. PMID:23957941

  20. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulated by a steering group of the Dutch Orthopaedic Association. What is the role of physical examination and additional diagnostic tools? Which patient-related outcome measures should be used? What are the relevant parameters that influence the indication for an ACL reconstruction? Which findings or complaints are predictive of a bad result of an ACL injury treatment? What is the optimal timing for surgery for an ACL injury? What is the outcome of different conservative treatment modalities? Which kind of graft gives the best result in an ACL reconstruction? What is the optimal postoperative treatment concerning rehabilitation, resumption of sports, and physiotherapy? These 8 questions were answered and recommendations were made, using the “Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation” instrument. This instrument seeks to improve the quality and effectiveness of clinical practical guidelines by establishing a shared framework to develop, report, and assess. The steering group has also developed 7 internal indicators to aid in measuring and enhancing the quality of the treatment of patients with an ACL injury, for use in a hospital or practice. PMID:22900914

  1. MRI of anterior cruciate ligament healing

    SciTech Connect

    Ihara, Hidetoshi; Miwa, Megumi; Deya, Keizo; Torisu, Kenji

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate using MRI the natural healing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) when treated conservatively by early protective motion. Consecutive acute complete intraligamentous ruptures of the ACL in 50 cases that were allowed to heal without surgery were evaluated before and after 3 month treatment by MRI, arthroscopy, and stress radiographs. Twenty-nine of the 50 patients were also reevaluated 11 months from the initial injury, of which 7 were reevaluated again 24 months from the initial injury by MRI. The MR appearance of the treated ACL was categorized into four grades depending on homogeneity, straight band, and size. MR assessment of the ACL after 3 month treatment demonstrated a well defined normal-sized straight band in 37 cases (74%). There was a significant relationship between the 3 and 11 month MR evaluations (r. = 0.801, p < 0.0001). There were also significant relationships between the MR and arthroscopic evaluations (r, = 0.455, p < 0.005) and between the MR and stress radiographic evaluations (r, = 0.348, p < 0.025) after the 3 month treatment. MRI can demonstrate ACL healing when treated conservatively with early protective mobilization. 40 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Failure of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Samitier, Gonzalo; Marcano, Alejandro I.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Cugat, Ramon; Farmer, Kevin W; Moser, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The present review classifies and describes the multifactorial causes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery failure, concentrating on preventing and resolving such situations. The article particularly focuses on those causes that require ACL revision due to recurrent instability, without neglecting those that affect function or produce persistent pain. Although primary ACL reconstruction has satisfactory outcome rates as high as 97%, it is important to identify the causes of failure, because satisfactory outcomes in revision surgery can drop to as much as 76%. It is often possible to identify a primary or secondary cause of ACL surgery failure; even the most meticulous planning can give rise to unexpected findings during the intervention. The adopted protocol should therefore be sufficiently flexible to adapt to the course of surgery. Preoperative patient counseling is essential. The surgeon should limit the patient’s expectations for the outcome by explaining the complexity of this kind of procedure. With adequate preoperative planning, close attention to details and realistic patient expectations, ACL revision surgery may offer beneficial and satisfactory results for the patient. PMID:26550585

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: allograft versus autograft.

    PubMed

    Chang, Spencer K Y; Egami, Darren K; Shaieb, Mark D; Kan, Darryl M; Richardson, Allen B

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the minimal 2-year outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allografts versus autografts, both augmented with an iliotibial band tenodesis. Retrospective review. Forty-six of 52 BPTB ACL reconstructions using allografts and 33 of 37 BPTB ACL reconstructions using autografts were followed up at a mean of 2.75 and 3.36 years, respectively. All patients had an iliotibial band tenodesis. Evaluations included the Lysholm II scale, a questionnaire, physical examination findings, and KT-1000 arthrometry. No statistically significant differences were seen between groups in Lysholm II scores or in any subjective category. Most patients (91% allograft; 97% autograft) had good to excellent Lysholm II scores. Sixty-five percent of allograft patients and 73% of autograft patients returned to their preinjury activity level. More allograft patients complained of retropatellar pain (16% v 9% for autograft patients). Fifty-three percent of allograft patients versus 23% of autograft patients had a flexion deficit of 5 degrees or more when compared with the normal contralateral side. When comparing KT-1000 side-to-side differences, we found no significant differences between groups. Ninety-one percent of both groups had maximum side-to-side differences less than 5 mm. Three allograft patients (6.5%) had traumatic ruptures at 12, 19, and 43 months postoperatively versus none in the autograft group. All three allograft patients who sustained postoperative traumatic ruptures had received fresh frozen, nonirradiated allografts. Results of ACL reconstruction using allografts or autografts augmented with an iliotibial band tenodesis were comparable. The BPTB autograft should remain the gold standard, although the BPTB allograft in ACL reconstruction is a reasonable alternative.

  4. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, L.M.; Gray, B.; Wright, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rigorous rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is necessary for a successful surgical outcome. A large number of clinical trials continue to assess aspects of this rehabilitation process. Prior systematic reviews evaluated fifty-four Level-I and II clinical trials published through 2005. Methods: Eighty-five articles from 2006 to 2010 were identified utilizing multiple search engines. Twenty-nine Level-I or II studies met inclusion criteria and were evaluated with use of the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) criteria. Topics included in this review are postoperative bracing, accelerated strengthening, home-based rehabilitation, proprioception and neuromuscular training, and six miscellaneous topics investigated in single trials. Results: Bracing following ACL reconstruction remains neither necessary nor beneficial and adds to the cost of the procedure. Early return to sports needs further research. Home-based rehabilitation can be successful. Although neuromuscular interventions are not likely to be harmful to patients, they are also not likely to yield large improvements in outcomes or help patients return to sports faster. Thus, they should not be performed to the exclusion of strengthening and range-of-motion exercises. Vibration training may lead to faster and more complete proprioceptive recovery but further evidence is needed. Conclusions: Several new modalities for rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction may be helpful but should not be performed to the exclusion of range-of-motion, strengthening, and functional exercises. Accelerated rehabilitation does not appear to be harmful but further investigation of rehabilitation timing is warranted. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23032584

  5. Surgical Management and Treatment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament/Medial Collateral Ligament Injured Knee.

    PubMed

    Dale, Kevin M; Bailey, James R; Moorman, Claude T

    2017-01-01

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured ligament in conjunction with the MCL. Most MCL injuries can be treated nonoperatively, whereas the ACL often requires reconstruction. A good physical examination is essential for diagnosis, whereas radiographs and MRI of the knee confirm diagnosis and help guide treatment planning. Preoperative physical therapy should be completed before surgical management to allow for return of knee range of motion and an attempt at MCL healing.

  6. Psychological Aspects of Recovery Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Christino, Melissa A; Fantry, Amanda J; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-08-01

    Recovery following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an arduous process that requires a significant mental and physical commitment to rehabilitation. Orthopaedic research in recent years has focused on optimizing anterior cruciate ligament surgical techniques; however, despite stable anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, many athletes still never achieve their preinjury ability or even return to sport. Psychological factors associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are important to acknowledge and understand. Issues related to emotional disturbance, motivation, self-esteem, locus of control, and self-efficacy can have profound effects on patients' compliance, athletic identity, and readiness to return to sport. The psychological aspects of recovery play a critical role in functional outcomes, and a better understanding of these concepts is essential to optimize the treatment of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, particularly those who plan to return to sport. Identifying at-risk patients, encouraging a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, and providing early referral to a sports psychologist may improve patient outcomes and increase return-to-play rates among athletes.

  7. Ligament Tissue Engineering and Its Potential Role in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yates, E. W.; Rupani, A.; Foley, G. T.; Khan, W. S.; Cartmell, S.; Anand, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging discipline that combines the principle of science and engineering. It offers an unlimited source of natural tissue substitutes and by using appropriate cells, biomimetic scaffolds, and advanced bioreactors, it is possible that tissue engineering could be implemented in the repair and regeneration of tissue such as bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament. Whilst repair and regeneration of ligament tissue has been demonstrated in animal studies, further research is needed to improve the biomechanical properties of the engineered ligament if it is to play an important part in the future of human ligament reconstruction surgery. We evaluate the current literature on ligament tissue engineering and its role in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID:22253633

  8. Pain Assessment After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Okoroha, Kelechi R.; Keller, Robert A.; Jung, Edward K.; Khalil, Lafi; Marshall, Nathan; Kolowich, Patricia A.; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common outpatient procedure that is accompanied by significant postoperative pain. Purpose: To determine differences in acute pain levels between patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with bone–patellar tendon–bone (BTB) versus hamstring tendon (HS) autograft. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 70 patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction using either BTB or HS autografts consented to participate. The primary outcome of the study was postoperative pain levels (visual analog scale), which were collected immediately after surgery and for 3 days postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included opioid consumption (intravenous morphine equivalents), hours slept, patient satisfaction, reported breakthrough pain, and calls to the physician. Results: Patients treated with BTB had increased pain when compared with those treated with HS in the acute postoperative period (mean ± SD: day 0, 6.0 ± 1.7 vs 5.2 ± 2.0 [P = .066]; day 1, 5.9 ± 1.7 vs 4.9 ±1.7 [P = .024]; day 2, 5.2 ± 1.9 vs 4.1 ± 2.0 [P = .032]; day 3, 4.8 ± 2.1 vs 3.9 ± 2.3 [P = .151]). There were also significant increases in reported breakthrough pain (day 0, 76% vs 43% [P = .009]; day 1, 64% vs 35% [P = .003]) and calls to the physician due to pain (day 1, 19% vs 0% [P = .041]) in the BTB group. There were no significant differences in narcotic requirements or sleep disturbances. Overall, the BTB group reported significantly less satisfaction with pain management on days 0 and 1 (P = .024 and .027, respectively). Conclusion: A significant increase in acute postoperative pain was found when performing ACL reconstruction with BTB compared with HS. Patients treated with BTB were more likely to have breakthrough pain, decreased satisfaction with their pain management, and to contact their physician due to pain. These findings suggest a difference in early postoperative pain between the 2 most

  9. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey R; Bedford, Benjamin B; Andrachuk, John S; Scillia, Anthony J; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-11-01

    To determine common mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in baseball players and to quantify the rate of return to play after primary surgical reconstruction and review intermediate clinical outcomes. Surgical injuries involving the ACL in youth, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players were queried for an 11-year period (2001 to 2011). Over the study period, 42 baseball players were identified who had undergone arthroscopically assisted primary ACL reconstruction by 1 of 3 attending surgeons. Retrospective chart review was performed for all 42 patients to evaluate variables of age, level of competition, position, mechanism of injury, graft choice, and associated meniscal injuries. Twenty-six patients were reached for telephone survey and International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire and they answered questions about their original injury and playing history. The most common mechanism of injury was fielding, followed by base running. Infielders and outfielders (32% each) were the most commonly injured position, followed by pitchers (29%). Among the 32 players for whom it could be determined, 30 (94%) were able to return to playing baseball at a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (range 1.0 to 9.9 years). The mean International Knee Documentation Committee score was 84.0 (range 63 to 91). Among the 26 patients contacted for telephone interview, no one required revision ACL surgery, but 3 required a subsequent procedure for meniscal tear. Twenty-five patients (96%) denied any episodes of instability in the knee after reconstruction. The overwhelming majority of baseball players that sustain ACL injuries do so while fielding or base running. Outfielders are significantly more likely than infielders to suffer ACL injuries while fielding versus base running. The results with respect to return to play are promising, as nearly all patients were able to return to baseball and none required a revision ACL surgery at a mean follow

  10. Knee mechanics after repair of the anterior cruciate ligament. A cadaver study of ligament augmentation.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, L; Lew, W D; Lewis, J L; Hunter, R E

    1989-12-01

    An experimental knee-testing system was used to investigate the immediate postoperative mechanical state in knees with nonaugmented and augmented repairs of the anterior cruciate ligament. Ligament, repair tissue, and augmentation forces were measured using buckle transducers, and joint motion was measured using an instrumented spatial linkage during the application of 90 N anteriorly-directed tibial loads to seven fresh knee specimens at 0-90 degrees of flexion. Force and motion data were collected from each knee with an intact and excised anterior cruciate ligament, and after performing (1) a nonaugmented repair and an augmented repair using the Ligament Augmentation Device (3M Company) placed either (2) anatomically through the lateral femoral condyle or (3) in the over-the-top position. The forces in the nonaugmented repair and the repair with the augmentation in the two positions were greater than the forces in the intact anterior cruciate ligament with the knee under the same anterior loads; this difference from normal was not significant with the over-the-top augmentation. With the augmentation anatomically placed, the load sharing did not reduce the force in the repair tissue as compared with the nonaugmented case. The over-the-top augmentation, on the other hand, lowered the repair tissue forces at extension while avoiding high repair tissue forces in flexion. The tibia was consistently in an externally rotated configuration compared with normal in both the unloaded and anterior load states with all three repair procedures.

  11. Reducing time to surgery after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Sapsford, H; Sutherland, A G

    2016-05-01

    Recent work suggests that reconstruction of the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament within 12 months of injury results in better outcomes. We present a complete audit cycle examining the effect of establishment of an Acute Knee Clinic on time to surgery. Records of 20 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions undertaken by the senior author between June 2003 and May 2004 were examined to identify the time to surgery. The Acute Knee Clinic was established in December 2004. Prospectively collected data on patients attending the Acute Knee Clinic between May 2005 and July 2007 and patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction from September 2006 to 2007 were reviewed with respect to referral route, time from injury to specialist review and time to surgery. Mean time from injury to surgery of the initial cohort was 14 months (range 3-56). After establishment of the Acute Knee Clinic, 90% of referrals from Accident and Emergency (A&E) were seen by a specialist within four weeks. Between September 2006 and September 2007, 49 patients underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 21 came via the Acute Knee Clinic, with a mean time from injury to surgery of 6 months; 28 patients from the elective clinic had a mean time to surgery of 25 months. 95% of Acute Knee Clinic patients and 53 % of elective clinic patients had surgery within 12 months of injury. The Acute Knee Clinic has been shown to reduce the time from injury to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The Acute Knee Clinic only accounts for the referral of 40% of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in this series: Further education work is required with A&E staff and GPs regarding the referral of knee injuries. Access to the Acute Knee Clinic could be extended to GPs, although this could create service overload. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Bone tunnel enlargement on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Adriano Barros de Aguiar; Duarte, Aires; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple graft of the flexor tendons and correlate the functional results in their presence. Methods: The studied lasted six months and included 25 patients, with ages ranging from 18 to 43 years old. Assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at the third and sixth month of follow up in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reconstruction of ligaments was performed with tendon grafts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscle fixated in the femur with transverse metal screw and in the tibia with interference screws. Patients were evaluated objectively by tests ligament, graded from zero to four crosses and subjectively by the Lysholm method preoperative and after sixth month follow up. Results: Significant increase in the tunnels diameters were observed, 20.56% for radiographs in the anteroposterior view, 26.48% in profile view and 23.22% in computed tomography. Descriptive statistics showed significant improvement in subjective and objective clinical parameters. Conclusions: The bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and it has no implications on clinical outcomes in the short term. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Study. PMID:25328430

  13. Current Rehabilitation Concepts for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Malempati, Chaitu; Jurjans, John; Noehren, Brian; Ireland, Mary L; Johnson, Darren L

    2015-11-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament is the most commonly disrupted ligament in the knee in high-performance athletes. Most recently, advancements in surgical technique and graft fixation have enabled athletes to participate in early postoperative rehabilitation, focusing on range of motion and progressing to patellar mobilization, strengthening, and neuromuscular control. Several rehabilitation protocols exist with variations in specific exercises, progression through phases, and key components. The ultimate goal of rehabilitation is to return the athlete to preinjury performance level, including motion and strength, without injuring or elongating the graft. Each athlete is unique; thus, safe return to play should be individualized rather than follow a particular postoperative month or time line. This article provides an overview of the application and the scientific basis for formulating a rehabilitation protocol prior to and following anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

  14. Activity progression for anterior cruciate ligament injured individuals☆

    PubMed Central

    Button, Kate; Roos, Paulien E.; van Deursen, Robert W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional exercises are important in the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament deficient and reconstructed individuals but movement compensations and incomplete recovery persist. This study aimed to identify how tasks pose different challenges; and evaluate if different activities challenge patient groups differently compared to controls. Methods Motion and force data were collected during distance hop, squatting and gait for 20 anterior cruciate ligament deficient, 21 reconstructed and 21 controls. Findings Knee range of motion was greatest during squatting, intermediate during hopping and smallest during gait (P < 0.01). Peak internal knee extensor moments were greatest during distance hop (P < 0.01). The mean value of peak knee moments was reduced in squatting and gait (P < 0.01) compared to hop. Peak internal extensor moments were significantly larger during squatting than gait and peak external adductor moments during gait compared to squatting (P < 0.01). Fluency was highest during squatting (P < 0.01). All patients demonstrated good recovery of gait but anterior cruciate ligament deficient adopted a strategy of increased fluency (P < 0.01). During squatting knee range of motion and peak internal knee extensor moment were reduced in all patients (P < 0.01). Both anterior cruciate ligament groups hopped a shorter distance (P < 0.01) and had reduced knee range of motion (P < 0.025). Anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed had reduced fluency (P < 0.01). Interpretation Distance hop was most challenging; squatting and gait were of similar difficulty but challenged patients in different ways. Despite squatting being an early, less challenging exercise, numerous compensation strategies were identified, indicating that this may be more challenging than gait. PMID:24447417

  15. Nonmodifiable risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Price, Meghan J; Tuca, Maria; Cordasco, Frank A; Green, Daniel W

    2017-02-01

    As anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is becoming increasingly prevalent in the population of active children and young adolescents, it is crucial to be aware of both the modifiable and nonmodifiable factors that place this population at increased ACL injury risk. Historically, there has not been a definitive consensus on all of these risk factors-particularly the nonmodifiable ones. The present review has accumulated the most recent evidence for the nonmodifiable risk factors in ACL injury focusing particularly on female gender, generalized joint laxity, knee recurvatum, increased lateral tibial slope, decreased intercondylar notch width, structural lower extremity valgus, limb length discrepancy, family history, and history of contralateral knee ACL injury. Physicians should be aware of the nonmodifiable risk factors for ACL tears in active children and adolescents and should also encourage avoidance of modifiable risk factors in this population. Young athletes with nonmodifiable risk factors are at a particularly increased risk of recurrent injury following ACL reconstruction (ACLR). We believe that a primary extra-articular augmentation via iliotibial band tenodesis at the same time of ACLR may decrease the rate of reinjury for the high risk athlete with multiple nonmodifiable risk factors.

  16. Radiation risk from fluoroscopically-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chitnavis, JP; Karthikesaligam, A; Macdonald, A; Brown, C

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Precise tunnel positioning is crucial for success in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of intra-operative fluoroscopy has been shown to improve the accuracy of tunnel placement. Although radiation exposure is a concern, we lack information on the radiation risk to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-assisted ACL reconstruction with a standard C-arm. The aim of our study was to determine the mean radiation doses received by our patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Radiation doses were recorded for 18 months between 1 April 2007 and 30 September 2008 for 58 consecutive patients undergoing ACL reconstruction assisted by intra-operative fluoroscopy. Dose area product (DAP) values were used to calculate the entrance skin dose (ESD), an indicator of potential skin damage and the effective dose (ED), an indicator of long-term cancer risk, for each patient. RESULTS The median age of 58 patients included in data analysis was 28 years (range, 14–52 years), of whom 44 were male (76%). The mean ESD during intra-operative fluoroscopy was 0.0015 ± 0.0029 Gy. The mean ED was 0.001 ± 0.002 mSv. No results exceeded the threshold of 2 Gy for skin damage, and the life-time risk of developing new cancer due to intra-operative fluoroscopy is less than 0.0001%. CONCLUSIONS Radiation doses administered during fluoroscopically-assisted ACL reconstruction were safe and do not represent a contra-indication to the procedure. PMID:20501019

  17. [Temporary postoperative protection of the anterior cruciate ligament with transarticular wire rope].

    PubMed

    Weigand, H; Storm, H; Birne, F U

    1990-04-01

    This article describes an operational method for the temporary protection of the anterior cruciate ligament after acute or late ligament reconstruction. In line with the course of the anterior cruciate ligament a wire rope is transarticularly implanted and fixed with a screw each at the femur (proximally) and at the tibia bone (distally). This easily performed method permits both the healing of the ligament lesion while preserving the original ligament length and the execution of an early functional exercise therapy.

  18. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John; Hutt, Jonathan; Rickman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This report details the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in an 18-year-old man with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The reduced mechanical properties of the tissue in EDS can pose a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. In this case, we describe the use of a hamstring autograft combined with a Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS). There was a good radiographical, clinical, and functional outcome after two years. This technique gave a successful outcome in the reconstruction of the ACL in a patient with EDS and therefore may help surgeons faced with the same clinical scenario. PMID:26221555

  19. Revision anterior cruciate ligament surgery: experience from Miami.

    PubMed

    Uribe, J W; Hechtman, K S; Zvijac, J E; Tjin-A-Tsoi, E W

    1996-04-01

    Failed anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as defined by recurrent patholaxity is increasingly commonplace. This report presents the findings of 54 patients who had unsuccessful intraarticular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to correct persistent instability and who subsequently underwent revision anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Before revision, patients were evaluated by clinical examination, KT-1000 arthrometer, radiographs, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity scale, and subjective questionnaire. The results were compared at a mean of 32 months following revision surgery. There was an average of 16 months from index procedure to the time of revision. Autogenous patellar tendon grafts were used in 61% of the cases with 30% of these harvested from the contralateral knee. Fresh frozen patellar tendon was used in 35% and autogenous hamstring tendons in 4%. Revision was successful in objectively improving stability in all patients with an average KT-000 of 2.8 mm. Autogenous tissue grafts provided greater objective stability when compared with allograft tissue with average KT-1000 of 2.2 and 3.3, respectively. Functionally, however, there was no significant difference in outcome between the 2 groups. Harvesting of the contralateral patellar tendon was found to have no adverse long term effect. Subjectively, the results were significantly worse depending on the degree of articular cartilage degeneration. Only 54% of patients returned to their preanterior cruciate ligament injury activity level. Competence in various anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques will facilitate revision surgery especially in avoiding preexisting tunnels and hardware. Correct graft placement and addressing the secondary restraints are critical to successful revision surgery.

  20. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Reconstruction, and the Optimization of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, James Philip

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) provides an established surgical intervention to control pathological tibiofemoral translational and rotational movement. ACLR is a safe and reproducible intervention, but there remains an underlying rate of failure to return to preinjury sporting activity levels. Postoperative pathological laxity and graft reinjury remain concerns. Previously, unrecognized meniscal lesions, disruption of the lateral capsule, and extracapsular structures offer potential avenues to treat and to therefore improve kinematic outcome and functional results, following reconstruction. Addressing laterally based injuries may also improve the durability of intraarticular ACLR. Improving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft replication of the normal ACL attachment points on the femur and the tibia, using either double bundle or anatomical single bundle techniques, improves kinematics, which may benefit outcome and functionality, following reconstruction. PMID:28966384

  1. Recent advances in the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2012-03-01

    Rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament surgery continues to change, with the current emphasis being on immediate weight bearing and range of motion, and progressive muscular strengthening, proprioception, dynamic stability, and neuromuscular control drills. The rehabilitation program should be based on scientific and clinical research and focus on specific drills and exercises designed to return the patient to the desired functional goals. The goal is to return the patient's knee to homeostasis and the patient to his or her sport or activity as safely as possible. Unique rehabilitation techniques and special considerations for the female athlete will also be discussed. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a thorough scientific basis for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation based on graft selection, patient population, and concomitant injuries.

  2. Reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament using interlinked hamstrings - technical note.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcio de Castro; Zidan, Flavio Ferreira; Miduati, Francini Belluci; Fortuna, Caio Cesar; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Recent anatomical and biomechanical studies on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have shown that this structure has an important function in relation to joint stability, especially when associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the criteria for its reconstruction have not yet been fully established and the surgical techniques that have been described present variations regarding anatomical points and fixation materials. This study presents a reproducible technique for ALL and ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons, in which three interference screws are used for fixation.

  3. Controversies in knee rehabilitation: anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Failla, Mathew J; Arundale, Amelia J H; Logerstedt, David S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no reinjury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to preinjury sports. Using these criteria, the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury are reviewed and recommendations are provided for the counseling of athletes after ACL injury.

  4. [Injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament in athletes].

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, S; Schneider, M M; Bouillon, B

    2014-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures represent serious injuries for athletes which are often associated with accompanying injuries and lead to relevant kinematic alterations in the femorotibial roll-glide mechanism of the knee joint. Instability resulting in recurrent giving way events, as well as instability-related meniscal and cartilage lesions can cause functional long-term impairment that may limit the athlete's career. Anterior cruciate ligament replacement is therefore considered to be the gold standard for recovery of physical performance and to prevent secondary meniscal and cartilage damage. Continuous changes in the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament have led to a variety of different methods, including graft choice, fixation devices and surgical techniques, which support the consideration of individual requirements of the athlete as well as sport-specific aspects. One of the main factors for restoring stability and the physiological kinematic roll-glide mechanism of the knee is an anatomical tunnel placement as well as a stable graft fixation in the tibia and femur. By achieving of these fundamental technical requirements an early functional rehabilitation and accelerated recovery of neuromuscular skills, strength and coordination can be achieved, so that an early return to sport activities is possible.

  5. Compartment pressure monitoring during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Amendola, A; Faber, K; Willits, K; Miniaci, A; Labib, S; Fowler, P

    1999-09-01

    A prospective double blind randomized study was carried out using 20 healthy males with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency undergoing bone-patellar tendon-bone ACL reconstruction. The subjects were randomized into either water or saline irrigation and then underwent identical reconstructive procedures using an arthroscopic pump. Continuous preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative pressures were monitored using the slit catheter technique. Blood pressure and compartment pressure measurements were continuously recorded and noted at all stages of the procedure. Mean preoperative anterior and posterior compartment pressures were similar in both groups. No significant differences were noted between the anterior and posterior compartments of each group. No difference between water and saline irrigation was identified throughout the procedure. In both groups, postoperative pressures were slightly lower in the anterior and posterior compartments compared with preoperative pressures, but not significantly.

  6. LEG'S COMPARTMENT SYNDROME AFTER RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Ramos, Leonardo Adeo; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ejnisman, Benno; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Nicolini, Alexandre; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient that was submitted to a surgery of reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and collateral medial ligament repair of the left knee that complicated to a compartment syndrome.

  7. LEG'S COMPARTMENT SYNDROME AFTER RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Ramos, Leonardo Adeo; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ejnisman, Benno; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Nicolini, Alexandre; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient that was submitted to a surgery of reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and collateral medial ligament repair of the left knee that complicated to a compartment syndrome. PMID:27047834

  8. Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee: Back to the Future in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; D’Amelio, Andrea; Pellegrino, Pietro; Rosso, Federica; Rossi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of the anterolateral stabilizing structures of the knee in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries has been recognized since many years, most of orthopedic surgeons do not take into consideration the anterolateral structures when performing an ACL reconstruction. Anatomic single or double bundle ACL reconstruction will improve knee stability, but a small subset of patients may experience some residual anteroposterior and rotational instability. For this reason, some researchers have turned again towards the anterolateral aspect of the knee and specifically the anterolateral ligament. The goal of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge regarding the anterolateral ligament of the knee, including anatomy, histology, biomechanics and imaging. In addition, the most common anterolateral reconstruction/tenodesis techniques are described together with their respective clinical outcomes. PMID:26330991

  9. Arthroscopy Up to Date: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Schillhammer, Carl K; Reid, John B; Rister, Jamie; Jani, Sunil S; Marvil, Sean C; Chen, Austin W; Anderson, Chris G; D'Agostino, Sophia; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-01-01

    To categorize and summarize up-to-date anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) research published in Arthroscopy and The American Journal of Sports Medicine and systematically review each subcategory, beginning with ACL anatomy. After searching for "anterior cruciate ligament" OR "ACL" in Arthroscopy and The American Journal of Sports Medicine from January 2012 through December 2014, we excluded articles more pertinent to ACL augmentation; open growth plates; and meniscal, chondral, or multiligamentous pathology. Studies were subcategorized for data extraction. We included 212 studies that were classified into 8 categories: anatomy; basic science and biomechanics; tunnel position; graft selection; graft fixation; injury risk and rehabilitation; practice patterns and outcomes; and complications. Anatomic risk factors for ACL injury and post-reconstruction graft failure include a narrow intercondylar notch, low native ACL volume, and increased posterior slope. Regarding anatomic footprints, the femoral attachment is 43% of the proximal-to-distal lateral femoral condylar length whereas the posterior border of the tendon is 2.5 mm from the articular margin. The tibial attachment of the ACL is two-fifths of the medial-to-lateral interspinous distance and 15 mm anterior to the posterior cruciate ligament. Anatomic research using radiology and computed tomography to evaluate ACL graft placement shows poor interobserver and intraobserver reliability. With a mind to improving outcomes, surgeons should be aware of anatomic risk factors (stenotic femoral notch, low ligament volume, and increased posterior slope) for ACL graft failure, have a precise understanding of arthroscopic landmarks identifying femoral and tibial footprint locations, and understand that imaging to evaluate graft placement is unreliable. Level III, systematic review of Level III evidence. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Healing Potential of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Remnant Stump.

    PubMed

    Trocan, Ilie; Ceausu, Raluca A; Jitariu, Andreea A; Haragus, Horia; Damian, Gratian; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the microstructural architecture and cellular differentiation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) stumps in different stages after injury, as this could augment graft biointegration. The histological appearance and immunoreaction for cluster of differentiation 34 antigen (CD34) of 54 biopsies from 27 remnants were compared to 10 biopsies from 5 normal cruciate ligaments. CD34 reaction in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and fibrocytes was consistently positive in small synovial vessels. Remnants also exhibited CD34(+) cells among collagen fibers. Blood vessel density varied between specimens. The mean vascular microdensity was 43 per ×200 field in remnants compared to 15.2 in controls. A total of 94.44% of remnant ACL samples had significant hyperplasia of stellate and fusiform stromal cells, CD34(+); 22.4% had developed capillary vessels inside the ligament; 33% exhibited ongoing angiogenesis. Significant differences exist between torn and intact ACL regarding microvascularization. The remnants contain stellate stromal cells and CD34(+) fibrocytes, and display angiogenesis both at synovia as well as in the ligament itself. These findings underline the potential contribution to neoligament healing when remnants are preserved. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence of Major Tendon Ruptures and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in US Army Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Incidence of major tendon ruptures and anterior cruciate ligament tears in US Army soldiers 5a. CONTRACT...we have also reviewed the ACL reconstructions dur- ing the same period. Anterior cruciate ligament tears occur during participation in similar high... Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury During this same period, 325 patients underwent ACL reconstruction at WAMC, of whom 289 (89%) were male and 246 (76

  12. Tibial Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Allograft Tendons. Comparison of 1-, 2-, and 4-Stranded Constructs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tibial Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Allograft Tendons 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...2009 The Author(s) Tibial Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Allograft Tendons Comparison of 1-, 2-, and 4-Stranded Constructs Daniel K. Park,* MD...4-stranded allografts are used for soft tissue anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; however, the fixation properties of fixation devices are

  13. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain In Vivo: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Luque-Seron, Juan Antonio; Medina-Porqueres, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Distinct exercises have been proposed for knee rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. There is a need to understand ACL strain behavior during different rehabilitation exercises to protect the graft from excessive strain that could interfere with its healing process. To critically review studies that directly measured normal ACL strain in vivo during different movements, conditions, or exercises to gain insight into which of them may produce more strain on the ligament or the ligament graft in the case of reconstructed knees. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro databases was conducted. Keywords included anterior cruciate ligament, strain, stress, deformation, transducer, rehabilitation, rehabilitation exercise, physical therapy, and physiotherapy. Inclusion criteria were (1) peer-reviewed studies published in English or Spanish, (2) research conducted on adult human subjects with normal ACLs and healthy knees, and (3) ACL strain directly measured during different movements, conditions, or exercises by using a transducer. Systematic review. Level 4. Specific data were abstracted from the selected studies, including isometric quadriceps and hamstrings activity, active and passive flexion-extension of the knee, closed kinetic chain exercises, and application of joint compressive load. A total of 10 studies met all criteria and were included in the final analysis. The strain values produced by closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises were similar. However, closed kinetic chain exercises appear to attenuate the strain increase that occurs in open kinetic chain exercises when increasing resistance. These data may be relevant to develop rehabilitation exercises or programs that do not endanger the healing ACL graft and to provide a basis for future clinical trials. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty.

  15. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. Findings: The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Interpretation: Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27347334

  16. Microvascular system of anterior cruciate ligament in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Baba, Hisatoshi; Uchida, Kenzo; Negoro, Kohei; Sato, Mituhiko; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nomura, Eiki; Murakami, Kaname; Shimizubata, Matsuyuki; Meir, Adam

    2006-07-01

    This study was done to investigate the microvascular system of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using dogs. The objective was to study the microvascular architecture and the status of the barrier function of the capillary wall in the ACL by using microangiogram, scanning (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The vascular system in the ACL has been intensively studied by a number of researchers, using several microangiographic techniques in dogs, rabbits, and humans. However, most of these microangiographic studies had significant shortcomings, including the lack of three-dimensional observations and function of the blood-joint barrier in the ACL. In this study, the microstructure of the ACL was examined using microangiogram, SEM, and TEM. We investigated the vasculature of the ACL with SEM of vascular corrosion casts. In addition, we examined the status of the barrier function of the capillary wall in the ACL using the protein tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Feeding vessels of the ligament were predominantly coming from the synovial-derived vessels originating from the synovium attached to the ligament near the tibial and femoral bone insertions of the ACL. The anterior cruciate ligament was surrounded by synovium, which had abundant vessels. The branches of these synovial vessels were penetrating into the ligament and making the intrinsic vascular network. It was also ascertained under SEM that the perivascular space around the intrinsic vessels were communicating through the intrinsic ligament fiber bundles and the mesh-like synovial membrane. The capillaries in the ACL were all of the continuous type under TEM. The protein tracer that was injected into the joint space passed through the synovial membrane and entered into the capillary lumen in the ACL, but the tracer that was injected intravenously did not appear in the perivascular space. The existence of a blood-ACL barrier does not necessarily imply the existence of an ACL-blood barrier. We

  17. The anterior tibio-talar ligament: one reason for anterior ankle impingement.

    PubMed

    Keller, Katharina; Nasrilari, Mehdi; Filler, Tim; Jerosch, Jörg

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the ankle's anterolateral ligament structures. We documented the anatomic situation of the ankle's anterolateral ligament structures in 33 Thiel-embalmed specimens. The ligaments had been isolated. We performed measurements on both length and orientation and additionally classified the ligaments. We also conducted histologic tissue staining. We were able to document a regular appearance of a so far not well-realized structure between the talus and the tibia, present in 26 (79%) specimens. Average length of this structure was 26 mm (in 20 degrees plantarflexion). The angular orientation in relation to the ant. tibio-fibular lig. was on average 43.7 degrees. This structure could be classified as being either isolated or widespread, with a further four sub-classifications for the orientation. Histologic staining showed parallel orientated dense collagen fibers as well as elastic fibers and hyaline cartilage in different stages of proliferation. In addition, there were neural fibers in the perivascular and the soft tissue. The histologic findings proved that the structure was a ligament. Since the ant. tibio-talar lig. is constantly present in most ankle joints, it could be considered as a regular finding. Its morphology and histology show that this ligament is loaded under tension as well as under compression. This could be one reason for anterior ankle impingement.

  18. A new snowboard injury caused by "FLOW" bindings: a complete deltoid ligament and anterior talofibular ankle ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, Daniel; Hoornenborg, Daniel; Maas, Mario; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2014-05-01

    We present a case of a snowboard injury that caused a combination of a complete deltoid and anterior talofibular ligament rupture, without bony or syndesmotic injury. Initial surgical repair for both ligaments was performed. We describe the etiology of this injury to demonstrate the cause and existence of medial and lateral ankle ligament rupture without osseous and syndesmotic involvement and to create awareness of these types of injuries.

  19. The role of the lateral extraarticular restraints in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Wroble, R R; Grood, E S; Cummings, J S; Henderson, J M; Noyes, F R

    1993-01-01

    We measured the increases in tibiofemoral motion when lateral structures were sectioned in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees of 20 unembalmed cadaveric whole lower limbs. Motion was measured with a six degrees-of-freedom electrogoniometer. The lateral structures investigated were the iliotibial band and mid-lateral capsule, lateral collateral ligament, and popliteus tendon and the posterolateral capsule. Cutting the anterolateral structures increased anterior translation and internal rotation, particularly in flexion. Increases in motions were highly variable, reflecting the variation in function in the lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral structures. Cutting the lateral collateral ligament produced small changes in anterior translation and external rotation and larger increases in adduction. Cutting the posterolateral structures produced small increases in external rotation. Large increases in external rotation were found only if the lateral collateral ligament was also sectioned. The posterolateral structures act in concert with the lateral collateral ligament in restraining internal and external rotation. External rotation was affected at all flexion angles; internal rotation was affected mainly in extension. Our results can be used in the diagnosis of complex knee ligament injuries. Findings of increased anterior translation in both flexion and extension and increased internal rotation at 90 degrees of flexion are consistent with combined injury to the anterior cruciate ligament and the anterolateral structures. The anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee with significant posterolateral compromise (posterolateral structures/lateral collateral ligament) would exhibit larger anterior translation in extension than in flexion, increased adduction, and increased external rotation in both flexion and extension.

  20. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Kocher, Mininder S

    2016-10-01

    Dramatic increases in youth competitive athletic activity, early sport specialization, and year-round training and competition, along with increased awareness of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children, have led to a commensurate increase in the frequency of ACL tears in the skeletally immature. Recent understanding of the risks of nonoperative treatment and surgical delay have supported a trend toward early operative treatment. This article discusses treatment strategies for ACL injuries in children and adolescents, and offers our preferred treatment strategy for skeletally immature youth athletes with ACL tears.

  1. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP) and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP). The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-in technique is used) and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction. PMID:26417571

  2. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach.

    PubMed

    Gali, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP) and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP). The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-in technique is used) and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

  3. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete

    PubMed Central

    Silvers, Holly Jacinda; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2007-01-01

    The relationships of gender, age and training to the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are pivotal to developing a comprehensive neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme to decrease ACL injuries in female athletes. A prophylactic neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme may have direct benefit in decreasing the number of ACL injuries in female athletes. This research foundation endorses further epidemiological and biomechanical studies to determine the exact mechanism of ACL injury and the most effective intervention for decreasing ACL injuries in this high‐risk population. PMID:17609222

  4. Posterior Wall Blowout in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Justin J.; Dean, Chase S.; Chahla, Jorge; Menge, Travis J.; Cram, Tyler R.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Violation of the posterior femoral cortex, commonly referred to as posterior wall blowout, can be a devastating intraoperative complication in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and lead to loss of graft fixation or early graft failure. If cortical blowout occurs despite careful planning and adherence to proper surgical technique, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and alternative fixation techniques is imperative to ensure optimal patient outcomes. This article highlights anatomic considerations for femoral tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction and techniques for avoidance and salvage of a posterior wall blowout. PMID:27335885

  5. Neuromuscular disorder in response to anterior cruciate ligament creep.

    PubMed

    Chu, Derrick; LeBlanc, Robby; D'Ambrosia, Peter; D'Ambrosia, Renee; Baratta, Richard V; Solomonow, Moshe

    2003-03-01

    To determine the effect of creep developed in the anterior cruciate ligament and other viscoelastic knee structures on the function of the flexor and extensor muscles of males and females. Static load applied to the proximal tibia of young healthy male and female subjects in a laboratory setting with maximal voluntary knee flexion and extension performed before and after the load application. Static loads applied to various joints during occupational and sports activities are epidemiologically linked to higher than normal rates of disability reports. The physiological and biomechanical processes active in the development of such a neuromuscular disorder are not known. We hypothesize that creep developed in the anterior cruciate ligament due to prolonged static load will have pronounced impact on the reflexive activation of the associated musculature in a manner that may increase the risk of injury. Females are expected to be exposed to higher risk than males. Male and female groups performed maximal voluntary knee flexion and extension before and after applying 200 and 150 N, respectively, to the proximal tibia for a 10 min period. Flexion and extension forces as well as electromyograph from agonist and antagonist muscles were measured at 35 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion. Data was analyzed through repeated measures of analysis of variance. It was found that in extension, quadriceps electromyographic activity increased significantly after anterior cruciate ligament creep while hamstrings co-activation did not change. There was also a trend towards increased extension force after creep was developed, with significant effect of gender (larger increase in females). Similarly, significant increase in hamstrings electromyographic activity and a trend towards increased force during knee flexion was observed but with no effect of gender. Electromyographic spasms from the flexors and extensors were recorded in 30% of the subjects during the 10 min static loading

  6. A Comparison of Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament Laxity Between Female and Male Basketball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weesner, Carol L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament laxity of 90 uninjured male and female high school players were measured. No significant differences were found, indicating that the greater female injury rate may be due to inadequate conditioning, not greater knee ligament laxity. (Author/MT)

  7. Ring-shaped lateral meniscus with hypoplasic anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Cátia; Castro, Ricardo; Cadilha, Rui; Raposo, Frederico; Melão, Lina

    2015-12-01

    Knee joint lesions can be solitary or occur concomitantly with other lower limb abnormalities. Ring-shaped lateral meniscus (RSM) and hypoplasic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are two rare malformations. The therapeutic management of such abnormalities is not consensual, and highly depends on clinical symptomatology. We report a case of a 25-year-old girl with progressive knee pain whose MRI demonstrated a continuous segment of lateral meniscus situated along the medial aspect of the lateral compartment, continuous with the otherwise normal-appearing lateral meniscus, compatible with an RSM. This anatomic variant can be mistaken by a displaced meniscal fragment, like a bucket-handle tear, a central tear of a discoid meniscus, or incomplete discoid meniscus, as previously reported. Her MRI examination also showed a thinned ACL with anomalous lateral course. This abnormality may be mistaken for an ACL rupture and/or a meniscofemoral ligament with agenesis of ACL. Multiple images in different planes as well as following the course of meniscal and ligaments are critical clues to avoid misdiagnosis. As a result, the diagnosis of an RSM along with hypoplasic ACL with abnormal attachment was assumed based on MRI and confirmed during arthroscopy. The patient was treated conservatively with clinical outcome improvement.

  8. Extracellular matrix content of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament tissue.

    PubMed

    Young, Kate; Samiric, Tom; Feller, Julian; Cook, Jill

    2011-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) can rupture with simple movements, suggesting that structural changes in the ligament may reduce the loading capacity of the ligament. We aimed to investigate if proteoglycan and collagen levels were different between ruptured and non-ruptured ACLs. We also compared changes in ruptured tissue over time. During arthroscopic knee reconstruction surgery 24 ruptured ACLs were collected from participants (10 females; 14 males; mean age 24 years). Four non-ruptured ACLs were obtained from participants undergoing total knee replacement surgery (one female, three males; mean age 66 years). Western blot analysis was used to characterise core proteins of aggrecan, versican, decorin and biglycan and glycosaminoglycan assays were also conducted. Collagen levels were measured by hydroxyproline (OHPr) assays. Significantly lower levels of collagen, were found in ruptured ACL compared to non-ruptured ACL (p=0.004). Lower levels of both small and large proteoglycans were found in ruptured than non-ruptured ACLs. No correlation was found between time since rupture and proteoglycan or collagen levels. Ruptured ACLs had less collagen and proteoglycans than non-ruptured ACLs. These changes indicate either extracellular matrix protein levels were reduced prior to rupture or levels decreased immediately after rupture. It is possible that the composition and structure of ACLs that rupture are different to normal ACLs, potentially reducing the tissue's ability to withstand loading. An enhanced understanding of the aetiology of ACL injury could help identify individuals who may be predisposed to rupture.

  9. Arterial Supply to the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Brian J.; Yeasting, Richard A.; Morse, Dennis E.; McCann, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The arterial supply to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was prepared for study by injecting a fresh cadaver knee with an epoxy lead-oxide solution and subsequently immersing it in 10% formalin for a 2-week period. The vasculature of the ACL was exposed through dissection for examination. A second specimen was prepared similarly and was evaluated by a CAT scan. ACL vascularization arises from the middle genicular artery and vessels of the infrapatella fat pad and adjacent synovium. The artery gives rise to periligamentous vessels which form a web-like network within the synovial membrane. These periligamentous vessels give rise to penetrating branches which transversely cross the ACL and anastomose with a network of longitudinally oriented endoligamentous vessels. Terminal branches of the inferior medial and lateral genicular arteries supply the distal portion of the ACL directly. The extremities of the ACL seem to be better vascularized than the middle part, and the proximal portion seems to have a greater vascular density than the distal portion. The arteries at the ligamentous-osseous junctions of the ACL do not significantly contribute to the ligament's vascularity. Ramifications concerning the ACL's blood supply as it relates to athletic training is also discussed. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4. PMID:16558326

  10. Arterial supply to the human anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Toy, B J; Yeasting, R A; Morse, D E; McCann, P

    1995-06-01

    The arterial supply to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was prepared for study by injecting a fresh cadaver knee with an epoxy lead-oxide solution and subsequently immersing it in 10% formalin for a 2-week period. The vasculature of the ACL was exposed through dissection for examination. A second specimen was prepared similarly and was evaluated by a CAT scan. ACL vascularization arises from the middle genicular artery and vessels of the infrapatella fat pad and adjacent synovium. The artery gives rise to periligamentous vessels which form a web-like network within the synovial membrane. These periligamentous vessels give rise to penetrating branches which transversely cross the ACL and anastomose with a network of longitudinally oriented endoligamentous vessels. Terminal branches of the inferior medial and lateral genicular arteries supply the distal portion of the ACL directly. The extremities of the ACL seem to be better vascularized than the middle part, and the proximal portion seems to have a greater vascular density than the distal portion. The arteries at the ligamentous-osseous junctions of the ACL do not significantly contribute to the ligament's vascularity. Ramifications concerning the ACL's blood supply as it relates to athletic training is also discussed.

  11. [Anterior cruciate ligament-plasty using the "U-dos" technique].

    PubMed

    Morales-Trevizo, C; Paz-García, M; Leal-Berumen, I; Leal-Contreras, C; Berumen-Nafarrate, E

    2013-01-01

    The knee is a compound diarthrodial joint, vulnerable to serious injuries such as ligament injuries of: medial collateral ligament, lateral collateral ligament, anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament, as cruciate ligaments limit rotation movement in the joint. The purpose of our study was to create a new technique to treat injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament, which is composed of two bundles--anteromedial and posterolateral--trying to achieve an anatomical reconstruction that allows for a normal biomechanical recovery. This technique reduces the use of fixation material and costs. The diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injuries was made with the pivot shift test. There are currently two repair methods for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: single bundle or double bundle repair; none of these techniques is considered as the gold standard, as their results are very similar. This paper describes a technique used for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, known as "U-dos", and its clinical results. Cross-sectional, observational study that enrolled 20 patients with total anterior cruciate ligament injuries who underwent anterior cruciate ligament plasty using the "U-dos" technique between June 2009 and June 2010. The technique requires the use of bone bank allograft, in this case of the anterior tibial ligament. Patients were assessed using the Lysholm scale and the pivot shift test. Our results show that all the pivot shift tests were negative and assessments according to the Lysholm scale were from normal to excellent in 95% of cases (19/20). Only one failure was reported, with avulsion of the graft attachment which required a surgical intervention.

  12. Biomechanical Measures During Landing and Postural Stability Predict Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Huang, Bin; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletes who return to sport participation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have a higher risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury (either reinjury or contralateral injury) compared with non–anterior cruciate ligament–injured athletes. Hypotheses Prospective measures of neuromuscular control and postural stability after ACLR will predict relative increased risk for a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Fifty-six athletes underwent a prospective biomechanical screening after ACLR using 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver and postural stability assessment before return to pivoting and cutting sports. After the initial test session, each subject was followed for 12 months for occurrence of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics, and postural stability were assessed and analyzed. Analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to identify predictors of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Results Thirteen athletes suffered a subsequent second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Transverse plane hip kinetics and frontal plane knee kinematics during landing, sagittal plane knee moments at landing, and deficits in postural stability predicted a second injury in this population (C statistic = 0.94) with excellent sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.88). Specific predictive parameters included an increase in total frontal plane (valgus) movement, greater asymmetry in internal knee extensor moment at initial contact, and a deficit in single-leg postural stability of the involved limb, as measured by the Biodex stability system. Hip rotation moment independently predicted second anterior cruciate ligament injury (C = 0.81) with high sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.81). Conclusion Altered neuromuscular control of the hip and knee during a dynamic landing task

  13. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  14. Kinematic Analysis of Five Different Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gadikota, Hemanth R; Hosseini, Ali; Asnis, Peter; Li, Guoan

    2015-06-01

    Several anatomical anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction techniques have been proposed to restore normal joint kinematics. However, the relative superiorities of these techniques with one another and traditional single-bundle reconstructions are unclear. Kinematic responses of five previously reported reconstruction techniques (single-bundle reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft [SBR-BPTB], single-bundle reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft [SBR-HST], single-tunnel double-bundle reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft [STDBR-HST], anatomical single-tunnel reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft [ASTR-HST], and a double-tunnel double-bundle reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft [DBR-HST]) were systematically analyzed. The knee kinematics were determined under anterior tibial load (134 N) and simulated quadriceps load (400 N) at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion using a robotic testing system. Anterior joint stability under anterior tibial load was qualified as normal for ASTR-HST and DBR-HST and nearly normal for SBR-BPTB, SBR-HST, and STDBR-HST as per the International Knee Documentation Committee knee examination form categorization. The analysis of this study also demonstrated that SBR-BPTB, STDBR-HST, ASTR-HST, and DBR-HST restored the anterior joint stability to normal condition while the SBR-HST resulted in a nearly normal anterior joint stability under the action of simulated quadriceps load. The medial-lateral translations were restored to normal level by all the reconstructions. The internal tibial rotations under the simulated muscle load were over-constrained by all the reconstruction techniques, and more so by the DBR-HST. All five ACL reconstruction techniques could provide either normal or nearly normal anterior joint stability; however, the techniques over-constrained internal tibial rotation under the simulated quadriceps load.

  15. Crimp morphology in the ovine anterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil

    2015-01-01

    While the crimp morphology in ligaments and tendons has been described in detail in the literature, its relative distribution within the tissue has not been studied, especially in relation to the complex multi-bundle arrangement as is found in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In this study, the crimp morphology of the ovine ACL was examined topologically and with respect to its double-bundle structure. The crimp morphologies were compared with the knee in three knee positions, namely stance, maximum extension and maximum flexion. As a control, the crimp morphology of the ACL free from its bony attachments was determined. In the control samples, the anterior-medial (AM) bundle contained a combination of coarse and fine crimp, whereas the posterior-lateral (PL) bundle manifested only a coarse crimp. Using the extent of crimp loss observed when subjecting the knee to the respective positions, and comparing with the controls, the crimp morphologies show that the AM bundle of the ACL is most active in the stance position, whereas for the maximum extension and flexion positions the PL bundle is most active. We propose that these differences in crimp morphologies have relevance to ACL design and function. PMID:25677165

  16. Characteristics of inpatient anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions and concomitant injuries.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; McPherson, April L; Rao, Marepalli B; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this epidemiologic study was to quantify the incidence, expense, and concomitant injuries for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) procedures in the USA from 2003 to 2011 that required an inpatient stay. It was hypothesized that the relative reported rates of concomitant knee injuries would be greater with the MCL and menisci compared to all other concomitant knee injuries. The National Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2011 was retrospectively sampled using ICD-9-CM codes to identify ACLR patients and to extrapolate national averages. Between the years of 2003-2011, an average of 9,037 ± 1,728 inpatient hospitalization included ACLRs, of which 4,252 ± 1,824 were primarily due to the ACLR. Inpatient visits primarily due to ACLR involved an average hospitalization of 1.7 ± 0.2 days and cost $30,118 ± 9,066 per patient. Knee injuries that were commonly reported along with inpatient ACLRs included medial meniscus damage (18.1 %), lateral meniscus damage (16.8 %), collateral ligament repairs (12.3 %), and medial collateral ligament strains (6.9 %). Prevalence of meniscus injuries was consistent across years, but MCL-related injuries increased over time. ACLR-related inpatient hospitalizations account for approximately 7.1 % of the total ACLRs performed annually in the USA. Inpatient ACLR procedures continue to decrease in frequency; however, the mean cost per patient increased. Meniscus and collateral ligament injuries were the most commonly reported concomitant knee injuries. The clinical relevance of this investigation is that it informs, on a large clinical cohort of patients, the current state of incidence and expense for ACLR surgeries in an inpatient setting. Prognostic, retrospective study, Level II.

  17. Two-Stage Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Cvetanovich, Gregory; Waliullah, Khalid; Khair, Michael; Smith, Patrick; Bach, Bernard; Sherman, Seth

    2016-05-01

    The number of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears is rapidly increasing. In patients who wish to return to their preoperative level of function, specifically as it pertains to participation in sports, the gold standard of treatment following an ACL tear remains an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Despite a majority of good/excellent results following primary ACL reconstruction, there is a growing subset of patients with persistent or recurrent functional instability who require revision ACL reconstruction. Preoperative planning for revision ACL reconstruction requires a careful understanding of the root cause of ACL failure, including possible technical causes of primary ACL failure and the presence of combined knee pathology that was not addressed at the index ACL reconstruction. The decision to perform 2-stage revision ACL reconstruction is multifactorial and is reached by technical considerations that may make a 1-stage revision less optimal, including tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, active infection, and others. Concomitant knee pathology such as meniscal deficiency, malalignment (including an increase in posterior tibial slope), chondral lesions, and other ligamentous laxity may also require a staged approach to treatment. This evidence-based review covers the indications for 2-stage revision ACL reconstruction, surgical techniques, evidence for and technique of bone grafting prior ACL tunnels, and outcomes of 2-stage revision stratified by initial cause of ACL reconstruction failure. With proper preoperative planning and an understanding of the cause of failure following the primary ACL reconstruction, revision ACL reconstruction can offer excellent outcomes in the motivated patient. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e456-e464.].

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, and management.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Leon; Vandenakker-Albanese, Carol; Siegel, David

    2012-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most common ligament injury in the United States. These injuries can be career ending for athletes and severely disabling for all individuals. Our objectives are to review the epidemiology of these injuries, as well as ACL biomechanics, anatomy, and nonsurgical and surgical management so that generalists as well as sports medicine physicians, orthopedists, and others will have a better understanding of this serious injury as well as choices in its management. PubMed was used to identify relevant articles. These articles were then used to identify other sources. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries occur more commonly in women than in men due to a variety of anatomical factors. The ACL consists of 2 major bundles, the posterolateral and the anteromedial bundles. Forces transmitted through these bundles vary with knee-joint position. Some patients with ACL injuries may not be candidates for surgery because of serious comorbid medical conditions. However, without surgical repair, the knee generally remains unstable and prone to further injury. There are a variety of surgical decisions that can influence outcomes. Single-bundle versus double-bundle repair, whether to leave the ruptured ACL remnant in the knee, the selection of the graft tissue, graft placement, and whether to use the transtibial, far anteromedial portal, or tibial tunnel-independent technique are choices that must be made. With a sound knowledge of the anatomy and kinetics of the knee, newer improved surgical techniques have been developed that can restore proper knee function and have allowed many athletes to resume their careers. These new techniques have also limited the disability in nonathletes.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament repair with LARS (ligament advanced reinforcement system): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee is common. Following complete rupture of the ACL, insufficient re-vascularization of the ligament prevents it from healing completely, creating a need for reconstruction. A variety of grafts are available for use in ACL reconstruction surgery, including synthetic grafts. Over the last two decades new types of synthetic ligaments have been developed. One of these synthetic ligaments, the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS), has recently gained popularity. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the current best available evidence for the effectiveness of the LARS as a surgical option for symptomatic, anterior cruciate ligament rupture in terms of graft stability, rehabilitation time and return to pre-injury function. Method This systematic review included studies using subjects with symptomatic, ACL ruptures undergoing LARS reconstruction. A range of electronic databases were searched in May 2010. The methodological quality of studies was appraised with a modified version of the Law critical appraisal tool. Data relating to study characteristics, surgical times, complication rates, outcomes related to knee stability, quality of life, function, and return to sport as well as details of rehabilitation programs and timeframes were collected. Results This review identified four studies of various designs, of a moderate methodological quality. Only one case of knee synovitis was reported. Patient satisfaction with LARS was high. Graft stability outcomes were found to be inconsistent both at post operative and at follow up periods. The time frames of rehabilitation periods were poorly reported and at times omitted. Return to pre-injury function and activity was often discussed but not reported in results. Conclusions There is an emerging body of evidence for LARS with comparable complication rates to traditional surgical techniques, and high patient satisfaction scores. However, this

  20. Finite element analysis of nonanatomic tenodesis reconstruction methods of combined anterior talofibular ligament and calcaneofibular ligament deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Yan; Xu, Can; Li, Kang-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Nonanatomic tenodesis reconstruction procedures have been used for lateral ankle ligament reconstruction. However, there has been no comparison of Watson-Jones, Evans, and Chrisman-Snook procedures with respect to biomechanical characteristics such as kinematics, ligaments and grafts stresses using finite element analysis. A three-dimensional finite element model of the ankle including seven bony structures, cartilage and nine principal ligaments surrounding the ankle joint complex was developed and validated. In addition to the intact model, combined anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) deficient, Watson-Jones reconstruction, Evans reconstruction and Chrisman-Snook reconstruction models were simulated. Then, the forces in the ligaments and grafts and the kinematics of the talus and calcaneus were predicted for an inversion or internal torque of 1.7 Nom and an anterior drawer stress of 150 N through the range of ankle motion. All three operations were able to improve the stability of the ankle, but the effectiveness of each procedure was dependent on the direction of the stress applied and the position of the ankle in dorsiflexion-plantarflexion. This study showed that the Watson-Jones procedure has advantages with regard to anterior and rotational stabilities as well as ligaments and grafts stresses in comparison with other nonanatomic tenodesis reconstruction methods. The knowledge of stress inside the ligaments and reconstructed grafts could help to better understand the biomechanical behavior of the reconstructed joint.

