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Sample records for anterior hepatic transection

  1. Transecting versus avoiding incision of the anterior placenta previa during cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Verspyck, Eric; Douysset, Xavier; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stephane; Marpeau, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    To compare maternal outcomes after transection and after avoiding incision of the anterior placenta previa during cesarean delivery. In a retrospective study, records were reviewed for women who had anterior placenta previa and delivered by cesarean after 24 weeks of pregnancy at a tertiary center in Rouen, France. During period A (January 2000 to December 2006), the protocol was to systematically transect the placenta when it was unavoidable. During period B (January 2007 to December 2010), the technique was to avoid incision by circumventing the placenta and passing a hand around its margin. Logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors associated with maternal transfusion of packed red blood cells. Eighty-four women were included (period A: n=43; period B: n=41). During period B, there was a reduction in frequency of intraoperative hemorrhage (>1000 mL) (P=0.02), intraoperative hemoglobin loss (P=0.005), and frequency of blood transfusion (P=0.02) as compared with period A. In multivariable analysis, period B was associated with a reduced risk of maternal transfusion (odds ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.82; P=0.02). Avoiding incision of the anterior placenta previa was found to reduce frequency of maternal blood transfusion during or after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Open hepatic parenchymal transection using ultrasonic dissection and bipolar coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Lesurtel, Mickael

    2008-01-01

    Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection due to the risk of massive blood loss which is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced long-term survival after resection of malignancies. Among the devices used for open parenchyma transection, ultrasonic dissection with bipolar cautery forceps is one of the most widely used technique worldwide. We identified four retrospective comparative studies and three randomized controlled trials dealing with the efficacy of ultrasonic dissector (UD) compared with other techniques including the historical clamp crushing technique. UD is associated with similar blood loss and slower resection time compared with water-jet or clamp crushing technique. However, it seems to be more precise in dissecting vessels. Its use does not impact on morbidity and hospital stay compared with other techniques. From an economic point of view, UD is the most expensive technique and may be a disadvantage for low centre volume. UD with bipolar cautery is one of the safest and the most efficient device for liver transection, even if its superiority over the clamp crushing technique has not been well established. It is considered as a standard technique for liver transection. PMID:18773097

  3. Transection of anterior mitral basal stay chords alters left ventricular outflow dynamics and wall shear stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fangli; Yeo, Joon Hock; Chong, Chuh Khiun; Chua, Yeow Leng; Lim, Khee Hiang; Ooi, Ean Tat; Goetz, Wolfgang A

    2008-01-01

    Anterior mitral basal stay chords are relocated to correct prolapse of the anterior mitral leaflet (AML); it has also been suggested that their transection might be used to treat functional ischemic mitral regurgitation. The study aim was to clarify the effect of stay chord transection (SCT) on the hemodynamic aspects of left ventricular outflow. Two three-dimensional left ventricular models including the left ventricular outflow tract and saddle-shaped mitral valve before and after SCT were constructed. After SCT, the AML was specified to be more concave and the aortomitral angle to be narrower than before SCT. Time-dependent turbulent flow in a flow range of 10 to 28 l/min during rapid ejection was simulated using the commercial software, FLUENT. Left ventricular outflow before SCT was streamlined along the AML throughout rapid ejection. After SCT, this flow was redirected in the vicinity of the AML, thereby creating a zone of persistent low-momentum recirculation associated with additional energy loss. Consequently, the axial forward flow delivered into the aorta after SCT was diminished. The high wall shear stress, which was concentrated at the fibrous trigones before SCT, was redistributed along the intertrigonal distance after SCT. The stay chords, which maintain the natural profile of the AML, are essential to streamline left ventricular outflow, facilitate flow delivery into the aorta, minimize dissipation of potential energy, and to create an optimum wall shear stress pattern that conforms to the fibrous trigones. Transection of the stay chords compromises local hemodynamics, resulting in greater energy loss and unfavorable wall shear stress distribution. The study results emphasize the importance of preserving stay chord function in mitral valve surgeries.

  4. The intentional oblique transection double stapling technique in anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Masafumi; Ikeshima, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Morita, Keisuke; Uchihara, Tomoyuki; Itouyama, Rumi; Yoshimatsu, Shinichi; Shimada, Shinya; Baba, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    The double stapling technique (DST) is an intestinal reconstruction technique that has been widely adopted in anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer. However, anastomotic leakage (AL) after the operation remains a major concern for colorectal surgeons. The sharp-angled corner of the remnant rectum that is often created by the ordinary DST can be a risk factor for AL. We have developed a new method of performing intentional oblique transection DST (IOT-DST). Using this technique, the anal side of the rectum is intentionally obliquely transected with linear staplers, and the area of the sharp-angled edge is totally punched out with a circular stapler. Between September 2015 and March 2016, we used the IOT-DST technique in the treatment of 15 consecutive rectal cancer patients and experienced no anastomosis-related complications, including leakage and stenosis. IOT-DST is easy to use and less stressful to perform than other techniques. IOT-DST has the potential to become the standard technique for AR in rectal cancer surgery.

  5. Liver transection using indocyanine green fluorescence imaging and hepatic vein clamping.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y; Nomura, Y; Nagai, M; Koike, D; Sakuraoka, Y; Ishida, T; Ishizawa, T; Kokudo, N; Tanaka, N

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has facilitated liver resection with excision of hepatic veins by estimating the liver volume of portal and hepatic venous territories. However, 3D imaging cannot be used for real-time navigation to determine the liver transection line. This study assessed the value of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging with hepatic vein clamping for navigation during liver transection. Consecutive patients who underwent liver resection with excision of major hepatic veins between 2012 and 2013 were evaluated using ICG fluorescence imaging after clamping veins and injecting ICG. Regional fluorescence intensity (FI) values of non-veno-occlusive regions (FINon ), veno-occlusive regions (FIVO ) and ischaemic regions (FIIS ) were calculated using luminance analysing software. Of the 21 patients, ten, four and seven underwent limited resection, monosegmentectomy/sectionectomy and hemihepatectomy respectively, with excision of major hepatic veins. Median veno-occlusive liver volume was 80 (range 30-458) ml. Fluorescence imaging visualized veno-occlusive regions as territories with lower FI compared with non-veno-occlusive regions, and ischaemic regions as territories with no fluorescence after intravenous ICG injection. Median FIIS /FINon was lower than median FIVO /FINon (0·22 versus 0·59; P = 0·002). There were no deaths in hospital or within 30 days, and only one major complication. ICG fluorescence imaging with hepatic vein clamping visualized non-veno-occlusive, veno-occlusive and ischaemic regions. This technique may guide liver transection by intraoperative navigation, enhancing the safety and accuracy of liver resection. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison between two different experimental models of osteoarthritis in rabbits. Intra-articular collagenase injection and anterior cruciate ligament transection.

    PubMed

    Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Rossi, Rafael De; Jardim, Paulo Henrique de Affonseca; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Rinaldi, Jaqueline de Carvalho; Justulin, Luis Antonio

    2016-09-01

    To compare two different experimental models of osteoarthritis in rabbits: intra-articular collagenase injection and anterior cruciate ligament transection. Ten adult rabbits were randomly divided in two groups: COLL (collagenase group) and ACLT (anterior cruciate ligament transection). The COLL group was treated with 0.5 ml collagenase solution (2mg collagenase/0.5 ml sterile PBS), and the ACTL group was subjected to anterior cruciate ligament. After six and twelve weeks, respectively, the animals in the COLL and ACTL groups were euthanized. The gross appearance and histological examinations conducted in the cartilage articular surface was blindly scored according to the criteria developed by Yoshimi et al. (1994) and Mankin et al. (1971), respectively. The gross morphologic observation, macroscopic score and histological examinations have demonstrated that the ACTL group presented the highest scores, and lesions more severe than those in the COLL group. Both methods, anterior cruciate ligament transection and collagenase, applied to the stifle joint of the rabbits have effectively induced degenerative changes in the cartilage tissue, through statistically significant analysis (p≤0.05). The ACTL method has presented more severe lesions.

  7. Spontaneous Anterior Tibial Artery Avulsion and Tibio-Peroneal Trunk Transection Resulting into a Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zoubi, Nabil A.; Yaghan, Rami J.; Qandeel, Haitham A.; Mazahreh, Tagleb D.

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 53 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous non-traumatic anterior tibial artery avulsion and tibio-peroneal trunk transection Symptoms: Pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Autogenous popliteal-tibioperoneal trunk bypass Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Popliteal fossa pseudoaneurysms as a result of trauma are not uncommon. However, spontaneous pseudoaneurysms as a result of non-traumatic rupture of posterior tibial artery (PTA), anterior tibial artery (ATA), or tibioperoneal trunk (TPT) artery segment are extremely rare. We report a case of spontaneous popliteal fossa pseudoaneurysm resulting from spontaneous avulsion of the ATA and transection of the TPT. Despite a thorough workup, no underlying associated disease was found. The extreme rarity of this disease presentation prompted us to report this case. Case Report: A 53-year-old female patient presented with a 10-day history of sudden onset of non-traumatic left popliteal fossa pain and swelling. A popliteal fossa pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed by duplex ultrasound examination. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed to confirm the diagnosis and to plan treatment. Surgical exploration revealed avulsion of the ATA and transection of the TPT leading to a pseudoaneurysm. Autogenous popliteal-tibioperoneal trunk bypass was performed with uneventful recovery. Conclusions: A spontaneous popliteal fossa pseudoaneurysm caused by non-traumatic ATA avulsion and complete transection of TPT is extremely rare. Yet, it can be the cause of limb loss if not recognized early and treated promptly. Awareness by the medical community will help reduce the potential morbidity associated with this condition. PMID:28123173

  8. Comparison of harmonic scalpel versus conventional knot tying for transection of short hepatic veins at liver transplantation: prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Olmez, A; Karabulut, K; Aydin, C; Kayaalp, C; Yilmaz, S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare harmonic scalpel for short hepatic vein transection with conventional ligation during recipient hepatectomy with caval preservation. Sixteen patients undergoing elective living donor liver transplantation were randomized into 2 groups. We recorded number, diameter, and location of each short hepatic vein, procedure time, central venous pressure, and degree of liver failure (Child-Pugh and Model for End stage Liver Disease scores). As an end point, we observed the intraoperative and postoperative bleeding rates of the transected veins. We transected 144 veins of mean diameter of 2.6 ± 1.8 mm (range, 1-12 mm). Mean number of short hepatic veins in each person was 9 (range, 5-16). Harmonic scalpel was safe for veins with a diameter ≤ 2 mm; these veins were more prone to bleeding with conventional ligation. Bleeding rate was higher after ligation of veins in the upper half than the lower half of the cava (37% vs 21%; P = .04). Both total and per vessel procedure time did not differ between the groups. No postoperative bleeding complications occurred. Transection of veins with a diameter ≤ 2 mm by harmonic scalpel was as safe as conventional ligation. Harmonic scalpel transection of small hepatic veins (≤ 2 mm) can be even safer than conventional control by knot tying, particularly in narrow areas.

  9. Axillary artery transection and bilateral pulmonary embolism after anterior shoulder dislocation: case report

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, Betty; Loisel, François; Ferrier, Maxime; Al Sayed, Mazen; Rinckenbach, Simon; Obert, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Anterior shoulder dislocation can be associated with vascular and neurological complications. However, axillary artery injury associated with shoulder dislocation is rare and extremely rare without bone fracture. An early diagnosis of these complications allows predicting long-term functional outcomes. Methods: This article reports the case of a 66-year-old patient who presented an anterior shoulder dislocation after a ski fall without any neurological dysfunction or pulse deficit. Results: The first reduction attempts were unsuccessful and during the new attempt, we observed a hematoma. A CT scan showed a disruption of the axillary artery and a bilateral pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Neurovascular injury must be systematically sought before and after reduction, and a multidisciplinary approach is always necessary. PMID:28074775

  10. [Application of anterior-inferior approach through retrohepatic tunnel for dissecting short hepatic veins in laparoscopic right hemihepatectomy].

    PubMed

    Cai, Liu-xin; Li, Zhen-yu; Fang, Zhe-ping; Cai, Xiu-jun

    2013-07-23

    To explore the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic right hemihepatectomy via an anterior-inferior approach through retrohepatic tunnel in the dissection of short hepatic veins (SHVs). After partial freeing of right liver, anterior peritoneum of inferior cava vena (ICV) was opened. Retrohepatic space was dissected via an anterior-inferior approach to establish the posterior tunnel partially. Then the first branch of right side SHVs could be freed and ligated after its exposure through the right part of retrohepatic tunnel. The above procedure was repeated until the right side SHVs or the third hepatic portal became partially or completely blocked. If right side SHVs were completely freed and ligament of right liver fully isolated, right hepatic vein could be exposed and ligated and selective blockage of the second hepatic portal blood flow accomplished. This technique was applied in 7 cases of laparoscopic right hemihepatectomy through curettage transaction and aspiration with laparoscopic Peng's multifunctional operative dissector (LPMOD). Six patients were treated successfully. In one case of right hepatic hemangioma, small margin auxiliary hematischesis was attempted because of troublesome hemostasis of middle hepatic vein branch. All of them underwent partial dissection of right side of SHVs. Two cases had complete dissection in which right hepatic vein was freed and ligated, the second hepatic porta blood flow controlled and right hemihepatectomy anatomically achieved. Operative duration was 300-540 min [mean, 399.1 ± 74.7]. The time of dissecting hepatic porta was 30-75 min [mean, 50.7 ± 16.2]. The time of dissecting SHVs was 35-95 min [mean, 57.1 ± 22.1]. The time of liver transection was 60-160 min [mean, 115.9 ± 32.3]. Operative blood loss had a volume at 600-3000 ml [mean, 1485.7 ± 809.2]. The postoperative hospital stay was 10-18 days [mean, 12.4 ± 2.6]. The postoperative time for ambulation, diet and flatus was 2-4, 1-4 and 2-4 days respectively

  11. Differences in the sensations of warmth on the anterior torso of normal and spinal-cord transected individuals.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Robert W; Saddiki-Traki, Fatima; Tremblay, Nicole; Boureau, François; Morel-Fatio, X

    2002-01-01

    The threshold to warming was measured at 10 sites on the anterior torso between the umbilicus and the clavicle of normal and spinal-cord transected individuals. In normal individuals, thresholds were higher on the thorax than on the abdomen. Men had higher and more variable thresholds than women. Magnitude estimations of supra-threshold stimuli showed that men offer verbal estimates of warmth that are about half of the size of the estimates given by women to the same stimuli. The psychometric function shows that in women, the sensation of warmth grows more rapidly than in men after starting from a higher initial value. After spinal-cord injury, thresholds for detection of warming were elevated. This effect was most noticeable within 8 cm of the anesthetic zone, but farther away, thresholds were still elevated but uniform as a function of distance, being about 30% higher than in normal individuals. After spinal-cord injury, the psychometric functions show that small stimuli elicit relatively large sensations and that these sensations grow more slowly with increasing skin temperatures than for normal individuals. Thus, for small warm stimuli spinal-cord-injured patients (both men and women) have a response similar to normal women but the slope of the psychometric function is flat, being similar to the slope observed for normal men.

  12. Chondroprotective Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 in Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes and a Rat Model of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wendan; Jing, Juehua; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Dongying; Huang, Yumin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) inhibits inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes and reduces articular cartilage damage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Gene expression and protein levels of type II collagen, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined in vitro by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) amounts in the culture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For in vivo assessment, a rat model of OA was generated by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). Four weeks after ACLT, Rg1 (30 or 60 mg/kg) or saline was administered by gavage once a day for eight consecutive weeks. Joint damage was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibited Interleukin (IL)-1β-induced chondrocyte gene and protein expressions of MMP-13, COX-2 and PGE2, and prevented type II collagen and aggrecan degradation, in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Ginsenoside Rg1 to OA rats attenuated cartilage degeneration, and reduced type II collagen loss and MMP-13 levels. These findings demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rg1 can inhibit inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes in vitro and reduce articular cartilage damage in vivo, confirming the potential therapeutic value of Ginsenoside Rg1 in OA. PMID:28287423

  13. 24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Articular Cartilage Damage following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boyan, Barbara D.; Hyzy, Sharon L.; Pan, Qingfen; Scott, Kayla M.; Coutts, Richard D.; Healey, Robert; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in humans is associated with low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. In vitamin D replete rats, radiolabeled 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] accumulates in articular cartilage following injection of [3H]-25(OH)D3. Previously, we showed that 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocks chondrocyte apoptosis via phospholipase D and p53, suggesting a role for 24R,25(OH)2D3 in maintaining cartilage health. We examined the ability of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to prevent degenerative changes in articular cartilage in an OA-like environment and the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, rat articular chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β with and without 24R,25(OH)2D3 or 1α,25(OH)2D3. 24R,25(OH)2D3 but not 1α,25(OH)2D3 blocked the effects of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was partially mediated through the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. In vivo, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transections were performed in immunocompetent rats followed by intra-articular injections of 24R,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle (t = 0, 7, 14, 21 days). Tissues were harvested on day 28. Joints treated with vehicle had changes typical of OA whereas joints treated with 24R,25(OH)2D3 had less articular cartilage damage and levels of inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that 24R,25(OH)2D3 protects against OA, and suggest that it may be a therapeutic approach for preventing trauma-induced osteoarthritis. PMID:27575371

  14. Combined Effect of Bilateral Ovariectomy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection With Medial Meniscectomy on the Development of Osteoarthritis Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the combined effect of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MM) on the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Twenty female 15-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Five rats in each group underwent bilateral OVX (OVX group), bilateral ACLT with MM (ACLT with MM group), bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM (OVX plus ACLT with MM group), and sham surgery (SHAM group). All the rats were subjected to treadmill running for 4 weeks. The behavioral evaluation for induction of OA used the number of rears method, and this was conducted at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was calculated with micro-computerized tomography images and the modified Mankin's scoring was used for the histological changes. Results The number of rears in the OVX plus ACLT with MM group decreased gradually and more rapidly in the ACLT with MM group. Histologically, the OVX plus ACLT with MM group had a significantly higher modified Mankin's score than the OVX group (p=0.008) and the SHAM group (p=0.008). BMDs of the OVX plus ACLT with MM group were significantly lower than the SHAM group (p=0.002), and the ACLT with MM group (p=0.003). Conclusion We found that bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM induced definite OA change in terms of histology and BMD compared to bilateral OVX and ACLT with MM alone. Therefore, OVX and ACLT with MM was an appropriate degenerative OA rat model. PMID:27606264

  15. Pure 3D laparoscopic living donor right hemihepatectomy in a donor with separate right posterior and right anterior hepatic ducts and portal veins.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suk Kyun; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Hyo-Sin; Yoon, Kyung Chul; Ahn, Sung-Woo; Oh, Dongkyu; Kim, Hyeyoung; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong

    2017-04-14

    Despite increases in the performance of pure laparoscopic living donor hepatectomy, variations in the bile duct or portal vein have been regarded as relative contraindications to this technique [1-3]. This report describes a donor with separate right posterior and right anterior hepatic ducts and portal veins who underwent pure laparoscopic living donor right hemihepatectomy, integrated with 3D laparoscopy and indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography [1, 4, 5]. A 50-year-old man offered to donate part of his liver to his older brother, who required a transplant for hepatitis B-associated liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Donor height was 178.0 cm, body weight was 82.7 kg, and body mass index was 26.1 kg/m(2). Preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed that the donor had separate right posterior and right anterior hepatic ducts and portal veins. The entire procedure was performed under 3D laparoscopic view. Following intravenous injections of 0.05 mg/kg ICG, ICG near-infrared fluorescence camera was used to demarcate the exact transection line and determine the optimal bile duct division point. The total operation time was 443 min; the donor required no transfusions and experienced no intraoperative complications. The graft weighed 1146 g with a graft-to-recipient weight ratio of 1.88%. The optimal bile duct division point was identified using ICG fluorescence cholangiography, and the bile duct was divided with good patency without any stricture. The right anterior and posterior portal veins were transected with endostaplers without any torsion. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 8, with no complications. Using a 3D view and ICG fluorescence cholangiography, pure 3D laparoscopic living donor right hemihepatectomy is feasible in a donor with separate right posterior and right anterior hepatic ducts and portal veins.

  16. Combined glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate provides functional and structural benefit in the anterior cruciate ligament transection model.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco Saraiva; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Castro, Rondinelle Ribeiro; Girão, Virgínia Cláudia Carneiro; Pompeu, Margarida Maria Lima; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro

    2009-02-01

    Evidence that combined glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (Gluchon) or isolated glucosamine (Glu) modifies joint damage in osteoarthritis (OA) is still lacking. We studied joint pain and cartilage damage using the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. Wistar rats were subjected to ACLT of the right knee (OA) or sham operation. Groups received either Glu (500 mg/kg), Gluchon (500 mg/kg glucosamine +400 mg/kg chondroitin) or vehicle (non-treated--NT) per os starting 7 days prior to ACLT until sacrifice at 70 days. Joint pain was evaluated daily using the rat-knee joint articular incapacitation test. Structural joint damage was assessed using histology and biochemistry as the chondroitin sulfate (CS) content of cartilage by densitometry (microgram per milligram dried cartilage), comparing to standard CS. The molar weight (Mw) of the CS samples, used as a qualitative biochemical parameter, was obtained by comparing their relative mobility on a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to standard CS. Gluchon, but not Glu, significantly reduced joint pain (P < 0.05) compared to NT. There was an increase in CS content in the OA group (77.7 +/- 8.3 microg/mg) compared to sham (53.5 +/- 11.2 microg/mg) (P < 0.05). The CS from OA samples had higher Mw (4:62 +/- 10(4) g/mol) compared to sham (4:18 +/- 0.19 x 10(4) g/mol) (P < 0.05). Gluchon administration significantly reversed both the increases in CS content (54.4 +/- 12.1 microg/mg) and Mw (4:18 +/- 0.2 x 10(4) g/mol) as compared to NT. Isolated Glu decreased CS content though not reaching statistical significance. Cartilage histology alterations were also significantly prevented by Gluchon administration. Gluchon provides clinical (analgesia) and structural benefits in the ACLT model. This is the first demonstration that biochemical alterations occurring in parallel to histological damage in OA are prevented by Gluchon administration.

  17. Protective effects of calcium gluconate on osteoarthritis induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy in Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine whether calcium gluconate exerts protective effects on osteoarthritis (OA) induced by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection and partial medial meniscectomy. Methods Calcium gluconate was administered by mouth daily for 84 days to male ACL transected and partial medial meniscectomized Sprague–Dawley rats 1 week after operation. Results Eighty-four days of treatment with 50 mg/kg calcium gluconate led to a lower degree of articular stiffness and cartilage damage compared to the OA control, possibly through inhibition of overexpressed cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and related chondrocyte apoptosis. Similar favorable effects on stiffness and cartilage were detected in calcium gluconate-administered rats. Additionally, calcium gluconate increased 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake based on observation of BrdU-immunoreactive cells on both the femur and tibia articular surface cartilages 84 days after intra-joint treatment with calcium gluconate. Conclusions Taken together, our results demonstrate that calcium gluconate has a protective effect against OA through inhibition of COX-2 and related chondrocyte apoptosis. PMID:24602500

  18. Debakey forceps crushing technique for hepatic parenchymal transection in liver surgery: a review of 100 cases and ergonomic advantages.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sundeep; Sharma, Bharat; Kaushik, Mitesh; Jain, Lokendra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objective. Bleeding is an important complication in liver transections. To determine the safety and efficacy of Debakey forceps for liver parenchymal transection and its ergonomic advantages over clamp crushing method we analysed our data. Methods. We used Debakey crushing technique in 100 liver resections and analysed data for transection time, transfusion rate, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, influence of different types of liver conditions, and ergonomi features of Debakey forceps. Results. Mean age, transection time and hospital stay of 100 patients were 52.38 ± 17.44 years, 63.36 ± 33.4 minutes, and 10.27 ± 5.7 days. Transection time, and hospital stay in patients with cirrhotic liver (130.4 ± 44.4 mins, 14.6 ± 5.5 days) and cholestatic liver (75.8 ± 19.7 mins, 16.5 ± 5.1 days) were significantly greater than in patients with normal liver (48.1 ± 20.1 mins, 6.7 ± 1.8 days) (P < 0.01). Transection time improved significantly with experience (first fifty versus second fifty cases-70.2 ± 31.1 mins versus 56.5 ± 34.5 mins, P < 0.04). Qualitative evaluation revealed that Debakey forceps had ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp. Conclusions. Debakey forceps crushing technique is safe and effective for liver parenchymal transection in all kinds of liver. Transection time improves with surgeon's experience. It has ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp and is a better choice for liver transection.

  19. Debakey Forceps Crushing Technique for Hepatic Parenchymal Transection in Liver Surgery: A Review of 100 Cases and Ergonomic Advantages

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sundeep; Sharma, Bharat; Kaushik, Mitesh; Jain, Lokendra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objective. Bleeding is an important complication in liver transections. To determine the safety and efficacy of Debakey forceps for liver parenchymal transection and its ergonomic advantages over clamp crushing method we analysed our data. Methods. We used Debakey crushing technique in 100 liver resections and analysed data for transection time, transfusion rate, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, influence of different types of liver conditions, and ergonomi features of Debakey forceps. Results. Mean age, transection time and hospital stay of 100 patients were 52.38 ± 17.44 years, 63.36 ± 33.4 minutes, and 10.27 ± 5.7 days. Transection time, and hospital stay in patients with cirrhotic liver (130.4 ± 44.4 mins, 14.6 ± 5.5 days) and cholestatic liver (75.8 ± 19.7 mins, 16.5 ± 5.1 days) were significantly greater than in patients with normal liver (48.1 ± 20.1 mins, 6.7 ± 1.8 days) (P < 0.01). Transection time improved significantly with experience (first fifty versus second fifty cases—70.2 ± 31.1 mins versus 56.5 ± 34.5 mins, P < 0.04). Qualitative evaluation revealed that Debakey forceps had ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp. Conclusions. Debakey forceps crushing technique is safe and effective for liver parenchymal transection in all kinds of liver. Transection time improves with surgeon's experience. It has ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp and is a better choice for liver transection. PMID:25009367

  20. Chondroprotective effects of the combination chondroitin sulfate-glucosamine in a model of osteoarthritis induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in ovariectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Terencio, María Carmen; Ferrándiz, María Luisa; Carceller, María Carmen; Ruhí, Ramón; Dalmau, Pere; Vergés, Josep; Montell, Eulàlia; Torrent, Anna; Alcaraz, María José

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of the combination chondroitin sulfate-glucosamine (CS-GlcN) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been suggested in recent clinical studies. In vitro reports have also suggested anti-inflammatory and anti-resorptive effects of this combination. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of CS-GlcN on joint degradation in vivo including the assessment of inflammation and bone metabolism in a model of OA. We have used the OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in ovariectomised rats. CS-GlcN was administered daily (oral gavage) from week 0 until week 12 after ovariectomy at the dose of 140 (CS)+175 (GlcN)(HCl) mg/kg. Histochemical analyses were performed, the levels of biomarkers and inflammatory mediators were measured by luminex or ELISA and bone microstructure was determined by μCT. CS-GlcN protected against cartilage degradation and reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the affected knee. In addition, serum biomarkers of inflammation and cartilage and bone degradation including matrix metalloproteinase-3, C-telopeptide of type II collagen and the ratio receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin were significantly decreased by CS-GlcN. This treatment also tended to improve some bone microstructural parameters without reaching statistical significance. These results demonstrate the chondroprotective effects of CS-GlcN in vivo, in the experimental model of ACLT in ovariectomised rats, and suggest that this combination may be useful to control the joint catabolic effects of inflammatory stress. These findings could have clinical relevance related to the prevention of joint degradation by CS-GlcN and support the potential development of OA treatments based on this combination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hyaluronic acid attenuates osteoarthritis development in the anterior cruciate ligament-transected knee: Association with excitatory amino acid release in the joint dialysate.

    PubMed

    Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Hsieh, Shih-Peng; Wu, Ching-Tang; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2006-05-01

    We previously reported increased release of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate, during the early stage of experimental osteoarthritis (OA). Our present objective was to study the effect of intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) on OA development, and to analyze concomitant changes in EAA levels in dialysates of anterior cruciate ligament-transected (ACLT) knee joints. OA was induced in Wistar rats by ACLT of one hindlimb; the knee of the other hindlimb was used as the sham-operated control. HA group (n = 12) were injected intraarticularly in the ACLT knee with 1 mg of HA once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting at 8 weeks after surgery. Saline group (n = 12) were injected as above with normal saline. The sham-operated group, underwent arthrotomy, but not ACLT, and received no treatment (n = 14). Twenty weeks after surgery, knee joint dialysates were collected by microdialysis and EAA levels assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and gross morphological examination and histopathological evaluation were performed on the medial femoral condyles and synovia. Rats receiving intraarticular HA injections showed a significantly lower degree of cartilage degeneration on the medial femoral condyle at both the macroscopic level and on the Mankin grading scale than rats receiving saline injections. Intraarticular HA treatment also suppressed synovitis. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate levels were significantly reduced in the HA group compared to the saline group. Intraarticular injection of HA limits articular cartilage and synovium damage and OA formation, and, in parallel, reduces EAA levels in ACLT joint dialysates. This study suggests that the underlying mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of HA is to inhibit glutamate and aspartate release in ACLT knee joints, which attenuates the early development of OA.

  2. Alterations in subchondral bone plate, trabecular bone and articular cartilage properties of rabbit femoral condyles at 4 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection.

    PubMed

    Florea, C; Malo, M K H; Rautiainen, J; Mäkelä, J T A; Fick, J M; Nieminen, M T; Jurvelin, J S; Davidescu, A; Korhonen, R K

    2015-03-01

    To quantify early osteoarthritic-like changes in the structure and volume of subchondral bone plate and trabecular bone and properties of articular cartilage in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis (OA) induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). Left knee joints from eight skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits underwent ACLT surgery, while the contralateral (CTRL) right knee joints were left unoperated. Femoral condyles were harvested 4 weeks after ACLT. Micro-computed tomography imaging was applied to evaluate the structural properties of subchondral bone plate and trabecular bone. Additionally, biomechanical properties, structure and composition of articular cartilage were assessed. As a result of ACLT, significant thinning of the subchondral bone plate (P < 0.05) was accompanied by significantly reduced trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness in the medial femoral condyle compartment (P < 0.05), while no changes were observed in the lateral compartment. In both lateral and medial femoral condyles, the equilibrium modulus and superficial zone proteoglycan (PG) content were significantly lower in ACLT than CTRL joint cartilage (P < 0.05). Significant alterations in the collagen orientation angle extended substantially deeper into cartilage from the ACLT joints in the lateral femoral condyle relative to the medial condyle compartment (P < 0.05). In this model of early OA, significant changes in volume and microstructure of subchondral bone plate and trabecular bone were detected only in the femoral medial condyle, while alterations in articular cartilage properties were more severe in the lateral compartment. The former finding may be associated with reduced joint loading in the medial compartment due to ACLT, while the latter finding reflects early osteoarthritic changes in the lateral compartment. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new osteophyte segmentation algorithm using partial shape model and its applications to rabbit femur anterior cruciate ligament transection via micro-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Saha, P K; Liang, G; Elkins, J M; Coimbra, A; Duong, L T; Williams, D S; Sonka, M

    2011-08-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion at a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to distinguish between osteophytes and healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features due to the similarity of their material composition. In this paper, we present a new method primarily based active shape model (ASM) to solve this problem and evaluate its application to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit femur model via CT imaging. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and apply the model to find a shape instance in a target image. A common challenge with such approaches is that a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method and eventually leading to suboptimum segmentations. This difficulty is overcome using a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolates it over the diseased region according to the underlying shape model. Finally, osteophytes are segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for an anatomic region using manual reference of a few anatomically defined fiducial landmarks that are highly reproducible on individuals. Accuracy of the method has been examined on simulated phantoms while reproducibility and sensitivity have been evaluated on CT images of 2-, 4- and 8-week post-ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs. Experimental results have shown that the method is highly accurate ( R2 = 0.99), reproducible (ICC = 0.97), and sensitive in detecting disease progression (p-values: 0.065,0.001 and < 0.001 for 2- vs. 4, 4

  4. Topographical and depth-dependent glycosaminoglycan concentration in canine medial tibial cartilage 3 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection surgery—a microscopic imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel; Kahn, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical imaging has become an invaluable tool to diagnose damage to cartilage. Depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) has been shown to be one of the early signs of cartilage degradation. In order to investigate the topographical changes in GAG concentration caused by the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) surgery in a canine model, microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) and microscopic computed tomography (µCT) were used to measure the GAG concentration with correlation from a biochemical assay, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), to understand where the topographical and depth-dependent changes in the GAG concentration occur. Methods This study used eight knee joints from four canines, which were examined 3 weeks after ACLT surgery. From right (n=3) and left (n=1) medial tibias of the ACLT and the contralateral side, two ex vivo specimens from each of four locations (interior, central, exterior and posterior) were imaged before and after equilibration in contrast agents. The cartilage blocks imaged using µMRI were approximately 3 mm × 5 mm and were imaged before and after eight hours submersion in a gadolinium (Gd) contrast agent with an in-plane pixel resolution of 17.6 µm2 and an image slice thickness of 1 mm. The cartilage blocks imaged using µCT were approximately 2 mm × 1 mm and were imaged before and after 24 hours submersed in ioxaglate with an isotropic voxel resolution of 13.4 µm3. ICP-OES was used to quantify the bulk GAG at each topographical location. Results The pre-contrast µMRI and µCT results did not demonstrate significant differences in GAG between the ACLT and contralateral cartilage at all topographical locations. The post-contrast µMRI and µCT results demonstrated topographically similar significant differences in GAG concentrations between the ACLT and contralateral tibia. Using µMRI, the GAG concentrations (mg/mL) were measured for the ACLT and contralateral

  5. Esophageal transection

    PubMed Central

    Özçınar, Beyza; Peker, Kıvanç Derya; Demirel, Sertaç; Yanar, Fatih; Tuncer, Koray; İğci, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Herein, a case of intramural esophageal dissection is reported and the literature is reviewed. Intramural esophageal dissection is a rare but well described condition that is characterized by a laceration between the esophageal mucosa and submucosa but without perforation. A female patient aged 86 years was hospitalized with a diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. After placement of an aortic stent, she was started on intravenous heparin. After the procedure, the patient had retching and vomiting due to sedative drugs. On the first day after the procedure, the patient experienced sudden-onset chest pain, hematemesis, back pain and odynophagia. A hematoma was detected in the thoracic esophagus, which was opened during endoscopy and began to bleed suddenly owing to air insufflation. A false lumen was visualized within the esophagus. There was no perforation. The patient was followed up conservatively and discharged from the hospital uneventfully. In conclusion, we propose that esophageal transection, a condition that is widely regarded as relatively benign in the literature, has the potential to lead to perforation. It would be expected that most cases of esophageal transection would be managed conservatively. PMID:28149126

  6. Bilateral simultaneous anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C cured with direct acting antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Prud’homme, Sylvie; Nevens, Frederik; Casteels, Ingele

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with a bilateral optic anterior ischemic neuropathy as an extrahepatic complication of a chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. The patient presented with a bilateral visual acuity loss and bilateral optic disc oedema. The optic neuropathy was associated with a sudden increase in the viral HCV load after a recent liver transplantation. The stop of the calcineurin inhibitor had no effect on the course of the optic neuropathy. Visual improvement and normalization of HCV viraemia occurred after treatment with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, which are direct acting antivirals. PMID:27625964

  7. Bilateral simultaneous anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C cured with direct acting antivirals.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, Sylvie; Nevens, Frederik; Casteels, Ingele

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with a bilateral optic anterior ischemic neuropathy as an extrahepatic complication of a chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. The patient presented with a bilateral visual acuity loss and bilateral optic disc oedema. The optic neuropathy was associated with a sudden increase in the viral HCV load after a recent liver transplantation. The stop of the calcineurin inhibitor had no effect on the course of the optic neuropathy. Visual improvement and normalization of HCV viraemia occurred after treatment with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, which are direct acting antivirals.

  8. A New Osteophyte Segmentation Algorithm Using the Partial Shape Model and Its Applications to Rabbit Femur Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection via Micro-CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion at a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from computed tomography (CT) images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to distinguish between osteophytes and healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features due to the similarity of their material composition. In this paper, we present a new method primarily based on the active shape model (ASM) to solve this problem and evaluate its application to the anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging. The common idea behind most ASM-based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and then apply the model to find a shape instance in a target image. A common challenge with such approaches is that a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method and eventually leading to suboptimum segmentations. This difficulty is overcome using a new partial-ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolates it over the diseased region according to the underlying shape model. Finally, osteophytes are segmented by subtracting partial-ASM-derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semiautomatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3-D shape model for an anatomic region using manual reference of a few anatomically defined fiducial landmarks that are highly reproducible on individuals. Accuracy of the method has been examined on simulated phantoms while reproducibility and sensitivity have been evaluated on micro-CT images of 2-, 4- and 8-week post-ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs. Experimental results have shown that the method is highly accurate (R2 = 0.99), reproducible (ICC = 0.97), and sensitive in detecting disease progression (p

  9. In vivo high-resolution MRI (7T) of femoro-tibial cartilage changes in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection model of osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Jean C; Bolbos, Radu; Pham, Martin; Galois, Laurent; Rengle, Adrian; Loeuille, Damien; Netter, Patrick; Gillet, Pierre; Beuf, Olivier; Watrin-Pinzano, Astrid

    2010-09-01

    To assess OA-related changes in mean compartmental femorotibial cartilage thickness in rat knees by three-dimensional (3D) MRI (7T). MRI was performed in vivo at 7T on OA and untouched contralateral knee joints. Gradient Echo Fast Imaging 3D MR images were acquired sequentially in surgically induced OA (D0) in 40 Wistar rats (anterior cruciate ligament transection). Mean femoral (trochlear, lateral and medial) and tibial (lateral and medial) cartilage thicknesses were quantified from a 2D MRI slide in weight-bearing areas and from a 3D MRI data set. At each time-point [Day (D)8, D14, D21, D40 and D60], eight animals (16 knees) were sacrificed for concomitant histomorphometry. As body weight dramatically increased throughout the experiment (+150%, baseline vs endpoint), all compartmental mean cartilage thicknesses noticeably decreased (D8, D14) and then remained relatively stable. Femoral compartments in OA knees were thinner at the end of the experiment than in contralateral age-matched knees. Conversely, lateral and medial tibial cartilages were thicker than controls. Histological correlation was significant only in untouched healthy cartilages (3D better than 2D). 3D MRI (7T) enables in vivo monitoring of compartmental changes in OA-related femorotibial rat cartilage thickness vs contralateral age-matched knees.

  10. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... have liver damage because of it. What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  11. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother’s liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor’s biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor. PMID:20677347

  12. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-08-07

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor's biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor.

  13. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... clotting problems or chronic liver disease. previous continue Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Although hep A is a ... does — through direct contact with infected body fluids. Hepatitis B and C are even more easily passed in ...

  14. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A if they've been vaccinated against it. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a more serious infection. It may lead ... of which cause severe illness and even death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from person to person ...

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... a problem with the liver itself What Is Hepatitis A? Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is contagious, usually spreading to others ... objects contaminated by feces (poop) containing HAV. The hepatitis A vaccine has helped to make the infection rare ...

  16. Transection of the hepatic parenchyma associated or not with the contralateral portal vein branch ligature and its effect in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Henrique de Aguiar; Wiederkehr, Julio Cesar; Collaço, Luiz Martins; Sousa, Eros Luiz de; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Carvalho, Caroline Aragão de; Wiederkehr, Barbara de Aguiar; Marques, Camila Aparecida Moraes; Rosa, Francielle França da; Nanni, Felipe de Negreiros; Fuchs, Taíse

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the influence of portal vein ligation in hepatic regeneration by immunohistochemical criteria. Ten pigs divided into two groups of five animals underwent hepatectomy in two stages, and the groups were differentiated by ligation or not of the left portal vein tributary, which is responsible for vascularization of the left lateral and medial lobes of the pig liver. Five days after the procedure, the animals underwent liver biopsies for further analysis of histological and immunohistochemical with marker Ki67. The group submitted to hepatectomy with vascular ligation showed an increase of approximately 4% of hepatocytes in regeneration status, as well as a greater presence of Kupffer and inflammatory cells as compared to control. As a result of positive cell replication observed through the Ki67 marker, we can suspect that the ligation of a tributary of the portal vein associated with liver resection promoted a greater stimulus of liver regeneration when compared to liver resection alone. Analisar a influência da ligadura da tributária da veia porta no estímulo regenerativo hepático por meio de critérios imuno-histoquímicos. Dez suínos, divididos em dois grupos de cinco animais, foram submetidos à hepatectomia em dois estágios, sendo que os grupos foram diferenciados pela ligadura ou não da tributária da veia porta, responsável pela vascularização dos lobos lateral e medial esquerdos do fígado do suíno. Cinco dias após o procedimento, os animais foram reabordados para retirada de amostras hepáticas para posterior análise de histológica e imunoistoquímica com o marcador Ki67. O grupo submetido à hepatectomia com ligadura vascular apresentou incremento de 4% aproximadamente de hepatócitos em processo de regeneração, bem como grande número de células de Kupffer e células inflamatórias, quando comparado ao controle. Em virtude da análise positiva da replicação celular observada por meio do marcador Ki67, pode-se observar que a

  17. Angiographic Assessment of the Right Hepatic Artery for Encasement by Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Comparison Between Antero-Posterior and Right Anterior Oblique Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Hiroyoshi; Iwata, Ryoko; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2001-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of right anterior oblique (RAO) arteriography for evaluating encasement of the right hepatic artery (RHA) by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods: Celiac arteriography was performed in both the antero-posterior (AP) and RAO projection in ten patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The lengths of the arteries between the bifurcation of the anterior and posterior branch of the liver and the following points were measured: (a) the bifurcation of the left and right hepatic artery (AP-LR), (b) the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery (AP-PG). Additionally, image quality in investigating the invasion of the RHA was evaluated.Results: On the AP images, the average lengths of AP-LR and AP-PG were 24.5 {+-} 5.1 mm and 30.0 {+-} 4.9 mm, respectively. On RAO images, the lengths were 28.2 {+-} 4.6 mm and 32.7 {+-} 4.8 mm, respectively. Every length was different between the two projections (p < 0.01). In 6 of 10 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, images in RAO projections were superior to AP images for evaluation of encasement.Conclusion: We conclude that angiography obtained in the RAO projection yields images that are superior to those obtained in the conventional AP projection for assessment of RHA encasement.

  18. Comments on transect methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.

    1980-02-01

    One of the outcomes of the recent spate of attention to environmental problems is the realization that we do not have suitable methods to census non-game species. Since marking is expensive and time-consuming, investigators have tended to look for methods that involve only visual techniques. One of the leading candidates thus becomes the line transect method. The purpose here is to briefly describe some of the available transect methods, and to comment on some aspects that may be of particular interest and importance.

  19. Traumatic transection of aorta.

    PubMed

    Ho, C K; Yip, K T; Eng, J B; Rajan, L; Tan, B H

    2001-09-01

    A 16 year-old man presented with fracture of both his femurs after a road traffic accident. Chest radiograph revealed mediastinal widening. Subsequent CT scan and arch aortogram confirmed the findings of traumatic aortic arch transection at the isthmus. He underwent successful surgical repair. High index of suspicion and prompt actions are important in managing this potentially fatal but treatable condition.

  20. Traumatic globe luxation with optic nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Mandeep S.; Kedar, Sachin; Sethi, Anita; Gupta, Vishal

    2000-09-01

    Luxation of the globe is a rare event that results from severe trauma to the orbit, often causing orbital rim and wall fractures. Though associated globe rupture often necessitates enucleation, repositioning of the globe can be attempted in these cases if the globe is intact. We report a case of globe luxation and optic nerve transection with its surgical management. A 17-year-old male presented with anterior luxation of the right globe and optic nerve transection following blunt trauma to the orbit. Computerized tomography revealed an anteriorly subluxated globe with complete transection of the optic nerve and multiple fractures of the orbital walls. The orbit was explored and the globe repositioned in the orbit with reattachment of the muscles. Postoperatively, the globe was in normal position with moderate motility and excellent overall cosmesis. Though the visual prognosis in these cases is usually extremely poor and depends on the extent and duration of injury, preservation of the globe not only helps the patient recover psychologically from the trauma but also allows better cosmesis.

  1. Totally laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy exposing the major hepatic veins from the root side: a case of the right anterior sectorectomy (with video).

    PubMed

    Honda, Goro; Kurata, Masanao; Okuda, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Shin; Sakamoto, Katsunori; Takahashi, Keiichi

    2014-07-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy has rapidly evolved recently; however, laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy has yet to become widely used, although anatomical hepatectomy is ideal, especially for curative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, and is widely accepted via open approach. This is because good-experienced skills, for example, exposing Glissonean pedicles and hepatic veins on the cutting plane, are required in order to perform anatomical hepatectomy via a pure laparoscopic approach. We obtained good results for various totally laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomies using the standardized techniques. We exposed the major hepatic veins from the root side by utilizing the unique view from the caudal side in the laparoscopic approach, and moved CUSA from the root side toward the peripheral side to avoid splitting the bifurcation of the hepatic vein. We performed totally laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy for 47 patients from August, 2008, to December, 2012 (Table 1). In most types of anatomical hepatectomy, the mean blood loss was <500 ml. Conversion to open surgery was required in two patients. Postoperative complications were prolonged ascites in two, peroneal palsy in two, and biloma in one. Mortality was zero. The embedded video demonstrates totally laparoscopic right anterior sectorectomy. In conclusion, our standardized techniques make laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy more feasible.

  2. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... low because of routine testing of donated blood. Sexual transmission and transmission among family members through close contact ... associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses ... B Blood, needles, sexual 10% of older children develop chronic infection. 90% ...

  3. Transection of Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Stanford T.; Madden, John D.; Esterly, John R.; Shanklin, Douglas R.

    1971-01-01

    A newborn infant, delivered following mid-forceps rotation, presented with apnoea, anaesthesia below the level of the mid-neck, and flaccid quadriplegia. At necropsy there was transection of the cord, and atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial dislocations. Cord injury usually follows breech presentation, the lesion is in the lower cervical or upper thoracic segments, and results from excessive traction. By contrast, in the rare cases following cephalic delivery, the lesion is most often in the upper cervical cord and probably results from rotational forces. PMID:5104538

  4. North European Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  5. Sampling coarse woody debris along spoked transects

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Jeffery H. Gove

    2011-01-01

    Line transects are commonly used for sampling coarse woody debris (CWD). The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis programme uses a variant of this method that involves sampling for CWD along transects that radiate from the centre of a circular plot-like spokes on a wheel. A new approach for analysis of data collected with spoked transects is developed....

  6. Estimation of fractal dimensions from transect data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Fractals are a useful tool for analyzing the topology of objects such as coral reefs, forest canopies, and landscapes. Transects are often studied in these contexts, and fractal dimensions computed from them. An open question is how representative a single transect is. Transects may also be used to estimate the dimensionality of a surface. Again the question of representativeness of the transect arises. These two issues are related. This note qualifies the conditions under which transect data may be considered to be representative or may be extrapolated, based on both theoretical and empirical results.

  7. How Far Can We Go with Laparoscopic Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma? Laparoscopic Sectionectomy of the Liver Combined with the Resection of the Major Hepatic Vein Main Trunk

    PubMed Central

    Morise, Zenichi; Kawabe, Norihiko; Tomishige, Hirokazu; Nagata, Hidetoshi; Kawase, Jin; Arakawa, Satoshi; Isetani, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Although the reports of laparoscopic major liver resection are increasing, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) close to the liver hilum and/or major hepatic veins are still considered contraindications. There is virtually no report of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for HCC which involves the main trunk of major hepatic veins. We present our method for the procedure. We experienced 6 cases: 3 right anterior, 2 left medial, and 1 right posterior extended sectionectomies with major hepatic vein resection; tumor sizes are within 40–75 (median: 60) mm. The operating time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay are within 341–603 (median: 434) min, 100–750 (300) ml, and 8–44 (18) days. There was no mortality and 1 patient developed postoperative pleural effusion. For these procedures, we propose that the steps listed below are useful, taking advantages of the laparoscopy-specific view. (1) The Glissonian pedicle of the section is encircled and clamped. (2) Liver transection on the ischemic line is performed in the caudal to cranial direction. (3) During transection, the clamped Glissonian pedicle and the peripheral part of hepatic vein are divided. (4) The root of hepatic vein is divided in the good view from caudal and dorsal direction. PMID:26448949

  8. Fusion technique for liver transection with Kelly-clysis and harmonic technology.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, P; Chhabra, D G; Sutariya, K R; Shah, R C

    2010-01-01

    Various devices are available for liver transection and comparative data on transection techniques are limited by the diversity of operative procedures. Clamp crushing (Kelly-clysis) with a Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA-Integra Radionics) is widely used for splitting the liver parenchyma. Hemostasis is achieved by bipolar coagulation, ligatures, or hemoclips. We introduce a fusion technique (Focus-clysis) for liver transection using a combination of Kelly-clysis and harmonic technology. A fusion technique (FT) was performed using FOCUS, a Kelly clamp like instrument attached to a Harmonic generator. Hepatic resections (nine major, nine minor) were performed with the fusion technique in 18 non-cirrhotic patients. Variables evaluated were blood loss, transection time, biliary leak, postoperative liver function, morbidity, and cost-effectiveness. The results were compared with 18 hepatic resections (nine major, nine minor) that were performed with our earlier technique, i.e., CUSA with bipolar cautery, ligatures, and hemoclips. The mean blood loss was 416 ml in the FT group, compared to 833 ml in the CUSA group. Two patients in the FT group needed blood transfusion in the first 48 h, whereas eight patients in the CUSA group had transfusions. No major postoperative liver dysfunction was noted with the new technique, and postoperative morbidity was lower in the FT group. Liver transection with the fusion technique was faster. The fusion technique (Focus-clysis) using Kelly-clysis and harmonic technology is promising, easy, and effective for liver transection. Our initial results show advantages over the routinely used CUSA/bipolar combination. The fusion technique could be a new option for liver transection, especially in non-cirrhotic patients.

  9. A line transect model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quang, Pham Xuan; Lanctot, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    We employ a line transect method to estimate the density of the common and Pacific loon in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge from aerial survey data. Line transect methods have the advantage of automatically taking into account “visibility bias” due to detectability difference of animals at different distances from the transect line. However, line transect methods must overcome two difficulties when applied to inaccurate recording of sighting distances due to high travel speeds, so that in fact only a few reliable distance class counts are available. We propose a unimodal detection function that provides an estimate of the effective area lost due to the blind strip, under the assumption that a line of perfect detection exists parallel to the transect line. The unimodal detection function can also be applied when a blind strip is absent, and in certain instances when the maximum probability of detection is less than 100%. A simple bootstrap procedure to estimate standard error is illustrated. Finally, we present results from a small set of Monte Carlo experiments.

  10. Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.

    PubMed

    Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-11-01

    Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment.

  11. Early changes in muscle atrophy and muscle fiber type conversion after spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosaku; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suganuma, Katsuyoshi; Yukata, Kiminori; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Yasui, Natsuo

    2013-05-20

    Spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection cause muscle atrophy and muscle fiber type conversion. It is still unknown how spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection each affect the differentiation of muscle fiber type conversion mechanism and muscle atrophy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the difference of muscle weight change, muscle fiber type conversion, and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivatior-1α (PGC-1α) expression brought about by spinal cord transection and by peripheral nerve transection. Twenty-four Wistar rats underwent surgery, the control rats underwent a laminectomy; the spinal cord injury group underwent a spinal cord transection; the denervation group underwent a sciatic nerve transection. The rats were harvested of the soleus muscle and the TA muscle at 0 week, 1 week and 2 weeks after surgery. Histological examination was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunofluorescent staing. Western blot was performed with 3 groups. Both sciatic nerve transection and spinal cord transection caused muscle atrophy with the effect being more severe after sciatic nerve transection. Spinal cord transection caused a reduction in the expression of both sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. On the other hand, sciatic nerve transection produced an increase in expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. The results of the expression of PGC-1α were expected in other words muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve transection is less than after spinal cord transection, however muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve transection was more severe than after spinal cord transection. In the conclusion, spinal cord transection diminished the expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. On the other hand, sciatic nerve transection enhanced the expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle.

  12. Early changes in muscle atrophy and muscle fiber type conversion after spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection cause muscle atrophy and muscle fiber type conversion. It is still unknown how spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection each affect the differentiation of muscle fiber type conversion mechanism and muscle atrophy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the difference of muscle weight change, muscle fiber type conversion, and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivatior-1α (PGC-1α) expression brought about by spinal cord transection and by peripheral nerve transection. Methods Twenty-four Wistar rats underwent surgery, the control rats underwent a laminectomy; the spinal cord injury group underwent a spinal cord transection; the denervation group underwent a sciatic nerve transection. The rats were harvested of the soleus muscle and the TA muscle at 0 week, 1 week and 2 weeks after surgery. Histological examination was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunofluorescent staing. Western blot was performed with 3 groups. Results Both sciatic nerve transection and spinal cord transection caused muscle atrophy with the effect being more severe after sciatic nerve transection. Spinal cord transection caused a reduction in the expression of both sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. On the other hand, sciatic nerve transection produced an increase in expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. The results of the expression of PGC-1α were expected in other words muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve transection is less than after spinal cord transection, however muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve transection was more severe than after spinal cord transection. Conclusion In the conclusion, spinal cord transection diminished the expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. On the other hand, sciatic nerve transection enhanced the expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus

  13. Spinal cord transection in the larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Briona, Lisa K; Dorsky, Richard I

    2014-05-21

    Mammals fail in sensory and motor recovery following spinal cord injury due to lack of axonal regrowth below the level of injury as well as an inability to reinitiate spinal neurogenesis. However, some anamniotes including the zebrafish Danio rerio exhibit both sensory and functional recovery even after complete transection of the spinal cord. The adult zebrafish is an established model organism for studying regeneration following spinal cord injury, with sensory and motor recovery by 6 weeks post-injury. To take advantage of in vivo analysis of the regenerative process available in the transparent larval zebrafish as well as genetic tools not accessible in the adult, we use the larval zebrafish to study regeneration after spinal cord transection. Here we demonstrate a method for reproducibly and verifiably transecting the larval spinal cord. After transection, our data shows sensory recovery beginning at 2 days post-injury (dpi), with the C-bend movement detectable by 3 dpi and resumption of free swimming by 5 dpi. Thus we propose the larval zebrafish as a companion tool to the adult zebrafish for the study of recovery after spinal cord injury.

  14. Immune system augmentation by glatiramer acetate of peripheral nerve regeneration-crush versus transection models of rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Luria, Shai; Cohen, Avraham; Safran, Ori; Firman, Shimon; Liebergall, Meir

    2013-10-01

    Immune system augmentation, using the antigen glatiramer acetate (GA), which is known to affect cellular immunity, has been shown to have a positive effect on peripheral nerve regeneration. We aimed to compare the effect of GA on the regeneration of crushed versus transected nerves. Wild-type rats underwent crush or transection and repair of the sciatic nerve. They were examined 3 weeks postinjury histologically (axon count) and functionally (tibialis anterior muscle weight and footprint analysis). GA was found to augment regeneration both histologically and functionally. In the transected nerve, a significant increase in axon count distal to the injury site was seen in the GA group versus control. A similar yet statistically insignificant trend was found in the crushed nerve. Improvement was found in the footprint analysis between the GA and control groups in both crush and transected nerve groups. We found improvement in the footprint analysis in the crush versus transection group. GA was found to improve the regeneration of the peripheral nerve. Histologically, this was more pronounced in the transection injury. The discrepancy between the different functional measures examined may be explained by the distance of the reinnervated muscles evaluated from the injury site.

  15. Hepatic ductoplasty and hepaticojejunostomy to treat narrow common hepatic duct during laparoscopic surgery for choledochal cyst.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, Naoto; Fukumoto, Koji; Nouso, Hiroshi; Yamoto, Masaya; Miyake, Hiromu; Kaneshiro, Masakatsu; Koyama, Mariko; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    We describe a novel technique for laparoscopic hepatic ductoplasty and hepaticojejunostomy in choledochal cyst with a narrow common hepatic duct. After complete cyst excision, a longitudinal incision was made in the anterior wall of the narrow common hepatic duct to enlarge the anastomotic opening. Next, the anterior wall was everted, then anchored to the hepatic hilum by suturing. Anchoring of the anterior wall provided a good field of view for creating the anastomosis, and the lumen of the anastomotic region was also secured. We believe that our technique is feasible and useful when the duct size is small.

  16. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is a contagious viral infection that can easily affect children and adults. It is one of the most common types of hepatitis virus. Often when you hear about hepatitis A ...

  17. Line intersect sampling: Ell-shaped transects and multiple intersections

    Treesearch

    Timothy G. Gregoire; Harry T. Valentine

    2003-01-01

    The probability of selecting a population element under line intersect sampling depends on the width of the particle in the direction perpendicular to the transect, as is well known. The consequence of this when using ell-shaped transects rather than straight-line transects are explicated, and modifications that preserve design-unbiasedness of Kaiser's (1983)...

  18. Multidetector CT Findings of Bowel Transection in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Hong, Hye-Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Ha, Hong Il; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. Results The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Conclusion Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity. PMID:23901318

  19. Ecohydrological optimality in the Northeast China Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Zhentao; Li, Qinshu; Mo, Kangle; Zhang, Lexin; Shen, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The Northeast China Transect (NECT) is one of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) terrestrial transects, where there is a significant precipitation gradient from east to west, as well as a vegetation transition of forest-grassland-desert. It is remarkable to understand vegetation distribution and dynamics under climate change in this transect. We take canopy cover (M), derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), as an index to describe the properties of vegetation distribution and dynamics in the NECT. In Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality theory, the optimal canopy cover (M*) is determined by the trade-off between water supply depending on water balance and water demand depending on canopy transpiration. We apply Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality method in the NECT based on data from 2000 to 2013 to get M*, which is compared with M from NDVI to further discuss the sensitivity of M* to vegetation properties and climate factors. The result indicates that the average M* fits the actual M well (for forest, M* = 0.822 while M = 0.826; for grassland, M* = 0.353 while M = 0.352; the correlation coefficient between M and M* is 0.81). Results of water balance also match the field-measured data in the references. The sensitivity analyses show that M* decreases with the increase of leaf area index (LAI), stem fraction and temperature, while it increases with the increase of leaf angle and precipitation amount. Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality method offers a quantitative way to understand the impacts of climate change on canopy cover and provides guidelines for ecorestoration projects.

  20. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  1. Right Hemihepatectomy by Suprahilar Intrahepatic Transection of the Right Hemipedicle using a Vascular Stapler

    PubMed Central

    Königsrainer, Ingmar; Nadalin, Silvio; Königsrainer, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Successful hepatic resection requires profound anatomical knowledge and delicate surgical technique. Hemihepatectomies are mostly performed after preparing the extrahepatic hilar structures within the hepatoduodenal ligament, even in benign tumours or liver metastasis.1-5. Regional extrahepatic lymphadenectomy is an oncological standard in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, intrahepatic cholangio-cellular carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas lymph node metastases in the hepatic hilus in patients with liver metastasis are rarely occult. Major disadvantages of these procedures are the complex preparation of the hilus with the risk of injuring contralateral structures and the possibility of bleeding from portal vein side-branches or impaired perfusion of bile ducts. We developed a technique of right hemihepatectomy or resection of the left lateral segments with intrahepatic transection of the pedicle that leaves the hepatoduodenal ligament completely untouched. 6 However, if intraoperative visualization or palpation of the ligament is suspicious for tumor infiltration or lymph node metastasis, the hilus should be explored and a lymphadenectomy performed. PMID:20101200

  2. Effect of ACL Transection on Internal Tibial Rotation in an in Vitro Simulated Pivot Landing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The amount of resistance provided by the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) to axial tibial rotation remains controversial. The goal of this study was to test the primary hypotheses that ACL transection would not significantly affect tibial rotation under the large impulsive loads associated with a simulated pivot landing but would increase anterior tibial translation. Methods: Twelve cadaveric knees (mean age of donors [and standard deviation] at the time of death, 65.0 ± 10.5 years) were mounted in a custom testing apparatus to simulate a single-leg pivot landing. A compound impulsive load was applied to the distal part of the tibia with compression (∼800 N), flexion moment (∼40 N-m), and axial tibial torque (∼17 N-m) in the presence of five trans-knee muscle forces. A differential variable reluctance transducer mounted on the anteromedial aspect of the ACL measured relative strain. With the knee initially in 15° of flexion, and after five combined compression and flexion moment (baseline) loading trials, six trials were conducted with the addition of either internal or external tibial torque (internal or external loading), and then six baseline trials were performed. The ACL was then sectioned, six baseline trials were repeated, and then six trials of either the internal or the external loading condition, whichever had initially resulted in the larger relative ACL strain, were carried out. Tibiofemoral kinematics were measured optoelectronically. The results were analyzed with a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Following ACL transection, the increase in the normalized internal tibial rotation was significant but small (0.7°/N-m ± 0.3°/N-m to 0.8°/N-m ± 0.3°/N-m, p = 0.012), while anterior tibial translation increased significantly (3.8 ± 2.9 to 7.0 ± 2.9 mm, p = 0.017). Conclusions: ACL transection leads to a small increase in internal tibial rotation, equivalent to a 13% decrease in the dynamic rotational resistance

  3. Reinnervation of muscles after transection of the sciatic nerve in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ijkema-Paassen, Jos; Meek, Marcel F; Gramsbergen, Albert

    2002-06-01

    Functional recovery after transection of the sciatic nerve in adult rats is poor, probably because of abnormalities in reinnervation. Denervation and reinnervation patterns were studied morphologically in the lateral gastrocnemius (LGC), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) muscles for 21 weeks after nerve transection (motor endplates by acetylcholinesterase staining; nerves by silver impregnation). Motor endplates in the TA showed improving morphology with age, and, at 21 weeks, three-quarters of these were normal. Poorest recovery was observed in the SOL, as, at 21 weeks, only one-third of the motor endplates had a normal morphology. Polyneuronal innervation initially was more pronounced in the SOL, but, at 21 weeks, 10% of the motor endplates in all three muscles were still polyneuronally innervated. Our results indicate important differences in the reinnervation of these three hindleg muscles, and, even at 5 months, abnormalities were still present. These factors may in part explain the abnormal locomotion in rats as well as the limited recovery of function observed clinically in humans after nerve transection. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  4. Combined tracheoesophageal transection after blunt neck trauma.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Umar Imran; Jones, James Mark

    2013-04-01

    Survival following tracheoesophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Understanding the mechanism of the incident can be a useful adjunct in predicting the likelihood and severity of specific anatomical patterns of injuries. We discuss published literature on combined tracheoesophageal injuries after blunt neck trauma and their outcome. A search of MEDLINE for papers published regarding tracheoesophageal injury was made. The literature search identified 14 such articles referring to a total of 27 patients. Age ranged from 3-73 years. The mechanism of injury was secondary to a rope/wire in 33%, metal bar in 4% of cases and unspecified in 63%. All of the patients were managed surgically. A number of tissues were used to protect the anastomosis including pleural and sternocleidomastoid muscle flaps. There were no reported mortalities. Patients with combined tracheoesophageal injury after blunt neck trauma require acute management of airway along with concomitant occult injuries.

  5. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor may want you to get the hepatitis B vaccine (and maybe the hepatitis A vaccine, too), if you don't already have these viruses. If you have hepatitis C, you are more likely to catch hepatitis A or hepatitis B, which would cause more damage to your liver. ...

  6. Management of Iatrogenic Ulnar Nerve Transection.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mark

    2015-06-01

    A case of iatrogenic ulnar nerve laceration at the elbow is presented. Five subsequent surgeries over the course of the ensuing 20 months were performed to address this complication. The article examines the scientific basis for the various decisions needed to formulate a strategy that effectively addresses the problem. Emphasis is placed on the microsurgery of nerve topics: direct nerve repair, autogenous cable nerve grafting, biodegradable conduits, decellularized nerve allograft, and transfer of the anterior interosseous nerve to the ulnar motor branch. The discussion covers the relationship between choices made at the level of the original injury at the cubital tunnel to the timing and selection of distal reconstructive efforts, with specific attention to the distinction between end-to-end anterior interosseous to ulnar motor branch transfer as opposed to the supercharged end-to-side variation of this procedure.

  7. Design unbiased estimation in line intersect sampling using segmented transects

    Treesearch

    David L.R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    2005-01-01

    In many applications of line intersect sampling. transects consist of multiple, connected segments in a prescribed configuration. The relationship between the transect configuration and the selection probability of a population element is illustrated and a consistent sampling protocol, applicable to populations composed of arbitrarily shaped elements, is proposed. It...

  8. Trail Transect: A Method for Documenting Trail Changes

    Treesearch

    R.E. Leonard; A.M. Whitney

    1977-01-01

    A trail transect that documents trail conditions and changes in trails has been used successfully over the past 3 years to measure soil loss, and changes in trail width and vegetation. The system also can be used to study the relationship between trail degradation and the physical characteristics of the site. Data from trail transects can be useful in determining the...

  9. Strip transect sampling and analysis for avian habitat studies

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

    1980-01-01

    Censusing procedures that detect effects of habitat treatment on birds are outlined. We suggest that only relative values of bird species diversity, equitability, abundance, and species richness need be obtained. We also suggest that 4, 250-m strip transects per treatment and 8-10 trips over each transect are adequate. Aspects of sampling design that affect within-...

  10. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1970-01-01

    Unless a correction is made, population estimates derived from a sample of belt transects will be biased if a fraction of, the individuals on the sample transects are not counted. An approach, useful for correcting this bias when sampling immotile populations using transects of a fixed width, is presented. The method assumes that a searcher's ability to find objects near the center of the transect is nearly perfect. The method utilizes a mathematical equation, estimated from the data, to represent the searcher's inability to find all objects at increasing distances from the center of the transect. An example of the analysis of data, formation of the equation, and application is presented using waterfowl nesting data collected in Colorado.

  11. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated ...

  12. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive the hepatitis B vaccine. Since then, the rate of new hepatitis B infections has gone down ... 1 Asian Americans and African Americans have higher rates of chronic hepatitis B. 2 Many people in ...

  13. Muscle differentiation after sciatic nerve transection and reinnervation in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ijkema-Paassen, J; Meek, M F; Gramsbergen, A

    2001-07-01

    Reinnervation after peripheral nerve transections generally leads to poor functional recovery. In order to study whether changes in muscles might be a contributing factor in this phenomenon we studied muscle morphology and fibre type distributions after sciatic nerve transection in the rat hind limb. Proximally, before the bifurcation in the tibial and common peroneal nerve, a 12 mm segment of the sciatic nerve was resected, reversed and re-implanted as an autologous nerve graft. After survival periods of 7, 15 and 21 weeks the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were dissected, stained with mATP-ase, and fibre type distributions were studied. In addition, numbers of muscle fibres were counted, and cross sectional areas were calculated. After 7 weeks, cross sectional areas were decreased in all muscles. In the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles the fibre number remained unaltered but the hypotrophy had been reversed at later ages. The number of muscle fibres in the soleus muscle remained decreased over the entire period of observation. The percentages of type II fibres in the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were decreased at 7 and 15 weeks but these again approached normal values at 21 weeks. The type I fibres, however, remained arranged in groups. In the soleus muscle a large increase in the percentage of type II muscle fibres was observed and this remained until 21 weeks. We conclude that a non-selective reinnervation and later readjustments by regression of polyneural innervation may in part explain the changes in distributions of various fibre types.

  14. Hepatic Resection Using a Water Jet Dissector

    PubMed Central

    Stain, S. C.; Guastella, T.; Maddern, G. J.; Blumgart, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity in major hepatic resection is often related to hemorrhage. A high pressure, high velocity water jet has been developed and has been utilized to assist in hepatic parenchymal transection. Sixty-seven major hepatic resections were performed for solid hepatic tumors. The tissue fracture technique was used in 51 patients (76%), and the water jet dissector was used predominantly in 16 patients (24%). The extent of hepatic resection using each technique was similar. The results showed no difference in operative duration (p = .499). The mean estimated blood loss using the water jet was 1386 ml, and tissue fracture technique 2450 ml (p = .217). Transfusion requirements were less in the water jet group (mean 2.0 units) compared to the tissue fracture group (mean 5.2 units); (p = .023). Results obtained with the new water dissector are encouraging. The preliminary results suggest that blood loss may be diminished. PMID:8387808

  15. Measure of pancreas transection and postoperative pancreatic fistula.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Gotohda, Naoto; Kato, Yuichiro; Konishi, Masaru

    2016-05-15

    In pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), a standard protocol for pancreas transection has not been established although the method of pancreas transection might be involved in the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). This study aimed to compare whether pancreas transection by ultrasonically activated shears (UAS) or that by scalpel contributed more to POPF development. A prospective database of 171 patients who underwent PD for periampullary tumor at National Cancer Center Hospital East between January 2010 and June 2013 was reviewed. Among the 171 patients, 93 patients with soft pancreas were specifically included in this study. Surgical results and background were compared between patients with pancreas transection by UAS and scalpel to evaluate the effectiveness of UAS on reducing POPF. Body mass index, main pancreatic duct diameter, or other clinicopathologic factors that have been reported as predictive factors for POPF were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of all grades of POPF and that of grade B were significantly lower in the scalpel group (52%, 4%) than in the UAS group (74%, 42%). Postoperative complications ≥ grade III were also significantly fewer in the scalpel group. Scalpel transection was less associated with POPF than UAS transection in patients who underwent PD for soft pancreas. The method of pancreas transection plays an important role in the prevention of clinical POPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the liver), liver cancer, and even death.Hepatitis A can cause varying symptoms, but most often causes fever, tiredness, ... important? The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus, which causes liver cancer. The hepatitis B virus is 100 ...

  17. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... transaminase enzyme levels Treatment There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. You should rest when the symptoms are ... and have not had hepatitis A or the hepatitis A vaccine. Common reasons for getting one or both of these treatments include: You live with someone who has hepatitis ...

  18. Stable isotope differences among the Lake Michigan 2015 CSMI transects

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the Lake Michigan 2015 Cooperative Science and Monitoring Initiative (CSMI), eight transects situated near tributaries that present a gradient of phosphorus loads were sampled from nearshore to offshore during May, July, and September. Our objective was to evaluate associa...

  19. Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys?.

    PubMed

    Hilário, Renato R; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Chiarello, Adriano G; Mourthé, Italo

    2012-01-01

    Line transect distance sampling (LTDS) can be applied to either trails or roads. However, it is likely that sampling along roads might result in biased density estimates. In this paper, we compared the results obtained with LTDS applied on trails and roads for two primate species (Callithrix penicillata and Callicebus nigrifrons) to clarify whether roads are appropriate transects to estimate densities. We performed standard LTDS surveys in two nature reserves in south-eastern Brazil. Effective strip width and population density were different between trails and roads for C. penicillata, but not for C. nigrifrons. The results suggest that roads are not appropriate for use as transects in primate surveys, at least for some species. Further work is required to fully understand this issue, but in the meantime we recommend that researchers avoid using roads as transects or treat roads and trails as covariates when sampling on roads is unavoidable. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Stable isotope differences among the Lake Michigan 2015 CSMI transects

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the Lake Michigan 2015 Cooperative Science and Monitoring Initiative (CSMI), eight transects situated near tributaries that present a gradient of phosphorus loads were sampled from nearshore to offshore during May, July, and September. Our objective was to evaluate associa...

  1. COAST: Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W.; Johnson, H. P.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.; Tobin, H. J.; Trehu, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Cascadia margin is the site of active subduction, where the Juan de Fuca plate subducts under the North American plate at a rate of ~35 mm/yr. This system is of great scientific and societal interest, as it is capable of very large (Mw~9) earthquakes, creates volcanic hazards in the Cascades, and hosts periodic episodic tremor and slip (ETS) episodes. Despite evidence that the system has generated large megathrust earthquakes, limited seismicity creates large uncertainties in the position, structure, and physical state of the plate boundary. The COAST (Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects) project conducted an open-access, open-participation 2D seismic survey of the Cascadia subduction margin off Grays Harbor, WA, that will provide benchmark seismic images to address key scientific issues regarding the location, physical state, fluid budget, and associated methane systems of the subducting plate boundary and overlying crust. We collected seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetric, sidescan sonar, gravity, and magnetic data on the Cascadia subduction margin from the R/V Langseth in July 2012 in a high-priority GeoPRISMS corridor off Grays Harbor, Washington. The cruise was open-participation, with an organized shipboard education and training program, and the data are open-access, with immediate, full release to the community of all geophysical data. Project goals include (1) determining the location of the offshore plate boundary, (2) constraining sediment subduction and plate boundary roughness, (3) estimating pore fluid pathways, (4) determining controls on methane distribution, and (5) imaging compressional and extensional structures that may pose geohazards on the Cascadia margin. Initial observations include the following: (1) The Pleistocene accretionary wedge is well imaged and shows landward-vergent thrust faulting throughout our survey area. An outboard series of ramp-and-thrust structures gives way to a region characterized by folds that separate

  2. Bioclimatic transect networks: Powerful observatories of ecological change.

    PubMed

    Caddy-Retalic, Stefan; Andersen, Alan N; Aspinwall, Michael J; Breed, Martin F; Byrne, Margaret; Christmas, Matthew J; Dong, Ning; Evans, Bradley J; Fordham, Damien A; Guerin, Greg R; Hoffmann, Ary A; Hughes, Alice C; van Leeuwen, Stephen J; McInerney, Francesca A; Prober, Suzanne M; Rossetto, Maurizio; Rymer, Paul D; Steane, Dorothy A; Wardle, Glenda M; Lowe, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Transects that traverse substantial climate gradients are important tools for climate change research and allow questions on the extent to which phenotypic variation associates with climate, the link between climate and species distributions, and variation in sensitivity to climate change among biomes to be addressed. However, the potential limitations of individual transect studies have recently been highlighted. Here, we argue that replicating and networking transects, along with the introduction of experimental treatments, addresses these concerns. Transect networks provide cost-effective and robust insights into ecological and evolutionary adaptation and improve forecasting of ecosystem change. We draw on the experience and research facilitated by the Australian Transect Network to demonstrate our case, with examples, to clarify how population- and community-level studies can be integrated with observations from multiple transects, manipulative experiments, genomics, and ecological modeling to gain novel insights into how species and systems respond to climate change. This integration can provide a spatiotemporal understanding of past and future climate-induced changes, which will inform effective management actions for promoting biodiversity resilience.

  3. Complete Brachial Artery Transection following closed Posterior Elbow Dislocation: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    C, JayanthKumar B; Sampath, Deepak; N, Hanumantha Reddy; Motukuru, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular injury associated withclosed posterior elbow dislocations is rare and it usually occurs along with open dislocation, anterior dislocation, penetrating injuries, dislocations associated with fracture. We report such a case of closed posterior elbow dislocation with complete brachial artery rupture. Case Report: A 58 years old lady sustained posterior dislocation of right elbow following a fall at home. She presented three days later with complaints of severe pain, swelling around the right elbow and numbness of fingers following a closed reduction done elsewhere. Computed graft angiography showed complete transection of brachialartery. Patient was treated with thrombectomy, right great saphenous vein graft interposition repair of brachial artery and forearm fasciotomy. Conclusion: Vascular injuries associated with posterior elbow dislocation are very rare, but high index of suspicion of arterial injury need to be thought off and repeated vascular examination during pre and post reduction stage should be done to prevent complications. PMID:27299092

  4. Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Yuk Chuen; Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is one of the most common problems encountered in orthopedic practice. However, simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders is quite rare. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 75-year-old woman presented with simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following a trauma, complicated with a traction injury to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. Conclusions: Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. The excessive traction force during closed reduction may lead to nerve palsy. Clear documentation of neurovascular status and adequate imaging before and after a reduction should be performed. PMID:25685749

  5. Techniques of hepatic resection

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Liver resections are high risk procedures performed by experienced surgeons. The role of liver resection in malignant disease has changed over the last 100 years with great improvement in morbidity, mortality and long term survival. New understanding in liver anatomy, improved perioperative care, anesthesia techniques, and technological advances has improved this aspect of patient care. With improved techniques, patients previously considered unresectable have an opportunity to undergo curative surgery. This review article describes the various approaches and techniques for liver resection. The relevant anatomy and terminology of hepatic resections is discussed, as well as the role of anatomic vs. nonanatomic resection. Methods of vascular control are examined and the multiple strategies of parenchymal transection are compared, as well as minimally-invasive techniques. Finally, a brief review of the authors’ practice in terms of surgical technique is offered. PMID:22811867

  6. Potassium titanyl phosphate laser welding following complete nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Neel K; Mejias, Christopher; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Gale, Derrick C; Park, Andrea M; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-07-01

    Cranial nerve transection during head and neck surgery is conventionally repaired by microsuture reanastomosis. Laser nerve welding (LNW), using CO2 laser to spot-weld the epineurium of transected nerve endings, has been shown in animal models to be a novel alternative to microsuture repair. This method avoids needle/suture material and minimizes instrumentation of the nerve. We hypothesized that potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser would be superior to CO2 laser in repairing transected nerves. Using a rat posterior tibial nerve injury model, we compared CO2 laser, KTP laser, and microsuture reanastomosis. Animal study. Animals underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection. The injury was repaired by microsuture repair (n = 15), CO2 laser repair (n = 15), or KTP laser repair (n = 15). Weekly walking tracks were performed to measure functional recovery. Nerve segments were harvested for axon counting. At 6 weeks, the KTP LNW had the best functional recovery (92.4 ± 8.6%) compared to microsuture repair (84.5 ± 10.2%, difference 7.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84%-14.96%). CO2 laser repair had a functional recovery of 86.8 ± 11.2%. KTP LNW had better axon recovery compared to transection/repair (difference 530.7 axons, 95% CI: 329.9-731.5). Operative time for the microsuture repair was 18.2 ± 6.8 minutes, compared to 5.8 ± 3.7 minutes for the LNW groups (difference 12.4 minutes, 95% CI: 8.6-16.2 minutes). KTP, CO2 , and microsuture repair all showed good functional recovery following complete transection of the posterior tibial nerve. Following complete nerve transection during head and neck surgery, KTP LNW may be a novel alternative to microsuture repair. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1525-1530, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... them. Causes This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference ... inflammation, or hepatitis, may occur along with other autoimmune diseases. These include: Graves disease Inflammatory bowel disease Rheumatoid ...

  8. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the ...

  9. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business Congressional Affairs Jobs Benefits Booklet Data & Statistics National ... with hepatitis B need to be on treatment. Choosing the right time for hepatitis B treatment is ...

  10. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  11. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    MedlinePlus

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  13. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  14. Curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma using modified Glissonean pedicle transection versus the Pringle maneuver: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bai; Wang, Yingchao; Wang, Guangyi; Liu, Yahui

    2012-01-01

    The Glissonean pedicle transection method of liver resection has been found to shorten operative time and minimize intraoperative bleeding during liver segmentectomy. We have compared the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of the Glissonean pedicle transection method with the Pringle maneuver in patients undergoing selective curative resection of large hepatocellualr carcinoma (HCC). Eligible patients with large (> 5 cm) nodular HCC (n = 50) were assigned to undergo curative hepatectomy using the Glissonean pedicle transection method (n = 25) or the Pringle maneuver (n = 25). Partial interruption of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava was incorporated to further reduce bleeding from liver transection. The primary outcome measure was postoperative changes in liver function from baseline. Secondary outcomes included operating time, volume of intraoperative blood loss/transfusion, and time to resolution of ascites. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, site and size of the liver tumor, segment or lobe intended to be resected, and liver function reserve, and the results were not significant statistically. All patients underwent successful major hepatectomies using the assigned method, with the extent of major hepatectomy comparable in the two groups (P = 0.832). The Glissonean approach was associated with shorter hepatic inflow interruption (30.0 ± 12.0 min vs. 45.0 ± 13.0 min, P < 0.001), lower volume of blood loss (145.0 ± 20.0 mL vs. 298.0 ± 109.0 mL, P < 0.001), reduced requirement for transfusion (0.0 ± 0.0 mL vs. 200.0 ± 109.0 mL, P < 0.0001), and more rapid resolution of ascites (9.5 ± 1.2 d vs. 15.3 ± 2.4 d, P < 0.001). Postoperative liver function measures were comparable in the two groups, and the results were not significant statistically. The Glissonean pedicle transection method is a feasible, effective, and safe technique for hepatic inflow control during the curative resection of large nodular HCCs.

  15. [Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Miliam, Palle B; Basse, Peter N

    2009-03-30

    Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It may be rare because it is underrecognized clinically.We present a case regarding a 29-year-old man, drummer, who for one and a half year experienced clinical symptoms of anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. A surgical decompression of the anterior tarsal tunnel was performed, and at the check three months later the symptoms where gone. One year after, there were still no symptoms.

  16. [Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding.

  17. Mechanisms of secondary degeneration after partial optic nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Ying; Ruan, Yi-Wen; Ren, Chao-Ran; Cui, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Secondary degeneration occurs commonly in the central nervous system after traumatic injuries and following acute and chronic diseases, including glaucoma. A constellation of mechanisms have been shown to be associated with secondary degeneration including apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, derangements in ionic homeostasis and calcium influx. Glial cells, such as microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, have also been demonstrated to take part in the process of secondary injury. Partial optic nerve transection is a useful model which was established about 13 years ago. The merit of this model compared with other optic nerve injury models used for glaucoma study, including complete optic nerve transection model and optic nerve crush model, is the possibility to separate primary degeneration from secondary degeneration in location. Therefore, it provides a good tool for the study of secondary degeneration. This review will focus on the research progress of the mechanisms of secondary degeneration using partial optic nerve transection model. PMID:25206855

  18. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  19. Mechanism of development of aortic transection: a possible new angle.

    PubMed

    Warwick, R; Mediratta, N; Pullan, M; Chalmers, J; Poullis, M

    2013-03-01

    Aortic transection injury is a frequently fatal injury secondary to sudden deceleration. To date magnitude of deceleration is the only factor known to influence the development of an aortic transection injury. We hypothesise that different 3D geometries of the aortic arch in healthy young adult patients as a possible predisposing factor for transection injuries when undergoing sudden deceleration. We extend this to hypothesise that the direction of deceleration may be important as well. In addition we hypothesise that the stage in the cardiac cycle, which determines central aortic blood pressure, when the deceleration occurs as an important factor. We utilise known engineering principles such as Newton's second Law of motion, moment of inertia, law of Laplace, and the theory of superposition to explain our hypothesis. We present limited data to demonstrate the wide variation in aortic arch 3D geometry to explain the possible an individual's variable susceptibility to transection injuries via the principle of moment of inertia. Engineering principles suggest that 3D aortic arch geometry, direction of deceleration and stage in the cardiac cycle, in addition to the magnitude of deceleration are potentially important factors in predisposing certain individuals in a given situation to aortic transaction injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plotting of bathythermograph transect data on a printer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, James B.; McLain, Douglas R.

    1971-01-01

    A program for plotting bathythermograph transect data on a computer (IBM 1130) printer is available from the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Temperature values are printed in positions proportional to their depths and distances from shore. Contour lines are drawn manually through the plotted points.

  1. A Hierarchical Modeling Framework for Multiple Observer Transect Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Paul B.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Devin S.

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists often use multiple observer transect surveys to census animal populations. In addition to animal counts, these surveys produce sequences of detections and non-detections for each observer. When combined with additional data (i.e. covariates such as distance from the transect line), these sequences provide the additional information to estimate absolute abundance when detectability on the transect line is less than one. Although existing analysis approaches for such data have proven extremely useful, they have some limitations. For instance, it is difficult to extrapolate from observed areas to unobserved areas unless a rigorous sampling design is adhered to; it is also difficult to share information across spatial and temporal domains or to accommodate habitat-abundance relationships. In this paper, we introduce a hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer line transects that removes these limitations. In particular, abundance intensities can be modeled as a function of habitat covariates, making it easier to extrapolate to unsampled areas. Our approach relies on a complete data representation of the state space, where unobserved animals and their covariates are modeled using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Observer detections are modeled via a bivariate normal distribution on the probit scale, with dependence induced by a distance-dependent correlation parameter. We illustrate performance of our approach with simulated data and on a known population of golf tees. In both cases, we show that our hierarchical modeling approach yields accurate inference about abundance and related parameters. In addition, we obtain accurate inference about population-level covariates (e.g. group size). We recommend that ecologists consider using hierarchical models when analyzing multiple-observer transect data, especially when it is difficult to rigorously follow pre-specified sampling designs. We provide a new R package, hierarchical

  2. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs and symptoms of hepatitis C virus infection? Hepatitis C virus infection causes signs and symptoms similar to those of hepatitis B virus infection. It also can cause no symptoms. Unlike hepatitis B virus infection, most ...

  3. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  4. Right hepatic artery crossing the common hepatic artery: an unusual blood supply to the liver.

    PubMed

    Felli, Emanuele; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Santoro, Roberto; Guglielmo, Nicola; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-04-01

    To perform hepatic surgery a precise preoperative and intraoperative study of liver vascular supply is mandatory. Detecting vascular variations may have great importance on surgical strategy and outcome, and details of anatomy do not concern only academical knowledge but become deeply involved in practice. We present a case of unusual blood supply to the liver, the common hepatic artery was directed to the right liver and a right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery was directed to the left liver. The right hepatic artery crossed the common hepatic artery in the proximal part of the hepatic pedicle, anterior to the portal vein. To our knowledge this type of anatomical variation has not been described before and it represents a rare finding that has to be kept in mind, especially in case of major hepatectomies and more demanding splitting liver procedures such as A.L.P.P.S., in situ split, ex situ split and living donor liver transplantation.

  5. Hepatitis C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis C Antibody; Anti-HCV; HCV-PCR; HCV-RNA; Hepatitis C Viral Load Formal name: Viral Hepatitis C Antibody Screen; Viral Hepatitis C RNA by PCR; Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Related tests: ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B is ... their exposures. Map 3-04. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among adults PDF Version (printable) ...

  7. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  8. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... MW, Sheffield JS. Prevention and management of viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America . 2014;41(4):573–592. [4] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chapter 9: Hepatitis A. In Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S, eds. ...

  9. Model for estimating of population abundance using line transect sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulraqeb Abdullah Saeed, Gamil; Muhammad, Noryanti; Zun Liang, Chuan; Yusoff, Wan Nur Syahidah Wan; Zuki Salleh, Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Today, many studies use the nonparametric methods for estimating objects abundance, for the simplicity, the parametric methods are widely used by biometricians. This paper is designed to present the proposed model for estimating of population abundance using line transect technique. The proposed model is appealing because it is strictly monotonically decreasing with perpendicular distance and it satisfies the shoulder conditions. The statistical properties and inference of the proposed model are discussed. In the presented detection function, theoretically, the proposed model is satisfied the line transect assumption, that leads us to study the performance of this model. We use this model as a reference for the future research of density estimation. In this paper we also study the assumption of the detection function and introduce the corresponding model in order to apply the simulation in future work.

  10. Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, John E.

    2013-09-30

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.

  11. Early Stabilization of Traumatic Aortic Transection and Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, David L.; Wellens, Francis; Vercoutere, Rik A.; De Geest, Raf

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening aortic transection with concomitant mitral papillary muscle rupture and severe lung contusion caused by a failed parachute jump. This blunt thoracic injury was treated by early stabilization with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by successful delayed graft repair of the descending aorta and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:65–7) PMID:12638675

  12. Neurogenesis In The Lamprey CNS Following Spinal Cord Transection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guixin; Pizarro, Ivonne Vidal; Swain, Gary P.; Kang, Shin H.; Selzer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    After spinal cord transection, lampreys recover functionally and axons regenerate. It is not known whether this is accompanied by neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested a baseline level of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the spinal cord and rhombencephalon (where most supraspinal projecting neurons are located). To determine whether cell proliferation increases after injury and whether this includes neurogenesis, larval lampreys were spinally transected and injected with BrdU at 0-3 weeks post-transection. Labeled cells were counted in the lesion site, within 0.5 mm rostral and caudal to the lesion, and in the rhombencephalon. One group of animals was processed in the winter, and a second group was processed in the summer. The number of labeled cells was greater in winter than in summer. The lesion site had the most BrdU labeling at all times, correlating with an increase in the number of cells. In the adjacent spinal cord the percentage of BrdU labeling was higher in the ependymal than in non-ependymal regions. This was also true in the rhombencephalon but only in summer. In winter, BrdU labeling was seen primarily in the subventricular and peripheral zones. Some BrdU-labeled cells were also double-labeled by antibodies to glial-specific (anti-keratin) as well as to neuron-specific (anti-Hu) antigens, indicating that both gliogenesis and neurogenesis occurred after spinal cord transection. However, the new neurons were restricted to the ependymal zone, were never labeled by anti-neurofilament antibodies, and never migrated away from the ependyma, even at 5 weeks after BrdU injection. They would appear to be CSF-contacting neurons. PMID:24151158

  13. Northeast-southwest structural transect: Rocky Mountain foreland, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D.S.

    1987-08-01

    A northeast-southwest structural transect has been constructed across the Rocky Mountain foreland in Wyoming, a distance of about 400 mi. The line of transect begins in the northern Black Hills and traverses the northern Powder River basin, the Bighorn Mountains from Buffalo to Bonanza, the Big Horn basin from Worland to Hamilton dome, the Owl Creek Mountains, the northern Wind River basin at Maverick Springs, the Wind River Mountains to Pinedale in the Green River basin, the Moxa Arch at Big Piney and Riley Ridge, and into the thrust belt, ending at the Idaho border. In terms of a vertical and horizontal scale of 1 in. = 2000 ft, the section is about 90 ft long (i.e., the section is approximately 409 mi long). The data base for the transect includes published geologic maps, commercial photogeologic mapping, well data, and modern seismic data through critical parts of the basin areas. The data base provides an excellent found for analyzing structural relationships on both a regional and a local scale. Regional horizontal shortening of the foreland has occurred primarily through basement-involved displacements on basin-boundary megathrusts, which separate the mountain ranges from sedimentary basins, and on the smaller, intrabasin thrusts, which produced the anticlinal traps for Paleozoic oil accumulations.