  1. Injury to the Anterior Tibial Artery during Bicortical Tibial Drilling in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lim, Jin Woo; Seo, Jeong Gook

    2016-01-01

    Many complications have been reported during or after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, including infection, bleeding, tibial tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, and graft failure. However, arterial injury has been rarely reported. This paper reports a case of an anterior tibial arterial injury during bicortical tibial drilling in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, associated with an asymptomatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. The patient had a vague pain which led to delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome and delayed treatment with fasciotomy. All surgeons should be aware of these rare but critical complications because the results may be disastrous like muscle necrosis as in this case. PMID:26929808

  2. Anterior Tibial Translation in Collegiate Athletes with Normal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in anterior tibial translation (ATT) among sports, sex, and leg dominance in collegiate athletes with normal anterior cruciate ligament integrity. Design and Setting: Subjects from various athletic teams were measured for ATT in right and left knees. Subjects: Sixty subjects were measured for ATT with a KT-1000 knee arthrometer. Measurements: Statistical analyses were computed for each sex and included a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) for anterior cruciate ligament displacement, right and left sides, and force and sport. A 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare means for sex and force. A 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare sex differences across 3 forces. Results: For males and females, no significant interactions were found among leg, force, and sport for mean ATT, for leg and sport or leg and force, or for translation values between dominant and nondominant legs. Males had a significant interaction for force and sport, and a significant difference was found for side of body, since the right side had less translation than the left side. Females had greater ATT than males at all forces. Conclusions: Sex differences exist for ATT, and differences in ATT exist among sports for both sexes. Differences between the right and left sides of the body should be expected when making comparisons of ligamentous laxity. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 5. PMID:16558565

  3. Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS): Longitudinal MRI-based whole joint assessment of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Frank W; Frobell, Richard; Lohmander, L Stefan; Niu, Jingbo; Guermazi, Ali

    2014-05-01

    To develop a whole joint scoring system, the Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS), for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based assessment of acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and follow-up of structural sequelae, and to assess its reliability. Baseline and follow-up 1.5 T MRI examinations from 20 patients of the KANON study, a randomized controlled study comparing a surgical and non-surgical treatment strategy, were assessed for up to six longitudinal visits using a novel MRI scoring system incorporating acute structural tissue damage and longitudinal changes including osteoarthritis (OA) features. Joint features assessed were acute osteochondral injury, traumatic and degenerative bone marrow lesions (BMLs), meniscus morphology and extrusion, osteophytes, collateral and cruciate ligaments including ACL graft, Hoffa-synovitis and effusion-synovitis. Cross-sectional (baseline) and longitudinal (all time points and change) intra- and inter-observer reliability was calculated using weighted (w) kappa statistics and overall percent agreement on a compartmental basis (medial tibio-femoral, lateral tibio-femoral, patello-femoral). Altogether 87 time points were evaluated. Intra-observer reliability ranged between 0.52 (baseline, Hoffa-synovitis) and 1.00 (several features), percent agreement between 52% (all time points, Hoffa-synovitis) and 100% (several features). Inter-observer reliability ranged between 0.00 and 1.00, which is explained by low frequency of some of the features. Altogether, 73% of all assessed 142 parameters showed w-kappa values between 0.80 and 1.00 and 92% showed agreement above 80%. ACLOAS allows reliable scoring of acute ACL injury and longitudinal changes. This novel scoring system incorporates features that may be relevant for structural outcome not covered by established OA scoring instruments. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament insufficiency induces morphological changes of anterior cruciate ligament collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ochi, M; Murao, T; Sumen, Y; Kobayashi, K; Adachi, N

    1999-04-01

    We studied the ultrastructural changes of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with transmission electron micrograph cross-sections following isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the proximal third and anteromedial aspect of the ACL. Fourteen patients with PCL-deficient knees at a mean of 22.1 months from injury to surgery and 5 normal knees amputated secondary to malignant tumors or traumatic injuries were used as controls. A significant difference was found in the number of collagen fibrils per 1 microm2 between the PCL-deficient knee group and the control group. There was a significant difference found in the collagen fibril diameter between the PCL-deficient knee group and the control group. The collagen packing density (the percentage of sampled area occupied by collagen fibrils) was also significantly different between the PCL-deficient knee and the control group. The current study shows that an isolated PCL insufficiency can induce morphological changes in ACL collagen fibrils, suggesting that a PCL insufficiency can have adverse effects on other ligamentous structures in the knee joint.

  5. Does the tibial remnant of the anterior cruciate ligament promote ligamentization?

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Ill; Kim, Byoung Min; Kho, Duk Hwan; Kwon, Sai Won; Kim, Hyeung June; Hwang, Hyun Ryong

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in ligamentization between the remnant-preserving (RP) and remnant-sacrificing (RS) techniques in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective comparative study was carried out on 98 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction using either an RP (n=56) or RS (n=42) technique. MRI was performed at one of four time points postoperatively, and the signal intensity of the ACL graft was analyzed using the signal to noise quotient (SNQ) ratio and inter-bundle high signal intensity, along with an analysis of the survival rate of remnant tissue. The mean SNQ ratio of grafted tendons in the RP group was significantly higher than that seen in the RS group in the proximal and middle regions two to four months after surgery (P<0.05) and was significantly lower than that seen in the RS group in all regions at 12 -18months (P<0.05). The inter-bundle high signal intensity was observed more frequently in the RP group (73.7%) at two to four months. Tibial remnants were observed on postoperative MRI regardless of when MRI was conducted. The ACL graft of the RP group showed higher signal intensity in the early stage and lower signal intensity in the late stage compared to that of the RS group. The ligamentization of grafts in the RP group proceeded more quickly. Preserving the remnant in ACL reconstruction appears to have a positive effect on ligamentization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sonographically Guided Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injection: Technique and Validation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jay; Hackel, Joshua G; Khan, Umar; Pawlina, Wojciech; Sellon, Jacob L

    2015-07-01

    To describe and validate a practical technique for sonographically guided anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injections. Prospective, cadaveric laboratory investigation. Procedural skills laboratory in a tertiary medical center. Ten unembalmed, cadaveric mid-thigh-knee-ankle foot specimens (5 left knees and 5 right knees; 5 male and 5 female) from 10 donors aged 76 to 93 years (mean 85.6 years) with body mass indices of 17.6 to 42.2 kg/m(2) (mean 28.8 kg/m(2)). A single, experienced operator used a 22-gauge, 63.5-mm stainless steel needle and a 12-3-MHz linear transducer to inject 1.5 mL of diluted colored latex into the ACLs of 10 unembalmed cadaveric specimens via an in-plane, caudad-to-cephalad approach, long axis to the ACL. At a minimum of 24 hours postinjection, specimens were dissected, and the presence and distribution of latex within the ACL assessed by a study co-investigator. Presence and distribution of latex within the ACL. All 10 injections accurately delivered latex into the proximal (femoral), midsubstance, and distal (tibial) portions of the ACL. No specimens exhibited evidence of needle injury or latex infiltration with respect to the menisci, hyaline cartilage, or posterior cruciate ligament. Sonographically guided intra-ligamentous ACL injections are technically feasible and can be performed with a high degree of accuracy. Sonographically guided ACL injections could be considered for research and clinical purposes to directly deliver injectable agents into the healing ACL postinjury or postreconstruction. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trunk position modulates anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during a single-leg squat.

    PubMed

    Kulas, Anthony S; Hortobágyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although the squat exercise and its variations are commonly prescribed for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, whether trunk position affects these ligament forces and strains during the squat is unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of trunk position on anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during a single-leg squat. While instrumented for biomechanical analysis, twelve recreationally active subjects performed single-leg squats with minimal and moderate amounts of forward trunk lean. A combination of inverse dynamics, Hill-type muscle modeling, and mathematical computations estimated anterior cruciate ligament forces, strains and quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius forces. The moderate forward trunk lean condition vs. minimal forward trunk lean condition had lower peak anterior cruciate ligament forces (↓24%), strains (↓16%), and average anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during knee flexion ranges of motion of 25-55°(descent) and 35-55°(ascent). A moderate vs. minimal forward trunk lean also produced 35% higher hamstring forces throughout the majority of the squat, but lower quadriceps forces only at knee flexion angles greater than 65°. Single-leg squats performed with a moderate forward trunk lean (~40°) can minimize anterior cruciate ligament loads. Mechanistically, trunk lean reduced anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains through concomitant modulations in hip flexion angle and biarticular thigh muscle forces. These findings are clinically relevant for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation as a common goal is to minimize anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains through enhancing hamstring and quadriceps co-contractions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent Segond fracture with an intact anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Deepak; Alexander, Reginald; Hussain, Waqas M; Leland, J Martin

    2012-07-01

    Segond fractures, or avulsion fractures of the proximal lateral tibial plateau, have been well documented and studied since their original description in 1878. Segond fractures have a widely recognized pathognomonic association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and often prompt orthopedic surgeons to consider reconstruction following radiographic and clinical evaluation. Adolescent patients are particularly vulnerable to these fractures due to the relative weakness of their physeal growth plates compared with the strength of their accompanying ligamentous structures. This article describes a case of a 13-year-old boy who sustained a Segond fracture that was not coupled with an ACL avulsion or tear. The patient sustained a twisting injury to his knee. He presented to the emergency room with an effusion and radiographic findings consistent with a Segond fracture. On follow-up examination 1 week after injury, the ACL was intact. The patient was followed for 5 months of conservative treatment. At final follow-up, the patient had reestablished his previous level of activity. This article describes the history, physical examination, and radiographic findings necessary to care for patients who present with a Segond fracture. Although considered pathognomonic for an associated ACL injury, this article describes a Segond fracture that occurred in isolation.

  9. Factors informing fear of reinjury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Cheryl A; Clifford, Amanda; Louw, Quinette A

    2017-02-01

    Fear of reinjury is associated with cessation of sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction despite normal postoperative knee function. The objective of this study is to describe factors informing athletes' experience of fear of reinjury post ACL reconstruction, in athletes who cited fear as the sole reason for not returning to their pre-injury level of sport. Mixed-methods study design of qualitative and a preliminary quantitative component. A conveniently selected private hospital. Ten male and two female athletes, aged between 19 and 45 years, were eligible for the interview from 68 male and 32 female potential participants (age range 17-50) who underwent an ACL reconstruction using any graft type, excluding revision or multi-ligament surgery. To explore factors informing fear of reinjury in participants citing fear of reinjury as the sole reason for not returning to sport, albeit normal knee function. From the participant interview, four themes emerged: undergoing the surgery and recovery again, nature of the pre-injury sport imposing risk of reinjury, personality traits, and social priorities. Clinicians should be aware of factors informing fear of reinjury post ACL reconstruction. Modifiable fears including pain, mode and length of rehabilitation and psychological factors should be considered during rehabilitation to potentially improve the return to sport rate.

  10. Transient Superficial Peroneal Nerve Palsy After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Alrowaili, Majed

    2016-04-26

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status.

  11. Mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Faunø, P; Wulff Jakobsen, B

    2006-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen patients, consecutively admitted to our clinic with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture sustained while playing soccer, were surveyed and the mechanism behind their injury analyzed. The diagnosis was made arthroscopically or by instrumented laxity testing. The findings showed that the vast majority of the injuries were of the non-contact type and that very few were associated with foul play. No player positions were over- or underrepresented and goal keepers are apparently just as prone to ACL injury as their teammates. The findings of this study have helped our understanding of the mechanism behind ACL injuries in soccer and could be an aid to establishing future prophylactic measures. The findings also emphasize that certain injury mechanisms on the soccer field should alert the physician and draw his attention to a possible ACL injury.

  12. Simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Demircay, Emre; Ofluoglu, Demet; Ozel, Omer; Oztop, Pinar

    2015-04-01

    Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are rare, and bilateral ganglion cysts are even rarer. These cysts may cause intermittent or chronic nonspecific knee discomfort. Although three cases of bilateral ganglion cysts have been reported in the literature, the knees were not simultaneously affected in those cases. Herein, we report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the ACL that were symptomatic. She was successfully treated with arthroscopic resection and debridement. We also present a brief review of the literature, highlighting the aetiology, diagnosis and management of ganglion cysts of the ACL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous bilateral intra-articular ganglion cysts of the ACL.

  13. Transient Superficial Peroneal Nerve Palsy After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status. PMID:27478579

  14. Lack of effect of a knee ligament injury prevention program on the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ronald P; Shea, Kevin G; Roberts, Dana; Grandstrand, Sara; Bond, Laura

    2006-08-01

    Studies have suggested that exercise programs can reduce the incidence of noncontact injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament in female athletes. We conducted a two-year prospective study to assess the effects of a knee ligament injury prevention exercise program on the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high-school female athletes. A prospective cohort design was used to study high-school female athletes (playing soccer, basketball, and volleyball) from fifteen schools (112 teams) for two consecutive seasons. The schools were divided into treatment and control groups. The treatment group participated in a plyometric-based exercise program twice a week throughout the season. Practice and game exposures and compliance with the exercise program were recorded on a weekly basis. Suspected noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries were confirmed on the basis of the history as well as at the time of surgery and/or with magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 1439 athletes (862 in the control group and 577 in the treatment group) were monitored. There were six confirmed noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: three in the treatment group, and three in the control group. The incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries per 1000 exposures was 0.167 in the treatment group and 0.078 in the control group, yielding an odds ratio of 2.05, which was not significant (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that a twenty-minute plyometric-based exercise program that focuses on the mechanics of landing from a jump and deceleration when running performed twice a week throughout the season will not reduce the rate of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high-school female athletes.

  15. The Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair (BEAR) Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Martha M.; Flutie, Brett M.; Kalish, Leslie A.; Ecklund, Kirsten; Fleming, Braden C.; Proffen, Benedikt L.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. Hypothesis: The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture). The secondary hypotheses were that patients treated with BEAR would have early postoperative outcomes that were similar to patients treated with ACL reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 20 patients were enrolled in this nonrandomized, first-in-human study. Ten patients received BEAR treatment and 10 received a hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. The BEAR procedure was performed by augmenting a suture repair with a proprietary scaffold, the BEAR scaffold, placed in between the torn ends of the ACL at the time of suture repair. The BEAR scaffold is to our knowledge the only device that fills the gap between the torn ligament ends to have current Investigational Device Exemption approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Ten milliliters of autologous whole blood were added to the scaffold prior to wound closure. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months postoperatively. The outcomes measures included postoperative pain, muscle atrophy, loss of joint range of motion, and implant failure (designated by an International Knee Documentation Committee grade C or D Lachman test and/or an absence of continuous ACL tissue on magnetic resonance images). Results: There were no joint

  16. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  17. A study of isokinetic strength and laxity with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu; Mullineaux, David R.; Cho, Eunok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide useful information for future treatments and to organize rehabilitation programs for anterior cruciate ligament injury by assessing isokinetic muscle strength and laxity of knee joints in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injuries. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one high school athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injuries participated in this study. Isokinetic muscle strength at 60°/sec and anterior cruciate ligament laxity for non-involved and involved sides, classified on the basis of the severity of anterior cruciate ligament injury, were assessed. [Results] A comparison of isokinetic muscle strength measured from the non-involved and involved sides showed a significant difference in the maximum strength and knee flexor muscle strength. For laxity, a significant difference was observed in the anterior drawer test results obtained with a force of 88 N. [Conclusion] In conclusion, this study has shown that the assessment of isokinetic muscle strength and ligament laxity from athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury should be utilized to provide baseline data for prevention and prediction of injury. PMID:28174432

  18. A study of isokinetic strength and laxity with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu; Mullineaux, David R; Cho, Eunok

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide useful information for future treatments and to organize rehabilitation programs for anterior cruciate ligament injury by assessing isokinetic muscle strength and laxity of knee joints in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injuries. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one high school athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injuries participated in this study. Isokinetic muscle strength at 60°/sec and anterior cruciate ligament laxity for non-involved and involved sides, classified on the basis of the severity of anterior cruciate ligament injury, were assessed. [Results] A comparison of isokinetic muscle strength measured from the non-involved and involved sides showed a significant difference in the maximum strength and knee flexor muscle strength. For laxity, a significant difference was observed in the anterior drawer test results obtained with a force of 88 N. [Conclusion] In conclusion, this study has shown that the assessment of isokinetic muscle strength and ligament laxity from athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury should be utilized to provide baseline data for prevention and prediction of injury.

  19. Risks, benefits, and evidence-based recommendations for improving anterior cruciate ligament outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Verma, Nikhil N; Tokish, John M; Goradia, Vipool K; McNeil, John W; Provencher, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Recently, injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament and subsequent surgical reconstructions have seen a great increase in interest from the perspectives of basic science, anatomy, mechanics, and clinical outcomes. Over the past few years, an emerging body of evidence has shown the importance of a more anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, which uses sound anatomic and surgical principles, identifies an ideal graft for the patient, and ensures that all aspects of care (including postoperative rehabilitation) are fully addressed. It is helpful for orthopaedic surgeons to review the surgically relevant anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament, graft choices, fixation techniques and constructs, and rehabilitation guidelines to optimize outcomes for their patients.

  20. Medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty combined to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alberto; Legnani, Claudio; Terzaghi, Clara; Iori, Stefano; Borgo, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent combined medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The hypothesis was that this procedure would lead to a high success rate in patients affected by isolated medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis and concomitant ACL deficiency. Fourteen patients with primary ACL lesion and concomitant medial compartment symptomatic osteoarthritis treated from 2006 to 2010 were followed up for an average time of 26.7 months (SD 4.2). Assessment included KOOS score, Oxford Knee score, American Knee Society scores, WOMAC index of osteoarthritis, Tegner activity level and objective examination including instrumented laxity test with KT-1000 arthrometer. Radiological assessment was done with standard simple radiographs in order to get information about any presence of loosening of the components. KOOS score, OKS, WOMAC index and the AKSS improved significantly after surgery (p < 0.001). Regarding AKSS, improvement was noted both in the objective score and in the functional one (p < 0.001). There was no clinical evidence of instability in any of the knees as evaluated with clinical laxity testing. No pathologic radiolucent lines were observed around the components. In one patient signs of osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment were observed 28 months after surgery. UKA combined with ACL reconstruction is a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of combined medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis and ACL deficiency in young and active patients and confirms subjective and objective clinical improvement 2 years after surgery. The use of a fixed-bearing prosthesis represents a reliable feature as it allows to overcome problems of improper ligament tensioning during the implantation of the components. IV.

  1. Transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a skeletally immature knee using anterior tibialis allograft.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yool; Jang, Soo-Jin; Son, Jung-Hwan

    2011-05-18

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the skeletally immature individual is being recognized with increasing frequency. Nonoperative treatment of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients have not been favorable. Surgical treatment options for complete ACL tears include primary ligament repair, extraarticular tenodesis, transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction, and physeal-sparing reconstruction. The advantage of transphyseal reconstruction is placement of the graft tissue in an isometric position, which provides better results, according to the literature. The potential disadvantage is angular or limb-length discrepancy caused by physeal violation. Controversy exists in allograft selection about whether bone or soft tissue passes into physes. The use of standard tunnels provides reliable results, but carries the risk of iatrogenic growth disturbance from physeal injury.This article presents 4 cases of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients that had satisfactory functional outcomes with no growth disturbances. This is the first report of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients in the English-speaking literature. All patients underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis tendon allograft. None of the patients had angular deformities. No early physeal arrest was measured between the preoperative and postoperative radiographs. At last follow-up, the results of the Lachman test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. All patients demonstrated full range of knee motion (comparing the reconstructed knee to the contralateral knee). The results of the pivot-shift test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. No patients reported giving way.

  2. Prospective correlation between serum relaxin concentration and anterior cruciate ligament tears among elite collegiate female athletes.

    PubMed

    Dragoo, Jason L; Castillo, Tiffany N; Braun, Hillary J; Ridley, Bethany A; Kennedy, Ashleigh C; Golish, S Raymond

    2011-10-01

    The female anterior cruciate ligament may be more susceptible to injury than the male anterior cruciate ligament because of the gender-specific expression of receptors for relaxin, a collagenolytic hormone that promotes remodeling of the anterior cruciate ligament. This study was undertaken to investigate whether collegiate female athletes with elevated serum relaxin concentrations (SRC) sustain anterior cruciate ligament tears at an increased rate compared with those with lower SRC. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. From 2005 to 2010, 143 Division I female athletes from 2 universities participating in sports at high risk for anterior cruciate ligament tears (basketball, lacrosse, field hockey, soccer, gymnastics, and volleyball) were recruited to participate. Questionnaires and urine luteinizing hormone (LH) tests were used to determine participants' anterior cruciate ligament injury and menstrual history and to identify their mid-luteal phase or projected cycle days 21 to 24. Serum samples were obtained for progesterone and relaxin ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) analysis. Participants were monitored for anterior cruciate ligament injury over their 4-year National Collegiate Athletic Association athletic career. A total of 128 participants completed the study and were eligible for data analysis. The cumulative incidence of complete anterior cruciate ligament tear over the 4-year study period was 21.9%, and varied significantly by sport (P < .001). The mean SRC for athletes with anterior cruciate ligament tears (6.0 ± 8.1 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that for those without anterior cruciate ligament tears (1.8 ± 3.4 pg/mL; P = .013). In subgroup analysis of the 46 athletes who had detectable SRC, the cumulative incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tear was 14 of 46 (30.4%); the mean SRC among athletes with anterior cruciate ligament tears (14 of 46) was 12.1 ± 7.7 pg/mL and without anterior cruciate ligament tears (32 of 46

  3. The effects of in situ freezing on the anterior cruciate ligament. An experimental study in goats.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D W; Grood, E S; Cohn, B T; Arnoczky, S P; Simon, T M; Cummings, J F

    1991-02-01

    We developed an in situ freeze-thaw model designed to simulate an ideally placed and oriented autogenous graft of the anterior cruciate ligament. In this model, the anterior cruciate ligament was exposed, and the femoral insertion, tibial insertion, and body of the anterior cruciate ligament were frozen in situ with specially designed freezing probes. Freeze-thaw cycles were repeated five times. We used the technique in thirty-three mature goats to study the biological and biomechanical outcomes of the devitalized and devascularized anterior cruciate ligament at zero, six, and twenty-six weeks after treatment. Thus, the collagen fibers of the simulated autogenous graft remain in normal anatomical position and the simulated graft is fixed under physiological tension. At twenty-six weeks, no statistically significant differences were noted between treated and contralateral control (untreated) ligaments relative to anterior-posterior translation, maximum force to rupture, stiffness in the linear region of the force-length curve, modulus of elasticity in the linear region, strain to maximum stress, or maximum stress. The only statistically significant difference was an increase in cross-sectional area of the ligament. This increase was 22 and 42 per cent greater than that in the control ligaments at six weeks and six months. At six months, the ligaments in the control group had an average mid-cross-sectional area of 17.7 +/- 1.2 square millimeters and the ligaments in the experimental group, 25.2 +/- 3.1 square millimeters. Changes in the size and density of the collagen fibrils also were demonstrated at six months. These observations are in sharp contrast to our previous studies of replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament, in which an allograft of the ligament or an allograft supplemented with a 3M ligament augmentation device (LAD; 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota) was used. In those studies, an average reduction in maximum strength of 75 per cent for the allografts and

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in the athlete--an update in prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Judith R; Peterson, Erik D

    2012-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a common athletic injury. Athletes with this injury experience significant acute morbidity. These athletes are predisposed to the development of knee osteoarthritis with decreased knee quality of life. The public health implications of these injuries are profound. This article reviews the epidemiology of and risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. The economic impact of these injuries is discussed. Effective strategies to prevent these significant knee injuries are presented.

  5. [Simultaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and the patellar tendon: a case report].

    PubMed

    Achkoun, Abdessalam; Houjairi, Khalid; Quahtan, Omar; Hassoun, Jalal; Arssi, Mohamed; Rahmi, Mohamed; Garch, Abdelhak

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous rupture of both the patellar tendon and the anterior cruciate ligament is a relatively rare injury. Its diagnosis can easily be missed during the initial examination. Treatment options include immediate repair of the patellar tendon with either simultaneous or delayed reconstruction of the ACL. We present the case of a combined rupture of the patellar tendon, the anterior cruciate ligament in a 22-year old footballer. A two-stage treatment approach was performed with an excellent functional outcome.

  6. INFLUENCE OF ANTERIOR PAIN ON RESULTS FROM ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Wilson; Santos, Claudinei; Ferracini, Antonio Marcos; Dejour, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of residual pain on functional outcomes two years after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare the types of graft used during the procedure (patellar vs. flexor). Method: A retrospective epidemiological study on 129 ACL reconstructions with a mean follow-up of 28 months was conducted. The presence, intensity and location of the anterior pain were investigated. Pain provocation tests were conducted, sensitivity was analyzed and functional scores were applied (IKDC, femoropatellar and SF-36), comparing the results with the type of graft used. Results: Anterior pain was present in 28% of patients with a mean intensity of 2.9 in 10. When pain was present, the functional scores decreased significantly. Abnormalities of knee sensitivity and gait occurred frequently with use of the patellar tendon, but there was no statistical difference regarding the presence of pain. Conclusion: The presence of anterior pain in ACL reconstructions, even if minimal, has a deleterious effect on the final outcome over the medium term. Because of the influence of graft harvesting on the presence of abnormalities of knee sensitivity and gait, choosing the graft should take into account the patient's professional and sports activities. PMID:27026984

  7. An In Vitro Robotic Assessment of the Anterolateral Ligament, Part 2: Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Combined With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nitri, Marco; Rasmussen, Matthew T; Williams, Brady T; Moulton, Samuel G; Cruz, Raphael Serra; Dornan, Grant J; Goldsmith, Mary T; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Recent biomechanical studies have demonstrated that an extra-articular lateral knee structure, most recently referred to as the anterolateral ligament (ALL), contributes to overall rotational stability of the knee. However, the effect of anatomic ALL reconstruction (ALLR) in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) has not been biomechanically investigated or validated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical function of anatomic ALLR in the setting of a combined ACL and ALL injury. More specifically, this investigation focused on the effect of ALLR on resultant rotatory stability when performed in combination with concomitant ACLR. It was hypothesized that ALLR would significantly reduce internal rotation and axial plane translation laxity during a simulated pivot-shift test compared with isolated ACLR. Controlled laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were evaluated with a 6 degrees of freedom robotic system. Knee kinematics were evaluated with simulated clinical examinations including a simulated pivot-shift test consisting of coupled 10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal rotation torques, a 5-N·m internal rotation torque, and an 88-N anterior tibial load. Kinematic differences between ACLR with an intact ALL, ACLR with ALLR, and ACLR with a deficient ALL were compared with the intact state. Single-bundle ACLR tunnels and ALLR tunnels were placed anatomically according to previous quantitative anatomic attachment descriptions. Combined anatomic ALLR and ACLR significantly improved the rotatory stability of the knee compared with isolated ACLR in the face of a concurrent ALL deficiency. During a simulated pivot-shift test, ALLR significantly reduced internal rotation and axial plane tibial translation when compared with ACLR with an ALL deficiency. Isolated ACLR for the treatment of a combined ACL and ALL injury was not able to restore stability of the knee, resulting in a significant increase in

  8. Isokinetic torque peak and hamstrings/quadriceps ratios in endurance athletes with anterior cruciate ligament laxity.

    PubMed

    Portes, Eliane Magaieski; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Botelho, Viviane Gomes; Souza Pinto, Sérgio de

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate torque and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio of the knee of athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament laxity. Twenty-eight male athletes, 19 without anterior cruciate ligament laxity and 9 with anterior cruciate ligament laxity, were evaluated with an isokinetic machine model Cybex 770. The peak torque of quadriceps and hamstrings was compared, and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio on the constant angular speed of 60 masculine per second were also compared. In athletes with anterior cruciate ligament laxity, the peak torque values (right and left knees) of flexors (120 +/- 15 and 116 +/- 15 Nm) and of extensors (218 +/- 36 Nm and 207 +/- 26 Nm) were not different than those of athletes without laxity (109 +/- 21 Nm and 111 +/- 22 Nm; 191 +/- 5 Nm and 188 +/- 35 Nm). The hamstring/quadriceps ratio of athletes with laxity (right: 57 +/- 6% and left: 56 +/- 8%) did not differ from those without anterior cruciate ligament laxity (right: 58 +/- 9% and left: 58 +/- 7%). The anterior cruciate ligament laxity of long distances running athletes did not significantly alter the peak torque of flexors and of extensors or the hamstring/quadriceps ratio.

  9. The relationship between posterior tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Vladimir; Maljanović, Mirsad C; Pericin, Branislav; Harhaji, Vladimir; Milankov, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an increased posterior tibial slope as a possible risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Sixty patients were divided into two groups (with and without anterior cruciate ligament rupture). The posterior tibial slope on the lateral and medial condyles was measured by sagittal magnetic resonance imaging slices by means of computerized method using circles to determine tibial axis. The patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture had a statistically significantly (p = 0.06) greater posterior tibial slope on the lateral tibial condyle than the control group (6.68 degrees:5.64 degrees), and a greater slope on the medial condyle (5.49 degrees:4.67 degrees) in comparison to the patients with the intact anterior cruciate ligament. No significant difference in the average values of angles was observed between males and females with anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the average value being 6.23 degrees in men and 5.84 degrees in women on the lateral condyle, and 4.53 degrees in men and 4.53 degrees in women on the medial condyle. A statistically significant difference between the values of posterior tibial slope was observed between the groups with and without anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the sex having no affect on the value of the posterior tibial slope. The method of measuring angles should be unique.

  10. Dynamic knee joint mechanics after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sarah B; Kenny, Ian C; Harrison, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of information on the long-term adaptations in lower limb biomechanics during game-specific movements after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Particularly, variables such as knee abduction moments and transverse plane knee motion have not been studied during a game-specific landing and cutting task after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare the hip and knee mechanics between the ACL-reconstructed (ACLr) group and a healthy control group. Thirty-eight reconstructed athletes (18 ACLr, 18 control) participated in the study. Three-dimensional hip, knee, and ankle angles were calculated during a maximal drop jump land from a 0.30-m box and unanticipated cutting task at 45°. During the landing phase, ACLr participants had increased hip flexion (P < 0.003) and transverse plane knee range of motion (P = 0.027). During the cutting phase, the ACLr participant's previously injured limb had increased internal knee abduction moment compared with that of the control group (P = 0.032). No significant differences were reported between the previously injured and contralateral uninjured limb. Previously injured participants demonstrated higher knee abduction moment and transverse plane range of motion when compared with those of control participants during a game-specific landing and cutting task.

  11. Bedside ultrasonography by emergency physicians for anterior talofibular ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    Gün, Cem; Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Vandenberk, Nergiz; Karagöz, Arif; Sentürk, Güldehen Ozmen; Oyar, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to study the accuracy of emergency physician (EP) performed bedside ultrasonography (BUS) in patients with suspected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury. Materials and Methods: After a 6-h training program, from January to December 2011, an EP used BUS to prospectively evaluate patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected ATFL injury. Then, patients underwent ankle X-ray and Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. Outcome was determined by official radiology reports of the MR imaging. BUS and MR imaging results were compared using Chi-square testing. Results: Of the 65 enrolled patients, 30 patients were BUS positive. Of these, MR imaging results agreed with the BUS findings in 30 patients. In 35 cases, BUS was negative, and 33 of these were corroborated by MR imaging. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and negative likelihood ratio for BUS were 93.8%, 100%, 100%, 94.3%, and 0.06%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of BUS was not statistically different from MR imaging (K = 0.938, P = 0.001). Conclusion: BUS for the diagnosis of ATFL injury is another application of BUS in the ED. EPs can diagnose ATFL injury using BUS with a high degree of accuracy. PMID:23960377

  12. Graft selection in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Romanini, Emilio; D'Angelo, Franca; De Masi, Salvatore; Adriani, Ezio; Magaletti, Massimiliano; Lacorte, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Paola; Sagliocca, Luciano; Morciano, Cristina; Mele, Alfonso

    2010-12-01

    anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgical reconstruction is performed with the use of an autogenic, allogenic or synthetic graft. The document issued by the Italian National Guidelines System (SNLG, Sistema Nazionale Linee Guida) at the National Institute of Health aims to guide orthopaedic surgeons in selecting the optimal graft for ACL reconstruction using an evidence-based approach. A monodisciplinary panel was formed to define a restricted number of clinical questions, develop specific search strategies and critically appraise the literature using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) method. The final draft was shared by the panel and then sent to four external referees to assess its readability and clarity, its clinical relevance and the feasibility of recommendations. autograft shows moderate superiority compared with allograft, in relation to the relevant outcomes and the quality of selected evidence, after an appropriate risk-benefit assessment. Allograft shows higher failure rate and higher risk of infection. The panel recommends use of autografts; patellar tendon should be the first choice, due to its higher stability, while use of hamstring is indicated for subjects for whom knee pain can represent a particular problem (e.g., some categories of workers). autograft shows better performance compared with allograft and no significant heterogeneity in relation to relevant outcomes. The GRADE method allowed collation of all the information needed to draw up the recommendations, and to highlight the core points for discussion.

  13. Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament in soccer.

    PubMed

    Rochcongar, P; Laboute, E; Jan, J; Carling, C

    2009-05-01

    Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are serious, common and costly injuries. The present 12-year investigation was undertaken to examine the frequency of ACL ruptures and identify the game events that may have contributed to the cause of these injuries in male soccer players across a French district. A retrospective questionnaire was used to record the players' age at the time of injury, laterality, standard of play, playing position and injured side. The characteristics of the injury situations were described in detail to investigate the game events involved in each case. A total of 934 ruptures was reported. Significantly more ruptures were sustained in a non-contact versus a contact situation (p<0.01). Of the total number of lesions, 34.5% occurred during a pivot action. The right knee was affected more than the left knee (p<0.001), irrespective of the dominant side of the player. Certain game events reported in the injury situations were shown to be related to player's age, standard and position. While these results have confirmed observations from previous investigations on ACL ruptures in soccer, the analysis of a considerably larger number of injury cases has brought new findings to the literature as well as recommendations for future research.

  14. Sport-specific outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Warner, Stephen J; Smith, Matthew V; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J; Brophy, Robert H

    2011-08-01

    Although anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been studied extensively in the literature, sport-specific outcomes have not been well-documented. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess sport-specific outcomes after ACL reconstruction in the literature. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify studies reporting sport-specific outcomes after primary ACL reconstruction. Included studies were required to have reported standardized outcomes after primary ACL reconstruction for a single sport or comparing between different sports. In total 8 studies conformed to all inclusion criteria: 2 Level II studies, 1 Level III study, and 5 Level IV case series. Only 1 study reported comparisons of standardized outcomes between different sports, whereas 7 studies reported standardized outcomes in a single sport. Return to activity was the most common sport-specific outcome reported and varied from 19% (soccer) to 100% (bicycling and rugby), although the methods of measuring this outcome differed. Whereas return to activity after ACL reconstruction appears more likely for bicycling and jogging than for cutting and pivoting sports such as soccer and football, the literature on sport-specific outcomes from ACL reconstruction is limited with minimal data. Further studies are needed to report sport-specific outcomes and return to play after ACL reconstruction. Level IV, systematic review of Level II, III, and IV studies. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Partial tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Temponi, Eduardo Frois; de Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Chambat, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and represent 10-27% of the total. The main reasons for attending to cases of non-torn bundles are biomechanical, vascular and proprioceptive. Continued presence of the bundle also serves as protection during the healing process. There is controversy regarding the definition of these injuries, which is based on anatomy, clinical examination, translation measurements, imaging examinations and arthroscopy. The way in which it is treated will depend on the existing laxity and instability. Conservative treatment is optional for cases without instability, with a focus on motor rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is a challenge, since it requires correct positioning of the bone tunnels and conservation of the remnants of the torn bundle. The pivot shift test under anesthesia, the magnetic resonance findings, the previous level and type of sports activity and the arthroscopic appearance and mechanical properties of the remnants will aid the orthopedist in the decision-making process between conservative treatment, surgical treatment with strengthening of the native ACL (selective reconstruction) and classical (anatomical) reconstruction.

  16. Partial tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Temponi, Eduardo Frois; de Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Chambat, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and represent 10–27% of the total. The main reasons for attending to cases of non-torn bundles are biomechanical, vascular and proprioceptive. Continued presence of the bundle also serves as protection during the healing process. There is controversy regarding the definition of these injuries, which is based on anatomy, clinical examination, translation measurements, imaging examinations and arthroscopy. The way in which it is treated will depend on the existing laxity and instability. Conservative treatment is optional for cases without instability, with a focus on motor rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is a challenge, since it requires correct positioning of the bone tunnels and conservation of the remnants of the torn bundle. The pivot shift test under anesthesia, the magnetic resonance findings, the previous level and type of sports activity and the arthroscopic appearance and mechanical properties of the remnants will aid the orthopedist in the decision-making process between conservative treatment, surgical treatment with strengthening of the native ACL (selective reconstruction) and classical (anatomical) reconstruction. PMID:26229890

  17. Basic science of anterior cruciate ligament injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, A. M.; Murray, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most devastating and frequent injuries of the knee. Surgical reconstruction is the current standard of care for treatment of ACL injuries in active patients. The widespread adoption of ACL reconstruction over primary repair was based on early perception of the limited healing capacity of the ACL. Although the majority of ACL reconstruction surgeries successfully restore gross joint stability, post-traumatic osteoarthritis is commonplace following these injuries, even with ACL reconstruction. The development of new techniques to limit the long-term clinical sequelae associated with ACL reconstruction has been the main focus of research over the past decades. The improved knowledge of healing, along with recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, has resulted in the discovery of novel biologically augmented ACL-repair techniques that have satisfactory outcomes in preclinical studies. This instructional review provides a summary of the latest advances made in ACL repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:20–31. PMID:24497504

  18. Osteonecrosis of the Knee After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lansdown, Drew A.; Shaw, Jeremy; Allen, Christina R.; Ma, C. Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is performed commonly, with a low risk of complication. Osteonecrosis of the knee is a potentially devastating condition and has been observed both spontaneously and after meniscectomy, although osteonecrosis has not been described as a complication after ACL reconstruction. Purpose: To describe the development of osteonecrosis of the knee in 5 patients after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This study involved 5 patients (mean age, 33.2 years) who developed osteonecrosis of the knee after ACL reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify clinical characteristics and surgical factors present in each of the 5 cases. Results: In 4 cases, the pathologic changes were present in both the medial and lateral femoral condyles, with isolated lateral condyle changes in the other case. The mean time to diagnosis was 11.6 months. These patients underwent an average of 1.8 additional surgical procedures after the diagnosis of osteonecrosis. Conclusion: Osteonecrosis of the knee is a rare outcome after ACL reconstruction. We are unable to identify clear risk factors for the development of this complication, although we hope the presentation of these cases will help promote the identification of other cases in future studies. PMID:26665035

  19. Neuroscience Application to Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Dustin R.; Onate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Many factors, including anatomy, neuromuscular control, hormonal regulation, and genetics, are known to contribute to the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk profile. The neurocognitive and neurophysiological influences on the noncontact ACL injury mechanism have received less attention despite their implications to maintain neuromuscular control. Sex-specific differences in neurocognition may also play a critical role in the elevated female ACL injury risk. This report serves to frame existing literature in a new light to consider neurocognition and its implications for movement control, visual-motor function, and injury susceptibility. Evidence Acquisition: Sources were obtained from PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and LISTA (EBSCO) databases from 1990 onward and ranged from diverse fields including psychological and neuroscience reviews to injury epidemiology and biomechanical reports. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Neurological factors may contribute to the multifactorial ACL injury risk paradigm and the increased female injury susceptibility. Conclusion: When developing ACL injury prevention programs, considering neurocognition and its role in movement, neuromuscular control, and injury risk may help improve intervention effectiveness. PMID:26608453

  20. Surgical management of partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Zampogna, Biagio; Tecame, Andrea; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears involving the posterolateral (PL) bundle can lead to rotatory laxity of the knee, while tears involving the anteromedial (AM) bundle result in abnormal anteroposterior laxity of the knee. In this systematic review, we examine the best evidence on the management of partial tears of the ACL. A comprehensive search of several databases was performed from the inception of the database to December 2011, using various combinations of keywords focusing on clinical outcomes of human patients who had partial tears of ACL and who had undergone ACL augmentation. We evaluated the methodological quality of each article using the Coleman Methodology Score. Ten articles published in peer-reviewed journals were identified (392 males and 242 females), with a mean modified Coleman methodology of 66.1 ± 10.2. Only two studies compared standard ACL reconstruction and augmentation techniques. No study has a sample large enough to allow establishing guidelines. Validated and standardized proprioception assessment methods should be used to report outcomes. Imaging outcomes should be compared to functional outcomes, and a control group consisting of traditional complete ACL reconstruction should be present. There is a need to perform appropriately powered randomized controlled trials presenting clinical outcome with homogeneous score systems to allow accurate statistical analysis. ACL augmentation technique, preserving the intact AM or PL bundle of the ACL, is encouraging but currently available evidences are too weak to support his routine use in clinical practice.

  1. Adaptation Strategies of Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Jaimie A.; Terza, Matthew J.; Tillman, Mark D.; Hass, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the strong implications for rehabilitation design, the capability of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to adapt and store novel gait patterns have not been well studied. Purpose: To investigate how reconstructive surgery may affect the ability to adapt and store novel gait patterns in persons with ACLR while walking on a split-belt treadmill. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Gait adaptation was compared between 20 participants with ACLR and 20 healthy controls during split-belt treadmill walking. Gait adaptation was assessed in slow- and fast-adapting parameters by (1) the magnitude of symmetry during late adaptation and (2) the amount of the asymmetry during de-adaptation. Results: Healthy individuals adapted a new walking pattern and stored the new walking pattern equally in both the dominant and nondominant limbs. Conversely, individuals with ACLR displayed impairments in both slow-adapting and fast-adapting derived gait adaptation and significant differences in behavior between the reconstructed and uninjured limb. Conclusion: While surgical reconstruction and physical therapy are aimed at improving mechanical stability to the knee, the study data suggest that fundamental features of motor control remain altered. After ACLR, participants display an altered ability to learn and store functional gait patterns. PMID:26894200

  2. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

  3. Treating Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Murray, Martha M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the current evidence for conservative and surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in skeletally immature patients. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, CCTR, and CDSR was performed for surgical and/or conservative treatment of complete ACL tears in immature individuals. Studies with less than six months of follow-up were excluded. Study quality was assessed and data were collected on clinical outcome, growth disturbance, and secondary joint damage. Results We identified 48 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Conservative treatment was found to result in poor clinical outcomes and a high incidence of secondary defects, including meniscal and cartilage injury. Surgical treatment had only very weak evidence for growth disturbance, yet strong evidence of good postoperative stability and function. No specific surgical treatment showed clearly superior outcomes, yet the studies using physeal-sparing techniques had no reported growth disturbances at all. Conclusions The current best evidence suggests that surgical stabilization should be considered the preferred treatment in immature patients with complete ACL tears. While physeal-sparing techniques are not associated with a risk of growth disturbance, transphyseal reconstruction is an alternative with a beneficial safety profile and a minimal risk of growth disturbance. Conservative treatment commonly leads to meniscal damage and cartilage destruction and should be considered a last resort. Level of Evidence Level IV, systematic review of Level II, III, and IV studies. PMID:21552340

  4. Combined chronic anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: functional and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Denti, Matteo; Tornese, Davide; Melegati, Gianluca; Schonhuber, Herbert; Quaglia, Alessandro; Volpi, Piero

    2015-10-01

    Multiligamentous injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is an uncommon but debilitating event. Patients with combined ligament injuries typically complain of painful, debilitating knee instability that restricts their sports and daily activities. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate functional and clinical outcomes of patients with chronic ACL and PCL deficiency who underwent simultaneous single-stage arthroscopic reconstruction of the central pivot. Medical records of 20 consecutive patients with chronic ACL and PCL deficiency who underwent simultaneous single-stage arthroscopic reconstruction of the central pivot were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had received either an allograft (group A) or a semitendinosus-gracilis graft for ACL repair and a bone-patellar tibial-bone graft for PCL repair (group B). Functional outcomes, after the initial follow-up period at 24-month FU, were assessed with concentric isokinetic knee extensor-flexor testing at 60 and 180°/s. The secondary aim was to compare long-term clinical recovery by the administration of the IKDC (International Knee Document Committee) Knee Ligament Evaluation Form, the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale and the Cincinnati Knee Rating Scale. The mean per cent quadriceps strength deficit in the operated as compared to the healthy knee was 13.5 % in group A and 15 % in group B (angular velocity 60°/s) and 13.5 % in group A and 9.4 % in group B (angular velocity 180°/s). The mean per cent flexor strength deficit in the operated as compared to the healthy knee was 10.4 % in group A and 12.3 % in group B (angular velocity 60°/s) and 12.2 % in group A and 9 % in group B (angular velocity of 180°/s). The flexor-quadriceps ratio was 49.4 % in group A and 48.8 % in group B in the healthy knee and 53.2 % in group A and 53.8 % in group B in the operated knee (angular velocity 60°/s) and 63.9 % in group A and 60.7 % in group B in

  5. An Ecological Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Timothy M.; Waddington, Gordon; Scarvell, Jennie M.; Ball, Nick; Creer, Rob; Woods, Kevin; Smith, Damian; Adams, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background: Additional high-quality prospective studies are needed to better define the objective criteria used in relation to return-to-sport decisions after synthetic (ligament advanced reinforcement system [LARS]) and autograft (hamstring tendon [2ST/2GR]) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in active populations. Purpose: To prospectively investigate and describe the recovery of objective clinical outcomes after autograft (2ST/2GR) and synthetic (LARS) ACL reconstructions, as well as to investigate the relationship between these clinimetric test outcomes and return-to-sport activity (Tegner activity scale [TAS] score) at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 64 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction (32 LARS, 32 2ST/2GR autograft) and 32 healthy reference participants were assessed for joint laxity (KT-1000 arthrometer), clinical outcome (2000 International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] knee examination), and activity (TAS score) preoperatively and at 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks and 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Results: There was no significant correlation observed between clinical results using the 2000 IKDC knee examination and TAS score at 24 months (r s = 0.188, P = .137), nor were results for side-to-side difference (r s = 0.030, P = .814) or absolute KT-1000 arthrometer laxity of the surgical leg at 24 months postoperatively (r s = 0.076, P = .553) correlated with return-to-sport activity. Nonetheless, return-to-sport rates within the surgical cohort were 81% at 12 months and 83% at 24 months, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between physiological laxity of the uninjured knee within the surgical group compared with healthy knees within the reference group (P = .522). Conclusion: The results indicate that although relatively high levels of return-to-sport outcomes were achieved at 24 months compared with those previously reported in

  6. Predictors of Revision Surgery After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yabroudi, Mohammad A.; Björnsson, Haukur; Lynch, Andrew D.; Muller, Bart; Samuelsson, Kristian; Tarabichi, Majd; Karlsson, Jón; Fu, Freddie H.; Harner, Christopher D.; Irrgang, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery occurs in 5% to 15% of individuals undergoing ACL reconstruction. Identifying predictors for revision ACL surgery is of essence in the pursuit of creating adequate prevention programs and to identify individuals at risk for reinjury and revision. Purpose: To determine predictors of revision ACL surgery after failed primary ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 251 participants (mean age ± SD, 26.1 ± 9.9 years) who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction 1 to 5 years earlier completed a comprehensive survey to determine predictors of revision ACL surgery at a mean 3.4 ± 1.3 years after the primary ACL reconstruction. Potential predictors that were assessed included subject characteristics (age at the time of surgery, time from injury to surgery, sex, body mass index, preinjury activity level, return to sport status), details of the initial injury (mechanism; concomitant injury to other ligaments, menisci, and cartilage), surgical details of the primary reconstruction (Lachman and pivot shift tests under anesthesia, graft type, femoral drilling technique, reconstruction technique), and postoperative course (length of rehabilitation, complications). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that predicted the need for revision ACL surgery. Results: Overall, 21 (8.4%) subjects underwent revision ACL surgery. Univariate analysis showed that younger age at the time of surgery (P = .003), participation in sports at a competitive level (P = .023), and double-bundle ACL reconstruction (P = .024) predicted increased risk of revision ACL surgery. Allograft reconstructions also demonstrated a trend toward greater risk of revision ACL surgery (P = .076). No other variables were significantly associated with revision ACL surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed that revision ACL surgery was

  7. Multiple risk factors related to familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury: fraternal twin sisters with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, T E; Lynch, T R; Myer, G D; Ford, K R; Gwin, R C; Heidt, R S

    2014-01-01

    Objective A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury. Methods Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified Beighton–Horan index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction. Results Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin sister athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings. Conclusions Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width. PMID:19158132

  8. Multiple risk factors related to familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury: fraternal twin sisters with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures.

    PubMed

    Hewett, T E; Lynch, T R; Myer, G D; Ford, K R; Gwin, R C; Heidt, R S

    2010-09-01

    A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury. Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified Beighton-Horan index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction. Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin sister athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings. Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width.

  9. Anterior tibial translation during different isokinetic quadriceps torque in anterior cruciate ligament deficient and nonimpaired individuals.

    PubMed

    Kvist, J; Karlberg, C; Gerdle, B; Gillquist, J

    2001-01-01

    Factorial quasi-experimental design. To quantify the effect of different levels of isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee extensor torques on the anterior tibial translation in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Electromyogram (EMG) activity of 4 leg muscles was recorded in order to detect any co-activation of extensors and flexors. The rehabilitation after an ACL injury is of importance for the functional outcome of the patient. In order to construct a rehabilitation program after that injury, it is important to understand the in vivo relationships between muscle force and tibial translation. Twelve patients with unilateral ACL injury and 11 uninjured volunteers performed 36 repetitions of a quadriceps contraction at different isokinetic concentric and eccentric torque levels, on a KinCom machine (60 degrees x s(-1)), with simultaneous recordings of tibial translation (CA-4000) and EMG activity from quadriceps and hamstrings muscles. Tibial translations and EMG levels were normalized to the maximum of each subject. The individual anterior tibial translation increased with increased quadriceps torque in a similar manner in both quadriceps contraction modes in all legs tested. During concentric mode, translation was similar in all groups, but during eccentric mode, the mean translation was 38% larger in the ACL injured knees. No quadriceps-hamstrings co-activation occurred in any test or group. An ACL deficient knee can limit the translation within a normal space during concentric muscle activity but not during eccentric activity. That limitation depends on other mechanisms than hamstrings co-activation.

  10. In vivo study of anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and silk scaffold.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongbin; Liu, Haifeng; Wong, Eugene J W; Toh, Siew L; Goh, James C H

    2008-08-01

    Although most in vitro studies indicate that silk is a suitable biomaterial for ligament tissue engineering, in vivo studies of implanted silk scaffolds for ligament reconstruction are still lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and silk scaffold. The scaffold was fabricated by incorporating microporous silk sponges into knitted silk mesh, which mimicked the structures of ligament extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro culture demonstrated that MSCs on scaffolds proliferated vigorously and produced abundant collagen. The transcription levels of ligament-specific genes also increased with time. Then MSCs/scaffold was implanted to regenerate ACL in vivo. After 24 weeks, histology observation showed that MSCs were distributed throughout the regenerated ligament and exhibited fibroblast morphology. The key ligament ECM components including collagen I, collagen III, and tenascin-C were produced prominently. Furthermore, direct ligament-bone insertion with typical four zones (bone, mineralized fibrocartilage, fibrocartilage, ligament) was reconstructed, which resembled the native structure of ACL-bone insertion. The tensile strength of regenerated ligament also met the mechanical requirements. Moreover, its histological grading score was significantly higher than that of control. In conclusion, the results imply that silk scaffold has great potentials in future clinical applications.

  11. Evidence-based rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van Grinsven, S; van Cingel, R E H; Holla, C J M; van Loon, C J M

    2010-08-01

    Following a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft (BPTB) or four-stranded semitendinosus/gracilis tendons autograft (ST/G) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the speed and safety with which an athlete returns to sports (or regains the pre-injury level of function) depends on the rehabilitation protocol. Considering the large differences in clinical and outpatient protocols, there is no consensus regarding the content of such a rehabilitation program. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to develop an optimal evidence-based rehabilitation protocol to enable unambiguous, practical and useful treatment after ACL reconstruction. The systematic literature search identified 1,096 citations published between January 1995 and December 2006. Thirty-two soundly based rehabilitation programs, randomized clinical trials (RCT's) and reviews were included in which common physical therapy modalities (instruction, bracing, cryotherapy, joint mobility training, muscle-strength training, gait re-education, training of neuromuscular function/balance and proprioception) or rehabilitation programs were evaluated following ACL reconstruction with a BPTB or ST/G graft. Two reviews were excluded because of poor quality. Finally, the extracted data were combined with information from background literature to develop an optimal evidence-based rehabilitation protocol. The results clearly indicated that an accelerated protocol without postoperative bracing, in which reduction of pain, swelling and inflammation, regaining range of motion, strength and neuromuscular control are the most important aims, has important advantages and does not lead to stability problems. Preclinical sessions, clear starting times and control of the rehabilitation aims with objective and subjective tests facilitate an uncomplicated rehabilitation course. Consensus about this evidence-based accelerated protocol will not only enhance the speed and safety with which an athlete returns to sports, but

  12. Biologic agents for anterior cruciate ligament healing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Loibl, Markus; Andriolo, Luca; Filardo, Giuseppe; Zellner, Johannes; Koch, Matthias; Angele, Peter

    2016-01-01

    AIM To systematically review the currently available literature concerning the application of biologic agents such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells to promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of biologic agents (i.e., PRP or stem cells) to favor ACL healing during reconstruction or repair. The following inclusion criteria for relevant articles were used: Clinical reports of any level of evidence, written in English language, on the use of PRP or stem cells during ACL reconstruction/repair. Exclusion criteria were articles written in other languages, reviews, or studies analyzing other applications of PRP/stem cells in knee surgery not related to promoting ACL healing. RESULTS The database search identified 394 records that were screened. A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis: In one paper stem cells were applied for ACL healing, in one paper there was a concomitant application of PRP and stem cells, whereas in the remaining 21 papers PRP was used. Based on the ACL injury pattern, two papers investigated biologic agents in ACL partial tears whereas 21 papers in ACL reconstruction. Looking at the quality of the available literature, 17 out of 21 studies dealing with ACL reconstruction were randomized controlled trials. Both studies on ACL repair were case series. CONCLUSION There is a paucity of clinical trials investigating the role of stem cells in promoting ACL healing both in case of partial and complete tears. The role of PRP is still controversial and the only advantage emerging from the literature is related to a better graft maturation over time, without documenting beneficial effects in terms of clinical outcome, bone-graft integration and prevention of bony tunnel enlargement. PMID:27672573

  13. Preoperative cryotherapy use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Koyonos, Loukas; Owsley, Kevin; Vollmer, Emily; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may impair rehabilitation, compromise functional outcomes, and lead to patient dissatisfaction. Preemptive multimodal analgesic techniques may improve outcomes after surgery. We hypothesized that patients using preoperative cryotherapy plus a standardized postoperative treatment plan will have lower pain scores and require less pain medication compared with patients receiving a standardized postoperative treatment plan alone after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 53 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopically assisted ACLR performed by one of seven surgeons were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received no preoperative cryotherapy and group 2 received 30 to 90 minutes of preoperative cryotherapy to the operative leg using a commercial noncompressive cryotherapy unit. Visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were recorded for the first 4 days postoperatively. Total hours of cold therapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) use and highest degree of flexion achieved were recorded as well. Group 1 consisted of 26 patients (15 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft bone patellar tendon bone [BPTB]), and group 2 consisted of 27 patients (16 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft BPTB). Group 2 patients reported less pain (average 1.3 units, p < 0.02) and used less narcotic use (average 1.7 tablets, p < 0.02) for the first 36 hours compared with group 1. No statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups with regard to demographics, hours of postoperative cryotherapy, hours of CPM use, or maximum knee flexion achieved. Complications did not occur in either group. This is the first report we are aware of showing the postoperative effects of preoperative cryotherapy. Our results support the safety and efficacy of preoperative cryotherapy in a multimodal pain regimen for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction.