  14. Fetal fornix transection and gestation length in sheep.

    PubMed

    McDonald, T J; Li, C; Vincent, S E; Nijland, M J

    2006-08-01

    Experiments in several species indicate that the hippocampus influences hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In fetal sheep, simultaneous ACTH and cortisol rises over the last 30 days of gestation peak at term and are necessary for birth. We hypothesized that if the fetal hippocampal formation is functional in late gestation, loss of hippocampal input to the HPA axis following fetal fornix transection would change gestation length in comparison to controls. At 118-121 days of gestation (dG), stereotaxic technique was used in fetal sheep to sham transect (SHAM; n = 8) or transect (FXTX; n = 6) the dorsal fornix at the level of the hippocampal commissure. No differences were found between SHAM and FXTX fetuses in daily hormone profiles over the last week of gestation or in gestation length (148.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 149.0 +/- 0.4 dG, respectively). We conclude that the fetal hippocampus is immature in late gestation and we speculate that an immature hippocampus is necessary for the loss of negative feedback control that gives rise to the long term, simultaneous increases in ACTH and cortisol that are indispensable for labor and delivery at term in sheep.

  15. River flow regimes and vegetation dynamics along a river transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulatyari, Behnam; Basso, Stefano; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    Ecohydrological processes occurring within fluvial landscapes are strongly affected by natural streamflow variability. In this work the patterns of vegetation biomass in two rivers characterized by contrasting flow regimes were investigated by means of a comprehensive stochastic model which explicitly couples catchment-scale hydroclimatic processes, morphologic attributes of the river transect and in-stream bio-ecological features. The hydrologic forcing is characterized by the probability distribution (pdf) of streamflows and stages resulting from stochastic precipitation dynamics, rainfall-runoff transformation and reach scale morphologic attributes. The model proved able to reproduce the observed pdf of river flows and stages, as well as the pattern of exposure/inundation along the river transect in both regimes. Our results suggest that in persistent regimes characterized by reduced streamflow variability, mean vegetation biomass is chiefly controlled by the pattern of groundwater availability along the transect, leading to a marked transition between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Conversely, erratic regimes ensure wider aquatic-terrestrial zones in which optimal elevation ranges for species with different sensitivity to flooding and access to groundwater are separated. Patterns of mean biomass in erratic regimes were found to be more sensitive to changes in the underlying hydroclimatic conditions, notwithstanding the reduced responsiveness of the corresponding flow regimes. The framework developed highlights the important role played by streamflow regimes in shaping riverine environments, and may eventually contribute to identifying the influence of landscape, climate and morphologic features on in-stream ecological dynamics.

  16. The North American Monsoon GPS TRANSECT Experiment 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D. K.; Bennett, R. A.; Perez, O. R.; Minjarez, C.; Serra, Y. L.; Quintanar, A.; Alatorre, L.; Granados, A.; Vazquez, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for meteorology observations in Northwest Mexico strongly motivated the North American Monsoon GPS TRANSECT Experiment 2013; however, the goals of this experiment are much broader. The GNSS/GPS technique for providing water vapor measurements has now been used for almost two decades, particularly for validation, observational studies and forecasting. These studies suggest the technique provides total column water vapor with high accuracy and with a high degree of stability over time making it very useful for many research applications over a variety of time scales. The Experiment has two principal scientific aims: (1) to address basic science questions regarding the role of water vapor fluxes in the SMO in initiating deep convection and growth into MCSs by utilizing a novel measurement technique. (2) to improve NAM operational forecasts through PWV data assimilation Broader impacts of the experiment also include strengthening the international long-term collaborative efforts between Mexico and the US focusing on the climate and meteorology of Northwest Mexico and the Southwest US. 10 GPS meteorological stations in addition to 7 existing Suominet sites (http://www.suominet.ucar.edu/) . were arranged in 3 specific transects, each with a particular observational goal. To cover the highest reaches of the SMO, a transect from Bahía de Kino to Chihuahua City was constructed providing the opportunity to evaluate convective initiation and the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor fields over complex terrain. The second transect along the Gulf of California (GoC) coastal plains was motivated by the need to capture of low-level moisture "gulf surges" propagating up the GoC in addition to other tropical disturbances. The third transect, Los Mochis to Badiraguato, captures the strong precipitation gradient between the GoC and the foothills of Sinaloa. We present initial results on the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor as a function of elevation for both

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100230.htm Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  18. Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Masternick, Eric B

    2006-07-01

    Compression of the deep peroneal nerve is commonly referred to as anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. Although rare, this syndrome remains poorly diagnosed. The syndrome is characterized by pain, weakness, and sensory changes of the foot and ankle. Non-operative measures should be attempted to reduce or remove the external compression along the anterior aspect of the foot and ankle. Other options include shoe modifications, cortisone injections,and physical therapy. If conservative management fails to relieve the symptoms, surgical decompression of the entrapped nerve can be performed. The deep peroneal nerve is released from compressive forces in the entrapment site. This can be performed at the more proximal level at the extensor retinaculum or more distally at the level of the tarsal metatarsal site.

  19. [Anterior pseudodiverticulum after laryngectomy].

    PubMed

    Pitzer, G; Oursin, C; Wolfensberger, M

    1998-01-01

    An anterior neopharyngeal pseudodiverticulum is a mucosal pouch located between the tongue and hypopharynx due to an epiglottis-like posterior tissue band that forms after total laryngectomy. This condition has rarely been mentioned in literature. Incidence, symptoms, treatment, and possible etiologic factors were examined. Twenty post-laryngectomy patients were questioned about swallowing disorders and were examined clinically and by barium swallow. Eleven patients were found to have a pseudodiverticulum, of which 9 patients suffered from dysphagia. We found no correlation between the formation of a pseudodiverticulum and radiotherapy or post-laryngectomy complications. All symptomatic patients were treated by dissecting the posterior tissue band endoscopically with a CO2-laser, bringing complete relief of symptoms in 8 of 9 patients. Our study showed that the anterior pseudodiverticulum can be a frequent cause of dysphagia after laryngectomy. It can easily be diagnosed clinically and radiologically. Endoscopic treatment with a CO2-laser is simple and effective.

  20. The impact of forced joint exercise on lubricin biosynthesis from articular cartilage following ACL transection and intra-articular lubricin's effect in exercised joints following ACL transection.

    PubMed

    Elsaid, K A; Zhang, L; Waller, K; Tofte, J; Teeple, E; Fleming, B C; Jay, G D

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of forced joint exercise following acute knee injury on lubricin metabolism and its relationship to cartilage degeneration and to assess chondroprotection of a single-dose purified human lubricin injection in exercised injured joints. Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was performed in rats with six experimental groups; 3-week post-ACLT, 3-week post-ACLT + exercise, 5-week post-ACLT, 5-week post-ACLT + exercise, and 5-week post-ACLT + exercise treated with intra-articular phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or lubricin. Joint exercise was achieved using a rotating cylinder at a speed of 6 rpm for 30 min daily, 5 days a week starting 1 week following surgery. Cartilage lubricin expression in injured joints was determined. Histological analyses included Safranin O/Fast Green, activated caspase-3, and lubricin mRNA in-situ hybridization. Assessment of cartilage damage was performed by osteoarthritis research society international (OARSI) modified Mankin scoring and urinary CTXII (uCTXII) levels. At 3 weeks, lubricin expression in exercised ACLT joints was significantly (P < 0.001) lower compared to ACLT joints. The OARSI scores were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the ACLT + exercise animals compared to ACLT animals at 5 weeks. Compared to 3-week ACLT, 3-week ACLT + exercise cartilage showed increased caspase-3 staining. Compared to ACLT + exercise and PBS-treated ACLT + exercise, lubricin intra-articular treatment resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.001) in cartilage lubricin gene expression and a reduction (P < 0.05) in uCTXII levels. Joint exercise resulted in decreased lubricin cartilage expression, increased cartilage degeneration and reduced superficial zone chondrocyte viability in the ACLT joint. Intra-articular lubricin administration ameliorated cartilage damage due to exercise and preserved superficial zone chondrocytes' viability. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier

  1. A novel rabbit model of early osteoarthritis exhibits gradual cartilage degeneration after medial collateral ligament transection outside the joint capsule

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenlong; Hu, Xiaoqing; Man, Zhentao; Zhang, Jiying; Jiang, Yanfang; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-01

    Though many surgical animal models have been used to induce osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint, they always open the capsule of the joint. Any surgical procedures that incises the capsule may cause inflammation, pain, and possibly altered gait. One common disadvantage of these surgically induced animal models is that they may affect the initial structures and synovial fluid in joint. These animal models may not be suitable for research into synovial fluid changes during early OA. This study aimed to create an animal model of early OA by resecting the medial collateral ligament (MCL) outside of the capsule. At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after surgery, eight knees from each group were harvested. The joint gap was measured on posteroanterior radiographs after MCL-transection (MCLT). Gross examination and histological analysis were performed to evaluate cartilage damage to the medial femoral condyles, and knee joints were scanned using a Micro-CT system. The MCLT group experienced early stage OA from 3 to 6 weeks according to the histological scores. IL-6, MMP-1 and MMP-13 content in the synovial fluid were higher after MCLT than anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) at 1 and 2 weeks. PMID:27756901

  2. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood or oxygen, causing injury to liver cells. Causes Low blood pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. ... liver's blood vessels Treatment Treatment depends on the cause. Low blood pressure and blood clots must be treated right away. ...

  3. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... a mother who had hepatitis C Received a tattoo or acupuncture with needles that were not disinfected ... is very low with practitioners who have a tattoo license or permit or an acupuncture license) Received ...

  4. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2013-10-26

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.

  5. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same symptoms as those of other liver diseases or metabolic disorders. Blood tests. A blood test involves drawing ... the same symptoms as those of other liver diseases or metabolic disorders. Treatment for autoimmune hepatitis includes medication to ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  7. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Health e Vet Prescriptions Refills Crisis Prevention Mental Health PTSD Public Health Veterans Access, Choice & Accountability Act ... and Complementary Therapies Diet and Nutrition Managing Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories ...

  8. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcoholic hepatitis include: Fluid accumulation in your abdomen (ascites) Confusion and behavior changes due to a buildup ... is life-threatening and requires immediate medical care. Ascites. Fluid that accumulates in the abdomen might become ...

  9. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel movements Loss of appetite Low-grade fever Dark urine Joint pain Yellowing of the skin and ... person ingests even tiny amounts of contaminated fecal matter. The hepatitis A virus infects liver cells and ...

  10. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people at risk for contracting hepatitis. But frequent hand washing and good hygiene practices can reduce this risk. ... After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B (HBV) Hepatitis Hand Washing Blood Transfusions Body Piercing Tattoos Contact Us Print ...

  11. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  12. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  13. Hepatitis A - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis A Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Hepatitis A Vaccine: What ... Hepatitis A Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Hepatitis A Vaccine: What ...

  14. Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme

  15. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    PubMed Central

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D. Colton; Boyer, Richard B.; Pollins, Alonda C.; Shack, R. Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P.

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion. PMID:28616031

  16. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  17. Distribution of small phytoflagellates along an Arctic fjord transect.

    PubMed

    Piwosz, Kasia; Spich, Katarzyna; Całkiewicz, Joanna; Weydmann, Agata; Kubiszyn, Anna M; Wiktor, Józef M

    2015-07-01

    Phytoflagellates <10 μm substantially contribute to the abundance, biomass and primary production in polar waters, but information on the distribution of specific groups is scarce. We applied catalysed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization to investigate the distribution of total phytoflagellates and of eight specific groups along a 100 km transect west off Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) from 29 to 31 July 2010. Phytoflagellates contributed to >75% of the depth-integrated abundance and biomass of total eukaryotes <10 μm at all stations. Their depth-integrated abundance and biomass decreased along the transect from 1.5 × 10(12)  cells m(-2) (6.6 × 10(12)  pgC m(-2) ) at the outermost station to 1.7 × 10(10)  cells m(-2) (4.7 × 10(10) pgC m(-2) ) at the innermost station. Chlorophytes contributed to the total abundance of phytoflagellates with a range from 13% to 87% (0.7-30.5 × 10(3)  cells ml(-1) ), and predominated in open waters. The contribution of haptophytes was < 1-38% (10-4500 cells ml(-1) ). The other groups represented <10%. The temperature and salinity positively correlated with the total abundance of phytoflagellates, chlorophytes, haptophytes, bolidophytes and pelagophytes. Cryptophytes, pedinellids and pavlovophytes were negatively associated with the nutrient concentrations. The community composition of phytoflagellates changed along the transect, which could have implications on food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles between the open ocean environment and Kongsfjorden investigated here.

  18. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the treatment of chronic hepatitis B include alpha interferon and peginterferon, which slow the replication of the ... Chronic hepatitis D is usually treated with pegylated interferon, although other potential treatments are under study. Hepatitis ...

  19. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  20. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  1. Changes in dynamic medial tibiofemoral contact mechanics and kinematics after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: a cadaveric model.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Asheesh; Chen, Tony; Santner, Thomas J; El-Amin, Saadiq; Kelly, Natalie H; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A

    2013-09-01

    The effects of tears of the anterior cruciate ligament on knee kinematics and contact mechanics during dynamic everyday activities, such as gait, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee contact mechanics and kinematics during simulated gait. Nine human cadaveric knees were each augmented with a sensor capable of measuring dynamic normal contact stresses on the tibial plateau, mounted on a load-controlled simulator, and subjected to physiological, multidirectional, dynamic loads to mimic gait. Using a mixed model with random knee identifiers, confidence intervals were constructed for contact stress before and after anterior cruciate ligament transection at two points in the gait cycle at which axial force peaked (14% and 45% of the gait cycle). Kinematic and contact mechanics changes after anterior cruciate ligament transection were highly variable across knees. Nonetheless, a statistically significant increase in contact stress in the posterior-central aspect of the medial tibial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was identified, the location of which corresponds to the location of degenerative changes that are frequently found in patients with chronic anterior cruciate ligament injury. The variability in the contact stress in other regions of the medial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was partly explained by the variations in osseous geometry across the nine knees tested. At 14% of gait, there was no significant change in peak contact stress after anterior cruciate ligament transection in any of the four quadrants, and none of the possible explanatory variables showed statistical significance. Understanding the variable effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury on contact mechanics based on geometric differences in osseous anatomy is of paramount clinical importance and may be invaluable to select the best reconstruction techniques and counsel patients on their individual risk of subsequent

  2. Changes in dynamic medial tibiofemoral contact mechanics and kinematics after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: A cadaveric model

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Asheesh; Chen, Tony; Santner, Thomas J; El-Amin, Saadiq; Kelly, Natalie H; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tears of the anterior cruciate ligament on knee kinematics and contact mechanics during dynamic everyday activities, such as gait, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize anterior cruciate ligament–deficient knee contact mechanics and kinematics during simulated gait. Nine human cadaveric knees were each augmented with a sensor capable of measuring dynamic normal contact stresses on the tibial plateau, mounted on a load-controlled simulator, and subjected to physiological, multidirectional, dynamic loads to mimic gait. Using a mixed model with random knee identifiers, confidence intervals were constructed for contact stress before and after anterior cruciate ligament transection at two points in the gait cycle at which axial force peaked (14% and 45% of the gait cycle). Kinematic and contact mechanics changes after anterior cruciate ligament transection were highly variable across knees. Nonetheless, a statistically significant increase in contact stress in the posterior–central aspect of the medial tibial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was identified, the location of which corresponds to the location of degenerative changes that are frequently found in patients with chronic anterior cruciate ligament injury. The variability in the contact stress in other regions of the medial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was partly explained by the variations in osseous geometry across the nine knees tested. At 14% of gait, there was no significant change in peak contact stress after anterior cruciate ligament transection in any of the four quadrants, and none of the possible explanatory variables showed statistical significance. Understanding the variable effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury on contact mechanics based on geometric differences in osseous anatomy is of paramount clinical importance and may be invaluable to select the best reconstruction techniques and counsel patients on their individual risk of subsequent

  3. Embolization of an Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Rivitz, S. Mitchell; Waltman, Arthur C.; Kelsey, Peter B.

    1996-11-15

    Vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy can occur in an analogous fashion to biliary injuries, with potential laceration, transection, and occlusion of blood vessels. A patient presented with symptomatic hemobilia 1 month following laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was found to have a right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm which communicated with the common bile duct. This was successfully embolized with several embolic agents, resulting in rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms. The patient has been free of symptoms during a follow-up period of 1 year. A brief discussion of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms is presented.

  4. Angiographic management of the left hepatic artery disruption following motor vehicle accident.

    PubMed

    Dullet, Navjit; Marshall, Dustyn

    2017-09-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death in younger individuals. Blunt abdominal trauma has the potential to mask severe injuries-there can be serious organ or vascular injury underneath intact skin. Increasingly, there is a trend toward nonoperative management of blunt abdominal trauma. We report the case of a left hepatic artery transection managed in the interventional radiology suite.

  5. Anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    LLopis, Eva; Padrón, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  6. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  7. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  8. Anterior vitrectomy for shallow anterior chamber after cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Dottan, S; Levartovsky, S; Oliver, M

    1982-06-01

    Pars plana anterior vitrectomy was performed in 9 patients with shallow anterior chamber after cataract extraction. Five patients had choroidal and/or ciliary body effusion (CCBE), and 4 had aphakic pupillary block (APB). Vitrectomy was performed only after medical treatment failed to restore a normal anterior chamber depth. In all patients the anterior chamber restored during surgery and remained so thereafter, although in patients with CCBE, the fundal pathology subsided days or even months later. The only surgical complication was a longstanding cystoid macular oedema in one patient. Pars plana vitrectomy would appear to have advantages over other surgical techniques, in similar circumstances.

  9. Uveitis (acute anterior).

    PubMed

    Islam, Niaz; Pavesio, Carlos

    2010-04-08

    Anterior uveitis is rare, with an annual incidence of 12/100,000 population, although it is more common in Finland (annual incidence of 23/100,000), probably because of genetic factors, such as high frequency of HLA-B27 in the population. It is often self-limiting, but can, in some cases, lead to complications such as posterior synechiae, cataract, glaucoma, and chronic uveitis. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of anti-inflammatory eye drops on acute anterior uveitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found six systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: corticosteroids, mydriatics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops.

  10. PEDIATRIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION WITH EX-SITU LIVER TRANSECTION AND THE APPLICATION OF THE HUMAN FIBRINOGEN AND THROMBIN SPONGE IN THE WOUND AREA

    PubMed Central

    VICENTINE, Fernando Pompeu Piza; GONZALEZ, Adriano Miziara; de AZEVEDO, Ramiro Anthero; BENINI, Barbara Burza; LINHARES, Marcelo Moura; LOPES-FILHO, Gaspar de Jesus; MARTINS, Jose Luiz; SALZEDAS-NETTO, Alcides Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Surgical strategy to increase the number of liver transplants in the pediatric population is the ex-situ liver transection (reduction or split). However, it is associated with complications such as hemorrhage and leaks. The human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge is useful for improving hemostasis in liver surgery. Aim: Compare pediatric liver transplants with ex-situ liver transection (reduction or split) with or without the human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge. Methods: Was performed a prospective analysis of 21 patients submitted to liver transplantation with ex-situ liver transection with the application of the human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge in the wound area (group A) and retrospective analysis of 59 patients without the sponge (group B). Results: The characteristics of recipients and donors were similar. There were fewer reoperations due to bleeding in the wound area in group A (14.2%) compared to group B (41.7%, p=0.029). There was no difference in relation to the biliary leak (group A: 17.6%, group B: 5.1%, p=0.14). Conclusion: There was a lower number of reoperations due to bleeding of the wound area of ​​the hepatic graft when the human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge were used. PMID:28076477

  11. Hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Bendall, Richard; Legrand-Abravanel, Florence; Xia, Ning-Shao; Ijaz, Samreen; Izopet, Jacques; Dalton, Harry R

    2012-06-30

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) was discovered during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan in the 1980s, after an outbreak of unexplained hepatitis at a military camp. A pooled faecal extract from affected soldiers was ingested by a member of the research team. He became sick, and the new virus (named HEV), was detected in his stool by electron microscopy. Subsequently, endemic HEV has been identified in many resource-poor countries. Globally, HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis. The virus was not initially thought to occur in developed countries, but recent reports have shown this notion to be mistaken. The aim of this Seminar is to describe recent discoveries regarding HEV, and how they have changed our understanding of its effect on human health worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical lesion of the anterior optic tract abolishes polarotaxis in tethered flying locusts, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Mappes, Martina; Homberg, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Many insects can detect the polarization pattern of the blue sky and rely on polarization vision for sky compass orientation. In laboratory experiments, tethered flying locusts perform periodic changes in flight behavior under a slowly rotating polarizer even if one eye is painted black. Anatomical tracing studies and intracellular recordings have suggested that the polarization vision pathway in the locust brain involves the anterior optic tract and tubercle, the lateral accessory lobe, and the central complex of the brain. To investigate whether visual pathways through the anterior optic tract mediate polarotaxis in the desert locust, we transected the tract on one side and tested polarotaxis (1) with both eyes unoccluded and (2) with the eye of the intact hemisphere painted black. In the second group of animals, but not in the first group, polarotaxis was abolished. Sham operations did not impair polarotaxis. The experiments show that the anterior optic tract is an indispensable part of visual pathways mediating polarotaxis in the desert locust.

  13. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat’hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T.; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  14. Scheimpflug imaging in anterior megalophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Gabor; Hassan, Ziad; Berta, Andras; Modis, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    We report an anterior megalophthalmos case with decreased corneal thickness and show the findings using Scheimpflug imaging. A 25-year-old male was diagnosed with anterior megalophthalmos. In both eyes, enlarged corneal length was measured. Beside a comparatively good visual acuity, a thin but clear cornea, a fairly deep anterior chamber, and central lens opacity were found. Scheimpflug images were taken using Pentacam HR. Scheimpflug-based imaging can provide us new data at the examination of this syndrome affecting the whole anterior segment. PMID:23275220

  15. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  16. 4. The transectional structure of society: the basic societal functions.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    For the purposes of research and/or evaluation, a society is organised into 13 basic societal functions (BSFs) within an overall Coordination and Control system. This organisation facilitates transectional descriptions of society or a component of a society for assessment at any given time across the longitudinal phases of a disaster. An assessment results in a picture or description of function(s) limited to the point in time of the assessment. Together with simultaneous assessments of the functional status of all, some, or one of the other BSFs, such assessments deliver a transectional picture of the situation of a society. Since no function operates in isolation from the other functions, information of the concomitant status of several BSFs is crucial to gain a better understanding of functional losses and of the effects and side effects of an intervention. The 13 BSFs include: (1) Public Health (dominantly preventive); (2) Medical Care (dominantly curative); (3) Water and Sanitation; (4) Shelter and Clothing; (5) Food and Nutrition; (6) Energy Supplies; (7) Public Works and Engineering; (8) Social Structure; (9) Logistics And Transportation; (10) Security; (11) Communications; (12); Economy; and (13) Education. These BSFs relate with each other through the Coordination and Control function. Many functions of the BSFs and their respective subfunctions and elements overlap (they share some common subfunctions and elements). However, for the purposes of research/evaluation, it is necessary to assign subfunctions and elements to only one of the BSFs. Just as in the practice of clinical medicine, the sum of assessments provides the transectional description of the status of each of these BSFs at a given time. From this information, compared to the pre-event description of the society, interventions are selected that are likely to meet the defined objectives and their overarching goal(s), and respective plans are developed and implemented. The effects of each

  17. A survey of dumping symptomatology after gastric bypass with or without lesser omental transection.

    PubMed

    Frantzides, Constantine T; Carlson, Mark A; Shostrom, Valerie K; Roberts, Jacob; Stavropoulos, George; Ayiomamitis, George; Frantzides, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    Lesser omental transection during gastric bypass for morbid obesity may be associated with postoperative dumping. A survey of postoperative symptoms was performed in patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with transection vs. preservation of the lesser omentum. A written questionnaire on dumping symptoms was administered to patients 2 years after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with or without transection of the lesser omentum. Statistical testing was performed to determine whether the rate of various symptoms was related to the transection of the lesser omentum. The patients without lesser omental transection had significantly less symptoms than the patients with transection for 11 out of the 17 symptoms that were queried (p < 0.05). Ingestion of sweets was associated with dumping symptoms more frequently in the group of transected patients, and this group also had a lower frequency of sweet eating (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that transection of the lesser omentum during laparoscopic-gastric bypass was associated with more postoperative dumping symptoms compared to bypass with preservation of the lesser omentum. This association may be secondary to a partial vagotomy that may occur if the lesser omentum is transected during gastric bypass.

  18. Anterior hip pain.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity.

  19. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Strassburg, Christian P

    2010-10-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the liver with a dismal prognosis when left untreated. Key for the improvement of prognosis is a timely diagnosis before cirrhosis has developed. This is reached by the exclusion of other causes of hepatitis, elevated immunoglobulin G, autoantibody profile and histological assessment. Treatment achieves remission rates in 80% of individuals and consists of immunosuppression with corticosteroids and azathioprine. A recent randomised controlled multicenter trial has added budesonide to the effective treatment options in non-cirrhotic patients and leads to a reduction of unwanted steroid side effects. Autoimmune hepatitis is an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology. Association studies of major histocompatibility complex and other genes demonstrate an influence of immunogenetics. However, apart from the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, in which 10% of patients suffer from an autoantibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis linked to mutations of the autoimmune regulator gene, there is no clear evidence for a hereditary aetiology of this disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematical models for nonparametric inferences from line transect data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    A general mathematical theory of line transects is develoepd which supplies a framework for nonparametric density estimation based on either right angle or sighting distances. The probability of observing a point given its right angle distance (y) from the line is generalized to an arbitrary function g(y). Given only that g(O) = 1, it is shown there are nonparametric approaches to density estimation using the observed right angle distances. The model is then generalized to include sighting distances (r). Let f(y/r) be the conditional distribution of right angle distance given sighting distance. It is shown that nonparametric estimation based only on sighting distances requires we know the transformation of r given by f(O/r).

  1. Nonlinearity of ecogeomorphic processes along Mediterranean-arid transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarah, Pariente

    2004-06-01

    The study was conducted along a climatic transect extending from the Judaean mountains (mean annual rainfall, 700 mm; annual mean temperature, 17 °C) to the Dead Sea (mean annual rainfall, <100 mm; annual mean temperature, 23 °C). A high correlation was found between climatic conditions and factors and processes of the ecogeomorphological system. The values of certain factors and processes, such as soluble salt content and overland flow, increase with increasing aridity, whereas those of others, such as soil organic matter content, clay content, aggregate size and stability and infiltration rate, diminish with increasing aridity. These trends express the long-term effect of the prevailing mean climatic conditions in the research stations, conditions that led to the development of various types of soil and of plant communities. It was also found that for many of the factors and processes examined, such as organic matter content, salt concentration, aggregate stability, infiltration rate and overland flow yield, the rates of change with respect to position along the transect are not linear, and that a climatic threshold value exists in the zone with a mean annual rainfall of about 300 mm and in which the P/ T ratio is about 17, which creates a sharp boundary between arid and Mediterranean ecogeomorphological systems. While in arid systems, erosion occurs mainly through physical-mechanical processes, under Mediterranean systems, it is governed mainly by chemical and biological processes. The significance of the existence of a sharp boundary between the arid and the Mediterranean zones is that even a relatively slight increase in the annual mean temperature and/or a slight decrease in the mean annual rainfall is liable to shift the boundary towards the Mediterranean zone and accelerate desertification processes.

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of a newly devised model for the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury with partial laceration and permanent elongation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori; Yamanaka, Masanori; Minami, Akio; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2003-12-01

    To biomechanically evaluate a newly devised model for the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury with partial laceration and permanent elongation. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 9 animals each, after a quantitative injury was given to the right anterior cruciate ligament. The 4 groups were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, respectively. Biomechanical and histological evaluations were performed at each period. No adequate animal models have been established for the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury in which the mid-substance is permanently elongated with partial laceration. The anteromedial and posterolateral half of the anterior cruciate ligament was transected at the proximal and distal one-third levels, respectively. Then, the anterior cruciate ligament was stretched by applying an anterior drawer force to the tibia at 90 degrees of knee flexion. The treatment significantly increased the anterior translation of the knee into approximately 150-250% at each period after surgery. The maximum load and the stiffness of the femur-anterior cruciate ligament-tibia complex significantly decreased to 30% or less immediately after surgery, and then gradually increased to 50% at 12 weeks. In this model, this quantitative treatment created serious injuries with partial laceration and permanent elongation in the anterior cruciate ligament to similar degrees. Also, incomplete tissue healing occurred in the anterior cruciate ligament to similar degrees after the treatment. This model will be useful to study new therapeutic methods for the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  3. [Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Gutiérrez, Mario H; Sánchez-Corona, José; García-Ortiz, José E; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory O; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; García-Cruz, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The non-syndromic anterior cervical hypertrichosis (OMIM N° 600457) is a genetic disorder characterized by a patch of hair at the level of the laryngeal prominence. We present a 12-year-old boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mild generalized hypertrichosis. He has no neurological, ophthalmological or skeletal anomalies. The clinical follow up is 10 years.

  4. Two chronic motor training paradigms differentially influence acute instrumental learning in spinally transected rats.

    PubMed

    Bigbee, Allison J; Crown, Eric D; Ferguson, Adam R; Roy, Roland R; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J K; Grau, James W; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2007-06-04

    The effect of two chronic motor training paradigms on the ability of the lumbar spinal cord to perform an acute instrumental learning task was examined in neonatally (postnatal day 5; P5) spinal cord transected (i.e., spinal) rats. At approximately P30, rats began either unipedal hindlimb stand training (Stand-Tr; 20-25min/day, 5days/week), or bipedal hindlimb step training (Step-Tr; 20min/day; 5days/week) for 7 weeks. Non-trained spinal rats (Non-Tr) served as controls. After 7 weeks all groups were tested on the flexor-biased instrumental learning paradigm. We hypothesized that (1) Step-Tr rats would exhibit an increased capacity to learn the flexor-biased task relative to Non-Tr subjects, as locomotion involves repetitive training of the tibialis anterior (TA), the ankle flexor whose activation is important for successful instrumental learning, and (2) Stand-Tr rats would exhibit a deficit in acute motor learning, as unipedal training activates the ipsilateral ankle extensors, but not flexors. Results showed no differences in acute learning potential between Non-Tr and Step-Tr rats, while the Stand-Tr group showed a reduced capacity to learn the acute task. Further investigation of the Stand-Tr group showed that, while both the ipsilateral and contralateral hindlimbs were significantly impaired in their acute learning potential, the contralateral, untrained hindlimbs exhibited significantly greater learning deficits. These results suggest that different types of chronic peripheral input may have a significant impact on the ability to learn a novel motor task, and demonstrate the potential for experience-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord in the absence of supraspinal connectivity.

  5. The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy: is transection of the rectus femoris tendon essential?

    PubMed

    Novais, Eduardo N; Kim, Young-Jo; Carry, Patrick M; Millis, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) traditionally is performed using the iliofemoral or the ilioinguinal approach with transection of the rectus femoris tendon attachments. Although a rectus-preserving approach has been developed, there is limited direct comparison data regarding the surgical safety, radiographic correction, and improvement in hip pain and function between the rectus-preserving and the classic approaches. The purposes of this study were to determine whether preserving the rectus femoris tendon attachment would (1) reduce intraoperative blood loss and length of surgery; (2) improve Harris hip scores (HHS); (3) decrease the rate of complications; and (4) affect the radiographic correction when compared with the classic approach. A retrospective matched cohort study was used to compare the endpoints listed above after PAO using a rectus-preserving approach versus the classic approach. Operative blood loss, preoperative and postoperative hematocrit, duration of surgery, HHS, and postoperative complications were recorded for the two groups. Pelvic radiographs were reviewed for measurement of the lateral center-edge angle, anterior center-edge angle, and Tönnis acetabular inclination angle. A total of 64 patients were included (32 in each group). Followup was at a minimum of 1 year (mean, 20 months; range, 13-44 months). Blood loss (p = 0.2405), hematocrit change (p = 0.3277), and operative time (p = 0.3960) were similar between groups. At latest followup, the HHS improved in the rectus-preserving (mean improvement, 25; 95% CI, 21-29; p < 0.0001) and control groups (mean improvement, 21; 95% CI, 17-25; p < 0.0001) with no difference in HHS improvement between the groups (mean difference, 4.3; 95% CI, -1.6 to 10.1; p = 0.1523). The complication rate was 12.5% (four of 32) in the rectus-preserving group and 25% (eight of 32) in the classic approach groups, respectively (p = 0.2002). The rectus-preserving approach allowed for similar lateral center

  6. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  7. Intentional Laceration of the Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet to Prevent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction During Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jaffar M.; Rogers, Toby; Schenke, William H.; Mazal, Jonathan R.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Greenbaum, Adam B.; Babaliaros, Vasilis C.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The authors propose a novel transcatheter transection of the anterior mitral leaflet to prevent iatrogenic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction during transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). BACKGROUND LVOT obstruction is a life-threatening complication of TMVR caused by septal displacement of the anterior mitral leaflet. METHODS In vivo procedures in swine were guided by biplane x-ray fluoroscopy and intracardiac echocardiography. Retrograde transaortic 6-F guiding catheters straddled the anterior mitral leaflet. A stiff 0.014-inch guidewire with polymer jacket insulation was electrified and advanced from the LVOT, through the A2 leaflet base, into the left atrium. The wire was snared and externalized, forming a loop that was energized and withdrawn to lacerate the anterior mitral leaflet. RESULTS The anterior mitral leaflet was successfully lacerated in 7 live and 1 post-mortem swine under heparinization. Lacerations extended to 89 ± 19% of leaflet length and were located within 0.5 ± 0.4 mm of leaflet centerline. The chordae were preserved and retracted the leaflet halves away from the LVOT. LVOT narrowing after benchtop TMVR was significantly reduced with intentional laceration of the anterior mitral leaflet to prevent LVOT obstruction than without (65 ± 10% vs. 31 ± 18% of pre-implantation diameter, p < 0.01). The technique caused mean blood pressure to fall (from 54 ± 6 mm Hg to 30 ± 4 mm Hg, p < 0.01), but blood pressure remained steady until planned euthanasia. No collateral tissue injury was identified on necropsy. CONCLUSIONS Using simple catheter techniques, the anterior mitral valve leaflet was transected. Cautiously applied in patients, this strategy can prevent anterior mitral leaflet displacement and LVOT obstruction caused by TMVR. PMID:27609260

  8. Demonstration of Pelvic Anatomy by Modified Midline Transection that Maintains Intact Internal Pelvic Organs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Hanno; Saito, Toshiyuki; Herrmann, Gudrun; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Hammer, Niels; Sandrock, Mara; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Gross dissection for demonstrating anatomy of the human pelvis has traditionally involved one of two approaches, each with advantages and disadvantages. Classic hemisection in the median plane through the pelvic ring transects the visceral organs but maintains two symmetric pelvic halves. An alternative paramedial transection compromises one side…

  9. Comparison of line transects and point counts for monitoring spring migration in forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Elliott, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of 400-m line transects and sets of three point counts at detecting avian richness and abundance in bottomland hardwood forests and intensively managed cottonwood (Populus deltoides) plantations within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We detected more species and more individuals on line transects than on three point counts during 218 paired surveys conducted between 24 March and 3 June, 1996 and 1997. Line transects also yielded more birds per unit of time, even though point counts yielded higher estimates of relative bird density. In structurally more-complex bottomland hardwood forests, we detected more species and individuals on line transects, but in more-open cottonwood plantations, transects surpassed point counts only at detecting species within 50 m of the observer. Species richness and total abundance of Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and temperate migrants were greater on line transects within bottomland hardwood forests. Within cottonwood plantations, however, only species richness of Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and total abundance of temperate migrants were greater on line transects. Because we compared survey techniques using the same observer, within the same forest stand on a given day, we assumed that the technique yielding greater estimates of avian species richness and total abundance per unit of effort is superior. Thus, for monitoring migration within hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, we recommend using line transects instead of point counts.

  10. Demonstration of Pelvic Anatomy by Modified Midline Transection that Maintains Intact Internal Pelvic Organs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Hanno; Saito, Toshiyuki; Herrmann, Gudrun; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Hammer, Niels; Sandrock, Mara; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Gross dissection for demonstrating anatomy of the human pelvis has traditionally involved one of two approaches, each with advantages and disadvantages. Classic hemisection in the median plane through the pelvic ring transects the visceral organs but maintains two symmetric pelvic halves. An alternative paramedial transection compromises one side…

  11. Transect versus grid trapping arrangements for sampling small-mammal communities

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2003-01-01

    We compared transect and grid trapping arrangements for assessing small-mammal community composition and relative abundance for 2 years in 2 forest cover types in west-central Montana, USA. Transect arrangements yielded more total captures, more individual captures, and more species than grid arrangements in both cover types in both years. Differences between...

  12. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A ... Dec 20;2(6):227–30. Chapter 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B File Formats ...

  14. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  15. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  16. HIV and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis C (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... the medicines for any side effects. What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused ...

  17. HIV and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

  18. Estimating nest detection probabilities for white-winged dove nest transects in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Waggerman, G.

    1986-01-01

    Nest transects in nesting colonies provide one source of information on White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica asiatica) population status and reproduction. Nests are counted along transects using standardized field methods each year in Texas and northeastern Mexico by personnel associated with Mexico's Office of Flora and Fauna, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Nest counts on transects are combined with information on the size of nesting colonies to estimate total numbers of nests in sampled colonies. Historically, these estimates have been based on the actual nest counts on transects and thus have required the assumption that all nests lying within transect boundaries are detected (seen) with a probability of one. Our objectives were to test the hypothesis that nest detection probability is one and, if rejected, to estimate this probability.

  19. Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sharara, A I; Hunt, C M; Hamilton, J D

    1996-10-15

    To review the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, clinical manifestations, and current treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The MEDLINE database (1966 to 1996) was searched for English-language articles and abstracts on HCV and non-A, non-B hepatitis. Papers cited in relevant primary articles were also reviewed. More than 500 original and review articles were evaluated, and the most relevant were selected. Data were extracted and reviewed by all authors. In most patients, HCV infection results in chronic hepatitis. The disease is insidious and subclinical but may progress over decades into end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, which makes HCV cirrhosis a leading indication for orthotopic liver transplantation. Current diagnostic methods are highly sensitive and specific, and quantitative assessment of viral load may help to predict and monitor response to treatment. The only available therapeutic option is interferon, and this agent is effective in only a small subset of patients. Infection with HCV is a significant public health problem that has important clinical and financial consequences. The tailoring of specific therapy according to viral load or genotype, better patient selection, and use of combination drug regimens may improve the chance of viral clearance and sustained biochemical and histologic response. Further understanding of the basic virology of HCV and the exact mechanisms of viral persistence and tissue injury is needed to help define future therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  20. [Hepatitis E].

    PubMed

    Scotto, Gaetano; Bulla, Fabio; Campanale, Francesca; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Fazio, Vincenzina

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents the main aetiological agent of enteric non-A hepatitis and is the only member of a new virus, Hepevirus, belonging to the family of Hepeviridae. HEV is the single most important cause of acute clinical hepatitis among adults in many areas of the developing world, specifically the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, where it is a common cause of sporadic and epidemic waterborne outbreaks and results in a high rate of morbidity and death, especially in pregnant women. Once thought of as an infection confined to developing countries, it is now recognized as a geographically widely distributed disease. In low-endemic regions (Western countries), sporadic cases of locally-acquired HEV infection are reported, acquired possibly through zoonotic transmission from pigs, wild boars or deer. In persons with pre-existing chronic liver disease, HEV superinfection can present as acute-on-chronic liver disease. In European countries, chronic infection, which may progress to liver cirrhosis, has been reported among immunosuppressed persons. Two testing vaccines proved to be highly effective in preventing the disease; these vaccines should be of particular use in groups that are at high risk of HEV infection.

  1. Malposition of a Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter in the Graft Hepatic Vein.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Zeynep; Araz, Coşkun; Taşkın, Duygu; Moray, Gökhan; Torgay, Adnan

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters are used for delivering medications and parenteral nutrition, measuring hemodynamic variations, and providing long-term intravenous access. In our clinic, during liver transection using a living-liver donor, peripherally inserted central venous catheters are generally preferred because they involve a less invasive technique with a lower risk of complications. In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old male liver donor into whom we peripherally inserted a central venous catheter from his left basilic vein. After transecting the hepatic vein, the surgeon found foreign material inside the venous lumen, which turned out to be the distal segment of the catheter.

  2. Adult Living with Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Prevention & ... Institute Education & Training Hep B United Coalition Hepatitis Delta Connect 2017 International HBV Meeting National Patient Advocacy ...

  3. Factors controlling floc settling velocity along a longitudinal estuarine transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.J.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 147 km longitudinal transect of flocculated cohesive sediment properties in San Francisco Bay (SFB) was conducted on June 17th, 2008. Our aim was to determine the factors that control floc settling velocity along the longitudinal axis of the estuary. The INSSEV-LF video system was used to measure floc diameters and settling velocities at 30 stations at a distance of 0.7 m above the estuary bed. Floc sizes (D) ranged from 22 μm to 639 μm and settling velocities (Ws) ranged between 0.04 mm·s− 1 and 15.8 mm·s− 1 during the longitudinal transect. Nearbed turbulent shear stresses throughout the transect duration were within the 0.2–0.5 Pa range which typically stimulates flocculation growth. The individual D–Ws–floc density plots suggest the suspended sediments encountered throughout SFB were composed of both muddy cohesive sediment and mixed sediments flocs. Mass-weighted population mean settling velocity (Wsmass) ranged from 0.5 mm·s− 1 to 10 mm·s− 1. The macrofloc and microfloc (demarcation at 160 μm) sub-populations demonstrated parameterised settling velocities which spanned nearly double the range of the sample mean settling velocities (Wsmean). The macroflocs tended to dominate the suspended mass (up to 77% of the ambient suspended solid concentration; SSC) from San Pablo Bay to Carquinez Strait (the vicinity of the turbidity maximum zone). Microfloc mass was particularly significant (typically 60–100% of the SSC) in the northern section of South Bay and most of Central Bay. The transect took eleven hours to complete and was not fully synoptic. During slack tide, larger and faster settling flocs deposited, accounting for most of the longitudinal variability. The best single predictor of settling velocity was water velocity 39 min prior to sampling, not suspended-sediment concentration or salinity. Resuspension and settling lags are likely responsible for the lagged response of settling velocity to water velocity. The distribution of

  4. A population genetic transect of Panicum hallii (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, David B; Purmal, Colin T; Juenger, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate, adaptation, and population structure is of fundamental importance to botanists because these factors are crucial for the evolution of biodiversity and the response of species to future climate change. Panicum hallii is an emerging model system for perennial grass and bioenergy research, yet very little is known about the relationship between climate and population structure in this system. • We analyzed geographic population differentiation across 39 populations of P. hallii along a longitudinal transect from the savannas of central Texas through the deserts of Arizona and New Mexico. A combination of morphological and genetic (microsatellite) analysis was used to explore patterns of population structure. • We found strong differentiation between high elevation western desert populations and lower elevation eastern populations of P. hallii, with a pronounced break in structure occurring in western Texas. In addition, we confirmed that there are high levels of morphological and genetic structure between previous recognized varieties (var. hallii and var. filipes) within this species. • The results of this study suggest that patterns of population structure within P. hallii may be driven by climatic variation over space. Overall, this study lays the groundwork for future studies on the genetics of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in this system.

  5. Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Imke K.; Lanny, Verena; Franke, Jörg; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Zech, Michael; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Lipid biomarkers are increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental and climate conditions. Leaf-wax-derived long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids may have great potential for reconstructing past changes in vegetation, but the factors that affect the leaf wax distribution in fresh plant material, as well as in soils and sediments, are not yet fully understood and need further research. We systematically investigated the influence of vegetation and soil depth on leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect. The deciduous forest sites are often dominated by the n-C27 alkane and n-C28 alkanoic acid. Conifers produce few n-alkanes but show high abundances of the C24 n-alkanoic acid. Grasslands are characterized by relatively high amounts of C31 and C33 n-alkanes and C32 and C34 n-alkanoic acids. Chain length ratios thus may allow for distinguishing between different vegetation types, but caution must be exercised given the large species-specific variability in chain length patterns. An updated endmember model with the new n-alkane ratio (n-C31 + n-C33) / (n-C27 + n-C31 + n-C33) is provided to illustrate, and tentatively account for, degradation effects on n-alkanes.

  6. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  7. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  8. A light and electron microscopic examination of the vagal hepatic branch of the rat.