  14. The effectiveness of Pilates for partial anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Derya; Turkel, Nilgun

    2017-08-01

    This study explored the effects of Pilates on the muscle strength, function, and instability of patients with partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in situations in which a non-surgical treatment option is preferred. Fifty participants 20-45 years of age who were diagnosed with isolated ACL injuries were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the Pilates exercise group (n = 24) or the control group (n = 26). The subjects in the Pilates exercise group performed basic mat exercises that focused on the muscle strength and flexibility of the lower limbs and core muscles during each class session, which met three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group did not receive any treatment or home exercise programme. All patients were evaluated using the Lysholm Knee Scale, the Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength. Patient satisfaction regarding improvement in knee stability was assessed using the Global Rating of Change scale. The Pilates group experienced significant improvement over the control group as measured by the difference in quadriceps strength at 12 weeks (p = 0.03). Both groups showed some clinical change over time, but the Pilates group improved for all outcome measurements at the 12-week follow-up, and the control group only improved for functional outcomes. Patient satisfaction with the level of knee stability based on the Global Rating of Change scale was higher in the Pilates group than in the control group. Although both groups exhibited improvements in knee strength and functional outcomes, the results suggest that Pilates is a superior management approach over a control treatment for increasing quadriceps strength in participants with partial ACL injury. Pilates may provide clinicians a novel option when choosing a treatment for a partial ACL injury. Further study is needed to determine whether certain subgroups of individuals might achieve an added

  15. Anterior cruciate ligament repairs in world class skiers.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R W; Steadman, J R

    1987-01-01

    From 1979 to 1984, 27 skiers who were either present or past members of the United States Ski Team or professional skiers had 30 ACL tears that were repaired primarily. Only two of the repairs were augmented with autogenous patellar tendon grafts. Five patients had complete knee dislocations, including tears of both cruciate ligaments. Nineteen patients had a concomitant extraarticular iliotibial band tenodesis. Twenty-seven knees (24 patients) were followed an average of 57.6 months postoperatively. Recreational skiing was resumed at 5.4 months on average, and in ski racing and pivot-requiring sports all but three patients resumed participation at an average of 9.1 months. In 78% of the knees there was pain-free function. Mild pain was reported in 19%, the majority of which (4/5) was related to vigorous activity. Of the total, only two knees were reported to have a sensation of giving way. On clinical examination 85% (23/27) had normal pivot shift examination with no evidence of abnormal motion. Four percent (1/27) had a 1+ test and 11% (3/27) had "glides." Arthrometer measurements revealed an average of 7.76 mm anterior displacement with 20 pounds of force on the knee with an ACL repair as compared to 5.56 mm on the uninjured knee. The laxity measurements of knees with repaired ACLs fell within the range reported for uninjured knees in the normal population. Five patients had reinjuries to the ACL at an average time of 28 months postoperatively, with two of five undergoing rerepair. Only one patient had an iliotibial band tenodesis to supplement the original ACL repair.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Postoperative complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction after ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Cano, P; Godino, M; Vides, M; Guerado, E

    2015-01-01

    To study postoperative complications of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction performed as an outpatient compared with same surgery performed as a regular admission (inpatient). A study was conducted on a historical cohort of 342 patients (115 outpatients vs 227 inpatients) who underwent arthroscopic ACL primary ligamentoplasty (2004-2012). A review was performed on the demographic, surgical and hospital variables. A study was made of early complications (60 days postoperative) including visits to emergency department and readmissions. A descriptive and bivariate distribution analysis was performed between groups, with the grouping criterion: performing of the surgery with or without admission. The Chi-square test was used for qualitative variables and Mann-Whitney U test for quantitative. Limit significance p<0.05. Overall, there were 13.2% emergency department visits (mean of 1.24 visits) with an average delay of 8.22 days after discharge. pain not controlled with analgesia (6.7%), hemarthrosis that required arthrocentesis (4.4%), fever (3.2%), deep vein thrombosis (0.6%), cellulitis (0.6%), septic arthritis that required arthroscopic debridement (0.3%), and others (1.2%) including problems with immobilization. The hospital readmissions (2.3%) were for surveillance and monitoring of the surgical wound. In the bivariate analysis no statistically significant differences were found between groups as regards the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients or the complications recorded. The most frequent complications recorded were acute pain, hemarthrosis and fever. Serious complications (deep vein thrombosis, septic arthritis or need for hospital readmission) were rare. Outpatient arthroscopic ACL repair is a common technique that can be performed safely by surgery without admission, with an overall low complication rate with no differences between outpatients and inpatients. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All

  17. Predictors of knee joint loading after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Khandha, Ashutosh; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury results in altered knee joint mechanics which frequently continue even after ACL reconstruction. The persistence of altered mechanical loading of the knee is of concern due to its likely role in the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Joint contact forces are associated with post-traumatic OA development, but evaluation of factors influencing the magnitude of contact forces after ACL injury is needed to advance current strategies aimed at preventing post-traumatic OA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors of knee joint contact forces after ACL reconstruction. Thirty athletes completed standard gait analysis with surface electromyography 6 months after ACL reconstruction. An electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal model was used to estimate joint contact forces. External knee adduction moment was a significant predictor of medial compartment contact forces in both limbs, while vertical ground reaction force and co-contraction only contributed significantly in the uninvolved limb. The large influence of the knee adduction moment on joint contact forces provides mechanistic clues to understanding the mechanical pathway of post-traumatic OA after ACL injury. Statement of Clinical Significance: This study provides critical information in improving the understanding of mechanisms influencing the development of post-traumatic OA after ACL injury. Further work is needed to identify additional driving factors of joint loading in the ACL-injured limb and develop treatment strategies to avert the deleterious consequences of post-traumatic OA. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:651-656, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ultrastructure of the three anterior cruciate ligament bundles.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Otsubo, Hidenori; Watanabe, Takafumi; Kamiya, Tomoaki; Nagoya, Satoshi; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Shino, Konsei

    2015-10-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be morphologically separated into not only two, but three bundles: the anteromedial-medial bundle (AM-MB), the anteromedial-lateral bundle (AM-LB), and the posterolateral bundle (PLB). Our hypothesis was that the three bundles differ in their microstructures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the microstructural differences among the three bundles. The normal ACLs of six fresh frozen cadavers were harvested. After the AM-MB, AM-LB, and PLB were identified, their fibril structures were analyzed using a transmission electron microscope. The fibril orientation, distribution pattern, and the mass average diameter of the fibrils (MAD) were compared among the AM-MBs, AM-LBs, and PLBs. The AM-MB and AM-LB fibrils were arranged mostly in the longitudinal direction, while the PLB fibrils were not aligned in a uniform direction. The fibril diameter distribution pattern of AM-MBs showed a bi-modal pattern due to the existence of small-diameter (30-40 nm) and large-diameter fibrils (70-80 nm), while that of the AM-LBs and PLBs had a unimodal pattern with one prominent high peak at a diameter of 50-60 nm. The mean MAD of the AM-MBs (83.2 - 11.2 nm) was significantly larger than that of the PLBs (66.8 - 7.7 nm), while it showed no significant difference compared to that of the AM-LBs (77.6 - 12.3 nm). The three ACL bundles have different ultrastructures. The AM-MB predominantly includes thick, uni-directionally oriented fibrils like tendons, while the PLB consists of thinner, multi-directionally oriented fibrils. The AM-LB shows an intermediate structure between the AM-MB and the PLB.

  19. Sex comparison of familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    Heidt, Robert S.; Waits, Chad; Finck, Samuel; Stanfield, Denver; Posthumus, Michael; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In an effort to identify risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, many potential risk factors have been proposed, including familial predisposition. However, no study has evaluated familial predisposition in male or females separately. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a familial predisposition to ACL injury exists in both males and females. Methods One hundred and twenty (78 males and 42 females) patients who had undergone surgical ACL reconstruction were recruited as the ACL group, and 107 patients (67 males and 40 females) that had undergone arthroscopic partial menisectomy, with no previous history of ACL injury, were recruited as the referent control group. A familial ACL injury and subject particulars questionnaire was completed. Results When all subjects were combined, the ACL group (20.0 %, 24 of 120) did not demonstrate a higher familial (first-degree relative) prevalence (n.s.) of ACL injury compared to the referent control group (15.0 %; 16 of 107 patients). When the data were stratified by sex, the male ACL group (19.2 %, 15 of 78) demonstrated a significantly higher familial (first-degree relative) prevalence (P = 0.02) of ACL injury compared to the male referent control group (7.5 %; 5 of 67 patients). There were no differences among the females (n.s.). Discussion The results of this study show that male patients with ACL tears are more likely to have a first-degree relative with an ACL tear compared to male referent control subjects. Future research is warranted to better delineate sex-specific risk factors for ACL injuries could help guide intervention programs aimed at preventative treatment strategies, especially in high-risk families. PMID:24402048

  20. Efficacy of Two Techniques in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hurt, James A; Berry, John H; Replogle, William; Thibodeaux, Kasey; Hydrick, Josie M; Barrett, Austin M; Barrett, Gene R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare failure rate and functional outcome in young, active patients (< 25 years) with two-incision (rear-entry) versus transtibial (all-endoscopic) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions.Utilizing a computerized relational database (Access 2007, Microsoft Inc., Redmond, WA), 480 patients were identified that underwent ACL reconstruction, using a bone-patellar-tendon-bone autograft, by a single surgeon between January 2000 and December 2010 via a transtibial or two-incision technique. Totally, 377 (78.6%) of these patients were less than 25 years of age. Data for each patient were collected at their initial clinic visit, at the time of surgery, and at each follow-up clinic visit and entered into the computerized relational database. Overall, 274 patients (72.7%) underwent ACL reconstruction with a transtibial technique, and 103 patients (27.3%) underwent reconstruction with a two-incision technique. Failures were identified as a 2+ Lachman, 1+ or greater pivot shift, or a KT-1000 arthrometer difference of five or more.In patients < 25 years of age, there were 10 failures (9.7%) out of 103 patients undergoing a two-incision reconstruction and 28 failures (10.2%) out of 274 patients undergoing a transtibial reconstruction (p = 1.000). There was no statistical significance between the failure rate in the two different groups in regards to gender, meniscal tear, activity level, or any other factor that was analyzed.Our study showed no statistical difference between the two-incision technique and the transtibial technique for ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar-tendon-bone autograft with an overall 10.1% failure rate in young, active patients (< 25 years of age). The level of evidence is level IV. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Defending Puts the Anterior Cruciate Ligament at Risk During Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Robert H.; Stepan, Jeffrey G.; Silvers, Holly J.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Soccer athletes are at risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. To date, there are limited studies on the mechanisms of ACL injuries in soccer athletes and no video-based analysis or sex-based comparison of these mechanisms. Hypothesis: There is no difference in ACL injury mechanisms among soccer athletes by sex. Study design: Case series. Level of evidence: Level 4. Methods: Fifty-five videos of ACL injuries in 32 male and 23 female soccer players were reviewed. Most athletes were professionals (22 males, 4 females) or collegiate players (8 males, 14 females). Visual analysis of each case was performed to describe the injury mechanisms in detail (game situation, player behavior, and lower extremity alignment). Results: The majority of ACL injuries occurred when the opposing team had the ball and the injured athlete was defending (73%). Females were more likely to be defending when they injured their ACLs (87% vs 63% for males, P = 0.045). The most common playing action was tackling (51%), followed by cutting (15%). Most injuries occurred due to a contact mechanism (56%) with no significant difference for sex. Females were more likely to suffer a noncontact injury in their left knee (54%) than males (33%) (P = 0.05). Conclusion: Soccer players are at greatest risk for ACL injury when defending, especially when tackling the opponent in an attempt to win possession of the ball. Females are more likely to injure their ACLs when defending and are at greater risk for noncontact injuries in their left lower extremity. Clinical Relevance: Soccer ACL injury prevention programs should include proper defending and tackling techniques, particularly for female athletes. PMID:26131302

  2. Gait Asymmetries Persist 1 Year After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    White, Kathleen; Logerstedt, David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), motivation to return to previous levels of activity is high. Very few studies have used return-to-activity criteria to determine when to permit athletic play. Return-to-activity measures objectively evaluate functional limb symmetry; however, previous biomechanical studies have found gait deviations in these individuals that persist up to 2 years after surgery. Purpose: To evaluate gait biomechanics in a specific cohort of ACL patients 1 year after surgery and retrospectively compare individuals who pass return-to-activity criteria 6 months after surgery with those who fail. Study Design: Prospective analysis. Methods: A total of 40 athletes who participated regularly (>50 h/y) in cutting, jumping, and pivoting activities and who sustained an isolated, unilateral ACL rupture were included in this study. All participants underwent reconstruction by the same surgeon and received individualized postoperative rehabilitation. Performance-based and self-report data were measured 6 months after surgery to assess readiness to return to activity (90% outcome required to pass); 20 subjects passed return-to-activity criteria and 20 subjects did not. Motion analysis was performed 1 year after surgery, and knee flexion angles, moments, and excursions were measured during gait and evaluated for all subjects. Results: There was no limb × group interaction or effect of group for all measures. Decreased knee measures were seen on the involved limb compared with the uninvolved limb for all subjects, and failed subjects demonstrated larger differences between limbs. Conclusion: Patients continued to demonstrate biomechanical limb asymmetries 1 year after ACLR, regardless of performance-based measures at 6 months. Early return to activity did not ensure limb symmetry at 1 year. Clinical Relevance: Gait asymmetries were seen in all subjects 1 year after surgery regardless of status at 6 months. Potentially prolonging

  3. Long Term Gait Deviations in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Females

    PubMed Central

    Noehren, Brian; Wilson, Hilary; Miller, Casey; Lattermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known of the potential long term gait alterations that occur after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In particular, variables such as impact loading which have been previously associated with joint deterioration have not been studied in walking and running after an ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to define the alterations in impact forces, loading rates, and the accompanying sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic mechanics at the time of impact between the ACL reconstructed group and a healthy control group. Methods 40 females (20 ACL reconstruction, 20 controls) participated in the study. An instrumented gait analysis was performed on all subjects. Between group and limb comparisons were made for initial vertical impact force, loading rate, sagittal plane knee and hip angles as well as moments. Results During walking and running the ACL cohort had significantly greater initial vertical impact force (p=0.002 and p= 0.001), and loading rates (p=0.03 and p= 0.01), as well as a smaller knee extensor moment and hip angle during walking (p=0.000 and p=0.01). There was a trend towards a smaller knee moment and hip angle during running (p=0.08 and p=0.06) as well as a larger hip extensor moment during walking (p=0.06) in the ACL group. No differences were found for hip extensor moment during running, knee angles between groups during walking or running. Lastly, no between limb differences were found for any variable. Conclusion Gait deviations such as elevated impact loading and loading rates do not resolve long term after the individual has resumed previous activity levels and may contribute to the greater risk of early joint degeneration in this population. PMID:23568090

  4. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Balazs, George C; Grimm, Patrick D; Donohue, Michael A; Keblish, David J; Rue, John-Paul

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to report the clinical and functional outcomes of revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in a young, active duty military population. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction were enrolled in an institutional clinical database and followed prospectively. The primary outcomes were patients' scores on a timed run, as compared with recorded scores before reinjury. Secondary outcomes included scores on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective (IKDC subjective), the Short Form - 36 health survey (SF-36) version 2, the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and the Tegner activity scale. A total of 13 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria and had complete follow-up. The mean age at revision ACL reconstruction was 20.5 years (range, 19-22 years), and mean follow-up was 40.2 months (range, 13-66 months). All patients underwent a single stage revision ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, ipsilateral hamstring autograft, or bone-tendon-bone allograft. Mean physical readiness test (PRT) score at final follow-up was not statistically different than documented preinjury PRT score (77.9 vs. 85.5, p > 0.05), nor was the mean run time (7:12 vs. 6:43/mile, p > 0.05). Significant improvements exceeding published minimal clinically important differences were seen in SANE score, SF-36 physical component summary score, KOOS sports and recreation, KOOS quality of life, WOMAC pain score, and WOMAC function score. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction at our facility show good recovery of baseline physical performance as measured by the semiannual PRT and timed run test, and significant improvements in patient-reported outcome scores. Level of Evidence Level IV, case series.

  5. Loss of Extracellular Matrix from Articular Cartilage is Mediated by the Synovium and Ligament after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Haslauer, Carla M.; Elsaid, Khaled A.; Fleming, Braden C.; Proffen, Benedikt L.; Johnson, Victor M.; Murray, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) occurs after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. PTOA may be initiated by early expression of proteolytic enzymes capable of causing degradation of the articular cartilage at time of injury. This study investigated the production of three of these key proteases in multiple joint tissues after ACL injury and subsequent markers of cartilage turnover. Design ACL transection was performed in adolescent minipigs. Collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-13) and aggrecanase (ADAMTS-4) gene expression changes were quantified in the articular cartilage, synovium, injured ligament, and the provisional scaffold at days 1, 5, 9, and 14 post-injury. Markers of collagen degradation (C2C), synthesis (CPII) and aggrecan synthesis (CS846) were quantified in the serum and synovial fluid. Histologic assessment of the cartilage integrity (OARSI scoring) was also performed. Results MMP-1 gene expression was upregulated in the articular cartilage, synovium and ligament after ACL injury. MMP-13 expression was suppressed in the articular cartilage, but upregulated 100fold in the synovium and ligament. ADAMTS-4 was upregulated in the synovium and ligament but not in the articular cartilage. The concentration of collagen degradation fragments (C2C) in the synovial joint fluid nearly doubled in the first five days after injury. Conclusion We conclude that upregulation of genes coding for proteins capable of degrading cartilage ECM is seen within the first few days after ACL injury, and this response is seen not only in chondrocytes, but also in cells in the synovium, ligament and provisional scaffold. PMID:24036379

  6. Effects of Oral Contraceptive Use on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gray, Aaron M; Gugala, Zbigniew; Baillargeon, Jacques G

    2016-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries often incur major consequences for athletes. Elevated estrogen levels are likely increase the risk for injury. This risk may be partially or fully mitigated by the use of oral contraceptives. The purpose of this study was to determine if women undergoing anterior cruciate ligament surgical reconstruction were less likely to use oral contraceptives than matched noninjured population. This is a case-control study utilizing national insurance claims data from 2002 TO 2012. Participants included women age 15-39 yr. Cases were defined as those receiving surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament between 2002 and 2012. Controls were matched 3/1 to cases. Exposure to oral contraceptives was defined as the presence of any prescription fill for oral contraceptives during the previous 12 months to index date. Conditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the use of oral contraceptives. Women age 15-19 yr undergoing surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament were 18% less likely to use oral contraceptives than matched controls (adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91; P < 0.0001). Cases among two older age groups, 25-29 and 30-34 yr, were more likely to use oral contraceptives than controls with adjusted odds ratios of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02-1.30; P < 0.05) and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.04-1.31; P < 0.05), respectively. The use of oral contraceptives potentially modifies anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in young women. Despite reports that athletes, who are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament injury, use oral contraceptives at about twice the rate of nonathletes, these data suggest that women ages 15-19 yr undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction used oral contraceptives at a lower rate than the general population.

  7. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury - A controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Felix, Ellen Cristina Rodrigues; Bessa, Felipe; Luna, Natália Ms; Sugimoto, Dai; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andrea; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2016-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury leads to adaptive responses to maintain postural control. However, there is no consensus regarding whether leg dominance also affects postural control in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic and static postural control among athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury to the dominant leg. Twenty-eight athletes, twenty-one males and seven females aged 15-45 years, were allocated to one of two groups: the anterior cruciate ligament injury group (26±3 years) or the control group without anterior cruciate ligament injury (25±6.5 years). All subjects performed one legged stance tests under eyes open and eyes closed conditions and squat and kick movement tests using a postural control protocol (AccuSwayPlus force platform, Massachusetts). The center of pressure displacement and speed were measured by the force platform. In addition, the distance traveled on the single-leg hop test was assessed as an objective measure of function. Significantly greater mediolateral sway was found under the eyes closed condition (p=0.04) and during squat movement (p=0.01) in the anterior cruciate ligament injury group than in the control group. Analysis of the single-leg hop test results showed no difference between the groups (p=0.73). Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury had greater mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure toward the dominant leg under the eyes closed condition and during squat movement compared to control athletes.

  8. Increasing posterior tibial slope does not raise anterior cruciate ligament strain but decreases tibial rotation ability.

    PubMed

    Nelitz, Manfred; Seitz, Andreas M; Bauer, Jasmin; Reichel, Heiko; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2013-03-01

    It was investigated whether the strain of the anterior cruciate ligament and tibial kinematics are affected by increasing posterior tibial slope. 9 human cadaveric knee joints were passively moved between full extension and 120° flexion in a motion and loading simulator under various loading conditions and at 0°, 5°, 10° and 15° posterior tibial slope angles. The anterior cruciate ligament strain and the tibial rotation angle were registered. To assess the influence of posterior tibial slope on the anterior cruciate ligament strain at a fixed flexion angle the anterior cruciate ligament strain was recorded at three different flexion angles of 0°, 30° and 90° while continuously increasing the osteotomy angle from 5° to 15°. The anterior cruciate ligament strain was either not affected by the posterior tibial slope angle or, in some load cases, was decreased for increasing posterior tibial slope (P<0.05). There was a significant decrease of tibial rotation when the posterior tibial slope was increased to 15° for many of the load cases tested (P<0.05). The mean maximum decrease was from 17.4° (SD 5.7°) to 11.2° (SD 4.7°) observed for flexion-extension motion under 30N axial load in combination with an internal rotation moment. The hypothesis that increasing posterior tibial slope results in higher anterior cruciate ligament strain was not confirmed. However, knee kinematics were affected in terms of a reduced tibial rotation. From a biomechanical point of view the data do not support the efficacy of sagittal osteotomies as performed to stabilize anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new classification of anterior talofibular ligament injuries based on ultrasonography findings.

    PubMed

    Kemmochi, Masahiko; Sasaki, Shigeru; Fujisaki, Kazuki; Oguri, Yusuke; Kotani, Akihiro; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonography (US) has become a useful tool in the evaluation of thickness and continuity of damaged ligaments owing to the rapid advances in its performance and availability. Furthermore, US examination is economical and can be undertaken in a more timely manner than MRI, as it can be performed during the first patient visit. It is also likely to be more accurate than the traditional method of palpating ligaments to diagnose possible injury. The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is most frequently injured of the lateral ankle ligaments and easy to depict on US. This study aimed to assess the treatment outcomes of lateral ankle ligament injuries using a new classification for ATFL injuries based on US findings. A total of 140 acute lateral ankle ligament injuries in 132 patients (46 men, 86 women) treated non-operatively were evaluated retrospectively. The average age of the patients was 17.8 years (range, 7-57 years). Patients with a complaint of lateral ankle injury were examined using US, and the anterior talofibular ligament damage was classified into 5 types depending on the type of the injury. The treatment method was selected based on the ultrasonographic classification, and the clinical results were assessed by original evaluation and compared between treatment methods and classification types. A Good or Excellent treatment result was obtained in 133 out of 140 injuries (95.0%). Significant differences were observed in the distribution of treatment methods by injury type (P < 0.001), and the distribution of outcomes was significantly different from the uniform distribution (P < 0.001). Our findings demonstrate that the ultrasonographic classification proposed in this study can be used to determine the appropriate treatment resulting in good outcomes for all types of anterior talofibular ligament damage. Visualization of injured ligaments using US may introduce a novel approach of rating and treating ligament injuries. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese

  10. Morphological changes in tibial tunnels after anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Ohori, Tomoki; Mae, Tatsuo; Shino, Konsei; Tachibana, Yuta; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2017-09-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed computed tomography (CT) is crucial for the reliable and accurate evaluation of tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the tibial tunnel enlargement at the tunnel aperture and inside the tunnel and to clarify the morphological change at the tunnel footprint 1 year after the anatomic triple-bundle (ATB) ACL reconstruction using 3D CT models. Eighteen patients with unilateral ACL rupture were evaluated. The ATB ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon autograft was performed. 3D computer models of the tibia and the three tibial tunnels were reconstructed from CT data obtained 3 weeks and 1 year after surgery. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the two anterior and the one posterior tunnels were measured at the tunnel aperture and 5 and 10 mm distal from the aperture and compared between the two periods. The locations of the center and the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral edges of each tunnel footprint were also measured and compared between the two periods. The CSA of the posterior tunnel was significantly enlarged at the aperture by 40.4%, whereas that of the anterior tunnels did not change significantly, although the enlargement rate was 6.1%. On the other hand, the CSA was significantly reduced at 10 mm distal from the aperture in the anterior tunnels. The enlargement rate in the posterior tunnel was significantly greater than that in the anterior tunnels at the aperture. The center of the posterior tunnel footprint significantly shifted postero-laterally. The anterior and posterior edges of the posterior tunnel footprint demonstrated a significant posterior shift, while the lateral edge significantly shifted laterally. There was no significant shift of the center or all the edges of the anterior tunnels footprint. The posterior tibial tunnel was significantly enlarged at the aperture by 40% with the morphological change in the

  11. Visibility of Anterolateral Ligament Tears in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees With Standard 1.5-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, David E; Carroll, Kevin W; Kosarek, Frank J; Piasecki, Dana P; Fleischli, James F; D'Alessandro, Donald F

    2016-10-01

    To attempt to visualize the ligament with standard 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-torn knee, and if it is visible, attempt to characterize it as torn or intact at its femoral, meniscal, and tibial attachment sites. This was a retrospective MRI study based on arthroscopic findings of a known ACL tear in 72 patients between the years 2006 and 2010. Patients all had hamstring ACL reconstructions, no concomitant lateral collateral ligament, or posterolateral corner injury based on imaging and physical examination, and had a preoperative 1.5-tesla MRI scan with standard sequences performed within 3 weeks of the injury. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed the preoperative MRI for visualization of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) for concomitant tears. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was calculated. Learning effect was analyzed to determine if radiologists' agreement improved as reads progressed. Both radiologists were able to visualize the ALL in 100% of the scans. Overall, ALL tears were noted in 26% by radiologist 1 and in 62% by radiologist 2. The agreement between the ligament being torn or not had a kappa of 0.54 between radiologists. The agreements in torn or not torn between radiologists in the femoral, meniscal, and tibial sites were 0.14, 0.15, and 0.31. The intraobserver reliability by radiologist 1 for femoral, meniscal, and tibial tears was 0.04, 0.57, and 0.54 respectively. For radiologist 2, they were 0.75, 0.61, and 0.55. There was no learning effect noted. ALL tears are currently unable to be reliably identified as torn or intact on standard 1.5-tesla MRI sequences. Proper imaging sequences are of crucial importance to reliably follow these tears to determine their clinical significance. Level IV, therapeutic case series study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Posterior tibial slope and further anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patient.

    PubMed

    Webb, Justin M; Salmon, Lucy J; Leclerc, Etienne; Pinczewski, Leo A; Roe, Justin P

    2013-12-01

    An injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a multifactorial event influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Recently, the geometry of the proximal tibia has come under focus as a possible risk factor for an ACL injury. An increased posterior tibial slope is associated with an increased risk of further ACL injuries in the previously ACL-reconstructed patient. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 200 consecutive patients with isolated ACL ruptures who underwent primary reconstruction with hamstring autografts were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study over 15 years. The posterior tibial slope was measured from a lateral knee radiograph by 2 blinded observers. The data were analyzed for the association between an increased posterior tibial slope and the incidence of further ACL injuries. Interobserver reliability of the posterior tibial slope measurements was assessed. Radiographs and follow-up were available for 181 of the 200 enrolled patients. Fifty patients had a further injury to either the ACL graft or the contralateral knee. The mean posterior tibial slope of those with a further ACL injury was 9.9° compared with 8.5° for those with no further injury (P = .001). The mean posterior tibial slope for those with both an ACL graft and contralateral ACL rupture was 12.9°. The odds of further ACL injuries after reconstruction were increased by a factor of 5, to an incidence of 59%, in those with a posterior tibial slope of ≥12°. An increased posterior tibial slope is associated with increased odds of a further ACL injury after ACL reconstruction. The increased risk is most pronounced in those with a posterior tibial slope of ≥12°.

  13. Specialized core stability exercise: a neglected component of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dong-liang; Li, Jing-long; Zhai, Hua; Wang, Hui-fang; Meng, Han; Wang, Yu-bin

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury has continued to increase over the last two decades. This injury is associated with abnormal gait patterns and osteoarthritis of the knee. In order to accelerate recovery, the introduction of core stability exercises into the rehabilitation program is proposed. The theory underlying the use of core stability exercise relates to the neuroplasticity that follows anterior cruciate ligament injury. Neuroplasticity in lumbar, thoracic, cervical and brain regions diminish activation in the contralateral thalamus, postparietal cortex, SM1, basal ganglia-external globus pallidus, SII, cingulated motor area, premotor cortex, and in the ipsilateral cerebellum and SM1 and increase activation in pre-SMA, SIIp, and pITG, indicating modifications of the CNS. In addition, the neuroplasticity can regulate the movement of trunk muscles, for example, sternocleidomastoid and lower trapezius muscles. Core stability also demonstrates a negative correlation with the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Therefore, we propose that core stability exercises may improve the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries by increasing core motor control. Specialized core stability exercises aimed at rectifying biomechanical problems associated with gait and core stability may play a key role in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  14. Effects of postoperative immobilization on the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament. An experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Muneta, T; Yamamoto, H; Takakuda, K; Sakai, H; Furuya, K

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effects of postoperative immobilization and limited motion on reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments, 28 rabbits received an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using autogenous Achilles tendon and were then divided into three groups: fully immobilized, 4 weeks immobilized, and limited motion. Two rabbits from each group were evaluated macroscopically, histologically and microangiographically at 4-week intervals until 12 weeks postoperatively. An additional six rabbits in the 4 weeks immobilized and limited motion groups were studied biomechanically at 12 weeks postoperatively. Macroscopically, both immobilized groups showed more proliferation of the infrapatellar fat pad, which was adherent to the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament. Histology revealed more rapid regeneration of reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments in the limited motion group, with no findings of necrosis in the mid-substance. Microangiography indicated faster normalization of vascularity in the limited motion group. The biomechanical study showed no significant difference in laxity between the 4 weeks immobilized and limited motion groups. The graft stiffness and maximum load to failure were greater for the limited motion group, although the increase was not statistically significant. The histologic and microangiographic results from the limited number of animals in this study support limited postoperative motion in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee. However, there were no differences in terms of the biomechanical parameters at 12 weeks postoperatively between the immobilized and limited motion treatment modes.

  15. An Ecological Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Timothy M.; Waddington, Gordon; Scarvell, Jennie M.; Ball, Nick; Creer, Rob; Woods, Kevin; Smith, Damian; Adams, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background: Additional high-quality prospective studies are needed to better define the objective criteria used in relation to return-to-sport decisions after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in active populations. Purpose: To investigate prospectively the relationship between functional performance test results at 24 weeks postoperative and return-to-sport activity (Tegner activity score) at 12 and 24 months, respectively, after synthetic (ligament advanced reinforcement system [LARS]) and autograft (doubled semitendinosus/gracilis [2ST/2GR]) ACL reconstructions. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 64 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction (32 LARS, 32 2ST/2GR autograft; mean age, 27.9 years; body mass index [BMI], 24.9 kg/m2) were assessed preoperatively and at staged intervals postoperatively up to 24 weeks for isokinetic testing of quadriceps and hamstring average power per repetition at 60 deg/s and 180 deg/s, a battery of hop tests, peak vertical ground-reaction force (vGRF), and time to peak vGRF (in seconds) during a step- and jump-down task onto a force platform and peak speed (m/s) using a global positioning system (GPS unit) during a running task. A cohort of 32 healthy matched participants (mean age, 26.31 years; BMI, 25.7 kg/m2) were also tested to act as reference. Pearson correlation was calculated to assess correlation of each performance measure at 24 weeks postoperative with activity outcomes (Tegner score) at 12 and 24 months. Results: The strongest correlation between physical performance tests and return-to-sport outcomes was observed with peak speed during running. Large correlations were also observed for hamstring isokinetic power and hop test for distance. Moderate correlations were observed for timed hop, peak vGRF during a jump-down task, and quadriceps isokinetic power. No statistical correlations were observed for time to peak vGRF during a step-down and jump-down task as well as peak v

  16. Automated fiber tracking and tissue characterization of the anterior cruciate ligament with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Priya S.; Guo, Jiaqi; Yao, Xinwen; Qu, Dovina; Lu, Helen H.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    The directionality of collagen fibers across the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) as well as the insertion of this key ligament into bone are important for understanding the mechanical integrity and functionality of this complex tissue. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional fiber directionality is of particular interest due to the physiological, mechanical, and biological heterogeneity inherent across the ACL-to-bone junction, the behavior of the ligament under mechanical stress, and the usefulness of this information in designing tissue engineered grafts. We have developed an algorithm to characterize Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) image volumes of the ACL. We present an automated algorithm for measuring ligamentous fiber angles, and extracting attenuation and backscattering coefficients of ligament, interface, and bone regions within mature and immature bovine ACL insertion samples. Future directions include translating this algorithm for real time processing to allow three-dimensional volumetric analysis within dynamically moving samples.

  17. Knee laxity control in revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction versus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and lateral tenodesis: clinical assessment using computer-assisted navigation.

    PubMed

    Colombet, Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Rotational laxity control is one of the different options to improve functional results after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Lateral extra-articular tenodesis has been proposed to reduce the rotational laxity, especially in challenging situations such as revision reconstruction after biological failure. We currently lack the practical clinical tools to objectively assess knee rotational laxities. Addition of a lateral tenodesis to anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft could improve the knee laxity control, particularly the internal rotation, compared with a standard single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty patients underwent navigated anatomic anteromedial bundle revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with addition of percutaneous extra-articular tenodesis using the same hamstring tendon graft. The navigation was used to optimize femoral and tibial tunnel positions and to measure the knee kinematics in response to the anterior drawer test, Lachman test, maximum internal/external rotation test, and pivot-shift test. All patients underwent revision after failure without any technical error found or new trauma. Two sequential reconstruction protocols were used to assess the contribution of the extra-articular tenodesis and single anteromedial bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to restrain tibial translations and coupled axial rotation occurring with the manually performed clinical laxity tests. In group A, the intra-articular reconstruction was fixed first and then the lateral tenodesis was fixed, and in group B, the protocol was reversed. Measurements were performed before the reconstruction, after the first part was fixed, and after the second part was fixed in each protocol. At 90° of flexion, addition of lateral tenodesis had a significant effect on coupled internal rotation (P = .003). Addition of the intra

  18. Functional Performance Testing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Gupta, Anil K.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: When to allow an athlete to return to unrestricted sporting activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. Purpose: To report the results of functional performance testing reported in the literature for individuals at differing time points following ACL reconstruction and to examine differences between graft types. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed using PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were English-language studies that examined any functional rehabilitation test from 6 months to 2 years following ACL reconstruction. All patient-, limb-, and knee-specific demographics were extracted from included investigations. All functional rehabilitation tests were analyzed and compared when applicable. Results: The search term returned a total of 890 potential studies, with 88 meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 4927 patients were included, of which 66% were male. The mean patient age was 26.5 ± 3.4 years. The predominant graft choices for reconstruction were bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) autograft (59.8%) and hamstring autograft (37.9%). The most commonly reported functional tests were the hop tests. The results of these functional tests, as reported in the Limb Symmetry Index (LSI), improved with increasing time, with nearly all results greater than 90% at 1 year following primary ACL reconstruction. At 6 months postoperatively, a number of isokinetic strength measurements failed to reach 80% LSI, most commonly isokinetic knee extension testing in both BPTB and hamstring autograft groups. The knee flexion strength deficit was significantly less in the BPTB autograft group as compared with those having hamstring autograft at 1 year postoperatively, while no significant differences were found in isokinetic extension strength between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Hop

  19. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Christino, Melissa A.; Fleming, Braden C.; Machan, Jason T.; Shalvoy, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Purpose: Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post–computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score–Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form–36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. Results: The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P < .05), KOOS-QOL scores (r = 0

  20. Clinical thresholds for quadriceps assessment after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kuenze, Christopher; Hertel, Jay; Saliba, Susan; Diduch, David R; Weltman, Arthur; Hart, Joseph M

    2015-02-01

    Normal, symmetrical quadriceps strength is a common clinical goal after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Currently, the clinical thresholds for acceptable unilateral quadriceps function and symmetry associated with positive outcomes after return to activity are unclear. To establish quadriceps-activation and knee-extension-torque cutoffs for clinical assessment after return to activity after ACLR. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. 22 (10 female, 12 male; age = 22.5 ± 5.0 y, height = 172.9 ± 7.1 cm, mass = 74.1 ± 15.5 kg, months since surgery = 31.5 ± 23.5) recreationally active persons with a history of unilateral, primary ACLR at least 6 months prior and 24 (12 female/12 male, age = 21.7 ± 3.6 y, height = 168.0 ± 8.8 cm, mass = 69.3 ± 13.6 kg) recreationally active healthy participants. Patient-reported measures of pain, knee-related function, and physical activity level were recorded for all participants. Normalized knee-extension maximum-voluntary-isometric-contraction (MVIC) torque (Nm/kg) and quadriceps central-activation ratio (CAR, %) were measured bilaterally in all participants. Receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) curves were used to establish thresholds for unilateral measures of normalized knee-extension MVIC torque and quadriceps CAR, as well as limb-symmetry indices (LSI). ROC curves then established clinical thresholds for normalized knee-extension MVIC torque and quadriceps CAR LSIs associated with healthy knee-related function. Involved-quadriceps CAR above 89.3% was the strongest unilateral indicator of healthy-group membership, while quadriceps CAR LSI above 0.996 and knee-extension MVIC torque above 0.940 were the strongest overall indicators. Unilateral normalized knee-extension MVIC torque above 3.00 Nm/kg and quadriceps CAR LSI above 0.992 were the best indicators of good patient-reported knee-related outcomes. Threshold values established in this study may provide a guide for clinicians when making return

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: A persistently difficult diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Parwaiz, Hammad; Teo, Alex Q A; Servant, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Historically anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have been diagnosed poorly. A paper published in Injury in 1996 showed that less than 10% of patients with an ACL injury had the diagnosis made by the first physician to see them and that the average delay from first presentation to diagnosis was 21 months. The aim of our study was to investigate whether an improvement has been made over the last two decades in diagnosing ACL injuries. We identified 160 patients who had an ACL reconstruction performed by a single surgeon between October 2004 and December 2011 and for whom a complete data set was available. Data was extracted retrospectively from the hospital notes and a dedicated patient database. We performed a sub-group analysis comparing patients seen prior to the introduction of an acute knee injury clinic in April 2007 and patients seen after the introduction of the clinic. 75.1% (120/160) of patients presented first to an emergency department (ED) or to their general practitioner (GP), but only 14.4% (23/160) were diagnosed on initial presentation. The median number of healthcare professionals a patient saw prior to a diagnosis of ACL injury was 3. The median delay from injury to presentation was 0 weeks (range 0-885), injury to diagnosis 13 weeks (0-926), presentation to diagnosis 10 weeks (0-924), presentation to a specialist knee clinic 24 weeks (0-1006), and specialist knee clinic to surgery 13 weeks (0-102). The median total time from injury to surgery was 42 weeks (0-1047). Following the implementation of an acute knee injury clinic in 2007, the median delay from presentation to surgery dropped from 59 weeks to 36 weeks (p = 0.050) and there was a significant decrease in the median delay from specialist knee clinic to surgery from 23 to 11 weeks (p=0.002). Over the past two decades there appears to have been little improvement in the early diagnosis of ACL injuries, with only 14.4% of patients being diagnosed correctly at initial presentation. We

  2. Patient expectations of primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Matthias J; Cotic, Matthias; Saier, Tim; Minzlaff, Philipp; Plath, Johannes E; Imhoff, Andreas B; Hinterwimmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Unrealistic patient expectations have been shown to negatively influence patient-reported outcomes in orthopaedic surgery. Knowledge about patient expectations is important to associate preoperative expectations with the reasonable outcome of a specific procedure. The purpose of this study was to prospectively analyse and to compare patient expectations of primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and to assess the factors associated with patient expectations. Preoperative expectations of 181 consecutive patients undergoing ACLR were assessed prospectively using a 5-item questionnaire. Primary ACLR (P-ACLR) was performed in 133 patients (73%), whereas 48 patients (27%) underwent revision ACLR (R-ACLR). The questionnaire assessed the expectation of the overall condition of the knee joint, return to sports, instability, pain, and risk of osteoarthritis. All patients expected a normal (38%) or nearly normal (62%) condition of the knee joint. Return to sports at the same level was expected by 91%. With regard to instability (pain), no instability (pain) independent of the activity level was expected by 77% (58%). No or only a slightly increased risk of the development of osteoarthritis was expected by 98%. The R-ACLR group showed a significantly lower expectation of the overall condition (p = 0.001), return to sports (p < 0.001), and pain (p = 0.002). No statistically significant difference was found between female and male patients (n.s.). In the P-ACLR group, patients with a history of previous knee surgery showed inferior expectations of return to sports (p = 0.015) and risk of osteoarthritis (p = 0.011). Age, number of previous knee surgeries, and pre-injury sports level significantly influenced patient expectations. Overall, patient expectations of ACL reconstruction are high. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction have lower but still demanding expectations. Younger patients, patients without a history of knee surgery, and

  3. Fifty most-cited articles in anterior cruciate ligament research.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Pramod B; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Rotmil, Gayle; Freedman, Kevin B

    2015-04-01

    The number of times an article has been cited in the peer-reviewed literature is indicative of its impact on its respective medical specialty. No study has used citation analysis to determine the most influential studies pertaining to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The primary aims of this study were to identify the classic works in ACL research using citation analysis and to characterize these articles to determine which types of studies have had the most influence on the field. A systematic query of ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was performed for articles pertaining to the ACL, and the 50 most-cited articles were selected for evaluation. The following characteristics were determined for each article: number of citations, citation density, journal, publication year, country of origin, language, article type, article subtype, and level of evidence. The number of citations ranged from 219 to 1073 (mean, 326), and the citation densities ranged from 4.9 to 55.6 citations per year (mean, 18.2). All articles were published in 1 of 11 journals, with the most being published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (46%) and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American (30%). The most common decades of publication were the 1990s (34%), 1980s (28%), and 2000s (26%). The majority (68%) of articles originated from the United States, and all were written in English. By article type, 42% were basic science, and 58% were clinical. Of the clinical articles, 3% were Level I, 17% were Level II, 28% were Level III, and 52% were Level IV. The articles were heterogeneous with regard to article type, article subtype, and level of evidence and tended to have the following characteristics: high-impact journal of publication, recent publication year, US origin, English language, and low level of evidence. These works represent some of the most popular scientific contributions to ACL research. This list may aid residency and fellowship

  4. Arthrofibrosis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McFeely, Eric D; Nasreddine, Adam; Udall, John H; Finlayson, Craig; Shearer, David W; Micheli, Lyle J; Kocher, Mininder S

    2011-12-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a known complication after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. ACL reconstruction is being performed with increased frequency in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of arthrofibrosis in children and adolescents and to identify risk factors for arthrofibrosis. The study design was a retrospective case series. Medical records for 1016 consecutive ACL reconstructions in patients aged 7 to 18 years old between 1995 to 2008 at a major tertiary care children's hospital were reviewed to identify cases of postoperative arthrofibrosis. Arthrofibrosis was defined as a loss of 5 degrees or more extension compared with the contralateral knee that required a follow-up procedure or a loss of 15 degrees or more flexion compared with the contralateral knee that required a follow-up procedure. Patient data were recorded and analyzed using bivariate models to identify predictors for arthrofibrosis. Further, we reviewed the clinical course of patients with treated arthrofibrosis to assess functional outcomes of this complication. Nine hundred two patients with 933 knees met the inclusion criteria for this study, of which 60% were female. The mean age at the time of surgery was 15 years (range, 7 to 18 y), and the average follow-up from original ACL reconstruction was 6.3 years (range, 1.6 to 14.2 y). The overall prevalence of arthrofibrosis in our cohort was 8.3%, with 77 of the 933 knees had at least 1 procedure to treat arthrofibrosis after ACL reconstruction. Risk factors for arthrofibrosis were female sex (11.1% females, P = 0.0001), patients aged 16 to 18 years [11.6%; odds ratio (OR) 3.51; P = 0 .007], patellar tendon autograft (OR, 1.7; P = 0.026), and concomitant meniscal repair (OR, 2.08; P = 0.007). Prior knee surgery and ACL reconstruction within 1 month of injury were not significantly associated with arthrofibrosis after ACL reconstruction. Fifty-three patients had a minimum of 6 months

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament deterioration correlates with patella osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Aizawa, Shin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Fu, Freddie H

    2014-04-01

    The correlation between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) condition and patella osteoarthritic (OA) changes has not been well reported. The aim of this study was to reveal the correlation between ACL deterioration and the morphology of OA changes in the patella. The hypothesis was that significant correlation between ACL deterioration and patella OA morphology would be revealed in this study. Two hundred ninety-one cadaveric knees from 151 cadavers were included in this study with a median age of 83 years (54-98). Knees were opened with a sub-vastus approach and the ACL condition was classified as intact or deteriorated. Patella OA lesions were classified using Han's method: type 1, no or minimal lesion; type 2, medial facet lesion without involvement of the ridge; type 3, lateral facet lesion without involvement of the ridge; type 4, lesion involving the ridge only; type 5, medial facet lesion with involvement of the ridge; type 6, lateral facet lesion with involvement of the ridge; and type 7, global lesion. OA depth evaluation was performed following Outerbridge's classification. Statistical analysis of the collected data was performed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). The ACL was intact in 277 knees and deteriorated in 14 knees. Patella OA lesions were observed as follows: type 1, 29%; type 2, 15%; type 3, 2%; type 4, 12%; type 5, 18%; type 6, 2%; and type 7, 22%. Outerbridge's classification of over grade 2 OA depth was observed in 73.5% of subjects. When patella OA was divided into types 1-4 and types 5-7, ACL deterioration was correlated with the occurrence of type 5-7 patella OA [OR 6.44, 95%CI 2.27-18.25, p = 0.000]. When patella OA was divided into types 1-6 and type 7, ACL deterioration was correlated with the occurrence of type 7 patella OA [OR 6.02, 95%CI 2.57-14.09, p = 0.000]. When patella OA depth was divided into grades 1-3 and grade 4, ACL deterioration was highly correlated with the occurrence of grade 4 patella OA [OR 9.31, 95

  6. Anterolateral ligament abnormalities in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture are associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Pieter; Clockaerts, Stefan; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Lambrecht, Valérie; Wouters, Kristien; De Smet, Eline; Gielen, Jan L; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    To determine the frequency of anterolateral ligament (ALL) injury in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and to analyse its associated injury patterns. Ninety patients with acute ACL rupture for which MRI was obtained within 8 weeks after the initial trauma were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists assessed the status of the ALL on MRI by consensus. The presence or absence of an ALL abnormality was compared with the existence of medial and lateral meniscal tears diagnosed during arthroscopy. Associated collateral ligament and osseous injuries were documented with MRI. Forty-one of 90 knees (46 %) demonstrated ALL abnormalities on MRI. Of 49 knees with intact ALL, 15 (31 %) had a torn lateral meniscus as compared to 25 torn lateral menisci in 41 knees (61 %) with abnormal ALL (p = 0.008). Collateral ligament (p ≤ 0.05) and osseous injuries (p = 0.0037) were more frequent and severe in ALL-injured as compared with ALL-intact knees. ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture and are statistically significantly associated with lateral meniscal, collateral ligament and osseous injuries. • ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture. • ALL injuries are highly associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries. • MRI assessment of ACL-injured knees should include evaluation of the ALL.

  7. Radiodense ligament markers for radiographic evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Borbas, Paul; Wieser, Karl; Rahm, Stefan; Fucentese, Sandro F; Koch, Peter P; Meyer, Dominik C

    2014-12-01

    Early clinical and radiographic diagnosis of failed or loosened anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions can be challenging. The aim of the present study is to retrospectively evaluate the use of radiologically visible markers in the ACL graft, serving as a potential diagnostic tool in ACL graft rupture and insufficiency. Twenty patients were included in the study. ACL reconstruction was performed with use of a hamstring autograft in hybrid fixation technique. The graft was marked with two radiodense suture knots, one at the tibial and femoral tunnel openings. Radiographs were performed postoperatively, after 6 weeks and 12 months. Four distances between markers and landmarks were measured in anteroposterior and three in lateral radiographic views and the positional change between the timepoints of measurement was calculated. Measurements of the marker distances on radiographs showed an excellent interobserver reliability (κ=0.97). In two measured distal anteroposterior distances statistically significant changes could be detected between 6 weeks and 12 months postoperatively in one patient with MRI-documented ACL rerupture and in five patients with ACL elongation defined as anteroposterior-translation with side-to-side difference of ≥3 mm measured with a Rolimeter device. On lateral radiographs, marker distances were highly variable and did not correlate with clinical ACL elongation. The application of radiodense ACL graft markers is a straight-forward, non-expensive and potentially useful diagnostic tool to identify the position of the transplant and for diagnosis of graft elongation or failure. However, the method is sensitive to the radiological projection, which should be further studied and optimized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Embolization in a Patient with Ruptured Anterior Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Arterial Aneurysm with Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yozo; Banno, Tatsuo; Arakawa, Toshinao; Hara, Masaki

    2002-08-15

    In median arcuate ligament syndrome, the root of the celiac artery is compressed and narrowed by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm during expiration, causing abdominal angina.Aneurysm may be formed in arteries of the pancreas and duodenum due toa chronic increase in blood flow from the superior mesenteric artery into the celiac arterial region. We report a patient saved by embolization with coils of ruptured aneurysm that developed with markedly dilated anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery due to median arcuate ligament syndrome.

  9. Collagen Fibril Diameter Distributions in Rabbit Anterior Cruciate and Medial Collateral Ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Robert A; Akeson, Wayne H; Spratt, Kevin; Amiel, David

    1999-01-01

    This study presents morphometric analyses of the collagen fibril diameters of rabbit anterior cruciate and medial collateral knee ligaments of New Zealand White rabbits (young, age two months and adult, age thirty-six to forty months). Measurements were made from transmission electron micrographs of transverse ligament sections of approximately 50,000x magnification. Statistically significant differences in the mean fibril diameters were found between the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments of the thirty-six to forty month old animals (.069 ± .005, .092 ± .016 mm, p < .1); however, no statistical significance was found for differences between these ligaments in two month old animals (.077 ± .006, .082 ± .009, p > .1). These data support the idea that known differences in fibril distributions of adult rabbit anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments develop with maturation, and may reflect both the cellular environment in which the fibrocytes of these ligaments are subject to, as well as the developmental genetic program of these cell populations. PMID:10847518

  10. The Effect of Skeletal Maturity on Functional Healing of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Martha M.; Magarian, Elise M.; Harrison, Sophia L.; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Zurakowski, David; Fleming, Braden C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The effects of skeletal maturity on functional ligament healing are unknown. Prior studies have suggested that ligament injuries in skeletally mature animals heal with improved mechanical properties. In this study, we hypothesized that skeletally immature animals have improved functional healing compared with skeletally mature animals. Methods: Twenty-one Yucatan minipigs (eight juvenile, eight adolescent, and five adult animals) underwent bilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection. On one side, the ligament injury was left untreated to determine the intrinsic healing response as a function of age. On the contralateral side, an enhanced suture repair incorporating a collagen-platelet composite was performed. Biomechanical properties of the repairs were measured after fifteen weeks of healing, and histologic analysis was performed. Results: Anterior cruciate ligaments from skeletally immature animals had significantly improved structural properties over those of adult animals at three months after transection in both the untreated and repair groups. Use of the enhanced suture technique provided the most improvement in the adolescent group, in which an increase of 85% in maximum load was noted with repair. The repair tissue in the adult tissue had the highest degree of hypercellularity at the fifteen-week time point. Conclusions: Functional ligament healing depends on the level of skeletal maturity of the animal, with immature animals having a more productive healing response than mature animals. Clinical Relevance: As future investigations assess new techniques of ligament healing in animal models, skeletal maturity should be considered in the design and the interpretation of those experiments. PMID:20810854

  11. Anterior Coracoscapular Ligament as a Factor Predisposing to or Protective for Suprascapular Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Mariusz; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Suprascapular neuropathy is a pathology caused by injury or compression of the suprascapular nerve. As the nerve runs from the anterior to posterior side of the scapula, the hot point where it is most susceptible to both injury and compression is the suprascapular notch. A literature search reveals several potential predisposing morphological factors in this area. However the most recent reports indicate that the structures at the suprascapular notch region may also prevent nerve injury and compression. The role of the anterior coracoscapular ligament (ACSL) remains unclear. While some studies indicate that it may predispose to suprascapular neuropathy, the newest study proposes a protective function. The aim of the article was to review the function of the anterior coracoscapular ligament in the light of the most recent studies. An understanding of the role of the ligament is essential for arthroscopic and other surgical procedures of this area in order to avoid iatrogenic injury of the suprascapular nerve. PMID:28105422

  12. Surgical treatment of acute and chronic anterior and posterior cruciate ligament and lateral side injuries of the knee.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce A; Boyd, Joel L; Stuart, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Combined anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, and lateral-sided injuries of the knee most often occurs secondary to a forced varus moment or after knee dislocation. Management controversies include the optimal timing of surgery, operative techniques, and postoperative rehabilitation. Recent systematic literature reviews have demonstrated higher rates of failure with repair of the lateral and posterolateral corner structures, as opposed to reconstruction. However, the ideal ligament reconstruction techniques remain unclear. This chapter will review the combined anterior cruciate ligament/posterior cruciate ligament/lateral-sided injury pattern, including the physical examination findings, imaging, timing of surgery, graft selection, operative techniques, and postoperative rehabilitation protocols.

  13. Perception of symmetry and asymmetry in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Roper, Jaimie A; Terza, Matthew J; Hass, Chris J

    2016-12-01

    Changes in the quantity, quality and integration of sensory information are thought to persist long after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and completion of physical therapy. Our purpose was to investigate the ability of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to perceive imposed asymmetry and symmetry while walking. Twenty participants with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and 20 controls walked on a split-belt treadmill while we assessed the ability to detect symmetry and asymmetry at fast and slow speeds. Detection scores and spatiotemporal data during asymmetric and symmetric tasks in which the belts were coupled or decoupled over time were recorded. The ability to detect symmetry and asymmetry was not altered in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared to healthy young adults. The belt-speed ratio at detection also correlated to asymmetry for step length, stride length, double support time, and stance time. However, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction group appeared to utilize unique information to determine detection. When asked to detect symmetry at a fast speed, no asymmetry scores significantly correlated with belt-speed ratio in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction group. Conversely, asymmetry in stride length, step length, and stance time all significantly correlated with belt-speed ratio at detection in the control group. Specific sensory cues arising from the speed of the leg may also augment perception of symmetry. This strategy may be necessary in order to successfully execute the motor task, and could develop due to altered sensory information from the reconstructed knee at faster walking speeds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  15. Return to Sport After Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Its Effect on Subsequent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Travis J; Godin, Jonathan A; Dale, Kevin M; Garrett, William E; Taylor, Dean C; Riboh, Jonathan C

    2017-06-07

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft failure and contralateral ACL tears are more frequent in children and adolescents than adults. The reasons for higher subsequent injury rates in this population are incompletely understood. We analyzed a continuous cohort of patients who were <18 years of age. Subjects underwent isolated, primary ACL reconstruction with autograft between 2006 and January 1, 2014, and had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Return-to-sport characteristics were described, and multivariable Cox regression modeling was used to identify predictors of a second ACL injury. Candidate variables included patient factors (age, sex, physeal status, tibial slope, notch width index), surgical characteristics (graft type, surgical technique), measures of recovery (time to return to sport, duration of physical therapy), and patients' preoperative and postoperative sports involvement (primary and secondary sports, number of sports). A total of 112 subjects met inclusion criteria; of these patients, 85 (76%) had complete follow-up data and were analyzed. The mean age (and standard deviation) was 13.9 ± 2.1 years (range, 6 to 17 years); 77% had open physes. The mean follow-up was 48.3 ± 15.3 months. Seventy-seven patients (91%) returned to sports, and 84% returned to the same sport. The mean Marx activity score at the time of the latest follow-up was 13.7 ± 3.5 points. Patients were involved in fewer sports after ACL reconstruction, 1.48 ± 0.92 compared with 1.83 ± 1.01 sports before reconstruction (p = 0.002). Sixteen patients (19%) sustained an ACL graft rupture, 11 patients (13%) sustained a contralateral ACL tear, and 1 of these patients (1%) sustained both. The overall prevalence of a second ACL injury was 32%. Time to return to sport was the only significant predictor of a second ACL injury, with a slower return being protective (hazard ratio per month, 0.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.99]; p = 0.04). Pediatric athletes return to sports at a high rate

  16. [Intra- and extra-articular hamstring reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament tears].

    PubMed

    Buscayret, C; Buscayret, F; Farenq, C

    2001-05-01

    We examined a reconstruction technique for tears of the anterior cruciate ligament using the hamstring tendons. The tendons were harvested en bloc, leaving the tibial insertion intact. Three intra-articular strands (two semitendinous and one gracilis) and lateral tenodesis were used with continuity via the gracilis. The intra-articular procedure was performed arthroscopically with tunneling laterally to medially to achieve the best position. Ligamentoplasty was performed in 262 cases. Outcome was satisfactory. This method preserves the lateral iliotibial sheath and spares the extensors apparatus. It is particularly interesting for reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament tears when a lateral tenodesis appears to be necessary.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  18. Editorial Commentary: Renaissance of Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair: Is History Repeating Itself?

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik

    2016-12-01

    In a comparative Level III study, Achtnich et al. compared suture anchor repair of acute proximal anterior cruciate ligament avulsion tears with single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the quadrupled semitendinosus tendon. Short-term follow-up at a mean of 28 months showed that the between-group differences were not different. These results are encouraging but not different from other published series 25+ years ago. Only time will tell whether the long-term outcomes are identical and whether these techniques will also die a slow death. Hopefully history is not repeating itself.

  19. The Impact of the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) Research on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Orthopaedic Practice.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T Sean; Parker, Richard D; Patel, Ronak M; Andrish, Jack T; Spindler, Kurt P; Amendola, Annunziata; Brophy, Robert H; Dunn, Warren R; Flanigan, David C; Huston, Laura J; Jones, Morgan H; Kaeding, Christopher C; Marx, Robert G; Matava, Matthew J; McCarty, Eric C; Pedroza, Angela D; Reinke, Emily K; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W

    2015-03-01

    With an estimated 200,000 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions performed annually in the United States, there is an emphasis on determining patient-specific information to help educate patients on expected clinically relevant outcomes. The Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network consortium was created in 2002 to enroll and longitudinally follow a large population cohort of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. The study group has enrolled >4,400 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions from seven institutions to establish the large level I prospective anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction outcomes cohort. The group has become more than a database with information regarding anterior cruciate ligament injuries; it has helped to establish a new benchmark for conducting multicenter, multisurgeon orthopaedic research. The changes in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction practice resulting from the group include the use of autograft for high school, college, and competitive athletes in their primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Other modifications include treatment options for meniscus and cartilage injuries, as well as lifestyle choices made after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  20. Loss of extracellular matrix from articular cartilage is mediated by the synovium and ligament after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Haslauer, C M; Elsaid, K A; Fleming, B C; Proffen, B L; Johnson, V M; Murray, M M

    2013-12-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) occurs after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. PTOA may be initiated by early expression of proteolytic enzymes capable of causing degradation of the articular cartilage at time of injury. This study investigated the production of three of these key proteases in multiple joint tissues after ACL injury and subsequent markers of cartilage turnover. ACL transection was performed in adolescent minipigs. Collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-13) and aggrecanase (ADAMTS-4) gene expression changes were quantified in the articular cartilage, synovium, injured ligament, and the provisional scaffold at days 1, 5, 9, and 14 post-injury. Markers of collagen degradation (C2C), synthesis (CPII) and aggrecan synthesis (CS 846) were quantified in the serum and synovial fluid. Histologic assessment of the cartilage integrity (OARSI scoring) was also performed. MMP-1 gene expression was upregulated in the articular cartilage, synovium and ligament after ACL injury. MMP-13 expression was suppressed in the articular cartilage, but upregulated 100-fold in the synovium and ligament. ADAMTS-4 was upregulated in the synovium and ligament but not in the articular cartilage. The concentration of collagen degradation fragments (C2C) in the synovial joint fluid nearly doubled in the first five days after injury. We conclude that upregulation of genes coding for proteins capable of degrading cartilage ECM is seen within the first few days after ACL injury, and this response is seen not only in chondrocytes, but also in cells in the synovium, ligament and provisional scaffold. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Skeletally Immature

    PubMed Central

    Kercher, Jim; Xerogeanes, John; Tannenbaum, Allen; Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Black, James C.; Zhao, John

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has proven to be a reliable method to restore knee stability. However, the risk of physeal arrest with transphyseal tunnel placement in skeletally immature patients has raised concern regarding this technique. Conservative nonoperative management also has its limitations resulting in meniscal and chondral damage that may lead to degenerative joint disease and poor return to sport. Researchers have used animal models to study the threshold of physeal damage producing growth deformity. The purpose of this study was to examine the distal femoral and proximal tibial physes and determine the damage produced by drilling transphyseal tunnels. In addition, we attempted to find a reproducible angle at which to drill the tibial tunnel for safe interference screw placement. To do this, we used a custom software module. Methods A custom software package designed by our team was used: Module for Adolescent ACL Reconstructive Surgery (MAARS). This module created a 3-dimensional model of the distal femur and proximal tibia. The data required for MAARS were sagittal and coronal T1 magnetic resonance imagings of at least 1.5T. Thirty-one knee magnetic resonance imaging studies from patients aged 10 to 15 years old were used. The physes were segmented out to obtain volumetric measurements. Transphyseal tunnels were simulated based on the anatomic trajectory of the native ACL. The module calculated volume of physis was removed with the use of an 8-mm tunnel and the optimum angle for trajectory. Results Average volume of the tibial and femoral physis was 12,683.1 μL and 14,708.3 μL, respectively. The volume increased linearly with age. Average volume removed from the tibial and femoral physis was 318.4 μL and 306.29 μL, respectively. This represented 2.4% of the distal femoral physis and 2.5% of the proximal tibial physis. The volume percent removed decreased linearly with age. Manipulation of the variables

  2. Neural Excitability Alterations After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Lepley, Adam S.; Ericksen, Hayley M.; Clements, Amy; Sohn, David H.; Gribble, Phillip A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Neuromuscular dysfunction is common after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). However, little is known about quadriceps spinal-reflex and descending corticomotor excitability after ACL-R. Understanding the effects of ACL-R on spinal-reflex and corticomotor excitability will help elucidate the origins of neuromuscular dysfunction. Objective To determine whether spinal-reflex excitability and corticomotor excitability differed between the injured and uninjured limbs of patients with unilateral ACL-R and between these limbs and the matched limbs of healthy participants. Design Case-control study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 28 patients with unilateral ACL-R (9 men, 19 women; age = 21.28 ± 3.79 years, height = 170.95 ± 10.04 cm, mass = 73.18 ± 18.02 kg, time after surgery = 48.10 ± 36.17 months) and 29 participants serving as healthy controls (9 men, 20 women; age = 21.55 ± 2.70 years, height = 170.59 ± 8.93 cm, mass = 71.89 ± 12.70 kg) volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s) Active motor thresholds (AMTs) were collected from the vastus medialis (VM) using transcranial magnetic stimulation. We evaluated VM spinal reflexes using the Hoffmann reflex normalized to maximal muscle responses (H : M ratio). Voluntary quadriceps activation was measured with the superimposed-burst technique and calculated using the central activation ratio (CAR). We also evaluated whether ACL-R patients with high or low voluntary activation had different outcomes. Results The AMT was higher in the injured than in the uninjured limb in the ACL-R group (t27 = 3.32, P = .003) and in the matched limb of the control group (t55 = 2.05, P = .04). The H : M ratio was bilaterally higher in the ACL-R than the control group (F1,55 = 5.17, P = .03). The quadriceps CAR was bilaterally lower in the ACL-R compared with the control group (F1,55 = 10.5, P = .002). The ACL-R group with low voluntary activation (CAR < 0.95) had higher AMT than

  3. The Effect of Kinesiotaping Implementation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ural, İbrahim Halil; Duymaz, Tomris; Özgönenel, Levent

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to measure effects of kinesiotaping on pain and range of motion in the conservative treatment of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) rupture. Material-Methods: A total of 26 patients(24 women, 2 men) who had unilateral ACL rupture 64.46±9.00 years old(46-81years), 13 had physiotherapy only(mean age 64.46±9.35 years),13 had physiotherapy and kinesiotape(mean age 64.46±9.01 years).The patients in both groups received physiotherapy program (ultrasound with 1 MHz, 1W/cm2 during 5minutes; CPM; strength exercise for quadriceps muscle and cold pack during 15 minute). Kinesiotape was applied to the knee and quadriceps of the patient’s leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a only physiotherapy group.The patients were treated 20 times for four weeks. Socio-demographic variables (gender, age, body mass index, Kellgren-Lawrence system for classification of knee osteoarthritis, use of analgesic drug, pain during rest and activity (VAS=Visual Analog Scale), range of motion of knee flexion and extansion (universal goniometer), circumference measurements of the knee and the quadriceps muscle (up to 10 cm of patella) were measured at baseline, mid the treatment program and after the treatment program. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 22.0 for Windows.Frequency and percentage (average, standard deviation)were used as descriptive statistics of the study.The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the differences between before and after treatment measurements.The Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare groups.Significance was accepted as p<0.05. Results: No significant differences were found in age and BMI between groups (p=0.898, 0.505). The data of stage 3(n=22) and 4(n=4) patients with osteoarthritis were gathered according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification. Mean day of use of analgesic drug were 17.30±7.33 in KT group, 18.23±9.84 in physiotherapy

  4. Factors Associated With High-Grade Lachman, Pivot Shift, and Anterior Drawer at the Time of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Robert A; Reinke, Emily K; Huston, Laura J; Hewett, Timothy E; Spindler, Kurt P

    2016-06-01

    To determine which patient and injury factors are associated with the detection of high-grade laxity on examination under anesthesia before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We identified 2,318 patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction without associated ligament injuries. Demographic data and information regarding meniscal tears were collected. Patients with high-grade Lachman (difference from contralateral side >10 mm), pivot-shift (International Knee Documentation Committee grade 3+), or anterior drawer (difference from contralateral side >10 mm) tests were identified by physical examination under anesthesia before ACL reconstruction. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate whether chronicity of the ACL injury, patient age, sex, body mass index, generalized ligamentous laxity, and presence of meniscal tears were associated with increased odds of high-grade laxity, while we controlled for examining surgeon. Patients with chronic tears (>6 months from injury) had greater than twice the odds of having high-grade Lachman, pivot-shift, and anterior drawer tests (all P < .001) relative to patients with acute tears (<3 months from injury). Generalized ligamentous laxity (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; P < .001) and the presence of medial (OR, 1.63; P < .001) or lateral (OR, 1.41; P = .013) meniscus tears were associated with increased odds of a high-grade Lachman test. Age younger than 20 years (OR, 1.34; P = .023), female sex (OR, 1.49; P = .001), generalized ligamentous laxity (OR, 3.46; P < .001), and the presence of a medial (OR, 1.53; P < .001) or lateral (OR, 1.27; P = .041) meniscus tear were associated with increased odds of a high-grade pivot-shift test. Generalized ligamentous laxity (OR, 2.27; P < .001) and the presence of a medial (OR, 1.73; P = .001) or lateral (OR, 1.50; P = .010) meniscus tear were associated with increased odds of a high-grade anterior drawer test. Chronic ACL tears, generalized ligamentous laxity

  5. Biomechanics of the anterior cruciate ligament: Physiology, rupture and reconstruction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Domnick, Christoph; Raschke, Michael J; Herbort, Mirco

    2016-01-01

    The influences and mechanisms of the physiology, rupture and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on kinematics and clinical outcomes have been investigated in many biomechanical and clinical studies over the last several decades. The knee is a complex joint with shifting contact points, pressures and axes that are affected when a ligament is injured. The ACL, as one of the intra-articular ligaments, has a strong influence on the resulting kinematics. Often, other meniscal or ligamentous injuries accompany ACL ruptures and further deteriorate the resulting kinematics and clinical outcomes. Knowing the surgical options, anatomic relations and current evidence to restore ACL function and considering the influence of concomitant injuries on resulting kinematics to restore full function can together help to achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26925379

  6. Surgical Treatment of a Rare Isolated Bilateral Agenesis of Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligaments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The isolated bilateral agenesis of both cruciate ligaments is a rare congenital disorder. A 17-year-old male came to our attention due to an alteration in gait pattern, pain, and tendency to walk on the forefoot with his knee flexed. The patient did not recall previous injuries. Upon physical examination anterior and posterior chronic instability were observed. Radiographic examination of both knees showed hypoplasia of the tibial eminence, a hypoplastic lateral femoral condyle, and a narrow intercondylar notch. MRI brought to light a bilateral agenesis of both posterior cruciate ligaments. Arthroscopic evaluation confirmed bilateral isolated agenesis of both cruciate ligaments. We recommended a rehabilitation program to prepare the patient for the arthroscopic construction of both cruciate ligaments. PMID:25197599

  7. Anterolateral ligament abnormalities are associated with peripheral ligament and osseous injuries in acute ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Helito, Paulo Victor Partezani; Leão, Renata Vidal; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have used MRI to identify the ALL. As it was shown that it is not possible to precisely characterize this ligament in all examination, it is important to identify concomitant lesions that can help in diagnosing ALL abnormalities. It is important to characterise this injury due to its association with anterolateral knee instability. Thus, the present study was performed to determine the frequency of ALL injuries in patients with acute ACL rupture and to analyse its associated knee lesions. Patients with acute ACL injuries were evaluated by MRI. Among this population, the ALL was classified as non-visualised, injured or normal. The possible abnormalities of the meniscus, collateral ligaments, popliteus tendon, posterior cruciate ligament, Iliotibial band (ITB), anterolateral capsule and osseus injuries were evaluated. The association of an ALL injury with these other knee structures as well as sex and age was calculated. Among the 228 knees evaluated, the ALL could not be entirely identified in 61 (26.7%). Of the remaining 167, 66 (39.5%) presented an ALL abnormality and only four (6.1%) were Segond fractures. ALL abnormalities were associated with lesions of the lateral collateral ligament, medial collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, ITB, anterolateral capsule and osseous contusions of the femoral condyle and tibial plateau. No correlation was found with medial meniscus, lateral meniscus and posterior cruciate ligament injuries. There was no association between ALL injuries and gender, and older patients were more likely to present an ALL injury. ALL injuries are present in approximately 40% of ACL injuries, and a minority of these are Segond fractures. These injuries are associated with peripheral ligament injuries, anterolateral structures lesions and bone contusions, but there is no association with meniscal injuries. Surgeons must be aware of these associations to consider an ALL lesion even if it is not completely clear in imaging evaluation

  8. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  9. Fracture of the proximal extremity of the tibia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: case report.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Carneiro, Márcio; de Almeida Monteiro, Thiago; Zenovello Bueno, Marcos Renato; Augustin Júnior, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare condition that has been little described in the literature: a fracture of the proximal extremity of the tibia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an autologous patellar bone-tendon graft. In this report, we discuss the factors that predisposed toward this episode, the treatment and the evolution of the case after the surgical treatment.

  10. Training for Women's Basketball: A Biomechanical Emphasis for Preventing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Robert W.; Bryson, Erin R.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes proposed variables linked with higher incidences of anterior cruciate ligament tears in females and the biomechanical aspects of the lower extremity during the performance of common basketball skills, focusing on gender differences in knee joint stability and neuromuscular control, biomechanical aspects of lower extremity skills in…

  11. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  12. Early histologic, metabolic, and vascular assessment of anterior cruciate ligament autografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, J.B.; Amiel, D.; Harwood, F.L.; Akeson, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A rabbit model for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autogenous patellar tendon was utilized to study the early events of autograft cellular dynamics. Biochemical, autoradiographic, histological, and vascular injection techniques demonstrated that the native autograft cell population rapidly necroses. This repopulation occurs without a vascular contribution; cells entering the autograft are reliant upon synovial fluid nutrition.

  13. Training for Women's Basketball: A Biomechanical Emphasis for Preventing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Robert W.; Bryson, Erin R.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes proposed variables linked with higher incidences of anterior cruciate ligament tears in females and the biomechanical aspects of the lower extremity during the performance of common basketball skills, focusing on gender differences in knee joint stability and neuromuscular control, biomechanical aspects of lower extremity skills in…

  14. An in vitro study of the Müller anterolateral femorotibial ligament tenodesis in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Draganich, L F; Reider, B; Miller, P R

    1989-01-01

    The biomechanical effectiveness of the Müller anterolateral femorotibial ligament (ALFTL) iliotibial band tenodesis on anterior stability and internal rotational stability of the ACL deficient knee was investigated in six cadaver knees. Anterior drawer and internal rotation of the tibia were measured at 15 degrees increments from 0 degrees to 90 degrees in response to 50 N of anteriorly applied tibial force and 3 Nm of internally applied internal torque, respectively, in the intact knee, the ACL excised knee, and following the ALFTL reconstruction. A strain gage was used to measure the resting graft tension and to measure strain in the graft during the load-displacement tests. The Müller ALFTL tenodesis failed to return normal anterior stability to the ACL deficient knee (P less than 0.05). The tenodesis did, however, reduce the anterior laxity of the ACL deficient knee from 30 degrees to 90 degrees of knee flexion (P less than 0.05). The tenodesis overconstrained internal tibial rotation of the ACL excised knee from 30 degrees to 90 degrees (P less than 0.05). Measurements of strain in the tenodesis supported the load-displacement findings that the tenodesis was most effective in constraining anterior drawer and internal tibial rotation from 30 degrees to 90 degrees of knee flexion.

  15. Surgical Indications and Technique for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Combined with Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis or Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Vundelinckx, Bart; Herman, Benjamin; Getgood, Alan; Litchfield, Robert

    2017-01-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, anteroposterior and rotational laxity in the knee causes instability, functional symptoms, and damage to other intra-articular structures. Surgical reconstruction aims to restore the stability in the knee, and to improve function and ability to participate in sports. It also protects cartilage and menisci from secondary injuries. Because of persistent rotational instability after ACL reconstruction, combined intra-articular and extra-articular procedures are more commonly performed. In this article, an overview of anatomy, biomechanical studies, current gold standard procedures, techniques, and research topics are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Arthroscopically assisted internal fixation of avulsion fractures of the anterior cruciate ligament during childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Dirk W

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive reduction and internal fixation of anterior tibial spine and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) without harming knee joint cartilage and physis of the proximal tibia. Anterior tibial spine fractures type II-IV according to Meyers/McKeever. ACL tears. Fractures of the tibial plateau. Fractures involving the growth plate (Aitken I-III). 1. Diagnostic arthroscopy and drainage of the knee joint. Search for additional injuries (menisci, knee joint cartilage, collateral ligaments, posterior cruciate ligament). 2. Arthroscopy-assisted reduction of anterior tibial spine fragment. 3. Epiphyseal internal fixation with Kirschner wires or cannulated screws according to fragment size. Full weight bearing as tolerated after wound healing (day 7 after surgery) in 20 degrees of knee flexion (orthesis or ankle-sparing cast tutor). X-rays postoperatively and after 3 and 6 weeks. Passive and active physiotherapy (extension and flexion without weight bearing) 3-4 weeks postoperatively according to patient's age, weight and compliance. Weight bearing in knee flexion (stairs) 6-8 weeks postoperatively. 19 patients were treated from 2001 to 2005 at an age of 7-14 years. All patients achieved free range of motion without pain or growth disturbances. Three patients developed slight joint laxity (anterior drawer test) which did not affect mobility, sports performance, joint surface or menisci on clinical evaluations conducted at least 1 year postoperatively. One patient had bony healing of the tibial spine in slight dislocation without impingement or decrease of range of motion within the knee joint.

  17. Assessment of Knee Proprioception in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Position in Healthy Subjects: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mir, Seyed Mohsen; Talebian, Saeed; Naseri, Nasrin; Hadian, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] Knee joint proprioception combines sensory input from a variety of afferent receptors that encompasses the sensations of joint position and motion. Poor proprioception is one of the risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Most studies have favored testing knee joint position sense in the sagittal plane and non-weight-bearing position. One of the most common mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury is dynamic knee valgus. No study has measured joint position sense in a manner relevant to the mechanism of injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure knee joint position sense in the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position and normal condition. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male athletes participated in the study. Joint position sense was evaluated by active reproduction of the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position and normal condition. The dominant knees of subjects were tested. [Results] The results showed less accurate knee joint position sense in the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position rather than the normal condition. [Conclusion] The poorer joint position sense in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position compared with the normal condition may contribute to the increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  18. Microstructure Variations in the Soft-Hard Tissue Junction of the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Peter V S; Ackland, David C; Broom, Neil D; Thambyah, Ashvin

    2017-09-01

    The role of the sub-bundles in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been defined, such that the anterior-medial bundle directly resists anterior tibial translation while the posterior lateral bundle is involved in rotational stability. With regards to this biomechanical function, much of the previous work on bundle-specific morphology has been carried out on the macroscale, with much less attention given to the micro-to-ultrastructural scalar levels. This is especially true of the enthesis and its microstructure, a biomechanically significant region that has been largely neglected in the published literature dealing with ACL sub-bundle anatomy. In this study, the human ACL tibial enthesis was investigated at multiple scalar levels using differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopies with the aim of determining whether the sub-bundle ligament structure, and its known macroscale function, is consistent with its micro-architecture at the ligament-bone junction. The investigation found that different ligament insertion morphologies exist between the two bundles, where the AM bundle has more intense interdigitation with the bone matrix than that of the PL bundle. The results suggest that such structure-function relationships, especially across scalar-levels, provide new insight into the significance of the sub-bundle anatomy of the ACL. Anat Rec, 300:1547-1559, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison of artificial graft versus autograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Chen; Cao, Shi-Qi; Xue, Chen-Chen; Liu, Tian-Ze; Huang, Xuan; Xu, Wei-Dong

    2017-07-19

    Critically evaluation and summarization for the outcomes between autografts and artificial grafts using in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have not been performed currently. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes between artificial ligaments and autografts at a short- to mid-term follow-up. A computerized search of the databases was conducted including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library. Only prospective or retrospective comparative studies with a minimum 2-year follow-up and a minimum sample size of 15 for each group were considered for inclusion. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and methodological quality assessment. A Mantel-Haenszel analysis was used for pooling of results. Sensitivity analysis was performed in order to maintain the stability of results. Seven studies were included in this study. The total sample size was 403 (autograft group: 206 patients; synthetic graft group: 197 patients). Four studies were randomized controlled trials. Two studies were retrospective comparative studies and one study was non-randomized prospective comparative study. In terms of instrumented laxity, patient-oriented outcomes and complications, no significant difference was occurred between new artificial ligaments and autografts. But the results of IKDC grades and instrumented laxity were worsen in early artificial ligaments compared to autografts. The outcomes of new generation of artificial ligaments are similar to autografts at a short- to mid-term follow-up. However, the early artificial ligaments are not suggested for ACL reconstruction compared to autografts.

  20. Dynamic restraint capacity of the hamstring muscles has important functional implications after anterior cruciate ligament injury and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Adam L; Creaby, Mark W; Newton, Robert U; Steele, Julie R

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between knee functionality of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients and hamstring antagonist torque generated during resisted knee extension. Cross-sectional. Laboratory based. Male ACLD subjects (n=10) (18-35 y) and 27 matched males who had undergone ACLR (14 patella tendon [PT] grafts and 13 combined semitendinosus/gracilis tendon grafts). Not applicable. Knee functionality was rated (0- to 100-point scale) by using the Cincinnati Knee Rating System. Using electromyography data from the semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris muscles, we created a mathematical model to estimate the opposing torque generated by the hamstrings during isokinetic knee extension in 10 degrees intervals from 80 degrees to 10 degrees knee flexion. Pearson product-moment correlations revealed that more functional ACLD subjects generated significantly (P<.05) higher hamstring antagonist torque throughout knee extension. In contrast, more functional PT subjects produced significantly lower hamstring antagonist torque at 80 degrees to 70 degrees knee flexion, whereas no significant associations were found between hamstring antagonist torque and knee functionality for the ST/gracilis tendon subjects. An increased hamstring antagonist torque generated by the more functional ACLD subjects, reflective of increased hamstring contractile force, is thought to represent a protective mechanism to compensate for mechanical instability. The restoration of anterior knee stability through ACLR negates the need for augmented hamstring antagonist torque.

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture secondary to a 'heel hook': a dangerous martial arts technique.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph F; Devitt, Brian M; Moran, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The 'heel hook' is a type of knee lock used in some forms of martial arts to stress the knee and cause opponent to concede defeat. While the knee is in a flexed and valgus disposition, an internal rotation force is applied to the tibia. Reports are lacking on serious knee trauma as a result of this technique. We report the case of a 32-year-old Mixed Martial Arts exponent who sustained complete anterior cruciate ligament rupture and an medial collateral ligament injury from the use of a 'heel hook'.

  2. Modeling the growth plates in the pediatric knee: implications for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Guarino, J; Tennyson, S; Barrios, Y; Shea, K; Pfeiffer, R; Sabick, M

    2004-10-01

    The authors develop 3-D models of the pediatric knee from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image files, with the goal of minimizing injury to the pediatric growth plate during surgery. Computerized tomography (CT) scans have better resolution and contrast between bone and soft tissue than MRI scans; however, surgeons rely upon MRI scans to plan knee-joint surgeries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Surgeons can use the virtual models to plan and verify surgical procedures such as hole drilling and ligament attachments, and to determine volume removed from a growth plate due to different drill-hole placements with various drill sizes.

  3. Increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament revision surgery in paediatric verses adult population.

    PubMed

    Astur, Diego Costa; Cachoeira, Charles Marcon; da Silva Vieira, Tierri; Debieux, Pedro; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moisés

    2017-09-25

    To evaluate the anterior cruciate ligament graft failure rate in a population of 1376 patients submitted to single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction procedure. It was hypothesized that the younger the patient, the greater the chance of a new anterior cruciate ligament graft ligament injury. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who had SB anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between the years, 2001 and 2016, with a minimum post-operative follow-up period of 6 months. The patient population was divided into three groups, according to age: group 1-under 16 years old; group 2-between 16 and 18 years old; and group 3-older than 18 years old. Data collected included sex, laterality and graft choice data. In group 1 (under 16 years old), there were 61 primary ACL surgeries performed and 15 (24.6%) revision ACL surgeries. In group 2 (between 16 and 18 years old), there was 57 primary ACL procedures, of which 10 (17.5%) were revisions. In the group 3 (older than 18 years of age), 1258 surgeries were done with 116 (9.2%) revisions. The rate of ACL revision surgery in patients under 16 years of age was significantly higher than that found in patients older than 18 years old. When compared to the population between 16 and 18 years old, there were a higher number of failure cases, however, statistically non-significant. IV.

  4. In vivo recruitment patterns in the anterior oblique and dorsoradial ligaments of the first carpometacarpal joint

    PubMed Central

    Halilaj, Eni; Rainbow, Michael J.; Moore, Douglas C.; Laidlaw, David H.; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C.; Ladd, Amy L.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The anterior oblique ligament (AOL) and the dorsoradial ligament (DRL) are both regarded as mechanical stabilizers of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, which in older women is often affected by osteoarthritis. Inferences on the potential relationship of these ligaments to joint pathomechanics are based on clinical experience and studies of cadaveric tissue, but their function has been studied sparsely in vivo. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the functions of the AOL and DRL using in vivo joint kinematic data. The thumbs of 44 healthy subjects were imaged with a clinical computed tomography scanner in functional-task and thumb range-of-motion positions. The origins and insertion sites of the AOL and the DRL were identified on the 3D bone models and each ligament was modeled as a set of three fibers whose lengths were the minimum distances between insertion sites. Ligament recruitment, which represented ligament length as a percentage of the maximum length across the scanned positions, was computed for each position and related to joint posture. Mean AOL recruitment was lower than 91% across the CMC range of motion, whereas mean DRL recruitment was generally higher than 91% in abduction and flexion. Under the assumption that ligaments do not strain by more than 10% physiologically, our findings of mean ligament recruitments across the CMC range of motion indicate that the AOL is likely slack during most physiological positions, whereas the DRL may be taut and therefore support the joint in positions of CMC joint abduction and flexion. PMID:25964211

  5. A review of ultrasonographic methods for the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament in patients with knee instability - diagnostics using a posterior approach.

    PubMed

    Poboży, Tomasz; Kielar, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the ultrasonographic assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament by an inclusion of a dynamic element. The proposed functional modification aims to restore normal posterior cruciate ligament tension, which is associated with a visible change in the ligament shape. This method reduces the risk of an error resulting from subjectively assessing the shape of the posterior cruciate ligament. It should be also emphasized that the method combined with other ultrasound anterior cruciate ligament assessment techniques helps increase diagnostic accuracy. Ultrasonography is used as an adjunctive technique in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The paper presents a sonographic technique for the assessment of suspected anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency supplemented by the use of a dynamic examination. This technique can be recommended as an additional procedure in routine ultrasound diagnostics of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Supplementing routine ultrasonography with the dynamic assessment of posterior cruciate ligament shape changes in patients with suspected anterior cruciate ligament injury reduces the risk of subjective errors and increases diagnostic accuracy. This is important especially in cases of minor anterior knee instability and bilateral anterior knee instability. An assessment of changes in posterior cruciate ligament using a dynamic ultrasound examination effectively complements routine sonographic diagnostic techniques for anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency.

  6. A review of ultrasonographic methods for the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament in patients with knee instability – diagnostics using a posterior approach

    PubMed Central

    Kielar, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was to improve the ultrasonographic assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament by an inclusion of a dynamic element. The proposed functional modification aims to restore normal posterior cruciate ligament tension, which is associated with a visible change in the ligament shape. This method reduces the risk of an error resulting from subjectively assessing the shape of the posterior cruciate ligament. It should be also emphasized that the method combined with other ultrasound anterior cruciate ligament assessment techniques helps increase diagnostic accuracy. Methods Ultrasonography is used as an adjunctive technique in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The paper presents a sonographic technique for the assessment of suspected anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency supplemented by the use of a dynamic examination. This technique can be recommended as an additional procedure in routine ultrasound diagnostics of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Results Supplementing routine ultrasonography with the dynamic assessment of posterior cruciate ligament shape changes in patients with suspected anterior cruciate ligament injury reduces the risk of subjective errors and increases diagnostic accuracy. This is important especially in cases of minor anterior knee instability and bilateral anterior knee instability. Conclusions An assessment of changes in posterior cruciate ligament using a dynamic ultrasound examination effectively complements routine sonographic diagnostic techniques for anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency. PMID:27679732

  7. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on kinematics of the knee with combined anterior cruciate ligament injury and subtotal medial meniscectomy: an in vitro robotic investigation.

    PubMed

    Seon, Jong Keun; Gadikota, Hemanth R; Kozanek, Michal; Oh, Luke S; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2009-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: (1) the kinematic effect of subtotal medial meniscectomy on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee and (2) the effect of ACL reconstruction on kinematics of the knee with combined ACL deficiency and subtotal medial meniscectomy under anterior tibial and simulated quadriceps loads. Eight human cadaveric knees were sequentially tested using a robotic testing system under 4 conditions: intact, ACL deficiency, ACL deficiency with subtotal medial meniscectomy, and single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Knee kinematics were measured at 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees of flexion under an anterior tibial load of 130 N and a quadriceps muscle load of 400 N. Subtotal medial meniscectomy in the ACL-deficient knee significantly increased anterior and lateral tibial translations under the anterior tibial and quadriceps loads (P < .05). These kinematic changes were larger at high flexion (>or=60 degrees) than at low flexion angles. ACL reconstruction in knees with ACL deficiency and subtotal medial meniscectomy significantly reduced the increased anterior tibial translation, but could not restore anterior translation to the intact level with differences ranging from 2.6 mm at 0 degrees to 5.5 mm at 30 degrees of flexion. ACL reconstruction did not significantly affect the medial-lateral translation and internal-external tibial rotation in the presence of subtotal meniscectomy. Subtotal medial meniscectomy in knees with ACL deficiency altered knee kinematics, especially at high flexion angles. ACL reconstruction significantly reduced the increased tibial translation in knees with combined ACL deficiency and subtotal medial meniscectomy, but could not restore the knee kinematics to the intact knee level. This study suggests that meniscus is an important secondary stabilizer against anterior and lateral tibial translations and should be preserved in the setting of

  8. Posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (PHAGL) in anterior shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    Vedova, Franco Della; Ibáñez, Maximiliano; Alvarez, Victoria; Lépore, Salvador; Sulzle, Vanina Ojeda; Galan, Hernán; Slullitel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bankart lesion is the anterior glenohumeral instability most common associated injury. Tears at glenohumeral ligaments can be intra substance or at humeral insertion, this location may be the cause of instability. Posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (PHAGL) can be an isolated or associated cause of instability and it is usually related to the posterior glenohumeral instability. The aim of this article is to report the clinical assessment and postoperative outcomes of 6 patients with PHAGL with anterior shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: We evaluated six patients with PHAGL due to anterior glenohumeral instability arthroscopically repaired. All 6 patients developed the lesion after a sports-related trauma. Sixty six per cent of patients had associated intra-articular shoulder pathologies. The diagnosis with MRI arthrogram (with gadolinium) was performed preoperatively in 50% of patients. Postoperative evaluation was made with Rowe, ASES and WOSI scores. Results: All patients returned to their previous sports level. One patient had a recurrence. Postoperative scores results are WOSI: 13.13%, Rowe 83.33 and ASES 95.83. Discussion: Humeral avulsions of glenohumeral ligaments represent 25% of capsulolabral injuries. PHAGL injury was initially described as a cause of posterior instability, but according to two other series, our study shows that this lesion may also cause anterior instability. It is critical to have a high index of suspicion and make a correct arthroscopic examination to diagnose this injury, because arthroscopic repair of PHAGL has good postoperative outcomes.

  9. Influence of a mono-centric knee brace on the tension of the collateral ligaments in knee joints after sectioning of the anterior cruciate ligament--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hinterwimmer, S; Graichen, H; Baumgart, R; Plitz, W

    2004-08-01

    To analyze the influence of knee bracing on the tension of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. The tension of the collateral ligaments in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees was measured with and without knee bracing using an in vitro model. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency increases the tension in both collateral ligaments at the knee joint. Therefore knee braces should reduce that tension increase. However, that effect has never been proven quantitatively. After anterior cruciate ligament-transection, the forces of the medial (anterior/posterior part) and lateral collateral ligament were measured in ten fresh human cadaver knees at 0 degrees, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, 60 degrees, 80 degrees and 100 degrees of flexion, with and without application of a mono-centric knee brace. To quantify the ligament forces, strain gauges were fixed at the bony origins of the ligaments. Bracing led to a significant decrease of ligament forces (20-100 degrees: P < 0.0001) in the anterior part of the medial collateral ligament in all joint positions. In the posterior aspect, this effect was observed only at 40 degrees (P < 0.0001) and 80 degrees (P = 0.001) of flexion. In the lateral collateral ligament, bracing caused a strain reduction from 60 degrees to 100 degrees of flexion (P < 0.0001). Therefore a flexion angle dependent effect of knee bracing on the strain was seen in the posterior aspect of the medial and in the lateral collateral ligament in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee joints. Application of a mono-centric knee brace leads to a significant position dependent reduction of collateral ligament tension after anterior cruciate ligament-rupture.

  10. How Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury was averted during Knee Collapse in a NBA Point Guard.

    PubMed

    Schilaty, Nathan D; Bates, Nathaniel A; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur with rapid decelerations and pivoting. A recent injury to a high-level National Basketball Association (NBA) player demonstrated neuromuscular control and injury-sparing mechanisms that resulted in only minor ligament injury to the medial collateral ligament. We analyzed biomechanical mechanisms via publically available orthogonal 2-D video to demonstrate how this potential ACL injury was averted. Analysis of the knee injury mechanism demonstrated that the NBA player experienced low ground reaction force, high sagittal plane flexion, and maintenance of frontal plane stability with neuromuscular control. The outcome of these factors inhibited dynamic valgus collapse of the knee throughout the fall, avoiding ACL injury - a potentially career-altering injury. Many athletes, professional and recreational, will be subjected to similar mechanisms of injury and will have improved outcomes if they can successfully utilize preventive strategies of neuromuscular control to limit injury mechanisms.

  11. How Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury was averted during Knee Collapse in a NBA Point Guard

    PubMed Central

    Schilaty, Nathan D; Bates, Nathaniel A; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Summary Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur with rapid decelerations and pivoting. A recent injury to a high-level National Basketball Association (NBA) player demonstrated neuromuscular control and injury-sparing mechanisms that resulted in only minor ligament injury to the medial collateral ligament. We analyzed biomechanical mechanisms via publically available orthogonal 2-D video to demonstrate how this potential ACL injury was averted. Analysis of the knee injury mechanism demonstrated that the NBA player experienced low ground reaction force, high sagittal plane flexion, and maintenance of frontal plane stability with neuromuscular control. The outcome of these factors inhibited dynamic valgus collapse of the knee throughout the fall, avoiding ACL injury – a potentially career-altering injury. Many athletes, professional and recreational, will be subjected to similar mechanisms of injury and will have improved outcomes if they can successfully utilize preventive strategies of neuromuscular control to limit injury mechanisms. PMID:28603786

  12. Synovial C-Shaped Tibial Footprint of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Janovsky, César; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Ferretti, Mario; Cohen, Moises

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although numerous anatomic studies about the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) structure and attachments have been performed, these studies have not reached consensus on the ACL footprint. Purpose: To investigate the existing controversy regarding the morphology of the tibial ACL insertion (footprint) and confirm histologically that the tibial ACL footprint is not completely filled with ligament tissue. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: The tibial ACL footprint was dissected from 20 different fresh-frozen cadaveric knees (all males; mean age, 68.8 ± 5.4 years [range, 55-80 years]; mean weight, 78 ± 6.6 kg [range, 45-93 kg]). Two knees, 1 with severe osteoarthritis and 1 with previous knee surgery, were excluded. The tibial ACL insertion was observed, and this area was longitudinally divided into 4 parallel slices (0%-25%, 25-50%, 50%-75%, and 75%-100%), embedded in paraffin wax, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, alcian blue, and picrosirius-polarization. The specimens were measured using a microscope to determine the distances from the anterior to the posterior border of the ACL ligament tibial insertion and the distance from the posterior border to the end of the ligament fibers of the ACL ligament tibial insertions. Results: The 18 evaluated knee specimens confirmed the finding of a C-shaped tibial insertion of the ACL. The measurements showed that the ligament (vertical parallel collagen fibers) occupied only 30.8% of the complete insertion. The remaining area was filled with synovial tissue, demonstrating histologically the “C” shape. Conclusion: This study confirms macroscopically the C-shaped tibial insertion of the ACL and shows histologically that synovial tissue is an indirect insertion filling the major part of the footprint. Clinical Relevance: This anatomic study suggests a different shape of the ACL tibial footprint, which may be useful for new perspectives regarding ACL reconstruction surgery research. PMID

  13. Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis: Are We Missing an Important Source of Symptoms After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Culvenor, Adam G; Crossley, Kay M

    2016-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a well-established risk factor for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty to ninety percent of individuals will develop radiographic tibiofemoral OA within a decade after ACL injury and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Although less well recognized, radiographic patellofemoral OA is present in approximately 50% of individuals at more than 10 years after ACLR. This early-onset OA and its associated pain and functional limitations pose a particular challenge to younger adults with OA compared to an older OA population. Targeted interventions need to be developed to reduce the burden of early-onset OA following ACLR. Emerging evidence suggests that such interventions should target both the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints.

  14. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  15. Bone tunnel enlargement following hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Stolarz, Mateusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Binkowski, Marcin; Wróbel, Zygmunt

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bone tunnel enlargement (BTE) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a well-known phenomenon. It has been identified, investigated and described by many authors during the last thirty years. Nevertheless, the etiology of bone tunnel enlargement still remains unclear. It is known that the causes are multifactorial and may include the surgical technique, the method of fixation, materials used, type of graft as well as biological factors. Due to the recent popularization of the use of hamstring grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the bone tunnel enlargement phenomenon is becoming increasingly common. In this review article, the authors focus on compiling current knowledge about the etiology, diagnosis, and the possibility of reducing the occurrence of this phenomenon by using the latest methods of supporting reconstruction surgery.

  16. Sparing the anterior cruciate ligament remnant: is it worth the hassle?

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Vasta, Sebastiano; Di Martino, Alberto; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is the most common surgically treated ligament injury. Many efforts have been taken to reconstruct it as anatomically as possible to restore knee stability and, possibly, prevent knee osteoarthritis. A literature search was performed using the isolated or combined keywords 'ACL augmentation remnant', 'ACL reconstruction and remnant and stump', 'ACL reconstruction and remnant and stump preserving and stability' and 'ACL remnant complete tear' with no limit regarding the year of publication. We identified seven published studies. The ACL remnant might accelerate the vascularization and the ligamentization of the graft and contribute to faster graft innervation leading to a better proprioception. The role of the ACL remnant is debated, because, although it may increase the risk of impingement and the formation of cyclops lesion, its preservation can improve proprioception, biomechanical functions and vascularity. However, the current assessment methods to assess proprioception, vascularization and the ligamentization do not lead to hard evidence that preservation of the remnant confers clinically relevant advantages over its excision. The ACL remnant has been demonstrated in experimental studies to have a role in improving revascularization, ligamentization and reinnervation of the graft, but these findings are still not supported by clinical findings. A more direct way to assess proprioceptive function after ACL reconstruction and appropriately conducted powered and rigorously prospective randomized double-blind studies comparing the clinical outcomes of excising the remnant to leaving it in situ are necessary.

  17. Core stability, knee muscle strength, and anterior translation are correlated with postural stability in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients.

    PubMed

    Cinar-Medeni, Ozge; Baltaci, Gul; Bayramlar, Kezban; Yanmis, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of postural stability and lower extremity performance with core stability, knee laxity, and muscle strength in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Twenty-eight anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed subjects were included in the study. Anterior knee laxity tests, isokinetic knee muscle strength tests, and core stability tests were performed. Single-limb postural stability was assessed in both eyes-open and eyes-closed positions on a static surface and an eyes-open condition on a foam surface. A single-legged hop test was performed to assess lower extremity performance. To detect differences between the operated and healthy leg, a Mann-Whitney U test was performed, and a correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Knee muscle strength and laxity were different between the operated and healthy legs (P < 0.05). Postural stability scores correlated with core stability tests (P < 0.05) in both the operated and healthy legs. In the operated leg, knee laxity and muscle strength correlated with the mediolateral sway index on a foam surface (P < 0.05). Knee flexor and extensor muscle strength correlated with the single-legged hop for both legs (P < 0.05). Decreased core stability, decreased knee muscle strength, and increased knee laxity correlated with single-limb postural stability. Better hop performance was demonstrated with better knee flexor and extensor muscle strength and was independent from core stability.

  18. Return to Sports after Acute Simultaneous Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Grade III Medial Collateral Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bertona, Agustin; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Viescas, Juan Manuel Gonzalez; Atala, Nicolas; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Combined Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury and Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) injury account for 20% of knee ligament lesions. Conservative treatment of MCL and surgical ACL reconstruction are generally recommended. Significant medial instability after non-surgical management of MCL can lead to ACL reconstruction failure. The optimal management for athletes with combined ACL-MCL injuries remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the functional and clinical evolution of patients who underwent combined ACL-MCL surgery and their return-to-sport level with minimum 2-years follow-up. Methods: A total of 20 athletes with acute simultaneous ACL/Grade III MCL reconstructions were treated between March 2006 and January 2014. The minimum follow-up time was 24 months. Subjective functional results (IKDC, Lysholm), range of motion, anterior-medial and rotational stability (Lachmann, Pivot Shift, valgus stress) were evaluated. The ability to return to sport (Tegner) and the level achieved was recorded. Results: All patients significantly improved functional scores and stability tests. The mean subjective IKDC score improved from 37.7 ± 12.9 (range 21-69) preoperatively to 88.21 ± 4.47 (range 80-96) postoperatively (P <0.05). The average Lysholm score was 40.44 ± 10.58 (range 27-65) preoperatively and 90.83 ± 3.38 (range 84-95) postoperatively (P <0.05). Valgus and sagittal laxity was not observed (IKDC A 92% B 8%) at final follow-up. All patients had normal/nearly normal (IKDC A or B) mobility. All patients returned to sports; 90% reached the level they had prior to the ligamentous injury. Of all competitive athletes, 66% achieved the same level of sport. Conclusion: In athletes with acute ACL-Grade III MCL lesions, an early simultaneous reconstruction can significantly improve the medial and sagittal stability of the knee. This procedure resulted in excellent functional outcomes, with return to the same level of sports in the

  19. The anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament and its relevance to the technique of reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Śmigielski, R; Zdanowicz, U; Drwięga, M; Ciszek, B; Williams, A

    2016-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is commonly performed and has been for many years. Despite this, the technical details related to ACL anatomy, such as tunnel placement, are still a topic for debate. In this paper, we introduce the flat ribbon concept of the anatomy of the ACL, and its relevance to clinical practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1020-6.

  20. Biomechanical and histological effects of intra-articular hyaluronic acid on anterior cruciate ligament in rats.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Istemi; Karaca, Erkut; Ozturan, Kutay; Yildirim, Umran; Duman, Seckin; Degirmenci, Erdem

    2009-08-01

    The histologic and biomechanical effects of intra-articular hyaluronic acid on the anterior cruciate ligaments of rats were investigated. Thirty rats were divided into three groups, i.e., the hyaluronic acid group, saline group, and control group. The hyaluronic acid and saline groups received a total of four intra-articular injections, whereas no injection was administered to the control group. The hyaluronic acid group was injected with 50 microg (0.05 cc) hyaluronic acid, and the saline group was injected with 50 microl (0.05 cc) of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. All of the rats were sacrificed on day 29 and the femur-anterior cruciate ligament-tibia complexes from the right knees were prepared, tested mechanically, and evaluated histologically. The mode of failure involved the midsubstance of the anterior cruciate ligament in all the specimens. There were no statistically significant differences in the stiffness and ultimate load to failure values between the three groups (P>0.05). The energy to failure values were evaluated and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P=0.064, chi-square=3.43). In the histologic analyses, there was a significant difference in the hyalinization values between the hyaluronic acid and saline groups (P=0.029) and between the hyaluronic acid group and control groups (P=0.029). The present study shows that intra-articularly delivered hyaluronic acid has no statistically significant effect on the tensile strength of the rat anterior cruciate ligament. Although hyalinization was increased, no difference was found on the other markers for degenerative changes. We conclude that intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections can be performed safely, although the use of a precise injection technique is recommended.

  1. Current knowledge in the anatomy of the human anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Bicer, Elcil Kaya; Lustig, Sebastien; Servien, Elvire; Selmi, Tarik Ait Si; Neyret, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequently studied structures of the musculoskeletal system and continues to stimulate debate and challenges among researchers and surgeons. The ultimate goal of anatomic reconstruction surgery is to restore the native anatomy as much as possible. However, this requires thorough knowledge of its anatomy. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of the anatomy of ACL along with its macrostructural and ultrastructural properties.

  2. Risk factors and prevention strategies of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Laible, Catherine; Sherman, Orrin H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of women playing sports has increased significantly. The passage of Title IX in 1972 had a significant effect in encouraging female participation in sports. This increase in women's sports participation also led to a rise in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. As ACL injuries in young female athletes have be- come a public health issue, much research has been done on risk factors and prevention strategies.

  3. Inferior Lateral Genicular Artery Injury during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lamo-Espinosa, J. M.; Llombart Blanco, R.; Valentí, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of inferior lateral genicular artery (ILG) injury during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery with lateral partial meniscectomy. This is a rare arthroscopy complication. A review of the literature has been made with the aim to define the anatomy of ILG across the lateral articular line and the risk of lesion during knee arthroscopy. We propose embolization as a good treatment option for this type of injuries. PMID:22957293

  4. Comparative Study on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Determination of Isometric Points with and Without Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Fabio J.; Albuquerque, Roberto F. M.; Sasaki, Sandra U.; Camanho, Gilberto L.; Hernandez, Arnaldo J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of tunnel placement and graft isometry for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed using a computer-assisted navigation system (Orthopilot) and using traditional instruments. METHODS: The anterior cruciate ligament was removed intact from 36 pairs of human cadaver knees. From each pair, one knee was randomized to Group 1 (conventional) and the other to Group 2 (Orthopilot). An inelastic suture was then passed through the central points of the tibial and femoral tunnels. Neither of the tunnels was drilled. All knees were then dissected, and six parameters were obtained: distances from the tibial tunnel center to the 1) posterior cruciate ligament, 2) anterior horn of the lateral meniscus and 3) medial tibial spine; 4) distance from the femoral tunnel center to the posterior femoral cortex; 5) femoral tunnel coronal angle; and 6) variation of the distance from the femoral to the tibial tunnel with the knee extended and at 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: The variation of the distance from the femoral to the tibial tunnel during flexion and extension was smaller in the Orthopilot group (better isometry) compared to the conventional group. There were no statistical differences in any other parameters between the groups, and all tunnels were considered to be in satisfactory positions. DISCUSSION: The results obtained for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction depend on precise isometric point positioning, and a navigation system is a precision tool that can assist surgeons in tunnel positioning. CONCLUSION: No differences in tunnel position were observed between the groups. Nonetheless, better isometry was achieved in the Orthopilot group than with conventional instruments. PMID:20668625

  5. Computer aided analysis of gait patterns in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Alexander, Nathalie; Ofner, Michael; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-03-01

    Gait analysis is a useful tool to evaluate the functional status of patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Pattern recognition methods can be used to automatically assess walking patterns and objectively support clinical decisions. This study aimed to test a pattern recognition system for analyzing kinematic gait patterns of recently anterior cruciate ligament injured patients and for evaluating the effects of a therapeutic treatment. Gait kinematics of seven male patients with an acute unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture and seven healthy males were recorded. A support vector machine was trained to distinguish the groups. Principal component analysis and recursive feature elimination were used to extract features from 3D marker trajectories. A Classifier Oriented Gait Score was defined as a measure of gait quality. Visualizations were used to allow functional interpretations of characteristic group differences. The injured group was evaluated by the system after a therapeutic treatment. The results were compared against a clinical rating of the patients' gait. Cross validation yielded 100% accuracy. After the treatment the score improved significantly (P<0.01) as well as the clinical rating (P<0.05). The visualizations revealed characteristic kinematic features, which differentiated between the groups. The results show that gait alterations in the early phase after anterior cruciate ligament injury can be detected automatically. The results of the automatic analysis are comparable with the clinical rating and support the validity of the system. The visualizations allow interpretations on discriminatory features and can facilitate the integration of the results into the diagnostic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiographic visualization of patellar tendon grafts for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, J; Vidal, C; Cubillo, A

    1997-12-01

    The new biodegradable interference screws offer very many advantages for anterior cruciate ligament replacement with patellar tendon. However, their radiolucency makes it impossible to identify the anchorage sites. We describe an imaging technique of the plasty and its anchorage sites by means of a radiopaque contrast that is commonly used in radiology (Iopamidol; Bracco, Milan, Italy). It is an easy technique that does not extend the time of surgery, it is harmless, and allows us to identify malpositioning or impingement of the plasty.

  7. Avulsion of both posterior meniscal roots associated with acute rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Pier Paolo; Iannella, Germano; Cerullo, Guglielmo; Giacobbe, Marco

    2015-09-01

    A rare case of acute avulsion of both posterior meniscal roots concomitant with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear in a professional soccer player is described. While avulsion of the lateral meniscal root has been extensively reported in association with ACL injuries, medial root avulsion has never been reported in association with acute ACL. A review of the video documentation of the match accident revealed the exact mechanism of injury was a forceful external rotation of the standing limb.

  8. Clinically-Relevant Measures Associated with Altered Contact Forces in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gardinier, Emily S.; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Knee joint contact forces are altered after anterior cruciate ligament injury during walking and may be related to clinically-relevant measures of impairments or self-reported function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several clinically-relevant measures with altered knee contact forces in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Methods Data for this study represent a cross-sectional observational analysis of thirty-seven (23 M, 14 F) patients with complete unilateral anterior cruciate ligament injury. Gait analysis with electromyography was used to obtain estimates of tibiofemoral joint contact force using an electromyography-driven musculoskeletal model. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify measures associated with tibiofemoral joint contact force. Findings Involved knee extensor muscle strength and patient-reported knee function on the Global Rating Scale of Perceived Function were significantly associated with peak tibiofemoral contact force for the involved limb. Patients who were stronger and who perceived higher knee function walked with greater contact forces on their involved knees. After controlling for walking speed, involved extensor strength explained 8.9% of the variance in involved peak tibiofemoral contact force and score on the Global Rating Scale explained an additional 9.4% of the variance. Interpretation Improvements in involved quadriceps strength and overall function as measured by patient self-report may be important for increasing involved limb contact forces, thereby restoring loading symmetry in these patients who demonstrate decreased involved limb loading after injury. These results highlight the potential value of studying the recovery of strength, self-reported function and joint loading symmetry in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. PMID:24746854

  9. Failure of osteointegration of hamstring tendon autograft after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Kyoo; Rowe, Sung Man; Chung, Jae Yoon; Moon, Eun Sun; Lee, Keun Bae

    2004-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is completed after implantation, when the graft material used undergoes extensive biologic remodelling and osteointegration. Failure of the osteointegration between the graft tendon and bone decreases the graft strength and induces anterior instability. We experienced 2 cases of failed osteointegration between tendon and bone after ACL reconstruction using 4 strands of the hamstring tendon. Surprisingly, osteointegration between the bone and tendon junction was not shown by intraoperative findings. The histologic findings also presented no evidence of osteointegration or biologic remodeling of the tendon. Two cases of failure of osteointegration are reported, with a review of the literature.

  10. Visual biofeedback exercises for improving body balance control after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Molka, Alicja Zyta; Lisiński, Przemysław; Huber, Juliusz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the effects of balance training after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients (mean 33 ± 8 years old) who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction three months prior to participating in a one-month rehabilitation program. The control group included 15 people aged 34 ± 4 years. Patients’ functional level was evaluated according to the Lysholm knee score, and balance quality was ascertained by static and dynamic tests. A balance platform was used to measure the center of foot pressure deflection. Two dynamic balance tests evaluated time of task execution. [Results] Lysholm knee score improved significantly after rehabilitation. Balance in the sagittal plane with eyes closed improved significantly after rehabilitation. The average velocity of center of foot pressure swing in both the frontal and sagittal planes with eyes closed differed significantly from those of controls. Execution time required for the two dynamic tests decreased significantly after rehabilitation and were significantly better than those in the controls. [Conclusion] Maintaining static balance with eyes closed is very challenging after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Maintaining balance in the sagittal plane is particularly difficult. A one-month rehabilitation program partially improves static and dynamic balance. PMID:26311983

  11. Knee shape might predict clinical outcome after an anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Eggerding, V; van Kuijk, K S R; van Meer, B L; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van Arkel, E R A; Reijman, M; Waarsing, J H; Meuffels, D E

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated whether shape of the knee can predict the clinical outcome of patients after an anterior cruciate ligament rupture. We used statistical shape modelling to measure the shape of the knee joint of 182 prospectively followed patients on lateral and Rosenberg view radiographs of the knee after a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. Subsequently, we associated knee shape with the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective score at two years follow-up. The mean age of patients was 31 years (21 to 51), the majority were male (n = 121) and treated operatively (n = 135). We found two modes (shape variations) that were significantly associated with the subjective score at two years: one for the operatively treated group (p = 0.002) and one for the non-operatively treated group (p = 0.003). Operatively treated patients who had higher subjective scores had a smaller intercondylar notch and a smaller width of the intercondylar eminence. Non-operatively treated patients who scored higher on the subjective score had a more pyramidal intercondylar notch as opposed to one that was more dome-shaped. We conclude that the shape of the femoral notch and the intercondylar eminence is predictive of clinical outcome two years after a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. Tibial rotation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees during single limb hop and drop landings.