    PubMed

    Prechtl, J C; Powley, T L

    1987-01-01

    The rat's vagal hepatic branch and associated tissues were studied using light and electron microscopy. Whole mounts, serial sections, and vascular endocasts were used to characterize the tissue from the anterior vagal trunk to the porta hepatis. Fiber number and caliber as well as intraneural organization were analyzed from complete cross-sectional electron micrographic montages of the hepatic branch sampled at its point of separation from the anterior vagal trunk. The hepatic branch ramified from the anterior vagus in one (in 47% of the specimens), two (in 37%) or three (in 16%) bundles. The single bundled hepatic branch contained 2887 +/- 287 unmyelinated fibers, and their size distribution, with a mean diameter of 0.66 +/- 0.02 micron, was Gaussian. Myelinated fibers numbered only 21 +/- 4 per branch and had a complex size distribution ranging from 0.5 to 1.8 micron with a mean of 1.2 +/- 0.03 micron. Forty four +/- 6% of the myelinated fibers were found in a single "subfascicle" in the dorso-medial pole of the nerve. Whole mounts at this level revealed that a distinct bundle, here designated an extrinsic "hepato-gastric bundle", occurred within the hepatic branch and linked the omental hepatic branch and the distal anterior gastric branch, apparently without central vagal connections. In the lesser omentum, between the esophagus and the hepatic artery proper, the hepatic branch formed a plexus which was characterized by numerous nerve divisions, anastomoses and large paraganglia (196-463 glomus cells per paraganglion). This plexiform segment ended with the recombining of the hepatic branch into 5-7 bundles which variously ascended in the porta, descended on the hepatic artery proper, or traversed the portal vein. Through its omental course, the hepatic branch traveled in close apposition to the hepato-esophageal artery and the corresponding vein as well as a prominent lymphatic vessel with associated hemolymph nodes.

  9. Impediments to eye transplantation: ocular viability following optic-nerve transection or enucleation.

    PubMed

    Ellenberg, D; Shi, J; Jain, S; Chang, J-H; Ripps, H; Brady, S; Melhem, E R; Lakkis, F; Adamis, A; Chen, D-F; Ellis-Behnke, R; Langer, R S; Strittmatter, S M; Azar, D T

    2009-09-01

    Maintenance of ocular viability is one of the major impediments to successful whole-eye transplantation. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the current literature to help guide future studies in order to overcome this hurdle. A systematic multistage review of published literature was performed. Three specific questions were addressed: (1) Is recovery of visual function following eye transplantation greater in cold-blooded vertebrates when compared with mammals? (2) Is outer retina function following enucleation and reperfusion improved compared with enucleation alone? (3) Following optic-nerve transection, is there a correlation between retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and either time after transection or proximity of the transection to the globe? In a majority of the studies performed in the literature, recovery of visual function can occur after whole-eye transplantation in cold-blooded vertebrates. Following enucleation (and reperfusion), outer retinal function is maintained from 4 to 9 h. RGC survival following optic-nerve transection is inversely related to both the time since transection and the proximity of transection to the globe. Lastly, neurotrophins can increase RGC survival following optic-nerve transection. This review of the literature suggests that the use of a donor eye is feasible for whole-eye transplantation.

  10. Impediments to eye transplantation: ocular viability following optic-nerve transection or enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Ellenberg, D; Shi, J; Jain, S; Chang, J-H; Ripps, H; Brady, S; Melhem, E R; Lakkis, F; Adamis, A; Chen, D-F; Ellis-Behnke, R; Langer, R S; Strittmatter, S M; Azar, D T

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of ocular viability is one of the major impediments to successful whole-eye transplantation. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the current literature to help guide future studies in order to overcome this hurdle. A systematic multistage review of published literature was performed. Three specific questions were addressed: (1) Is recovery of visual function following eye transplantation greater in cold-blooded vertebrates when compared with mammals? (2) Is outer retina function following enucleation and reperfusion improved compared with enucleation alone? (3) Following optic-nerve transection, is there a correlation between retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and either time after transection or proximity of the transection to the globe? In a majority of the studies performed in the literature, recovery of visual function can occur after whole-eye transplantation in cold-blooded vertebrates. Following enucleation (and reperfusion), outer retinal function is maintained from 4 to 9 h. RGC survival following optic-nerve transection is inversely related to both the time since transection and the proximity of transection to the globe. Lastly, neurotrophins can increase RGC survival following optic-nerve transection. This review of the literature suggests that the use of a donor eye is feasible for whole-eye transplantation. PMID:19286686

  11. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The patterns of relative variability differ by transect and horizon. The N–S transect A-horizon soils show significant between-40-km scale variability for 29 elements, with only 4 elements (Ca, Mg, Pb and Sr) showing in excess of 50% of their variability at the within-40-km and ‘at-site’ scales. In contrast, the C-horizon data demonstrate significant between-40-km scale variability for 26 elements, with 21 having in excess of 50% of their variability at the within-40-km and ‘at-site’ scales. In 36 instances, the ‘at-site’ variability is statistically significant in terms of the sample preparation and analysis variability. It is postulated that this contrast between the A- and C- horizons along the N–S transect, that is dominated by agricultural land uses, is due to the local homogenization of Ap-horizon soils by tillage reducing the ‘at-site’ variability. The spatial variability is distributed similarly between scales for the A- and C-horizon soils of the E–W transect. For all elements, there is significant variability at the within-40-km scale. Notwithstanding this, there is significant between-40-km variability for 28 and 20 of the elements in the A- and C-horizon data, respectively. The differences between the two transects are attributed to (1) geology, the N–S transect runs generally parallel to regional strikes, whereas the E–W transect runs across regional structures and lithologies; and (2) land use, with agricultural tillage dominating along the N–S transect. The spatial analysis of the transect data indicates that continental-scale maps demonstrating statistically significant patterns of geochemical variability may be prepared for many elements from data on soil samples collected on a 40 x 40 km grid or similar sampling designs resulting in a sample density of 1 site per 1600 km2.

  12. Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Crain, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gates, Marshall, and Olson (1968) investigated the line transect method of estimating grouse population densities in the case where sighting probabilities are exponential. This work is followed by a simulation study in Gates (1969). A general overview of line transect analysis is presented by Burnham and Anderson (1976). These articles all deal with the ungrouped data case. In the present article, an analysis of line transect data is formulated under the Gates framework of exponential sighting probabilities and in the context of grouped data.

  13. Differences in distribution of modified basins and ducks relative to roadside transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Sklebar, H. Thomas; Buhl, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Wetland basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the U.S. are commonly modified by excavation (e.g., roadside ditches, stock dugouts), partial drainage (ditching), and diking. Differences in the distribution of modified wetlands may affect the predictive accuracy of waterfowl survey data if such wetlands are not distributed randomly in the landscape and if waterfowl are not distributed equally among them. We used data collected on thirty-eight 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to examine the distribution of modified basins relative to roadside transects and their use by five species of dabbling ducks in 1995. The 800-m-wide transects were subdivided into an inner 400-m transect, centered on the road, and the remaining outer transect area. We compared the distribution of modified and natural wetland basins among three sample areas: 1) the inner 400-m wide roadside transect area, 2) the outer transect area, and 3) the remaining area within the 40-km2 plot that was outside of the transects (outer plot). Duck use was compared between the two transect areas. The plots contained 20,582 basins, of which 88.5% were unmodified, 7.5% were excavated, 3.7% were partially drained, and 0.2% were diked. Nearly all excavated temporary (89%) and seasonal (90%) basins occurred in the inner transect area, reflecting the high proportion of basins that would be defined as roadside ditches. Excavated semipermanent basins were more evenly distributed among the outer plot and two transect widths; these basins often were dugouts but also included roadside ditches. Partially drained and diked basins also were fairly evenly distributed among the three sample areas. Semipermanent basins had greater use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintails (A. acuta) when they were partially drained than when they were excavated or unmodified; pintails also had greater use of partially drained seasonal basins. Use of wetland basins by gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and

  14. Integration of potential-field and digital geologic data for two North American geoscience transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Two North American contributions to the Global Geoscience Transects Program, the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine transect and the Great Lakes portion of the United States-Canadian Border transect, are among the first to produce digital geology in a form that can be combined with gridded gravity and aeromagnetic data. Maps of shaded relief and color-composite bandpass-filtered potential-field data combined with overlays of digitized geologic contacts and faults reveal significant new geologic information, including the relative thickness of plutons, the structure of poorly exposed or concealed magnetic units, and possible evidence for mineralized ground. -from Author

  15. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) A A A What's in this article? ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  16. The terminology of hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that the diseases formerly known as “infectious hepatitis” and “serum hepatitis” be referred to as viral hepatitis type A and viral hepatitis type B, respectively. It is further recommended that the “Australia” antigen be referred to as hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) and the corresponding antibody as hepatitis B antibody (HB Ab). PMID:4544683

  17. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  18. Overview of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Waring, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project is a study of ecosystem functions in coniferous forests using the methods of computer modeling, experimental and theoretical remote sensing, and ecological field and laboratory techniques. The study is focused on predicting the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water, and the factors that dynamically regulate them. The OTTER project was conceived to test two major questions: (1) Can a generalized ecosystem simulation model, designed to use mainly parameters available from remote sensing, predict the functioning of forests across an environmentally variable region? and (2) To what extent can the variables required by this model be derived from remotely sensed data? The scientific objectives and scope of the project demanded that a coordinated effort be made to link ground measurements with remote sensing and modeling requirements. OTTER was selected as a focus for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-sponsored Multi-sensor Aircraft Campaign (MAC; combining NASA aircraft and sensors with those of others) on the basis of experience gained in past ecosystem studies and remote-sensing projects, and the importance of the OTTER objectives to NASA's long-range science goals and plans. Having several independent approaches available, both on the ground and from various remote-sensing platforms, proved valuable in estimating and validating many of the critical variables. This experience and cross comparison should help simplify future studies of a similar nature. Edited data sets from the OTTER project are now available to the scientific community on optical disks or via on-line data banks at NASA (Washington, D.C., USA) and Oregon State University (Corvallis, Oregon, USA).

  19. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  20. A basin redox transect at the dawn of animal life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Halverson, Galen P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Johnston, David T.

    2013-06-01

    Multiple eukaryotic clades make their first appearance in the fossil record between ~810 and 715 Ma. Molecular clock studies suggest that the origin of animal multicellularity may have been part of this broader eukaryotic radiation. Animals require oxygen to fuel their metabolism, and low oxygen levels have been hypothesized to account for the temporal lag between metazoan origins and the Cambrian radiation of large, ecologically diverse animals. Here, paleoredox conditions were investigated in the Fifteenmile Group, Ogilvie Mountains, Yukon, Canada, which hosts an 811 Ma ash horizon and spans the temporal window that captures the inferred origin and early evolution of animals. Iron-based redox proxies, redox-sensitive trace elements, organic carbon percentages and pyrite sulfur isotopes were analyzed in seven stratigraphic sections along two parallel basin transects. These data suggest that for this basin, oxygenated shelf waters overlay generally anoxic deeper waters. The anoxic water column was dominantly ferruginous, but brief periods of euxinia likely occurred. These oscillations coincide with changes in total organic carbon, suggesting euxinia was primarily driven by increased organic carbon loading. Overall, these data are consistent with proposed quantitative constraints on Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen being greater than 1% of modern levels, but less than present levels. Comparing these oxygen levels against the likely oxygen requirements of the earliest animals, both theoretical considerations and the ecology of modern oxygen-deficient settings suggest that the inferred oxygen levels in the mixed layer would not have been prohibitive to the presence of sponges, eumetazoans or bilaterians. Thus the evolution of the earliest animals was probably not limited by the low absolute oxygen levels that may have characterized Neoproterozoic oceans, although these inferred levels would constrain animals to very small sizes and low metabolic rates.

  1. Hepatic osteodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Angelo; Verardo, Alberto; Di Pascoli, Marco; Giannini, Sandro; Bolognesi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Metabolic disturbances of bone are frequent in patients with chronic liver disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis among patients with advanced chronic liver disease is reported between 12% and 55%; it is higher in primary biliary cirrhosis. All patients with advanced liver disease should be screened for osteoporosis with a densitometry, especially if the etiology is cholestatic and in the presence of other risk factors. Clinical relevance of hepatic osteodystrophy increases after liver transplantation. After liver transplant, a rapid loss of bone mineral density can be detected in the first 6 months, followed by stabilization and slight improvement of the values. At the time of transplantation, bone density values are very important prognostic factors. Therapy of hepatic osteodystrophy is based primarily on the control of risk factors: cessation of tobacco and alcohol assumption, reduction of caffeine ingestion, exercise, supplementation of calcium and vitamin D, limitation of drugs such as loop diuretics, corticosteroids, cholestyramine. Bisphosphonates have been proposed for the therapy of osteoporosis in patients with liver disease, particularly after liver transplantation. The possible side effects of oral administration of bisphosphonates, such as the occurrence of esophageal ulcerations, are of particular concern in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, due to the risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ruptured esophageal varices, although this risk is probably overestimated. PMID:25568651

  2. Cupping in the Monkey Optic Nerve Transection Model Consists of Prelaminar Tissue Thinning in the Absence of Posterior Laminar Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Ing, Eliesa; Ivers, Kevin M.; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Reynaud, Juan; Cull, Grant; Wang, Lin; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to test the hypothesis that optic nerve head (ONH) “cupping” in the monkey optic nerve transection (ONT) model does not include posterior laminar deformation. Methods Five monkeys (aged 5.5–7.8 years) underwent ONH and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) OCT imaging five times at baseline and biweekly following unilateral ONT until euthanization at ∼40% RNFL loss. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and minimum rim width (MRW) were calculated from each pre- and post-ONT imaging session. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) was delineated within baseline and pre-euthanasia data sets. Significant ONT versus control eye pre-euthanasia change in prelaminar tissue thickness (PLTT), MRW, RNFLT, and ALCS depth (ALCSD) was determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Eye-specific change in each parameter exceeded the 95% confidence interval constructed from baseline measurements. Results Animals were euthanized 49 to 51 days post ONT. Overall ONT eye change from baseline was significant for MRW (−26.2%, P = 0.0011), RNFLT (−43.8%, P < 0.0001), PLTT (−23.8%, P = 0.0013), and ALCSD (−20.8%, P = 0.033). All five ONT eyes demonstrated significant eye-specific decreases in MRW (−23.7% to −31.8%) and RNFLT (−39.6% to −49.7%). Four ONT eyes showed significant PLTT thinning (−23.0% to −28.2%). The ALCS was anteriorly displaced in three of the ONT eyes (−25.7% to −39.2%). No ONT eye demonstrated posterior laminar displacement. Conclusions Seven weeks following surgical ONT in the monkey eye, ONH cupping involves prelaminar and rim tissue thinning without posterior deformation of the lamina cribrosa. PMID:27168368

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Demonstration of Line Transect Methodologies to Estimate Urban Gray Squirrel Density

    PubMed

    Hein

    1997-11-01

    / Because studies estimating density of gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) have been labor intensive and costly, I demonstrate the use of line transect surveys to estimate gray squirrel density and determine the costs of conducting surveys to achieve precise estimates. Density estimates are based on four transects that were surveyed five times from 30 June to 9 July 1994. Using the program DISTANCE, I estimated there were 4.7 (95% CI = 1.86-11.92) gray squirrels/ha on the Clemson University campus. Eleven additional surveys would have decreased the percent coefficient of variation from 30% to 20% and would have cost approximately $114. Estimating urban gray squirrel density using line transect surveys is cost effective and can provide unbiased estimates of density, provided that none of the assumptions of distance sampling theory are violated.KEY WORDS: Bias; Density; Distance sampling; Gray squirrel; Line transect; Sciurus carolinensis.

  4. Conditioned place preference for mating is preserved in rats with pelvic nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Meerts, Sarah H.; Clark, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    Female rats exhibit a conditioned place preference (CPP) for a context paired with mating. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that the activation of the pelvic nerve mediates the reinforcing effects of mating for female rats. Rats underwent bilateral pelvic nerve or sham transection and then received paced mating, nonpaced mating or the control treatment during a CPP procedure. Pelvic nerve transection did not affect the CPP for paced or nonpaced mating. In tests of paced mating behavior, contact-return latencies following intromissions were significantly shorter in rats with pelvic nerve transection than rats with sham transections. These results show that the pathway conveying the reinforcing effects of mating stimulation does not depend on the integrity of the pelvic nerve, but that activation of the pelvic nerve contributes to the display of paced mating behavior. PMID:19485560

  5. Blossom Point Marine Transect Survey Statistical Analysis with Visual Sample Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-12

    10  Figure 11. Variogram for the Blossom Point study area. Black dots represent empirical data ; the green line...step in the geostatistical analysis was the development of the variogram model. The spatial structure of the transect-based anomaly density data was...investigated using an empirical variogram . This calculation creates a series of points that depict how the variability of the transect-based

  6. A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1979-01-01

    The Hayne model for line transect sampling is generalized by using an elliptical (rather than circular) flushing model for animal detection. By assuming the ration of major and minor axes lengths is constant for all animals, a model results which allows estimation of population density based directly upon sighting distances and sighting angles. The derived estimator of animal density is a generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling.

  7. Guided transect sampling - a new design combining prior information and field surveying

    Treesearch

    Anna Ringvall; Goran Stahl; Tomas Lamas

    2000-01-01

    Guided transect sampling is a two-stage sampling design in which prior information is used to guide the field survey in the second stage. In the first stage, broad strips are randomly selected and divided into grid-cells. For each cell a covariate value is estimated from remote sensing data, for example. The covariate is the basis for subsampling of a transect through...

  8. Variability of land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of topography, soil factors and climate conditions on land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas: Seville (southern Spain) and El-Fayoum (northern Egypt). Elevation and slope gradient information from both study sites were obtained from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, processed using ENVI 4.7. Additionally, topographic transects were developed using ArcGIS 10 software. To represent the highest variability in elevation, lithology, soil and land use in each site, one representative topographic transect from El-Fayoum and two topographic transects from Seville were selected. Soil characteristics along each of the topographic transect were obtained by mapping land surveying and laboratory analyses data. MicroLEIS DSS (Pantanal and Raizal submodels) was used to assess soil contamination with phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides and water erosion vulnerability along the topographic transects for each study site using soil data, including depth, texture, drainage, carbonate content, salinity, sodium saturation, organic matter content and acidity (pH). Additionally, monthly average values of climate variables (mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall and number of rainy days) have been used. The results obtained by Raizal and Pantanal models suggest that lower elevation areas from transects show low vulnerability classes in both degradation processes (water erosion and soil contamination), when compared to uplands. The variation of climate conditions and soil factors along the Seville and El-Fayoum transects were responsible for the observed variability in both soil degradation processes (erosion and contamination). Key words: MicroLEIS DSS, soil degradation, soil factors, topography, DEM

  9. NGEE Arctic Plant Traits: Shrub Transects, Kougarok Road Mile Marker 64, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Peter Thornton; Colleen Iversen; Stan Wullschleger; Verity Salmon; Mark Lara

    2017-03-01

    Transect data is from point center quarter surveys for shrub density performed in July 2016 at the Kougarok hill slope located at Kougarok Road, Mile Marker 64. For each sample point along the transects, moving averages for shrub density and shrub basal area are provided along with GPS coordinates, average shrub height and active layer depth. The individual height, basal area, and species of surveyed shrubs are also included. Data upload will be completed January 2017.

  10. Effects of vestibular nerve transection on the calcium incorporation of fish otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, Ralf H.; Edelmann, Elke; Rahmann, Hinrich

    2001-08-01

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was transected unilaterally in neonate swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated.

  11. Spatiotemporal gradients of intra-axonal [Na+] after transection and resealing in lizard peripheral myelinated axons.

    PubMed Central

    David, G; Barrett, J N; Barrett, E F

    1997-01-01

    1. Post-transection changes in intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) were measured in lizard peripheral axons ionophoretically injected with the Na(+)-sensitive ratiometric dye, sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI). 2. Following axonal transection in physiological saline [Na+]i increased to more than 100 mM in a region that quickly extended hundreds of micrometers from the transection site. This post-transection increase in [Na+]i was similar when the bath contained 5 microM tetrodotoxin, but was absent in Na(+)-free solution. Depolarization of uncut axons in 50 mM K+ produced little or no elevation of [Na+]i until veratridine was added. These results suggest that the post-transection increase in [Na+]i was due mainly to Na+ entry via the cut end, rather than via depolarization-activated Na+ channels. 3. The spatiotemporal profile of the post-transection increase in [Na+]i could be accounted for by movement of Na+ from the cut end with an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.3 x 10(-5) cm2 s-1. 4. [Na+]i began to decline toward resting levels by 20 +/- 15 min (mean +/- S.D.) post-transection, except in regions of the axon within 160 +/- 85 microns of the transection site, where [Na+]i remained high. The boundary between axonal regions in which [Na+]i did or did not recover probably defines a locus of resealing of the axonal membrane. 5. [Na+]i returned to resting values within about 1 h after resealing, even in axonal regions where the normal transmembrane [Na+] gradient had completely dissipated. The recovery of [Na+]i was faster and reached lower levels than expected by diffusional redistribution of Na+ along the axon. Partial recovery occurred even in an isolated internode, indicating that the internodal axolemma can actively extrude Na+. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9032679

  12. Hepatic hydrothorax.

    PubMed

    Baikati, Kiran; Le, Duong L; Jabbour, Ibrahim I; Singhal, Shashideep; Anand, Sury

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is defined as a pleural effusion in patients with liver cirrhosis in the absence of cardiopulmonary disease. The estimated prevalence among patients with liver cirrhosis is approximately 5-6%. The pathophysiology involves the passage of ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity to the pleural space through diaphragmatic defects. The diagnosis is made from clinical presentation and confirmed by diagnostic thoracentesis with pleural fluid analysis. The initial medical management is sodium restriction and diuretics, but liver transplantation provides the only definitive therapy. For patients who are not transplant candidates and those who await organ availability, other therapeutic modalities that are to be considered include transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, videoassisted thoracoscopic surgery repair, pleurodesis, and vasoconstrictors (eg, octreotide and terlipressin). The primary therapeutic goals are to reduce ascitic fluid production and improve symptoms to bridge the time for liver transplantation.

  13. Bilateral simultaneous nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Shikha Talwar; Dasgupta, Abhrajit

    2014-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with a history of alcoholism since 10 years admitted for jaundice elsewhere developed bilateral simultaneous decrease in vision in both the eyes 4 days after admission. His best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. Visual field evaluation revealed an inferior altitudinal defect in both the eyes. Optic disc appearance, visual fields, and optical coherence tomography of discs were suggestive of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in both the eyes. Liver function tests revealed elevated serum bilirubin and hepatic enzymes. He was negative for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Abdominal ultrasound revealed no focal hepatic lesion, and carotid doppler revealed no arteriosclerosis. A diagnosis of bilateral ischemic optic neuropathy associated with alcoholic hepatitis was made. Bilateral simultaneous NAION has been previously reported in perioperative visual loss, HCV infection, and interferon treatment. This is the first case report of bilateral simultaneous NAION in alcoholic hepatitis in the absence of associated infective viral hepatitis. We explore the pathophysiology of ischemic optic neuropathy in liver disease. An early intervention to correct the risk factors leading to NAION may help in preventing this vision-threatening complication in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:25136231

  14. Axon-glial relations during regeneration of axons in the adult rat anterior medullary velum.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Hunter, A S; Duncan, A; Lordan, J; Kirvell, S; Tsang, W L; Butt, A M

    1998-12-01

    The anterior medullary velum (AMV) of adult Wistar rats was lesioned in the midsagittal plane, transecting all decussating axons including those of the central projection of the IVth nerve. At selected times up to 200 days after transection, the degenerative and regenerative responses of axons and glia were analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In particular, both the capacity of oligodendrocytes to remyelinate regenerated fibers and the stability of the CNS/PNS junctional zone of the IVth nerve rootlet were documented. Transected central AMV axons exhibited four patterns of fiber regeneration in which fibers grew: rostrocaudally in the reactive paralesion neuropil (Group 1); randomly within the AMV (Group 2); into the ipsilateral IVth nerve rootlet, after turning at the lesion edge and growing recurrently through the old degenerated contralateral central trochlear nerve trajectory (Group 3); and ectopically through paralesion tears in the ependyma onto the surface of the IVth ventricle (Group 4). Group 1-3 axons regenerated unperturbed through degenerating central myelin, reactive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and large accumulations of hematogenous macrophages. Only Group 3 axons survived long term in significant numbers, and all became myelinated by oligodendrocytes, ultimately establishing thin sheaths with relatively normal nodal gaps and intersegmental myelin sheath lengths. Schwann cells at the CNS/PNS junction of the IVth nerve rootlet did not invade the CNS, but astrocyte processes grew across the junction into the PNS portion of the IVth nerve. The basal lamina of the junctional glia limitans remained stable throughout the experimental period.

  15. Quantification of reef benthos communities and variability inherent to the monitoring using video transect method.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carla Alecrim Colaço; Amaral, Fernanda Duarte; de Kikuchi, Ruy Kenji Papa; Chaves, Eduardo Marocci; de Melo, Gabriel Rivas

    2010-03-01

    Long-term monitoring program of organisms is the most recommended for understanding changing processes on reefs. The video transect method presents advantages for that. Specialists state that it is important to make sure that the recorded coverage is always the same between campaigns, so that differences in results may be entirely attributed to environmental changes. This study aimed to test the capability of implementing this requirement through tracking simulation and its validity for monitoring the benthic communities of reefs using the video transect method. Ten transects 20 m long were established in Todos os Santos Bay coral reefs. Subsequent to the first transect capture, a second diver repeated the same track, simulating two different monitoring campaigns. Data were transformed and a matrix of similarity was generated using Bray-Curtis' Index. ANOSIM analysis was performed to test the similarity of the ten transects and its repetitions. The result, R = 0.08 (P = 0.928), shows that reef monitoring using video transect, the way it is described in the literature, is appropriate, but it is important to consider some premises discussed in this work.

  16. Preprosthetic movement of anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Melsen, B

    1982-05-01

    Preprosthetic movement of anterior teeth is often performed on patients with missing anterior teeth, providing a better basis for subsequent bridgework. This can often be achieved by horizontal tooth movements of a tipping or translatory art whilst other patients present problems of a vertical nature with a deep overbite inconsistent with a healthy periodontal status. Intrusive tooth movements are needed as changes in facial height are not tolerated. The importance of understanding the biological basis for tooth movements in the planning of the biomechanics is stressed. Forces should be monitored according to the amount of general and local bone loss.

  17. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  18. Determining Optimal Location and Numbers of Sample Transects for Characterization of UXO Sites

    SciTech Connect

    BILISOLY, ROGER L.; MCKENNA, SEAN A.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work on sample design has been focused on constructing designs for samples taken at point locations. Significantly less work has been done on sample design for data collected along transects. A review of approaches to point and transect sampling design shows that transects can be considered as a sequential set of point samples. Any two sampling designs can be compared through using each one to predict the value of the quantity being measured on a fixed reference grid. The quality of a design is quantified in two ways: computing either the sum or the product of the eigenvalues of the variance matrix of the prediction error. An important aspect of this analysis is that the reduction of the mean prediction error variance (MPEV) can be calculated for any proposed sample design, including one with straight and/or meandering transects, prior to taking those samples. This reduction in variance can be used as a ''stopping rule'' to determine when enough transect sampling has been completed on the site. Two approaches for the optimization of the transect locations are presented. The first minimizes the sum of the eigenvalues of the predictive error, and the second minimizes the product of these eigenvalues. Simulated annealing is used to identify transect locations that meet either of these objectives. This algorithm is applied to a hypothetical site to determine the optimal locations of two iterations of meandering transects given a previously existing straight transect. The MPEV calculation is also used on both a hypothetical site and on data collected at the Isleta Pueblo to evaluate its potential as a stopping rule. Results show that three or four rounds of systematic sampling with straight parallel transects covering 30 percent or less of the site, can reduce the initial MPEV by as much as 90 percent. The amount of reduction in MPEV can be used as a stopping rule, but the relationship between MPEV and the results of excavation versus no

  19. The Effect of Skeletal Maturity on Functional Healing of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Martha M.; Magarian, Elise M.; Harrison, Sophia L.; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Zurakowski, David; Fleming, Braden C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The effects of skeletal maturity on functional ligament healing are unknown. Prior studies have suggested that ligament injuries in skeletally mature animals heal with improved mechanical properties. In this study, we hypothesized that skeletally immature animals have improved functional healing compared with skeletally mature animals. Methods: Twenty-one Yucatan minipigs (eight juvenile, eight adolescent, and five adult animals) underwent bilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection. On one side, the ligament injury was left untreated to determine the intrinsic healing response as a function of age. On the contralateral side, an enhanced suture repair incorporating a collagen-platelet composite was performed. Biomechanical properties of the repairs were measured after fifteen weeks of healing, and histologic analysis was performed. Results: Anterior cruciate ligaments from skeletally immature animals had significantly improved structural properties over those of adult animals at three months after transection in both the untreated and repair groups. Use of the enhanced suture technique provided the most improvement in the adolescent group, in which an increase of 85% in maximum load was noted with repair. The repair tissue in the adult tissue had the highest degree of hypercellularity at the fifteen-week time point. Conclusions: Functional ligament healing depends on the level of skeletal maturity of the animal, with immature animals having a more productive healing response than mature animals. Clinical Relevance: As future investigations assess new techniques of ligament healing in animal models, skeletal maturity should be considered in the design and the interpretation of those experiments. PMID:20810854

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    PubMed

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  1. Hepatitis B and concomitant hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chong Teik

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is becoming more common in Asia with prevalence becoming as common as Western countries. Concomitant Hepatitis B and hepatic steatosis is increasingly encountered in clinical practice. The interaction between the two concomitant conditions at both molecular level and clinical outcome remains to be explored. The present review is aimed at summarizing the existing literature on the complex interaction of the two-concomitant disease. PMID:28251117

  2. [A case of total cavopulmonary connection by utilization of coronary sinus as a hepatic venous return].

    PubMed

    Koide, M; Sakai, A; Iwata, Y; Sanae, T; Kunii, Y; Moriki, N; Ayusawa, Y; Seguchi, M

    2000-10-01

    A 2-year-old boy with polysplenia, double outlet right ventricle after pulmonary banding and unilateral bidirectional shunt was operated on. A modified total cavopulmonary connection was done by utilization of coronary sinus as a retrograde route for the hepatic venous return. Left SVC was transected and its distal end was anastomosed to the left pulmonary artery after PA angioplasty. An equine pericardial patch was placed over the ostia of the hepatic vein and coronary sinus. Two ostia of the coronary veins were excluded from the created route. The proximal end of the left SVC was anastomosed to the inferior side of the left pulmonary artery. Postoperative course was uneventful. The postoperative angiogram showed smooth hepatic venous return through the coronary sinus and no pressure gradient was recorded between hepatic vein and pulmonary artery.

  3. Dissolved Ti in the US GEOTRACES Atlantic Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, R. W.; Moran, S.; Kelly, R. P.; Kelley, K. A.; Graham, D.

    2012-12-01

    data for dissolved Ti in the open Atlantic. Croot's values and our values both agree well with Orians' original analyses, which not only confirms our respective analytical approaches but also suggests that the GEOTRACES rosette system, small parts of which contain Ti, does not contaminate seawater samples for Ti. We also present data from the 2011 GEOTRACES station taken at BATS in the western Atlantic and at Station 11 from the 2010 GEOTRACES transect in the eastern Atlantic. Our profile to 2000 m (= 213 pM) is similar to that of Orians et al. (1990) to the same depth, but extends deeper to 3597 m. Unlike the deep Pacific profile of Orians et al. (1990) from Station PAPA, which extends to 3860 m and reaches a maximum of 263 pM at that depth, our BATS profile is essentially invariant with depth below 2000 m. We observe a similar deepwater distribution at Station 11, which shows an increase from 60 pM near the surface to a maximum of 180 pM at 700 m, followed perhaps by a slight decrease to 130 pM at 3300 m depth.

  4. A transect of Tertiary central volcanoes across northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, B. T.; Duncan, R. A.; Carley, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Skagi-Snaefellsnes rift zone (SSRZ) was the focus of rifting in Iceland from ~15-7 Ma. We report on a transect of central volcanoes and isolated exposures of silicic rocks erupted from the SSRZ in northwest Iceland. The youngest system investigated is an epizonal intrusive series, gabbro to granite, at the northern end of Vididalsfjall, near the axis of the SSRZ. The granite yields an Ar/Ar plateau age of 7.03 × 0.07 Ma (all dates ×2σ), and SHRIMP 206Pb/238U zircon analysis gives an age of 6.79 × 0.35 Ma (n=15). This represents the final silicic activity in the northern SSRZ prior to abandonment at this latitude. Just east of the SSRZ is a central volcano exposed in Vatnsdalsfjall, Langadalsfjall, and Laxardalsfjoll, informally termed the southern Skagi central volcano. Ar/Ar ages for intermediate to silicic rocks in this system include a 7.62 × 0.32 Ma dacite, 7.80 × 0.07 Ma andesite, and a 7.82 × 0.04 Ma rhyolite. The rhyolite was also dated by SHRIMP zircon analysis yielding an age of 7.62 × 0.29 Ma (n=19). The Arnes central volcano is exposed on the northeastern tip of the West Fjords peninsula, east of the SSRZ. Based on correlation with nearby dated paleomagnetic surveys the age is ~12 Ma. The Hrafnfjordur central volcano further west in the West Fjords may be the oldest central volcano exposed on land in Iceland. A SHRIMP zircon age for the main dacite lava is 14.16 × 0.40 Ma (n=14). The three central volcanoes feature nearly continuous compositional spectra from basalt to a high-silica dacite or rhyolite. Extensive rhyolites occur in southern Skagi and Arnes, but with 2/3 of the system mapped, there are no true rhyolites at Hrafnfjordur; the most extensive silicic unit is a dacite lava (65-70 wt.% SiO2). Variation in Zr vs. SiO2 seems to implicate a cryptic high-silica low-Zr rhyolite magma as an end-member of mixing for some andesites at Hrafnfjordur, but Zr/Ti disproves this. The origin of most of the silicic magmas is likely by crustal

  5. Location and description of transects for ecological studies in floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, L.J.; Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve transects were established in floodplain forests along the lower Suwannee River, Florida, as the principal data collection sites for a comprehensive study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 2001. Data collected along the 12 transects included hydrologic conditions, land-surface elevations, soils, and vegetation of floodplain forests in relation to river flow. Transect locations are marked in the field with permanent markers at approximately 30 meter intervals. Detailed descriptions of the 12 transects and their locations are provided so that they can be used for future ecological studies. Descriptions of the transects include contact information necessary for access to the property on which the transects are located, maps showing transect locations and routes from the nearest city or major road, small scale maps of each transect showing marker locations, latitude and longitude of each marker, compass bearings of each transect line and graphs showing land-surface elevations of the transect with marker locations.

  6. Intentional Laceration of the Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet to Prevent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction During Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Pre-Clinical Findings.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jaffar M; Rogers, Toby; Schenke, William H; Mazal, Jonathan R; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Greenbaum, Adam B; Babaliaros, Vasilis C; Chen, Marcus Y; Lederman, Robert J

    2016-09-12

    The authors propose a novel transcatheter transection of the anterior mitral leaflet to prevent iatrogenic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction during transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). LVOT obstruction is a life-threatening complication of TMVR caused by septal displacement of the anterior mitral leaflet. In vivo procedures in swine were guided by biplane x-ray fluoroscopy and intracardiac echocardiography. Retrograde transaortic 6-F guiding catheters straddled the anterior mitral leaflet. A stiff 0.014-inch guidewire with polymer jacket insulation was electrified and advanced from the LVOT, through the A2 leaflet base, into the left atrium. The wire was snared and externalized, forming a loop that was energized and withdrawn to lacerate the anterior mitral leaflet. The anterior mitral leaflet was successfully lacerated in 7 live and 1 post-mortem swine under heparinization. Lacerations extended to 89 ± 19% of leaflet length and were located within 0.5 ± 0.4 mm of leaflet centerline. The chordae were preserved and retracted the leaflet halves away from the LVOT. LVOT narrowing after benchtop TMVR was significantly reduced with intentional laceration of the anterior mitral leaflet to prevent LVOT obstruction than without (65 ± 10% vs. 31 ± 18% of pre-implantation diameter, p < 0.01). The technique caused mean blood pressure to fall (from 54 ± 6 mm Hg to 30 ± 4 mm Hg, p < 0.01), but blood pressure remained steady until planned euthanasia. No collateral tissue injury was identified on necropsy. Using simple catheter techniques, the anterior mitral valve leaflet was transected. Cautiously applied in patients, this strategy can prevent anterior mitral leaflet displacement and LVOT obstruction caused by TMVR. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The anterior cruciate ligament provides resistance to externally applied anterior tibial force but not to internal rotational torque during simulated weight-bearing flexion.

    PubMed

    Wünschel, Markus; Müller, Otto; Lo, JiaHsuan; Obloh, Christian; Wülker, Nikolaus

    2010-11-01

    We investigated knee kinematics during simulated weight-bearing flexion and determined the effect of 3 different parameters of external tibial loading on the kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-intact and ACL-deficient knee. Ten human knee specimens were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator, and weight-bearing muscle-loaded knee flexions were simulated while a robotic/universal force sensor system was used to provide external tibial loads during the motion. Three different loading conditions were simulated: partial body weight only, an additional 50 N of anterior tibial force (ATD), or an additional 5 Nm of internal rotational tibial torque (IRT). After arthroscopic transection of the ACL, these 3 trials were repeated. The kinematics were measured with an ultrasonic measuring system for 3-dimensional motion analysis, and different loading and knee conditions were examined. When the ACL was intact, ATD and IRT barely changed the anterior tibial translation. However, in the absence of the ACL, ATD significantly increased the anterior tibial translation by 5 mm whereas IRT did not. The application of IRT increased the internal tibial rotation of ACL-intact knees, but there was no difference in the internal rotation before and after transection of the ACL. Regardless of ACL status, the difference in the anterior tibial translation and the internal tibial rotation across different external tibial loadings was greater at lower flexion angles and gradually diminished with increasing flexion angles. We established an experimental protocol, incorporating a dynamic knee simulator and a robotic/universal force sensor system, to successfully measure the kinematics of the knee joint while applying external forces in weight-bearing flexion. Our findings suggest that, in muscle-loaded knee flexion, the ACL provides substantial resistance to externally applied ATD but not to IRT. Information from this study allows us to better understand the function of the ACL and

  8. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  9. Hepatitis B -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... at birth: Newborn babies should receive their first hepatitis B vaccine and one dose of immunoglobulins (IG) within 12 hours. The baby should complete all hepatitis B vaccines as recommended during the first six months. Some ...

  10. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  11. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA . The main uses for HBV tests include: To ...

  12. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  13. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  14. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... related side effects. The hepatic function panel evaluates: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This enzyme, found in the liver, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase ( ...

  15. Hemostasis and Hepatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eeson, Gareth; Karanicolas, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Operative blood loss is a major source of morbidity and even mortality for patients undergoing hepatic resection. This review discusses strategies to minimize blood loss and the utilization of allogeneic blood transfusion pertaining to oncologic hepatic surgery.

  16. Crustal architecture across Phanerozoic Australia along the Eromanga-Brisbane Geoscience Transect: evolution and analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, D. M.

    1993-03-01

    The crustal architecture across Phanerozoic Australia has been established from seismic data along an 1100-km-long east-west transect, the Eromanga-Brisbane Geoscience Transect. This has enabled a better understanding of deep structures and processes that have controlled the development of major sedimentary basin systems. It has shown that crustal dynamics throughout geological history have played an important role in the development of these sedimentary basins and that structures developed during the early Palaeozoic have influenced, and continue to influence, basin systems. The transect crosses three major basement provinces of the Tasman Orogenic System in eastern Australia - the Thomson, northern Lachlan, and New England Orogens. The basement geology in the transect region has, until now, been only poorly understood because it is largely obscured by the Mesozoic cover rocks of the Eromanga, Surat and Clarence-Moreton Basins. The transect interpretation has firmly identified crustal-scale ramp structures, multiple intra-crustal detachment surfaces, strike-slip fault architecture, lower-crustal magmatism/underplating, Mono remobilisation, and intra-crustal terranes in the geological reconstructions of southern Queensland. The boundaries between the orogens, the Foyleview and Burunga—Mooki Geosutures, have been identified as lithospheric-scale structures that have influenced the evolution of the Tasman Orogenic System as a whole.

  17. A brain-machine-muscle interface for restoring hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zicong; Li, Yan; He, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking) could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics.

  18. A Brain-Machine-Muscle Interface for Restoring Hindlimb Locomotion after Complete Spinal Transection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zicong; Li, Yan; He, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking) could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics. PMID:25084446

  19. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... now routinely vaccinate all children, travelers to certain countries, and persons at risk for the disease. Many experts believe Hepatitis A vaccination has dramatically affected rates of the disease in the United States. Transmission / Exposure How is Hepatitis A spread? Hepatitis A ...

  20. Treating hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Karmen

    2014-10-01

    (1) New treatments for hepatitis C are curing more people than before. (2) Baby boomers make up an estimated 75 percent of all cases of hepatitis C. (3) Medicare and some insurance plans cover screening for hepatitis C as a preventive service without a copayment.

  1. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  2. Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia

    2009-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. HCV nearly always recurs in liver-transplanted patients, and 10 to 25% of them develop cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years. One of the strategies suggested to limit virological HCV recurrence is pretransplant antiviral treatment, but studies are warranted on the pharmacokinetics of antiviral drugs in cirrhotic patients, the benefits of fixed or escalating antiviral drug dosage schedules, the duration of the treatment, and the indications for using growth factors. Several risk factors are associated with a more aggressive recurrent HCV and early allograft failure, such as an older donor age. The relationship between immunosuppression and fibrosis progression in HCV recurrence remains uncertain. Concerning the antiviral treatment, treating established recurrent disease with a combination of interferon and ribavirin has been the mainstay of management to date, but when it is best to start and how to manage the side effects are still controversial issues. Antiviral treatment should be started once the disease has been confirmed by a biopsy when the fibrosis develops, providing that ongoing acute or chronic rejection, biliary obstruction, vascular damage, autoimmune diseases and sepsis, and any other standard contraindications for antiviral therapy, have been excluded. HCV recurrence after liver transplantation may well lead to graft failure and become an indication for retransplantation, but this is done in a relatively small number of cases, accounting for only 3 to 5% of retransplanted patients, since retransplantation is associated with much worse results than primary liver transplant procedures. We must be prepared for the fact that increasing numbers of HCV-positive recipients with allografts failing due to recurrent HCV will be asking to be retransplanted-and we do not know yet how to respond to this

  3. Targeting Hepatic Fibrosis in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Montano-Loza, Aldo J; Thandassery, Ragesh B; Czaja, Albert J

    2016-11-01

    Hepatic fibrosis develops or progresses in 25 % of patients with autoimmune hepatitis despite corticosteroid therapy. Current management regimens lack reliable noninvasive methods to assess changes in hepatic fibrosis and interventions that disrupt fibrotic pathways. The goals of this review are to indicate promising noninvasive methods to monitor hepatic fibrosis in autoimmune hepatitis and identify anti-fibrotic interventions that warrant evaluation. Laboratory methods can differentiate cirrhosis from non-cirrhosis, but their accuracy in distinguishing changes in histological stage is uncertain. Radiological methods include transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography. Methods based on ultrasonography are comparable in detecting advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, but their performances may be compromised by hepatic inflammation and obesity. Magnetic resonance elastography has excellent performance parameters for all histological stages in diverse liver diseases, is uninfluenced by inflammatory activity or body habitus, has been superior to other radiological methods in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and may emerge as the preferred instrument to evaluate fibrosis in autoimmune hepatitis. Promising anti-fibrotic interventions are site- and organelle-specific agents, especially inhibitors of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, transforming growth factor beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, lysyl oxidases, and C-C chemokine receptors types 2 and 5. Autoimmune hepatitis has a pro-fibrotic propensity, and noninvasive radiological methods, especially magnetic resonance elastography, and site- and organelle-specific interventions, especially selective antioxidants and inhibitors of collagen cross-linkage, may emerge to strengthen current management strategies.

  4. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis

  5. Extradural anterior clinoidectomy. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Akio; Balasingam, Vijayabalan; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; McMenomey, Sean O; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2005-05-01

    The anterior clinoid process (ACP), located on the skull base, is a relatively small structure, although its removal provides enormous gain in facilitating the management of lesions--either tumors or aneurysms--in the paraclinoid region and upper basilar artery. The extensive surgical field gained contributes to safer exposure of the neurovascular elements in the vicinity while avoiding excessive and hazardous retraction of the brain. In this report the authors present a technically simpler avenue for performing an extradural anterior clinoidectomy after reviewing the anatomy of the ACP and its anatomical variations. Additionally, the original Dolenc procedure and its subseqtient derivatives are compared and contrasted to the authors' simpler and less laborious technique. Different clinical situations in which to use the procedure are described based on the authors' experience from 60 cases (40 aneurysm cases and 20 tumor cases) during a 4-year period.

  6. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it...

  7. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it is...

  8. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it is...

  9. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it is...

  10. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it is...

  11. Production of anterior segment ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, R L

    1977-01-01

    Anterior segment ischemic changes can occur without detachment of any muscles. The most common cause of such ischemic changes of the anterior segment is the removal of too many rectus muscles in one operation. Twenty dog eyes and eight monkey eyes were subjected to the disinsertion and detachment of various combinations of extraocular muscles. The dogs were sacrificed at intervals from 30 to 90 days. During the observation period, they were observed for gross and slit-lamp changes. The enucleated eyes were studied microscopically for signs of ischemic and necrotic changes. Two patients who were studied, observed, and treated for anterior segment ischemia following muscle surgery are described. The changes which occur after extraocular muscle surgery are extensive and include corneal edema, cataract, chemosis, corneal changes, decreases in intraocular pressure, decreases in outflow or glaucoma, and frank necrosis. The variables which lead to this reaction are described in detail. Also, some unanswered queries, such as the duration of the reaction and the time interval of the reaction after multiple muscle operations are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 2 D FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:418549

  12. Erectile function after anterior urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Coursey, J W; Morey, A F; McAninch, J W; Summerton, D J; Secrest, C; White, P; Miller, K; Pieczonka, C; Hochberg, D; Armenakas, N

    2001-12-01

    We ascertained the impact of anterior urethroplasty on male sexual function. A validated questionnaire was mailed to 200 men who underwent anterior urethroplasty to evaluate postoperative sexual function. Questions addressed the change in erect penile length and angle, patient satisfaction with erection, preoperative and postoperative coital frequency, and change in erection noted by the sexual partner. Results were stratified by the urethral reconstruction method, namely anastomosis, buccal mucosal graft, penile flap and all others, and compared with those in a similar group of men who underwent circumcision only. Of the 200 men who underwent urethroplasty 152 who were 17 to 83 years old (mean age 45.7) completed the questionnaire. Average followup was 36 months (range 3 to 149). Overall there was a similar incidence of sexual problems after urethroplasty and circumcision. Penile skin flap urethroplasty was associated with a slightly higher incidence of impaired sexual function than other procedures (p >0.05). Men with a longer stricture were most likely to report major changes in erectile function and penile length (p <0.05) but improvement was evident with time in 61.8%. Overall anterior urethral reconstruction appears no more likely to cause long-term postoperative sexual dysfunction than circumcision. Men with a long stricture may be at increased risk for transient erectile changes.

  13. Primary Liver Abscess with Anterior Abdominal Wall Extension Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kandekar, Rahul Vilas; Tiwari, Ajeet Ramamani; Kadam, Rahul; Adhikari, Devbrata Radhikamohan

    2016-01-01

    Tubercular liver abscess is generally secondary to some other primary foci in the body, most notably pulmonary and gastrointestinal system. To find primary tubercular liver abscess is rare, with prevalence of 0.34% in patients with hepatic tuberculosis. Abscess tracking into abdominal wall from spinal and para spinal tuberculosis is known, however primary liver tuberculosis rupturing into anterior abdominal wall has been reported only twice in literature. We report a case of 43-year-old female with direct invasion of the anterior abdominal wall from an isolated tubercular parenchymal liver abscess, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, diagnosed primarily on smear for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), imaging and isolated by culture and BACTEC MGIT 960 KIT. We discuss here the diagnostic dilemma, management and outcome of primary tubercular liver parenchymal abscess with direct invasion into anterior abdominal wall. PMID:28050433

  14. Relative efficiency of multi-transect, non-pumped, reactive well networks for removing contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Alternative networks of non-pumped wells filled with reactive media were evaluated for groundwater remediation capability. Wells were screened across the saturated zone of a simulated, unconfined aquifer with a heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity. A numerical mass transport model generated an initial contaminant plume and then simulated its movement through different networks of non-pumped wells. Two cases were investigated: (1) a linear transect of wells downgradient of the plume; and (2) a downgradient linear transect combined with a second linear transect crossing the plume's interior. Several simulations were conducted for each case to determine the smallest number of wells necessary to prevent the plume from traveling offsite. Case 2 required 11% more wells, but reduced cleanup time by 21%.

  15. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  16. Heat tracing to determine spatial patterns of hyporheic exchange across a river transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chengpeng; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ying; Su, Xiaoru; Chen, Guohao

    2017-09-01

    Significant spatial variability of water fluxes may exist at the water-sediment interface in river channels and has great influence on a variety of water issues. Understanding the complicated flow systems controlling the flux exchanges along an entire river is often limited due to averaging of parameters or the small number of discrete point measurements usually used. This study investigated the spatial pattern of the hyporheic flux exchange across a river transect in China, using the heat tracing approach. This was done with measurements of temperature at high spatial resolution during a 64-h monitoring period and using the data to identify the spatial pattern of the hyporheic exchange flux with the aid of a one-dimensional conduction-advection-dispersion model (VFLUX). The threshold of neutral exchange was considered as 126 L m-2 d-1 in this study and the heat tracing results showed that the change patterns of vertical hyporheic flux varied with buried depth along the river transect; however, the hyporheic flux was not simply controlled by the streambed hydraulic conductivity and water depth in the river transect. Also, lateral flow dominated the hyporheic process within the shallow high-permeability streambed, while the vertical flow was dominant in the deep low-permeability streambed. The spatial pattern of hyporheic exchange across the river transect was naturally controlled by the heterogeneity of the streambed and the bedform of the stream cross-section. Consequently, a two-dimensional conceptual illustration of the hyporheic process across the river transect is proposed, which could be applicable to river transects of similar conditions.

  17. Heat tracing to determine spatial patterns of hyporheic exchange across a river transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chengpeng; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ying; Su, Xiaoru; Chen, Guohao

    2017-03-01

    Significant spatial variability of water fluxes may exist at the water-sediment interface in river channels and has great influence on a variety of water issues. Understanding the complicated flow systems controlling the flux exchanges along an entire river is often limited due to averaging of parameters or the small number of discrete point measurements usually used. This study investigated the spatial pattern of the hyporheic flux exchange across a river transect in China, using the heat tracing approach. This was done with measurements of temperature at high spatial resolution during a 64-h monitoring period and using the data to identify the spatial pattern of the hyporheic exchange flux with the aid of a one-dimensional conduction-advection-dispersion model (VFLUX). The threshold of neutral exchange was considered as 126 L m-2 d-1 in this study and the heat tracing results showed that the change patterns of vertical hyporheic flux varied with buried depth along the river transect; however, the hyporheic flux was not simply controlled by the streambed hydraulic conductivity and water depth in the river transect. Also, lateral flow dominated the hyporheic process within the shallow high-permeability streambed, while the vertical flow was dominant in the deep low-permeability streambed. The spatial pattern of hyporheic exchange across the river transect was naturally controlled by the heterogeneity of the streambed and the bedform of the stream cross-section. Consequently, a two-dimensional conceptual illustration of the hyporheic process across the river transect is proposed, which could be applicable to river transects of similar conditions.

  18. DOM along the Continuum from River to Reservoir: a Comparison of Freshwater and Saline Transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, E. C.; Stephens, B.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays key roles in aquatic ecosystems: as an organic carbon (energy) link between terrestrial and aquatic systems, a food source for biota, a reactant in photochemical reactions, and a sunscreen/competitor for light for aquatic organisms. The composition as well as the concentration of aquatic DOM is believed to determine DOM's efficacy in these roles. The transport and alteration of DOM in river/estuarine systems are significant processes in determining the concentration and composition of DOM in the receiving lake or ocean system (especially in productive and economically important coastal regions). Therefore this study provides a preliminary comparison of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOM optical properties, and chemical composition of high molecular weight DOM (HMW DOM) on two river-to-receiving-basin transects, one freshwater (St. Louis River/Lake Superior, Minnesota, USA) and the other with a salinity gradient (Elizabeth River/lower Chesapeake Bay/coastal Atlantic, Virginia, USA). Both transects share optical property ranges and general downstream trends toward lower DOC concentrations, less aromaticity, and lower molecular weight DOM, however, there is a stronger downstream decrease in DOC concentration in the saline transect. In HMW DOM, there is more retention of carboxylic signals downstream in the freshwater transect, relative to a downstream shift toward more proteinaceous material in the saline transect. These observed DOM differences most likely result from variations in biological activity, photochemistry, and ionic strength in the two transects. Ionic strength effects include in situ processes (e.g. flocculation) and interactions affecting DOM isolation and analysis.

  19. Attributions of Vegetation Productivity along a Climate Gradient Transect in Eastern African Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, K.; Wood, E. F.; Caylor, K. K.; Li, H.

    2009-12-01

    Savanna vegetation productivity is mainly controlled by exogenous forcings (water, nutrients, lights), disturbances (fire, herbivory), and endogenous mechanisms (competition and co-existence of trees and grass). It is well known that precipitation is the primary driving force for savanna vegetation (e.g. Kalahari, Sahel), however light (or PAR, photosynthetic active radiation) is seldom considered as a limiting factor at continental scale in Africa. To understand the potential role of light to vegetation, we analyze the long-term observations (1983-2006) of NDVI and LAI (GIMMS), gauge-based precipitation, temperature (CRU), and downward shortwave radiation (SRB), for a 7° (E-W) long and 28° (N-S) wide transect with a dramatic climatic gradient in eastern Africa. During the growing season, precipitation strongly controls the vegetation productivity in the southern and northern portion of the transect, which correspond with low precipitation (mean annual precipitation < ~ 700mm) and grassland/shrubland landcover. However, for the central portion of the transect, primarily woodland and woody grassland, higher precipitation does not result in higher vegetation productivity due to relatively lower downward shortwave radiation (DSW). This suggests that woody vegetation productivity is more sensitive to insufficient light input when water input is sufficiently available. Further analysis of the interannual variability of NDVI, precipitation, and DSW show that precipitation explains most of the variance in NDVI for the southern and northern portions of the transect; while in the central portion NDVI exhibits significant positive correlation with DSW, but almost insignificant correlation with precipitation. Precipitation and DSW are negatively correlated along most of the transect because more precipitation generally indicates more clouds, which induces a decrease in DSW. Based on the results, a statistical model was developed to characterize the observed effects of

  20. Biomechanical Outcomes After Bio-enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Are Equal in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Fleming, Braden C.; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical outcomes of a new method of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) treatment, bio-enhanced ACL repair, with ACL reconstruction in a large animal model. Methods Twenty-four skeletally immature pigs underwent unilateral ACL transection and were randomly allocated to receive bio-enhanced ACL repair with a collagen-platelet composite, allograft (bone–patellar tendon– bone) reconstruction, or no further treatment (n = 8 for each group). The structural properties and anteroposterior laxity of the experimental and contralateral ACL-intact knees were measured 15 weeks postoperatively. All dependent variables were normalized to those of the contralateral knee and compared by use of generalized linear mixed models. Results After 15 weeks, bio-enhanced ACL repair and ACL reconstruction produced superior biomechanical outcomes to ACL transection. However, there were no significant differences between bio-enhanced ACL repair and ACL reconstruction for maximum load (P = .4745), maximum displacement (P = .4217), or linear stiffness (P = .6327). There were no significant differences between the 2 surgical techniques in anteroposterior laxity at 30° (P = .7947), 60° (P = .6270), or 90° (P = .9008). Conclusions Bio-enhanced ACL repair produced biomechanical results that were not different from ACL reconstruction in a skeletally immature, large animal model, although the variability associated with both procedures was large. Both procedures produced significantly improved results over ACL transection, showing that both were effective in this model. Clinical Relevance Bio-enhanced ACL repair may 1 day provide an alternative treatment option for ACL injury. PMID:22261137

  1. Hyperspectral data analysis for estimation of foliar biochemical content along the Oregon transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Peterson, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project completed a data acquisition phase. Data were acquired with several airborne imaging spectrometers. Included were the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) aboard the ER-2, the Advanced Solidstate Array Spectrometer (ASAS) aboard the C-130, and the Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), both aboard light aircraft. In addition, Spectron visible and near-infrared data were acquired in transects across study areas from a low-altitude ultralight craft. Sunphotometer data were taken approximately coincident with each overflight for atmospheric correction of the aircraft data.

  2. Probabilities of a Grid of Rectangular Transects of Positive Width Intersecting an Elliptical Target

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Robert F.

    2002-04-29

    This paper develops a methodology of finding the probability of the grid traversing an elliptical target of a specified size when a rectangular grid is used for sampling and the transects have a specified width. This probability can then be used to determine the parameters of the rectangular grid that is necessary to find a specified elliptical target with a specified probability. This methodology was developed for the situation in which a nondestructive assay device such as a magnetometer or ground penetrating radar is used to pass over the transects of a rectangular grid looking for elliptically shaped clusters of shrapnel that may indicate the existence of unexploded ordnance (UXO).

  3. A comparison of joint stability between anterior cruciate intact and deficient knees: a new canine model of anterior cruciate ligament disruption

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Mandi J.; Kunz, David; Vanderby, Ray; Heisey, Dennis; Bogdanske, John; Markel, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    Transection of the canine anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a well-established osteoarthritis (OA) model. This study evaluated a new method of canine ACL disruption as well as canine knee joint laxity and joint capsule (JC) contribution to joint stability at two time points (16 and 26 weeks) after ACL disruption ( n = 5/time interval). Ten crossbreed hounds were evaluated with force plate gait analysis and radiographs at intervals up to 34 weeks after monopolar radiofrequency energy (MRFE) treatment of one randomly selected ACL. Each contralateral ACL was sham treated. The MRFE treated ACLs ruptured approximately eight weeks (mean 52.5 days, SEM ±1.0, range 48–56 days) after treatment. Gait analysis and radiographic changes were consistent with established canine ACL transection models of OA. Anterior-posterior (AP) translation and medial-lateral (ML) rotation were measured in each knee at 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion with and then without JC with loads of 40 N in AP translation and 4 N m in ML rotation. A statistically significant interaction in AP translation included JC by cruciate (P = 0.02), and there was a trend for a cruciate by time (P =0.07) interaction. Significant interactions in ML rotational testing included the presence of joint capsule ( P =0.0001) and angle by cruciate ( P = 0.0012). This study describes a model in which canine ACLs predictably rupture approximately eight weeks after arthroscopic surgery and details the contribution of JC to canine knee stability in both ACL intact and deficient knees. The model presented here avoids the introduction of potential surgical variables at the time of ACL rupture and may contribute to studies of OA pathogenesis and inhibition. This model may also be useful for insight into the pathologic changes that occur in the knee as the ACL undergoes degeneration prior to rupture. PMID:12568952

  4. Kinematics of meniscal- and ACL-transected mouse knees during controlled tibial compressive loading captured using roentgen stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Olufunmilayo O; Ko, Frank C; Goldring, Steven R; Goldring, Mary B; Wright, Timothy M; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2017-02-01

    Pre-clinical studies of post-traumatic OA have examined the pathways that lead to disease after injury by using surgical models such as the destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). While the morphological, molecular, and genetic pathways leading to OA have been examined extensively; the effects of these injuries on joint kinematics, and thus disease progression, have yet to be fully characterized. To this end, we sought to understand the kinematics in the DMM and ACLT joints compared to intact joints subjected to controlled tibial compressive loading. We hypothesized that the DMM and ACLT models would result in different patterns of joint instability compared to intact joints, thus explaining the different patterns of OA initiation and severity in these models. Cadaver adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either a DMM or ACLT in their right knee joints, while the left limbs remained as intact controls. All limbs were labeled with fiducial markers, and the rigid body kinematics of the tibia and femur were examined using roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) with application of compressive loads from 0 to 9 N. DMM and intact joints demonstrated similar kinematics under compressive loading, in contrast to ACLT joints, which dislocated even before load application. These results demonstrate the importance of rigorous kinematic analysis in defining the role of joint instability in animal models of OA and suggest significant differences in DMM and ACLT joint instabilities in the context of controlled mechanical loading. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:353-360, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Morphological changes and expression of MMPs and TIMPs in rabbit degenerated lateral meniscus after PCL-transection.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Li, Kanghua; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Whether the expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 has association with the degeneration of lateral meniscus after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) fracture is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PCL fracture on lateral meniscus, including morphological changes, histological changes and roles of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression level in the secondary injury. Sixty male rabbits were used as PCL transection models and randomized into the PCL-transection side, which underwent PCL transection surgery, and the control side, which underwent PCL exposure without transection. On 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 weeks after PCL-transection, 12 rabbits were randomly killed for H&E staining to determine the histological changes of lateral meniscus. Immunohistochemical staining was undertaken to evaluate the expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 in lateral meniscus. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 15.0. The lateral meniscus of PCL-transection side presented abnormal morphology. Histological evaluation score of meniscal degeneration in PCL-transection group was higher than that in the control group with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 were significantly elevated in meniscus of the PCL-transection group with statistical difference (P < 0.05). MMP-1 expression displayed an increasing trend firstly then kept stable after PCL transection; MMP-13 and TIMP-1 expression displayed high level firstly then decreased in advanced stage after PCL transection. PCL transaction may induce a coordinated response of degeneration of lateral meniscus in a time-dependent manner. The high expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 would contribute to the degeneration of lateral meniscus after PCL transection.

  6. Morphological changes and expression of MMPs and TIMPs in rabbit degenerated lateral meniscus after PCL-transection

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Li, Kanghua; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Whether the expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 has association with the degeneration of lateral meniscus after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) fracture is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PCL fracture on lateral meniscus, including morphological changes, histological changes and roles of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression level in the secondary injury. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rabbits were used as PCL transection models and randomized into the PCL-transection side, which underwent PCL transection surgery, and the control side, which underwent PCL exposure without transection. On 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 weeks after PCL-transection, 12 rabbits were randomly killed for H&E staining to determine the histological changes of lateral meniscus. Immunohistochemical staining was undertaken to evaluate the expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 in lateral meniscus. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Results: The lateral meniscus of PCL-transection side presented abnormal morphology. Histological evaluation score of meniscal degeneration in PCL-transection group was higher than that in the control group with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 were significantly elevated in meniscus of the PCL-transection group with statistical difference (P < 0.05). MMP-1 expression displayed an increasing trend firstly then kept stable after PCL transection; MMP-13 and TIMP-1 expression displayed high level firstly then decreased in advanced stage after PCL transection. Conclusions: PCL transaction may induce a coordinated response of degeneration of lateral meniscus in a time-dependent manner. The high expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 would contribute to the degeneration of lateral meniscus after PCL transection. PMID:26770389

  7. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Philippa J; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for virological markers (nucleic acid testing and HCV

  8. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV–HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016–2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Recent findings Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Summary Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for

  9. Hepatic hematoma and hepatic rupture in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Góngora, Julieta

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic perforation is an unusual complication of woman pregnancy associated with a poor outcome. A comprehensive review of epidemiology, clinical spectrum, diagnostic methods and therapeutic options is presented in this short paper.

  10. Latitudinal transects in the southeastern Pacific Ocean reveal a diverse but patchy distribution of phycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Trefault, N; Krock, B; Delherbe, N; Cembella, A; Vásquez, M

    2011-10-01

    Phycotoxin distribution and abundance was determined during an oceanographic expedition along a latitudinal transect of 27° extent in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from the fjords of Tierra del Fuego Island to offshore Copiapó in the Atacama region along the Chilean coast. Plankton samples were harvested at regular intervals during the entire cruise and later analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for domoic acid (DA) and lipophilic toxins. Although no evident toxic algal bloom was encountered during this transect, several phycotoxin analogues from distinct toxin groups were detected. These phycotoxins included DA, the pectenotoxins PTX-2, PTX-2sa and PTX-11, dinophystoxin-1 (DTX-1) and gymnodimine (GYM), which is the first report of this latter toxin in the southeast Pacific. A region-specific and rather disjunct distribution of GYM, DA and DTX-1 was observed, whereas PTX-2, PTX-2sa and PTX-11 were more widely distributed over almost the entire transect. This work represents the first assessment of lipophilic toxins through a wide latitudinal transect of the southeastern Pacific, revealing a patchy distribution of several phycotoxins and pointing out the specific geographical distribution of the putative toxigenic organisms.

  11. Correction for slope in point and transect relascope sampling of downed coarse woody debris

    Treesearch

    Goran Stahl; Anna Ringvall; Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the effect of sloping terrain on estimates in point and transect relascope sampling (PRS and TRS, respectively) is studied. With these inventory methods, a wide angle relascope is used either from sample points (PRS) or along survey lines (TRS). Characteristics associated with line-shaped objects on the ground are assessed, e.g., the length or volume...

  12. Early stabilization of traumatic aortic transection and mitral valve regurgitation with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, David L; Wellens, Francis; Vercoutere, Rik A; De Geest, Raf

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening aortic transection with concomitant mitral papillary muscle rupture and severe lung contusion caused by a failed parachute jump. This blunt thoracic injury was treated by early stabilization with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by successful delayed graft repair of the descending aorta and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis.

  13. Impairment or abolition of lordosis in the golden hamster by transection of spinal pathways.

    PubMed

    Rose, J D; Smucker, L K; Miracle, R L

    1983-12-01

    Lumbosacral and thoracic tactile stimulation elicits lordosis in sexually-receptive female hamsters. Because of the major dorsal column involvement in transmission of tactile activity, transection of this pathway was examined for effects on somatosensory elicitation of lordosis and compared with effects of lateral column (unilateral or bilateral) transections. Interruption of either pathway completely eliminated lordosis on some tests. Dorsal column section at cervical or lumbar levels produced a unique effect, however, where lumbosacral stimuli elicited the tail, rump and hindlimb manifestations of lordosis without evoking the usual immobility of the forelimbs, head and vibrissae. In animals with lumbar transections, the rostral, but not caudal, motoric components of lordosis could still be elicited by thoracic stimuli. Lateral column transection did not consistently prevent complete, sustained lordosis responses, but the response posture was abnormal. These results show the integrity of the hamster's dorsal columns to be essential for elicitation of complete lordosis responses and suggest that the caudal and rostral motor components differ significantly in the nature of their control by spinal and supraspinal levels of the central nervous system.

  14. Variability in surface moisture content along a hillslope transect: Rattlesnake Hill, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Rudnicki, J. W.; Rodell, M.

    1998-09-01

    Surface soil moisture content exhibits a high degree of spatial and temporal variability. The purpose of this study was (a) to characterize variations in moisture content in the 0-5 cm surface soil layer along a hillslope transect by means of intensive sampling in both space and time; and (b) to make inferences regarding the environmental factors that influence this variability. Over a period of seven months, soil moisture content was measured (gravimetric method) on a near-daily basis at 10 m intervals along a 200 m downslope transect at the Rattlesnake Hill field site in Austin, Texas. Results indicate that significant variability in soil moisture content exists along the length of the transect; that variability decreases with decreasing transectmean moisture content as the hillslope dries down following rain events; and that the dominant influences on moisture content variability are dependent upon the moisture conditions on the hillslope. While topographic and soil attributes operate jointly to redistribute soil water following storm events, under wet conditions, variability in surface moisture content is most strongly influenced by porosity and hydraulic conductivity, and under dry conditions, correlations are strongest to relative elevation, aspect and clay content. Consequently, the dominant influence on soil moisture variability gradually changes from soil heterogeneity to joint control by topographic and soil properties as the transect dries following significant rain events.

  15. The design of sampling transects for characterizing water quality in estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jassby, A.D.; Cole, B.E.; Cloern, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The high spatial variability of estuaries poses a challenge for characterizing estuarine water quality. This problem was examined by conducting monthly high-resolution transects for several water quality variables (chlorophyll a, suspended particulate matter and salinity) in San Francisco Bay (California, U.S.A.). Using these data, six different ways of choosing station locations along a transect, in order to estimate mean conditions, were compared. In addition, 11 approaches to estimating the variance of the transect mean when stations are equally spaced were compared, and the relationship between variance of the estimated transect mean and number of stations was determined. The results provide guidelines for sampling along the axis of an estuary: (1) Choose as many equally-spaced stations as practical; (2) estimate the variance of the mean y?? by var (y??)=(1/10n2)??(j=2)/(n) (y(j)-y(j-1)2, where y1,...,y(n) are the measurements at the n stations; and (3) attain the desired precision by adjusting the number of stations according to var(y??)???1/n2. The inverse power of 2 in the last step is a consequence of the underlying spatial correlation structure in San Francisco Bay; more studies of spatial structure at other estuaries are needed to determine the generality of this relationship.

  16. Effect of Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection on Salt Taste Perception in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0–300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies. PMID:21743094

  17. Investigating frontal variability from repeated glider transects in the Ligurian Current (North West Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piterbarg, L.; Taillandier, V.; Griffa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale variability of the Ligurian Current (North Western Mediterranean Sea) is studied using glider data from a repeated cross-frontal transect. The Ligurian Current is characterized by a complex time variability, with propagation velocities that can be compared to those of the glider. As a consequence, time variability can appear as folded into space variability in the glider data through the mechanism of Doppler smearing. In this paper, we provide a general framework to illustrate the effects of spatial and temporal variability and introduce a simple methodology to at least partially unfold the uncertainty. We capitalize on the fact that the glider repeatedly covers the transect, and we build time series of isopycnal depth at fixed points using nonlinear interpolation in time and spatial smoothing. Estimates of the isopycnal space patterns are obtained at various times, and a function fitting is used when appropriate allowing to describe the frontal time variability through a few descriptive parameters. Results show a mesoscale signal with scales consistent with what is known in the literature, and characterized by a cross-shore oscillation of the front between approximately 15 and 50 km offshore. The frontal oscillation is quite smooth during the first four transects with propagation speed significantly lower than the glider (≈ 8 km/day), so that the deconvolution method is robust. Local wind also appears to play a role. During the last two transects, instead, the system undergoes dramatic changes with time scales of the order of a day, so that the deconvolution is more problematic.

  18. Methods for estimating detection efficiency and tracking acoustic tags with mobile transect surveys.

    PubMed

    Melnychuk, M C; Christensen, V

    2009-11-01

    Mobile transect surveys were conducted for 5 years in a deep fjord looking for weak acoustic tags, most of which were in dead fishes lying on the seabed. Detection efficiencies were quantified because inferences about fish presence were made from tag detection data but a considerable proportion of tags were not detected. Methods for assessing transect widths using cumulative probabilities of measured perpendicular distances from blind transect lines to triangulated tag locations are described. Three methods for estimating detection efficiencies are presented: fitting attenuation functions to perpendicular distance data, simultaneous use of two receiver systems and test tag surveys. Several factors that influenced these detection efficiencies and ranges are shown, including boat speed, depth of tag, tag type, different hydrophone-receiver systems and variation among individual hydrophones and receivers of the same model. The trade-off between detection efficiency per unit area and area swept is discussed, which is largely based on boat speed during transects. Finally, several methods are suggested for increasing decoding efficiencies in mobile tracking studies when tags are heard but are difficult to decode.

  19. Digitization of a geologic map for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine global geoscience transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.

  20. Probable errors in width distributions of sea ice leads measured along a transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, J.; Peckham, S.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of error expected in the measurement of widths of sea ice leads along a single transect are examined in a probabilistic sense under assumed orientation and width distributions, where both isotropic and anisotropic lead orientations are examined. Methods are developed for estimating the distribution of 'actual' widths (measured perpendicular to the local lead orientation) knowing the 'apparent' width distribution (measured along the transect), and vice versa. The distribution of errors, defined as the difference between the actual and apparent lead width, can be estimated from the two width distributions, and all moments of this distribution can be determined. The problem is illustrated with Landsat imagery and the procedure is applied to a submarine sonar transect. Results are determined for a range of geometries, and indicate the importance of orientation information if data sampled along a transect are to be used for the description of lead geometries. While the application here is to sea ice leads, the methodology can be applied to measurements of any linear feature.

  1. A northern Cordilleran ocean-continent transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Karl, S.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Ford, A.B.; Horner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake continent-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors

  2. The distribution of mercury in a forest floor transect across the central United States

    Treesearch

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher; William Cannon; Randall K. Kolka; Laurel Woodruff

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) stored in soil organic matter may be released when the forest floor is consumed by fire. Our objective is to document the spatial distribution of forest floor Hg for a transect crossing the central United States. Samples collected by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis Soil Quality Indicator were tested...

  3. How-To-Do-It: A Transect Study of a Barrier Beach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a field trip activity to measure changes in elevation across the dunes of a barrier beach, measure wind velocity along the transect line, and observe the distribution of ground cover in the study area. Discusses equipment, materials, procedures and follow-up activities for each study. (CW)

  4. The densiometer for measurement of crown intercept above a line transect.

    Treesearch

    J. Edward. Dealy

    1960-01-01

    An adaptation in the use of Lemmon's spherical densiometer, has been developed to measure low overstory crown foliage as intercept above a line transect. This adaptation provides added information for the evaluation of ecological relationships within and among plant communities where some species are too low for overstory density estimates and too high for direct...

  5. Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using FOURIER series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, B.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.; Lake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A nonparametric, robust density estimation method is explored for the analysis of right-angle distances from a transect line to the objects sighted. The method is based on the FOURIER series expansion of a probability density function over an interval. With only mild assumptions, a general population density estimator of wide applicability is obtained.

  6. Estimating Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) abundance: Crab pots and dive transects compared

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S. James; O'Clair, Charles E.; Shirley, Thomas C.; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) were sampled with commercial pots and counted by scuba divers on benthic transects at eight sites near Glacier Bay, Alaska. Catch per unit of effort (CPUE) from pots was compared to the density estimates from dives to evaluate the bias and power of the two techniques. Yearly sampling was conducted in two seasons: April and September, from 1992 to 2000. Male CPUE estimates from pots were significantly lower in April than in the following September; a step-wise regression demonstrated that season accounted for more of the variation in male CPUE than did temperature. In both April and September, pot sampling was significantly biased against females. When females were categorized as ovigerous and nonovigerous, it was clear that ovigerous females accounted for the majority of the bias because pots were not biased against nonovigerous females. We compared the power of pots and dive transects in detecting trends in populations and found that pots had much higher power than dive transects. Despite their low power, the dive transects were very useful for detecting bias in our pot sampling and in identifying the optimal times of year to sample so that pot bias could be avoided.

  7. Peripheral nerve regeneration following transection injury to rat sciatic nerve by local application of adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Yadegarazadi, Mohammad-Javad; Amini, Keyvan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess local effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on the functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in a transection model. Sixty male healthy white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 15 animals each: In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and the cut nerve ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the silicone graft group (SIL) a 10-mm defect was made and bridged using a silicone tube. The graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the treatment group a silicone tube (SIL/ACTH) was filled with 10 μL ACTH (0.1 mg/mL). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post operation. Behavioral testing, functional, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in SIL/ACTH than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ACTH than in SIL group. ACTH improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. This finding supports role of ACTH after peripheral nerve repair and may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after nerve transection.

  8. Assessment of the line transect method: an examination of the spatial patterns of down and standing dead wood

    Treesearch

    Duncan C. Lutes

    2002-01-01

    The line transect method, its underlying assumptions, and the spatial patterning of down and standing pieces of dead wood were examined at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in central Montana. The accuracy of the line transect method was not determined due to conflicting results of t-tests and ordinary least squares regression. In most instances down pieces were...

  9. Complete transection of the urethra and corpora cavernosa: a complication after laparoscopic repair (TEP) of an inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Rehme, C; Rübben, H; Heß, J

    2016-06-01

    Complete transection of both corpora cavernosa and the urethra is a very rare condition in urology. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with complete transection of the corpora cavernosa and the urethra during a laparoscopic repair of a recurrent inguinal hernia.

  10. Evaluation of radio-tracking and strip transect methods for determining foraging ranges of Black-Legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostrand, William D.; Drew, G.S.; Suryan, R.M.; McDonald, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    We compared strip transect and radio-tracking methods of determining foraging range of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). The mean distance birds were observed from their colony determined by radio-tracking was significantly greater than the mean value calculated from strip transects. We determined that this difference was due to two sources of bias: (1) as distance from the colony increased, the area of available habitat also increased resulting in decreasing bird densities (bird spreading). Consequently, the probability of detecting birds during transect surveys also would decrease as distance from the colony increased, and (2) the maximum distance birds were observed from the colony during radio-tracking exceeded the extent of the strip transect survey. We compared the observed number of birds seen on the strip transect survey to the predictions of a model of the decreasing probability of detection due to bird spreading. Strip transect data were significantly different from modeled data; however, the field data were consistently equal to or below the model predictions, indicating a general conformity to the concept of declining detection at increasing distance. We conclude that radio-tracking data gave a more representative indication of foraging distances than did strip transect sampling. Previous studies of seabirds that have used strip transect sampling without accounting for bird spreading or the effects of study-area limitations probably underestimated foraging range.

  11. Distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lehecka, Martin; Dashti, Reza; Lehto, Hanna; Kivisaari, Riku; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms, also known as pericallosal artery aneurysms, represent about 6% of all intracranial aneurysms. They are located on the A2-A5 segments of the anterior cerebral artery and on its distal branches. This paper summarizes present knowledge on radiological features, treatment options, treatment results, and long-term follow-up of DACA aneurysms. Typical features of DACA aneurysms are small size, broad base, and branches originating from the base. When ruptured, they cause intracerebral hematoma in nearly half of the cases. DACA aneurysms are nowadays more often treated with microsurgical clipping than endovascular coiling due to their distal location and morphologic features. With clipping the results are same or slightly better than for aneurysms at other locations, coiling is often associated with more complications than in other aneurysms. Clipping is a long-lasting treatment with very small recurrence rate, there is no long-term data available on efficacy of coiling yet. For ruptured DACA aneurysms the most important factors affecting outcome is the severity of initial bleeding and patient's age.

  12. [Anterior skull-base schwannoma].

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Miranda, Miguel; De la O Ríos, Elier; Vargas-Valenciano, Emmanuelle; Moreno-Medina, Eva

    2017-06-24

    Schwannomas are nerve sheath tumours that originate in Schwann cells. They are usually solitary and sporadic and manifest on peripheral, spinal or cranial nerves. Intracranial schwannomas tend to manifest on the eighth cranial nerve, particularly in patients with neurofibromatosis type2. Anterior skull-base schwannomas represent less than 1% of all intracranial schwannomas. They are more frequent in young people and are typically benign. These tumours represent a diagnostic challenge due to their rarity and difficult differential diagnosis, and numerous theories have been postulated concerning their origin and development. In this article, we present the case of a 13-year-old male with a single anterior cranial-base tumour not associated with neurofibromatosis who presented with headache, papilloedema, eye pain and loss of visual acuity. Complete resection of the tumour was performed, which was histopathologically diagnosed as a schwannoma. The patient made a complete clinical recovery with abatement of all symptoms. We conducted a review of the literature and found 66 cases worldwide with this diagnosis. We describe the most relevant epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this kind of tumour and its relation with the recently discovered and similar olfactory schwannoma. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A Continuous GPS Transect over the Locked Portion of the Nicoya, Costa Rica, Underthrust Seismogenic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, M.; Obana, K.; Iinuma, T.; Miyazaki, S.; Kato, T.; Kaneda, Y.

    2002-12-01

    The Nicoya peninsula, in NW Costa Rica, sits over the seismogenic portion of the Cocos-Caribbean interphase. This makes the peninsula an ideal place to record and study both, the elastic deformation associated with the earthquake cycle, as well as the viscoelastic deformation resulted from failure. An additional temporal advantage of the Nicoya peninsula is that this subduction segment is near the end of a seismic cycle (it ruptured in 1853, 1900 and 1950) and it is deforming rapidly. As a joint cooperation effort between the Costa Rica Volcanological and Seismological Observatory, at the National University (OVSICORI-UNA) and the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), with funding from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), a dense (5-10 km spacing) transect of GPS sites was constructed and occupied in the fall of 2001. This GPS transect, which consists of 10 sites that cover from the updip portion of the locked zone to beyond its downdip extend, complements a more regional network of nearly 25 sites in and around the Nicoya peninsula, occupied several times by OVSICORI-UNA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Miami and the University of California at Santa Cruz. Early in 2002 JICA donated the equipment for three continuous recording GPS stations to be installed on the peninsula at three sites of the transect. The installation of the continuous sites and reoccupation of the transect will be carry out by OVSICORI-UNA and the Earthquake Research Institute (ERI) of Tokyo University, in the fall of 2002. Also as part of this new joint cooperation initiative, JICA, ERI and JAMSTEC will build up at OVSICORI-UNA the capability to process the GPS data in Costa Rica. We will be presenting preliminary results from both the campaign-style transect as well as the continuous sites.

  14. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  15. H-REFLEX UP-CONDITIONING ENCOURAGES RECOVERY OF EMG ACTIVITY AND H-REFLEXES AFTER SCIATIC NERVE TRANSECTION AND REPAIR IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Sun, Chenyuo; English, Arthur W.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, produces spinal cord plasticity and can thereby affect motoneuron responses to primary afferent input. To explore whether this conditioning can affect the functional outcome after peripheral nerve injury, we assessed the effect of up-conditioning soleus (SOL) H-reflex on SOL and tibialis anterior (TA) function after sciatic nerve transection and repair. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with EMG electrodes in SOL and TA and stimulating cuffs on the posterior tibial nerve. After control data collection, the sciatic nerve was transected and repaired and the rat was exposed for 120 days to continued control data collection (TC rats) or SOL H-reflex up-conditioning (TU rats). At the end of data collection, motoneurons that had reinnervated SOL and TA were labeled retrogradely. Putative primary afferent terminals (i.e., terminals containing vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1)) on SOL motoneurons were studied immunohistochemically. SOL (and probably TA) background EMG activity recovered faster in TU rats than in TC rats, and the final recovered SOL H-reflex was significantly larger in TU than in TC rats. TU and TC rats had significantly fewer labeled motoneurons and higher proportions of double-labeled motoneurons than untransected rats. VGLUT1 terminals were significantly more numerous on SOL motoneurons of TU than TC rats. Combined with the larger H-reflexes in TU rats, this anatomical finding supports the hypothesis that SOL H-reflex up-conditioning strengthened primary afferent reinnervation of SOL motoneurons. These results suggest that H-reflex up-conditioning may improve functional recovery after nerve injury and repair. PMID:21123559

  16. H-reflex up-conditioning encourages recovery of EMG activity and H-reflexes after sciatic nerve transection and repair in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Sun, Chenyou; English, Arthur W; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2010-12-01

    Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, produces spinal cord plasticity and can thereby affect motoneuron responses to primary afferent input. To explore whether this conditioning can affect the functional outcome after peripheral nerve injury, we assessed the effect of up-conditioning soleus (SOL) H-reflex on SOL and tibialis anterior (TA) function after sciatic nerve transection and repair. Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with EMG electrodes in SOL and TA and stimulating cuffs on the posterior tibial nerve. After control data collection, the sciatic nerve was transected and repaired and the rat was exposed for 120 d to continued control data collection (TC rats) or SOL H-reflex up-conditioning (TU rats). At the end of data collection, motoneurons that had reinnervated SOL and TA were labeled retrogradely. Putative primary afferent terminals [i.e., terminals containing vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1)] on SOL motoneurons were studied immunohistochemically. SOL (and probably TA) background EMG activity recovered faster in TU rats than in TC rats, and the final recovered SOL H-reflex was significantly larger in TU than in TC rats. TU and TC rats had significantly fewer labeled motoneurons and higher proportions of double-labeled motoneurons than untransected rats. VGLUT1 terminals were significantly more numerous on SOL motoneurons of TU than TC rats. Combined with the larger H-reflexes in TU rats, this anatomical finding supports the hypothesis that SOL H-reflex up-conditioning strengthened primary afferent reinnervation of SOL motoneurons. These results suggest that H-reflex up-conditioning may improve functional recovery after nerve injury and repair.

  17. Anterior Cruciate: Methods of Physical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Grant, John; Kirby, R. Lee

    1982-01-01

    Tear of the anterior cruciate ligament is a common, serious injury. Since the long-range consequences of uncorrected anterior cruciate incompetence are better understood, and surgical and rehabilitative measures improved, early accurate diagnosis is increasingly important. Besides a careful history, diagnosis requires the use of specific physical examination methods to reproduce the symptomatic subluxation (anterior shift or internal rotation) and to assess functional performance of the knee. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21286055

  18. Thrombosis of the Azygos Anterior Cerebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Marcelo Coelho; Bastos, Breno Braga; Moreira de Sousa, Rafael Soares

    2017-01-01

    The azygos anterior cerebral artery is a rare variant, characterized by the absence of the anterior communicating artery and the union of two proximal segments of the anterior cerebral artery, forming a single trunk and ascending through the interhemispheric fissure. The incidence in the population varies from 0.3 to 2%. The presence of occlusion for this vessel causes bifrontal infarcts, with potentially devastating functional consequences, hence the importance of recognizing this anatomical variation in imaging exams. PMID:28299225

  19. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  20. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding. PMID:27200163

  1. Single-incision laparoscopic management of a giant hepatic cyst.

    PubMed

    Willems, Kaitlin; Monsivais, Sharon; Vassaur, Hannah; Buckley, Francis P

    2015-07-29

    Large symptomatic hepatic cysts may warrant surgical management. Traditional multiport laparoscopic technique is typically preferred over open laparotomy, but the use of the single-incision laparoscopic approach for this diagnosis is not well documented. Here, we describe the case of a 68-year-old woman who underwent complete anterior wall fenestration, excision and cauterization of a simple hepatic cyst via a single-incision laparoscopic technique through an incision at the umbilicus. The objective of this case report is to document single-incision laparoscopy as a safe, feasible and cosmetically appealing approach for the management of a large hepatic cyst. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015.

  2. West margin of North America - A synthesis of recent seismic transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of the deep structure along nine recent transects of the west margin of North America shows many important similarities and differences. Common tectonic elements identified in the deep structure along these transects include actively subducting oceanic crust, accreted oceanic/arc (or oceanic-like) lithosphere of Mesozoic through Cenozoic ages. Cenozoic accretionary prisms, Mesozoic accretionary prisms, backstops to the Mesozoic prisms, and undivided lower crust. Not all of these elements are present along all transects. In this study, nine transects, including four crossing subduction zones and five crossing transform faults, are plotted at the same scale and vertical exaggeration (V.E. 1:1), using the above scheme for identifying tectonic elements. The four subduction-zone transects contain actively subducting oceanic crust. Cenozoic accretionary prisms, and bodies of basaltic rocks accreted in the Cenozoic, including remnants of a large, oceanic plateau in the Oregon and Vancouver Island transects. Rocks of age and composition (Eocene basalt) similar to the oceanic plateau are currently subducting in southern Alaska, where they are doubled up on top of Pacific oceanic crust and have apparently created a giant asperity, or impediment to subduction. Most of the subduction-zone transects also contain Mesozoic accretionary prisms, and two of them, Vancouver Island and Alaska, also contain thick, technically underplated bodies of late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic oceanic lithosphere, interpreted as fragments of the extinct Kula plate. In the upper crust, most of the five transform-fault transects (all in California) reflect: (1) tectonic wedging of a Mesozoic accretionary prism into a backstop, which includes Mesozoic/early Cenozoic forearc rocks and Mesozoic ophiolitic/arc basement rocks: and (2) shuffling of the subduction margin of California by strike-slip faulting. In the lower crust, they may reflect migration of the Mendocino triple junction northward

  3. MRI of anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Samim, Mohammad; Smitaman, Edward; Lawrence, David; Moukaddam, Hicham

    2014-07-01

    Anterior knee pain is the most common knee complaint. It may be due to a variety of soft tissue or osseous abnormalities. Knowledge of the radiologic appearance of the abnormalities allows more accurate diagnosis of the cause of the pain including chondral abnormalities, patellar instability and dislocation, femoral trochlear dysplasia, abnormal patellar location, bipartite patella, various tendinopathies, bursal inflammation, traction apophysitis in pediatric and adolescent patients, and miscellaneous diseases including mediopatellar plica syndrome and Hoffa's disease. Radiographs are often obtained to exclude acute osseous abnormalities, such as fractures. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior soft tissue contrast resolution and allows for more accurate evaluation of the underlying etiology and therefore may improve treatment and possible surgical planning.

  4. Therapy of Delta Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yurdaydin, Cihan; Idilman, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    Delta hepatitis is the less frequently encountered but most severe form of viral hepatitis. Acute delta hepatitis, as a result of coinfection with hepatitis B and hepatitis delta, is rare, but may lead to fulminant hepatitis, and no therapy exists for this form. Chronic delta hepatitis (CDH) mostly develops as a result of superinfection of a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). In general, HDV is the dominant virus. However, a dynamic shift of the dominant virus may occur with time in rare instances, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) may become the dominant virus, at which time nucleos(t)ide analog therapy may be indicated. Otherwise, the only established management of CDH consists of conventional or pegylated interferon therapy, which has to be administered at doses used for hepatitis B for a duration of at least 1 year. Posttreatment week-24 virologic response is the most widely used surrogate marker of treatment efficacy, but it does not represent a sustained virologic response, and late relapse can occur. As an easy-to-use simple serological test, anti-HDV-immunoglobulin M (IgM) correlates with histological inflammatory activity and clinical long-term outcome; however, it is not as sensitive as HDV RNA in assessing treatment response. No evidence-based rules for treating CDH exist, and treatment duration needs to be individualized based on virologic response at end of treatment or end of follow-up. Effective treatment may decrease liver-related complications, such as decompensation or liver-related mortality. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, interferons are contraindicated and liver transplantation has to be considered. Alternative treatment options are an urgent need in CDH. New treatment strategies targeting different steps of the HDV life cycle, such as hepatocyte entry inhibitors or prenylation inhibitors, are emerging and provide hope for the future. PMID:26253093

  5. Three Urban Transects of Shallow Shear-Velocity Using the Refraction Microtremor Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. B.; Clark, M.; Lopez, C. T.; Pancha, A.; Rasmussen, T.; Smith, S. B.; Thelen, W. A.; Louie, J. N.