    PubMed

    Webster, Kate E; Feller, Julian A

    2012-06-01

    Alterations in knee joint kinematics have been suggested as a potential mechanism that influences the development of osteoarthritis of the knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Whilst previous work has shown changes in internal-external tibial rotation during level walking, many patients aim to return to high impact activities following surgery. This study examined tibial rotation during single limb hop and drop landings in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees compared to a control group, and also evaluated the influence of graft type (hamstring or patellar tendon). In 48 participants (17 patellar tendon graft, 18 hamstring graft and 13 controls) internal-external rotation was measured during single limb hop and drop landings in a gait laboratory at mean of 10 months after surgery. There was no difference between the two graft types and both patient groups had less internal rotation when compared to the control group. For 60% of patients, internal rotation values were at least 5° less than the control group mean. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees with both hamstring tendon and patellar tendon grafts show altered rotational kinematic patterns during high impact dynamic load activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Current Concepts for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Criterion–Based Rehabilitation Progression

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, DOUGLAS; LOGERSTEDT, DAVID; HUNTER-GIORDANO, AIRELLE; AXE, MICHAEL J.; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The management of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction should be evidence based. Since our original published guidelines in 1996, successful outcomes have been consistently achieved with the rehabilitation principles of early weight bearing, using a combination of weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing exercise focused on quadriceps and lower extremity strength, and meeting specific objective requirements for return to activity. As rehabilitative evidence and surgical technology and procedures have progressed, the original guidelines should be revisited to ensure that the most up-to-date evidence is guiding rehabilitative care. Emerging evidence on rehabilitative interventions and advancements in concomitant surgeries, including those addressing chondral and meniscal injuries, continues to grow and greatly affect the rehabilitative care of patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The aim of this article is to update previously published rehabilitation guidelines, using the most recent research to reflect the most current evidence for management of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The focus will be on current concepts in rehabilitation interventions and modifications needed for concomitant surgery and pathology. PMID:22402434

  14. Functional results from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the central third of the patellar ligament and flexor tendons☆

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Leao, Marcos George; Pampolha, Abelardo Gautama Moreira; Orlando Junior, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate knee function in patients undergoing reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using the central third of the patellar ligament or the medial flexor tendons of the knee, i.e. quadruple ligaments from the semitendinosus and gracilis (ST-G), by means of the Knee Society Score (KSS) and the Lysholm scale. Methods This was a randomized prospective longitudinal study on 40 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between September 2013 and August 2014. They comprised 37 males and three females, with ages ranging from 16 to 52 years. The patients were numbered randomly from 1 to 40: the even numbers underwent surgical correction using the ST-G tendons and the odd numbers, using the patellar tendon. Functional evaluations were made using the KSS and Lysholm scale, applied in the evening before the surgical procedure and six months after the operation. Results From the statistical analysis, it could be seen that the patients’ functional capacity was significantly greater after the operation than before the operation. There was strong evidence that the two forms of therapy had similar results (p = >0.05), in all the comparisons. Conclusions The results from the ACL reconstructions were similar with regard to functional recovery of the knee and improvement of quality of life, independent of the type of graft. It was not possible to identify the best method of surgical treatment. The surgeon's clinical and technical experience and the patient are the factors that determine the choice of graft type for use in ACL surgery. PMID:27218084

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of a newly devised model for the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury with partial laceration and permanent elongation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori; Yamanaka, Masanori; Minami, Akio; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2003-12-01

    To biomechanically evaluate a newly devised model for the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury with partial laceration and permanent elongation. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 9 animals each, after a quantitative injury was given to the right anterior cruciate ligament. The 4 groups were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, respectively. Biomechanical and histological evaluations were performed at each period. No adequate animal models have been established for the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury in which the mid-substance is permanently elongated with partial laceration. The anteromedial and posterolateral half of the anterior cruciate ligament was transected at the proximal and distal one-third levels, respectively. Then, the anterior cruciate ligament was stretched by applying an anterior drawer force to the tibia at 90 degrees of knee flexion. The treatment significantly increased the anterior translation of the knee into approximately 150-250% at each period after surgery. The maximum load and the stiffness of the femur-anterior cruciate ligament-tibia complex significantly decreased to 30% or less immediately after surgery, and then gradually increased to 50% at 12 weeks. In this model, this quantitative treatment created serious injuries with partial laceration and permanent elongation in the anterior cruciate ligament to similar degrees. Also, incomplete tissue healing occurred in the anterior cruciate ligament to similar degrees after the treatment. This model will be useful to study new therapeutic methods for the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  16. THE TIBIAL APERTURE SURFACE ANALYSIS IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Milojević, Zoran; Tabaković, Slobodan; Vićević, Marija; Obradović, Mirko; Vranjes, Miodrag; Milankov, Miroslav Z

    2016-01-01

    The tibial tunnel aperture in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is usually analyzed as an ellipse, generated as an intersection between a tibial plateau and a tibial bone tunnel. The aim of this study is to show that the tibial tunnel aperture, which utilizes 3D tibial surface bone model, differs significantly from common computations which present the tibial tunnel anterior cruciate ligament aperture surface as an ellipse. An interactive program system was developed for the tibial tunnel aperture analysis which included the real tibia 3D surface bone model generated from a series of computed tomography images of ten male patients, their mean age being 25 years. In aperture calculation, the transverse drill angle of 10 degrees was used, whereas sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees were used with the drill-bit diameter set to 10 mm. The real 3D and 2D tibial tunnel aperture surface projection was calculated and compared with an ellipse. According to the calculations, generated 3D aperture surfaces were different for every patient even though the same drill parameters were used. For the sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, the mean difference between the projected 3D and 2D area on the tibial plateau was 19.6 +/- 5.4%, 21.1 +/- 8.0% and 21.3 +/- 9.6%, respectively. The difference between the projected 3D area on the tibial plateau and ellipse surface was 54.8 +/- 16.3%, 39.6 +/- 10.4% and 25.0 +/- 8.0% for sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, respectively. The tibial tunnel aperture surface area differs significantly from the ellipse surface area, which is commonly used in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction analysis. Inclusion of the 3D shape of the tibial attachment site in the preoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction planning process can lead to a more precise individual anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the tibial bone. Both

  17. Spontaneous Healing of the Ruptured Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Justin; Salmon, Lucy; Waller, Alison; Linklater, James; Pinczewski, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: It is widely believed that ACL tears are incapable of healing. However, there are anecdotal experiences of the healed ACL and sporadic case reports and series documenting either clinical or radiographic evidence of healed ACL tears. A truly healed ACL would demonstrate a clinically stable knee on Lachman and pivot shift testing, normal return to function and MRI and/or arthroscopic documentation of a continuous ligament. This is in contrast to “copers” who have an ACL deficient knee but lack instability either because of good neuromuscular control or non-participation in activities which are heavily ACL dependent. In this prospective series we report on the presentation and 5 year follow-up of patients with both clinical and radiographically healed ACLs. Methods: 19 patients who presented between July 2007 and April 2010 within 6 weeks of injury with clinical laxity and MRI confirmed ACL rupture. Patients subsequently demonstrated clinical knee stability at 8-12 weeks after pre-habilitation to obtain a pain free mobile joint. Prospective data was collected on these patients with MRI at 12 months, IKDC clinical and subjective scores, KT1000 instrumental laxity testing and Lysholm knee score at 12, 24 and 60 months. Results: At one year follow-up MRI 18/19 patients demonstrated a healed ACL with normal signal, normal trajectory and continuity of fibres. Remainder 1 patient demonstrated bridging of ACL tear with scar tissue and abnormal trajectory of fibers. 5 of 19 patients re-ruptured within 5 years of follow-up. At 5 years follow-up, intact healed ACL patients had a mean IKDC score of 88, mean Lysholm score of 92 and mean KT1000 score of 1.7 mm. 100% reported regular participation in strenuous sport. Conclusion: Although rare, spontaneous healing of the ACL is possible. The mechanism by which this occurs in unknown. It is recommended that reassessment of knee stability should be performed in the non-acute phase after an appropriate prehabilitation

  18. The COL5A1 gene is associated with increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures in female participants.

    PubMed

    Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V; O'Cuinneagain, Dion; van der Merwe, Willem; Schwellnus, Martin P; Collins, Malcolm

    2009-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, especially to young female athletes, are a cause of major concern in the sports medicine fraternity. The major structural constituents of ligaments are collagens, specifically types I and V. Recently, the gene that encodes for the alpha1 chain of type I collagen (COL1A1) has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cruciate ligament ruptures. The COL5A1 gene, which encodes for the alpha1 chain of type V collagen, has been shown to be associated with Achilles tendon injuries. The study was conducted to determine (1) if 2 sequence variants (BstUI and DpnII restriction fragment length polymorphisms [RFLPs]) within the COL5A1 gene are associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, and (2) if there were any gender-specific positive associations between the 2 COL5A1 sequence variants and risk of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 129 white participants (38 women) with surgically diagnosed anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and 216 physically active control participants (84 women) without any history of ACL injury were included in this case-control genetic association study. All participants were genotyped for the COL5A1 BstUI and DpnII RFLPs. There was a significant difference in the BstUI RFLP genotype frequency between the anterior cruciate ligament rupture and physically active control groups among the female participants, but not the male participants. The CC genotype in the female participants was significantly underrepresented in the anterior cruciate ligament rupture group compared with the controls (27.4% vs 5.6%; odds ratio = 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-29.7; P = .006). There were no differences in the DpnII RFLP genotype distributions between the anterior cruciate ligament rupture and physically active control groups. The CC genotype of the COL5A1 BstUI RFLP was underrepresented in female participants with anterior cruciate

  19. Crucial role of Notch signaling in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells in osteoporotic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, S Q; Gao, Y M; Li, Jin; Zhang, Bin

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis typically occurs in postmenopausal women and has been strongly associated with periodontal diseases. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) isolated from the periodontal ligament can differentiate into many types of specialized cells, including osteoblast-like cells that contribute to periodontal tissue repair. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved and associated with self-renewal potential and cell-fate determination. Recently, several studies have focused on the relationship between Notch signaling and osteogenic differentiation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship are largely unknown. We have successfully isolated PDLSCs from both ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated rats. Both the mRNA and protein levels of Notch1 and Jagged1 were upregulated when PDLSCs were cultured in osteogenic induction media. Mineralization assays showed decreased calcium deposits in OVX-PDLSCs treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor compared with control cells. Thus Notch signaling is important in maintaining the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in osteoporotic rats, which help in the development of a potential therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  20. Comparison of Outcomes of Two Femoral Fixation Devices in Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Carrasco, Miguel Angel; Abellán, Juan Francisco; Qudsi-Sinclair, Salima; Ruiz-Merino, Guadalupe; Carrillo-Juliá, Francisco Javier; Bo-Rueda, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common ligamentous injury of the knee. Reconstruction of this ligament is often required to restore functional stability of the knee. Outcome of ACL reconstruction is significantly affected by how the graft is fixed to the bone. This study is to determine if there is a different clinical outcome after cortical versus cortical-cancellous suspension femoral fixation in hamstring based anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study conducted between 2006 and 2010. We enrolled patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. Sixty two patients met inclusion criteria and 41 agreed to come for followup assessment. Median age was of 28 years (range 18–39 years). Demographic baseline profile of both groups was similar. The femoral fixation devices were cortical (n = 16) and cortical-cancellous suspension techniques (n = 25). The average period of evolution at the time of assessment was 40 months (range 12-72 months). The patients were examined according to Lachman test (using Rolimeter knee tester), anterior drawer test, pivot shift test, International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire, and Tegner-Lysholm knee scoring scale. Results: The objective evaluation of the patients (Lachman test) showed better results in terms of stability in the group of patients who underwent the cortical-cancellous suspension method. These differences were not reflected in the assessment of activity level (Tegner-Lysholm), where both groups showed the same results. Conclusions: ACL reconstruction with both cortical and cortical-cancellous suspension femoral fixation techniques show the same clinical results at medium long followup. However, cortical-cancellous fixations seem to provide greater stability to the reconstruction. PMID:28966371

  1. Assessment of anterolateral rotatory instability in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee using an open magnetic resonance imaging system.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ken; Miura, Hiromasa; Matsuda, Shuich; Yasunaga, Takefumi; Nakashima, Hideaki; Konishi, Kozo; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Hashizume, Makoto

    2007-07-01

    In the clinical evaluation of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee, anterolateral rotatory instability is assessed by manual tests such as the pivot-shift test, which is subjective and not quantitative. The anterolateral rotatory instability in an anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee can be quantified by our newly developed method using open magnetic resonance imaging. Controlled laboratory study. Eighteen subjects with anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees and 18 with normal knees were recruited. We administered the Slocum anterolateral rotatory instability test in the open magnetic resonance imaging scanner and scanned the sagittal view of the knee. The anterior displacements of the tibia at the medial and lateral compartments were measured. Furthermore, we examined 14 anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees twice to assess intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility and evaluated the difference and interclass correlation coefficient of 2 measures. In the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee, displacement was 14.4 +/- 5.5 mm at the lateral compartment and 1.6 +/- 2.3 mm at the medial compartment; in the normal knee, displacement was 0.7 +/- 1.9 mm and -1.1 +/- 1.2 mm, respectively. The difference and interclass correlation coefficient between 2 repeated measures at the lateral compartment were 1.0 +/- 0.7 mm and .98 for intraobserver reproducibility and 1.1 +/- 0.7 mm and .91 for interobserver reproducibility. This method is useful to assess the anterolateral rotatory instability of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. This method can be used in the clinical assessment of anterior cruciate ligament stability, such as comparing studies of graft positions or 2-bundle anatomic reconstruction and the conventional 1-bundle technique.

  2. Assessment of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using 3D ultrashort echo-time MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmer, Jürgen; Börnert, Peter; Dries, Sebastian P M

    2009-02-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of ultrashort TE (UTE) imaging for visualizing graft material and fixation elements after surgical repair of soft tissue trauma such as ligament or meniscal injury. Three asymptomatic patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using different graft fixation methods were imaged at 1.5T using a 3D UTE sequence. Conventional multislice turbo spin-echo (TSE) measurements were performed for comparison. 3D UTE imaging yields high signal from tendon graft material at isotropic spatial resolution, thus facilitating direct positive contrast graft visualization. Furthermore, metal and biopolymer graft fixation elements are clearly depicted due to the high contrast between the signal-void implants and the graft material. Thus, the ability of UTE MRI to visualize short-T(2) tissues such as tendons, ligaments, or tendon grafts can provide additional information about the status of the graft and its fixation in the situation after cruciate ligament repair. UTE MRI can therefore potentially support diagnosis when problems occur or persist after surgical procedures involving short-T(2) tissues and implants.

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction combined with valgus tibial osteotomy (combined procedure).

    PubMed

    Boss, A; Stutz, G; Oursin, C; Gächter, A

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the patients who were operated on in a combined procedure from 1980 to 1992 with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency, cartilaginous lesions of the medial compartment, lesion of medial meniscus and varus malalignment. The combined operative procedure was autologous intra-articular ACL reconstruction with the middle third of the patellar ligament--partially augmented with Kennedy-ligament augmentation device (LAD) in hot dog technique--and high tibial osteotomy. The patients were examined according to the criteria of IKDC including testing of anterior stability with the KT-1000 arthrometer. Radiographically we checked axis and arthritis according to a modified score of Kannus. Twenty-seven of 34 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria could be followed up in three categories (2-5 years post-operatively, 5-10 years postoperatively, over 10 years post-operatively). Total qualification was good in 37%; there were no perioperative complications. Rehabilitation was not prolonged. Eighty-nine percent practised their preoperative job, over 50% had a higher level of sports activities than preoperatively, and more than 25% regained their pretraumatic sports capacity. Two-thirds had no giving way and less than 3 mm translation difference in comparison to the contralateral knee. Seventy-five percent of patients would accept the operation again. Radiological findings had no correlation to overall qualification. The encouraging results with respect to many of the criteria suggest using the combined procedure in a young patient with ACL insufficiency, varus malalignment and medial compartment damage including medial meniscus lesion.

  4. 3D Printing Surgical Implants at the clinic: A Experimental Study on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, An; Xue, Guang-huai; Sun, Miao; Shao, Hui-feng; Ma, Chi-yuan; Gao, Qing; Gou, Zhong-ru; Yan, Shi-gui; Liu, Yan-ming; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers (D3DPs) have become a popular tool for fabricating personalized consumer products, favored for low cost, easy operation, and other advantageous qualities. This study focused on the potential for using D3DPs to successfully, rapidly, and economically print customized implants at medical clinics. An experiment was conducted on a D3DP-printed anterior cruciate ligament surgical implant using a rabbit model. A well-defined, orthogonal, porous PLA screw-like scaffold was printed, then coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve its osteoconductivity. As an internal fixation as well as an ideal cell delivery system, the osteogenic scaffold loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated through both in vitro and in vivo tests to observe bone-ligament healing via cell therapy. The MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel on PLA/HA screw-like scaffold showed the highest cell proliferation and osteogenesis in vitro. In vivo assessment of rabbit anterior cruciate ligament models for 4 and 12 weeks showed that the PLA/HA screw-like scaffold loaded with MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel exhibited significant bone ingrowth and bone-graft interface formation within the bone tunnel. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that fabricating surgical implants at the clinic (fab@clinic) with D3DPs can be feasible, effective, and economical. PMID:26875826

  5. 3D Printing Surgical Implants at the clinic: A Experimental Study on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Xue, Guang-huai; Sun, Miao; Shao, Hui-feng; Ma, Chi-yuan; Gao, Qing; Gou, Zhong-ru; Yan, Shi-gui; Liu, Yan-ming; He, Yong

    2016-02-15

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers (D3DPs) have become a popular tool for fabricating personalized consumer products, favored for low cost, easy operation, and other advantageous qualities. This study focused on the potential for using D3DPs to successfully, rapidly, and economically print customized implants at medical clinics. An experiment was conducted on a D3DP-printed anterior cruciate ligament surgical implant using a rabbit model. A well-defined, orthogonal, porous PLA screw-like scaffold was printed, then coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve its osteoconductivity. As an internal fixation as well as an ideal cell delivery system, the osteogenic scaffold loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated through both in vitro and in vivo tests to observe bone-ligament healing via cell therapy. The MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel on PLA/HA screw-like scaffold showed the highest cell proliferation and osteogenesis in vitro. In vivo assessment of rabbit anterior cruciate ligament models for 4 and 12 weeks showed that the PLA/HA screw-like scaffold loaded with MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel exhibited significant bone ingrowth and bone-graft interface formation within the bone tunnel. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that fabricating surgical implants at the clinic (fab@clinic) with D3DPs can be feasible, effective, and economical.

  6. Geographic mapping of meniscus and cartilage lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Slauterbeck, James R; Kousa, Petteri; Clifton, Blake C; Naud, Shelly; Tourville, Timothy W; Johnson, Robert J; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2009-09-01

    Detailed descriptions of meniscus and articular cartilage lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury have not been presented in the literature. Our goal was to determine the associations between patient sex, age, and surgical delay and the frequency and location of meniscus and articular cartilage lesions seen at the time of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Data were obtained retrospectively from a database of 1209 consecutive patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between 1988 and 2002. All knee cartilage, meniscus, and ligament injuries were documented on anatomic maps at the time of surgery, and the data were analyzed. Meniscus injuries were identified in 722 (65%) of the 1104 patients who met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Female patients were less likely to have a meniscus injury than male patients were (56% compared with 71%), and male patients were more likely to have combined medial and lateral meniscus injuries than female patients were (20% compared with 11%). Patients with a surgical delay of less than three months were less likely to have a medial meniscus injury (8% compared with 19%). Femoral articular cartilage injuries were identified in 472 patients (43%). Patients who were twenty-five years of age or older were more likely to have multiple cartilage lesions throughout the knee (7.7% compared with 1.3%) and to have more isolated medial femoral condyle lesions (24.2% compared with 13.3%). Patients with a surgical delay of more than one year were more likely to have a lesion (60% compared with 47% for all others), and a surgical delay of more than one year resulted in a greater proportion of large and grade-3 lesions of the lateral femoral condyle. Female patients had a greater proportion of grade-1 lesions of the medial femoral condyle (29% compared with 16%), whereas male patients had a greater proportion of grade-3 and 4 lesions of the medial femoral condyle (49% compared with 35%). In

  7. Profile of bilateral anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a retrospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, M

    2004-12-01

    To assess the mechanism of injury of anterior cruciate ligaments, surgical results, and radiographic findings among patients with bilateral knee injuries, and to compare these features with those of patients sustaining unilateral injuries. From 1977 to 1988, among 458 patients with injury of anterior cruciate ligament operated in our hospital, 11 were of bilateral injury, in whom 10 could be followed up. A laxity score was calculated to evaluate laxity of 7 joints. A notch width index was measured to show the narrowing of femoral notch. The mean follow-up duration was 3 years 3 months. All 10 patients with bilateral injury of anterior cruciate ligaments were female, and 90% had non-contact injuries. The mean (standard deviation) laxity score was significantly higher in the bilateral injury group than in the unilateral injury group (3.3 [1.4] versus 2.2 [1.4] points; p<0.05). The mean notch width index was significantly lower in the bilateral injury group than in the healthy group (0.278 [0.025] versus 0.294 [0.031]; p<0.05). The mean age at the time of the first injuries was significantly lower among the bilateral injury group than among the unilateral injury group (16.6 [2.1] years versus 19.8 [6.1]; p<0.05). The level of return to full sporting activities was low in the bilateral group. These results suggest that several factors are involved in the occurrence of the anterior cruciate injuries. Besides being younger at the time of the first injury, patients in bilateral injury group had higher mean laxity score and lower mean notch width index than unilateral injury group. Most of the injuries in bilateral group were of non-contact type.

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and cartilage contact forces – a 3D computational simulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianxin; Lin, Lin; Feng, Yong; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Asnis, Peter; Hosseini, Ali; Li, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical outcome studies showed a high incidence of knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Abnormal joint kinematics and loading conditions were assumed as risking factors. However, little is known on cartilage contact forces after the surgery. Methods A validated computational model was used to simulate anatomic and transtibial single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Two graft fixation angles (0° and 30°) were simulated for each reconstruction. Biomechanics of the knee was investigated in intact, anterior cruciate ligament deficient and reconstructed conditions when the knee was subjected to 134N anterior load and 400N quadriceps load at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The tibial translation and rotation, graft forces, medial and lateral contact forces were calculated. Findings When the graft was fixed at 0°, the anatomic reconstruction resulted in slightly larger lateral contact force at 0° compared to the intact knee while the transtibial technique led to higher contact force at both 0° and 30° under the muscle load. When graft was fixed at 30°, the anatomic reconstruction overstrained the knee at 0° with larger contact forces, while the transtibial technique resulted in slightly larger contact forces at 30°. Interpretation This study suggests that neither the anatomic nor the transtibial reconstruction can consistently restore normal knee biomechanics at different flexion angles. The anatomic reconstruction may better restore anteroposterior stability and contact force with the graft fixed at 0°. The transtibial technique may better restore knee anteroposterior stability and articular contact force with the graft fixed at 30° of flexion. PMID:26320976

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and cartilage contact forces--A 3D computational simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianxin; Lin, Lin; Feng, Yong; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Asnis, Peter; Hosseini, Ali; Li, Guoan

    2015-12-01

    Clinical outcome studies showed a high incidence of knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Abnormal joint kinematics and loading conditions were assumed as risking factors. However, little is known on cartilage contact forces after the surgery. A validated computational model was used to simulate anatomic and transtibial single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Two graft fixation angles (0° and 30°) were simulated for each reconstruction. Biomechanics of the knee was investigated in intact, anterior cruciate ligament deficient and reconstructed conditions when the knee was subjected to 134 N anterior load and 400 N quadriceps load at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The tibial translation and rotation, graft forces, medial and lateral contact forces were calculated. When the graft was fixed at 0°, the anatomic reconstruction resulted in slightly larger lateral contact force at 0° compared to the intact knee while the transtibial technique led to higher contact force at both 0° and 30° under the muscle load. When graft was fixed at 30°, the anatomic reconstruction overstrained the knee at 0° with larger contact forces, while the transtibial technique resulted in slightly larger contact forces at 30°. This study suggests that neither the anatomic nor the transtibial reconstruction can consistently restore normal knee biomechanics at different flexion angles. The anatomic reconstruction may better restore anteroposterior stability and contact force with the graft fixed at 0°. The transtibial technique may better restore knee anteroposterior stability and articular contact force with the graft fixed at 30° of flexion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in dynamic medial tibiofemoral contact mechanics and kinematics after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: a cadaveric model.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Asheesh; Chen, Tony; Santner, Thomas J; El-Amin, Saadiq; Kelly, Natalie H; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A

    2013-09-01

    The effects of tears of the anterior cruciate ligament on knee kinematics and contact mechanics during dynamic everyday activities, such as gait, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee contact mechanics and kinematics during simulated gait. Nine human cadaveric knees were each augmented with a sensor capable of measuring dynamic normal contact stresses on the tibial plateau, mounted on a load-controlled simulator, and subjected to physiological, multidirectional, dynamic loads to mimic gait. Using a mixed model with random knee identifiers, confidence intervals were constructed for contact stress before and after anterior cruciate ligament transection at two points in the gait cycle at which axial force peaked (14% and 45% of the gait cycle). Kinematic and contact mechanics changes after anterior cruciate ligament transection were highly variable across knees. Nonetheless, a statistically significant increase in contact stress in the posterior-central aspect of the medial tibial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was identified, the location of which corresponds to the location of degenerative changes that are frequently found in patients with chronic anterior cruciate ligament injury. The variability in the contact stress in other regions of the medial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was partly explained by the variations in osseous geometry across the nine knees tested. At 14% of gait, there was no significant change in peak contact stress after anterior cruciate ligament transection in any of the four quadrants, and none of the possible explanatory variables showed statistical significance. Understanding the variable effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury on contact mechanics based on geometric differences in osseous anatomy is of paramount clinical importance and may be invaluable to select the best reconstruction techniques and counsel patients on their individual risk of subsequent

  11. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury – A controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Felix, Ellen Cristina Rodrigues; Bessa, Felipe; Luna, Natália MS; Sugimoto, Dai; Greve, Júlia Maria D’Andrea; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Anterior cruciate ligament injury leads to adaptive responses to maintain postural control. However, there is no consensus regarding whether leg dominance also affects postural control in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic and static postural control among athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury to the dominant leg. METHODS: Twenty-eight athletes, twenty-one males and seven females aged 15-45 years, were allocated to one of two groups: the anterior cruciate ligament injury group (26±3 years) or the control group without anterior cruciate ligament injury (25±6.5 years). All subjects performed one legged stance tests under eyes open and eyes closed conditions and squat and kick movement tests using a postural control protocol (AccuSwayPlus force platform, Massachusetts). The center of pressure displacement and speed were measured by the force platform. In addition, the distance traveled on the single-leg hop test was assessed as an objective measure of function. RESULTS: Significantly greater mediolateral sway was found under the eyes closed condition (p=0.04) and during squat movement (p=0.01) in the anterior cruciate ligament injury group than in the control group. Analysis of the single-leg hop test results showed no difference between the groups (p=0.73). CONCLUSION: Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury had greater mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure toward the dominant leg under the eyes closed condition and during squat movement compared to control athletes. PMID:27626471

  12. Transient laxity of an anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee related to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blecher, A M; Richmond, J C

    1998-01-01

    Transient laxity was documented around the end of pregnancy in a woman who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction 2 months before conception. This temporary laxity in the 3rd trimester and a few months postpartum corresponded to a time when substantial remodeling from large diameter to small diameter collagen fibers has been noted in the ACL graft ligamentization process. This is also a time of high levels of the hormone relaxin (member of the family of insulin-like growth factors), whose action in animals leads to dissociation of large collagen fibrils to smaller disorganized fibrils. The temporary laxity resolved. Careful observation of women who become pregnant in the first few months after ACL reconstruction is recommended.

  13. Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training for preventing anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Slauterbeck, James R

    2007-01-01

    Female athletes are four to six times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Since the enactment of Title IX, male athletic participation at the high school level has remained steady (3.8 million), whereas female athletic participation has increased tenfold (from 0.3 to 3.0 million). Geometric growth in athletic participation and the higher injury rate in female athletes have led to gender inequity in ACL injury rates. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms such as during landing from a jump or while making a lateral pivot. Dynamic knee instability, caused by ligament dominance (decreased dynamic neuromuscular control of the joint), quadriceps dominance (decreased hamstring strength and recruitment), and leg dominance (side-to-side differences in strength and coordination) may be responsible for gender inequity in ACL injury rates.

  14. Prolonged infection at the tibial bone tunnel after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Numazaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Hideo; Yoshida, Katsuhiro; Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2017-08-09

    A 24-year-old man with severe atopic dermatitis underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction of the right knee seven years earlier but developed a surgical site infection. The infection did not heal after removal of the metal implants, and a fistula eventually developed. This condition was left untreated for six years before he was referred to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging showed fluid in the tibial bone tunnel and extensive bone marrow edema surrounding the bone tunnel. Based on these findings, abscess formation within the tibial bone tunnel and osteomyelitis spreading to the proximal tibia were suspected. During the surgery, a portion of artificial ligament and non-absorbable suture were observed in the bone tunnel, and the infection healed immediately after removal of this complex. When surgical site infection occurs after ACL reconstruction, it is important to completely remove all artificial materials as early as possible.

  15. Knee stiffness following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: the incidence and associated factors of knee stiffness following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G A J; Coleman, S G S; Keating, J F

    2009-08-01

    We reviewed 100 patients retrospectively following primary ACL reconstruction with quadruple hamstring autografts to evaluate the incidence and factors associated with postoperative stiffness. Stiffness was defined as any loss of motion using the contra-lateral leg as a control. The median delay between injury and operation was 15 months. The incidence of stiffness was 12% at 6 months post-reconstruction. Both incomplete attendance at physiotherapy (p<0.005) and previous knee surgery (p<0.005) were the strongest predictors of the stiffness. Anterior knee pain was also associated with the stiffness (p<0.029). Factors that failed to show a significant association with the stiffness included associated MCL sprain at injury (p=0.32), post-injury stiffness (p=1.00) and concomitant menisectomy at reconstruction (p=0.54). Timing of surgery also did not appear to influence the onset of stiffness (median delays: 29 months for stiff patients; 14 months for non-stiff patients). The rate of stiffness fell to 5% at 12 months postreconstruction, without operative intervention.

  16. [Injuries of the medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint and Lemaire surgical functional treatment. Long-term outcome].

    PubMed

    Schmid, F

    1996-06-01

    The present paper reports the results of 112 extraarticular ligamento-plasties performed on the knee with the procedure proposed by Lemaire. The series includes isolated tears of the anterior cruciate and medical collateral ligament as well as combined tears of both ligaments. The clinical and radiological results with a mean follow-up time of 11.5 years are compared with the results obtained in a first assessment 8 years ago. Good clinical results are in contrast with increasing osteoarthrosis in 1/3 of the knees radiologically assessed. The operation for a torn anterior cruciate ligament should be performed as soon as possible to avoid secondary meniscal lesions with subsequent severe osteoarthrosis. Presence or absence of arthrotic signs in the X-rays mainly determine the long-term result after ligamento-plasties of the knee. The Lemaire plasties are well tolerated even by elderly still active people and need little postoperative care.

  17. Editorial Commentary: Ultrasound Barely Beats Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Knee Anterolateral Ligament Evaluation…But Does This Change the Treatment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knee?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) examination of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee betters magnetic resonance imaging analysis with slightly higher identification rate of the entire ALL presumably due to the ability to test in a functional pivot shift configuration. The ALL was injured in 63% of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees and the injury occurred at the tibial insertion in all cases. Although the authors propose US to be the new "gold standard" for diagnosing ALL injuries, there still remains a question of whether there is any necessity for an US diagnosis of ALL injury when the pivot shift test may provide the necessary information, and the consensus for ALL reconstruction or lateral extra-articular tenodesis has yet to be reached. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying in vivo laxity in the anterior cruciate ligament and individual knee joint structures.

    PubMed

    Westover, L M; Sinaei, N; Küpper, J C; Ronsky, J L

    2016-11-01

    A custom knee loading apparatus (KLA), when used in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging, enables in vivo measurement of the gross anterior laxity of the knee joint. A numerical model was applied to the KLA to understand the contribution of the individual joint structures and to estimate the stiffness of the anterior-cruciate ligament (ACL). The model was evaluated with a cadaveric study using an in situ knee loading apparatus and an ElectroForce test system. A constrained optimization solution technique was able to predict the restraining forces within the soft-tissue structures and joint contact. The numerical model presented here allowed in vivo prediction of the material stiffness parameters of the ACL in response to applied anterior loading. Promising results were obtained for in vivo load sharing within the structures. The numerical model overestimated the ACL forces by 27.61-92.71%. This study presents a novel approach to estimate ligament stiffness and provides the basis to develop a robust and accurate measure of in vivo knee joint laxity.

  19. The Relationship between Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Osteoarthritis of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Simon, David; Mascarenhas, Randy; Saltzman, Bryan M; Rollins, Meaghan; Bach, Bernard R; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables.

  20. ANATOMICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE: DOUBLE BAND OR SINGLE BAND?

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Luiz Antonio Zanotelli; Junior, Adair Bervig; Badotti, Augusto Alves; Michelin, Alexandre Froes; Algarve, Rodrigo Ilha; de Quadros Martins, Cesar Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the double-band and single-band techniques for anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and demonstrate that the double-band technique not only provides greater anterior stability but also causes less pain and a better subjective patient response. Methods: We selected 42 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, by means of either the single-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using flexor tendon grafts with two tunnels, or the double-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using four tunnels and grafts from the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. All fixations were performed using interference screws. There was no variation in the sample. Before the operation, the objective and subjective IKDC scores, Lysholm score and length of time with the injury were evaluated. All these variables were reassessed six months later, and the KT-1000 correlation with the contralateral knee was also evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but the single-band group showed better results in relation to range of motion and objective evaluations including KT-1000 (with statistical significance). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there was no difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but better results were found using the single-band anatomical technique, in relation to objective evaluations. PMID:27042621

  1. The Relationship between Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Simon, David; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Rollins, Meaghan; Bach, Bernard R.; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables. PMID:25954533

  2. In vivo posterior cruciate ligament elongation in running activity after anatomic and non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Thorhauer, Eric; Bowman, Karl; Fu, Freddie H; Tashman, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) investigate the in vivo elongation behaviour of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during running in the uninjured knee and (2) evaluate changes in PCL elongation during running after anatomic or non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Seventeen unilateral ACL-injured subjects were recruited after undergoing anatomic (n = 9) or non-anatomic (n = 8) ACL reconstruction. Bilateral high-resolution CT scans were obtained to produce 3D models. Anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles insertion sites of the PCL were identified on the 3D CT scan reconstructions. Dynamic knee function was assessed during running using a dynamic stereo X-ray (DSX) system. The lengths of the AL and PM bundles were estimated from late swing through mid-stance. The contralateral knees served as normal controls. Control knees demonstrated a slight decrease in AL bundle and a significant decrease in PM bundle length following foot strike. Length and elongation patterns of the both bundles of the PCL in the anatomic ACL reconstruction group were similar to the controls. However, the change in dynamic PCL length was significantly greater in the non-anatomic group than in the anatomic reconstruction group after foot strike (p < 0.05). The AL bundle length decreased slightly, and the PM bundle length significantly decreased after foot strike during running in uninjured knees. Anatomic ACL reconstruction maintained normal PCL elongation patterns more effectively than non-anatomic ACL reconstruction during high-demand, functional loading. These results support the use of anatomic ACL reconstruction to achieve normal knee function in high-demand activities. Case-control study, Level III.

  3. Quadriceps Strength and Endurance After Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Versus Matched Group With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Han, Seung-Beom; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Lee, Seok-Joo; Suh, Dong-Won; Jeong, Hye-Jin

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the preoperative strengths and endurances of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) versus posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and endurance were compared between 20 prospectively enrolled patients with isolated PCL tears and a retrospective, matched control group of 20 patients with isolated ACL tears. The maximal torque (60°/s) and total work (180°/s) of the quadriceps and hamstring were evaluated with an isokinetic testing device. Total work (1,094.4 ± 505.8 J v 797.5 ± 332.7 J, P = .035) and peak torque (129.9 ± 56.2 N ∙ m v 98.2 ± 37.4 N ∙ m, P = .046) of the quadriceps muscle on the involved side were higher in the PCL tear group than in the ACL tear group. However, there were no significant differences between the PCL tear group and ACL tear group in hamstring muscle strength (45.8 ± 42.3 N ∙ m and 46.0 ± 24.4 N ∙ m, respectively; P = .940) and endurance (429.3 ± 238.9 J and 382.4 ± 256.1 J, respectively; P = .574) on the involved side. The strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle of the injured limb were greater after PCL tears than after ACL tears. However, there were no significant between-group differences in hamstring muscle strength and endurance on the involved side. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY: TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES AND TRENDS

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego da Costa; Kanas, Michel; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the procedures used by knee surgeons in Brazil for treating and rehabilitating anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 21 closed questions was developed, addressing topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The questionnaire was applied to Brazilian knee surgeons during the three days of the 42nd Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology in 2010. Results: A total of 226 surgeons filled out the questionnaire completely. The most commonly used types of graft were hamstrings tendons and the central third of the ipsilateral patellar tendon, which were used by 82.3% and 53.5% of the sample, respectively. The technique of reconstruction with a single transtibial band was the first preference and was used by 66.4% of the participants. A period of 1 to 4 weeks between injury and surgical procedure was considered ideal by most participants (52.65%). Complaints from patients that the knee was ‘giving way’ or unstable and presence of a positive pivot shift maneuver were the most decisive factors considered in making the decision to operate the patient. Patient satisfaction and absence of complaints of instability during the postoperative period were the criteria deemed to be most important for the surgery to be considered a success. Conclusions: There are clearly evolving trends in treating and rehabilitating the anterior cruciate ligament in Brazil. However, more prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefits of these trends. PMID:27042620

  5. Impaired voluntary quadriceps force control following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: relationship with knee function.

    PubMed

    Perraton, Luke; Clark, Ross; Crossley, Kay; Pua, Yong-Hao; Whitehead, Tim; Morris, Hayden; Telianidis, Stacey; Bryant, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Impairments in quadriceps force control and altered quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation strategies have been observed following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; however, the functional implications of these impairments are unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between quadriceps force control, quadriceps activation, hamstring coactivation and clinically assessed knee function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft. Sixty-six patients (18 ± 3 months following surgery) and 41 uninjured individuals participated. Quadriceps force control was assessed using an isometric knee extension task. Participants cyclically increased and decreased quadriceps force at slow speeds between 5 and 30 % maximum voluntary isometric contraction matching a moving target displayed on a screen. Quadriceps activation and hamstring coactivation were assessed concurrently using surface electromyography. Knee function was assessed with the Cincinnati Knee Rating Scale and three single-leg hop tests. The reconstructed group completed the task with 48 % greater root-mean-square error (RMSE), indicating significantly worse quadriceps force control (p < 0.001). In a multivariable model adjusted for sex, greater RMSE and greater lateral hamstring coactivation were significantly associated with worse knee function that is greater odds of scoring <85 % on one or more knee functional assessment. Less-accurate quadriceps force output and greater hamstring coactivation are associated with worse knee joint function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and may contribute to irregular knee joint loading and the onset or progression of knee osteoarthritis. Impairments in quadriceps force control and altered muscle activation strategies may be modifiable through neuromuscular training, and this is an area for future research. Case-control study, Level III.

  6. Evidence-based practice to improve outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ayeni, O R; Evaniew, N; Ogilvie, R; Peterson, D C; Denkers, M R; Bhandari, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have considered native knee anatomy and biomechanical function, and emphasized the long-term goals of protecting knee health and preventing the development of symptomatic ACL-deficient degenerative arthrosis. Validated and reproducible examination maneuvers are necessary for accurate diagnosis and appraisal of surgical interventions. Appropriately powered expertise-based trials should be emphasized to minimize bias, enhance validity, and reduce crossover. Best practice rehabilitation protocols can guide postoperative care while minimizing heterogeneity within studies. Functional outcome scores should be sensitive, responsive, and able to reliably detect small changes.

  7. Management of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Injured Knee in the Skeletally Immature Athlete.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian N; Anderson, Allen F

    2017-01-01

    Intrasubstance tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are being diagnosed with increasing frequency in the skeletally immature. Management options include nonoperative/ early surgical, or delayed surgical reconstruction. Nonoperative/delayed reconstruction results in worse functional outcomes than early reconstruction. Physicians are faced with a treatment dilemma; clinical and basic science studies have demonstrated risk of limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity with ACL reconstruction. Vertical drill tunnels decrease physeal damage and minimize growth deformity; however, this technique results in nonanatomic ACL graft placement. All-epiphyseal reconstruction avoids damage to the growth plate. These techniques are biomechanically superior to extraarticular and modified physeal-sparing procedures.

  8. Depression and psychiatric disease associated with outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao-Hua; Liu, Max; Dines, Joshua S; Kelly, John D; Garcia, Grant H

    2016-01-01

    While most patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury indicate satisfaction with surgical intervention, a significant proportion still do not return to pre-injury level of function or sport. Psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, have recently been associated with poor clinical outcomes after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). To date, no article has yet examined how depression affects ACLR outcomes and how potential screening and intervention for psychological distress may affect postoperative activity level. The purpose of this review is to delineate potential relationships between depression and ACLR outcome, discuss clinical implications and identify future directions for research. PMID:27900267

  9. Single-Bundle Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Surgical Technique Pearls and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Malempati, Chaitu S; Metzler, Adam V; Johnson, Darren L

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are some of the most common sports-related injuries. Treatment of these injuries with ACL reconstruction has evolved over the last several decades. Anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction offers an accurate and reproducible method to reproduce native knee anatomy, restore knee kinematics, and ultimately restore function and decrease long-term degenerative effects. The importance of adequate arthroscopic visualization and a thorough understanding of the native anatomic ACL landmarks are discussed in this article. Furthermore, surgical technique, pearls, pitfalls, potential complications, rehabilitation, and outcomes are reviewed.

  10. Knee stability assessment on anterior cruciate ligament injury: Clinical and biomechanical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Mak-Ham; Fong, Daniel TP; Yung, Patrick SH; Ho, Eric PY; Chan, Wood-Yee; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common in knee joint accounting for 40% of sports injury. ACL injury leads to knee instability, therefore, understanding knee stability assessments would be useful for diagnosis of ACL injury, comparison between operation treatments and establishing return-to-sport standard. This article firstly introduces a management model for ACL injury and the contribution of knee stability assessment to the corresponding stages of the model. Secondly, standard clinical examination, intra-operative stability measurement and motion analysis for functional assessment are reviewed. Orthopaedic surgeons and scientists with related background are encouraged to understand knee biomechanics and stability assessment for ACL injury patients. PMID:19712449

  11. Postoperative Evaluation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Measurements and Abnormalities on Radiographic and CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minchul; Choi, Yun Sun; Kim, Hyoungseop; Choi, Nam-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a well-established procedure for repair of ACL injury. Despite improvement of surgical and rehabilitation techniques over the past decades, up to 25% of patients still fail to regain satisfactory function after an ACL reconstruction. With development of CT imaging techniques for reducing metal artifacts, multi-planar reconstruction, and three-dimensional reconstruction, early post-operative imaging is increasingly being used to provide immediate feedback to surgeons regarding tunnel positioning, fixation, and device placement. Early post-operative radiography and CT imaging are easy to perform and serve as the baseline examinations for future reference.

  12. Tibiofemoral Osteoarthritis After Surgical or Nonsurgical Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kyle P; Driban, Jeffrey B; Sitler, Michael R; Cattano, Nicole M; Balasubramanian, Easwaran; Hootman, Jennifer M

    2017-06-02

      To determine if surgical or nonsurgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament rupture affects the prevalence of posttraumatic tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA).   Studies published between 1983 and April 2012 were identified via EBSCOhost and OVID. Reference lists were then screened in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement.   Studies were included if (a) treatment outcomes focused on a direct comparison of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament rupture, (b) the prevalence of tibiofemoral OA was reported, and (c) they were written in English. Studies were excluded if (a) the included patients were treated with cast immobilization after surgery, (b) the mean follow-up was less than 10 years, or (c) the patients underwent anterior cruciate ligament revision surgery.   Two independent investigators reviewed the included articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Frequency of OA, surgical procedure, nonsurgical treatments, and participant characteristics were extracted and summarized. We calculated prevalence (%) and 95% confidence intervals for treatment groups for each individual study and overall. We developed 2 × 2 contingency tables to assess the association between treatment groups (exposed had surgery, referent was nonsurgical treatment) and the prevalence of OA.   Four retrospective studies were identified (140 surgical patients, 240 nonsurgical patients). The mean Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score was 5 (range = 4-6 [of 10] points). Average length of follow-up was 11.8 years (range = 10-14 years). The prevalence of OA for surgically treated patients ranged from 32.6% to 51.2% (overall = 41.4%, 95% confidence interval = 35.0%, 48.1%) and for nonsurgical patients ranged from 24.5% to 42.3% (overall = 30.9%, 95% confidence interval = 24.4%, 38.3%).   Although OA prevalence was higher in the surgical treatment group at a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, no

  13. [Melorheostosis and anterior cruciate ligament tear in a 15-year-old female].

    PubMed

    Glard, Y; Launay, F; Edgard-Rosa, G; Viehweger, E; Jouve, J-L; Bollini, G

    2008-10-01

    We report the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered an indirect knee trauma. The standard X-rays revealed a tract of ivory-like bone partially obstructing the medullary canal of the femur and the tibia. Magnetic resonance imaging produced a hypointense signal on the T1 and T2 sequences. The radiographic diagnosis was melorheostosis which was confirmed on the biopsy specimen which ruled out other diagnoses. The MRI also revealed a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, treated conservatively. Clinical and radiological surveillance were proposed for the melorheostosis.

  14. Changes in dynamic medial tibiofemoral contact mechanics and kinematics after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: A cadaveric model

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Asheesh; Chen, Tony; Santner, Thomas J; El-Amin, Saadiq; Kelly, Natalie H; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tears of the anterior cruciate ligament on knee kinematics and contact mechanics during dynamic everyday activities, such as gait, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize anterior cruciate ligament–deficient knee contact mechanics and kinematics during simulated gait. Nine human cadaveric knees were each augmented with a sensor capable of measuring dynamic normal contact stresses on the tibial plateau, mounted on a load-controlled simulator, and subjected to physiological, multidirectional, dynamic loads to mimic gait. Using a mixed model with random knee identifiers, confidence intervals were constructed for contact stress before and after anterior cruciate ligament transection at two points in the gait cycle at which axial force peaked (14% and 45% of the gait cycle). Kinematic and contact mechanics changes after anterior cruciate ligament transection were highly variable across knees. Nonetheless, a statistically significant increase in contact stress in the posterior–central aspect of the medial tibial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was identified, the location of which corresponds to the location of degenerative changes that are frequently found in patients with chronic anterior cruciate ligament injury. The variability in the contact stress in other regions of the medial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was partly explained by the variations in osseous geometry across the nine knees tested. At 14% of gait, there was no significant change in peak contact stress after anterior cruciate ligament transection in any of the four quadrants, and none of the possible explanatory variables showed statistical significance. Understanding the variable effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury on contact mechanics based on geometric differences in osseous anatomy is of paramount clinical importance and may be invaluable to select the best reconstruction techniques and counsel patients on their individual risk of subsequent

  15. The anterior cruciate ligament-lateral meniscus complex: A histological study.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuya; Maehara, Ami; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Fujii, Masataka; Tanaka, Takaaki; Inoue, Hiroto; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The anterior root of the lateral meniscus (LM) dives underneath the tibial attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Although the distinct role of meniscal attachments has been investigated, the relationship between the LM anterior insertion (LMAI) and ACL tibial insertion (ACLTI) remains unclear. This study histologically analyzed the LMAI and ACLTI. Samples were divided into four regions in an anterior-to-posterior direction. Histological measurements of these insertion sites were performed using safranin O-stained coronal sections. Distribution and signal densities of type I and II collagen were quantified. The ACLTI and LMAI formed the ACL-LM complex via fiber connections. The anterior part of the ACLTI had a widespread attachment composed of dense fibers. Attachment fibers of the LMAI became dense and wide gradually at the middle-to-posterior region. The ACL-LM transition zone (ALTZ) was observed between the LMAI and the lateral border of the ACLTI at the middle part of the ACL tibial footprint. Type II collagen density of the LMAI was higher than that of the ACLTI and ALTZ. Our results can help create an accurate tibial bone tunnel within the dense ACL attachment during ACL reconstruction surgery.

  16. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  17. Biological enhancement of graft-tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    SACCOMANNO, MARISTELLA F.; CAPASSO, LUIGI; FRESTA, LUCA; MILANO, GIUSEPPE

    2016-01-01

    The sites where graft healing occurs within the bone tunnel and where the intra-articular ligamentization process takes place are the two most important sites of biological incorporation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, since they help to determine the mechanical behavior of the femur-ACL graft-tibia complex. Graft-tunnel healing is a complex process influenced by several factors, such as type of graft, preservation of remnants, bone quality, tunnel length and placement, fixation techniques and mechanical stress. In recent years, numerous experimental and clinical studies have been carried out to evaluate potential strategies designed to enhance and optimize the biological environment of the graft-tunnel interface. Modulation of inflammation, tissue engineering and gene transfer techniques have been applied in order to obtain a direct-type fibrocartilaginous insertion of the ACL graft, similar to that of native ligament, and to accelerate the healing process of tendon grafts within the bone tunnel. Although animal studies have given encouraging results, clinical studies are lacking and their results do not really support the use of the various strategies in clinical practice. Further investigations are therefore needed to optimize delivery techniques, therapeutic concentrations, maintenance of therapeutic effects over time, and to reduce the risk of undesirable effects in clinical practice. PMID:27900311

  18. Evaluation of Dacron-covered and plain bovine xenografts as replacements for the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Berry, J L; Berg, W S; Stahurski, T M; Moran, J M; Morgan, E M; Greenwald, A S

    1988-11-01

    Surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament often involves the use of a suitable autograft. As alternatives to sacrificing these normal structures, various allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials have been investigated as ligament replacement materials. This study investigates Dacron fabric-covered and plain bovine xenograft tendon as such materials in the canine knee. The implants were tested to failure in an MTS machine following 13 weeks of implantation in a canine knee. Dacron woven fabric-covered implants became more firmly attached than those covered by Dacron mesh fabric or plain xenografts. The implants were also analyzed according to their method of attachment (fixation staples or sutures). Overall, the sutured implants failed at slightly higher forces than did the stapled ones. Histologically, limited vascular invasion of the xenograft was observed. No host fibrous or osseous tissue could be identified within the graft. Fibrous tissues did form between the bone and xenograft. The implants exhibited extreme intraarticular wear, which suggests a low potential for intraarticular ligament replacement.

  19. [Suture of the anterior cruciate ligament--what is the real value of this method?].

    PubMed

    Seiler, H; Frank, H R

    1993-09-01

    After suture of the anterior cruciate ligament without anatomical augmentation, used as a routine method, 88 patients were followed up after a minimum of 2 years using the Lysholm score and the activity scale. Residual laxity was checked clinically and with the KT-1000. For comparison, 20 patients with chronic symptomatic anterolateral instability were followed up who had been operated on using the Eriksson technique during the same time period. Postoperative treatment was a limited functional approach. The peripheral ligament structures were treated following the Hughston and Müller principles. In two-thirds of the knees lateral tenodesis was added. The results of the suture method were disappointing and inferior to the results obtained by the Eriksson technique (trend). The Lysholm score was 77 and 82, respectively. The activity scale was 4.4 (recreational sports) for both groups. The Lachmann sign (KT-1000) in side-to-side comparison (89 N) showed a residual laxity of 1.9 mm and 0.8 mm (average), respectively. In no series was tractopexy of demonstrable advantage. The final conclusion must be that the suture method (with iliotibial tract tenodesis) is not superior to guided conservative treatment. Despite an unfavorable situation preoperatively, the (abandoned) technique of ligament substitution is superior to the suture method (trend). In isokinetic testing dominant knees fare better. In good results, a high hamstrings-quadriceps ratio is typical. The reasons for this are not well-trained hamstrings, but the relative insufficiency of the quadriceps mechanism.

  20. Quadriceps strength and weight acceptance strategies continue to improve two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roewer, Ben D.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers resolve their strength and movement asymmetries within two years after surgery. 26 non-copers were recruited to undergo pre-operative quadriceps strength testing and 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects underwent surgery to reconstruct the ligament followed by physical therapy focused on restoring normal range of motion, quadriceps strength, and function. Subjects returned for quadriceps strength testing and gait analysis six months and two years after surgery. Acutely after injury, quadriceps strength was asymmetric between limbs, but resolved six months after surgery. Asymmetric knee angles, knee moments, and knee and hip power profiles were also observed acutely after injury and persisted six months after surgery despite subjects achieving symmetrical quadriceps strength. Two years after surgery, quadriceps strength in the involved limb continued to improve and most kinematic and kinetic asymmetries resolved. These findings suggest that adequate quadriceps strength does not immediately resolve gait asymmetries in non-copers. They also suggest that non-copers have the capacity to improve their quadriceps strength and gait symmetry long after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21592482

  1. The influence of functional knee bracing on the anterior cruciate ligament strain biomechanics in weightbearing and nonweightbearing knees.

    PubMed

    Fleming, B C; Renstrom, P A; Beynnon, B D; Engstrom, B; Peura, G

    2000-01-01

    Functional knee braces are commonly prescribed after anterior cruciate ligament injury or reconstruction; however, their ability to protect the ligament, or graft, remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the anterior cruciate ligament strain response in braced and unbraced knees during weightbearing and nonweightbearing in combination with three externally applied loads: 1) anterior-posterior shear forces, 2) internal-external torques, and 3) varus-valgus moments. The Legend brace was tested. All external loads were applied to the tibia with the knee flexed to 20 degrees. Reproducible data were obtained from 11 subjects. For anterior shear loads up to 130 N, the brace significantly reduced strain values compared with the unbraced knee during nonweightbearing and weightbearing conditions. For internal torques of the tibia (up to 9 N x m), strain in the braced knee was significantly less than in the unbraced knee when the knee was nonweightbearing only. The brace did not reduce strain values when the knee was subjected to external torques (9 N x m) or varus-valgus moments (10 N x m) in weightbearing and nonweightbearing knees. These data indicate that a functional knee brace can protect the anterior cruciate ligament during anterior-posterior shear loading in the nonweightbearing and weightbearing knee and during internal torques in the nonweightbearing knee.

  2. Massage Therapy Protocol for Post–Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zalta, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background: The intent of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of massage therapy in the rehabilitation of post–anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patellofemoral pain syndrome. The primary complications following surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament—classified as patellofemoral pain syndrome—are hamstring flexion contracture and quadriceps weakness, leading to patellofemoral dysfunction and retropatellar pain. Methods: Treatment included lymphatic drainage, myofascial release, neuromuscular techniques including trigger point release, muscle energy techniques and cross-fiber friction. Orthopedic physical assessment tests were used to chart changes in patellofemoral function and changes in range of motion in the knee during the course of the massage interventions. Subjective reporting on pain level and function were also documented. Results: A decrease in pain level, hamstring flexion contracture and lateral tracking of the patella were documented. Conclusion: Massage therapy was determined to be an effective complementary therapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:21589717

  3. The role of the RNFA in anterior cruciate ligament graft preparation.

    PubMed

    Rozakis, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopedic procedures in the United States. Repair of the ACL often requires the use of autografts or allografts, and the RN first assistant (RNFA) often is the team member responsible for preparing the graft. Common grafts used in ACL repair include bone-patellar tendon-bone, hamstring, Achilles tendon, quadriceps tendon, and tibialis anterior tendon. The RNFA must be competent in preparing all of these grafts and in understanding the advantages and disadvantages of using each graft, such as the reasons for graft choice, and must ensure that all graft-related supplies and equipment are available and ready for use. The ability to prepare all graft types expands treatment options, reduces surgical time, and enhances the role of the RNFA.

  4. Critical Analysis of the Lever Test for Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Massey, Patrick A; Harris, Joshua D; Winston, Leland A; Lintner, David M; Delgado, Domenica A; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2017-08-01

    To critically analyze the "lever test" in detecting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and to compare its accuracy with the Lachman, anterior drawer (AD), and pivot shift tests. From June 2014 to June 2015, 91 subjects were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were subjects aged 16 to 60 years, presenting after a knee injury with subjective swelling, or an objective effusion and an uninjured normal contralateral knee for comparison. Exclusion criteria included previous knee ligamentous reconstruction, fracture of the distal femur or proximal tibia, bilateral knee injuries, or known cruciate ligament tear. The Lachman, AD, pivot shift, and lever tests were performed in the office by 2 board-certified orthopaedic surgeons with patient awake. Examiners were blinded to the presence or absence of ACL injury. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine injury. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were evaluated for all 4 tests. Accuracy was compared using χ-square and receiver operator curves. Average subject age was 28 ± 11 years (61 males, 30 females). Seventy-one (79%) had ACL tears diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the lever test were 83%, 80%, and 82%, respectively. Accuracy was not statistically different from the Lachman, AD, and pivot shift tests (P = .78, .99, .07, respectively). Subanalyses were performed based on the presence of another ligament tear, timing of injury, and the presence of a meniscus tear. Although the groups were smaller and thus underpowered, the results were reported. Neither the presence of another ligament tear nor the timing of the injury affected accuracy (P = .62 and P = .47); however, the presence of a meniscus tear decreased its accuracy (P = .003). The lever test showed high sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy in the detection of ACL tears. The accuracy of the lever test was not significantly different from the Lachman, AD, or pivot shift tests. Level II

  5. Inter-Segmental Coordination Pattern in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency during a Single-Step Descent.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Razeghi, Mohsen; Mehdizadeh, Sina; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Piroozi, Soraya; Rojhani Shirazi, Zahra; Rafiee, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury is a debilitating pathology which may alter lower limb coordination pattern in both intact and affected lower extremities during activities of daily living. Emerging evidence supports the notion that kinematic variables may not be a good indicator to differentiate patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency during step descent task. The aim of the present study was to examine alterations in kinematics as well as coordination patterns and coordination variability of both limbs of these patients during a single step descent task. Continuous relative phase technique was used to measure coordination pattern and coordination variability between a group of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (n = 23) and a healthy control group (n = 23). A third order polynomial Curve fitting was utilized to provide a curve that best fitted to the data points of coordination pattern and coordination variability of the healthy control group. This was considered as a reference to compare to that of patient group using nonlinear regression analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated an altered coordination pattern of the supporting shank-thigh and the stepping foot-shank couplings in anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects. It was further noticed that there was an increased coordination variability in foot-shank and shank-thigh couplings of both supporting and stepping legs. There was no significant difference in the hip, knee and ankle joints kinematics in either side of these patients. Anterior cruciate ligament deficient individuals showed altered strategies in both intact and affected legs, with increased coordination variability. Kinematic data did not indicate any significant difference between the two groups. It could be concluded that more sophisticated dynamic approach such as continuous relative phase would uncover discrepancies between the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament deficient individuals.