    2004-12-01

    Surveys of shallow shear velocity in the Reno, Los Angeles and Las Vegas urban areas give us information assisting in the mitigation of earthquake hazards, and in response to a damaging earthquake. The three transects (16, 60, and 15 km long respectively) were completed quickly and economically using the refraction microtremor method, providing characterizations of over 300 separate sites. Shear-wave velocity averaged over 30 m depth (Vs30) is unexpectedly smooth along all three transects, exhibiting realistic fractal dimensions of 1.5 to 1.8. For the Reno transect, which follows the Truckee River, most of the urban area shows NEHRP class C velocities. Very little of the profile shows velocities in the NEHRP class D range. Neither geological nor agricultural soil map units can serve to predict NEHRP hazard class or shallow velocities in the Reno area, aside from distinguishing between volcanic rock and sediments. Measured along the San Gabriel River, Vs30 values through Azusa and the Santa Fe Dam area are significantly higher than the NEHRP C/D range (270-555 m/s) expected from existing hazard mapping. Vs30 values in the southern 30 km of the Los Angeles transect were well within the previously expected NEHRP class D range (180-360 m/s). Measurements at Alamitos Bay were slightly above the expected NEHRP D/E range (90-270 m/s). In Las Vegas, the lowest velocities in the transect, at the NEHRP C/D boundary, are near intra-basin faults found near I-15 and Lake Mead Blvd. Velocities then rise smoothly to the middle of the NEHRP-C range near Sahara Blvd. to the south. Caliche cementation of alluvium in parts of Las Vegas elevates Vs30 values to 500-600 m/s. Vs100 values for the three transects, averaging to the 100 m depth to which most of our measurements are valid, show trends mimicking the Vs30 trends. Across all three cities our measurements correlate poorly against available USDA soil maps, geologic mapping, and hazard mapping. Surface maps do not predict the

  6. Enteric hepatitis viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary. PMID:24834192

  7. Enteric hepatitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary.

  8. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  9. [Viral hepatitis during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Gutkowska, Dorota; Lepiech, Jacek

    2006-10-01

    Viral hepatitis is one of the most common liver diseases appearing during pregnancy. Prevention against hepatotropic viruses is restricted due to lack of vaccines being effective in induction of efficient immunization in the majority of these microorganisms. In general, there is no possibility of active immunization against hepatotropic viruses except type A and B viral hepatitis. An issue of viral hepatitis in pregnancy as an aspect of potential risk factor connected with infection of pregnant women and a fetus has been described in this paper. Furthermore, the most important topics in the field of the epidemiology, prophylaxis and possible treatment options of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G have been discussed. The newest reports of pregnant women lamivudine therapy as a preventive treatment against vertical transmission during delivery have been reviewed. Rarly diagnosed viral hepatitis caused by herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and adenoviruses have been characterized as well.

  10. Giant Cavernous Haemangioma of the Anterior Mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Samancılar, Ozgur; Usluer, Ozan; Acar, Tuba; Yener, Ali Galip

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the anterior mediastinum is rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with a giant cavernous hemangioma of the anterior mediastinum, 18 cm in diameters, approached by left posterolateral thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, such a unique case has not been previously presented in the literature. PMID:26644773

  11. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature. PMID:27103865

  12. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature.

  13. Correlates of knee anterior laxity in sportswomen.

    PubMed

    Vauhnik, Renata; Morrissey, Matthew C; Rutherford, Olga M; Turk, Zmago; Pilih, Iztok A; Perme, Maja Pohar

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether any of the following factors are related to knee anterior laxity in healthy sportswomen: anthropometric characteristics, lower limb alignment characteristics, hormone-related factors and sport history. Six hundred and sixteen sportswomen were tested in the pre-season. The data have been analysed using linear regression for possible association of knee anterior laxity with other variables. Univariate linear regression indicated a positive association of knee anterior laxity with knee extension and navicular drop and a negative association with body height. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed statistically significant associations between knee anterior laxity and the combination of passive knee extension and the chosen sport (R(2)=0.089; p<0.05). The combination of passive knee extension and sport type was found to be related to the amount of knee anterior laxity, although the association was weak with this combination of factors able to explain only about 9% of the variability in laxity. Knowing which factors influence the amount of knee anterior laxity will help us to better interpret the results of knee anterior laxity testing and help us to understand the possible role of knee anterior laxity as a risk factor for knee injury.

  14. Recurrent anterior uveitis in Henoch Schonlein's vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Erer, Burak; Kamali, Sevil; Cingu, Kursat; Kilicaslan, Isin; Gul, Ahmet; Inanc, Murat; Aral, Orhan; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2010-08-01

    Uveitis is an important component of many rheumatic diseases. The main causes of recurrent uveitis are seronegative spondylarthropathies and Behçet's disease. We describe a rare case of Henoch Schönlein vasculitis (HSV) along with multiple recurrences of acute anterior uveitis. In cases of skin rash and recurrent anterior uveitis, HSV should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  15. Sulfur isotopic composition of surface snow along a latitudinal transect in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Ryu; Masaka, Kosuke; Fukui, Kotaro; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    The sulfur stable isotopic values (δ34S) of sulfate aerosols can be used to assess oxidation pathways and contributions from various sources, such as marine biogenic sulfur, volcanoes, and sea salt. However, because of a lack of observations, the spatial distribution of δ34S values in Antarctic sulfate aerosols remains unclear. Here we present the first sulfur isotopic values from surface snow samples along a latitudinal transect in eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. The δ34S values of sulfate showed remarkably uniform values, in the range of 14.8-16.9‰, and no significant decrease toward the inland part of the transect was noted. These results suggest that net isotopic fractionation during long-range transport is insignificant. Thus, the δ34S values can be used to infer source contributions. The δ34S values suggest that marine biogenic sulfur is the dominant source of sulfate aerosols, with a fractional contribution of 84 ± 16%.

  16. Demonstration of line transect methodologies to estimate urban gray squirrel density

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, E.W.

    1997-11-01

    Because studies estimating density of gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) have been labor intensive and costly, I demonstrate the use of line transect surveys to estimate gray squirrel density and determine the costs of conducting surveys to achieve precise estimates. Density estimates are based on four transacts that were surveyed five times from 30 June to 9 July 1994. Using the program DISTANCE, I estimated there were 4.7 (95% Cl = 1.86-11.92) gray squirrels/ha on the Clemson University campus. Eleven additional surveys would have decreased the percent coefficient of variation from 30% to 20% and would have cost approximately $114. Estimating urban gray squirrel density using line transect surveys is cost effective and can provide unbiased estimates of density, provided that none of the assumptions of distance sampling theory are violated.

  17. Functional Regeneration Following Spinal Transection Demonstrated in the Isolated Spinal Cord of the Larval Sea Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. H.; Mackler, S. A.; Selzer, M. E.

    1986-04-01

    Axons in the larval sea lamprey can regenerate across the site of a spinal cord transection and form functioning synapses with some of their normal target neurons. The animals recover normal-appearing locomotion, but whether the regenerating axons and their synaptic connections are capable of playing a functional role during this behavior is unknown. To test this, ``fictive'' swimming was induced in the isolated spinal cord by the addition of D-glutamate to the bathing solution. Ventral root discharges of segments above and below a healed transection showed a high degree of phase-locking. This strongly suggests that the behavioral recovery is mediated by regenerated functional synaptic connections subserving intersegmental coordination of the central pattern generator for locomotion.

  18. Development of spontaneous motility in the guppy embryo (Lebistes reticulatus) and the effect of spinal transection.

    PubMed

    Richards, C; Pollack, E D

    1987-11-01

    Guppy (Lebistes reticulatus) embryos pass through a distinct sequence of motor behaviors that leads to swimming capability during the course of their development. We have characterized these activities in order of appearance, with several corresponding morphological features, as belonging to the coil stage, tail-twitch stage, S-movement stage, and swimming stage. A primary feature of development was an increase in the amount of activity per unit of time over these four stages. The developmental pattern of motility was not interrupted by spinal transection until the onset of swimming, implying that supraspinal information is not required for the occurrence of the primitive behaviors that precede swimming. Elimination of swimming by spinal transection did not elicit a reversion to less complex activities, suggesting that once the cerebral control for swimming is developed, it represents a hardwired system not behaviorally reducible to antecedent components.

  19. Neonatal sciatic nerve transection induces TUNEL labeling of neurons in the rat spinal cord and DRG.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A L; Risling, M; Deckner, M; Lindholm, T; Langone, F; Cullheim, S

    1997-09-08

    Transection of a peripheral nerve in neonatal rats induces an extensive death of axotomized neurons. We demonstrate here that spinal motoneurons and sensory dorsal root ganglia neurons become TUNEL-labeled after sciatic nerve transection in neonatal rats, thus indicating that apoptotic mechanisms are involved in the death process. Interestingly, there is also a profound increase of TUNEL-labeled interneurons in the deep dorsal horn. This location suggests that an intact afferent input and/or contact with target cells is essential for interneuronal survival. Death of motoneurons and sensory neurons could be a result of the injury per se and/or the deprivation of neurotrophic substances, secondary to the loss of contact with target cells.

  20. Assessing soil redistribution on slope transects at different temporal scales by using radiotracers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, L.; Navas, A.; Machín, J.

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment deposition represent a serious problem throughout the world, because of their impact on sustainable agricultural production as well as on environmental conservation. The isotopic techniques based on the use of fallout radionuclides 137Cs, 210Pbexand 7Be as tracers allow to obtain estimates of soil redistribution rates within undisturbed and cultivated landscapes over a range of different timescales. Increasing risk of erosion under climate change regimes precise data on soil erosion rates at different temporal scales. The 137Cs technique (T1•2=30.17 years), an artificial radionuclide coming from nuclear test, is the most widely used of the fallout radionuclides, and provides results of medium-term average rates of soil redistribution. 210Pbex (T1•2= 22.26 years), a natural geogenic radionuclide, offers estimates to quantify large-term soil erosion rates, and reflect a longer period of time, between 100 and 150 years than the 40 years with 137Cs . The study area is located in the subhumid mountain in the north of Spain. To document soil redistribution, 24 soil cores spaced 50 m apart were collected along slope transect. The site selected to establish the local reference inventory was situated in the upper part of the transect, on a flat area under natural forest. The reference inventory for 137Cs is 1570 Bq m-2 and for 210Pbex is 1891Bq m-2. Comparison of 137Cs versus 210Pb profiles for the uncultivated soils show that the maximum concentrations of both radionuclides occur at the surface horizon. For the cultivated soils the two radionuclides are relatively uniformly distributed with depth. However 210Pbex concentrations show some evidence of increasing slightly towards the surface. The areal activity density (inventory) showed large variations, between 489.2 - 6080.1 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, and 117.6 - 7788.3 Bq m-2 for 210Pbex. The 137Cs and 210Pbex inventories at the middle of the slope were extremely low in cultivated soils, and the highest

  1. Esophagogastric devascularization and transection for bleeding esophageal varices: first case presentation.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Trovamala, F J; Guttierrez, R L; Marquez, G M; Garcia, R A; Christen, J J; Guerrero, M G

    1996-08-01

    We present the first case of esophagogastric devascularization and esophagogastric transection using a stapler through laparoscopic surgery. The procedure was performed in a 71-year-old diabetic woman with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B class), portal hypertension, bleeding grade III esophageal varices, and a previous bleeding episode. The surgical technique was carried out without problems, and the patient had an excellent postoperative condition. Esophagogastric devascularization with esophageal transection using a stapler through laparoscopic surgery is a feasible technique that accomplishes the same and all objectives of the open procedure. Operative time in both methods is the same, whereas surgical trauma, inmunologic depletion, amount of transfused blood, pain, use of analgesics, and hospital stay are reduced in the laparoscopic technique.

  2. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  3. Electro-acupuncture upregulates CGRP expression after rat spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Jie; Li, Shu-Min; Ding, Ying; He, Bing; Keegan, Jack; Dong, Hongxin; Ruan, Jing-Wen; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a variety of important roles within the nervous system. Increasing CGRP expression could improve the survival of injured neurons and prevent neuronal loss. In this study, we first evaluated in vitro the neuroprotective function of CGRP on mechanically injured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) of rats. We then verified this result through exogenous administration of CGRP in a spinal cord transected completely in rats. Finally, we investigated the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on CGRP expression following the spinal cord transected completely in rats. We found that EA can improve CGRP expression, and exogenous CGRP may promote the survival of injured neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that CGRP may be a specific neuropeptide expressed in GV-EA treatment of spinal cord injuries (SCI), and that CGRP may play a neuroprotective role in survival of neurons injured mechanically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of line transect sampling based on remotely sensed data from underwater video

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; Anderson, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    We used underwater video in conjunction with the line transect method and a Fourier series estimator to make 13 independent estimates of the density of known populations of bricks lying on the bottom in shallows of Lake Huron. The pooled estimate of density (95.5 bricks per hectare) was close to the true density (89.8 per hectare), and there was no evidence of bias. Confidence intervals for the individual estimates included the true density 85% of the time instead of the nominal 95%. Our results suggest that reliable estimates of the density of objects on a lake bed can be obtained by the use of remote sensing and line transect sampling theory.

  5. Major element chemistry in alpine snow along a north-south transect in the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickus, U.; Kuhn, M.; Novo, A.; Rossi, G. C.

    The regional distribution of ion concentration and ionic load along a meridional transect in the Eastern Alps was investigated in 1993 and 1994 taking samples of the high alpine snow pack at six sites. High concentrations of atmospheric trace substances seemed to be related to high rates of snow accumulation. Zugspitze at the northern, and Caresèr Glacier at the southern margin of the Alps and Hintereisferner at the main divide had higher concentrations of sulfate and nitrate than adjacent sites. The pattern found in the ion concentrations was accentuated in the deposition rates with maximum ionic loads up to three times higher than the minima at the dry sites. Sulfate concentrations and sulfate to nitrate ratios were higher in the southern part of the transect.

  6. Anterior capsulotomy using the CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Adiel; Ma-Naim, Tova; Rosner, Mordechai; Eyal, Ophir; Belkin, Michael

    1998-06-01

    Continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for removal of the anterior capsule during cataract surgery due to this technique assuring accurate centration of the intraocular lens. During modern cataract surgery, especially with small or foldable intra ocular lenses, centration of the lens is obligatory. Radial tears at the margin of an anterior capsulotomy may be associated with the exit of at least one loop of an intraocular lens out of the capsular bag ('pea pod' effect) and its subsequent decentration. The anterior capsule is more likely to ream intact if the continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is used. Although manual capsulorhexis is an ideal anterior capsulectomy technique for adults, many ophthalmologists are still uncomfortable with it and find it difficult to perform, especially in complicated cases such as these done behind small pupil, cataract extraction in children and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. We have developed a technique using a CO2 laser system for safe anterior capsulotomy and tested it in animal eyes.

  7. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    MedlinePlus

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  8. Anatomical and electrophysiological plasticity of locomotor networks following spinal transection in the salamander.

    PubMed

    Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Chevallier, Stéphanie; Amontieva-Potapova, Ianina; Philippe, Céline

    2013-08-01

    Recovery of locomotor behavior following spinal cord injury can occur spontaneously in some vertebrates, such as fish, urodele amphibians, and certain reptiles. This review provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge on the anatomical and electrophysiological changes occurring within the spinal cord that lead to, or are associated with the re-expression of locomotion in spinally-transected salamanders. A better understanding of these processes will help to devise strategies for restoring locomotor function in mammals, including humans.

  9. Benthic Foraminifera along a depth transect in western Bahrain: seasonal variations and environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Arslan; Kaminski, Michael; Tawabini, Bassam; Ramadan, Khalid Al; Babalola, Lamidi; Frontalini, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    We surveyed living benthic foraminifera in a depth transect off western Bahrain (Arabian Gulf) with the aim of understanding the seasonal population dynamics and environmental parameters. In winter, the population was found to be highest due to the large number of rotaliids, followed by miliolids. In each season, the population was found to increase along the depth transect due to the higher number of juveniles. A strong correlation is observed between foraminiferal population and sediment grain size - the juveniles are most abundant on coarser-sandy substrate. The population decreases in the spring and is lowest in the summer. Finally, the living population recovered again in the autumn with increasing juveniles/adult ratios along the depth transect. Results of species consistency and relative abundance showed that Ammonia was consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids started appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Elphidium and Peneroplis also increased along the depth transect. Another seasonal effect is that juveniles of Ammonia tepida are found during each season reflecting its reproduction throughout the year, whereas Brizalina pacifica was only found during spring and autumn. The study of environmental parameters reveals that the site is subjected to eutrophication i.e. nitrates and sulfates, however, pollution by heavy metals and hydrocarbons is not significant. An assessment of 63 heavy metals in sediment samples showed that none of the metals had concentrations higher than the internationally accepted norms, which is further confirmed by values of the Foraminiferal Deformities Index of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbons were detected in the water or sediment samples. Therefore, it is concluded that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones

  10. A process flood typology along an Alpine transect: classification based on cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, Davide; Parajka, Juraj; Gaal, Ladislav; Blöschl, Günter; Borga, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Flood classification according with their causative processes helps to understand how flood regimes change across climates. The aim of this work is to create a flood classification scheme along a longitudinal Alpine transect spanning 200 km in a North-South direction. The investigation is focused on the analysis of floods that have similar properties and can be defined as a type. After the definition of flood types we analyzed their properties, their spatial organization and the relation with the topography of the transect. Precipitation and temperature follow a sharp gradient across the transect, with both precipitation and temperature low around the main alpine ridge. Along this gradient the causative processes of floods are changing, modifying the flood regimes of catchments. The three main floods each year on 33 alpine basins (from 50 to 500 km2) are isolated from about 20 years of hourly discharge. An hydrological model simulates the catchment conditions at the begin of each event. For each flood we created a set of indexes to describe hydrograph properties, meteorological inputs and catchment conditions. A cluster analysis on these indexes defined how many flood types can be found in our data and what are their unique properties. Successively a classification tree analysis defined the best criteria to identify those clusters. Results indicate that transect floods are best divided in three clusters, that can be related with Snowmelt, Rain and Flash Floods. The successive classification tree analysis showed that a good classification can also be achieved using few criteria, but that the application of an hydrological model is useful to identify snowmelt events. The distribution of these flood types in space and time across the Alps is reported, and it is in agreement with the processes involved. This approach proved, across different climates, to be able to identify groups of floods that could be related with the driving processes, and to define and evaluate

  11. Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Thomas, L. E. N.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Medica, Philip A.; Marlow, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the degree to which field observers can meet the assumptions underlying line transect sampling to monitor populations of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). We present the results of 2 field trials using artificial tortoise models in 3 size classes. The trials were conducted on 2 occasions on an area south of Las Vegas, Nevada, where the density of the test population was known. In the first trials, conducted largely by experienced biologists who had been involved in tortoise surveys for many years, the density of adult tortoise models was well estimated (-3.9% bias), while the bias was higher (-20%) for subadult tortoise models. The bias for combined data was -12.0%. The bias was largely attributed to the failure to detect all tortoise models on or near the transect centerline. The second trials were conducted with a group of largely inexperienced student volunteers and used somewhat different searching methods, and the results were similar to the first trials. Estimated combined density of subadult and adult tortoise models had a negative bias (-7.3%), again attributable to failure to detect some models on or near the centerline. Experience in desert tortoise biology, either comparing the first and second trials or in the second trial with 2 experienced biologists versus 16 novices, did not have an apparent effect on the quality of the data or the accuracy of the estimates. Observer training, specific to line transect sampling, and field testing are important components of a reliable survey. Line transect sampling represents a viable method for large-scale monitoring of populations of desert tortoise; however, field protocol must be improved to assure the key assumptions are met.

  12. Natural Progression of Spinal Cord Transection Injury and Reorganization of Neural Pathways.

    PubMed

    Vipin, Ashwati; Thow, Xin Yuan; Mir, Hasan; Kortelainen, Jukka; Manivannan, Janani; Al-Nashash, Hasan; All, Angelo H

    2016-12-15

    The spinal cord injury (SCI) transection model accurately represents traumatic laceration and has been widely used to study the natural history and reorganization of neuropathways and plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). This model is highly reproducible, which makes it ideal for studying the progression of injury as well as endogenous recovery and plasticity in the CNS. Five experimental groups of transection injury were designed: left hemitransection; right hemitransection; double hemitransection; complete transection injuries; and laminectomy-only control. We used somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) as an objective electrophysiological assessment tool and motor behavior testing (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan [BBB] scoring) to functionally assess the neural pathways post-injury. Histological examinations were carried out to investigate the extent of injury and spinal cord morphological changes. Significant (p < 0.05) electrophysiological changes were observed and were verified by an increase in SSEP amplitude in somatosensory cortices for all four injury groups during days 4 and 7 post-injury. Degree of plasticity among the groups was distinguished by changes in SSEP amplitude and BBB scores. Our results support our previous published findings (using a contusive model of SCI), which shows that the reorganization of neuropathways and plasticity persist in time and are not transient phenomena. SSEPs are a reliable tool to assess the functionality of neural pathways and their projections to higher CNS structures such as the cortices. They enable us to determine residual function and the changes within the CNS post-injury and consistently track these events over time. The results from our study provide supporting evidence for the presence of neuronal network reorganization and plasticity in the CNS after transection SCI.

  13. Episomal Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Promote Functional Recovery of Transected Murine Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Cardona, Esteban; Chuang, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic peripheral nerve neurotmesis occurs frequently and functional recovery is often slow and impaired. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have shown much promise in recent years due to its regenerative properties similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, the potential of iPSCs in promoting the functional recovery of a transected peripheral nerve is largely unknown. This study is the first to investigate in vivo effects of episomal iPSCs (EiPSCs) on peripheral nerve regeneration in a murine sciatic nerve transection model. Episomal iPSCs refer to iPSCs that are generated via Oct3/4-Klf4-Sox2 plasmid reprogramming instead of the conventional viral insertion techniques. It represents a relatively safer form of iPSC production without permanent transgene integration which may raise questions regarding risks of genomic mutation. A minimal number of EiPSCs were added directly to the transected nerve. Functional recovery of the EiPSC group was significantly improved compared to the negative control group when assessed via serial five-toe spread measurement and gait analysis of ankle angles. EiPSC promotion of nerve regeneration was also evident on stereographic analysis of axon density, myelin thickness, and axonal cross-sectional surface area. Most importantly, the results observed in EiPSCs are similar to that of the embryonic stem cell group. A roughly ten-fold increase in neurotrophin-3 levels was seen in EiPSCs which could have contributed to peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery. No abnormal masses or adverse effects were noted with EiPSC administration after one year of follow-up. We have hence shown that functional recovery of the transected peripheral nerve can be improved with the use of EiPSC therapy, which holds promise for the future of nerve regeneration. PMID:27736950

  14. Transect based analysis versus area based analysis to quantify shoreline displacement: spatial resolution issues.

    PubMed

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Bowman, Dan; Danese, Chiara; Pranzini, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    Field surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite images are the most commonly employed sources of data to analyze shoreline position, which are further compared by area based analysis (ABA) or transect based analysis (TBA) methods. The former is performed by computing the mean shoreline displacement for the identified coastal segments, i.e., dividing the beach area variation by the segment length; the latter is based on the measurement of the distance between each shoreline at set points along transects. The present study compares, by means of GIS tools, the ABA and TBA methods by computing shoreline displacements recorded on two stretches of the Tuscany coast (Italy): the beaches of Punta Ala, a linear coast without shore protection structures, and the one at Follonica, which is irregular due to the presence of groins and detached breakwaters. Surveys were carried out using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) in RTK mode. For each site, a 4800-m-long coastal segment was analyzed and divided into ninety-six 50-m-long sectors for which changes were computed using both the ABA and TBA methods. Sectors were progressively joined to have a length of 100, 200, 400, and 800 m to examine how this influenced results. ABA and TBA results are highly correlated for transect distance and sector length up to 100 m at both investigated locations. If longer transects are considered, the two methods still produce good correlated data on the smooth shoreline (i.e. at Punta Ala), but correlation became significantly lower on the irregular shoreline (i.e., at Follonica).

  15. An assessment of natural biotransformation of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents at an aquifer plume transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skubal, Karen L.; Barcelona, Michael J.; Adriaens, Peter

    2001-05-01

    Field biogeochemical characterization and laboratory microcosm studies were performed to assess the potential for future biotransformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene in a plume containing petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents at the former Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Oscoda, MI. In situ terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs), contaminant composition and microbial phylogeny were studied at a plume transect 100 m downgradient of the source. The presence of reduced electron acceptors, relevant microbial communities, and elevated dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations at the transect, as well as downgradient accumulation of BTEX metabolites and dechlorination products, indicated that past or current reductive dechlorination at the transect was likely driven by BTEX biodegradation in the methanogenic zone. However, TCE and toluene mineralization in sediment-groundwater microcosms without added electron acceptors did not exceed 5% during 300 days of incubation and was nearly invariant with original sediment TEAP, even following amendments of nitrogen and phosphorus. Mineralization rates were on the order of 0.0015-0.03 μmol/g day. After 8 months, microcosms showed evidence of methanogenesis, but CH 4 and CO 2 production arose from the degradation of contaminants other than toluene. Cis-dichloroethylene was observed in only one methanogenic microcosm after more than 500 days. It appears likely that spatially and temporally dynamic redox zonation at the plume transect will prevent future sustained reductive dehalogenation of highly chlorinated solvents, for during the course of a year, the predominant TEAP at the highly contaminated water table shifted from methanogenesis to iron- and sulfate-reduction. It is recommended that biotransformation studies combine considerations of long-term, spatially relevant changes in redox zonation with laboratory-scale studies of electron donor utilization and cometabolic substrate transformation

  16. High-resolution MRI of intact and transected rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Fraidakis, M; Klason, T; Cheng, H; Olson, L; Spenger, C

    1998-10-01

    Spinal cord transection at midthoracic level leads to an immediate loss of hindlimb motor function as well as to a progressive degeneration of descending and ascending spinal cord pathways. Thoracic spinal cord in unlesioned control rats and in rats 2 to 6 months after complete midthoracic transection were imaged in vivo using an ultrahigh-field (4.7 T) magnetic resonance spectrometer. High-resolution spin-echo and inversion-recovery pulse sequences were employed. In addition, the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in longitudinal and transverse directions of the spinal cord were determined. Anatomical MRI findings were confirmed in histological spinal cord tissue preparations. In healthy spinal cord, gray and white matter were easily discerned in proton density-weighted images. An infield resolution of max. 76 micrometers per pixel was achieved. In animals with chronic spinal cord transection changes in gray-white matter structure and contrast were observed toward the cut end. The spinal cord stumps showed a tapering off. This coincided with changes in the longitudinal/transverse ADC ratio. Fluid-filled cysts were found in most cases at the distal end of the rostral stump. The gap between the stumps contained richly vascularized scar tissue. Additional pathologic changes included intramedullary microcysts, vertebral dislocations, and in one animal compression of the spinal cord. In conclusion, MRI was found to be a useful method for in vivo investigation of anatomical and physiological changes following spinal cord transection and to estimate the degree of neural degeneration. In addition, MRI allows the description of the accurate extension of fluid spaces (e.g., cysts) and of water diffusion characteristics which cannot be achieved by other means in vivo.

  17. Exploring the Biotic Pump Hypothesis along Non-linear Transects in Tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, R.; Bettin, D. M.; Salazar, J. F.; Villegas, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Forests might actively transport atmospheric moisture from the oceans, according to the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) hypothesis. The BiPAM hypothesis appears to be supported by the fact that precipitation drops exponentially with distance from ocean along non-forested land transects, but not on their forested counterparts. Yet researchers have discussed the difficulty in defining proper transects for BiPAM studies. Previous studies calculate precipitation gradients either along linear transects maximizing distance to the ocean, or along polylines following specific atmospheric pathways (e.g., aerial rivers). In this study we analyzed precipitation gradients along curvilinear streamlines of wind in tropical South America. Wind streamlines were computed using long-term quarterly averages of meridional and zonal wind components from the ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Total precipitation along streamlines was obtained from four data sources: TRMM, UDEL, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR. Precipitation on land versus distance from the ocean was analyzed along selected streamlines for each data source. As predicted by BiPAM, precipitation gradients did not decrease exponentially along streamlines in the vicinity of the Amazon forest, but dropped rapidly as distance from the forest increased. Remarkably, precipitation along streamlines in some areas outside the Amazon forest did not decrease exponentially either. This was possibly owing to convergence of moisture conveyed by low level jets (LLJs) in those areas (e.g., streamlines driven by the Caribbean and CHOCO jets on the Pacific coast of Colombia). Significantly, BiPAM held true even along long transects displaying strong sinuosity. In fact, the general conclusions of previous studies remain valid. Yet effects of LLJs on precipitation gradients need to be thoroughly considered in future BiPAM studies.

  18. Secure, low-cost technique for laparoscopic hepatic resection using the crush-clamp method with a bipolar sealer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Uenishi, Takahiro; Kaneda, Kazuhisa; Okawa, Masato; Tanaka, Shogo; Kubo, Shoji

    2017-02-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy is difficult because surgeons must perform the transection using many (four and more) energy devices and without direct manual maneuvers. Here we introduce hepatic transection by the classical method with a few (two or three) energy devices. We performed laparoscopic hepatectomy for 40 patients with hepatic tumor and liver dysfunction. For parenchymal transection, we used bipolar radiofrequency coagulation forceps connected to a voltage-controlled electrosurgical generator and ultrasonic dissector. The demarcation of the liver surface was made by an ultrasonic dissector. Along the demarcation line, the blades of a BiClamp were opened slightly and inserted into the hepatic parenchyma. We clamped slowly, softly, and gradually, and a small amount of hepatic parenchyma was consequently coagulated and fractured. After the crush, the small vessels and intrahepatic bile duct that were sealed were left as atrophic strings, and the strings were divided by an ultrasonic dissector. Large vessels and Glisson's sheaths were left because of the small clamp. Large Glisson's sheaths and hepatic veins were ligated with a titanium clip or autosutures, and cut without bile leakage or bleeding. The mean operation time of the procedure was 196.9 min, mean blood loss was 69.9 mL, and mean postoperative hospitalization was 9.5 days. No blood transfusions were needed. Two cases had perioperative complications-one involving right shoulder pain and the other involving ascites due to liver dysfunction-but there were no serious postoperative complications. The present results appear to demonstrate that this simple and safe method helps decrease intraoperative bleeding and shorten hospital stay. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Minilaparoscopy-assisted transrectal low anterior resection (LAR): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Antonio M; Adelsdorfer, Cedric; Delgado, Salvadora; Sylla, Patricia; Rattner, David W

    2013-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represents the evolution of surgery towards less invasive procedures. The feasibility of NOTES transrectal approach has increased its clinical applicability. This report describes a first series of minilaparoscopy-assisted transrectal low anterior resection with double purse-string end-to-end circular stapler anastomoses. Between March and April 2012 three selected patients underwent transrectal minilaparoscopy-assisted natural orifice surgery total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. All the oncologic principles of open/laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer were strictly fulfilled. Two patients underwent neoadjuvant treatment. Laparoscopic visualization and assistance was provided through one 10-mm umbilical port and two ports, one of which was used as stoma site (5 mm) and the other as a drain site (2 mm needle port). The specimen was transected transanally followed by the confection of double purse-string lateral/end-to-end anastomoses. There were no intraoperative complications. Mean operative time was 143 min. Oral intake was initiated on the second postoperative day. Patients were discharged home by day 5. The pathology unit confirmed that distal and circumferential margins were free of tumor invasion, and quality of mesorectum resection was reported satisfactory. One patient had to be readmitted because of severe dehydration due to increased ileostomy output. The patient was discharged at the third day after the readmission without renal failure. In this preliminary report, transrectal minilaparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection was feasible and safe. Lateral/end-to-end anastomoses can be considered an interesting alternative to the double-stapling technique. However, it is necessary to further study and develop these procedures, along with careful patient selection, before transrectal low anterior resection may be considered for routine clinical use.

  20. Biomechanical evaluation of knee endpoint during anterior tibial loading: Implication for physical exams.

    PubMed

    Rahnemai-Azar, Ata A; Arilla, Fabio V; Bell, Kevin M; Fu, Freddie H; Musahl, Volker; Debski, Richard E

    2017-03-01

    Physical exams that apply anterior tibial loads are typically used to evaluate knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The amount of anterior tibial translation that occurs during these exams can be difficult to assess due to a "soft" endpoint. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the biomechanical characteristics of the endpoint for the intact and ACL deficient knee using quantitative criteria. Eight porcine knees were tested using a robotic testing system. An 89N anterior tibial load was applied to the intact and ACL deficient knee at 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° of flexion. The stiffness of the toe and linear regions was determined from the load-translation curve. The width of the transition region was defined by the distance between the points where the best-fit lines used to define the stiffness of the toe and linear regions diverged from the load-translation curve. Stiffness of the toe and linear regions significantly decreased after transecting the ACL at all flexion angles (71-85% and 38-62%, respectively). Width of the transition region was significantly increased in the ACL deficient knee at all flexion angles (approximately four to five times and four to nine times, respectively). The novel quantitative criteria developed in this study have the potential to be deployed in clinical practice by coupling them with data from knee arthrometers that are commonly used in clinical practice. Thus, additional information from the load-translation curve can be provided to improve the diagnosis of ACL injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term evaluation of direct repair of traumatic isthmic aortic transection.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, G; Fontan, F; Deville, C; Madonna, F; Thibaud, D

    1989-01-01

    Direct repair of traumatic aortic isthmic transection eliminates the late complications of prosthetic graft repair. This study evaluates the long-term fate of direct aortic repair to which little attention has been paid. Among 32 patients operated upon from 1965 to 1987, 27 (84%) underwent direct repair. The tear was circumferential in 15 patients and partial in 12. Multiple traumatic lesions were present in 26 patients, including intracranial injury in 19. Partial cardiopulmonary bypass was used in 15 patients and simple aortic cross-clamping in 12. No paraplegia was observed. There were 4 deaths from associated lesions among the 14 patients operated upon for acute traumatic isthmic transection and no deaths in the others. Among the 23 survivors, 4 were lost to follow-up; the other 19 patients have excellent clinical results. Intravenous digital aortic angiography performed in 14 patients at a mean delay of 5 years 3 months showed excellent aortic reconstruction in all cases. Technically more demanding and faster than a graft interposition, direct repair is recommended as the procedure of choice in the surgical treatment of traumatic isthmic transection, particularly in young patients, the group most at risk from this lesion.

  2. Multifractal analyis of soil invertebrates along a transect under different land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Alves Silva, Raimunda; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva; Paz-González, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil fauna play a central role in many essential ecosystem processes. Land use and management can have a dramatic effect upon soil invertebrate community. Indices based on soil invertebrates abundance and diversity are fundamental for soil quality assessment. Many soil properties and attributes have been shown to exhibit spatial variabilityThe aim of this study was to analyze the scaling heterogeneity of the soil invertebrate community sampled using pitfall traps across a transect. The field study was conducted at Mata Roma municipality, Maranhão State, Brazil. Transects were marked under seven different agricultural/forestry land uses (millet, soybean, maize, eucalyptus, pasture, secondary savannah and native savannah). Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. Along these transects 130 pitfall per land use were installed. First, differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems were evaluated using classical indices. Then, the spatial distribution of soil fauna trapped by pitfall techniques, characterized through generalized dimension, Dq, and singularity spectra, f(α) - α, showed a well-defined multifractal structure. Differences in scaling heterogeneity and other multifractal characteristics were examined in relation to land use intensification.

  3. Links between viruses and prokaryotes throughout the water column along a North Atlantic latitudinal transect

    PubMed Central

    De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are an abundant, diverse and dynamic component of marine ecosystems and have a key role in the biogeochemical processes of the ocean by controlling prokaryotic and phytoplankton abundance and diversity. However, most of the studies on virus–prokaryote interactions in marine environments have been performed in nearshore waters. To assess potential variations in the relation between viruses and prokaryotes in different oceanographic provinces, we determined viral and prokaryotic abundance and production throughout the water column along a latitudinal transect in the North Atlantic. Depth-related trends in prokaryotic and viral abundance (both decreasing by one order of magnitude from epi- to abyssopelagic waters), and prokaryotic production (decreasing by three orders of magnitude) were observed along the latitudinal transect. The virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) increased from ∼19 in epipelagic to ∼53 in the bathy- and abyssopelagic waters. Although the lytic viral production decreased significantly with depth, the lysogenic viral production did not vary with depth. In bathypelagic waters, pronounced differences in prokaryotic and viral abundance were found among different oceanic provinces with lower leucine incorporation rates and higher VPRs in the North Atlantic Gyre province than in the provinces further north and south. The percentage of lysogeny increased from subpolar regions toward the more oligotrophic lower latitudes. Based on the observed trends over this latitudinal transect, we conclude that the viral–host interactions significantly change among different oceanic provinces in response to changes in the biotic and abiotic variables. PMID:22258100

  4. Muscle Plasticity in Rat Following Spinal Transection and Chronic Intraspinal Microstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Jeremy A.; Putman, Charles T.; Mushahwar, Vivian K.

    2011-01-01

    Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) employs electrical stimulation of the ventral grey matter to reactivate paralyzed skeletal muscle. This work evaluated the transformations in the quadriceps muscle that occurred following complete transection and chronic stimulation with ISMS or a standard nerve cuff (NCS). Stimulation was applied for 30 days, 4 hours/day. Both methods induced significant increases in time-to-peak tension (ISMS 35%, NCS 25%) and ½ rise-time (ISMS 39%, NCS 25%) compared to intact controls (IC). Corresponding increases in type-IIA myosin heavy chain (MHC) and decreases in type-IID MHC were noted compared to IC. These results were unexpected because ISMS recruits motor units in a near-normal physiological order while NCS recruits motor units in a reversed order. Spinal cord transection and 30 days of stimulation did not alter either recruitment profile. The slope of the force recruitment curves obtained through ISMS following transection and 30 days of stimulation was similar to that obtained in intact animals, and 3.4-fold shallower than that obtained through NCS. The transformations observed in the current work are best explained by the near maximal level of motor unit recruitment, the total daily time of activity and the tonic nature of the stimulation paradigm. PMID:20813653

  5. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Staresinic, Mario; Petrovic, Igor; Novinscak, Tomislav; Jukic, Ivana; Pevec, Damira; Suknaic, Slaven; Kokic, Neven; Batelja, Lovorka; Brcic, Luka; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Zoric, Zdenka; Ivanovic, Domagoj; Ajduk, Marko; Sebecic, Bozidar; Patrlj, Leonardo; Sosa, Tomislav; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-05-01

    We report complete transection of major muscle and the systemic peptide treatment that induces healing of quadriceps muscle promptly and then maintains the healing with functional restoration. Initially, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736 Pliva, Croatia; in trials for inflammatory bowel disease; wound treatment; no toxicity reported; effective alone without carrier) also superiorly accelerates the healing of transected Achilles tendon. Regularly, quadriceps muscle completely transected transversely 1.0 cm proximal to patella presents a definitive defect that cannot be compensated in rat. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg) is given intraperitoneally, once daily; the first application 30 min posttransection, the final 24 h before sacrifice. It consistently improves muscle healing throughout the whole 72-day period. Improved are: (i) biomechanic (load of failure increased); (ii) function (walking recovery and extensor postural thrust/motor function index returned toward normal healthy values); (iii) microscopy/immunochemistry [i.e., mostly muscle fibers connect muscle segments; absent gap; significant desmin positivity for ongoing regeneration of muscle; larger myofibril diameters on both sides, distal and proximal (normal healthy rat-values reached)]; (iv) macroscopic presentation (stumps connected; subsequently, atrophy markedly attenuated; finally, presentation close to normal noninjured muscle, no postsurgery leg contracture). Thus, posttransection healing-consistently improved-may suggest this peptide therapeutic application in muscle disorders.

  6. Decoding hindlimb movement for a brain machine interface after a complete spinal transection.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Anitha; Flint, Robert D; Knudsen, Eric; Moxon, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypical locomotor movements can be made without input from the brain after a complete spinal transection. However, the restoration of functional gait requires descending modulation of spinal circuits to independently control the movement of each limb. To evaluate whether a brain-machine interface (BMI) could be used to regain conscious control over the hindlimb, rats were trained to press a pedal and the encoding of hindlimb movement was assessed using a BMI paradigm. Off-line, information encoded by neurons in the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex was assessed. Next neural population functions, or weighted representations of the neuronal activity, were used to replace the hindlimb movement as a trigger for reward in real-time (on-line decoding) in three conditions: while the animal could still press the pedal, after the pedal was removed and after a complete spinal transection. A novel representation of the motor program was learned when the animals used neural control to achieve water reward (e.g. more information was conveyed faster). After complete spinal transection, the ability of these neurons to convey information was reduced by more than 40%. However, this BMI representation was relearned over time despite a persistent reduction in the neuronal firing rate during the task. Therefore, neural control is a general feature of the motor cortex, not restricted to forelimb movements, and can be regained after spinal injury.

  7. Muscle plasticity in rat following spinal transection and chronic intraspinal microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Jeremy A; Putman, Charles T; Mushahwar, Vivian K

    2011-02-01

    Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) employs electrical stimulation of the ventral grey matter to reactivate paralyzed skeletal muscle. This work evaluated the transformations in the quadriceps muscle that occurred following complete transection and chronic stimulation with ISMS or a standard nerve cuff (NCS). Stimulation was applied for 30 days, 4 h/day. Both methods induced significant increases in time-to-peak tension (ISMS 35%, NCS 25%) and half rise-time (ISMS 39%, NCS 25%) compared to intact controls (IC). Corresponding increases in type-IIA myosin heavy chain (MHC) and decreases in type-IID MHC were noted compared to IC. These results were unexpected because ISMS recruits motor units in a near-normal physiological order while NCS recruits motor units in a reversed order. Spinal cord transection and 30 days of stimulation did not alter either recruitment profile. The slope of the force recruitment curves obtained through ISMS following transection and 30 days of stimulation was similar to that obtained in intact animals, and 3.4-fold shallower than that obtained through NCS. The transformations observed in the current work are best explained by the near maximal level of motor unit recruitment, the total daily time of activity and the tonic nature of the stimulation paradigm.

  8. Links between viruses and prokaryotes throughout the water column along a North Atlantic latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2012-08-01

    Viruses are an abundant, diverse and dynamic component of marine ecosystems and have a key role in the biogeochemical processes of the ocean by controlling prokaryotic and phytoplankton abundance and diversity. However, most of the studies on virus-prokaryote interactions in marine environments have been performed in nearshore waters. To assess potential variations in the relation between viruses and prokaryotes in different oceanographic provinces, we determined viral and prokaryotic abundance and production throughout the water column along a latitudinal transect in the North Atlantic. Depth-related trends in prokaryotic and viral abundance (both decreasing by one order of magnitude from epi- to abyssopelagic waters), and prokaryotic production (decreasing by three orders of magnitude) were observed along the latitudinal transect. The virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) increased from ~19 in epipelagic to ~53 in the bathy- and abyssopelagic waters. Although the lytic viral production decreased significantly with depth, the lysogenic viral production did not vary with depth. In bathypelagic waters, pronounced differences in prokaryotic and viral abundance were found among different oceanic provinces with lower leucine incorporation rates and higher VPRs in the North Atlantic Gyre province than in the provinces further north and south. The percentage of lysogeny increased from subpolar regions toward the more oligotrophic lower latitudes. Based on the observed trends over this latitudinal transect, we conclude that the viral-host interactions significantly change among different oceanic provinces in response to changes in the biotic and abiotic variables.

  9. Comparisons between transect and fixed point in a oceanic turbulent flow: statistical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziol, Lucie; Schmitt, Francois G.; Artigas, Felipe; Lizon, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Oceanological processes possess important fluctuations over large ranges of spatial and temporal scales. These fluctuations are related with the turbulence of the ocean. Usually, in turbulence, one considers fixed point Eulerian measurements, or Lagrangian measurements following an elements of fluid. On the other hand, in oceanography, measurements are often done from a boat operating over a transect, where the boat is moving in the medium at a fixed speed (relative to the flow). Here the aim of our study is to consider if such moving reference frame is modifying the statistics of the measurements. For this we compare two type of measurements at high frequency: fixed point measurements, and transect measurements, where the boat is moving at a fixed speed relative to the flow. 1 Hz fluorometer measurements are considered in both cases. Measurements have been done the same day, under similar conditions. Power spectra of time series are considered, as well as local mean and variance measurements along each transect. It is found that the spectral scaling slope of the measurement is not modified, but the variance is very different, being much larger for the moving frame. Such result needs theoretical understanding and has potential important consequence regarding the measurement that are done at high frequency on moving frames in oceanography.

  10. Nerve growth factor promotes survival of septal cholinergic neurons after fimbrial transections.

    PubMed

    Hefti, F

    1986-08-01

    Several findings obtained in recent years suggest that NGF, aside from its well-established function as a neurotrophic factor for peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons, also has trophic influence on the cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. The present study assessed whether NGF was able to affect survival of central cholinergic neurons after axonal transections in adult rats. The septo-hippocampal pathway was transected unilaterally by cutting the fimbria, and animals were implanted with a cannula through which NGF or control solutions were injected intraventricularly over 4 weeks. The lesions reduced the number of large cell bodies, as visualized by Nissl staining in the medial septal nucleus and in the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca. Furthermore, in the same nuclei, they reduced the number of cell bodies positively stained for AChE after pretreatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate (a method known to result in reliable identification of cholinergic neurons in the septal area). On lesioned sides, the number of cholinergic cells in medial septal nucleus and the vertical limb of the diagonal band was reduced by 50 +/- 4%, as compared to the number on contralateral sides. On lesioned sides of animals chronically treated with NGF, the number of AChE-positive cells in these areas was reduced only by 12 +/- 6%, as compared to control levels. These findings suggest that fimbrial transections resulted in retrograde degeneration of cholinergic septo-hippocampal neurons and that NGF treatment strongly attenuated this lesion-induced degeneration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Biomarker Proxy Calibration Along the AMT Transect: Alkenone Uk37' and δD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, J.; Kienast, M.; Dowd, M.; Schefuß, E.