  6. Mapping current research trends on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk against the existing evidence: In vivo biomechanical risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sharir, Raihana; Rafeeuddin, Radin; Staes, Filip; Dingenen, Bart; George, Keith; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    Whilst many studies measure large numbers of biomechanical parameters and associate these to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, they cannot be considered as anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors without evidence from prospective studies. A review was conducted to systematically assess the in vivo biomechanical literature to identify biomechanical risk factors for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury during dynamic sports tasks; and to critically evaluate the research trends from retrospective and associative studies investigating non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. An electronic literature search was undertaken on studies examining in vivo biomechanical risk factors associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. The relevant studies were assessed by classification; level 1 - a prospective cohort study, level 2 - a retrospective study or level 3 - an associative study. An initial search revealed 812 studies but this was reduced to 1 level 1 evidence study, 20 level 2 evidence studies and 175 level 3 evidence studies that met all inclusion criteria. Level 1 evidence showed that the knee abduction angle, knee abduction moment and ground reaction force were biomechanical risk factors. Nine level 2 studies and eighty-three level 3 studies used these to assess risk factors in their study. Inconsistencies in results and methods were observed in level 2 and 3 studies. There is a lack of high quality, prospective level 1 evidence related to biomechanical risk factors for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. More prospective cohort studies are required to determine risk factors and provide improved prognostic capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biologic Approaches for the Treatment of Partial Tears of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Dallo, Ignacio; Chahla, Jorge; Mitchell, Justin J.; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Feagin, John A.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has been established as the gold standard for treatment of complete ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in active, symptomatic individuals. In contrast, treatment of partial tears of the ACL remains controversial. Biologically augmented ACL-repair techniques are expanding in an attempt to regenerate and improve healing and outcomes of both the native ACL and the reconstructed graft tissue. Purpose: To review the biologic treatment options for partial tears of the ACL. Study Design: Review. Methods: A literature review was performed that included searches of PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: partial tear of the ACL, ACL repair, bone marrow concentrate, growth factors/healing enhancement, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), stem cell therapy. Results: The use of novel biologic ACL repair techniques, including growth factors, PRP, stem cells, and bioscaffolds, have been reported to result in promising preclinical and short-term clinical outcomes. Conclusion: The potential benefits of these biological augmentation approaches for partial ACL tears are improved healing, better proprioception, and a faster return to sport and activities of daily living when compared with standard reconstruction procedures. However, long-term studies with larger cohorts of patients and with technique validation are necessary to assess the real effect of these approaches. PMID:28210653

  8. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The average value of the of vastus medialis EMG, Functional Reach Test, and the maximum and average extensor strength of the knee joint isokinetic movement increased significantly, and the time of the 10-Meter Walk test decreased significantly. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic walking training as a long-term intervention. PMID:27630396

  9. Rationale and implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention warm-up programs in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Bien, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    The sex disparity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk and the subsequent adverse effects on knee joint health, psychosocial well-being, and financial costs incurred have produced a surge in research on risk factors and interventions designed to decrease this disparity and overall incidence. Biomechanical and neuromuscular differences have been identified throughout the trunk and lower extremity that may increase noncontact ACL injury risk in female athletes. Evidence demonstrates that many risk factors are modifiable with intervention programs and that athletic performance measures can be enhanced. No universally accepted ACL injury prevention program currently exists, and injury prevention programs are diverse. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs introduced in a warm-up format offer multiple benefits, primarily, improved compliance based on improved practicality of implementation. However, drawbacks of warm-up style formats also exist, most notably that a lack of equipment and resources may preclude measurable improvements in athletic performance that foster improved compliance among participants. The purpose of this review is to analyze the current literature researching possible biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors in noncontact ACL injury in female athletes and the most effective means of implementing critical elements of a program to decrease ACL injury risk in female athletes while improving athletic performance. Hip and hamstring training, core stabilization, plyometrics, balance, agility, neuromuscular training with video and verbal feedback to modify technique, and stretching appear to be essential components of these programs. Further research is critical to determine ideal training program volume, intensity, duration, and frequency.

  10. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Compensation during Gait using Hamstring Muscle Activity.

    PubMed

    Catalfamo, Paola Formento; Aguiar, Gerardo; Curi, Jorge; Braidot, Ariel

    2010-06-10

    Previous research has shown that an increase in hamstring activation may compensate for anterior tibial transalation (ATT) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee (ACLd); however, the effects of this compensation still remain unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify the activation of the hamstring muscles needed to compensate the ATT in ACLd knee during the complete gait cycle and to evaluate the effect of this compensation on quadriceps activation and joint contact forces. A two dimensional model of the knee was used, which included the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints, knee ligaments, the medial capsule and two muscles units. Simulations were conducted to determine the ATT in healthy and ACLd knee and the hamstring activation needed to correct the abnormal ATT to normal levels (100% compensation) and to 50% compensation. Then, the quadriceps activation and the joint contact forces were calculated. Results showed that 100% compensation would require hamstring and quadriceps activations larger than their maximum isometric force, and would generate an increment in the peak contact force at the tibiofemoral (115%) and patellofemoral (48%) joint with respect to the healthy knee. On the other hand, 50% compensation would require less force generated by the muscles (less than 0.85 of maximum isometric force) and smaller contact forces (peak tibiofemoral contact force increased 23% and peak patellofemoral contact force decreased 7.5% with respect to the healthy knee). Total compensation of ATT by means of increased hamstring activity is possible; however, partial compensation represents a less deleterious strategy.

  11. Functional restoration following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in active-duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Edwards, K J; Goral, A B; Hay, R M; Kelso, T

    1991-03-01

    A retrospective review was conducted of 112 active-duty military patients receiving anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between 1985 and 1987. Mean age of these patients was 26.4 years, average follow-up was 2.35 years, and the average interval from time of injury to reconstruction was 13.6 months. The three most commonly employed surgical techniques were the Andrews' iliotibial band tenodesis, mid-third patellar tendon autograft, and a combined Andrews' and mid-third patellar tendon reconstruction. Seventy-eight patients (69.6%) returned to full duty and the ultimate disposition was not affected by the reconstructive procedure performed, chronicity of injury, or sex. A statistically higher percentage of patients over 30 years old returned to full unrestricted military service than did patients under 30. Associated posterior cruciate injury and degenerative joint disease resulted in poorer results. Our results demonstrate that functional restoration, based on the occupational criteria of return to full unrestricted duty, is likely following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  12. Transphyseal Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using Hamstring Autograft in Skeletally Immature Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seon, Jong Keun; Yoon, Taek Rim; Park, Sang Jin

    2005-01-01

    Eleven skeletally immature adolescents underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a transphyseal tibial and femoral tunnel. An autologous quadrupled hamstring tendon was used in all cases and the average follow-up was 77.7 months. Clinical results were evaluated using Lysholm knee scores and a return to pre-injury sports activities. Radiological results were evaluated using side-to-side differences of instrumented laxities and growth disturbances compared with the uninjured side on final follow-up orthoroentgenograms. The mean Lysholm score was 97.8 (range 94-100) and mean side-to-side laxity difference was 2.4 mm (range 1-4). Ten of 11 patients returned to pre-injury sports activity. No patient had a leg length discrepancy of over 1 cm or a significant abnormal angular deformity of the knee joint. Therefore, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transphyseal tunnel and hamstring autograft in skeletally immature adolescents is believed to be a reliable treatment method, which is not associated with significant leg length discrepancy or abnormal angular deformity of the knee joint. PMID:16361818

  13. Extra-articular tenodesis for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in amateur skiers.

    PubMed Central

    Neyret, P; Palomo, J R; Donell, S T; Dejour, H

    1994-01-01

    Thirty one amateur skiers with 33 knees which had had a symptomatic chronic rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) treated with the Lemaire operation were reviewed retrospectively at an average of 4.5 years. Of the patients 23 were women. The operation failed to control symptoms in 17 out of the 33 knees. However the operation did control symptoms in 13 out of 19 knees in patients over 35 years old, compared with only three out of 14 knees in patients under 35 years old. Clinical and objective testing however showed that most knees were still unstable. Despite this 21 patients continued skiing. One patient with a successful result switched to playing tennis. Five patients gave up all sports. Four further patients, all under 35 years old, returned to skiing after an additional intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. An isolated extra-articular procedure in amateur skiers under 35 years old with symptomatic chronic ACL rupture is not recommended. They need at least an intra-articular reconstruction to control their symptoms and to stabilize the knee. PMID:8044490

  14. [The effects of functional knee bracing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Dubljanin-Raspopović, Emilija; Bumbasirević, Marko; Devecerski, Gordana; Matanović, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Limited surgical technology in treating injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the past led to the development of a huge number of functional braces. Today, with the advance of the surgical techniques and a more aggressive rehabilitation approach in the postoperative course the use of functional braces after the ACL reconstruction is seriously questioned. The aim of this study was to review the basic functions of functional braces. Mechanical, and biomechanical functions of functional braces have been described, the psychological aspect of wearing them, their impact on thigh circumference, functional performance, muscle activity and postural control and propriocepation have also been addressed. Functional braces definitely increase the knee stability under low clinical loads. However, biomechanical investigations show that functional knee braces do not restore the normal knee stability under high forces related to certain activities. Furthermore, functional braces do not significantly influence proprioceptive abilities, nor functional performance, but have a negative impact on thigh atrophy, and inhibit joint muscle stabilizing activity. Given the generally high surgical success rates, there has been no scientific evidence so far to support the routine use of a functional knee brace following a successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the controlled rehabilitative postoperative course.

  15. Prognosis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a data-driven approach

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Abhijit; Kar, Oliva; Wu, Kuan-Chuen; Hall, Michelle; Gillette, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are at higher risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) and almost 50% display symptoms 10–20 years post injury. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often does not protect against knee OA development. Accordingly, a multi-scale formulation for data-driven prognosis (DDP) of post-ACLR is developed. Unlike traditional predictive strategies that require controlled off-line measurements or ‘training’ for determination of constitutive parameters to derive the transitional statistics, the proposed DDP algorithm relies solely on in situ measurements. The proposed DDP scheme is capable of predicting onset of instabilities. As the need for off-line testing (or training) is obviated, it can be easily implemented for ACLR, where such controlled a priori testing is almost impossible to conduct. The DDP algorithm facilitates hierarchical handling of the large dataset and can assess the state of recovery in post-ACLR conditions based on data collected from stair ascent and descent exercises of subjects. The DDP algorithm identifies inefficient knee varus motion and knee rotation as primary difficulties experienced by some of the post-ACLR population. In such cases, levels of energy dissipation rate at the knee, and its fluctuation may be used as measures for assessing progress after ACL reconstruction. PMID:27547072

  16. Mechanical stretch increases CCN2/CTGF expression in anterior cruciate ligament-derived cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kubota, Satoshi; Kawata, Kazumi; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Takigawa, Masaharu

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} CCN2/CTGF localizes to the ligament-to-bone interface, but is not to the midsubstance region of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). {yields} Mechanical stretch induces higher increase of CCN2/CTGF gene expression and protein secretion in ACL interface cells compared with ACL midsubstance cells. {yields} CCN2/CTGF treatment stimulates the proliferation of ACL interface cells. -- Abstract: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-to-bone interface serves to minimize the stress concentrations that would arise between two different tissues. Mechanical stretch plays an important role in maintaining cell-specific features by inducing CCN family 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF). We previously reported that cyclic tensile strain (CTS) stimulates {alpha}1(I) collagen (COL1A1) expression in human ACL-derived cells. However, the biological function and stress-related response of CCN2/CTGF were still unclear in ACL fibroblasts. In the present study, CCN2/CTGF was observed in ACL-to-bone interface, but was not in the midsubstance region by immunohistochemical analyses. CTS treatments induced higher increase of CCN2/CTGF expression and secretion in interface cells compared with midsubstance cells. COL1A1 expression was not influenced by CCN2/CTGF treatment in interface cells despite CCN2/CTGF stimulated COL1A1 expression in midsubstance cells. However, CCN2/CTGF stimulated the proliferation of interface cells. Our results suggest that distinct biological function of stretch-induced CCN2/CTGF might regulate region-specific phenotypes of ACL-derived cells.

  17. Editorial Commentary: The Jury Remains Out on Hybrid Autograft-Plus-Allograft for Diminutive Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Autografts.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Aman

    2016-11-01

    In a Level III, single center, retrospective, nonrandomized observational study, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction revision rates and patient-reported outcomes were found to be similar at 2-year follow-up when using autograft hamstrings versus a hybrid graft (autograft and nonirradiated allograft), with both groups reporting low levels of revisions and excellent outcomes. Despite previous published data that were cause for concern, a study in this issue provides support for use of a hybrid graft technique when encountering the challenging situation of a diminutive hamstring autograft when performing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcome of transtibial AperFix system in anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    PubMed Central

    Görmeli, Gökay; Görmeli, C Ayşe; Karakaplan, Mustafa; Korkmaz, M Fatih; Diliçıkık, Uğur; Gözükara, Harika

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major stabilizing factor of the knee that resist anterior translation, valgus and varus forces. ACL is the most commonly ruptured ligament of the knee. The graft fixation to bone is considered to be the weakest link of the reconstruction. According to the parallel forces to the tibial drill hole and the quality of tibial metaphyseal bone is inferior to femoral bone stock, graft fixation to the tibia is more difficult to secure. AperFix system (Cayenne Medical, Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona, USA) which consists femoral and tibial component that includes bioinert polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the new choice for ACL reconstruction surgery. aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes and fixation durability of the AperFix (Cayenne Madical, Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona, USA) system and to determine the effect of patient's age in arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Materials and Methods: Patients with symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament rupture underwent arthroscopic reconstruction. Patients were evaluated in terms of range of motion (ROM) values; Lysholm, Cincinati and Tegner activity scales; laxity testing and complications. Femoral tunnel widening was assessed by computer tomography scans. Early postoperative and last followup radiographs were compared. Results: Fifty one patients were evaluated with mean followup of 29 months (range 25–34 months). Mean age at the surgery was 26.5 ± 7.2 years. Lysholm, Cincinati and Tegner activity scales were significantly higher from preoperative scores (Lysholm scores: Preoperative: 51.4 ± 17.2, postoperative: 88.6 ± 7.7 [P < 0.001]; Tegner activity scores: Preoperative 3.3 ± 1.38, postoperative: 5.3 ± 1.6 [P < 0.001]; Cincinati scores: Preoperative: 44.3 ± 17, postoperative: 81.3 ± 13.9 [P < 0.001]). The mean femoral tunnel diameter increased significantly from 9.94 ± 0.79 mm postoperatively to 10.79 ± 0.95 mm

  19. Estimation of Ligament Loading and Anterior Tibial Translation in Healthy and ACL-Deficient Knees During Gait and the Influence of Increasing Tibial Slope Using EMG-Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qi; MacLeod, Toran D.; Manal, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a biomechanical model to estimate anterior tibial translation (ATT), anterior shear forces, and ligament loading in the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee joint during gait. This model used electromyography (EMG), joint position, and force plate data as inputs to calculate ligament loading during stance phase. First, an EMG-driven model was used to calculate forces for the major muscles crossing the knee joint. The calculated muscle forces were used as inputs to a knee model that incorporated a knee–ligament model in order to solve for ATT and ligament forces. The model took advantage of using EMGs as inputs, and could account for the abnormal muscle activation patterns of ACL-deficient gait. We validated our model by comparing the calculated results with previous in vitro, in vivo, and numerical studies of healthy and ACL-deficient knees, and this gave us confidence on the accuracy of our model calculations. Our model predicted that ATT increased throughout stance phase for the ACL-deficient knee compared with the healthy knee. The medial collateral ligament functioned as the main passive restraint to anterior shear force in the ACL-deficient knee. Although strong co-contraction of knee flexors was found to help restrain ATT in the ACL-deficient knee, it did not counteract the effect of ACL rupture. Posterior inclination angle of the tibial plateau was found to be a crucial parameter in determining knee mechanics, and increasing the tibial slope inclination in our model would increase the resulting ATT and ligament forces in both healthy and ACL-deficient knees. PMID:20683675

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of Anterolateral Procedures Combined With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Inderhaug, Eivind; Stephen, Joanna M; Williams, Andy; Amis, Andrew A

    2017-02-01

    Anterolateral soft tissue structures of the knee have a role in controlling anterolateral rotational laxity, and they may be damaged at the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. To compare the kinematic effects of anterolateral operative procedures in combination with intra-articular ACL reconstruction for combined ACL plus anterolateral-injured knees. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve cadaveric knees were tested in a 6 degrees of freedom rig using an optical tracking system to record the kinematics through 0° to 90° of knee flexion with no load, anterior drawer, internal rotation, and combined loading. Testing was first performed in ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, and combined ACL plus anterolateral-injured (distal deep insertions of the iliotibial band and the anterolateral ligament [ALL] and capsule cut) states. Thereafter, ACL reconstruction was performed alone and in combination with the following: modified MacIntosh tenodesis, modified Lemaire tenodesis passed both superficial and deep to the lateral collateral ligament, and ALL reconstruction. Anterolateral grafts were fixed at 30° of knee flexion with both 20 and 40 N of tension. Statistical analysis used repeated-measures analyses of variance and paired t tests with Bonferroni adjustments. ACL reconstruction alone failed to restore native knee kinematics in combined ACL plus anterolateral-injured knees ( P < .05 for all). All combined reconstructions with 20 N of tension, except for ALL reconstruction ( P = .002-.01), restored anterior translation. With 40 N of tension, the superficial Lemaire and MacIntosh procedures overconstrained the anterior laxity in deep flexion. Only the deep Lemaire and MacIntosh procedures-with 20 N of tension-restored rotational kinematics to the intact state ( P > .05 for all), while the ALL underconstrained and the superficial Lemaire overconstrained internal rotation. The same procedures with 40 N of tension led to similar findings. In a combined ACL plus

  1. Clinical outcome of primary medial collateral ligament-posteromedial corner repair with or without staged anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Khanna, Vikrant; Madi, Sandesh; Tripathi, Anshul; Acharya, Kiran

    2017-06-01

    Medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a prime valgus stabilizer of the knee, and MCL tears are currently managed conservatively. However, posteromedial corner (PMC) injury along with MCL tear is not same as isolated MCL tear and the former is more serious injury and requires operative attention. However, literature is scarce about the management and outcome of PMC-MCL tear alongside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The purpose of this study is to report the clinical outcome of primary repair of MCL and PMC with or without staged ACL reconstruction. A retrospective evaluation was performed on patients with MCL-PMC complex injury with ACL tear who underwent primary repair of MCL-PMC tear followed by rehabilitation. Further, several of them chose to undergo ACL reconstruction whereas rest opted conservative treatment for the ACL tear. A total of 35 patients of two groups [Group 1 (n=15): MCL-PMC repaired and ACL conserved; Group 2 (n=20): MCL-PMC repaired and ACL reconstructed] met the inclusion criteria with a minimum follow-up of two years. Clinical outcome measures included grade of valgus medial opening (0° extension and 30° flexion), Lysholm and International knee documentation committee (IKDC) scores, KT-1000 measurement, subjective feeling of instability, range of motion (ROM) assessment and complications. While comparing group 2 versus group 1, mean Lysholm (94.6 vs. 91.06; p=0.017) and IKDC scores (86.3 vs. 77.6; p=0.011) of group 2 were significantly higher than group 1. 60% patients of group 1 complained of instability against none in the group 2 (p<0.0001). All the knees of both the groups were valgus stable with none requiring late reconstruction. The mean loss of flexion ROM in group 1 and 2 was 12° and 9° respectively which was not statistically different (p=0.41). However while considering the loss of motion, two groups did not show any significant difference in clinical scores. Primary MCL-PMC repair renders the knee stable in coronal plane in

  2. Rationale for training programs to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, D G

    2001-11-01

    This commentary presents the rationale for training programs to reduce the incidence of knee injuries. Our studies have revealed that the external knee loading patterns during sidestep cutting are what put the anterior cruciate ligament at greatest risk for injury. Compared to running, sidestep cutting involves similar levels of knee flexion loading but increased loading in varus-valgus and internal rotation of the knee, and these external loads need to be stabilized or supported by the internal structures of the knee. People use a generalized hamstrings and quadriceps co-contraction to stabilize these external loads, thereby reducing ligament loading. It is proposed that perturbation of the joint receptors reinforces the use of selective hamstrings and quadriceps co-contraction patterns superimposed on a generalized co-contraction pattern. This is not by immediate ligamento-muscular protective reflex, which is too slow to provide any adequate support, but by enhanced proprioceptive information that may be used in learning. In contrast, the immediate effect of muscle stretch reflexes would be to reduce co-contraction, a possibly negative outcome for joint stabilization. The effects of different types of training on the control of joint stability are examined. It is proposed that resistance training may not be appropriate because it enhances muscle stretch reflexes, which may reduce co-contraction, and produces no reductions in voluntary activation times and time to peak torque. However, stability and balance training is thought to suppress muscle stretch reflexes and, in turn, enhance co-contraction. Also, stability and balance training that stimulates the knee joint ligament and capsular receptors may reinforce co-contraction patterns to facilitate greater improvements in joint stabilization. Stability and balance training and plyometric training produce reductions in voluntary activation times and times to peak torque, which may decrease muscle response times so

  3. "Anatomic" single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction reduces both anterior translation and internal rotation during the pivot shift.

    PubMed

    Porter, Mark D; Shadbolt, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    The ability of single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to restore rotational control has been questioned by proponents of the double-bundle technique. The term anatomic positioning has become popularized in recognition of the incorrect positioning sometimes used in the past, which may have contributed to the lack of rotation control. The pivot-shift test remains the most clinically useful measure of ACL deficiency, and it is now possible to measure it both accurately and objectively using computer navigation. Single-bundle ACL reconstruction will reduce anterior translation and internal rotation of the tibia during the pivot-shift test when compared with the contralateral uninjured knee. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 20 patients with an acute isolated ACL rupture underwent reconstruction with a single-bundle autologous hamstring graft. Computer navigation was used intraoperatively to plot the pivot shift before and after reconstruction. The opposite uninjured knee was used as a control. Statistical analysis was used to compare the pivot shifts before and after surgery. Single-bundle ACL reconstruction produced a significant reduction in anterior translation, from a mean ± SD of 17.4 ± 3.80 mm to 6.4 ± 1.95 mm (P < .001), as well as in internal rotation, from 22.9° ± 5.91° to 7.5° ± 2.96° (P < .001). The anterior translation in the reconstructed knees was similar to the control knees, 6.4 ± 1.95 mm versus 5.6 ± 1.23 mm (P < .148), while the internal rotation was significantly less in the reconstructed knees, 7.5° ± 2.96° versus 11.9° ± 3.36° (P < .05). The values for the coupled movements were used to calculate the length of the radius of curvature, about which the tibia rotates relative to the femur, during the pivot shift. In the control knees, the mean value was 28.9 ± 8.21 mm, while there was extreme variability in the operated knee both before and after surgery. It is possible to reduce both anterior

  4. A comparison of acute and chronic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using LARS artificial ligaments: a randomized prospective study with a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Gu, Aiqun; Jiang, Haitao; Zhang, Wenjie; Yu, Xiangrong

    2015-01-01

    This prospective randomized study compared acute and chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using ligament advanced reinforcement system (LARS) artificial ligament in young active adults with a 5-year follow-up. Fifty-five patients were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups based on the elapsed time between the injury and reconstruction: the acute group (3-7 weeks) and the chronic group (6-11 months). The clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Lysholm knee scoring scale, the Tegner activity rating, a KT-1000 Arthrometer, and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring system. Isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstring was assessed using the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer. Anterior laxity was decreased and quadriceps/hamstring muscle strength was increased in the acute group compared to the chronic group (p > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in Lysholm scores, Tegner activity scores, and the IKDC evaluation form between the two groups. These results suggest that earlier ACL reconstruction using a LARS artificial ligament may provide an advantage in the treatment and rehabilitation of ACL rupture.

  5. Knee mechanics during landing in anterior cruciate ligament patients: A longitudinal study from pre- to 12 months post-reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Höher, Jürgen; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2014-05-01

    Patients with a history of anterior cruciate ligament rupture are at elevated risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. Altered knee kinematics and kinetics during functional activities have been viewed as risk factors for cartilage breakdown and, therefore, one of the primary goals of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is to restore knee joint function. Patients' (n=18) knee mechanics while performing a single leg hop for distance were calculated for both legs using a soft-tissue artifact optimized rigid lower-body model at the pre-reconstruction state and six and twelve months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Independent of the analyzed time point the involved leg showed a lower external flexion and adduction moment at the knee, and an increased anterior translation and external rotational offset of the shank with respect to the thigh compared to the uninvolved leg. There were no differences for any of the analyzed knee kinematic and kinetic parameters within the control subject group. The identified kinematic changes can cause a shift in the normal load-bearing regions of the knee and may support the view that the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in an anterior cruciate ligament ruptured joint while performing activities involving frequent landing and stopping actions is less likely to be associated with the knee adduction moment and is rather due to kinematic changes. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery failed to restore normal knee kinematics during landing, potentially explaining the persistent risk for the development of knee osteoarthritis in patients who have returned to sports following reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECT OF THE GRAFTING SECTION AREA ON ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION SURGERY – HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON DOGS

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ricardo Violante; Müller, Sérgio Swain; Vannini, Rodrigo; Felisbino, Sérgio Luiz; Curcelli, Emilio Carlos; Pereira, Gilberto José Caçdo; de Almeida Silvares, Paulo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate the initial grafting section area with the outcomes from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Eight dogs underwent operations, divided into two groups according to graft size: Group A, 25% and Group B, 40% of the patellar ligament (PL) width. Methods: After eight months, the dogs were sacrificed for macroscopic and histological analysis on the reconstructed ligaments. Each dog's contralateral knee was used as a control. Results: In both groups, all the reconstructed ligaments were seen to be viable and hypertrophied. The morphology of the PL grafting had changed, which was observed by measuring the crimp and cellularity, and it resembled that of the ACL. Conclusion: The grafting section area did not influence the histological outcomes from ACL reconstruction surgery in dogs. PMID:27047857

  7. A symptomatic cyclops lesion 4 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nuccion, S L; Hame, S L

    2001-02-01

    The cyclops lesion is a fibrous nodule with central granulation tissue located anterolateral to the tibial tunnel after intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that has been shown to be a cause of failure to regain full extension in the early postoperative period. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who had undergone arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with a patellar tendon autograft 4 years prior to presentation. Following her reconstruction, she regained full range of motion and returned to collegiate cheerleading. At presentation, she complained of a gradual loss of full extension and joint-line pain with terminal extension. On examination, her graft was stable and she lacked 3 degrees of extension. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a 1-cm mass of low signal intensity immediately anterior to the ACL graft within the intercondylar notch. At arthroscopy, a large amount of thick, immobile scar tissue was found immediately anterior to the ACL, consistent with a cyclops lesion. The lesion was debrided and the patient did well postoperatively. Patients who present with delayed-onset loss of extension after ACL reconstruction should undergo careful evaluation including radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. If a cyclops lesion is diagnosed, arthroscopic resection should be undertaken.

  8. Asymmetric ground reaction forces and knee kinematics during squat after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Brooke A; Williams, John L; Zucker-Levin, Audrey; Mihalko, William M

    2016-10-01

    This bilateral squat study tests whether people with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have symmetric three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) and symmetric anterior-posterior (AP) translation rates of the femur with respect to the tibia when compared with healthy control subjects. We hypothesized that there would be no long-term asymmetry in knee kinematics and kinetics in ACL reconstructed subjects following surgery and rehabilitation. Position and GRF data were collected on eight ACL reconstructed and eight control subjects during bilateral squat. The rate of relative AP translation was determined for each subject. Principal component models were developed for each of the three GRF waveforms. Principal component scores were used to assess symmetry within the ACL reconstructed group and within the control group. ACL reconstructed knees analyzed in early flexion during squat descent displayed a four-fold greater rate of change in anterior translation in the reconstructed knee relative to the contralateral side than did a similar comparison of normal knees. Differences were found between the ACL reconstructed subjects' injured and uninjured limbs for all GRFs. Subjects following ACL reconstruction had asymmetric GRFs and relative rates of AP translation at an average of seven years after ACL reconstructive surgery when compared with control subjects. These alterations in loading may lead to altered load distributions across the knee joint and may put some subjects at risk for future complications such as osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  10. Comparison between two different experimental models of osteoarthritis in rabbits. Intra-articular collagenase injection and anterior cruciate ligament transection.

    PubMed

    Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Rossi, Rafael De; Jardim, Paulo Henrique de Affonseca; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Rinaldi, Jaqueline de Carvalho; Justulin, Luis Antonio

    2016-09-01

    To compare two different experimental models of osteoarthritis in rabbits: intra-articular collagenase injection and anterior cruciate ligament transection. Ten adult rabbits were randomly divided in two groups: COLL (collagenase group) and ACLT (anterior cruciate ligament transection). The COLL group was treated with 0.5 ml collagenase solution (2mg collagenase/0.5 ml sterile PBS), and the ACTL group was subjected to anterior cruciate ligament. After six and twelve weeks, respectively, the animals in the COLL and ACTL groups were euthanized. The gross appearance and histological examinations conducted in the cartilage articular surface was blindly scored according to the criteria developed by Yoshimi et al. (1994) and Mankin et al. (1971), respectively. The gross morphologic observation, macroscopic score and histological examinations have demonstrated that the ACTL group presented the highest scores, and lesions more severe than those in the COLL group. Both methods, anterior cruciate ligament transection and collagenase, applied to the stifle joint of the rabbits have effectively induced degenerative changes in the cartilage tissue, through statistically significant analysis (p≤0.05). The ACTL method has presented more severe lesions.

  11. Histological and biochemical characteristics of the rabbit anterior cruciate ligament in comparison to potential autografts.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Mariann; Meier, Carola; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Kokozidou, Maria; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2016-08-01

    Tissue engineering of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) implant with ACL cells requires detailed analysis of the tissue characteristics that should be mimicked. Therefore, we studied the histological and biochemical properties of rabbit derived ACLs in comparison to other knee-associated tendons that are used as autografts in men. Rabbit derived ACLs and Musculus (M.) semimembranosus, M. semitendinosus tendons and patellar ligaments were explanted from adult New Zealand white rabbits and analyzed histologically for tissue organization (e.g. cellularity, nuclear shapes, elastic fibers), total collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) contents. Gene expression analysis was performed for the main extracellular matrix (ECM) components type I collagen, decorin and the glycoprotein tenomodulin. The ACLs had a dimension of 1.39x0.39x0.1 cm in situ. They were characterized by high sGAG content in comparison to the other tendons/ligaments, whereas the total collagen content did not differ. ACLs possessed higher cellularity and lower feret diameter of the cell nuclei compared with the investigated rabbit-derived tendons. In ACLs long elastic fibers were observed. Concerning the gene expression level, lower transcription of tenomodulin was detected in the ACL compared with the other tendons, without significant difference in the decorin gene expression. The M. semitendinosus tendon had a significantly higher type I collagen expression than the ACL and the other investigated tendons. This phenotypical characterization of the lapine ACL presented in this study provides some key standards to evaluate tissue engineered ACL constructs to be tested in the rabbit model.

  12. The GORE-TEX anterior cruciate ligament prosthesis. A long-term followup.

    PubMed

    Paulos, L E; Rosenberg, T D; Grewe, S R; Tearse, D S; Beck, C L

    1992-01-01

    The GORE-TEX anterior cruciate ligament prosthesis has been implanted in 268 patients at our institution since April of 1984. Follow-up for this study was available on 70% of these patients (188). Eighty-one percent (152) of these had the ligament for chronic injuries, 14% (26) for acute, and 5% (10) for subacute injuries. The patient population had an average age of 27.6 years (SD = 8.4) and a Tegner activity score of 6.05 (SD = 1.53). Prior procedures had been performed on 56% (105) of the patients. Concomitant procedures were performed in 73% (137) and included iliotibial band tenodesis, partial meniscectomy, posterior oblique ligament advancement, or meniscal repair. Followup averaged 48 months (range, 24 to 68). Evaluation included a questionnaire, physical examination, radiographs, KT-1000 arthrometer testing, and an activity score. Results were graded as excellent, good, fair, and poor. Acceptable results (good and excellent) were obtained in 83 patients (44%). Fifty-eight patients (32%) were rated excellent and 25 (13%) were rated good. Unacceptable results (fair and poor) were obtained in 105 patients (56%). Twenty-five patients (13%) were rated fair and 80 (42%) were rated poor. Subjective improvement was indicated by 166 patients (88%). Activity levels postoperatively as rated by the Tegner Scale improved in 2 (1%), remained the same in 167 (89%), and decreased in 19 patients (10%). Effusions occurred in 63 patients (34%) and caused an unacceptable result in 22 (12%). Rupture occurred in 23 patients (12%). Loosening greater than 3 mm occurred in 64 patients (34%) and led to unacceptable results in 37 (20%). Infection occurred in 5 patients (2.7%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Modulators of the extracellular matrix and risk of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Masouda; Mannion, Sasha; Klug, Blake; Hobbs, Hayden; van der Merwe, Willem; Posthumus, Michael; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2017-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of ligaments continuously undergoes remodelling in order to maintain tissue homeostasis. Several key mediators of ECM remodelling were chosen for investigation in the present study. It is thought that polymorphisms within genes encoding signalling molecules may contribute to inter-individual variation in the responses to mechanical loading, potentially altering risk of injury. A genetic association study was conducted on 232 asymptomatic controls (CON) and 234 participants with surgically diagnosed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures; of which 135 participants reported a non-contact mechanism of injury (NON subgroup). All participants were genotyped for ten variants in eight genes encoding ECM remodelling proteins. Haplotypes and allele combinations were also inferred. The CASP8 rs3834129 ins allele was significantly over-represented in the male CON group compared to the male NON subgroup (p=0.047, OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01-2.12). In female participants, the IL1B rs16944 TT genotype was significantly under-represented in the CON group compared to the NON subgroup (p=0.039, OR: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.09-8.64). Haplotype analysis revealed an under-representation of the CASP8 rs3834129-rs1045485 del-G haplotype in the CON group compared to both the ACL group (p=0.042; haplo.score:2.03) and the NON subgroup (p=0.037; haplo.score:2.09). Furthermore, following a pathway-based approach, genetic variants involved in the cell signalling cascade were associated with ACL injury risk. The novel independent associations and allele combinations observed implicate the apoptosis and cell signalling cascades as potential contributors to ACL injury susceptibility. Furthermore, these genetic variants may potentially modulate ECM remodelling in response to loading and ultimately contribute to ligament capacity. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomechanical stability of tape augmentation for anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) repair compared to the native ATFL.

    PubMed

    Willegger, M; Benca, E; Hirtler, L; Hradecky, K; Holinka, J; Windhager, R; Schuh, R

    2016-04-01

    Current methods of anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) reconstruction fail to restore the stability of the native ATFL. Therefore, augmented anatomic ATFL reconstruction gained popularity in patients with attenuated tissue and additional stress on the lateral ankle ligament complex. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the InternalBrace (Arthrex Inc., Naples, FL, USA), a tape augmentation designed to augment the traditional Broström procedure. Twelve (12) fresh-frozen human anatomic lower leg specimens were randomized into two groups: a native ATFL (ATFL) and a tape augmentation group (IB). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were carried out to determine bone mineral density (BMD) of the specimens. The ligaments were stressed by internally rotating the tibia against the inverted fixated hindfoot. Torque at failure (Nm) and angle at failure (°) were recorded. The ATFL group failed at an angle of 33 ± 10°. In the IB group, construct failure occurred at an angle of 46 ± 16°. Failure torque reached 8.3 ± 4.5 Nm in the ATFL group, whereas the IB group achieved 11.2 ± 7.1 Nm. There was no correlation between angle at ATFL or IB construct failure or torque at failure, respectively, and BMD for both groups. This study reveals that tape augmentation for ATFL reconstruction shows similar biomechanical stability compared to an intact native ATFL in terms of torque at failure and angle at failure. BMD did not influence the construct stability. Tape augmentation proved an enhanced initial stability in ATFL reconstruction which may allow for an accelerated rehabilitation process. II.

  15. The Effects of Generalized Joint Laxity on Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Young Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Nick, Todd G.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Women who participate in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than men. Purpose To prospectively determine if female athletes with decreased passive knee joint restraint (greater joint laxity) and greater side-to-side differences in knee laxity would be at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Study Design Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods From 1558 female soccer and basketball players who were prospectively screened, 19 went on to tear their anterior cruciate ligaments. Four height- and mass-matched control subjects were selected from the uninjured screened athletes for comparison with each of the 19 injured subjects, making a total of 95 subjects (19 injured; 76 uninjured). Generalized joint-laxity tests and anterior-posterior tibiofemoral translation were quantified using the CompuKT knee arthrometer. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to determine predictors of anterior cruciate ligament injury status from recorded laxity measures. Results A multivariable logistic regression model (chi-square = 18.6; P = .002) used the independent variables laxity measures of knee hyperextension (P = .02), wrist and thumb to forearm opposition (P = .80), fifth-finger hyperextension >90° (P = .71), side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior tibiofemoral translation (P = .002), and prior knee injury (P = .22) to predict anterior cruciate ligament–injury status. The validated C statistic, or validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 0.72. For every 1.3-mm increase in side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee displacement, the odds of anterior cruciate ligament–injured status increased 4-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.68–9.69). A positive measure of knee hyperextension increased the odds of anterior cruciate ligament–injured status 5-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.24–18.44). Conclusion The current results

  16. In vivo local administration of osteogenic protein-1 increases structural properties of the overstretched anterior cruciate ligament with partial midsubstance laceration: a biomechanical study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, R; Kondo, E; Tohyama, H; Saito, T; Yasuda, K

    2008-10-01

    We report the effects of local administration of osteogenic protein-1 on the biomechanical properties of the overstretched anterior cruciate ligament in an animal model. An injury in the anterior cruciate ligament was created in 45 rabbits. They were divided into three equal groups. In group 1, no treatment was applied, in group II, phosphate-buffered saline was applied around the injured ligament, and in group III, 12.5 microg of osteogenic protein-1 mixed with phosphate-buffered saline was applied around the injured ligament. A control group of 15 rabbits was assembled from randomly-selected injured knees from among the first three groups. Each rabbit was killed at 12 weeks. The maximum load and stiffness of the anterior cruciate ligament was found to be significantly greater in group III than either group 1 (p = 0.002, p = 0.014) or group II (p = 0.032, p = 0.025). The tensile strength and the tangent modulus of fascicles from the ligament were also significantly greater in group III than either group I (p = 0.002, p = 0.0174) or II (p = 0.005, p = 0.022). The application of osteogenic protein-1 enhanced the healing in the injured anterior cruciate ligament, but compared with the control group the treated ligament remained lengthened. The administration of osteogenic protein-1 may have a therapeutic role in treating the overstretched anterior cruciate ligament.

  17. Anterior translation and rotational stability of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees during walking: speed and turning direction.

    PubMed

    Yim, Ji Hyeon; Seon, Jong Keun; Kim, Young Kwan; Jung, Sung Taek; Shin, Choongsoo S; Yang, Dong Hyun; Rhym, Inn Su; Song, Eun Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most common injuries associated with the knee. After ACL injury, knee joint stability can be altered, resulting in abnormal loading during functional activities. Since ACL-deficient (ACLD) knees are also vulnerable to translational and rotational instability, patients need to be wary of certain motions encountered in daily life. The present study investigated the effect of walking speed and pivoting directional change during gait on knee joint kinematics of ACLD knees. We hypothesized that faster walking and crossover turning would induce severe kinematic changes. Thirty-five patients (22 males and 13 females) having a unilateral isolated subacute ACLD knee (from 1 to 3 months after injury) and contralateral intact (CLI) knee participated in this study. Spatiotemporal parameters, three-dimensional (3D) knee joint angles, and anterior-posterior (AP) translation were obtained by a 3D high-speed motion-capturing system. The CLI knee of each patient served as the control. The calculated AP stability and knee joint angles were used to test the research hypothesis. Mixed two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to clarify the effects of walking speed and pivoting direction with a significance of 0.05. When a significance of mean comparison was detected, a post hoc test was performed. Significant and consistent increased AP translation of the tibia relative to the femur at the whole stance phase of the gait cycle was evident in ACLD knees compared to CLI knees for normal and faster (20 % greater than normal) walking speeds. Faster walking speed did not induce significantly more anterior location of the tibia. In addition, ACLD knees were significantly less extended than CLI knees during a large portion of midstance. Although there was a consistent varus offset between the curves of ACLD and CLI knees, the difference did not reach statistical significance during the stance phase. Also, ACLD knees

  18. Knee extension and flexion: MR delineation of normal and torn anterior cruciate ligaments

    SciTech Connect

    Niitsu, Mamoru; Ikeda, Kotaroh; Fukubayashi, Tohru; Anno, Izumi; Itai, Yuji

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the effect of joint position of semiflexed and extended knees in MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). With a mobile knee brace and a flexible surface coil, the knee joint was either fully extended or bent to a semiflexed position (average 45{degrees} of flexion) within the magnet bore. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained for both extended and flexed knee positions. Thirty-two knees with intact ACLs and 43 knees with arthroscopically proven ACL tears were evaluated. Two observers compared paired MR images of both extended and flexed positions and rated them by a relative three point scale. Anatomic correlation in MR images was obtained by a cadaveric knee with incremental flexion. The MR images of flexed knees were more useful than of extended knees in 53% of the case reviews of femoral attachments and 36% of reviews of midportions of normal ACLs. Compared with knee extensions, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 48% of reviews of disrupted sites and 52% of residual bundles of torn ACLs. Normal ACL appeared taut in the knee extension and lax in semiflexion. Compared with MR images of knees in extension, MR images of knees in flexion more clearly delineate the femoral side of the ligament with wider space under the intercondylar roof and with decreased volume-averaging artifacts, providing superior visualization of normal and torn ACLs. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Expression of modulators of extracellular matrix structure after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Haslauer, Carla M; Proffen, Benedikt L; Johnson, Victor M; Murray, Martha M

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to heal after injury declines within the first 2 weeks after ACL rupture. To begin to explore the mechanism behind this finding, we quantified the expression of genes for collagen I and III, decorin, tenascin-C, and alpha smooth muscle actin, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -13 gene expression within multiple tissues of the knee joint after ACL injury in a large animal model over a 2-week postinjury period. Gene expression of collagen I and III, decorin, and MMP-1 was highest in the synovium, whereas the highest MMP-13 gene expression levels were found in the ACL. The gene expression for collagen and decorin increased over the 2 weeks to levels approaching that in the ligament and synovium; however, no significant increase in either of the MMPs was found in the provisional scaffold. This suggests that although the ACL and synovium up-regulate both anabolic and catabolic factors, the provisional scaffold is primarily anabolic in function. The relative lack of provisional scaffold formation within the joint environment may thus be one of the key reasons for ACL degradation after injury.

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with synthetic grafts. A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alberto; Terzaghi, Clara; Borgo, Enrico; Albisetti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, one of the most common knee injuries in sports, results in anteroposterior laxity, which often leads to an unstable knee. Traditional ACL reconstruction is performed with autograft; disadvantages of this technique are donor site morbidity and a long rehabilitation period. In the 1980s, artificial ligaments became an attractive alternative to biological grafts. The initial enthusiasm surrounding their introduction stemmed from their lack of donor morbidity, their abundant supply and significant strength, immediate loading and reduced postoperative rehabilitation. Synthetic grafts made of different materials such as carbon fibers, polypropylene, Dacron and polyester have been utilised either as a prosthesis or as an augmentation for a biological ACL graft substitute. Nevertheless, every material presented serious drawbacks: cross-infections, immunological responses, breakage, debris dispersion leading to synovitis, chronic effusions, recurrent instability and knee osteoarthritis. Recently, a resurgence of interest in the use of synthetic prostheses has occurred and studies regarding new artificial grafts have been reported. Although many experimental studies have been made and much effort has been put forth, currently no ideal prosthesis mimicking natural human tissue has been found. PMID:20157811

  1. Return to prelesional Tegner level after anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Sallent, Andrea; Alvarez, Pedro; Cusco, Xavier; Cugat, Ramón

    2016-12-01

    Injury and surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are very frequent within the sports environment. The purpose of the present study is to assess the level at which a group of athletes were able to return to play (RTP) after ACL reconstruction, and most importantly, the time for RTP. A prospective study with patients who presented an ACL injury and underwent ligament reconstruction surgery; a bone-tendon-bone reconstruction and a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The rates of RTP as well as correlations with IKDC and KT-1000 were collected. 42 patients were included (mean age 31.7 years old). Mean Tegner level was 6.7. 9.5 % of patients returned to sports 6 months after surgery, 52.3 % at 1 year, and 73.8 % at 2 years after ACL reconstruction. 11 patients did not achieve their preoperative Tegner level after 2 years of follow-up. Levels of KT-1000 of the operated side were normal, and IKDC levels reached 90 % of total. Fear to a new injury, psychological factors, personality, type of life, and sports level previous to the injury are factors that influence when it comes to RTP after an ACL surgery. Level of evidence Level II descriptive analysis.

  2. Trends in primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction among National Basketball Association team physicians.

    PubMed

    Mall, Nathan A; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Azar, Frederick M; Traina, Steve M; Allen, Answorth A; Parker, Richard; Cole, Brian J

    2014-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common in athletes. Techniques and methods of treatment for these injuries continue to vary among surgeons. Thirty National Basketball Association (NBA) team physicians were surveyed during the NBA Pre-Draft Combine. Survey questions involved current and previous practice methods of primary and revision ACL reconstruction, including technique, graft choice, rehabilitation, and treatment of combined ACL and medial collateral ligament injuries. Descriptive parametric statistics, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used, and significance was set at α = 0.05. All 30 team physicians completed the survey. Eighty-seven percent indicated they use autograft (81% bone-patellar tendon-bone) for primary ACL reconstruction in NBA athletes, and 43% indicated they use autograft for revision cases. Fourteen surgeons (47%) indicated they use an anteromedial portal (AMP) for femoral tunnel drilling, whereas 5 years earlier only 4 (13%) used this technique. There was a significant (P = .009) positive correlation between fewer years in practice and AMP use. NBA team physicians' use of an AMP for femoral tunnel drilling has increased over the past 5 years.

  3. An In Vitro Robotic Assessment of the Anterolateral Ligament, Part 1: Secondary Role of the Anterolateral Ligament in the Setting of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Matthew T; Nitri, Marco; Williams, Brady T; Moulton, Samuel G; Cruz, Raphael Serra; Dornan, Grant J; Goldsmith, Mary T; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations have described the structural and functional behavior of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee through pull-apart and isolated sectioning studies. However, the secondary stabilizing role of the ALL in the setting of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear has not been fully defined for common simulated clinical examinations, such as the pivot-shift, anterior drawer, and internal rotation tests. Combined sectioning of the ALL and ACL would lead to increased internal rotation and increased axial plane translation during a pivot-shift test when compared with isolated sectioning of the ACL. Controlled laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were subjected to a simulated pivot-shift test with coupled 10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal rotation torques from 0° to 60° of knee flexion and a 5-N·m internal rotation torque and an 88-N anterior tibial load, both from 0° to 120° of knee flexion via a 6 degrees of freedom robotic system. Kinematic changes were measured and compared with the intact state for isolated sectioning of the ACL and combined sectioning of the ACL and ALL. Combined sectioning of the ACL and ALL resulted in a significant increase in axial plane tibial translation during a simulated pivot shift at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 60° of knee flexion and a significant increase in internal rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, and 120° when compared with the intact and ACL-deficient states. Based on the model results, ALL sectioning resulted in an additional 2.1 mm (95% CI, 1.4-2.9 mm; P < .001) of axial plane translation during the pivot shift when compared with ACL-only sectioning, when pooling evidence over all flexion angles. Likewise, when subjected to IR torque, the ACL+ALL-deficient state resulted in an additional 3.2° of internal rotation (95% CI, 2.4°-4.1°; P < .001) versus the intact state, and the additional sectioning of the ALL increased internal rotation by 2.7° (95

  4. Opioid Use in Children and Adolescents After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicole; Frick, Shannon; Killilea, Samantha; Dugan-Frost, Teri; Solodiuk, Jean

    2017-09-01

    Opioid overdose is a leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the United States. When more opioids are prescribed than needed, leftover opioids may be misused if not properly disposed. The purpose of this study is to describe the opioid use of subjects (aged 13-21 years) after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair. After obtaining IRB approval, we obtained consent from 100 subjects (over an 8-month period) undergoing ACL reconstructions performed by five sports medicine surgeons. The mean age of enrolled subjects was 16 years, most were female (60%) and white (72%). While in the hospital, many subjects received the following: a regional anesthetic technique through a single shot femoral nerve block (50%); ketorolac (89%); and acetaminophen (84%). One week after surgery, we interviewed subjects to determine the amount of opioid used (36%) as compared to the amount prescribed.

  5. Military movement training program improves jump-landing mechanics associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.

    PubMed

    Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; Duffey, Michele L; Vargas, Donna; Duffey, Michael J; Mountcastle, Sally B; Padua, Darin; Nelson, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    As part of the physical education program at the United States Military Academy, all cadets complete a movement training course designed to develop skills and improve performance in military-related physical tasks as well as obstacle navigation. The purpose of this study was to determine if completion of this course would also result in changes in jump-landing technique that reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Analysis of landing mechanics on a two-footed jump landing from a height of 30 cm with a three-dimensional motion capture system synchronized with two force plates revealed both positive and negative changes. Video assessment using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) revealed an overall improved landing technique (p=.001) when compared to baseline assessments. The studied military movement course appears to elicit mixed but overall improved lower extremity jump-landing mechanics associated with risk for ACL injury.

  6. State-of-the-art anterior cruciate ligament tears: A primer for primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Salzler, Matt; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Rosas, Samuel; Nguyen, Chau; Law, Tsun Yee; Eberle, Thomas; McCormick, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide primary care physicians and other members of the medical community with an updated, general review on the subject of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. We aim to enhance awareness of these injuries and to prepare those practicing in the primary care setting to address these injuries. Because ACL injuries are quite common, it is very likely that a primary care physician will encounter these injuries and need to address them acutely. The current literature is replete with new concepts and controversies regarding ACL injuries, and this article provides a concise review for our target audience in regard to the care of a patient with an ACL injury. This article is composed of an overview with current epidemiologic data, basic anatomy and physiology, clinical presentation, physical examination findings, imaging modalities, and treatment options. After reading this short article, a medical care provider should understand ACL injuries and their appropriate management.

  7. Lessons learnt from an atypical mycobacterium infection post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ng, Stacy W L; Yee Han, Dave Lee

    2015-03-01

    Infections following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are rare, with no previous reports citing Mycobacterium abscessus as the culprit pathogen. A 22-year-old man presented twice over three years with a painful discharging sinus over his right tibia tunnel site necessitating repeated arthroscopy and washout, months of antibiotic therapy, and ultimately culminating in the removal of the implants. In both instances, M. abscessus was present in the wound cultures, along with a coinfection of Staphyloccocus aureus during the second presentation. Though rare, M. abscessus is an important pathogen to consider in postoperative wounds presenting with chronic discharging sinuses, even in healthy non-immunocompromised patients. This case illustrates how the organism can cause an indolent infection, and how the removal of implants can be necessary to prevent the persistence of infection. Coinfection with a second organism is not uncommon and necessitates a timely change in treatment regime as well.

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament augmentation for rotational instability following primary reconstruction with an accelerated physical therapy protocol.

    PubMed

    Carey, Timothy; Oliver, David; Pniewski, Josh; Mueller, Terry; Bojescul, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) augmentation for patients having rotational instability despite an intact vertical graft in lieu of conventional revision ACL reconstruction. ACL augmentation surgery with a horizontal graft was performed to augment a healed vertical graft on five patients and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol was instituted. Functional outcomes were assessed by the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and the Modified Cincinnati Rating System (MCRS). All patients completed physical therapy within 5 months and were able to return to full military duty without limitation. LEFS and MCRS were significantly improved. ACL augmentation with a horizontal graft provides an excellent alternative to ACL revision reconstruction for patients with an intact vertical graft, allowing an earlier return to duty for military service members.

  9. Comparison of analgesic effects of intra-articular tenoxicam and morphine in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Guler, Gulen; Karaoglu, Sinan; Velibasoglu, Hediye; Ramazanogullari, Nesrin; Boyaci, Adem

    2002-07-01

    This study compared the analgesic effect of intra-articular injection of tenoxicam with that of morphine on postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Forty-two patients undergoing arthroscopically ACL reconstructions using hamstring tendons underwent the same anesthetic protocol. The patients were randomized to receive 25 ml normal saline, 20 mg tenoxicam in 25 ml normal saline, or 2 mg morphine in 25 ml normal saline. Postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale and measuring analgesic requirements. We found both that both intra-articular tenoxicam and intra-articular morphine provided better analgesia than that in the control group. Although pain scores were similar between tenoxicam and morphine groups 30 min postoperative, the analgesic requirements in with tenoxicam were significantly lower than those with morphine group 3-6 h postoperatively.

  10. ABCs of Evidence-based Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Strategies in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a major concern in physically active females. Although ACL reconstruction techniques have seen significant advances in recent years, risk associated with re-injury and future osteoarthritis remains a major concern. Thus, prevention of ACL injury is a logical step to protect and preserve healthy knee joints in young athletes. The current report aims to summarize a list of evidence-based prevention strategies to reduce ACL injury in female athletes. A list of six critical principles, which come from documented, large scale clinical trial studies and further analyses, were presented with ABC format including age, biomechanics, compliance, dosage, exercise, and feedback. Also, a grade for evidence and implications of future research is noted. Finally, in the conclusion section, importance of collaborative efforts from healthcare practitioners, researchers, and personnel associated with athletics is addressed. PMID:26042191

  11. Management of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear in a 5 Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Masaracchio, Michael; Comet, Sheryl; Godwin, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case report was to describe clinical decision making during the examination and treatment of a 5-year-old boy with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. A paucity of research exists for the management of ACL tears in children. A combination of manual therapy interventions initially, followed by a unique and comprehensive therapeutic exercise program, was implemented during the course of a 3-month treatment period. Improvements in range of motion, quadriceps strength, single-leg stance time, and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score were noted. At discharge, the patient safely returned to unrestricted home and school activities. This case demonstrates successful management of a child after an ACL injury. Clinicians are encouraged to implement sound clinical reasoning in the absence of well-established evidence when treating similar patients in their clinical practice.

  12. Extra-Articular Lateral Tenodesis for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Knee: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    García-Germán, Diego; Menéndez, Pablo; de la Cuadra, Pablo; Rodríguez-Arozena, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of an extra-articular lateral tenodesis for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee. A 46-year-old male patient sustained an ACL graft rupture after a motorcycle accident. He complained of rotational instability and giving-way episodes. His previous graft was fixed by an intra-articular femoral staple that was not possible to remove at the time of the ACL revision. A modified Lemaire procedure was then performed. He gained rotational stability and was able to resume his sporting activities. We believe that isolated extra-articular reconstructions may still have a role in selected indications including moderate-demand patients complaining of rotational instability after ACL graft failure. PMID:24369517

  13. PERI-INCISIONAL DYSESTHESIA FOLLOWING ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING CENTRAL THIRD OF PATELLAR TENDON

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório; Machado, Soares Luiz Fernando; Gonçalves, Matheus Braga Jacques; Júnior, Paulo Randal Pires; Baumfeld, Daniel Soares; Pereira, Marcelo Lobo; Lessa, Rodrigo Rosa; Costa, Lincoln Paiva; Bisinoto, Henrique Barra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and type of dysesthesia around the incision used to obtain the patellar tendon for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Methods: Out of a population of 1368 ACL reconstructions using the central third of the patellar tendon, 102 patients (111 knees) were evaluated by means of telephone interview. Results: The mean follow-up was 52 months (ranging from 12 to 88 months). The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years (mean: 34.7 years). There was some degree of peri-incisional dysesthesia in 66 knees (59.46%). In 40.54% of the knees, this condition was not found. In all the cases of dysesthesia, the type encountered was Highet's type II. Conclusion: Peri-incisional dysesthesia following ACL reconstruction using the central third of the patellar tendon is highly prevalent. It affected more than half of the cases in this series. PMID:27026983

  14. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT IN A PEDIATRIC PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Duby, Cherie

    2012-01-01

    The management of the skeletally immature athlete sustaining injury to the anterior cruciate ligament and other knee structures provides multiple challenges for both the treating clinicians and parents of the injured child. The diagnostic process and subsequent decision making present additional complexities because of the developmental anatomy and the potential for disturbance of normal growth patterns by some surgical interventions. In the following case report, the course to appropriate management of a young athlete is detailed, including the contributions of imaging results. The reconstructive options available to orthopedic surgeons and the patient's post‐operative progression are also briefly discussed. Rehabilitation practitioners require an understanding of the unique issues present when providing care for pediatric and adolescent athletes with knee injuries in order to assist in optimal decision making in the phases during which they are involved. Level of Evidence: 5 (Single Case Report) PMID:23316431

  15. Regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament: Current strategies in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Thomas; Teuschl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the field of musculoskeletal tissue engineering have raised an increasing interest in the regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). It is the aim of this article to review the current research efforts and highlight promising tissue engineering strategies. The four main components of tissue engineering also apply in several ACL regeneration research efforts. Scaffolds from biological materials, biodegradable polymers and composite materials are used. The main cell sources are mesenchymal stem cells and ACL fibroblasts. In addition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli are applied. So far, the regenerated ACL constructs have been tested in a few animal studies and the results are encouraging. The different strategies, from in vitro ACL regeneration in bioreactor systems to bio-enhanced repair and regeneration, are under constant development. We expect considerable progress in the near future that will result in a realistic option for ACL surgery soon. PMID:25621217

  16. Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: What's In and What's Out?

    PubMed Central

    Raines, Benjamin Todd; Naclerio, Emily; Sherman, Seth L

    2017-01-01

    Sports medicine physicians have a keen clinical and research interest in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The biomechanical, biologic, and clinical data researchers generate, help drive injury management and prevention practices globally. The current concepts in ACL injury and surgery are being shaped by technological advances, expansion in basic science research, resurging interest in ACL preservation, and expanding efforts regarding injury prevention. As new methods are being developed in this field, the primary goal of safely improving patient outcomes will be a unifying principle. With this review, we provide an overview of topics currently in controversy or debate, and we identify paradigm shifts in the understanding, management, and prevention of ACL tears. PMID:28966380

  17. Massive Proximal Extravasation as a Complication during Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pailhé, Regis; Reina, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Laffosse, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Extra-articular extravasation of irrigation fluid is relatively common around entry incisions and is usually limited to the subcutaneous tissue. Very rarely, extravasation occurs above the knee, in the thigh and even up into the pelvis. We are reporting the second case of irrigation fluid extravasation during a knee arthroscopy, which spread up to the thigh, groin and perineum during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, whilst the tourniquet was inflated. In our case, we think that the extravasation was caused by a fault in the pressure sensor due to the fact that the reservoir was over-filled. The irrigation pressure was therefore too high, and the irrigation fluid was able to diffuse, despite the presence of a pneumatic tourniquet, up past the thigh. PMID:23741704

  18. Motion Analysis and the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Classification of Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common, catastrophic events that incur large expense and lead to degradation of the knee. As such, various motion capture techniques have been applied to identify athletes who are at increased risk for suffering ACL injuries. The objective of this clinical commentary was to synthesize information related to how motion capture analyses contribute to the identification of risk factors that may predict relative injury risk within a population. Individuals employ both active and passive mechanisms to constrain knee joint articulation during motion. There is strong evidence to indicate that athletes who consistently classify as high-risk loaders during landing suffer from combined joint stability deficits in both the active and passive knee restraints. Implementation of prophylactic neuromuscular interventions and biofeedback can effectively compensate for some of the deficiencies that result from poor control of the active knee stabilizers and reduce the incidence of ACL injuries.

  19. Joint space narrowing after partial medial meniscectomy in the anterior cruciate ligament-intact knee.

    PubMed

    Shelbourne, K Donald; Dickens, Jonathan F

    2007-09-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is common after total medial meniscectomy. In anterior cruciate ligament-intact knees, the reported outcomes of partial medial meniscectomy are variable. Radiographic assessment using a posteroanterior weight-bearing view is a reliable tool for detecting minor medial joint space narrowing, which may be an early sign of osteoarthritis. Studies that assessed the effect of partial medial meniscectomy found a low percentage of patients with >50% joint narrowing at 10 to 15 years after surgery. Digital radiography, using a posteroanterior weight-bearing view, is a highly sensitive method for observing minor joint space narrowing in the involved knee. A recent study showed that 88% of patients who underwent partial medial meniscectomy had joint space narrowing of <2 mm, and none had narrowing >or=2 mm, at a mean follow-up of 12 years. Subjective results after partial medial meniscectomy are favorable, with 88% to 95% of patients reporting good to excellent results.

  20. Is bone tunnel osseointegration in hamstring tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction important?

    PubMed

    Logan, Martin; Williams, Andy; Myers, Peter

    2003-10-01

    A 27-year-old man underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using 4-strand hamstring autograft with femoral and tibial interference screw fixation. Four weeks after surgery, he developed a discharging hematoma through the graft harvest-tibial tunnel incision, which persisted. The patient required further surgical intervention 7 weeks after the initial surgery. The wound was debrided, the tibial interference screw was removed, and the tibial tunnel was completely cleared of graft remnants. Arthroscopy of the knee was performed, in which the ACL graft appeared healthy and viable. No evidence of intra-articular sepsis was found. Postoperatively, the rehabilitation program was uneventful and, at 36 months, the patient has unrestricted activity and no clinical evidence of excessive ACL laxity. This case supports the importance of marginal articular surface healing of the ACL graft, suggesting that tibial intratunnel healing becomes redundant.

  1. Predictors of adherence to home rehabilitation exercises following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Britton W; Cornelius, Allen E; Van Raalte, Judy L; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Although home exercises are commonly prescribed following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and are considered important in obtaining successful rehabilitation outcomes, little is known about factors associated with the completion of such exercises. Consequently, this study was designed to identify predictors of adherence to home rehabilitation exercises after ACL surgery. Participants (33 women, 58 men) completed indices of athletic identity, neuroticism, optimism, and pessimism before ACL surgery and measures of daily pain, negative mood, stress, and home exercise completion for 42 days postoperatively. Participants reported a high level of adherence to the prescribed regimen. Home exercise completion increased significantly over time as the number of sets of prescribed home exercises declined. Personal factors were not predictive of home exercise completion. Participants completed fewer home exercises on days when they experienced more stress or negative mood. Day-to-day variations in negative mood and stress may contribute to adherence to prescribed home exercises.

  2. Proprioception after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. An objective indication of the need for surgery?

    PubMed

    Beard, D J; Kyberd, P J; Fergusson, C M; Dodd, C A

    1993-03-01

    Failure of conservative treatment is the usual indication for the reconstruction of a knee with deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and this depends on subjective judgement. The ability of muscles to protect the subluxing joint by reflex contraction could provide an objective measurement. We have studied 30 patients with unilateral ACL deficiency by measuring the latency of reflex hamstring contraction. We found that the mean latency in the injured leg was nearly twice that in the unaffected limb (99 ms and 53 ms respectively). There was a significant correlation between the differential latency and the frequency of 'giving way' indicating that functional instability may be due, in part, to loss of proprioception. Measures of proprioception, including reflex hamstring latency, may be useful in providing an objective assessment of the efficacy of conservative treatment and the need for surgery.

  3. X-ray computed tomography of the anterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Tom; Rawson, Shelley; Castro, Simon Joseph; Balint, Richard; Bradley, Robert Stephen; Lowe, Tristan; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lee, Peter David; Cartmell, Sarah Harriet

    2014-04-01

    The effect of phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and iodine solution (IKI) staining was investigated as a method of enhancing contrast in the X-ray computed tomography of porcine anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) and patellar tendons (PT). We show that PTA enhanced surface contrast, but was ineffective at penetrating samples, whereas IKI penetrated more effectively and enhanced contrast after 70 hours of staining. Contrast enhancement was compared when using laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray sources. Using the laboratory source, PT fascicles were tracked and their alignment was measured. Individual ACL fascicles could not be identified, but identifiable features were evident that were tracked. Higher resolution scans of fascicle bundles from the PT and ACL were obtained using synchrotron imaging techniques. These scans exhibited greater contrast between the fascicles and matrix in the PT sample, facilitating the identification of the fascicle edges; however, it was still not possible to detect individual fascicles in the ACL.

  4. Simultaneous rupture of the patellar tendon and the anterior cruciate ligament: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Pier Paolo; Cerullo, Guglielmo; Iannella, Germano

    2013-12-01

    This study describes three cases of simultaneous ruptures of the patellar tendon (PT) and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The treatment and the pathogenesis of this rare lesion are discussed. All three cases demonstrated lesions of all structures at the medial compartment. Unlike other reported cases, where an eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was present, the patients of the present study had sustained a forceful valgus injury with external rotation. We detected no displacements of the patella in any patients. All cases underwent a staged surgical procedure. Repair of the PT and of medial peripheral structures was performed immediately after injury; then, once the patients regained a full range of motion (ROM), they underwent an arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL with ipsilateral hamstrings. At the follow-up stage, all cases showed a stable knee without restricted ROM.

  5. Bioreactor and scaffold design for the mechanical stimulation of anterior cruciate ligament grafts.

    PubMed

    Hohlrieder, M; Teuschl, A H; Cicha, K; van Griensven, M; Redl, H; Stampfl, J

    2013-01-01

    Various studies have shown that physical stimuli modulate cell function and this has motivated the development of a bioreactor to engineer tissues in vitro by exposing them to mechanical loads. Here, we present a bioreactor for the physical stimulation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts, whereby complex multi-dimensional strain can be applied to the matrices. Influences from environmental conditions to the behavior of different cells on our custom-made silk scaffold can be investigated since the design of the bioreactor allows controlling these parameters precisely. With the braided design of the presented silk scaffold we achieve maximum loads and stiffness values matching those of the human ACL. Thus, the existent degummed and wet silk scaffolds absorb maximum loads of 2030±109 N with stiffness values of 336±40 N/mm.

  6. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear in an Athlete: Does Increased Heel Loading Contribute to ACL Rupture?

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Bradd; Ford, Kevin R.; Heidt, Robert S.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Rupture to the anterior cruciate ligament is a common athletic injury in American football. The lower extremity biomechanics related to increased ACL injury risk are not completely understood. However, foot landing has been purported to be a significant contributing factor to the ACL injury mechanism. In this case report, information is presented on an athlete previously tested for in-shoe loading patterns on artificial turf and subsequently went on to non-contact ACL rupture on the same surface. This case report describes the specific findings in a study participant who suffered an ACL rupture after testing and suggests that flatfoot tendency in running and cutting maneuvers might lead to an increased risk of ACL injury. PMID:20333261

  7. Computer-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Four generations of development and usage.

    PubMed

    Klos, Tiburtius V S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature about the contribution of navigation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The evolution of computer-assisted surgery (CAS) for ACL reconstruction has undergone several steps. These steps were divided into 4 subsequent developments: (1) positioning of ACL graft placement; (2) laxity measurement of ACL reconstruction (quality control); (3) kinematic evaluation during ACL reconstruction (navigated pivot shift); (4) case-specific individual ACL reconstruction with adjustments and additional reconstruction options. CAS has shown to improve femoral tunnel positioning, even if clinical outcomes do not improve results of manual techniques. CAS technology has helped researchers better understand the effects of different ACL reconstruction techniques and bundles replacements on joint laxity and to describe tunnel positioning in relation to native ACL insertion. CAS in ACL surgery can improve results at time zero and can improve knowledge in this field.

  8. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a polylactic acid bioabsorbable screw: Case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Horng Lii; Chen, Darren B; Seeto, Bradley G; Macdessi, Samuel J

    2010-03-01

    We report a case of pretibial sinus and abscess after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a polylactic acid tricalcium phosphate bioabsorbable screw for tibial fixation. Mycobacterium fortuitum was identified as the pathogen after specific mycobacterial cultures were obtained from operative specimens. M. fortuitum is a known but rare cause of periprosthetic infection. Diagnosis is often delayed as routine microbiological cultures do not utilise specific culture requirements for mycobacterial growth. There have been several reports in the literature of sterile abscesses associated with bioabsorbable screws. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection associated with a bioabsorbable implant. This case illustrates that post-operative Mycobacterium infection can occur as a complication of ACL reconstruction with bioabsorbable screw fixation and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of post-operative periprosthetic infection.

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: identification of risk factors and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Rafael J; Rivera-Vega, Alexandra; Miranda, Gerardo; Micheo, William

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common and affects young individuals, particularly girls, who are active in sports that involve jumping, pivoting, as well as change of direction. ACL injury is associated with potential long-term complications including reduction in activity levels and osteoarthritis. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors have been identified, which include anatomic variations, neuromuscular deficits, biomechanical abnormalities, playing environment, and hormonal status. Multicomponent prevention programs have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of this injury in both girls and boys. Programs should include a combination of strengthening, stretching, aerobic conditioning, plyometrics, proprioceptive and balance training, as well as education and feedback regarding body mechanics and proper landing pattern. Preventive programs should be implemented at least 6 wk prior to competition, followed by a maintenance program during the season.

  10. Differences in hip-knee joint coupling during gait after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gribbin, Timothy C; Slater, Lindsay V; Herb, C Collin; Hart, Joseph M; Chapman, Ryan M; Hertel, Jay; Kuenze, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament injury, patients have increased risk for developing degenerative osteoarthritis, potentially due to the kinematic changes that persist after surgical reconstruction. Current research only describes single joint kinematic differences rather than the way in which two joints behave concurrently, termed joint coupling. The purpose of this study was to compare knee motion relative to hip motion in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and healthy limbs during walking and jogging. Thirty-seven recreationally active volunteers (22 reconstructed, 15 healthy) walked and jogged at 4.83 km/h and 9.66 km/h respectively. Vector coding methods were used to calculate stride-to-stride variability, magnitude, and vector angle of 6 joint couples during walking and jogging: hip frontal-knee frontal planes, hip frontal-knee sagittal, hip frontal-knee transverse, hip sagittal-knee frontal, hip sagittal-knee transverse, and hip transverse-knee frontal planes. The hip sagittal-knee frontal and hip sagittal-knee transverse joint couples had decreased variability during mid-stance, and all other couples had increased variability during the stance phase in the reconstructed group. The reconstructed group had decreased magnitude of joint excursion in the hip frontal-knee sagittal couple during all phases of gait during walking. Vector angles of the hip frontal-knee transverse couple increased in the reconstructed group during the loading, middle, and terminal stance phases, and swing phase of gait during walking. The increased variability and decreased magnitude of joint excursion indicate that movement patterns were less consistent during walking gait despite employing a more constrained system during movement in the reconstructed limb compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Medio-lateral Knee Fluency in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Injured Athletes During Dynamic Movement Trials

    PubMed Central

    Panos, Joseph A.; Hoffman, Joshua T.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Correction of neuromuscular impairments after anterior cruciate ligament injury is vital to successful return to sport. Frontal plane knee control during landing is a common measure of lower-extremity neuromuscular control and asymmetries in neuromuscular control of the knee can predispose injured athletes to additional injury and associated morbidities. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on knee biomechanics during landing. Methods Two-dimensional frontal plane video of single leg drop, cross over drop, and drop vertical jump dynamic movement trials was analyzed for twenty injured and reconstructed athletes. The position of the knee joint center was tracked in ImageJ software for 500 milliseconds after landing to calculate medio-lateral knee motion velocities and determine normal fluency, the number of times per second knee velocity changed direction. The inverse of this calculation, analytical fluency, was used to associate larger numerical values with fluent movement. Findings Analytical fluency was decreased in involved limbs for single leg drop trials (P=0.0018). Importantly, analytical fluency for single leg drop differed compared to cross over drop trials for involved (P<0.001), but not uninvolved limbs (P=0.5029). For involved limbs, analytical fluency values exhibited a stepwise trend in relative magnitudes. Interpretation Decreased analytical fluency in involved limbs is consistent with previous studies. Fluency asymmetries observed during single leg drop tasks may be indicative of abhorrent landing strategies in the involved limb. Analytical fluency differences in unilateral tasks for injured limbs may represent neuromuscular impairment as a result of injury. PMID:26895446

  12. A multisport epidemiologic comparison of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high school athletics.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Allan M; Collins, Christy L; Henke, Natalie M; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The knee joint is the second most commonly injured body site after the ankle and the leading cause of sport-related surgeries. Knee injuries, especially of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), are among the most economically costly sport injuries, frequently requiring expensive surgery and rehabilitation. To investigate the epidemiology of ACL injuries among high school athletes by sport and sex. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data-collection tool, Reporting Information Online (RIO), certified athletic trainers from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athlete-exposure and injury data for athletes from 9 sports during the 2007/08-2011/12 academic years. The outcome of interest in this study was ACL injuries. During the study period, 617 ACL injuries were reported during 9 452 180 athlete exposures (AEs), for an injury rate of 6.5 per 100 000 AEs. Nationally, in the 9 sports studied, an estimated 215 628 ACL injuries occurred during the study period. The injury rate was higher in competition (17.6) than practice (2.4; rate ratio [RR] = 7.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.08, 8.68). Girls' soccer had the highest injury rate (12.2) followed by boys' football (11.1), with boys' basketball (2.3) and boys' baseball (0.7) having the lowest rates. In sex-comparable sports, girls had a higher rate (8.9) than boys (2.6; RR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.64, 4.47). Overall, 76.6% of ACL injuries resulted in surgery. The most common mechanisms of injury were player-to-player contact (42.8%) and no contact (37.9%). Anterior cruciate ligament injury rates vary by sport, sex, and type of exposure. Recognizing such differences is important when evaluating the effectiveness of evidence-based, targeted prevention efforts.

  13. Correlation between Femoral Guidewire Position and Tunnel Communication in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyuk; Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hee; Kang, Bun Jung; Nam, Dae Cheol; Yoon, Hong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The object of this study was to determine the shortest possible distances of antero-medial (AM) and postero-lateral (PL) guide wire tunnel positions required to prevent femoral bone tunnel communication in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using human cadaver knees. Materials and Methods The centers of femoral AM and PL bundles of 16 cadaveric knees were drilled with guide wires and the distances of guide wires, were measured upon entrance into the bone. Femoral tunnel drilling was performed using transportal technique. The diameters of AM and PL graft were 8 mm and 6 mm, respectively. CT scans were taken on each knee, and 3-dimensional models were constructed to identify the femoral tunnel position and to create AM and PL tunnel virtual cylinders. Thickness of the bone bridge between the two tunnels was measured. Results In four out of six specimens, in which the guide wires were placed at less than or equal to 9 mm, communication was noted. In specimens with guide wires placed at distances greater than or equal to 10 mm, communication was not noted. The two groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.008). In cases where the distance between the AM and PL femoral tunnel guide wires was 12 mm, the bone bridge thickness was greater than 2 mm along the tunnel. Conclusion The technique for double bundle-anterior cruciate ligament (DB-ACL) reconstruction that we show here can avoid bone tunnel communication when AM and PL femoral guide wires are placed at least 10 mm apart, and 12 mm should be kept to preserve 2 mm bone bridge thickness. PMID:25323896

  14. Lower Limb Kinematics and Dynamic Postural Stability in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Chawke, Mark; Kelleher, Judy; Murphy, Katie; Prendiville, Anna; Sweeny, Lauren; Patterson, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Context: Deficits in lower limb kinematics and postural stability are predisposing factors to the development of knee ligamentous injury. The extent to which these deficits are present after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is still largely unknown. The primary hypothesis of the present study was that female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction and who have returned to sport participation would exhibit deficits in dynamic postural stability as well as deficiencies in hip- and knee-joint kinematics when compared with an age-, activity-, and sex-matched uninjured control group. Objective: To investigate dynamic postural stability as quantified by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles in female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fourteen female athletes who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) and 17 age- and sex-matched uninjured controls. Intervention(s): Each participant performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial, and posterior-lateral directional components of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s): Reach distances for each directional component were quantified and expressed as a percentage of leg length. Simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles were recorded using a motion-analysis system. Results: The ACL-R group had decreased reach distances on the posterior-medial (P < .01) and posterior-lateral (P < .01) directional components of the SEBT. During performance of the directional components of the SEBT, ACL-R participants demonstrated altered hip-joint frontal-, sagittal-, and transverse-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05), as well as altered knee-joint sagittal-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05). Conclusions: Deficits in dynamic postural stability and concomitant altered hip- and knee-joint kinematics are present after ACL

  15. Change in posture control after recent knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Dauty, Marc; Collon, Sylvie; Dubois, Charles

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare statical postures of a knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) population with a healthy control population. Thirty-five patients (age 25.5 +/- 5.8 years) were compared at 15 days after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with 35 healthy, age and sex-matched subjects. Bilateral and unilateral postures were studied according to various stances, knee extension and 20 degrees knee flexion with opened and closed eyes, using a stabilometric platform. A comparison with the non-ACLR limb and the healthy limbs of the control population was carried out. The ACLR subjects present with the following: (i) a significant change in two-legged stance, i.e. distances covered by the centre of pressure projection are significantly increased; (ii) a postural alteration during the ACLR one-legged stance with knee extension and opened eyes in comparison with the non-ACLR limb; (iii) an incapacity for certain ACLR subjects to perform one-legged stance on the non-ACLR limb when there is no visual compensation. Only 11.4% (95% CI: 0.9-21.9%) and 42.8% (95% CI: 26.3-59.3%) of ACLR subjects are capable of maintaining correctly a one-legged stance posture with closed eyes on both sides (knee extension and flexion, respectively). The identification of the ACLR knee limb is possible from the one-legged stance postural test in knee extension and opened eyes condition. Because of a change in two-legged balance and of the incapacity for certain ACLR subjects to maintain one-legged stance with closed eyes, a central origin explaining the abnormalities of postural control is suggested.

  16. Medio-lateral knee fluency in anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes during dynamic movement trials.

    PubMed

    Panos, Joseph A; Hoffman, Joshua T; Wordeman, Samuel C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    Correction of neuromuscular impairments after anterior cruciate ligament injury is vital to successful return to sport. Frontal plane knee control during landing is a common measure of lower-extremity neuromuscular control and asymmetries in neuromuscular control of the knee can predispose injured athletes to additional injury and associated morbidities. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on knee biomechanics during landing. Two-dimensional frontal plane video of single leg drop, cross over drop, and drop vertical jump dynamic movement trials was analyzed for twenty injured and reconstructed athletes. The position of the knee joint center was tracked in ImageJ software for 500 milliseconds after landing to calculate medio-lateral knee motion velocities and determine normal fluency, the number of times per second knee velocity changed direction. The inverse of this calculation, analytical fluency, was used to associate larger numerical values with fluent movement. Analytical fluency was decreased in involved limbs for single leg drop trials (P=0.0018). Importantly, analytical fluency for single leg drop differed compared to cross over drop trials for involved (P<0.001), but not uninvolved limbs (P=0.5029). For involved limbs, analytical fluency values exhibited a stepwise trend in relative magnitudes. Decreased analytical fluency in involved limbs is consistent with previous studies. Fluency asymmetries observed during single leg drop tasks may be indicative of abhorrent landing strategies in the involved limb. Analytical fluency differences in unilateral tasks for injured limbs may represent neuromuscular impairment as a result of injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variables Associated With Return to Sport Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Czuppon, Sylvia; Racette, Brad A.; Klein, Sandra E.; Harris-Hayes, Marcie

    2014-01-01

    Background As one of the purposes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to return athletes to their pre-injury activity level, it is critical to understand variables influencing return to sport. Associations between return to sport and variables representing knee impairment, function and psychological status have not been well studied in athletes following ACLR. Purpose The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature reporting on variables proposed to be associated with return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Study Design Systematic Review Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published before November 2012. Articles included in this review met these criteria: 1) included patients with primary ACLR, 2) reported at least one knee impairment, function or psychological measure, 3) reported a return to sport measure and 4) analyzed the relationship between the measure and return to sport. Results Weak evidence existed in sixteen articles suggesting variables associated with return to sport included higher quadriceps strength, less effusion, less pain, greater tibial rotation, higher Marx Activity score, higher athletic confidence, higher pre-operative knee self-efficacy, lower kinesiophobia and higher pre-operative self-motivation. Conclusion Weak evidence supports an association between knee impairment, functional, and psychological variables and return to sport. Current return to sport guidelines should be updated to reflect all variables associated with return to sport. Utilizing evidence-based return to sport guidelines following ACLR may ensure athletes are physically and psychologically capable of sports participation, which may reduce re-injury rates and the need for subsequent surgery. PMID:24124040

  18. Outcome of cartilage at 12years of follow-up after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cantin, O; Lustig, S; Rongieras, F; Saragaglia, D; Lefèvre, N; Graveleau, N; Hulet, C

    2016-11-01

    In cases of chronic anterior laxity, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can slow the development of osteoarthritis. This study was conducted to determine the overall prevalence of osteoarthritis and to identify the risk factors after ACL reconstruction. Meniscus tears, time from injury to surgery, body mass index (BMI), residual laxity, and cartilage lesions influence the progression towards osteoarthritis. This multicenter, retrospective study on the outcome of cruciate ligaments at 12 years of follow-up was conducted within the 2014 SOFCOT Symposium. The cohort included 675 arthroscopic reconstructions of the ACL from January 2002 to December 2003. The clinical evaluation included the objective and subjective IKDC score. Osteoarthritis was analyzed on 589 knee X-rays according to the IKDC classification. The predictive factors of osteoarthritis development studied were age, gender, BMI, time from injury to surgery, activity level, medial or lateral meniscectomy, type of graft, medial or lateral chondropathy, tunnel positioning, and residual laxity. Univariate and multivariate analyses with logistic regression were performed. The mean follow-up was 11.9±0.8 years. The subjective IKDC score was 83.7±13. At 12 years, the rate of moderate to severe osteoarthritis l (IKDCC or D) was 19% (16% medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis, 4% lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis, and 2% patellofemoral osteoarthritis). The prognostic factors were age at surgery greater than 34 years (P<0.05), cartilage lesions at surgery (P<0.05), medial or lateral meniscectomy (P<0.05), and residual laxity (P<0.05). This large-scale study identified risk factors for osteoarthritis that should improve the information provided to patients on long-term progression after ACL reconstruction. Retrospective cohort study, level IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Some clinical aspects of reconstruction for chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dandy, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    A total of 250 patients was reviewed 71.8 months (range 49-105 months) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for disabling instability that had not responded to conservative treatment or correction of internal derangements. Knees that had undergone previous operation or had damage to other ligaments were excluded. Four techniques were used; MacIntosh extra-articular lateral substitution alone (n = 18), extra-articular reconstruction plus intra-articular carbon fibre (n = 29), extra-articular reconstruction plus a free graft from the medial third of the patellar tendon (n = 74), or extra-articular reconstruction plus a Leeds-Keio prosthesis (n = 129). The knees were assessed 1, 3 and 6 years after reconstruction using the Lysholm score and clinical examination for the anterior drawer, Lachman and pivot shift signs. The mean Lysholm score after 6 years was 77.4 (range 31-100) in the extra-articular group; 74.4 (range 34-100) in the carbon fibre group; 95.4 (range 43-100) in the patellar tendon group; and 91.2 (range 45-100) in the Leeds-Keio group. The patellar tendon group had the highest scores (P < 0.003). The pivot shift sign returned in 39% of the extra-articular group; 48% of the carbon fibre group; 1% of the patellar tendon group, and 36% of the Leeds-Keio group. The pivot shift returned least often in the patellar tendon group (P < 0.001). There were 44% satisfactory results (pivot shift negative and Lysholm score 77 or more) in the extra-articular group; 55% in the carbon fibre group; 92% in the patellar tendon group; and 60% in the Leeds-Keio group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7574323

  20. Allograft tissue irradiation and failure rate after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dashe, Jesse; Parisien, Robert L; Cusano, Antonio; Curry, Emily J; Bedi, Asheesh; Li, Xinning

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft irradiation is effective for sterility without compromising graft integrity and increasing failure rate. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, and Google. The following search terms were used: “Gamma irradiation AND anterior cruciate ligament AND allograft” with a return of 30 items. Filters used included: English language, years 1990-2015. There were 6 hits that were not reviewed, as there were only abstracts available. Another 5 hits were discarded, as they did not pertain to the topic of interest. There were 9 more articles that were excluded: Three studies were performed on animals and 6 studies were meta-analyses. Therefore, a total of 10 articles were applicable to review. RESULTS: There is a delicate dosing crossover where gamma irradiation is both effective for sterility without catastrophically compromising the structural integrity of the graft. Of note, low dose irradiation is considered less than 2.0 Mrad, moderate dose is between 2.1-2.4 Mrad, and high dose is greater than or equal to 2.5 Mrad. Based upon the results of the literature search, the optimal threshold for sterilization was found to be sterilization at less than 2.2 Mrad of gamma irradiation with the important caveat of being performed at low temperatures. The graft selection process also must include thorough donor screening and testing as well as harvesting the tissue in a sterile fashion. Utilization of higher dose (≥ 2.5 Mrad) of irradiation causes greater allograft tissue laxity that results in greater graft failure rate clinically in patients after ACL reconstruction. CONCLUSION: Allograft ACL graft gamma irradiated with less than 2.2 Mrad appears to be a reasonable alternative to autograft for patients above 25 years of age. PMID:27335815

  1. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  2. Magnesium inference screw supports early graft incorporation with inhibition of graft degradation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pengfei; Han, Pei; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaonong; Chai, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery commonly encounters graft failure in the initial phase of rehabilitation. The inhibition of graft degradation is crucial for the successful reconstruction of the ACL. Here, we used biodegradable high-purity magnesium (HP Mg) screws in the rabbit model of ACL reconstruction with titanium (Ti) screws as a control and analyzed the graft degradation and screw corrosion using direct pull-out tests, microCT scanning, and histological and immunohistochemical staining. The most noteworthy finding was that tendon graft fixed by HP Mg screws exhibited biomechanical properties substantially superior to that by Ti screws and the relative area of collagen fiber at the tendon-bone interface was much larger in the Mg group, when severe graft degradation was identified in the histological analysis at 3 weeks. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical results further elucidated that the MMP-13 expression significantly decreased surrounding HP Mg screws with relatively higher Collagen II expression. And HP Mg screws exhibited uniform corrosion behavior without displacement or loosening in the femoral tunnel. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Mg screw inhibited graft degradation and improved biomechanical properties of tendon graft during the early phase of graft healing and highlighted its potential in ACL reconstruction.

  3. Stem cell therapy: a promising biological strategy for tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zi-Chen; Wang, Shan-Zheng; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Lu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a complex process, impacting significantly on patients' prognosis. Natural tendon-bone healing usually results in fibrous scar tissue, which is of inferior quality compared to native attachment. In addition, the early formed fibrous attachment after surgery is often not reliable to support functional rehabilitation, which may lead to graft failure or unsatisfied function of the knee joint. Thus, strategies to promote tendon-bone healing are crucial for prompt and satisfactory functional recovery. Recently, a variety of biological approaches, including active substances, gene transfer, tissue engineering and stem cells, have been proposed and applied to enhance tendon-bone healing. Among these, stem cell therapy has been shown to have promising prospects and draws increasing attention. From commonly investigated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) to emerging ACL-derived CD34+ stem cells, multiple stem cell types have been proven to be effective in accelerating tendon-bone healing. This review describes the current understanding of tendon-bone healing and summarizes the current status of related stem cell therapy. Future limitations and perspectives are also discussed.

  4. Magnesium inference screw supports early graft incorporation with inhibition of graft degradation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pengfei; Han, Pei; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaonong; Chai, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery commonly encounters graft failure in the initial phase of rehabilitation. The inhibition of graft degradation is crucial for the successful reconstruction of the ACL. Here, we used biodegradable high-purity magnesium (HP Mg) screws in the rabbit model of ACL reconstruction with titanium (Ti) screws as a control and analyzed the graft degradation and screw corrosion using direct pull-out tests, microCT scanning, and histological and immunohistochemical staining. The most noteworthy finding was that tendon graft fixed by HP Mg screws exhibited biomechanical properties substantially superior to that by Ti screws and the relative area of collagen fiber at the tendon-bone interface was much larger in the Mg group, when severe graft degradation was identified in the histological analysis at 3 weeks. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical results further elucidated that the MMP-13 expression significantly decreased surrounding HP Mg screws with relatively higher Collagen II expression. And HP Mg screws exhibited uniform corrosion behavior without displacement or loosening in the femoral tunnel. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Mg screw inhibited graft degradation and improved biomechanical properties of tendon graft during the early phase of graft healing and highlighted its potential in ACL reconstruction. PMID:27210585

  5. Biomechanical Outcomes After Bio-enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Are Equal in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Fleming, Braden C.; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical outcomes of a new method of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) treatment, bio-enhanced ACL repair, with ACL reconstruction in a large animal model. Methods Twenty-four skeletally immature pigs underwent unilateral ACL transection and were randomly allocated to receive bio-enhanced ACL repair with a collagen-platelet composite, allograft (bone–patellar tendon– bone) reconstruction, or no further treatment (n = 8 for each group). The structural properties and anteroposterior laxity of the experimental and contralateral ACL-intact knees were measured 15 weeks postoperatively. All dependent variables were normalized to those of the contralateral knee and compared by use of generalized linear mixed models. Results After 15 weeks, bio-enhanced ACL repair and ACL reconstruction produced superior biomechanical outcomes to ACL transection. However, there were no significant differences between bio-enhanced ACL repair and ACL reconstruction for maximum load (P = .4745), maximum displacement (P = .4217), or linear stiffness (P = .6327). There were no significant differences between the 2 surgical techniques in anteroposterior laxity at 30° (P = .7947), 60° (P = .6270), or 90° (P = .9008). Conclusions Bio-enhanced ACL repair produced biomechanical results that were not different from ACL reconstruction in a skeletally immature, large animal model, although the variability associated with both procedures was large. Both procedures produced significantly improved results over ACL transection, showing that both were effective in this model. Clinical Relevance Bio-enhanced ACL repair may 1 day provide an alternative treatment option for ACL injury. PMID:22261137

  6. The Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair (BEAR) Procedure: An Early Feasibility Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Martha M; Flutie, Brett M; Kalish, Leslie A; Ecklund, Kirsten; Fleming, Braden C; Proffen, Benedikt L; Micheli, Lyle J

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture). The secondary hypotheses were that patients treated with BEAR would have early postoperative outcomes that were similar to patients treated with ACL reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in this nonrandomized, first-in-human study. Ten patients received BEAR treatment and 10 received a hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. The BEAR procedure was performed by augmenting a suture repair with a proprietary scaffold, the BEAR scaffold, placed in between the torn ends of the ACL at the time of suture repair. The BEAR scaffold is to our knowledge the only device that fills the gap between the torn ligament ends to have current Investigational Device Exemption approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Ten milliliters of autologous whole blood were added to the scaffold prior to wound closure. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months postoperatively. The outcomes measures included postoperative pain, muscle atrophy, loss of joint range of motion, and implant failure (designated by an International Knee Documentation Committee grade C or D Lachman test and/or an absence of continuous ACL tissue on magnetic resonance images). There were no joint infections or signs of significant inflammation in either group

  7. Management of combined anterior or posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner injuries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rochecongar, G; Plaweski, S; Azar, M; Demey, G; Arndt, J; Louis, M-L; Limozin, R; Djian, P; Sonnery-Cottet, B; Bousquet, V; Bajard, X; Wajsfisz, A; Boisrenoult, P

    2014-12-01

    Combined injuries to the posterolateral corner and cruciate ligaments are uncommon. The heterogeneity of injury patterns in many studies complicates the assessment of outcomes. To assess the prognosis and functional outcomes after surgery for combined injuries to the posterolateral corner and to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). We systematically reviewed the literature for articles reporting outcomes 1 year or more after surgery for combined injuries to the posterolateral corner and ACL (n=4) or PCL (n=9). Patients with bicruciate injuries were not studied. Overall, 65% of patients were IKDC A or B after surgery. The mean Lysholm score improved from 67 to 90. Mean time to surgery was 4.43 months in the group with ACL tears and 18.4 months in the group with PCL tears, and mean follow-up was 34.4 and 40.7 months in these two groups, respectively. In the groups with ACL and PCL tears, the proportions of patients classified as IKDC A or B at last follow-up were 81.6% and 81.0%, respectively, whereas 88% and 99% of patients, respectively, were IKDC grade C or D before surgery. The mean Lysholm score improved from 77 to 92 in the group with ACL tears and from 65 to 89 in the group with PCL tears. Improvements in laxity ranged from 28% to 79% in the group with PCL tears. Most of the articles selected for our review provided level III or IV evidence. Functional outcomes were satisfactory but less good than those reported after surgical reconstruction of isolated cruciate ligament tears. Full reconstruction seems the best strategy in patients with combined ACL/posterolateral corner injuries. Outcomes were also good but more variable in the group with PCL/posterolateral corner injuries. The time to surgery, which reflected the time to diagnosis, was shorter in patients with ACL than with PCL tears in addition to the posterolateral corner injury. Level III (systematic literature review). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  8. Comparison of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Isometry between Paired Femoral and Tibial Tunnels.

    PubMed

    Cain, E Lyle; Biggers, Marcus D; Beason, David P; Emblom, Benton A; Dugas, Jeffrey R

    2017-03-10

    Accurate tunnel placement is important for a successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Controversy exists concerning the preferred method of femoral tunnel preparation, with proponents of both medial portal and transtibial drilling techniques. Current ACL literature suggests that placement of the femoral ACL attachment site posterior or "low" in the ACL footprint leads to more anatomically correct ACL mechanics and better rotational control. There is limited literature focusing on ACL graft displacement through knee range of motion based on specific paired placement of femoral and tibial tunnels. Our purpose was to assess ACL isometry between multiple combinations of femoral and tibial tunnels. We hypothesized that placement of the graft at the posterior aspect of the ACL footprint on the femur would be significantly less isometric and lead to more graft displacement as compared with central or anterior placement. The ACL of matched pairs of cadaveric knees was arthroscopically debrided while leaving the soft tissue footprint on the femur and tibia intact. One knee from each pair underwent notchplasty. In all knees, three femoral and three tibial tunnels were created at the anterior, central, and posterior aspects of the ACL footprint. A suture was passed through each tunnel combination (nine potential pairs), and the change in isometry was measured throughout full knee range of motion. Placement of the femoral tunnel along the posterior aspect of the ACL footprint was less isometric compared with a central or anterior position in the femoral footprint. Placement of a posterior tibial tunnel also led to decreased isometry, but tibial tunnel placement affected isometry to a lesser extent than femoral tunnel placement. The combination of a posterior femoral and posterior tibial tunnel resulted in greater than 1 cm of graft excursion from full flexion to extension. Placement of ACL tunnels at anisometric sites may adversely affect the mechanical

  9. A Comparison between Clinical Results of Selective Bundle and Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yon-Sik; Song, Si Young; Yang, Cheol Jung; Ha, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anatomical double bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either selective anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle reconstruction while preserving a relatively healthy ACL bundle. Materials and Methods The authors evaluated 98 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.8±4.0 months who had undergone DB or selective bundle ACL reconstructions. Of these, 34 cases underwent DB ACL reconstruction (group A), 34 underwent selective AM bundle reconstruction (group B), and 30 underwent selective PL bundle reconstructions (group C). These groups were compared with respect to Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, side-to-side differences of anterior laxity measured by KT-2000 arthrometer at 30 lbs, and stress radiography and Lachman and pivot shift test results. Pre- and post-operative data were objectively evaluated using a statistical approach. Results The preoperative anterior instability measured by manual stress radiography at 90° of knee flexion in group A was significantly greater than that in groups B and C (all p<0.001). At last follow-up, mean side-to-side instrumented laxities measured by the KT-2000 and manual stress radiography were significantly improved from preoperative data in all groups (all p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the three groups in anterior instability measured by KT-2000 arthrometer, pivot shift, or functional scores. Conclusion Selective bundle reconstruction in partial ACL tears offers comparable clinical results to DB reconstruction in complete ACL tears. PMID:27401652

  10. Short term results of anterior cruciate ligament augmentation in professional and amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Hamidreza; Torkaman, Ali; Ghahramani, Morteza; Moradi, Amin; Nazarian, Ara; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a widely accepted procedure; however, controversies exist about ACL augmentation. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of ACL augmentation in professional and amateur athletes with isolated single bundle ACL tears. A consecutive series of professional and amateur athletes with partial ACL tears who underwent selective bundle reconstruction were analyzed. Stability was assessed with the Lachman test, anterior-drawer test, pivot-shift test and KT-1000 arthrometer. Functional assessment was performed using the subjective Lysholm questionnaire. Fifty-six patients were enrolled. The mean follow-up period was 19.3 months. All patients had posterolateral bundle (PLB) tears, and no anteromedial bundle (AMB) tears were found. The Lysholm score improved significantly from 78 (SD = 2.69) preoperatively to 96 (SD = 3.41) postoperatively (P value <0.0001). The pivot-shift test, Lachman test and anterior-drawer test results were negative in all cases postoperatively. Anterior tibial translation from neutral was 4.9 mm (SD = 2.7) preoperatively, and decreased significantly to 2.1 (SD = 0.6) postoperatively, measured with a KT-1000 arthrometer (P value <0.00001). In this study, we showed that ACL augmentation had good results in symptomatic professional and amateur athletes, and although further studies are needed to investigate long-term results, we recommend this surgery for all symptomatic athletic patients, especially those who would like to maintain an active lifestyle. Level of evidence IV.

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament biomechanics during robotic and mechanical simulations of physiologic and clinical motion tasks: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Shearn, Jason T; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    Investigators use in vitro joint simulations to invasively study the biomechanical behaviors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The aims of these simulations are to replicate physiologic conditions, but multiple mechanisms can be used to drive in vitro motions, which may influence biomechanical outcomes. The objective of this review was to examine, summarize, and compare biomechanical evidence related to anterior cruciate ligament function from in vitro simulations of knee motion. A systematic review was conducted (2004 to 2013) in Scopus, PubMed/Medline, and SPORTDiscus to identify peer-reviewed studies that reported kinematic and kinetic outcomes from in vitro simulations of physiologic or clinical tasks at the knee. Inclusion criteria for relevant studies were articles published in English that reported on whole-ligament anterior cruciate ligament mechanics during the in vitro simulation of physiologic or clinical motions on cadaveric knees that were unaltered outside of the anterior-cruciate-ligament-intact, -deficient, and -reconstructed conditions. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize biomechanical differences between the anterior-cruciate-ligament-intact and reconstructed conditions. 77 studies met our inclusion/exclusion criteria and were reviewed. Combined joint rotations have the greatest impact on anterior cruciate ligament loads, but the magnitude by which individual kinematic degrees of freedom contribute to ligament loading during in vitro simulations is technique-dependent. Biomechanical data collected in prospective, longitudinal studies corresponds better with robotic-manipulator simulations than mechanical-impact simulations. Robotic simulation indicated that the ability to restore intact anterior cruciate ligament mechanics with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions was dependent on loading condition and degree of freedom examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Biomechanics During Robotic and Mechanical Simulations of Physiologic and Clinical Motion Tasks: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Shearn, Jason T.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators use in vitro joint simulations to invasively study the biomechanical behaviors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The aims of these simulations are to replicate physiologic conditions, but multiple mechanisms can be used to drive in vitro motions, which may influence biomechanical outcomes. The objective of this review was to examine, summarize, and compare biomechanical evidence related to anterior cruciate ligament function from in vitro simulations of knee motion. A systematic review was conducted (2004 to 2013) in Scopus, PubMed/Medline, and SPORTDiscus to identify peer-reviewed studies that reported kinematic and kinetic outcomes from in vitro simulations of physiologic or clinical tasks at the knee. Inclusion criteria for relevant studies were articles published in English that reported on whole-ligament anterior cruciate ligament mechanics during the in vitro simulation of physiologic or clinical motions on cadaveric knees that were unaltered outside of the anterior-cruciate-ligament-intact, -deficient, and -reconstructed conditions. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize biomechanical differences between the anterior-cruciate-ligament-intact and reconstructed conditions. 77 studies met our inclusion/exclusion criteria and were reviewed. Combined joint rotations have the greatest impact on anterior cruciate ligament loads, but the magnitude by which individual kinematic degrees of freedom contribute to ligament loading during in vitro simulations is technique-dependent. Biomechanical data collected in prospective, longitudinal studies corresponds better with robotic-manipulator simulations than mechanical-impact simulations. Robotic simulation indicated that the ability to restore intact anterior cruciate ligament mechanics with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions was dependent on loading condition and degree of freedom examined. PMID:25547070

  13. Cryotherapy with dynamic intermittent compression for analgesia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Murgier, J; Cassard, X

    2014-05-01

    Cryotherapy is a useful adjunctive analgesic measure in patients with postoperative pain following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Either static permanent compression or dynamic intermittent compression can be added to increase the analgesic effect of cryotherapy. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of these two compression modalities combined with cryotherapy in relieving postoperative pain and restoring range of knee motion after ligament reconstruction surgery. When combined with cryotherapy, a dynamic and intermittent compression is associated with decreased analgesic drug requirements, less postoperative pain, and better range of knee motion compared to static compression. We conducted a case-control study of consecutive patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at a single institution over a 3-month period. Both groups received the same analgesic drug protocol. One group was managed with cryotherapy and dynamic intermittent compression (Game Ready(®)) and the other with cryotherapy and static compression (IceBand(®)). Of 39 patients, 20 received dynamic and 19 static compression. In the post-anaesthesia recovery unit, the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was 2.4 (range, 0-6) with dynamic compression and 2.7 (0-7) with static compression (P=0.3); corresponding values were 1.85 (0-9) vs. 3 (0-8) (P=0.16) after 6 hours and 0.6 (0-3) vs. 1.14 (0-3) (P=0.12) at discharge. The cumulative mean tramadol dose per patient was 57.5mg (0-200mg) with dynamic compression and 128.6 mg (0-250 mg) with static compression (P=0.023); corresponding values for morphine were 0mg vs. 1.14 mg (0-8 mg) (P<0.05). Mean range of knee flexion at discharge was 90.5° (80°-100°) with dynamic compression and 84.5° (75°-90°) with static compression (P=0.0015). Dynamic intermittent compression combined with cryotherapy decreases analgesic drug requirements after ACL reconstruction and improves the postoperative recovery of range of knee

  14. Low Prevalence of Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Patients With Achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jaysson T; Ramji, Alim F; Lyapustina, Tatyana A; Yost, Mary T; Ain, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries and their subsequent reconstructions are common in the general population, but there has been no research regarding ACL or PCL injuries in patients with achondroplasia, the most common skeletal dysplasia. Our goals were to (1) evaluate the prevalence of ACL and PCL injuries in adolescents and adults with achondroplasia, (2) compare this prevalence with that reported for the general population, (3) determine how many patients with ACL or PCL injuries underwent ligament reconstruction as treatment, and (4) determine patient activity levels as they relate to the rate of ACL/PCL injuries and reconstructions. We reviewed medical records of 430 patients with achondroplasia seen in the senior author's clinic from 2002 through 2014. Demographic data were reviewed, as well as any documentation of ACL or PCL injury or reconstruction. We called all 430 patients by telephone, and 148 agreed to participate in our survey, whereas 1 declined. We asked these patients about their history of ACL or PCL injury or reconstruction, as well as current and past physical activity levels. No ACL or PCL injuries were found on chart review. One patient reached by telephone reported an ACL injury that did not require reconstruction. This yielded a theoretical prevalence of 3/430 (0.7%). Of the 148 patients surveyed, 43 (29%) reported low physical activity, 75 (51%) reported moderate physical activity, and 26 (17%) reported high physical activity. There was no significant difference in the rate of ACL injury when stratified by physical activity level (P=0.102). ACL and PCL injuries and reconstructions are extremely rare in patients with achondroplasia, which cannot be completely ascribed to a low level of physical activity. One possible explanation is that patients with achondroplasia, on an average, have a more anterior tibial slope compared with those without achondroplasia, which decreases the force generated

  15. Can a knee brace reduce the strain in the anterior cruciate ligament? A study using combined in vivo/in vitro method.

    PubMed

    Hangalur, Gajendra; Brenneman, Elora; Nicholls, Micah; Bakker, Ryan; Laing, Andrew; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether prophylactic knee braces can reduce the strain in the anterior cruciate ligament during dynamic activities. An athlete, who had characteristics of high anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, was chosen. A motion capture system (Optotrak Certus; Northern Digital, Waterloo, ON, Canada) was used to record dynamic trials during drop-landing activity of this subject with and without the knee brace being worn. A musculoskeletal model was used to estimate the muscle forces during this activity. A dynamic knee simulator then applied kinematics and muscle forces on a cadaver knee with and without the brace mounted on it. The anterior cruciate ligament strain was measured. The peak strain in the anterior cruciate ligament was substantially lower for the braced (7%) versus unbraced (20%) conditions. Functional knee braces could decrease the strain in the anterior cruciate ligament during dynamic activities in a high-risk subject. However, the reduction seems to be a result of altered muscle firing pattern due to the brace. Prophylactic knee brace could reduce the strain in the anterior cruciate ligament of high-risk subjects during drop-landing through altered muscle firing pattern associated with brace wear. This could help reduce the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  16. Proximal anterior cruciate ligament tears: the healing response technique versus conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Wasmaier, Johann; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Pfirrmann, Christian; Grehn, Holger; Bieg, Christian; Eid, Karim

    2013-08-01

    The healing response technique (HRT) is a nonreconstructive method to promote healing in proximal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. The study reviews clinical and radiological long-term results. Thirty patients (average age 31 years) were treated according to the protocol described by Steadman et al. For comparison, an age- and gender-matched control group of conservatively treated patients (CST; n = 127) was selected. At follow-up (mean: 4 years), all patients were evaluated using Kneelax-3-arthrometer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and by clinical examination. Two HRT patients were lost to follow-up and 10 (36%) patients needed definitive ACL reconstruction. The rate of secondary ACL reconstruction in the initial CST group was 56% (71 of 127). Nineteen of the conservatively treated patients were selected according to above-mentioned criteria. The average Lysholm score in the HRT group was 91 (CST group = 90), and the Orthopaedische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Knie score was 93 (CST group = 92). Tegner score decreased from 6.8 before injury to 5.7 at the time of follow-up (CST group: 6.0 to 5.1). Kneelax-3-arthrometer showed a significant higher anterior knee laxity compared with the noninjured side in both groups. MRI showed improvement of the ACL in both groups. HRT in adult patients is associated with a high revision rate of 36% secondary ACL reconstruction, comparable with primary conservative treatment (p = 0.056). For the remaining patients (64%), HRT did not result in better outcomes than conservative treatment.

  17. Thermography based diagnosis of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in canines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Norsang; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Mishra, Deependra; Dahal, Rohini; Marino, Dominic J.; Sackman, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in canines is a common orthopedic injury in veterinary medicine. Veterinarians use both imaging and non-imaging methods to diagnose the disease. Common imaging methods such as radiography, computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have some disadvantages: expensive setup, high dose of radiation, and time-consuming. In this paper, we present an alternative diagnostic method based on feature extraction and pattern classification (FEPC) to diagnose abnormal patterns in ACL thermograms. The proposed method was experimented with a total of 30 thermograms for each camera view (anterior, lateral and posterior) including 14 disease and 16 non-disease cases provided from Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The normal and abnormal patterns in thermograms are analyzed in two steps: feature extraction and pattern classification. Texture features based on gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), histogram features and spectral features are extracted from the color normalized thermograms and the computed feature vectors are applied to Nearest Neighbor (NN) classifier, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifier and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with leave-one-out validation method. The algorithm gives the best classification success rate of 86.67% with a sensitivity of 85.71% and a specificity of 87.5% in ACL rupture detection using NN classifier for the lateral view and Norm-RGB-Lum color normalization method. Our results show that the proposed method has the potential to detect ACL rupture in canines.

  18. Nutrition of the anterior cruciate ligament. Effects of continuous passive motion

    SciTech Connect

    Skyhar, M.J.; Danzig, L.A.; Hargens, A.R.; Akeson, W.H.

    1985-11-01

    Twelve freshly killed mature male rabbits were used to study the effects of continuous passive motion (CPM) on regional and overall nonvascular nutritional pathways of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). One hundred fifty microcuries of /sup 35/S-sulfate was injected intraarticularly into each knee joint. The right knee underwent CPM for 1 hour, while the left knee remained immobilized. Both knee joints were then isolated and immediately frozen. The ACLs were removed while still mostly frozen, and sectioned into anterior, middle, and posterior thirds for the six rabbits in Group 1, and proximal, middle, and distal thirds for the six rabbits in Group 2. In addition, quadriceps tendon samples were harvested from each limb of three rabbits. After appropriate processing, all samples were counted in a scintillation counter, and counts per minute per milligram of tissue were calculated. There was significantly higher uptake in rest extremity ACLs compared to CPM extremity ACLs (P = 0.0001). No significant difference was demonstrated in regional uptake comparing respective thirds of the ACL in either Group 1 or Group 2. Quadriceps tendon uptake trended higher in the limbs exposed to CPM compared to those maintained at rest (P = 0.14). The ACL uses diffusion as a primary nutrient pathway. CPM does not increase nutrient uptake by the ACL in this avascular model, but CPM may facilitate transport of metabolites out of the joint. No regional differences in uptake within the ACL occurred in either group.

  19. Evaluation and comparison of clinical results of femoral fixation devices in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Deniz; Ozcan, Mert

    2016-03-01

    Several femoral fixation devices are available for hamstring tendon autograft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, but the best technique is debatable. We hypothesised that different suspensory femoral fixation techniques have no superiority over each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical results of different suspensory femoral fixation devices in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. This was a Level III, retrospective, comparative study. A total of 100 consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction in a single institution with a mean follow-up time of 40 months (12-67 months) were divided into three groups according to femoral fixation devices as 'Endobutton' (n=34), 'Transfix' (n=35) and 'Aperfix' (n=31). The length of painful period after surgery, time to return to work and sporting activities, final range of motion, anterior drawer and Lachman tests, knee instability symptoms, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation score, Short Form 36 (SF-36) score, Lysholm knee score and Tegner point of the patients were evaluated and compared between groups. There were no significant differences between the groups. All techniques led to significant recovery in knee instability tests and symptoms. In this study, the clinical results of different suspensory femoral fixation techniques were found to be similar. We believe that different femoral fixation techniques have no effect on clinical results provided that the technique is correctly applied. The surgeon must choose a technique appropriate to his or her experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Central somatosensory changes associated with improved dynamic balance in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Carol A; Rine, Rose M

    2006-10-01

    To examine the mechanisms underlying return to pre-injury function in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACL-D), we grouped 15 individuals (18-50 years of age) with ACL-D by functional status and strength (i.e. copers, non-copers and adapters) and compared measures of proprioception, somatosensory evoked potentials and neuromuscular responses to dynamic testing between groups. Seven subjects without ACL-D provided a comparative sample for dynamic balance testing (DBT). DBT consisted of bilateral EMG recordings of anterior tibialis, medial gastrocnemius, medial hamstrings and quadriceps during toes-down platform rotation. Relative latencies and relative amplitudes were calculated. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEPs) testing was based on identifying the presence or absence of the P27 potential. Proprioception was tested using threshold to detection of passive movement (TDPM). Those with the highest level of function, the copers, had a proprioceptive deficit, loss of P27 and altered postural synergies consisting of earlier and larger hamstring activation. Conversely, those with the lowest functional status, the non-copers, had strength and proprioception deficits, intact SEPs and inconsistent postural synergies. These results suggest that changes in central sensory representation may facilitate altered postural synergies that enable return to pre-injury functional status.

  1. Tibiofemoral cartilage contact biomechanics in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ali; Van de Velde, Samuel; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A dual fluoroscopic and MR imaging technique was used to investigate the cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint during in vivo weight-bearing flexion of the knee in eight patients 6 months following clinically successful reconstruction of an acute isolated ACL rupture. The location of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, size of the contact area, cartilage thickness at the contact area, and magnitude of the cartilage contact deformation of the ACL-reconstructed knees were compared with those previously measured in intact (contralateral) knees and ACL-deficient knees of the same subjects. Contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral cartilage after ACL reconstruction were similar to those measured in intact knees. However, at lower flexion, the abnormal posterior and lateral shift of cartilage contact location to smaller regions of thinner tibial cartilage that has been described in ACL-deficient knees persisted in ACL-reconstructed knees, resulting in an increase of the magnitude of cartilage contact deformation at those flexion angles. Reconstruction of the ACL restored some of the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint to normal. Clinically, recovering anterior knee stability might be insufficient to prevent post-operative cartilage degeneration due to lack of restoration of in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics.