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzes 60 suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) samples from an Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT20), spanning approximately 105° latitude (Southampton to Punta Arenas), for key biomarker proxy signatures: alkenone unsaturation (Uk37') and hydrogen isotopic (δD) composition. The wide range in surface ocean characteristics along the transect offers a unique opportunity to refine our understanding of these proxies. Initial alkenone δD values correlate - to a first order - with water column δD signatures, which in turn parallel salinity values along the AMT20 transect. Other factors that have been shown to influence δD will be discussed as well. The Uk37' data presented are in good agreement with previously published SPOM data, though we offer an alternative regression model to relate Uk37' to sea surface temperatures (SST); the Richards curve (Richards, 1959). This non-linear regression model uniquely accounts for both the fact that the Uk37' index is a proportion, and so must lie between 0 and 1, as well as for an apparent reduction in slope at temperature extremes. The inverse of this relationship allows estimation of SST from a measured Uk37' value with quantitative estimates of uncertainty. Further, we have identified a pronounced seasonal sampling bias in the SPOM dataset analyzed in this and prior studies (e.g. Conte et al. 2006), which may be contributing to a reported offset between surface particulate and core-top Uk37'- SST calibrations for this proxy.

  12. Long-Term Functional Recovery after Facial Nerve Transection and Repair in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Caroline A.; Knox, Christopher; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Hohman, Marc H.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rodent model is commonly used to study facial nerve injury. Because of the exceptional regenerative capacity of the rodent facial nerve, it is essential to consider the timing when studying facial nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Short-term functional recovery data following transection and repair of the facial nerve has been documented by our laboratory. However, because of the limitations of the head fixation device, there is a lack of long-term data following facial nerve injury. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term time course and functional deficit following facial nerve transection and repair in a rodent model. Methods Adult rats were divided into group 1 (controls) and group 2 (experimental). Group 1 animals underwent head fixation, followed by a facial nerve injury, and functional testing was performed from day 7 to day 70. Group 2 animals underwent facial nerve injury, followed by delayed head fixation, and then underwent functional testing from months 6 to 8. Results There was no statistical difference between the average whisking amplitudes in group 1 and group 2 animals. Conclusion Functional whisking recovery 6 months after facial nerve injury is comparable to recovery within 1 to 4 months of transection and repair, thus the ideal window for evaluating facial nerve recovery falls within the 4 months after injury. PMID:25629206

  13. Ideal width of transects for monitoring source-related categories of plastics on beaches.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Maria Christina B; Santos, Paulo J P; Costa, Monica F

    2006-08-01

    Although there is a consensus on the necessity of monitoring solid wastes pollution on beaches, the methods applied vary widely. Therefore, creating, testing and recommending a method that not only allows comparisons of places and periods, but also the detection of source signals, will be important to reach the objectives of the source-prevention principle. This will also allow the optimisation of time, resources, and processing of samples and data. A classification of the items found into specific categories was made according to their most probable source/use (fisheries, food packaging, hazardous, sewage/personal hygiene, beach user, general home). This study tested different widths of sampling transects to be used in the detection of plastics contamination on beaches, until all the categories were significantly represented. Each transect had its total width (50m) sub-divided into eight intervals of 0-2.5m; 2.5-5m; 5-10m; 10-15m; 15-20m; 20-30m; 30-40m; and 40-50m. The accumulated number of categories in the 50m (up to 2.5m; up to 5m and so on) was used to determine the minimal width necessary to qualitatively characterize the area regarding plastics contamination. The diversity of the categories was directly related to the area of the sampling transect. These results indicate that a significant increase in the number of categories in the first intervals tend to stabilize from 15-20m onwards.

  14. [The ABC of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Van Bambeke, F

    2008-03-01

    Viral hepatitis has long been under-diagnosed. Hepatitis A is an acute disease, while patients infected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are likely to develop chronical infections and severe complications (cancer, cirrhosis). The current treatment of hepatitis B and C consists in alpha interferon (preferably under its pegylated form), in combination with ribavirin for hepatitis C. The frequent and severe adverse effects of interferon-based therapy constitute, however, a major limiting factor (reactions at the injection site, flu-like syndrome, neurological disorders, ...). For hepatitis B, two alternatives are available so far, namely lamivudine and adefovir (used as a prodrug with highe oral bioavailability).

  15. Magnetopause Transects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. O; Guo, M.

    1996-01-01

    A novel method is described for reconstruction of two-dimensional current-layer structures from measurements taken by a single spacecraft traversing the layer. In its present form, the method is applicable only to 2D magnetohydrostatic structures that are passively convected past the observing spacecraft. It is tested on a magnetopause crossing of the tangential-discontinuity type by the spacecraft AMPTE/IRM. The magnetic structures recovered include a magnetic island located between two X-type nulls as well as a magnetic 'worm hole' through which a bundle of weak magnetic flux appears to connect the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath.

  16. Magnetopause transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Guo, M.

    A novel method is described for reconstruction of two-dimensional current-layer structures from measurements taken by a single spacecraft traversing the layer. In its present form, the method is applicable only to 2D magneto-hydrostatic structures that are passively convected past the observing spacecraft. It is tested on a magnetopause crossing of the tangential-discontinuity type by the spacecraft AMPTE/IRM. The magnetic structures recovered include a magnetic island located between two X-type nulls as well as a magnetic ‘worm hole’ through which a bundle of weak magnetic flux appears to connect the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath.

  17. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Choices

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Alec A.; Perfetti, Dean C.; Levine, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common surgical procedure; however, there is no consensus to what the best graft option is to replace the injured ACL. The main options available consist of allografts and autografts, which include patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, and quadriceps tendon autografts. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in August 2010 for English-language articles pertaining to ACL grafts. Results: Postoperative outcome variables were analyzed to determine similarities and differences among the different graft options. These variables include stability, strength, function, return to sports, patient satisfaction, complications, and cost. Conclusions: Both allografts and the 3 main options for autografts can provide excellent results in ACL reconstruction and lead to a high percentage of satisfied patients. However, differences exist among the graft choices. Both the similarities and the differences are important to discuss with a patient who will be undergoing ACL reconstruction so that he or she has the best information available when making a choice of graft. PMID:23016071

  18. Ameloblastoma of the anterior mandible

    PubMed Central

    Hariram; Mohammad, Shadab; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Singh, Nimisha; Das, Sugata; Mehta, Gagan

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastoma or adamantinoma is the rarest of the three forms of tumor of the odontogenic type. They are benign, locally aggressive neoplasms arising from ameloblasts, which typically occur at the angle of the mandible, and are often associated with an un-erupted tooth and must, therefore, be differentiated from a dentigerous cyst which will be centered on the crown. When in the maxilla (less common), they are located in the premolar region, and can extend up in the maxillary sinus. Ameloblastoma is reported to constitute about 1-3% of tumors and cysts of the jaws. The tumor is by far more common in the mandible than in the maxilla and shows predilection for various parts of the mandible in different racial groups. The relative frequency of the mandible to maxilla is reported as varying from 80-20% to 99-1%. Here, we are representing a case of ameloblastoma of anterior mandible which was considered as a rare site of occurrence. PMID:25298718

  19. Anterior space management: interdisciplinary concepts.

    PubMed

    Ittipuriphat, Iyarint; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2013-02-01

    This case report describes the treatment of one patient with maxillary anterior spacing, caused by bilateral lateral peg-shaped incisors, using a planned sequence of multidisciplinary approaches for esthetic treatment. An asymmetrical gingival line was visible when the patient smiled. To evaluate the desired gingival level and the proportion of restoration to be made using the recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion method, a diagnostic wax-up model was fabricated. Esthetic crown lengthening corrected the gingival line. RED proportion analysis suggested minor tooth movement prior to any restoration. Two weeks' use of an orthodontic removable appliance with finger springs achieved the proper dental proportion. Home whitening was prescribed for 2 weeks, with an additional 2-week waiting period to ensure tooth color stability. Resin composite treatment corrected the mesial contour of the maxillary canines and reduced the space between the canines and lateral incisors. Final restoration was obtained by placing ceramic veneers on the lateral peg-shaped incisors. The esthetic treatment achieved excellent results; after veneer cementation, the patient exhibited greater confidence with a new smile. Esthetic dental treatment requires various disciplines to achieve the treatment goal. This case report is an example of well-planned sequences of treatment from the beginning to complete treatment. By conservative and practical treatment approaches used in this case, the clinician will be able to manage to obtain the highest result of esthetic treatment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Prevention of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2006-12-01

    Prevention of viral hepatitis infection involves health measures designed to avert transmission of viral agents and promote the use of gammaglobulin and vaccines. The availability of safe drinking water and improvements in quality of life result in better individual hygiene; these factors have had the greatest impact on hepatitis A prevention. Serum gammaglobulin administration has been replaced by vaccinations for pre-exposure, and to a great extent for post-exposure prophylaxis because of the progressively lower anti-HAV content of gammaglobulin and the short duration of the protective effect. Universal vaccination in childhood is the recommended measure for controlling hepatitis A. Adults belonging to high-risk groups should also undergo vaccination. The incidence of hepatitis B has decreased worldwide because of universal vaccination programs, initiated in preadolescence and childhood. Prevention of hepatitis C requires control of situations in which there is a likelihood of parenteral infection with the virus. Post-transfusion hepatitis has been virtually eradicated, but considerable effort is still needed to prevent nosocomial hepatitis.

  1. A structural transect across the Mongolian Western Altai: Active transpressional mountain building in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson Cunningham, W.; Windley, Brian F.; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Badamgarov, G.; Saandar, M.

    1996-02-01

    We present results from the first detailed geological transect across the Mongolian Western Altai using modern methods of structural geology and fault kinematic analysis. Our purpose was to document the structures responsible for Cenozoic uplift of the range in order to better understand processes of intracontinental mountain building. Historical right-lateral strike-slip and oblique-slip earthquakes have previously been documented from the Western Altai, and many mountain fronts are marked by active fault scarps indicating current tectonic activity and uplift. The dominant structures in the range are long (>200 km) NNW trending right-lateral strike-slip faults. Our transect can be divided into three separate domains that contain active, right-lateral strike-slip master faults and thrust faults with opposing vergence. The current deformation regime is thus transpressional. Each domain has an asymmetric flower structure cross-sectional geometry, and the transect as a whole is interpreted as three separate large flower structures. The mechanism of uplift along the transect appears to be horizontal and vertical growth of flower structures rooted into the dominant right-lateral strike-slip faults. The major Bulgan Fault forms the southern structural boundary to the range and is a 3.5-km-wide brittle-ductile zone that has accommodated reverse and left-lateral strike-slip displacements. It appears to be linked to the North Gobi Fault Zone to the east and Irtysh Fault zone to the west and thus may be over 900 km in length. Two major ductile left-lateral extensional shear zones were identified in the interior of the range that appear to be preserved structures related to a regional Paleozoic or Mesozoic extensional event. Basement rocks along the transect are dominantly metavolcanic, metasedimentary, or intrusive units probably representing a Paleozoic accretionary prism and arc complex. The extent to which Cenozoic uplift has been accommodated by reactivation of older

  2. The transect method: a novel approach to on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Joanna; Estevez, Inma; Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Valentina; Makagon, Maja M

    2015-01-01

    Currently, no animal-based protocol for on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys is available. The birds' size and flighty nature make obtaining a representative sample using traditional methods difficult. The transect walks (TW) approach provides a potential alternative for on-farm assessments of turkey welfare. We compared the TW approach with a traditional method, and data collected as the birds were moved out of the house during the load out process (L). Ten commercial 19- to 20-week-old Hybrid turkey flocks were evaluated (1 flock/house/farm). Half of the flocks were housed on farms deemed as "faring well" by the company, the other half were on "suboptimal" farms. Each house was subdivided longitudinally into 4 transects. Two observers walked the transects in random order, recording the total number of birds per transect that were immobile; lame; aggressive towards a mate; interacting with humans; with visible head, vent, or back wounds; engaging in mounting behaviors; small; featherless; dirty; sick; terminal; or dead. Flocks were re-evaluated on the same day using the individual sampling method (S), where randomly selected birds were scored as they took 10 steps. Flocks were re-assessed within 48 h of the transect evaluation, as birds were funneled out of the house during load out. Using ANOVAs we determined the effects of observers, method, management, and their interactions on proportions of turkeys per house within each category. Outcome parameters were not affected by management (P>0.05 for all) or observer (P>0.05 for most), but an assessment method effect was detected (P<0.05). S differed from the 2 other methods (P<0.05) for most parameters except aggression towards a mate, back wounds, dirty, sick, and vent wounds. Differences were not detected between data collected using TW and during L, except for dead (P=0.0007) and immobile (P=0.007). Results suggest that the TW method is a promising tool for on-farm turkey welfare assessment as it

  3. The transect method: a novel approach to on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, Joanna; Estevez, Inma; Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Valentina; Makagon, Maja M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, no animal-based protocol for on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys is available. The birds’ size and flighty nature make obtaining a representative sample using traditional methods difficult. The transect walks (TW) approach provides a potential alternative for on-farm assessments of turkey welfare. We compared the TW approach with a traditional method, and data collected as the birds were moved out of the house during the load out process (L). Ten commercial 19- to 20-week-old Hybrid turkey flocks were evaluated (1 flock/house/farm). Half of the flocks were housed on farms deemed as “faring well” by the company, the other half were on “suboptimal” farms. Each house was subdivided longitudinally into 4 transects. Two observers walked the transects in random order, recording the total number of birds per transect that were immobile; lame; aggressive towards a mate; interacting with humans; with visible head, vent, or back wounds; engaging in mounting behaviors; small; featherless; dirty; sick; terminal; or dead. Flocks were re-evaluated on the same day using the individual sampling method (S), where randomly selected birds were scored as they took 10 steps. Flocks were re-assessed within 48 h of the transect evaluation, as birds were funneled out of the house during load out. Using ANOVAs we determined the effects of observers, method, management, and their interactions on proportions of turkeys per house within each category. Outcome parameters were not affected by management (P > 0.05 for all) or observer (P > 0.05 for most), but an assessment method effect was detected (P < 0.05). S differed from the 2 other methods (P < 0.05) for most parameters except aggression towards a mate, back wounds, dirty, sick, and vent wounds. Differences were not detected between data collected using TW and during L, except for dead (P = 0.0007) and immobile (P = 0.007). Results suggest that the TW method is a promising tool for on-farm turkey welfare

  4. Hepatitis Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Hepatitis A Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Hepatitis B Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Hepatitis C Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) ...

  5. Estrogens sensitize anterior pituitary gland to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pisera, D; Candolfi, M; Navarra, S; Ferraris, J; Zaldivar, V; Jaita, G; Castro, M G; Seilicovich, A

    2004-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis results from a balance between cell proliferation and cell death by apoptosis. Estradiol affects proliferation as well as apoptosis in hormone-dependent tissues. In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary gland to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cycling female rats, and the influence of estradiol in this response in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were chronically estrogenized with implanted Silastic capsules containing 1 mg of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Cycling or OVX and E2-treated rats were injected with LPS (250 microg/rat ip). Apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method in sections of the anterior pituitary gland and spleen. Chronic estrogenization induced apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland. Acute endotoxemia triggered apoptosis of cells in the anterior pituitary gland of E2-treated rats but not of OVX rats. No differences were observed in the apoptotic response to LPS in spleen between OVX and E2-treated rats. The apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary to LPS was variable along the estrous cycle, being higher at proestrus than at estrus or diestrus I. Approximately 75% of the apoptotic cells were identified as lactotropes by immunofluorescence. In conclusion, our results indicate that estradiol induces apoptosis and enables the proapoptotic action of LPS in the anterior pituitary gland. Also, our study suggests that estrogens may be involved in anterior pituitary cell renewal during the estrous cycle, sensitizing lactotropes to proapoptotic stimuli.

  6. A new osteophyte segmentation method with applications to an anterior cruciate ligament transection rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.; Saha, P. K.

    2010-03-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion in a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to segment osteophytes from healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features in CT imaging. Here, we present a new method, based on active shape model (ASM), to solve this problem and evaluate its application to ex vivo μCT images in an ACLT rabbit femur model. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and during application, find a shape instance from the model that optimally fits to target image. However, it poses a fundamental difficulty for the current application because a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method that eventually leads to suboptimum segmentation results. Here, we introduce a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolate its shape over diseased region following the underlying shape model. Once the healthy bone region is detected, osteophyte is segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for rabbit femur. The method has been applied to μCT images of 2-, 4-, and 8-week post ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs and results of reproducibility and sensitivity analyses of the new osteophyte segmentation method are presented.

  7. Anterior instability in the throwing shoulder.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Felix H; O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    The disabled throwing shoulder is a multifactorial problem. Laxity of the glenohumeral joint is necessary to achieve a satisfactory velocity. Normal wear and tear with throwing may convert this normal amount of excessive translation into instability. Instability in the throwing athlete manifests itself in 2 forms: traumatic anterior instability that happens to occur in a throwing athlete and excessive anterior subluxation because of overuse that occurs in conjunction with the disabled throwing shoulder. In most cases, it is difficult to determine by physical examination or imaging how much laxity is too much; therefore, the managing physician should always err on the side of caution. A trial of rest and rehabilitation should always be attempted before any consideration of surgery. The multifactorial issues in the disabled throwing athlete should be corrected during this phase of treatment, including assessment and treatment of hip abnormalities, restoration of satisfactory core strength, correction of scapular dyskinesis, and an evaluation and correction of any biomechanical abnormalities in the throwing mechanism. Surgical management of anterior instability in the throwing shoulder depends on the mechanism of injury. The traumatic anterior instability patient is managed by acute surgical repair without a shift, utilizing mattress sutures to prevent suture chondromalacia on the humeral head or glenoid. The anterior laxity management centers on the posterior superior labrum, although occasionally the anterior labrum or capsule may be involved as well. Overall, symptomatic anterior instability is less common in the throwing shoulder. Jobe and colleagues are credited with the first successful technique for the correction of anterior instability in the throwing athlete, the anterior capsulolabral reconstruction by a subscapularis split. The success of this technique paved the way for the adoption of the current arthroscopic techniques that are utilized to correct

  8. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents For ... condition is called chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis A and E do not cause chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses B, ...

  9. The anterior open bite problem (infraclusion).

    PubMed

    Champagne, M

    1995-06-01

    Anterior open bite is a major orthodontic problem that is very difficult to treat (Fig. 1). It may not be the most frequent problem but it is a major functional problem. Quite often it is very difficult to correct an anterior open bite problem and even more difficult to treat in an adult after growth. Most of the time anterior open bite is a myofunctional problem related to a bad habit like thumb or finger sucking and/or is related to a breathing and swallowing problem. How can we understand the functional open bite problem? What are the available treatment options? This article will try to answer some of these questions.

  10. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ .

  11. Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Krugman, Saul

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

  12. How I do it: Anterior pull-through tympanoplasty for anterior eardrum perforations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey P; Wong, Yu-Tung; Yang, Tzong-Hann; Miller, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions This technique is offered as a convenient and reliable method for cases with anterior TM perforation and inadequate anterior remnant. Objectives Chronic otitis media surgery is one of the most common procedures in otology. Anterior tympanic membrane (TM) perforation with inadequate anterior remnant is associated with higher rates of graft failure. It was the goal of this series to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of a modified underlay myringoplasty technique-the anterior pull-through method. Materials and methods In a retrospective clinical study, 13 patients with anterior TM perforations with inadequate anterior remnants underwent tympanoplasty with anterior pull-through technique. The anterior tip of the temporalis fascia was pulled through and secured in a short incision lateral to the anterior part of the annulus. Data on graft take rate, pre-operative, and post-operative hearing status were analyzed. Results A graft success rate of 84.6% (11 out of 13) was achieved, without lateralization, blunting, atelectasia, or epithelial pearls. The air-bone gap was 21.5 ± 6.8 dB before intervention and 11.75 ± 5.7 dB after surgery (p = 0.003).

  13. A Radiological Comparison of Anterior Fusion Rates in Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, M. J. H.; Ng, L.; Vermeersch, G.; Chan, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To compare anterior fusion in standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) using cage and screw constructs and anterior cage–alone constructs with posterior pedicle screw supplementation but without posterior fusion. Methods Eighty-five patients underwent single- or two-level ALIF procedure for degenerative disk disease or lytic spondylolisthesis (SPL). Posterior instrumentation was performed without posterior fusion in all cases of lytic SPL and when the anterior cage used did not have anterior screw through cage fixation. Results Seventy (82%) patients had adequate radiological follow-up at a mean of 19 months. Forty patients had anterior surgery alone (24 single level and 16 two levels) and 30 had front-back surgery (15 single level and 15 two levels). Anterior locked pseudarthrosis was only seen in the anterior surgery–alone group when using the STALIF cage (Surgicraft, Worcestershire, UK) (37 patients). This occurred in five of the single-level surgeries (5/22) and nine of the two-level surgeries (9/15). Fusion was achieved in 100% of the front-back group and only 65% (26/40) of the anterior surgery–alone group. Conclusion Posterior pedicle screw supplementation without posterolateral fusion improves the fusion rate of ALIF when using anterior cage and screw constructs. We would recommend supplementary posterior fixation especially in cases where more than one level is being operated. PMID:24353968

  14. Benzodiazepines and anterior pituitary function.

    PubMed

    Arvat, E; Giordano, R; Grottoli, S; Ghigo, E

    2002-09-01

    its role in the neuroendocrine control of anterior pituitary function; their usefulness probably overrides what had been supposed before.

  15. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483

  16. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Edward J

    2011-02-01

    Currently there is no generally accepted, well-proven treatment for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Most proposed treatments are empirical and include antithrombotics, vasodynamic agents, treatments aimed at reducing optic disc edema, and various neuroprotective strategies. Most potential treatments have been inadequately studied, prematurely embraced, or prematurely discarded. Evidence for antithrombotic agents is lacking, and small vessel arterial occlusion has never been demonstrated in NAION. Antiplatelet agents have not been studied in acute NAION, but they are often prescribed for acute treatment because of their proven role in stroke prevention. Because NAION is an ischemic disorder occurring more often after the age of 50 in patients with vascular risk factors, I recommend aggressive risk-factor management and antiplatelet therapy. The evidence that aspirin can help to prevent NAION in the fellow eye is divided. I recommend aspirin for secondary prevention, mostly for its proven role in stroke prevention. NAION occurs in patients with physiologically crowded optic nerves and small cup-to-disc ratios. Disc edema may contribute to a "compartment syndrome," which compresses the fine capillary blood supply of the optic nerve head, resulting in ischemia and axonal damage. There is some limited and debatable evidence that oral steroids may shorten the duration of disc edema and improve visual outcome in NAION. I discuss this evidence with patients who present acutely with NAION, and although I consider prescribing oral steroids on a case-by-case basis, I will not routinely recommend oral steroids until a properly randomized clinical trial is performed. Some neuroprotective strategies have been studied, but none have proven to be helpful. Although some (eg, brimonidine) are probably not harmful, I do not recommend these treatments. Early referral to low vision services may help to improve functional visual outcome.

  17. Comparison between surgical and standing percutaneous contact Nd:YAG laser periosteal transection for potential treatment of equine limb deformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Baines, Steven J.; Meuten, Donald J.; Stefanacci, J.

    1994-09-01

    Medial and lateral aspects of both radiuses were subjected to periosteal transection of nine healthy equine foals. One site per foal was subjected to surgical periosteal transection and elevation under general anesthesia. The remaining three sites of each foal after injection of a local anesthetic received Nd:YAG contact percutaneous periosteal transection. All radiuses were evaluated radiographically prior to periosteal transection and immediately prior to euthanasia. Foals were euthanized at 3 days, 31 to 34 days, and 67 days post-periosteal transection and gross postmortem and histologic examination performed on each site. Radiographically, periosteal proliferation occurred at all the conventional surgery sites and a majority of the percutaneous laser sites by 30 days post-treatment and was present at 67 days. No limb angulations were noted to occur in any of the foals. The conclusion of the study was that Nd:YAG percutaneous laser periosteal transection was successful in producing periosteal obliteration but with a different histologic appearance than that produced by conventional surgery.

  18. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Hepatitis Cvirus? Bleaching, boiling, heating with a flame, or using common cleaning fluids, alcohol, or peroxide ... Cbe treated? Yes, but not everyone needs medical treatment or can benefit from it. If possible, it ...

  19. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. Certain sex practices can also spread HAV. Infections ... HEV) is mostly transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. HEV is a common cause of hepatitis outbreaks ...

  20. Aggressive hepatitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic active hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infection, drug ingestion, metabolic or autoimmune disorders. Necrosis (death) of liver cells, inflammation and fibrosis may lead to liver failure. Death within 5 years of onset occurs in ...

  1. Living with Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the oral drugs tenofovir or entecavir and pegylated interferon which is given by injection. For hepatitis C, ... a protease inhibitor (telaprevir or boceprevir) plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin while those with genotypes 2 and ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... jhep.2014.07.027. Epub 2014 Jul 30. EPIDEMIOLOGY Globally, an estimated 130–150 million people are ... C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus ...

  3. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  4. Hepatitis C and sex.

    PubMed

    Page, Emma E; Nelson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last decade has been shown to be sexually transmitted. Initially recreational drug use, in particular drug injection, was not prevalent among those becoming infected with hepatitis C. However more recently chemsex (the use of drugs to enhance sexual experience) and its associated drugs, which are not uncommonly injected, have become more frequently reported among those diagnosed with hepatitis C. It is hoped that the widespread -introduction of direct-acting antivirals and upscaling of numbers treated may have a positive impact on this epidemic. However their introduction may negatively impact on the perceived risk of acquiring hepatitis C and in conjunction with the introduction of HIV transmission prevention strategies may result in increased transmissions and spread to the HIV-negative MSM population. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  5. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Zamora Nava, Luis Eduardo; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo

    2011-06-01

    The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to the subtle changes in cognitive function, electrophysiological parameters, cerebral neurochemical/neurotransmitter homeostasis, cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and fluid homeostasis that can be observed in patients with cirrhosis who have no clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy; the prevalence is as high as 84% in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Physician does generally not perceive cirrhosis complications, and neuropsychological tests and another especial measurement like evoked potentials and image studies like positron emission tomography can only make diagnosis. Diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy may have prognostic and therapeutic implications in cirrhotic patients. The present review pretends to explore the clinic, therapeutic, diagnosis and prognostic aspects of this complication.

  6. Hepatitis C -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 358. Jhaveri R. Hepatitis C virus. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  7. Know More Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... including liver damage, cirrhosis, liver cancer and even death. In fact, Hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver cancer and the #1 cause of liver transplants. Many people can get lifesaving care and treatment. Knowing you ...

  8. Management of hepatic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, S. S.; Jirsch, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Liver injuries may be due to either blunt or penetrating trauma to the thorax or abdomen. Specific treatment depends on the site and extent of hepatic injury. Following resuscitation with intravenous fluids and blood as needed, surgical therapy is directed to provide hemostasis, remove necrotic liver tissue and promote adequate external drainage in the postoperative period. While local measures are usually sufficient, complex hepatic wounds may require extensive resection and vascular ligature or repair. PMID:890631

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury -- aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACL injury - aftercare References Amy E, Micheo W. Anterior cruciate ligament tear. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: ...

  10. Anterior regeneration in the hemichordate Ptychodera flava

    PubMed Central

    Rychel, Amanda L.; Swalla, Billie J.

    2008-01-01

    Ptychodera flava is a hemichordate whose anterior structures regenerate reproducibly from posterior trunk pieces when amputated. We characterized the cellular processes of anterior regeneration with respect to programmed cell death and cell proliferation, following wound healing. We found scattered proliferating cells at day two of regeneration using a PCNA antibody. On day four, most proliferating cells were associated with the nerve tract under the epidermis, and on day six, a small proboscis derived from proliferated cells was regenerated, and a mouth had broken though the epidermis. TUNEL detected elevated levels of apoptosis in the endoderm that began furthest away from the region of wound healing, then moved anteriorly over eight days. Posterior to anterior apoptosis is likely to remove digestive endoderm for later differentiation of pharyngeal endoderm. We hypothesize that P. flava regeneration is nerve dependent and that remodeling in the gut endoderm plays an important role in regeneration. PMID:18924231

  11. Mechanisms of Hepatic Fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial improvements in the treatment of chronic liver disease have accelerated interest in uncovering the mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrosis and its resolution. Activation of resident hepatic stellate cells into proliferative, contractile, and fibrogenic cells in liver injury remains a dominant theme driving the field. However, several new areas of rapid progress in the past 5–10 years also have taken root, including: (1) identification of different fibrogenic populations apart from resident stellate cells, for example, portal fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and bone-marrow– derived cells, as well as cells derived from epithelial mesenchymal transition; (2) emergence of stellate cells as finely regulated determinants of hepatic inflammation and immunity; (3) elucidation of multiple pathways controlling gene expression during stellate cell activation including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms; (4) recognition of disease-specific pathways of fibrogenesis; (5) re-emergence of hepatic macrophages as determinants of matrix degradation in fibrosis resolution and the importance of matrix cross-linking and scar maturation in determining reversibility; and (6) hints that hepatic stellate cells may contribute to hepatic stem cell behavior, cancer, and regeneration. Clinical and translational implications of these advances have become clear, and have begun to impact significantly on the management and outlook of patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:18471545

  12. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  13. Delta hepatitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, M; Dimitrakakis, M; Tan, D S

    1986-06-01

    Sera from one hundred and fifty nine Malaysian individuals were screened for the prevalence of delta markers. These included 15 HBsAg positive homosexuals, 16 acute hepatitis B cases, 9 chronic hepatitis B patients, 13 healthy HBsAg carriers and 106 intravenous (i.v.) drug abusers, of whom 27 were positive for HBsAg only and the rest were anti-HBc IgG positive but HBsAg negative. The prevalence of delta markers in the homosexuals was found to be 6.7%, in the HBsAg positive drug abusers 17.8%, in acute hepatitis B cases 12.5%. No evidence of delta infection was detected in healthy HBsAg carriers, chronic hepatitis B cases and HBsAg negative i.v. drug abusers. With reference to i.v. drug abusers, the prevalence of delta markers was higher in Malays (23%) than in Chinese (7%) although the latter had a higher HBsAg carrier rate. Although the HBsAg carrier rate in the homosexuals was high, their delta prevalence rate was low as compared to drug abusers. In Malaysia, as in other non-endemic regions, hepatitis delta virus transmission appeared to occur mainly via the parenteral and sexual routes. This is the first time in Malaysia that a reservoir of delta infection has been demonstrated in certain groups of the population at high risk for hepatitis B.

  14. Perceval S sutureless aortic valve prosthesis implantation via a right anterior minithoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Gilmanov, Daniyar; Farneti, Pier Andrea; Miceli, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Stefano; Glauber, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development and refinement of techniques over the past decade have led to the realization that a minimally invasive approach enables aortic valve surgery to be performed with results, at the very least, equivalent to those of traditional (open) valve surgery done in experienced centres. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has now evolved into a safe, efficient treatment option providing greater patient satisfaction and fewer complications. For rapidly ageing population of industrialized countries, aortic valve replacement (AVR) has become the most frequent heart valve surgery. However, transcatheter aortic valve implantation techniques and sutureless aortic valve prostheses recently introduced into clinical practice are challenging now the results of MIAVR in certain high surgical risk patients. Right anterior minithoracotomy results in excellent exposure and a safe conduct of AVR. The minithoracotomy is performed via the second intercostal space with a 6-7 cm long skin incision and no bone transection. After direct aortic and peripheral venous cannulation, aortic valve is exposed in a conventional manner, and further conduct of the intervention is not different from the sutureless AVR in median sternotomy. Herein, we discuss the indications, surgical technique and initial results of sutureless AVR through right anterior minithoracotomy.

  15. Anterior Approach Total Ankle Arthroplasty: Superficial Peroneal Nerve Branches at Risk.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Jeffrey E; DeMill, Shyler L; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    In ankle arthroplasty, little attention has been given to intraoperative nerve injury and its postoperative sequelae. The aim of the present anatomic study was to determine the relationship of the superficial peroneal nerve to the standard anterior approach for total ankle arthroplasty. The superficial peroneal nerve was dissected in 10 below-the-knee cadaver specimens. The medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were identified. A needle was placed at the ankle joint. The following measurements were recorded: bifurcation into the medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches, reference needle to the branches of the medial and intermediate superficial peroneal nerve, and the crossing branches of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve. Two specimens (20%) had a medial dorsal cutaneous branch cross from medially to laterally. Eight specimens (80%) had a crossing branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous branch within 5 cm of the incision. No intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were within the incision. The results from the present cadaver study suggest that during an anterior ankle approach, aberrant branches of the superficial peroneal nerve could require transection in 20% of patients at the joint level and ≤80% of patients with distal extension >35 mm from the ankle joint. The risk of injury to branches of the superficial peroneal nerve is substantial. The risk of nerve injury can be decreased with meticulous operative technique, smaller incisions, and the avoidance of aggressive retraction.

  16. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  17. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  18. Anterior condylar displacement: its diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A

    1975-08-01

    A deflective slide in centric relation to centric occlusion does not necessarily mean anterior condylar displacement. Its diagnosis and treatment depend on the correlation of three factors: the direction and magnitude of the mandibular slide from centric relation to centric occlusion, the change in vertical dimension of occlusion during the slide, and the position of the condyles in the fossae when the teeth are in the maximum occlusion (centric occlusion). When the change in vertical dimension almost equals to amount of slide from the deflective contact in centric relation to maximum intercuspation, very little anterior condylar displacement would be expected. Conversely, with proportionately little change in vertical dimension, more anterior condylar translation is required for a given degree of anterior slide. Examples of each type of anterior slide were related to the TMJ radiographs of the condylar position. If the direction and magnitude of the deflective occlusal contact can be correlated with the TMJ radiographs, the centric relation is "functional,'' and the clinically retruded mandibular position should be used. When this correlation does not exist, the centric relation is "dysfunctional'' and the terminal hinge position (retruded mandibular position) should not be used for restorative or corrective procedures. Examples of anterior condylar displacement were given, including deviation, with a comparison of "before'' and "after'' TMJ radiographs.

  19. Laser peripheral iridotomy changes anterior chamber architecture.

    PubMed

    Theinert, Christian; Wiedemann, Peter; Unterlauft, Jan D

    2017-01-19

    The pressure gradient between anterior and posterior chamber in acute angle closure (AAC) and primary angle closure suspects is balanced by a sufficient laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). The anterior chamber changes induced by LPI in patients with unilateral AAC were examined and compared to healthy eyes to define threshold values, which may help to discriminate between healthy and diseased eyes. Using Scheimpflug photography, anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured before and after LPI in both eyes of unilateral AAC cases. These measurements were compared to a group of healthy control eyes to determine threshold values for ACD, ACV, and ACA. The ACD, ACV, and ACA increased significantly in the 25 AAC eyes after LPI. The ACD, ACV, ACA, and CCT values in the AAC eyes obtained before LPI were compared to a control group of 59 healthy eyes with wide open chamber angles. The cutoff values revealed by receiver operating characteristic analysis were 2.1 mm for ACD, 90.5 mm2 for ACV, and 27.25° for ACA. Our results confirm the significant changes of the anterior segments architecture induced by LPI in AAC eyes. The found threshold values for ACD, ACV, and ACA may help in daily clinical routine to discriminate between healthy eyes and those in need for a prophylactic LPI.

  20. Anterior Insula Volume and Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Belden, Andy C.; Barch, Deanna M.; Oakberg, Timothy J.; April, Laura M.; Harms, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE This is the first study to date to examine volumetric alterations in the anterior insula (AI) as a potential biomarker for the course of childhood major depressive disorder (MDD). OBJECTIVES To examine whether children with a history of preschool-onset (PO) MDD show reduced AI volume, whether a specific symptom of PO MDD (pathological guilt) is related to AI volume reduction (given the known relationship between AI and guilt processing), and whether AI volumes predict subsequent likelihood of having an episode of MDD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a prospective longitudinal study, 306 children (age range, 3.00–5.11 years) and caregivers completed DSM diagnostic assessments at 6 annual time points during 10 years as part of the Preschool Depression Study. Magnetic resonance imaging was completed on a subset of 145 school-age children (age range, 6.11–12.11 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Whole-brain–adjusted AI volume measured using magnetic resonance imaging at school age and children’s diagnosis of MDD any time after their imaging. RESULTS Compared with children without a history of PO MDD, school-age children previously diagnosed as having PO MDD had smaller left and right AI volumes (Wilks Λ = 0.94, F2,124 = 3.37, P = .04, Cohen d = 0.23). However, the effect of PO MDD on reduced AI volumes was better explained by children’s experience of pathological guilt during preschool (Λ = 0.91, F2,120 = 6.17, P = .003, d = .30). When covarying for children’s lifetime history of MDD episodes, their experience of pathological guilt during preschool, as well as their sex and age at the time of imaging, schoolchildren’s right-side AI volume was a significant predictor of being diagnosed as having an MDD episode after imaging (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.01–0.75; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results provide evidence that structural abnormalities in AI volume are related to the neurobiology of depressive disorders starting in

  1. Gas hydrate drilling transect across northern Cascadia margin - IODP Expedition 311

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.; Malone, M.J.; Collett, T.S.; Mitchell, M.; Guerin, G.; Akiba, F.; Blanc-Valleron, M.; Ellis, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Heuer, V.; Higashi, Y.; Holland, M.; Jackson, P.D.; Kaneko, M.; Kastner, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Kitajima, H.; Long, P.E.; Malinverno, A.; Myers, Gwen E.; Palekar, L.D.; Pohlman, J.; Schultheiss, P.; Teichert, B.; Torres, M.E.; Trehu, A.M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Worthmann, U.G.; Yoshioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    A transect of four sites (U1325, U1326, U1327 and U1329) across the northern Cascadia margin was established during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 to study the occurrence and formation of gas hydrate in accretionary complexes. In addition to the transect sites, a fifth site (U1328) was established at a cold vent with active fluid flow. The four transect sites represent different typical geological environments of gas hydrate occurrence across the northern Cascadia margin from the earliest occurrence on the westernmost first accreted ridge (Site U1326) to the eastward limit of the gas hydrate occurrence in shallower water (Site U1329). Expedition 311 complements previous gas hydrate studies along the Cascadia accretionary complex, especially ODP Leg 146 and Leg 204 by extending the aperture of the transect sampled and introducing new tools to systematically quantify the gas hydrate content of the sediments. Among the most significant findings of the expedition was the occurrence of up to 20 m thick sand-rich turbidite intervals with gas hydrate concentrations locally exceeding 50% of the pore space at Sites U1326 and U1327. Moreover, these anomalous gas hydrate intervals occur at unexpectedly shallow depths of 50-120 metres below seafloor, which is the opposite of what was expected from previous models of gas hydrate formation in accretionary complexes, where gas hydrate was predicted to be more concentrated near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone just above the bottom-simulating reflector. Gas hydrate appears to be mainly concentrated in turbidite sand layers. During Expedition 311, the visual correlation of gas hydrate with sand layers was clearly and repeatedly documented, strongly supporting the importance of grain size in controlling gas hydrate occurrence. The results from the transect sites provide evidence for a structurally complex, lithology-controlled gas hydrate environment on the northern Cascadia margin. Local shallow

  2. Deformation in the Bolivian Subandes: a reconstruction of geologic structures along two transects across the Andean Front in Southern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadeen, Xennephone; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Bolivian Subandes is a highly tectonically active region in the Andes since deformation began approx. 10 Ma ago. The study area is located in the Southern Bolivian Subandes southwest of Santa Cruz. Observations were taken along two transects with each being around 100 km long. They stretch from the Subandes-Interandean boundary into the Chaco Plain. The northern transect extends from Abapó in the Chaco Plain and it continues west near Vallegrande and ends just west of Pucara near La Higuera. The southern transect initiates near Charagua in the Chaco Plain. Then it continues west through Villa Vaca Guzmán and ends around 25 km west of Monteagudo. Structural and stratigraphic data were collected along the two transects. The locations of major geologic structures such as thrust faults, anticlines and synclines were mapped. The map along with the data from the two cross sections was then used to generate a 3D model of the Subandean fold and thrust belt between Abapó and Monteagudo. The cross sections were than restored to quantify the amount of shortening that had occurred over the past 10 million years. The southern transect has undergone 65 km of shortening while 50 to 80 km of shortening have transpired along the less constrain northern transect. The estimated rate of deformation averages at 8 mm/yr. The timing of deformation may differ between the two transects. Deformation may have initiated earlier or undergone at a faster rate in the northern transect than in the southern transect. It is also possible that the decollement is shallower in the western portion of the northern transect. We observe that the east propagating anticlines verge to the west. This may be due to the anticlines being cut by exposed or blind thrust faults and then rotated counterclockwise. They rotate while piggybacking on younger thrust faults that developed and propagate to the east of the anticlines. We postulate deformation continues to propagate eastward into the Chaco

  3. Hindlimb loading determines stepping quantity and quality following spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Timoszyk, Wojciech K; Nessler, Jeff A; Acosta, Cynthia; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie; Reinkensmeyer, David J; de Leon, Ray

    2005-07-19

    We compared the bipedal hindlimb stepping ability of untrained and trained (step-trained 6 min/day) spinal rats (mid-thoracic spinal cord transection at post-natal day 5) at different levels of body weight support on a treadmill over a 40-day period, starting at 69 days of age. A robotic device provided precise levels of body weight support and recorded hindlimb movement. We assessed stepping ability using: (1) step quantity determined from the measured hindlimb movement, (2) ordinal scales of paw placement, weight-bearing, and limb flexion, and (3) the lowest level of body weight support at which stepping was maintained. Stepping quantity and quality depended strongly on the level of support provided. Stepping ability improved with time, but only at the higher levels of weight-bearing, and independently of training. Increasing limb loading by gradually decreasing body weight support altered the spatiotemporal properties of the steps, resulting in an increase in step length and stance duration and a decrease in swing and step cycle duration. The rats progressively improved their ability to support more load before collapsing from a maximum of about 42 g ( approximately 25% of body weight) at Day 1 to 73 g ( approximately 35% of body weight) at Day 40. We conclude that the level of hindlimb loading provided to a spinally transected rat strongly influences the quantity and quality of stepping. Furthermore, the relationship between stepping ability and loading conditions changes with time after spinal cord transection and is unaltered by small amounts of step training. Finally, load-bearing failure point can be a quantitative measure of locomotor recovery following spinal cord injury, especially for severely impaired animals that cannot step unassisted.