  2. Can physical examination predict the intraarticular tear pattern of the anterior cruciate ligament?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Sang Hak; Park, Soo Yeon; Kang, Dong Geun; Chung, Kee Yun

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the correlation between physical examinations and the tear patterns of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). From January 2003 to May 2007, we reviewed 201 cases of ACL rupture, diagnosed by MRI. Two orthopaedic surgeons (a fellow and a senior surgeon) evaluated the instability of the knee under anaesthesia: physical examinations were the anterior draw test (AD), Lachman test (LT), and pivot shift test (PT). By describing the rupture pattern and the site of the anteromedial (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) during arthroscopic examination, we analysed the correlation between the physical examination under anaesthesia and arthroscopic findings. In terms of the arthroscopic findings, rupture of the PLB was seen in 83 cases (41.3 %), of the AMB in 24 cases (11.9 %), and of both bundles in 94 cases (46.8 %). The kappa values for the physical examinations between the examiners were 0.963 (AD), 0.92 (LT), and 0.865 (PT). AD and LT above grade 2 did not differ significantly according to the pattern of rupture, but a PT above grade 2 was significantly different in ruptured PLB versus complete rupture. A PT of more than grade 2 is a reliable physical examination for prediction of ruptured PLB or complete rupture.

  3. Intraligamentous ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate Ligament: MR findings with clinical and arthroscopic correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Do-Dai, D.D.; Youngberg, R.A.; Lanchbury, F.D.; Pitcher, J.D. Jr.; Garver, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance findings with clinical and arthroscopic correlation of intraligamentous cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are presented. Three cases of intraligamentous cysts of the ACL were identified out of 681 knee MRI examinations over a 2-year period. Arthroscopy and postoperative MRI were performed in all three patients, each of whom experienced knee pain with extreme flexion and extension. In all three cases the intraligamentous cyst was homogeneously hypointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging relative to the ACL. Two of the three ACL cysts required a 70{degrees} scope for adequate visualization and establishment of posteromedial and posterolateral portals for arthroscopic treatment. One cyst could not be visualized arthroscopically and probing of the ACL from the anterior portal resulted in drainage of the cyst. No patient had presence of ACL cyst on follow-up MRI or recurrence of symptoms at a mean of 24 months. Intraligamentous cyst of ACL is a rare cause of knee pain. It should be suspected in patients having chronic pain with extremes of motion. Magnetic resonance findings are diagnostic and help to guide arthroscopy. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Allogeneic versus autologous derived cell sources for use in engineered bone-ligament-bone grafts in sheep anterior cruciate ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Vasudevan D; Behbahani-Nejad, Nilofar; Horine, Storm V; Olsen, Tyler J; Smietana, Michael J; Wojtys, Edward M; Wellik, Deneen M; Arruda, Ellen M; Larkin, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    The use of autografts versus allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is controversial. The current popular options for ACL reconstruction are patellar tendon or hamstring autografts, yet advances in allograft technologies have made allogeneic grafts a favorable option for repair tissue. Despite this, the mismatched biomechanical properties and risk of osteoarthritis resulting from the current graft technologies have prompted the investigation of new tissue sources for ACL reconstruction. Previous work by our lab has demonstrated that tissue-engineered bone-ligament-bone (BLB) constructs generated from an allogeneic cell source develop structural and functional properties similar to those of native ACL and vascular and neural structures that exceed those of autologous patellar tendon grafts. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered ligament constructs fabricated from autologous versus allogeneic cell sources. Our preliminary results demonstrate that 6 months postimplantation, our tissue-engineered auto- and allogeneic BLB grafts show similar histological and mechanical outcomes indicating that the autologous grafts are a viable option for ACL reconstruction. These data indicate that our tissue-engineered autologous ligament graft could be used in clinical situations where immune rejection and disease transmission may preclude allograft use.

  5. Knee stability after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the middle third of the patellar ligament and quadrupled hamstring tendons grafts - A two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zoran, Zelić; Ivan, Vidakovic; Egon, Biuk; Dubravka, Biuk; Vjekoslav, Wertheimer; Vjekoslav, Kolarević

    2015-11-01

    Knee stability after surgical anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using quadrupled hamstring tendons graft (gracilis and semitendinosus) was compared with that using the middle third of the patellar ligament. All subjects participating in this study had ACL rupture diagnosed by clinical examination and MRI and underwent identical surgical procedure apart from the choice of graft. A total of 112 patients with either patellar ligament or quadrupled hamstring tendons graft were evaluated for 24 months following surgery. Patients were similar in terms of age, sex, activity level, knee instability level and rehabilitation programme. Clinical tests and a measuring instrument, the KT-1000 arthrometer, were used to evaluate knee stability after reconstruction. During the 24-month study there were no significant differences in clinical stability of the knee and the use of both grafts resulted in satisfactory knee stability. The difference between the groups according to the graft was noticed 6 months after reconstruction when the results obtained by a measuring instrument showed that knee stability was significantly higher with the patellar ligament graft (Fisher's exact test, p=0.022). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term effects of dextrose prolotherapy for anterior cruciate ligament laxity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, K Dean; Hassanein, Khatab M

    2003-01-01

    Use of dextrose prolotherapy. Prolotherapy is defined as injection that causes growth of normal cells or tissue. Determine the 1 and 3 year efficacy of dextrose injection prolotherapy on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) laxity. After year 1, determine patient tolerance of a stronger dextrose concentration (25% versus 10%). Prospective consecutive patient trial. Outpatient physical medicine clinic. Eighteen patients with 6 months or more of knee pain plus ACL knee laxity. This laxity was defined by a KT1000 anterior displacement difference (ADD) of 2 mm or more. Intraarticular injection of 6-9 cc of 10% dextrose at months 0, 2, 4, 6, and 10. Injection with 6 cc of 25% dextrose at 12 months. Then, depending on patient preference, injection of either 10% or 25% dextrose every 2-4 months (based on patient preference) through 36 months. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain at rest, pain on level surfaces, pain on stairs, and swelling. Goniometric flexion range of motion, and KT1000-measured ADD were also measured. All measurements were obtained at 0, 6, 12 and 36 months. Two patients did not reach 6 month data collection, 1 of whom was diagnosed with disseminated cancer. The second was wheelchair-bound and found long-distance travel to the clinic problematic. Sixteen subjects were available for data analysis. KT1000 ADD, measurement indicated that 6 knees measured as normal (not loose) after 6 months, 9 measured as normal after 1 year (6 injections), and 10 measured as normal at 3 years. At the 3 year follow-up, pain at rest, pain with walking, and pain with stair use had improved by 45%, 43%, and 35% respectively. Individual paired t tests indicated subjective swelling improved 63% (P = .017), flexion range of motion improved by 10.5 degrees (P = .002), and KT1000 ADD improved by 71% (P = .002). Eleven out of 16 patients preferred 10% dextrose injection. In patients with symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament laxity, intermittent dextrose injection resulted in

  7. Individualized anterior cruciate ligament surgery: a prospective study comparing anatomic single- and double-bundle reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohsen; van Eck, Carola F; Cretnik, Andrej; Dinevski, Dejan; Fu, Freddie H

    2012-08-01

    Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has become a commonly performed procedure. However, biomechanical studies have demonstrated that conventional single-bundle ACL reconstruction techniques are only successful in limiting anterior tibial translation but less effective for restoring rotatory laxity. This study aimed to compare the results of single- and double-bundle ACL reconstruction using an anatomic technique, individualized based on the patient's native ACL size. The authors hypothesized that there would be no difference between the results of anatomic single-bundle (ASB) and anatomic double-bundle (ADB) reconstruction when the surgical technique is individualized. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Depending on intraoperative measurements of the ACL insertion site size, patients were selected for either ASB (n = 32) or ADB (n = 69) ACL reconstruction. In all groups, hamstring tendons autograft was used with suspensory fixation on the femoral side and bioabsorbable interference screw fixation on the tibial side. The outcomes were evaluated by an independent blinded observer using the Lysholm score, subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form, KT-1000 arthrometer for anteroposterior stability, and pivot-shift test for rotational stability. The average follow-up was 30 months (range, 26-34 months). There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline demographics of the 2 groups. There was no significant difference between the ADB and ASB groups for Lysholm score (93.9 vs 93.5), subjective IKDC score (93.3 vs 93.1), anterior tibial translation (1.5- vs 1.6-mm side-to-side difference), and pivot shift (92% vs 90% with negative pivot-shift examination). Anatomic double-bundle reconstruction is not superior to anatomic single-bundle reconstruction when an individualized ACL reconstruction technique is used.

  8. Early anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can save meniscus without any complications

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Chang-Ik; Song, Eun-Kyoo; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Hun; Seon, Jong-Keun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early ACL reconstruction, before retuning to activity eliminates recurrent episodes of instability and thereby decreases chances of meniscal and cartilage injury. However, there are no clear and uniform guidelines regarding the timing of ACL reconstruction or clarity in the definition of early and delayed reconstruction to reduce the complications after reconstruction in the ACL injured knee. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome, stability, muscle power, and postural control after early and delayed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Patients who had ACL reconstruction with a quadruple hamstring tendon with a minimum 2-year followup were evaluated. Early (within 3 weeks) reconstruction group was 48 knees and delayed (more than 3 months) group was 43 knees. We compared the two groups with regard to Lysholm knee score, range of motion (ROM), Lachman test, Tegner activity scale, associated meniscal or chondral injuries, and anterior laxity. We also compared muscle strength with an isokinetic dynamometer and postural control with computed dynamic posturography at the final followup. Results: While 50% of early and 70% of delayed group had meniscal injuries (P = 0.06), of which were reparable in 42% of early group and 17% of delayed group (P = 0.04). However, there was no significant difference in cartilage injury (P = 0.14). At the final followup, no significant differences were found between two groups for Lysholm score (P = 0.28), Tegner activity scale (P = 0.27), and ROM. The stabilities regarding Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and anterior laxity also showed no significant differences between two groups. The mean extension and flexion muscles power, and postural control showed no significant inter-group differences (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Early ACL reconstruction had excellent clinical results and stability as good as delayed reconstruction without the problem of knee motion, muscle power

  9. Femoral intercondylar notch width size: a comparison between siblings with and without anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Keays, S L; Keays, R; Newcombe, P A

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in siblings are commonly observed in the clinic. One, possibly genetic, factor contributing to the pathogenesis of sibling injuries may be narrow intercondylar notches, which are well recognized as predisposing to ACL injury. This study aimed primarily to: (1) assess the incidence of ACL injuries in siblings within an existing study cohort, (2) compare intercondylar notch width size in injured compared to matched uninjured control siblings and (3) compare the number of injured versus control sibling pairs sharing a narrow notch. Twenty-four ACL-injured siblings from 10 families were matched for age, gender, family composition and sports activity, with 24 uninjured siblings from another 10 families. Intercondylar radiographs were taken to calculate anterior and posterior notch width indices (NWI). Notch size and the number of narrow notches in sibling pairs were compared between groups. Thirteen of 72 ACL-study participants had siblings with torn ACLs. Mean anterior NWI was 0.18 and 0.24 (p < 0.001), and mean posterior NWI was 0.26 and 0.3 (p = 0.006) for injured and uninjured siblings, respectively. Sixty percent of injured sibling pairs shared a narrow notch, while no uninjured sibling pairs did so (p = 0.003). This study showed that siblings (and often sibling pairs) with injuries do have significantly narrower notches than those without. This could partly explain the prevalence of ACL injuries in siblings. To reduce ACL-injury rates, we advise that siblings of ACL-injured athletes with narrow notches, be radiologically screened, and if necessary, cautioned and counselled regarding preventative training. Case-control study, Level III.

  10. Femoral tunnel placement in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: rationale of the two incision technique

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Raffaele; Moretti, Biagio; Kombot, Cyril; Moretti, Lorenzo; Mouhsine, Elyazid

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can be performed through one-incision or two-incision technique. The current one-incision endoscopic ACL single bundle reconstruction techniques attempt to perform an isometric repair placing the graft along the roof of the intercondylar notch, anterior and superior to the native ACL insertion. However the ACL isometry is a theoretical condition, and has not stood up to detailed testing and investigation. Moreover this type of reconstruction results in a vertically oriented non-anatomic graft, which is able to control anterior tibial translation but not the rotational component of the instability. Femoral tunnel obliquity has a great effect on rotational stability. To improve the obliquity of graft, an anatomical ACL reconstruction should be attempt. Anatomical insertion of ACL on the femur lies very low in the notch, spreading between 11 and 9–8 o'clock position and the center lies lower than at 11 o'clock position. Femoral aiming devices through the tibial tunnel aim at an isometric placement, and they do not aim at an anatomic position of the graft. Also, a placement of tunnel in a position of 11 o'clock is unable to restore rotational stability. The two-incision technique, with the possibility to position femoral tunnel independently by tibial tunnel, allows us to place femoral tunnel entrance in a position of 10 'clock that can most accurately reproduce the anatomic behaviour of the ACL and can potentially improve the response of the graft to rotatory loads. This positioning results in a more oblique graft placement, avoiding problem related to PCL impingement during knee flexion. Further studies are required to understand if this kind of reconstruction can ameliorate proprioception as well as clinical outcome at a long-term follow-up. PMID:17511888

  11. Promising short-term results following selective bundle reconstruction in partial anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Abat, Ferran; Gelber, Pablo Eduardo; Erquicia, Juan I; Pelfort, Xavier; Tey, Marc; Monllau, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-01

    The different functions of the two anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) bundles have increased interest in tears of only one of these two bundles. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of selective reconstruction of an injured bundle of isolated anteromedial bundle (AMB) or posterolateral bundle (PLB) tears. Consecutive series of 147 ACL reconstructions was prospectively analyzed. Patients with partial ACL tears who underwent selective bundle reconstructions were studied. Stability was assessed with the Lachman, anterior-drawer and pivot-shift tests and KT-1000. Functional assessment was performed with Lysholm and Tegner questionnaires. The preoperative MRI was analyzed to detect differences from arthroscopic findings. Twenty-eight patients (19%) were included. The minimum follow-up period was 30months. Eighteen had AMB and 10 PLB tears. Only 19% of their MRI's were categorized as partial ACL tears. The Lysholm score improved from 66.1/65.5 to 96.6/95.2 in the AMB/PLB groups, respectively (p<0.001). The same or no more than one level lower Tegner score was restored. The pivot-shift, Lachman and anterior-drawer tests were negative in all cases (p<0.001). Two reconstructed AMBs developed extension loss due to Cyclops lesions and were resolved surgically. The technique provided excellent functional scores with normalized stability and a return to previous level of activity with a low rate of minor complications at a minimum 2.5years' follow-up. Arthroscopic examination was the most reliable tool for properly diagnosing and treating a condition observed in almost one out of every five ACL reconstructed knee in this series. Therapeutic case series; level 4. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mid-Term Outcomes of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Far Anteromedial Portal Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yoon Sang; Choi, Sung Wook; Park, Ju Hyun; Yoon, Jae Sik; Shin, Jung Sub; Kim, Myung Ku

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid-term outcomes of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using two anteromedial (AM) portals by comparing with short-term follow-up results. Materials and Methods Fifty patients who were treated by ACL reconstruction using a two AM portal technique were evaluated retrospectively. The follow-up period was at least 5 years. The mean follow-up period was 68.5±13.9 months. The mid-term clinical outcomes were compared with short-term (≥12 months) results. For the assessment of knee stability, anterior tibial translation was evaluated using the Lachman test and the KT-2000. Rotational stability was evaluated using pivot shift test. For clinical assessment, the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used. Results The average anterior translation was 2.1±1.4 mm at the short-term follow-up and 2.8±1.8 mm at the mid-term follow-up. Stability and midterm clinical outcomes were not significantly improved compared to the short-term follow-up results. At the mid-term follow-up, anteroposterior (AP) instability assessed by the KT-2000 was slightly increased, but still acceptable. On the other clinical physical evaluation, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusions The short-term and mid-term outcomes of ACL reconstruction using the two AM portal technique were not significantly different except for AP stability although the value was less than 3 mm at both follow-ups. Therefore, this operative technique could be considered a satisfactory alternative for ACL reconstruction. PMID:28231644

  13. Osteoarthritis Prevalence Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luc, Brittney; Gribble, Phillip A.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prophylactic capability of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in decreasing the risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) when compared with ACL-deficient patients, as well as the effect of a concomitant meniscectomy. We also sought to examine the influence of study design, publication date, and graft type as well as the magnitude of change in physical activity from preinjury Tegner scores in both cohorts. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases from 1960 through 2012 with the search terms osteoarthritis, meniscectomy, anterior cruciate ligament, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and anterior cruciate ligament deficient. Study Selection: Articles that reported the prevalence of tibiofemoral or patellofemoral OA based on radiographic assessment were included. We calculated numbers needed to treat and relative risk reduction with associated 95% confidence intervals for 3 groups (1) patients with meniscal and ACL injury, (2) patients with isolated ACL injury, and (3) total patients (groups 1 and 2). Data Extraction: A total of 38 studies met the criteria. Of these, 27 assessed the presence of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis in patients treated with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Data Synthesis: Overall, ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) yielded a numbers needed to treat to harm of 16 with a relative risk increase of 16%. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction along with meniscectomy yielded a numbers needed to treat to benefit of 15 and relative risk reduction of 11%. Isolated ACL-R showed a numbers needed to treat to harm of 8 and relative risk increase of 43%. Activity levels were decreased in both ACL-R (d = −0.90; 95% confidence interval = 0.77, 1.13) and ACL-deficient (d = −1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.96, 1.29) patients after injury. Conclusions: The current literature does not provide substantial evidence to suggest that ACL-R is an adequate intervention to prevent knee osteoarthritis

  14. Anatomic and nonanatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an in vivo kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria; Signorelli, Cecilia; Lopomo, Nicola; Grassi, Alberto; Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Nitri, Marco; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2014-03-01

    There have been no direct in vivo biomechanical comparisons performed between an anatomic double-bundle (ADB) and a nonanatomic double-bundle (NADB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. There are differences in kinematic outcomes between ADB and NADB ACL reconstruction techniques. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-six consecutive patients (mean age, 30 years; range, 18-32 years; 23 men, 3 women; 17 right knees, 9 left knees) with an isolated ACL injury were included in the study. The first 13 consecutive patients underwent NADB reconstruction (combination of a single-bundle and an over-the-top reconstruction), and the following 13 consecutive patients were treated with an ADB approach (using 2 tibial tunnels and 2 femoral tunnels placed in the center of the native femoral and tibial insertion sites). Grafts were pretensioned at 80 N and secured with cortical fixation systems under manual maximum force tension. Standard clinical laxity and pivot-shift tests were quantified at time zero before and after ACL reconstruction by means of a surgical navigation system dedicated to kinematic assessment; displacement of the medial and lateral compartments during the tests was also analyzed. The ADB-reconstructed knees showed a larger preoperative-to-postoperative difference in anterior-posterior tibial plateau displacement of the medial and lateral compartments when compared with the NADB-reconstructed knees during the internal-external rotation test at 30° of flexion (P < .050). No other significant differences in laxity or pivot-shift values were noted. The mean surgical time for ADB reconstruction was significantly higher than that for NABD reconstruction (62 ± 13 and 43 ± 10 minutes, respectively; P < .0001). Results showed a greater anterior-posterior translation of both compartments during the rotational passive laxity test in the ADB reconstruction group or overconstraint caused by the NADB technique. The 2 analyzed double-bundle ACL reconstructions

  15. Hamstrings Stiffness and Landing Biomechanics Linked to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, J. Troy; Norcross, Marc F.; Cannon, Lindsey N.; Zinder, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Greater hamstrings stiffness is associated with less anterior tibial translation during controlled perturbations. However, it is unclear how hamstrings stiffness influences anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading mechanisms during dynamic tasks. Objective: To evaluate the influence of hamstrings stiffness on landing biomechanics related to ACL injury. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 36 healthy, physically active volunteers (18 men, 18 women; age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 73.1 ± 16.6 kg). Intervention(s): Hamstrings stiffness was quantified via the damped oscillatory technique. Three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were captured during a double-legged jump-landing task via a 3-dimensional motion-capture system interfaced with a force plate. Landing biomechanics were compared between groups displaying high and low hamstrings stiffness via independent-samples t tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hamstrings stiffness was normalized to body mass (N/m·kg−1). Peak knee-flexion and -valgus angles, vertical and posterior ground reaction forces, anterior tibial shear force, internal knee-extension and -varus moments, and knee-flexion angles at the instants of each peak kinetic variable were identified during the landing task. Forces were normalized to body weight, whereas moments were normalized to the product of weight and height. Results: Internal knee-varus moment was 3.6 times smaller in the high-stiffness group (t22 = 2.221, P = .02). A trend in the data also indicated that peak anterior tibial shear force was 1.1 times smaller in the high-stiffness group (t22 = 1.537, P = .07). The high-stiffness group also demonstrated greater knee flexion at the instants of peak anterior tibial shear force and internal knee-extension and -varus moments (t22 range = 1.729–2.224, P < .05). Conclusions: Greater hamstrings stiffness was associated with landing

  16. Variables Associated with Chondral and Meniscal Injuries in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cain, E Lyle; Fleisig, Glenn S; Ponce, Brent A; Boohaker, Hikel A; George, Martha P; McGwin, Gerald; Andrews, James R; Lemak, Lawrence J; Clancy, William G; Dugas, Jeffrey R

    2017-09-01

    This article aims to evaluate factors associated with chondral and meniscal lesions in primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. ACL reconstructions from 2001 to 2008 at a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between chondral and meniscal injuries and age, gender, tear chronicity, additional ligamentous injuries, sport type, and participation level. Of the 3,040 ACL reconstructions analyzed, 90.4% were primary reconstructions and 9.6% were revisions. Meniscal injuries were significantly lower in the revision group (44.0 vs. 51.9%; p = 0.01), while chondral injuries were significantly higher in the revision group (39.9 vs. 24.0%; p < 0.0001). Inspection of the small subgroup (n = 85) receiving both primary and revision ACL surgery at our center indicated that meniscal injuries at revision were evenly split between menisci with and without previous repairs, whereas the vast majority of Grade III and IV chondral lesions were new. More patients presented for surgery later in the revision group than in the primary group (56.5 vs. 35.3%; p < 0.0001). Male gender, primary reconstruction, and short interval (less than 2 weeks) between injury and surgery were associated with increased likelihood of meniscus tear. Age (greater than 22 years) and long interval (greater than 6 weeks) between injury to surgery and higher sport activity level were associated with chondral lesions. Revision ACL reconstructions are associated with a higher proportion of chondral lesions and a lower proportion of meniscal tears. Early primary and revision ACL construction is recommended to reduce the probability of chondral lesions. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Return to sports and functional results after revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by fascia lata autograft.

    PubMed

    Mirouse, G; Rousseau, R; Casabianca, L; Ettori, M A; Granger, B; Pascal-Moussellard, H; Khiami, F

    2016-11-01

    The surgical revision rate following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery is 3% at 2 years and 4% at 5 years. Revision ACL surgery raises the question of the type of graft to be used. The present study assessed return to sports and functional results after revision ACL reconstruction by fascia lata graft. The hypothesis was that fascia lata provides a reliable graft in revision ACL surgery. A single-center retrospective continuous study included 30 sports players with a mean age of 26.8±8 years undergoing surgical revision for iterative ACL tear between 2004 and 2013. Multi-ligament lesions were excluded. Type and level of sports activity were assessed preoperatively, after primary surgery and at end of follow-up. Clinical assessment used subjective IKDC, Lysholm and KOOS scores. At a mean 4.6±1.6 years' follow-up, all patients had resumed sport activity, but only 12 with the same sport at the same level. Median subjective IKDC score increased from 57 [54.3; 58.5] preoperatively to 82 [68.3; 90] at last follow-up, and Lysholm score from 46 [42.3; 51] to 90.5 [80.8; 96.8]; KOOS score at last follow-up was 94.7 [83; 100]. Functional results in revision ACL reconstruction by fascia lata graft were satisfactory, with similar return-to-sports rates as with other techniques. Fascia lata provides a reliable graft in revision ACL surgery. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The anterior cruciate ligament injury controversy: is “valgus collapse” a sex-specific mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, CE; Hewett, TE

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a devastating injury that puts an athlete at high risk of future osteoarthritis. Identification of risk factors and development of ACL prevention programmes likely decrease injury risk. Although studies indicate that sagittal plane biomechanical factors contribute to ACL loading mechanisms, it is unlikely that non-contact ACL injuries occur solely in a sagittal plane. Some authors attempt to ascribe the solely sagittal plane injury mechanism to both female and male ACL injuries and rebuff the concept that knee “valgus” is associated with isolated ACL injury. Prospective studies that utilise coupled biomechanical and epidemiological approaches demonstrated that frontal knee motions and torques are strong predictors of future non-contact ACL injury risk in female athletes. Video analysis studies also indicate a frontal plane “valgus collapse” mechanism of injury in women. As load sharing between knee ligaments is complex, frontal as well as sagittal and transverse plane loading mechanisms likely contribute to non-contact ACL injury. The purpose of this review is to summarise existing evidence regarding ACL injury mechanisms and to propose that sex-specific mechanisms of ACL injury may occur, with women sustaining injuries by a predominantly “valgus collapse” mechanism. Conclusion Prevention programmes and interventions that only target high-risk sagittal plane landing mechanics, especially in the female athlete, are likely to be less effective in ameliorating important frontal and transverse plane contributions to ACL injury mechanisms and could seriously hamper ACL injury prevention efforts. Programmes that target the reduction of high-risk valgus and sagittal plane movements will probably prove to be superior for ACL injury prevention. PMID:19372087

  19. Material costs of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons by two different techniques.

    PubMed

    Cournapeau, J; Klouche, S; Hardy, P

    2013-04-01

    In France, approximately 36,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgical procedures are performed every year. Technical progress, in particular arthroscopy, has made surgery more precise, but more expensive. In a context of healthcare cost containment, the increase in the cost of technology must be compared to the improved outcome for the patients. The main aim of this study was to determine all material costs related to ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons. This study also compared the material costs between the two arthroscopic techniques: standard or "all-inside". A retrospective study of material costs was performed in 2011. With the standard technique, the tibial tunnel was drilled from outside to inside, while with the all-inside technique two tunnels were drilled from inside to outside. All of the material used from the first swab to the final bandage was reported. It was classified into three categories: reusable arthroscopy material, disposable arthroscopic material, and disposable surgical supplies. The costs were those of our supplier in 2011 (Arthrex™) and based on Public Hospitals of Paris (AP-HP) public contract tariffs. Standard ligament reconstruction was less expensive than the all-inside technique: 791.59€ versus 931.06€ excluding taxes (hors taxes [HT]), respectively. The largest percentage of expenses was allocated to disposable material use (81 and 84%). Possible avenues of savings are limited: all the material used was necessary. To control costs, correct use and good maintenance of instruments are the most important elements. Level IV. Economic and decision analyses, retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Knee moments of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and control participants during normal and inclined walking

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Raghav K; Duffell, Lynsey D; Nathwani, Dinesh; McGregor, Alison H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prior injury to the knee, particularly anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, is known to predispose one to premature osteoarthritis (OA). The study sought to explore if there was a biomechanical rationale for this process by investigating changes in external knee moments between people with a history of ACL injury and uninjured participants during walking: (1) on different surface inclines and (2) at different speeds. In addition we assessed functional differences between the groups. Participants 12 participants who had undergone ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and 12 volunteers with no history of knee trauma or injury were recruited into this study. Peak knee flexion and adduction moments were assessed during flat (normal and slow speed), uphill and downhill walking using an inclined walkway with an embedded Kistler Force plate, and a ten-camera Vicon motion capture system. Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used to assess function. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in gait and KOOS outcomes. Results No significant difference was observed in the peak knee adduction moment between ACLR and control participants, however, in further analysis, MANOVA revealed that ACLR participants with an additional meniscal tear or collateral ligament damage (7 participants) had a significantly higher adduction moment (0.33±0.12 Nm/kg m) when compared with those with isolated ACLR (5 participants, 0.1±0.057 Nm/kg m) during gait at their normal speed (p<0.05). A similar (non-significant) trend was seen during slow, uphill and downhill gait. Conclusions Participants with an isolated ACLR had a reduced adductor moment rather an increased moment, thus questioning prior theories on OA development. In contrast, those participants who had sustained associated trauma to other key knee structures were observed to have an increased adduction moment. Additional injury concurrent with an ACL rupture may

  1. Whole-exome sequencing analysis in twin sibling males with an anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Caso, Enrique; Maestro, Antonio; Sabiers, Cristina C; Godino, Manuel; Caracuel, Zaira; Pons, Joana; Gonzalez, F Jesus; Bautista, Rocio; Claros, M Gonzalo; Caso-Onzain, Jaime; Viejo-Allende, Elena; Giannoudis, Peter V; Alvarez, Sara; Maietta, Paolo; Guerado, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Familial predisposition is among the major genetic risk factors for non-contact musculoskeletal tissue injuries. Personal genome sequence shows that different polymorphism profiles may account for the number and the degree of injuries and the recovery time. Genotyping studies allow investigation into genome factors with potential impact on pathogenesis of non-contact ligament injuries. We have studied a family with twin sibling males surgically diagnosed of an anterior cruciate ligament non-contact rupture and non-affected progenitors (father and mother) were subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis. WES analysis previously carried out on 16 individuals, without ACL injury medical records, were also included in this study for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small insertions and deletions detection (indels), variant filtering and to prioritize variants relative to the disease. WES analysis to identify SNVs and indels was performed using open web-based bioinformatics tools. A set of 11 new variants shared by family members can be associated to ACL non-contact injury, including SerpinA11, ARSI, NOCHT4, EPB41, FDFT1, POMC, KIF26A, OLFML2B, ATG7, FAH and WDR6. All of them, except ATG7 and WDR6, have shown a damaging predictive pattern by combinatorial standard predictive scores. In combination to the identified SNVs of EPB41 and SerpinA11 genes, ACTL7A gene showed a predicted deleterious variant reinforcing the idea these variants impact on of fibroblast-like cells deformability and ECM misbalance, Differential gene expression and RNA sequencing analysis will help to understand the combined participation of these protein coding genes in ACL non-contact injuries. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gold and Hydroxyapatite Nano-Composite Scaffolds for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: In Vitro Characterization.

    PubMed

    Smith, S E; White, R A; Grant, D A; Grant, S A

    2016-01-01

    Current anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft replacement materials often fail due to the lack of biological integration. While many newly developed extracellular matrix based scaffolds show good biocompatibility they often do not entice cellular remodeling and the rebuilding of a functional ligament. We have proposed the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAp) to acellular tissue to enhance cell attachment and proliferation while maintaining an improved degradation resistance and open microstructure. We are the first to investigate the double conjugation of AuNP and nano-HAp onto decellularized tissue to improve the tissue remodeling response. Decellularized porcine diaphragm was crosslinked with two types of nano-HAp and amine-functionalized AuNP with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethlaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) crosslinker. Scaffolds were characterized using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and fibroblast assays. Results demonstrated that scaffolds with nano-HAp have increased thermal stability at low levels of crosslinking. The open microstructure of the scaffold was not compromised allowing for cell migration while still providing increased degradation resistance. The addition of < 200 nm nano-HAp decreased cell viability compared to scaffolds without nanoparticles, but the addition of AuNP to scaffolds showed enhanced cell viability in the presence of < 200 nm nano-HAp. The addition of < 40 nm nano-HAp showed an increase in cell viability compared to scaffolds crosslinked without nanoparticles. It is concluded that attaching AuNP and < 40nm nano-HAp to extracellular matrices may improve overall properties.

  3. Association of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury with presence and thickness of a bony ridge on the anteromedial aspect of the femoral intercondylar notch.

    PubMed

    Everhart, Joshua S; Flanigan, David C; Simon, Robert A; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2010-08-01

    Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries are among the most common injuries in sports medicine, and identification of risk factors for noncontact injury is an area of active research. Evaluation of the femoral notch along the path of the anterior cruciate ligament may elucidate anatomical risk factors previously unseen on conventional images. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-seven patients with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries were matched to healthy individuals for height, weight, age, and sex in this case-control study. Sagittal magnetic resonance images of the contralateral knee of the injured patients and randomized knees of the healthy controls were digitally transformed for viewing along the plane of the anterior cruciate ligament and evaluated for abnormalities of femoral notch outlet shape. Femoral notch shape was also evaluated by computer-generated surface models of the knee. A bone ridge was observed on the medial side of the anterior notch outlet, and increasing ridge thickness was strongly associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury (3.87 +/- 2.17 mm in injured and 2.16 +/-1.80 mm in controls; P = .0014). Anterior and posterior femoral notch outlet stenosis were both significantly associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury (P = .0008 and .02, respectively), although anterior outlet stenosis became nonsignificant when stratified by the presence of an anteromedial bone ridge. Finally, images directed through the femoral notch with the knee at 45 degrees of flexion provided an unobstructed view for ridge detection that may be utilized in plain radiography. The presence and thickness of an anteromedial bone ridge in the femoral notch has been identified as a potential risk factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. A biomechanical injury model involving the femoral notch ridge in anterior cruciate ligament tears is proposed in which the anterior cruciate ligament may be

  4. Current Concepts for Injury Prevention in Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Ligament reconstruction is the current standard of care for active patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Although the majority of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries successfully restore the mechanical stability of the injured knee, postsurgical outcomes remain widely varied. Less than half of athletes who undergo ACLR return to sport within the first year after surgery, and it is estimated that approximately 1 in 4 to 1 in 5 young, active athletes who undergo ACLR will go on to a second knee injury. The outcomes after a second knee injury and surgery are significantly less favorable than outcomes after primary injuries. As advances in graft reconstruction and fixation techniques have improved to consistently restore passive joint stability to the preinjury level, successful return to sport after ACLR appears to be predicated on numerous postsurgical factors. Importantly, a secondary ACL injury is most strongly related to modifiable postsurgical risk factors. Biomechanical abnormalities and movement asymmetries, which are more prevalent in this cohort than previously hypothesized, can persist despite high levels of functional performance, and also represent biomechanical and neuromuscular control deficits and imbalances that are strongly associated with secondary injury incidence. Decreased neuromuscular control and high-risk movement biomechanics, which appear to be heavily influenced by abnormal trunk and lower extremity movement patterns, not only predict first knee injury risk but also reinjury risk. These seminal findings indicate that abnormal movement biomechanics and neuromuscular control profiles are likely both residual to, and exacerbated by, the initial injury. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) strategies should be used to develop effective, efficacious interventions targeted to these impairments to optimize the safe return to high-risk activity. In this Current Concepts article, the authors present the latest evidence related to risk

  5. [A prospective study on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft versus gamma irradiated allograft].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaoqi; Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Yan; Sun, Kang; Xia, Changsuo; Yu, Tengbo; Zhang, Cailong

    2010-03-01

    To analyze the stability and clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with gamma irradiated patellar tendon allograft compared with autograft. From January 2004 to October 2007, 69 patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were prospectively randomized consecutively into two groups: group A (autograft, n=36) and group B (gamma irradiated allograft, n=33). In group A, there were 30 males and 6 females with an average age of 30.1 years, including 30 cases of simple ACL rupture and 6 cases of ACL rupture with medial accessory ligament injury; ACL rupture was caused by sports in 28 cases, by traffic accident in 5 cases, and by others in 3 cases; and the time from injury to operation was 1.4 months on average. In group B, there were 26 males and 7 females with an average age of 32.5 years, including 27 cases of simple ACL rupture and 6 cases of ACL rupture with medial accessory ligament injury; ACL rupture was caused by sports in 27 cases, by traffic accident in 4 cases, and by others in 2 cases; and the time from injury to operation was 1.5 months on average. There were no significant differences in general data between two groups (P > 0.05). The same arthroscopic technique was used in all ACL reconstructions done by the same surgeon. The clinical outcome was evaluated and compared by general conditions, pivot shift test, Lachman test, KT-2000 arthrometer testing, Daniel's one-leg hop test, International Knee Documental Committee (IKDC) scoring, Lysholm knee scoring scale, and Tegner activity score. All patients were followed up for 39.5 months (group A) and 37.6 months (group B). In group A, patella fracture occurred in 1 case and anterior knee pain in 2 cases postoperatively. No complication occurred in group B. The hospitalization times in groups A and B were (15.6 +/- 2.4) days and (15.5 +/- 1.5) days, respectively, showing no significant difference (P > 0.05). The operation time of group A was longer than that of

  6. Outcome of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using crosspin and aperture fixation

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Goyal, Ankit; Bahl, Vibhu; Modi, Prashant; Chaudhary, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Background: Double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (DBACL) reconstruction is said to reproduce the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy better than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament, whether it leads to better functional results is debatable. Different fixation methods have been used for DBACL reconstruction, the most common being aperture fixation on tibial side and cortical suspensory fixation on the femoral side. We present the results of DBACL reconstruction technique, wherein on the femoral side anteromedial (AM) bundle is fixed with a crosspin and aperture fixation was done for the posterolateral (PL) bundle. Materials and Methods: Out of 157 isolated ACL injury patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, 100 were included in the prospective study. Arthroscopic DBACL reconstruction was done using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. AM bundle was fixed using Transfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the femoral side and bio interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the tibial side. PL bundle was fixed on femoral as well as on tibial side with a biointerference screw. Patients were evaluated using KT-1000 arthrometer, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score and isokinetic muscle strength testing. Methods: Out of 157 isolated ACL injury patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, 100 were included in the prospective study. Arthroscopic DBACL reconstruction was done using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. AM bundle was fixed using Transfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the femoral side and bio interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the tibial side. PL bundle was fixed on femoral as well as on tibial side with a biointerference screw. Patients were evaluated using KT-1000 arthrometer, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score and isokinetic muscle strength testing. Results: The KT-1000 results were evaluated using paired t test with the P value set at 0.001. At the end of 1

  7. In vivo structural and cellular remodeling of engineered bone-ligament-bone constructs used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Florida, Shelby E; VanDusen, Keith W; Mahalingam, Vasudevan D; Schlientz, Aleesa J; Wojtys, Edward M; Wellik, Deneen M; Larkin, Lisa M

    2016-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures rank among the most prevalent and costly sports-related injuries. Current tendon grafts used for ACL reconstruction are limited by suboptimal biomechanical properties. We have addressed these issues by engineering multiphasic bone-ligament-bone (BLB) constructs that develop structural and mechanical properties similar to native ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute remodeling process that occurs as the BLB grafts advance toward the adult ligament phenotype in vivo. Thus, we implanted BLB constructs fabricated from male cells into female host sheep and allowed 3, 7, 14, or 28 days (n = 4 at each time point) for recovery. To address whether or not graft-derived cells were even necessary, a subset of BLB constructs (n = 3) were acellularized, implanted, and allowed 28 days for recovery. At each recovery time point, the following histological analyses were performed: picrosirius red staining to assess collagen alignment and immunohistochemistry to assess both graft development and host immune response. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, performed on every explanted BLB, was used to detect the presence of graft-derived male cells remaining in the constructs and/or migration into surrounding host tissue. The analysis of the PCR and histology samples revealed a rapid migration of host-derived macrophages and neutrophils into the graft at 3 days, followed by increased collagen density and alignment, vascularization, innervation, and near complete repopulation of the graft with host cells within 28 days. This study provides a greater understanding of the processes of ligament regeneration in our BLB constructs as they remodel toward the adult ligament phenotype.

  8. Prospectively Identified Deficits in Sagittal Plane Hip-Ankle Coordination in Female Athletes who Sustain a Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Bonnette, Scott; Riley, Michael A.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Shockley, Kevin; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Athletes who return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are at increased risk of future ACL injury. Altered coordination of lower extremity motion may increase this risk. The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine if altered lower extremity coordination patterns exist in athletes who go on to sustain a 2nd anterior cruciate ligament injury. Methods Sixty-one female athletes who were medically cleared to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included. Hip-ankle coordination was assessed prior to return to sport with a dynamic postural coordination task. Within 12 months, 14 patients sustained a 2nd ACL injury. Fourteen matched subjects were selected for comparative analysis. Cross-recurrence quantification analysis characterized hip-ankle coordination patterns. A group × target speed (slow vs. fast) × leg (involved vs. uninvolved) analysis of variance was used to identify coordination differences. Findings A main effect of group (p = 0.02) indicated that the single injury group exhibited more stable hip-ankle coordination [166.2 (18.9)] compared to the 2nd injury group [108.4 (10.1)]. A leg × group interaction was also observed (p = .04). The affected leg of the single injury group exhibited more stable coordination [M = 187.1 (23.3)] compared to the affected leg of the 2nd injury group [M = 110.13 (9.8)], p = 0.03. Interpretation Hip-ankle coordination was altered in female athletes who sustained a 2nd anterior cruciate ligament injury after return to sport. Failure to coordinate lower extremity movement in the absence of normal knee proprioception may place the knee at high-risk. PMID:26416200

  9. Prospectively identified deficits in sagittal plane hip-ankle coordination in female athletes who sustain a second anterior cruciate ligament injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and return to sport.

    PubMed

    Paterno, Mark V; Kiefer, Adam W; Bonnette, Scott; Riley, Michael A; Schmitt, Laura C; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Shockley, Kevin; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-12-01

    Athletes who return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are at increased risk of future ACL injury. Altered coordination of lower extremity motion may increase this risk. The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine if altered lower extremity coordination patterns exist in athletes who go on to sustain a 2nd anterior cruciate ligament injury. Sixty-one female athletes who were cleared to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included. Hip-ankle coordination was assessed prior to return to sport with a dynamic postural coordination task. Within 12 months, 14 patients sustained a 2nd ACL injury. Fourteen matched subjects were selected for comparative analysis. Cross-recurrence quantification analysis characterized hip-ankle coordination patterns. A group × target speed (slow vs. fast) × leg (involved vs. uninvolved) analysis of variance was used to identify differences. A main effect of group (P = 0.02) indicated that the single injury group exhibited more stable hip-ankle coordination [166.2 (18.9)] compared to the 2nd injury group [108.4 (10.1)]. A leg × group interaction was also observed (P = .04). The affected leg of the single injury group exhibited more stable coordination [M = 187.1 (23.3)] compared to the affected leg of the 2nd injury group [M = 110.13 (9.8)], P = 0.03. Hip-ankle coordination was altered in female athletes who sustained a 2nd anterior cruciate ligament injury after return to sport. Failure to coordinate lower extremity movement in the absence of normal knee proprioception may place the knee at risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of varus stress radiographs for anterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner knee injuries: A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Lucas S; Waltz, Robert A; Carney, Joseph R; Dewing, Christopher B; Lynch, Joseph R; Asher, Dean B; Schuett, Dustin J; LeClere, Lance E

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency on the radiographic varus stress test, and to provide reference data for the increase in lateral compartment opening under varus stress for a combined ACL and PLC injury. Ten cadaveric lower extremities were fixed to a jig in 20° of knee flexion. Twelve Newton-meter (Nm) and clinician-applied varus loads were tested, first with intact knee ligaments, followed by sequential sectioning of the ACL, fibular collateral ligament (FCL), popliteus tendon and the popliteofibular ligament (PFL). Lateral compartment opening was measured after each sequential sectioning. Maximum increase in lateral compartment opening for an isolated ACL deficient knee was 1.06mm with mean increase of 0.52mm (p=0.021) for the clinician-applied load. Mean increase in lateral compartment opening in an ACL and FCL deficient knee compared to the intact knee was 1.48mm (p<0.005) and 1.99mm (p<0.005) for the 12-Nm and clinician-applied loads, respectively, increasing to 1.94mm (p<0.005) and 2.68mm (p<0.005) with sectioning of the ACL and all PLC structures. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency contributes to lateral compartment opening on varus stress radiographs though not sufficiently to confound previously established standards for lateral ligament knee injuries. We did not demonstrate the same magnitude of lateral compartment opening with sectioning of the PLC structures as previously reported, questioning the reproducibility of varus stress radiographic testing among institutions. Clinicians are cautioned against making surgical decisions based solely on current standards for radiographic stress examinations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Rolled knitted scaffolds based on PLA-pluronic copolymers for anterior cruciate ligament reinforcement: A step by step conception.

    PubMed

    Pinese, Coline; Leroy, Adrien; Nottelet, Benjamin; Gagnieu, Christian; Coudane, Jean; Garric, Xavier

    2016-01-05

    The aim of this study was to prepare a new knitted scaffold from PLA-Pluronic block copolymers for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The impact of sterilization methods (beta-ray and gamma-ray sterilization) on copolymers was first evaluated in order to take into account the possible damages due to the sterilization process. Beta-ray radiation did not significantly change mechanical properties in contrast to gamma-ray sterilization. It was shown that ACL cells proliferate onto these copolymers, demonstrating their cytocompatibility. Thirdly, in order to study the influence of shaping on mechanical properties, several shapes were created with copolymers yarns: braids, ropes and linear or rolled knitted scaffolds. The rolled knitted scaffold presented interesting mechanical characteristics, similar to native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with a 67 MPa Young's Modulus and a stress at failure of 22.5 MPa. These findings suggest that this three dimensional rolled knitted scaffold meet the mechanical properties of ligament tissues and could be suitable as a scaffold for ligament reconstruction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  12. Tibial tunnel bone grafting: a new technique for dealing with graft-tunnel mismatch in endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fowler, B L; DiStefano, V J

    1998-03-01

    A problem that is frequently encountered during endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft is that the graft is often too long and protrudes from the tibial tunnel. If less than 20 mm of the bone plug remains in the tibial tunnel, interference screw fixation cannot safely be used, and an alternate form of fixation may have to be employed. A simple technique has been developed to deal with this problem. The technique involves bone-grafting the tibial tunnel with a cancellous core of bone that is removed while creating the tibial tunnel. This not only makes it possible to safely use interference screw fixation in all cases, but it also makes it possible to place the point of graft fixation very near the anatomic anterior cruciate ligament insertion site.

  13. Spontaneous locking of the knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as a result of a broken tibial fixation device.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Andrew J; James, Stuart H; Fairclough, John A

    2008-10-01

    The Intrafix device (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) is one of a number of recently developed products whose aim is to improve fixation of quadrupled hamstring grafts when used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We present a case of failure and intra-articular migration of the sleeve of an Intrafix device causing locking of the knee 10 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We were unable to identify the cause of the failure or migration of the device. Rehabilitation had been progressing normally and without incident. The broken fragments were removed arthroscopically, and the reconstruction was found to be intact and healing well. Presumably, the device retained enough mechanical function to allow healing to progress, despite failure of the sleeve. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of such an event occurring with the new generation of hamstring graft fixation devices.

  14. In Vivo Evidence for Tibial Plateau Slope as a Risk Factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wordeman, Samuel C.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In vivo studies reporting tibial plateau slope as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been published with greatly increasing frequency. Purpose To examine and summarize the in vivo evidence comparing tibial slope in ACL-injured and uninjured populations. Study Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We reviewed publications in Scopus, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and PubMed to identify all studies reporting a measure of tibial plateau slope between ACL-injured groups and controls. A meta-analysis was performed including calculation of effect size and 95% confidence interval as well as 95% confidence intervals for the mean values of the measurement in each study. Results Fourteen studies met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five of 6 radiographic studies reporting medial tibial plateau slope (MTPS) demonstrated significant differences between controls and ACL-injured groups, while only 1 of 7 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reported significant differences between groups. Mean MTPS measurements and standard deviations reported for controls ranged from 2.9° ± 2.8° anterior to 9.5° ± 3° posterior. For ACL-injured patients, MTPS ranged from 1.8° ± 3.5° anterior to 12.1° ± 3.3° posterior. Lateral tibial plateau slope (LTPS) was reported to be significantly greater in ACL-injured groups in all 5 MRI-based studies reporting group comparisons. Mean values for LTPS in controls ranged from 0.3° ± 3.6° anterior slope to 9° ± 4° posterior slope. In ACL-injured groups, mean reported LTPS values ranged from 1.8° ± 3.2° to 11.5° ± 3.54° posterior slope. Conclusion Despite high measures of reliability for the various methods reported in current studies, there is vast disagreement regarding the actual values of the slope that would be considered “at risk.” Reported tibial slope values for control groups vary greatly between studies. In many cases, the study-to-study differences in “normal” tibial

  15. Segmental Subtotal Corpectomy and Reconstruction With Titanium Cage and Anterior Plate for Multilevel Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Hu, Naiwu; Chen, Limin; Wu, Yin; Wang, Yang; Liu, Libing; Zhao, Chengbin

    2016-11-01

    This retrospective study assessed the outcomes of segmental subtotal corpectomy with titanium cage reconstruction and anterior plate fixation for multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The study included 34 patients with multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament who underwent segmental subtotal corpectomy with titanium cage reconstruction and anterior plate fixation from June 2005 to May 2011. Clinical and radiologic data were obtained. Neurologic function was evaluated by Japanese Orthopedic Association scores before and after surgery. No death, paralysis, or other surgically associated injuries occurred. After surgery, the bone graft fusion was firm, with no cases of lack of postoperative bone fusion, broken or loose titanium plate and screws, dislodged titanium cage, or injury to the vertebral artery, nerve root, or spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 2 cases. Japanese Orthopedic Association scores improved from 6.74±1.82 preoperatively to 11.33±3.5 postoperatively (P<.05). Neurologic outcomes were excellent or good in 84.21% of patients at follow-up of 1 to 6 years. No postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred. Reasonable and skilled operation of the pneumatic drill is the key to successful surgery. Anterior corpectomy with titanium cage reconstruction and plate fixation and drilling applications can directly remove the hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and relieve spinal cord compression. This technique retained the integrity of the vertebrae, increasing the possibility of bone graft healing. Segmental subtotal corpectomy with titanium cage reconstruction and anterior plate fixation can be used for the treatment of multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1140-e1146.].

  16. Proximal Tibia Fracture After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Drakos, Mark C.; Lorich, Dean G.; Fealy, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The optimal operative management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury continues to be debated. Many complications can occur, but fracture is often not routinely discussed. We present a complex intra-articular tibia fracture in a patient who had an autologous, ipsilateral bone-patellar-bone ACL reconstruction. While still advocating early, aggressive physical therapy, this case reminds us of the inherent susceptibility to injury in the immediate post-operative period. PMID:18751858

  17. Multi-fasciculated anterior talo-fibular ligament: reassessment of normal findings.

    PubMed

    Delfaut, E M; Demondion, X; Boutry, N; Cotten, H; Mestdagh, H; Cotten, A

    2003-08-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) provide an accurate description of the anterior talo-fibular ligament (ATFL) multifasciculated feature by means of cadaver study, and (b) to further delineate contour and signal variations on MR images related to this feature in a group of asymptomatic subjects. After MR imaging, three cadaveric feet were frozen and cut in the coronal plane. The ATFL were harvested and sent to pathology. Another cadaveric foot was dissected. The MR imaging was performed in 3 healthy volunteers and 19 patients without pathology of the ATFL. For both cadaveric feet and subjects, MR imaging protocol consisted of axial and coronal proton-density (PD) and T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences (TR/TE: 3500 ms/17-119 ms). On MR images, ATFL signal and fascicle numbers were assessed, respectively, in the axial and coronal planes. Gross anatomy and pathology confirmed the ATFL bifasciculated aspect. On cadaveric coronal MR images, 3 of 4 ATFLs were bifasciculated and one of four was striated. On patients' coronal MR images, 2 of 22 of the ATFL were monofasciculated, 12 of 22 bifasciculated, and 8 of 22 striated. On axial MR images, 16 of 22 of the ATFL demonstrated a low signal intensity and 8 of 22 an intraligamentous subtle increased signal intensity. Two of 22 of the ATFL had contour irregularities. Isolated anterior talo-fibular intraligamentous signal abnormalities or contour irregularities on axial PD and T2-weighted MR images with an otherwise normal ATFL aspect on coronal MR images and no other MRI criteria for ankle sprain may reflect normal anatomy.

  18. MR T1ρ and T2 of Meniscus after Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Amy; Pedoia, Valentina; Su, Favian; Abramson, Elijah; Kretzschmar, Martin; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Jin, Chengshi; Ma, C. Benjamin; Li, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate differences in meniscal T1ρ and T2 quantification in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and to determine correlations of these differences with MR morphological grading and patient-reported outcomes. Design Bilateral knees of 52 patients with acute ACL injury and 20 healthy controls were scanned using 3T MRI T1ρ and T2 mapping in this prospective study. Quantitative analysis of the meniscus was performed in anterior and posterior horns of the lateral and medial menisci. Morphological meniscal damage was assessed using modified whole-organ MRI scores (WORMS). Measurements were compared between injured, uninjured contralateral, and control knees using a mixed-effects regression model. Correlations between meniscal T1ρ/T2, WORMS and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) were examined using partial correlation analysis. Results Mean meniscal T1ρ and T2 values were significantly higher in ACL-injured knees compared to control and contralateral knees. Menisci of ACL-injured knees without tears, including those limited to modified meniscal WORMS grade 0, also had significantly higher T1ρ and T2 values compared to menisci of uninjured knees. Within ACL-injured knees, T1ρ and T2 values showed significant positive associations with meniscal WORMS and significant negative associations with KOOS. Conclusion Acute ACL injuries are associated with significantly increased meniscal T1ρ and T2 values in both patients with and without meniscal lesions or tears, suggesting quantitative MRI provides more sensitive measures of meniscal differences compared to traditional morphological MRI sequences. Correlation between meniscal T1ρ/T2 and KOOS suggest that quantitative MRI is reflective of the extent of patients’ clinical symptoms. PMID:26620091

  19. Femoral tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using RigidFix compared with extracortical fixation.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Osmar Valadao; de Freitas Spinelli, Leandro; Leite, Luiz Henrique Cunha; Buzzeto, Bruce Quatrin; Saggin, Paulo Renato Fernades; Kuhn, André

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare femoral tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery using hamstring autograft tendons fixed by bioabsorbable femoral trans-tunnel pins with that in patients in which the graft was fixed with extracortical fixation. Forty-three patients were randomly selected from our database and included in the study. Femoral tunnel diameter was measured by computed tomography in 20 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction via anteromedial portal technique using autologous quadruple hamstrings, fixed with two bioabsorbable trans-tunnel pins, RigidFix, on the femoral side and compared with 23 patients in whom extracortical fixation, EndoButton CL, was used. The diameter of the femoral tunnel was measured at a distance of 5 mm from the tunnel entrance and at the largest diameter along the tunnel axis. Data were compared with the diameter of the drill used during surgery. Clinical evaluation was performed using the Lysholm score, IKDC subjective score and anterior knee laxity measurements. Femoral tunnel enlargement 5 mm from the entrance and at the largest diameter was greater in the RigidFix group than the EndoButton group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age, gender, post-operative Lysholm score, IKDC subjective score or knee laxity measurements. The present study showed greater enlargement of the femoral bone tunnel when a bioabsorbable trans-tunnel pin system was used with the medial portal technique when compared to extracortical fixation. These findings confirm that femoral tunnel widening should be considered when RigidFix was used in ACL reconstruction by anteromedial portal technique. III.

  20. Revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with ipsi- or contralateral hamstring tendon grafts.

    PubMed

    Legnani, Claudio; Peretti, Giuseppe; Borgo, Enrico; Zini, Stefania; Ventura, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing number of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions, the need for revision ACL surgery has risen over the past few years. The purpose of the present study is to retrospectively compare the clinical outcome of ipsilateral versus contralateral hamstring tendon autografts for ACL revision surgery, specifically with regard to patient satisfaction, post-operative functional outcomes, and return to sports. Between 2004 and 2011, 64 patients underwent ACL revision surgery. Forty-five were successfully recontacted and retrospectively reviewed at an average follow-up of 6.3 years. Twenty-two subjects underwent revision ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral autogenous hamstring tendon grafts; in 23 subjects contralateral hamstring were used for reconstruction. Clinical, arthrometric, and functional evaluations were performed. The Tegner activity level, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form were used. Objective evaluation included range of motion, Lachman test, pivot shift test and KT-1000 instrumented laxity testing. No major complications were reported. Follow-up examination showed that there were no significant differences in the IKDC and KOOS scores between the groups. No differences in anterior tibial translation as measured with KT-1000 arthrometer were reported between the groups, although there was a trend for more of the patients undergoing ipsilateral DGST reconstruction to have a glide on the pivot shift test. The percentage of patients returning to pre-injury level was high in both groups. The use of contralateral hamstring tendon autografts for ACL revision surgery produced similar subjective and objective outcomes at 6-years follow-up compared to revision with ipsilateral hamstring tendon autografts. Patients undergoing revision surgery with contralateral autografts experienced a quicker return to sports compared to patients who underwent

  1. Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries by Major League Soccer Team Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Joseph; Harris, Joshua D.; Kolstad, Kaare; McCulloch, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The treatment and rehabilitation procedures of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in elite soccer players are controversial. Points of debate include surgical timing, technique, graft choice, rehabilitation, and return-to-sport criteria and timing. Purpose: To identify practice preferences among current Major League Soccer (MLS) team orthopaedic surgeons for ACL injuries. Study Design: Cross-se