  4. Carbon-nanotube-interfaced glass fiber scaffold for regeneration of transected sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hong-Sun; Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Wan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Shin, Ueon Sang; Knowles, Jonathan C; Kim, Hae-Won; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2015-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their unique and unprecedented properties, have become very popular for the repair of tissues, particularly for those requiring electrical stimuli. Whilst most reports have demonstrated in vitro neural cell responses of the CNTs, few studies have been performed on the in vivo efficacy of CNT-interfaced biomaterials in the repair and regeneration of neural tissues. Thus, we report here for the first time the in vivo functions of CNT-interfaced nerve conduits in the regeneration of transected rat sciatic nerve. Aminated CNTs were chemically tethered onto the surface of aligned phosphate glass microfibers (PGFs) and CNT-interfaced PGFs (CNT-PGFs) were successfully placed into three-dimensional poly(L/D-lactic acid) (PLDLA) tubes. An in vitro study confirmed that neurites of dorsal root ganglion outgrew actively along the aligned CNT-PGFs and that the CNT interfacing significantly increased the maximal neurite length. Sixteen weeks after implantation of a CNT-PGF nerve conduit into the 10 mm gap of a transected rat sciatic nerve, the number of regenerating axons crossing the scaffold, the cross-sectional area of the re-innervated muscles and the electrophysiological findings were all significantly improved by the interfacing with CNTs. This first in vivo effect of using a CNT-interfaced scaffold in the regeneration process of a transected rat sciatic nerve strongly supports the potential use of CNT-interfaced PGFs at the interface between the nerve conduit and peripheral neural tissues. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of the Arrabidaea chica extract on collagen fiber organization during healing of partially transected tendon.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Freitas, K M; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E; Dolder, H; Gomes, L; Vidal, B C; Pimentel, E R

    2013-04-19

    After undergoing lesions, tendons have disorganized collagen fibers compared to undamaged tendons. Arrabidaea chica leaves have the aglycones carajurin and carajurone, components of the antocyanins, with a strong pharmacological potential due to their healing properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topical application of A. chica extract during tendon healing. The calcaneal tendon of Wistar rats was partially transected with subsequent treatment with A. chica extract (2.13 g/mL) followed by excision on the 7th, 14th and 21st days. Control rats received only saline treatment. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the presence of a large amount of small segments of collagen fibrils in the transected region of the tendons on the 7th day in both the control and plant-treated groups. Considering the organization of the collagen fibers, higher values of birefringence were observed under polarization microscopy in the tendons of the plant-treated group on the 14th day compared to the control group. A larger quantity of dermatan sulfate was also detected after plant treatment in the same period. However, lesser dermatan and chondroitin sulfate were detected in the plant-treated group than in the control group on the 21st day. No differences were found in the values of birefringence between these groups. Intense metachromasy was observed in both transected groups on the 21st day. In conclusion, the use of A. chica extract improves collagen organization and increases the quantity of dermatan sulfate on the 14th day of the tendon healing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bird Radar Validation in the Field by Time-Referencing Line-Transect Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; Baptist, Martin J.; Ens, Bruno J.; Krijgsveld, Karen L.; van Loon, E. Emiel

    2013-01-01

    Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar’s detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer’s accuracy in determining a bird’s transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ∼1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50±0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising

  7. Neurogenesis in the lamprey central nervous system following spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guixin; Vidal Pizarro, Ivonne; Swain, Gary P; Kang, Shin H; Selzer, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    After spinal cord transection, lampreys recover functionally and axons regenerate. It is not known whether this is accompanied by neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested a baseline level of nonneuronal cell proliferation in the spinal cord and rhombencephalon (where most supraspinal projecting neurons are located). To determine whether cell proliferation increases after injury and whether this includes neurogenesis, larval lampreys were spinally transected and injected with 5-bromo-2&prime-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at 0-3 weeks posttransection. Labeled cells were counted in the lesion site, within 0.5 mm rostral and caudal to the lesion, and in the rhombencephalon. One group of animals was processed in the winter and a second group was processed in the summer. The number of labeled cells was greater in winter than in summer. The lesion site had the most BrdU labeling at all times, correlating with an increase in the number of cells. In the adjacent spinal cord, the percentage of BrdU labeling was higher in the ependymal than in nonependymal regions. This was also true in the rhombencephalon but only in summer. In winter, BrdU labeling was seen primarily in the subventricular and peripheral zones. Some BrdU-labeled cells were also double labeled by antibodies to glial-specific (antikeratin) as well as neuron-specific (anti-Hu) antigens, indicating that both gliogenesis and neurogenesis occurred after spinal cord transection. However, the new neurons were restricted to the ependymal zone, were never labeled by antineurofilament antibodies, and never migrated away from the ependyma even at 5 weeks after BrdU injection. They would appear to be cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Rainfall regime changes and trends in Botswana Kalahari Transect's late summer precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mphale, K. M.; Dash, S. K.; Adedoyin, A.; Panda, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    Sixty-year-long January-March (JFM) rainfall data from four (4) stations along the Kalahari Transect were analyzed for long-term trends and abrupt changes in rainfall regimes. On average, JFM rainfall accounts for more than 50 % of annual rainfall in the region. Mann-Kendall trend test has shown an insignificant heterogeneous trend in the seasonal rainfall of -1.097, 0.029, -0.407, and -1.327 mm/year for Maun, Ghanzi, Tsabong, and Tshane, respectively. An abrupt change in rainfall regimes in these areas was investigated and was found to occur in the year 1982 for all stations. The change is related to large-scale atmospheric circulations. Analysis of large-scale atmospheric circulations before 1982 over the region has shown the formation of a tropical low pressure convective system over the Kalahari Transect. The tropical system shifted eastward after 1982 to be centered over southeastern southern Africa with a significant reduction in rainfall over the Kalahari. A direct impact of this is the livestock-induced overgrazing which has lead to excessive removal of palatable herbaceous species thereby giving woody species, such as Accacia mellifera and Grewia flava, a competitive edge for dominance in the ecosystems. Seed production of A. mellifera depends on rainfall; therefore, abrupt changes in rainfall regimes impact livelihood and eco-tourism industry. The correlation studies between rainfall anomalies and NINO3.4 indices show a reduction in the influence of El-Niño Southern Oscillation on the Kalahari Transect rainfall after 1982.

  9. Double-observer line transect surveys with Markov-modulated Poisson process models for animal availability.

    PubMed

    Borchers, D L; Langrock, R

    2015-12-01

    We develop maximum likelihood methods for line transect surveys in which animals go undetected at distance zero, either because they are stochastically unavailable while within view or because they are missed when they are available. These incorporate a Markov-modulated Poisson process model for animal availability, allowing more clustered availability events than is possible with Poisson availability models. They include a mark-recapture component arising from the independent-observer survey, leading to more accurate estimation of detection probability given availability. We develop models for situations in which (a) multiple detections of the same individual are possible and (b) some or all of the availability process parameters are estimated from the line transect survey itself, rather than from independent data. We investigate estimator performance by simulation, and compare the multiple-detection estimators with estimators that use only initial detections of individuals, and with a single-observer estimator. Simultaneous estimation of detection function parameters and availability model parameters is shown to be feasible from the line transect survey alone with multiple detections and double-observer data but not with single-observer data. Recording multiple detections of individuals improves estimator precision substantially when estimating the availability model parameters from survey data, and we recommend that these data be gathered. We apply the methods to estimate detection probability from a double-observer survey of North Atlantic minke whales, and find that double-observer data greatly improve estimator precision here too. © 2015 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  10. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest. Key Points We compared soil N dynamics of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transectShifts in N dynamics suggest a decrease in microbial N limitation with depthWe found no decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate zones PMID:26693204

  11. Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys.

    PubMed

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Baptist, Martin J; Ens, Bruno J; Krijgsveld, Karen L; van Loon, E Emiel

    2013-01-01

    Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar's detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer's accuracy in determining a bird's transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ~1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50 ± 0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising

  12. Fulminant herpes hepatitis mimicking hepatic abscesses.

    PubMed

    Wolfsen, H C; Bolen, J W; Bowen, J L; Fenster, L F

    1993-01-01

    Fulminant hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in adults is a rare and deadly disease. We describe a 23-year-old woman with a 20-year history of Crohn's disease (CD) who was hospitalized with an acute febrile illness and diarrhea. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen demonstrated an intramural sigmoid colon abscess and multiple abscesses in the liver. Despite high-dose parenteral corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, the patient remained acutely ill, with high fever and markedly elevated serum transaminase levels, but no jaundice. Sigmoid resection and wedge liver biopsy were performed at laparotomy. Histologic examination documented HSV-type intranuclear inclusions and inflammation with necrosis in both the sigmoid colon and liver specimens. The patient subsequently died despite parenteral acyclovir treatment. Although rare, fulminant hepatitis due to HSV simplex virus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients with severe hepatitis. Of special note, the necrotizing liver lesions may be mistaken for pyogenic abscesses on CT scan.

  13. Disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome: complete pancreas transection secondary to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gámez-del-Castillo, Juan Manuel; Garcés-Albir, Marina; Fernández-Moreno, María Carmen; Morera-Ocón, Francisco Javier; Villagrasa, Rosana; Sabater-Ortí, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome is a serious complication of acute pancreatitis which is defined by a complete discontinuity of the pancreatic duct, such that a viable side of the pancreas remains isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. This pancreatic disruption is infrequently observed in the clinical practice and its diagnostic and therapeutic management are controversial. We present an extreme case of disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome with complete duct disruption and pancreatic transection following acute pancreatitis, as well as the diagnostic and therapeutic processes carried out.

  14. Some comments on Anderson and Pospahala's correction of bias in line transect sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Chain, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    ANDERSON and POSPAHALA (1970) investigated the estimation of wildlife population size using the belt or line transect sampling method and devised a correction for bias, thus leading to an estimator with interesting characteristics. This work was given a uniform mathematical framework in BURNHAM and ANDERSON (1976). In this paper we show that the ANDERSON-POSPAHALA estimator is optimal in the sense of being the (unique) best linear unbiased estimator within the class of estimators which are linear combinations of cell frequencies, provided certain assumptions are met.

  15. Reduction of NaCl increases survival of mammalian spinal neurons subjected to dendrite transection injury.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L J; Lucas, J H

    1996-09-23

    Neurites were transected from spinal neurons in media with normal (125 microM) or reduced NaCl (sucrose substitution). After 12 h the normal ionic environment (conditioned medium with serum) was restored. A one-factor ANOVA comparison found a significant difference in 48 h survival (P = 0.0001). Survival was highest when NaCl was reduced 50% (74% +/- 19 vs. 22% +/- 19 in normal NaCl). Na(+)- and Cl-mediated deterioration may contribute to both gray and white matter injury in CNS trauma.

  16. Temperature and vascular volume effects on gastric ulcerogenesis after cord transection.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M; Waldrop, Ron D

    2005-11-01

    Gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the critically ill, especially those with CNS injury. We used cervical spinal cord transection (CCT) in the rat to model these ulcers and examined the effect of core body temperature and vascular volume on gastric ulcerogenesis. Hypothermia significantly increased ulcerogenesis compared to euthermia, while maintained euthermia produced ulcer indices not different from sham surgery. Hypovolemia (10% blood volume withdrawal) significantly increased ulcerogenesis compared to hypervolemia (10% of blood volume crystalloid infusion) or sham surgery. These results support crystalloid infusion and maintenance of core body temperature in the clinical setting.

  17. Fish inner ear otoliths stop calcium incorporation after vestibular nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Anken, R H; Edelmann, E; Rahmann, H

    2000-09-11

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In a search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was unilaterally transected in neonatal swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation and thus otolith growth ceased on the operated head sides, indicating that the brain is significantly involved in regulating otolith growth.

  18. Integrated multidisciplinary processing and interpretation of geophysical data acquired on transects in Barents and Kara seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslov, Yu. V.; Sakoulina, T. S.

    2003-04-01

    INTEGRATED MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROCESSING AND INTERPRETATION OF GEOPHYSICAL DATA ACQUIRED ON TRANSECTS IN BARENTS AND KARA SEAS Yu.V. Roslov (1), T.S. Sakoulina (1) (1 - SEVMORGEO State Geophysical Co., 36 Rosenstein St, 198095, St Petersburg, Russia, roslov @sevmorgeo.com) According to Russian arctic offshore transect program State Company Sevmorgeo in cooperation with other Russian state companies carry out multidisciplinary investigations on transects 1-AR and 2-AR in Barents and Kara Seas. Investigations include the following geophysical methods: 4C wide angle refraction/reflection profiling (WARRP), CDP seismic, airborn and/or marine gravity and magnetic. Three levels of the integration has been used on processing and interpretation stage. First, different approaches of kinematic inverse problem and tomographic reconstruction have been applied for kinematic parameters of 4C WARRP data processing. That has allowed extracting of maximum information from the data acquired. As a result stable P and S velocity models have been obtained. Second, dynamic WARRP image focused mainly on Moho boundary has been integrated with CDP image in order to improve the sedimentary layer structure. Third, seismic images have been proven with gravity and magnetic data reaching the model, which fits to observed potential fields. Also gravity and magnetic data successfully fill out information gap in the places where there is a lack of seismic data. Some original technologies of data processing have been developed in the framework of the project. Finally, within the range defined by the data processed the integrated geological-geophysical images the Kara-Barents Shelf Plate structure whole Earth crust thickness along transects 1-AR and 2-AR have been obtained. New geophysical data acquired have forced reviewing of our nderstanding of Barents region geological structure. First of all it concern to south and north Barents depressions. South Barents depression is well known as a geological

  19. Sialendoscopy-assisted microsurgical repair of traumatic transection of Stensen's duct.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael; Iro, Heinrich; Bozzato, Alessandro; Zenk, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Sialendoscopy is established in the diagnostics and treatment of obstructive salivary gland diseases, but has not previously been reported in patients with injuries to Stensen's duct. Sialendoscopy assisted repair of a transected Stensen's duct in zone B is reported. The duct injury itself, its location, and its severity could be visualized and precisely assessed and allowed intraductal assessment of the ductal tissue. Rapid atraumatic dissection and also postoperative endoscopic follow-up examination with assessment of the anastomosis was provided by using the sialendoscope, which appears to be valuable for several reasons in the management of Stensen's duct trauma.

  20. Retinal glutamate transporter changes in experimental glaucoma and after optic nerve transection in the rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, Keith R G; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Quigley, Harry A

    2002-07-01

    High levels of glutamate can be toxic to retinal ganglion cells. Effective buffering of extracellular glutamate by retinal glutamate transporters is therefore important. This study was conducted to investigate whether glutamate transporter changes occur with two models of optic nerve injury in the rat. Glaucoma was induced in one eye of 35 adult Wistar rats by translimbal diode laser treatment to the trabecular meshwork. Twenty-five more rats underwent unilateral optic nerve transection. Two glutamate transporters, GLAST (EAAT-1) and GLT-1 (EAAT-2), were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Western blot analysis. Treated and control eyes were compared 3 days and 1, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Optic nerve damage was assessed semiquantitatively in epoxy-embedded optic nerve cross sections. Trabecular laser treatment resulted in moderate intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in all animals. After 1 to 6 weeks of experimental glaucoma, all treated eyes had significant optic nerve damage. Glutamate transporter changes were not detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis demonstrated significantly reduced GLT-1 in glaucomatous eyes compared with control eyes at 3 days (29.3% +/- 6.7%, P = 0.01), 1 week (55.5% +/- 13.6%, P = 0.02), 4 weeks (27.2% +/- 10.1%, P = 0.05), and 6 weeks (38.1% +/- 7.9%, P = 0.01; mean reduction +/- SEM, paired t-tests, n = 5 animals per group, four duplicate Western blot analyses per eye). The magnitude of the reduction in GLT-1 correlated significantly with mean IOP in the glaucomatous eye (r(2) = 0.31, P = 0.01, linear regression). GLAST was significantly reduced (33.8% +/- 8.1%, mean +/- SEM) after 4 weeks of elevated IOP (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 5 animals per group). In contrast to glaucoma, optic nerve transection resulted in an increase in GLT-1 compared with the control eye (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 15 animals). There was no significant change in GLAST after transection. GLT-1 and GLAST were significantly

  1. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  2. Liver abscess developed after cadaveric liver transplantation due to ligation of an accessory right hepatic artery of the donor graft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Young-Dong; Kim, Dong-Sik; Byun, Geon-Young; Suh, Sung-Ock

    2012-10-01

    It is important that extrahepatic arteries are identified precisely at the time of graft procurement. We present a case where the accessory right hepatic artery of the liver was ligated leading to postoperative liver abscess formation in the liver graft. A forty-seven-year-old female patient diagnosed with liver cirrhosis underwent orthotopic cadaveric liver transplantation due to altered mentality. The donor graft showed a variant of the hepatic artery anatomy where an accessory right hepatic artery arose from the superior mesenteric artery. This artery was accidentally transected during procurement. Since the back bleeding test using perfusion fluid was good, the artery was ligated. Postoperative abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 6 cm low attenuating lesion in the liver. The patient underwent conservative treatment. We believe that even small accessory arteries (1 to 2 mm) should be reconstructed whenever possible to avoid postoperative complications such as liver abscess.

  3. Absence of Middle Hepatic Vein Combined with Retro-Aortic Left Renal Vein: a Very Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Turamanlar, Ozan; Kırpıko, Oğuz; Özen, Oğuz Aslan; Değirmenci, Bumin; Akçer, Sezer; Uygur, Ramazan

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic and renal veins drain into the inferior vena cava. The upper group of hepatic veins consists of three veins which extend to the posterior face of the liver to join the inferior cava. The left renal vein passes anterior to the aorta just below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. We detected a variation in the hepatic and renal veins in a multislice CT angiogram of a nine-year-old male patient in the Radiology Department of Afyon Kocatepe University Medical School. The upper group hepatic veins normally drains into the inferior vena cava as three separate trunks, namely the right, left and middle. In our case, we found that only the right and left hepatic veins existed and the middle hepatic vein was absent. Furthermore, the left renal vein, which normally passes anterior to the abdominal aorta, was retro-aortic. Left renal vein variations are of great importance in planning retroperitoneal surgery and vascular interventions. Knowledge of a patient’s hepatic vein and renovascular anatomy and determining their variations and anomalies are of critical importance to abdominal operations, transplantations and preoperative evaluation of endovascular interventions. PMID:25206997

  4. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. T.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J. P.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Yang, S.; Wang, R. Z.; Wang, Z. W.; Wu, Y. N.; Han, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate-containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate-containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate-containing soils than in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate-containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate-containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate-containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Along the transect, soil pHBC was different in regions with different aridity index. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate-containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate- and non-carbonate-containing soils. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  5. Spinal transection induces widespread proliferation of cells along the length of the spinal cord in a weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Antiño R.; Smith, G. Troy

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regenerate spinal cord tissue after tail amputation has been well studied in several species of teleost fish. The present study examined proliferation and survival of cells following complete spinal cord transection rather than tail amputation in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. To quantify cell proliferation along the length of the spinal cord, fish were given a single bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injection immediately after spinal transection or sham surgery. Spinal transection significantly increased the density of BrdU+ cells along the entire length of the spinal cord at 1 day post transection (dpt), and most newly generated cells survived up to 14 dpt. To examine longer term survival of the newly proliferated cells, BrdU was injected for 5 days after the surgery, and fish were sacrificed 14 or 30 dpt. Spinal transection significantly increased proliferation and/or survival, as indicated by an elevated density of BrdU+ cells in the spinal cords of spinally transected compared to sham-operated and intact fish. At 14 dpt, BrdU+ cells were abundant at all levels of the spinal cord. By 30 dpt, the density of BrdU+ cells decreased at all levels of the spinal cord except at the tip of the tail. Thus, newly generated cells in the caudal-most segment of the spinal cord survived longer than those in more rostral segments. Our findings indicate that spinal cord transection stimulates widespread cellular proliferation; however, there were regional differences in the survival of the newly generated cells. PMID:23147638

  6. Technique advance to avoid hepatic venous outflow obstruction in pediatric living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tannuri, Uenis; Tannuri, Ana Cristina A; Santos, Maria M; Miyatani, Helena T

    2015-05-01

    HVOO represents a serious critical complication of pediatric living-donor liver transplantation because open surgical repair is virtually impossible. Currently, despite several technical innovations and the introduction of triangulated anastomosis for hepatic vein reconstruction, the reported incidence of HVOO is still considerable. The aim of this study was to propose a new technique for hepatic venous reconstruction that avoids the original orifice of the recipient hepatic veins. Instead, anastomosis is performed in a newly created wide longitudinal orifice in the anterior wall of the recipient inferior vena cava. A total of 210 living related-donor liver transplantations were performed using two methods for reconstruction of the hepatic vein. Group 1 included 69 patients subjected to direct anastomosis of the orifice of the graft hepatic vein and a wide orifice created in the recipient inferior vena cava by the confluence of the orifices of the right, left, and middle hepatic veins. Group 2 included 141 patients in whom the original orifices of the recipient hepatic veins were closed, the inferior vena cava was widely opened, and a long longitudinal anastomosis was performed using two lines of continuous sutures. Diagnosis of HVOO was suspected based on clinical findings and ultrasound studies and then confirmed by liver biopsy and interventional radiology examinations. Among the 69 recipients in group 1, 16 patients died due to graft problems during the postoperative period and eight of the survivors (15.1%) presented with HVOO. In group 2 (141 patients), 21 patients died, and there were no cases of HVOO. A comparison of the incidence of HVOO between groups revealed a significant difference (p = 0.01). Hepatic venous reconstruction during pediatric living-donor liver transplantation should be performed using a wide longitudinal incision in the anterior wall of the recipient inferior vena cava because this technique eliminated anastomosis complications.

  7. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte leading to Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee; Joo, Won Il

    2013-09-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress.

  8. Mavyret Approved for Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167618.html Mavyret Approved for Hepatitis C A chronic viral infection of the liver ... to treat adults with certain types of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). The combination drug is the ...

  9. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... higher levels of the hepatitis C virus. Can birth control prevent the spread of the hepatitis C virus? ... is extremely low. Do you need to use birth control methods when you are on combination treatment (ribavirin ...

  10. Hepatic hemangioma -review-.

    PubMed

    Bajenaru, N; Balaban, V; Săvulescu, F; Campeanu, I; Patrascu, T

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver consisting of clusters of blood-filled cavities, lined by endothelial cells, fed by the hepatic artery. The vast majority of HH are asymptomatic, most often being discovered incidentally during imaging investigations for various unrelated pathologies. Typical hemangiomas, the so-called capillary hemangiomas, range from a few mm to 3 cm, do not increase in size over time and therefore are unlikely to generate future symptomatology. Small (mm-3 cm) and medium (3 cm-10 cm) hemangiomas are well-defined lesions, requiring no active treatment beside regular follow-ups. However, the so-called giant liver hemangiomas, of up to 10 cm (most commonly) and even 20+ cm in size (according to occasional reports) can, and usually will develop symptoms and complications that require prompt surgical intervention or other kind of therapy. HH belong to the class of hepatic "incidentalomas", so-called because they are diagnosed incidentally, on imaging studies performed as routine examinations or for other reasons than the evaluation of a possible liver mass. Less than half of HH present with overt clinical symptoms, consisting, most often, of upper abdominal pain (this is usually the case for large lesions, which cause the distension of Glisson's capsule). Hepatic hemangiomas require a careful diagnosis to differentiate from other focal hepatic lesions, co-occurring diagnoses are also possible.

  11. Pregnancy with autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Braga, António Costa; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Braga, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to review our experience with gestations in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Background: There are only limited data describing pregnancy in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of pregnancies with autoimmune hepatitis followed in Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal in the last ten years. Results: We reported nine pregnancies in seven patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Two patients had documented liver cirrhosis prior to the pregnancy. In this study, 66.7% of patients were treated with azathioprine and 88.9% with prednisolone. Clinical improvements were observed in 11.1% of pregnancies and 22.2% exacerbations were diagnosed. There were six live births and two preterm deliveries (preterm delivery rate of 33%). We also report three first trimester miscarriages (early gestation miscarriage rate of 33%). There were no neonatal or maternal deaths. Conclusion: The favorable obstetric outcome is a realistic expectation in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Tight monitoring and control of asymptomatic and unpredictable exacerbations, which are unrelated to the severity of the underlying disease, are essential to the prognosis of the current pregnancy. PMID:27458515

  12. Female rat transcriptome response to infraorbital nerve transection differs from that of males: RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Orczyk, John J; Batka, Richard; Gore, Ashleigh; Maio-Lexa, Michelena; Kulkarni, Akhil; Garraghty, Preston E

    2017-01-01

    The effects of infraorbital nerve (ION) transection on gene expression in the adult female rat barrel cortex were investigated using RNA sequencing. After a 24-hour survival duration, 28 genes were differentially regulated by ION transection. Differentially expressed genes suggest microglial activity, increased retrograde ciliary transport, and a decrease in inhibition. These changes may be functionally comparable to changes in the male barrel cortex, where changes in genes related to morphology, neuronal activity, and neuronal excitability were observed. However, the patterns in changes in gene expression are vastly different between male and female rats. The results strongly caution against the practice of generalizing data from one sex to both sexes. This cautionary note has potentially profound implications for a range of research lines, including substance abuse and stress, both research domains in which subjects have been predominantly males. Future research needs to employ sex as a classification variable, as sex differences can generally be expected. Future research is also needed to confirm that changes in gene expression observed with RNA-seq correlate with changes in protein expression. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:140-150, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) Programme: A contextual view 1995 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Carol; Poulton, Alex J.; Holligan, Patrick M.; Baker, Alex R.; Forster, Grant; Gist, Niki; Jickells, Tim D.; Malin, Gill; Upstill-Goddard, Rob; Williams, Richard G.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2006-07-01

    The aims of the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) programme [ www.amt-uk.org] are to quantify the nature and causes of ecological and biogeochemical variability in the planktonic ecosystems of the Atlantic Ocean, and to assess the effects of this variability on biological carbon cycling and air-sea exchange of radiatively active gases and aerosols. Marine and atmospheric data have been collected twice a year along a 13,500 km transect in the Atlantic Ocean between 50°N and 52°S since 1995. The cruise track enables biogeochemical measurements to be made within the poorly studied North and South Atlantic oligotrophic gyres as well as within equatorial and coastal upwelling regions. The range of ecosystems sampled during AMT has facilitated the calibration and validation of newly developed optical, microbiological, molecular and analytical techniques and provided a testbed for comparative ecology and the development of atmospheric and oceanographic models. This paper describes the rationale and methodology of the programme. Upper-ocean measurements of density, nitrate and chlorophyll a (Chl a) are presented to illustrate seasonal, inter-annual and decadal variability in hydrography. Seasonal distributions of dissolved nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) are used to derive estimates of the sea-air flux of these gases in the South Atlantic Gyre. Observations made during AMT and published since 2000 are reviewed, and the key findings are highlighted. The extent to which the programme aims have been achieved is discussed and improvements for the future suggested.

  14. Effect of subepineurial dehydroepiandrosterone treatment on healing of transected nerves repaired with the epineurial sleeve technique.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Sühan; Markal, Nilgün; Siemionow, Krzysztof; Araneo, Barbara; Siemionow, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The epineurial sleeve technique for nerve repair is designed in part to protect a healing nerve from external humoral influences, but research suggests that the external factor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may actually improve nerve healing in crush injuries. To test the effect of DHEA, we injected it into the epineurial chambers created to repair transected rat sciatic nerves. In 18 control rats, the nerve was transected and repaired without DHEA treatment. Eighteen animals received subepineurial injections of propylene glycol vehicle, and 18 received subepineurial injections of about 0.2 ml DHEA. Walking-track analysis and toe-contracture measurements showed no significant differences among the three groups. At 12 weeks, the gastrocnemius muscles in the DHEA group were significantly heavier than those of untreated controls. At 6 and 12 weeks, DHEA-treated nerves had significantly more myelinated axons, larger average fiber diameter, and greater axonal cross-sectional areas in the proximal, middle, and distal sections. Myelin thickness did not differ between groups, except at 6 weeks between the DHEA and vehicle-treated groups. We conclude that subepineurial dehydroepiandrosterone treatment reduced the extent of denervation atrophy and induced an earlier onset of axonal regeneration.

  15. Effects of swimming exercise on nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chien-Fu; Yang, Tse-Yen; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Way, Tzong-Der; Chen, Yueh-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Swimming is commonly considered to be an efficient rehabilitation exercise to treat peripheral nerve injury. However, the most effective resistance level and exercise duration is still unclear. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of swimming at various exertion levels in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Methods: Sciatic nerve transection rats were randomized into the following four groups based on swimming duration (from the 7th day to the 28th day post-surgery): sedentary control group (SC), S10 group (10 min/3 times/week), S20 group (20 min/3 times/week), and S30 group (30 min/3 times/week) (n = 10 each). Axon regeneration, electrophysiological properties, muscular weights, macrophage infiltration, and nerve repair associated maker, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), were measured. Results: Dramatic higher successful percentages of nerve regeneration across the 10-mm gaps in swimming groups compared to the SC group. Total area of nerve regeneration significantly improved in the S10 group; however, electrophysiological properties, muscular weights, and macrophage infiltration in the regenerated nerves of rats did not differ significantly between the various exercise groups. CGRP expression was significantly increased in the spinal cord of rats in the S20 group. Conclusions: Our data indicated that CGRP-related axonal regeneration improved significantly with moderate swimming. These results should inspire new studies in physiotherapeutic practice for related human treatment. PMID:28474579

  16. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  17. Differential gene expression profiling and biological process analysis in proximal nerve segments after sciatic nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiying; Liu, Qianqian; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Yun; Liu, Dong; Wang, Chunming; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jianping; Liu, Jie; Gu, Xiaosong

    2013-01-01

    After traumatic injury, peripheral nerves can spontaneously regenerate through highly sophisticated and dynamic processes that are regulated by multiple cellular elements and molecular factors. Despite evidence of morphological changes and of expression changes of a few regulatory genes, global knowledge of gene expression changes and related biological processes during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration is still lacking. Here we aimed to profile global mRNA expression changes in proximal nerve segments of adult rats after sciatic nerve transection. According to DNA microarray analysis, the huge number of genes was differentially expressed at different time points (0.5 h-14 d) post nerve transection, exhibiting multiple distinct temporal expression patterns. The expression changes of several genes were further validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed to decipher the biological processes involving the differentially expressed genes. Collectively, our results highlighted the dynamic change of the important biological processes and the time-dependent expression of key regulatory genes after peripheral nerve injury. Interestingly, we, for the first time, reported the presence of olfactory receptors in sciatic nerves. Hopefully, this study may provide a useful platform for deeply studying peripheral nerve injury and regeneration from a molecular-level perspective.

  18. Potential of human dental stem cells in repairing the complete transection of rat spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Xinghan; Sun, Liang; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. The adult spinal cord of mammals contains a certain amount of neural precursor cells, but these endogenous cells have a limited capacity for replacement of lost cells after spinal cord injury. The exogenous stem cells transplantation has become a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repairing because of their immunomodulatory and differentiation capacity. In addition, dental stem cells originating from the cranial neural crest might be candidate cell sources for neural engineering. Approach. Human dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and identified in vitro, then green GFP-labeled stem cells with pellets were transplanted into completely transected spinal cord. The functional recovery of rats and multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms were explored. Main results. The dental stem cells, especially DFSCs, demonstrated the potential in repairing the completely transected spinal cord and promote functional recovery after injury. The major involved mechanisms were speculated below: First, dental stem cells inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β to reduce the inflammatory response; second, they inhibited the expression of ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) to promote neurite regeneration; third, they inhibited the sulfonylurea receptor1 (SUR-1) expression to reduce progressive hemorrhagic necrosis; lastly, parts of the transplanted cells survived and differentiated into mature neurons and oligodendrocytes but not astrocyte, which is beneficial for promoting axons growth. Significance. Dental stem cells presented remarkable tissue regenerative capability after spinal cord injury through immunomodulatory, differentiation and protection capacity.

  19. The diversity of cyanomyovirus populations along a North-South Atlantic Ocean transect.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Eleanor; Mann, Nicholas H; Joint, Ian; Sambles, Christine; Mühling, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Viruses that infect the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus have the potential to impact the growth, productivity, diversity and abundance of their hosts. In this study, changes in the microdiversity of cyanomyoviruses were investigated in 10 environmental samples taken along a North-South Atlantic Ocean transect using a myoviral-specific PCR-sequencing approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 630 viral g20 clones from this study, with 786 published g20 sequences, revealed that myoviral populations in the Atlantic Ocean had higher diversity than previously reported, with several novel putative g20 clades. Some of these clades were detected throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Multivariate statistical analyses did not reveal any significant correlations between myoviral diversity and environmental parameters, although myoviral diversity appeared to be lowest in samples collected from the north and south of the transect where Prochlorococcus diversity was also lowest. The results were correlated to the abundance and diversity of the co-occurring Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations, but revealed no significant correlations to either of the two potential host genera. This study provides evidence that cyanophages have extremely high and variable diversity and are distributed over large areas of the Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Synchrotron-Generated Microbeam Sensorimotor Cortex Transections Induce Seizure Control without Disruption of Neurological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Pantaleo; Fardone, Erminia; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda; Requardt, Herwig; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Anschel, David J.; Spiga, Jenny; Bravin, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-generated X-ray microplanar beams (microbeams) are characterized by the ability to deliver extremely high doses of radiation to spatially restricted volumes of tissue. Minimal dose spreading outside the beam path provides an exceptional degree of protection from radio-induced damage to the neurons and glia adjacent to the microscopic slices of tissue irradiated. The preservation of cortical architecture following high-dose microbeam irradiation and the ability to induce non-invasively the equivalent of a surgical cut over the cortex is of great interest for the development of novel experimental models in neurobiology and new treatment avenues for a variety of brain disorders. Microbeams (size 100 µm/600 µm, center-to-center distance of 400 µm/1200 µm, peak entrance doses of 360-240 Gy/150-100 Gy) delivered to the sensorimotor cortex of six 2-month-old naïve rats generated histologically evident cortical transections, without modifying motor behavior and weight gain up to 7 months. Microbeam transections of the sensorimotor cortex dramatically reduced convulsive seizure duration in a further group of 12 rats receiving local infusion of kainic acid. No subsequent neurological deficit was associated with the treatment. These data provide a novel tool to study the functions of the cortex and pave the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy and other neurological diseases. PMID:23341950

  1. Differential Gene Expression Profiling and Biological Process Analysis in Proximal Nerve Segments after Sciatic Nerve Transection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Yun; Liu, Dong; Wang, Chunming; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jianping; Liu, Jie; Gu, Xiaosong

    2013-01-01

    After traumatic injury, peripheral nerves can spontaneously regenerate through highly sophisticated and dynamic processes that are regulated by multiple cellular elements and molecular factors. Despite evidence of morphological changes and of expression changes of a few regulatory genes, global knowledge of gene expression changes and related biological processes during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration is still lacking. Here we aimed to profile global mRNA expression changes in proximal nerve segments of adult rats after sciatic nerve transection. According to DNA microarray analysis, the huge number of genes was differentially expressed at different time points (0.5 h–14 d) post nerve transection, exhibiting multiple distinct temporal expression patterns. The expression changes of several genes were further validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed to decipher the biological processes involving the differentially expressed genes. Collectively, our results highlighted the dynamic change of the important biological processes and the time-dependent expression of key regulatory genes after peripheral nerve injury. Interestingly, we, for the first time, reported the presence of olfactory receptors in sciatic nerves. Hopefully, this study may provide a useful platform for deeply studying peripheral nerve injury and regeneration from a molecular-level perspective. PMID:23437294

  2. Continuous stimulation of transected distal nerves fails to prolong action potential propagation.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, Tadhg; Urban, William; Polishchuk, Daniil; Pierre-Louis, Alain; Stewart, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Wallerian degeneration of the distal portion of a cut nerve is considered irreversible. A possible reason for degeneration is lack of axon stimulation in the distal, cut nerves. We hypothesized greater rates of stimulation of distal nerve stumps would prolong time to action potential propagation failure, and uncut nerves would not be damaged by implanted nerve stimulators. We also hypothesized that action potentials measured from the body of the sciatic nerve would show similar response as motor-evoked potentials measured in the muscles innervated by branches of the sciatic nerve. We implanted a nerve stimulator onto distal cut sciatic nerves of rats and recorded motor-evoked potentials. Three groups were stimulated at 1 Hz (once per second), 0.1 Hz (once per 10 seconds), and 0.01 Hz (once per 100 seconds) respectively. Motor-evoked potentials progressively declined after nerve transection, failing faster at 1 Hz (26.8 hours +/- 108 minutes) and 0.1 Hz (22 hours +/- 66 minutes) compared with stimulation at 0.01 Hz (36.75 hours +/- 83 minutes). Intact axons were not damaged by implanted nerve stimulators. Action potentials recorded directly from nerves were equivalent to motor- evoked potentials. Failure of motor-evoked potential transmission in a transected nerve is accelerated by a greater rate of continuous stimulation of the distal stump.

  3. A chronology for glacial Lake Agassiz shorelines along Upham's namesake transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepper, Kenneth; Buell, Alex W.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2013-07-01

    Four traditionally recognized strandline complexes in the southern basin of glacial Lake Agassiz are the Herman, Norcross, Tintah and Campbell, whose names correspond to towns in west-central Minnesota that lie on a linear transect defined by the Great Northern railroad grade; the active corridor for commerce at the time when Warren Upham was mapping and naming the shorelines of Lake Agassiz (ca.1880-1895). Because shorelines represent static water planes, their extension around the lake margin establishes time-synchronous lake levels. Transitions between shoreline positions represent significant water-level fluctuations. However, geologic ages have never been obtained from sites near the namesake towns in the vicinity of the southern outlet. Here we report the first geologic ages for Lake Agassiz shorelines obtained at field sites along the namesake transect, and evaluate the emerging chronology in light of other paleoclimate records. Our current work from 11 sampling sites has yielded 16 independent ages. These results combined with a growing OSL age data set for Lake Agassiz's southern basin provide robust age constraints for the Herman, Norcross and Campbell strandlines with averages and standard deviations of 14.1 ± 0.3 ka, 13.6 ± 0.2 ka, and 10.5 ± 0.3 ka, respectively.

  4. Ketoprofen combined with artery graft entubulization improves functional recovery of transected peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mehrtash, Moein; Nikonam, Nima; Mehrtash, Moied; Amini, Keyvan

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to assess the local effect of ketoprofen on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Eighty healthy male white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 20 animals each: In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and nerve cut ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the treatment group the defect was bridged using an artery graft (AG/Keto) filled with 10 microliter ketoprofen (0.1 mg/kg). In the artery graft group (AG), the graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post operation. Behavioural testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in AG/Keto than in AG group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in AG/Keto than in AG group. When loaded in an artery graft, ketoprofen improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of the sciatic nerve. Local usage of this easily accessible therapeutic medicine is cost saving and avoids the problems associated with systemic administration.

  5. Soil lead (Pb) in residential transects through Lubbock, Texas: a preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ray W; Gonzales, Chris; Hooper, Michael J; Bayat, Andrew C; Fornerette, Ashley M; McBride, Tobias J; Longoria, Thomas; Mielke, Howard W

    2008-12-01

    Residential lead (Pb) contamination, resulting from decades-long use of leaded gasoline and lead-based paint, is likely to be present in soils in most urban areas. A screening level sampling effort demonstrated that Lubbock, Texas, USA, like other cities of its age and size, has areas of elevated soil Pb. This effort was based on soil sampling performed on residential, commercial and thoroughfare properties. The focus of this study was to investigate that component of soil contamination due to combustion of leaded gasoline. Soils were collected from the 1-2 cm surface layer from street-side property borders, well away from buildings that might lead to soil contamination from leaded paint chips. All samples were analyzed for Pb after a 1 M HNO(3) mild extraction to determine the amount of bioavailable Pb. Two of three transects through the city demonstrated significant trends of decreasing Pb concentrations with distance from the city center, paralleling a decrease in developed property age. Peak soil Pb concentrations outside city development was 4.9 +/- 0.6 mg/kg while the median concentration for the city was 35.4 mg/kg. Peak soil Pb concentrations in the city center ranged from 90.0 to 174.0 mg/kg and decreased exponentially to 6.0-9.0 mg/kg at the furthest terminus of the residential transects.

  6. Distribution of tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) along a two-sided altitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Jarić, Davorka; Krcmar, Stjepan

    2009-12-01

    The pattern of horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) distribution and correlations among biodiversity, abundance, abiotic factors, and altitude were determined along a two-sided altitudinal transect. The sampling was carried out on five 3-d periods during tabanid seasonal activity. Linen canopy traps with 1-octen-3-ol as an attractant were used at 20 sampling sites along the transect. The results showed that the qualitative composition of tabanid species can be distinguished by altitude and, especially, between southeastern and northwestern mountain slopes. The peaks of horse fly species richness and abundance were indicated at middle elevations of both slopes, where horse fly distributional groups were overlapping and most rare and infrequent species were sampled. All expected species were sampled according to species accumulation curve. The canonical correlation analysis separated species and sampling sites into three clusters; two were positively correlated with the temperature and the wind but differed in sensitivity toward them, and the third cluster was correlated with the humidity. The horse fly distribution was nonhomogenous, and the distributional patterns were only partially determined by altitude and vegetation. The determining environmental variables were different for each slope: temperature and wind for the southern slope (Mediterranean climatic zone) and humidity for the northern slope (continental climatic zone).

  7. Vegetation Cover based on Eagleson's Ecohydrological Optimality in Northeast China Transect (NECT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Z.; Mo, K.; Qinshu, L.; Zhang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation is considered as the indicator of climate, thus the study of vegetation growth and distribution is of great importance to cognize the ecosystem construction and functions. Vegetation cover is used as an important index to describe vegetation conditions. In Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality, the theoretical optimal vegetation cover M* can be estimated by solving water balance equations. In this study, the theory is applied in the Northeast China Transect (NECT), one of International Geosphere-Biosphere Programs (IGBP) terrestrial transects. The spatial distribution of actual vegetation cover M, which is derived from Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), shows that there is a significant gradient ranging from 1 in the east forests to 0 in the west desert. The result indicates that the theoretical M* fits the actual M well (for forest, M* = 0.822 while M = 0.826; for grassland, M* = 0.353 while M = 0.352; the correlation coefficient between M and M* is 0.81). The reasonable calculated proportion of water balance components further demonstrates the applicability of the ecohydrological optimality theory. M* increases with the increase of LAI, leaf angle, stem fraction and temperature, and decreases with the increase of precipitation amount. This method offers the possibility to analyze the impacts of climate change to vegetation cover quantitatively, thus providing advices for eco-restoration projects.

  8. Concentration and state dependent reductions in corn oil intakes after glossopharyngeal nerve transections in rats.

    PubMed

    Foo, H; Norgren, R

    2014-04-10

    Previous studies indicate a role for the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL) in the detection of dietary fats. The present experiments examined the effects of bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve transections (GLx) on the intake of low (4.8%), moderate (16%), and full-fat (100%) corn oil in non-deprived, food-deprived, and water-deprived rats. The rats had access to oils, 0.3 M sucrose, and water in a gustometer that measured number of licks and latency to the first lick during brief access trials. The behavioral measures were used as indices of the amount consumed and the motivation to ingest, respectively. After baseline intakes had stabilized, the rats received GLx or sham transections (Sham) and were then re-tested. Pre and post-surgery responses were compared to determine the impact of GLx on intake and the motivation to ingest. In non-deprived rats, GLx reduced the intake of 4.8% and 16% oils and decreased the motivation to ingest these oils. In food-deprived rats, GLx prevented increases in the ingestion of 4.8% and 16% oils and in the motivation to ingest these oils. In water-deprived rats, GLx reduced the intake of 100% oil and produced a general decrease in the motivation to consume low, moderate, and full-fat emulsions. These results indicate that GL is partially involved in corn oil intake and suggest an interactive effect of oil concentration with homeostatic state.

  9. Surface ocean carbon dioxide during the Atlantic Meridional Transect (1995-2013); evidence of change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitidis, Vassilis; Brown, Ian; Hardman-Mountford, Nicholas; Lefèvre, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    We present more than 21000 observations of carbon dioxide fugacity in air and seawater (fCO2) along the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) programme for the period 1995-2013. Our dataset consists of 11 southbound and 2 northbound cruises in boreal autumn and spring respectively. Our paper is primarily focused on change in the surface-ocean carbonate system during southbound cruises. We used observed fCO2 and total alkalinity (TA), derived from salinity and temperature, to estimate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH (total scale). Using this approach, estimated pH was consistent with spectrophotometric measurements carried out on 3 of our cruises. The AMT cruises transect a range of biogeographic provinces where surface Chlorophyll a spans two orders of magnitude (mesotrophic high latitudes to oligotrophic subtropical gyres). We found that surface Chlorophyll a was negatively correlated with fCO2, but that the deep chlorophyll maximum was not a controlling variable for fCO2. Over the period 1995-2013 we estimated annual rates of change in: a) sea surface temperature of 0.01 ± 0.05 degrees C, b) fCO2 of 1.44 ± 0.84 micro-atm, c) DIC of 0.87 ± 1.02 micro-mol per kg and d) pH of -0.0013 ± 0.0009 units. Seawater fCO2 increased at the same rate as atmospheric CO2.

  10. Sensitivity of phytoplankton distributions to vertical mixing along a North Atlantic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, L.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Van der Woerd, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Using in situ data of upper ocean vertical mixing along a transect in the North Atlantic and a one-dimensional phytoplankton growth model, we study the sensitivity of the surface phytoplankton concentration to vertical mixing distributions. The study is divided into two parts. In the first part, the model is calibrated to the observations. The optical model parameters are determined from measurements of the light attenuation. The biological parameters are calibrated to three different reference stations with observed vertical profiles of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and the nutrient concentration. In the second part, the sensitivity of the three model calibrations to the vertical mixing is studied. Therefore measured vertical mixing profiles are applied to the model. These mixing profiles are based on the measurements along the transect and are treated as a set of possible mixing situations of the North Atlantic. Results show that shifts in vertical mixing are able to induce a transition from an upper chlorophyll maximum to a deep one and vice versa. Furthermore, a clear correlation between the surface phytoplankton concentration and the mixing induced nutrient flux is found for nutrient-limited cases. This may open up the possibility to extract characteristics of vertical mixing from satellite ocean colour data using data-assimilation methods.

  11. Histological modifications of the rat prostate following transection of somatic and autonomic nerves.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rosaura; Garcia, Luis I; Locia, Jose; Silva, Milagros; Rodriguez, Sara; Perez, Cesar A; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Manzo, Jorge; Toledo, Rebeca; Hernandez, Maria Elena

    2010-06-01

    It is known that hormones influence significantly the prostate tissue. However, we reported that mating induces an increase in androgen receptors, revealing a neural influence on the gland. These data suggested that somatic afferents (scrotal and genitofemoral nerves) and autonomic efferents (pelvic and hypogastric nerves) could regulate the structure of the prostate. Here we assessed the role of these nerves in maintaining the histology of the gland. Hence, afferent or efferent nerves of male rats were transected. Then, the ventral and dorsolateral regions of the prostate were processed for histology. Results showed that afferent transection affects prostate histology. The alveoli area decreased and increased in the ventral and dorsolateral prostate, respectively. The epithelial cell height increased in both regions. Efferent denervation produced dramatic changes in the prostate gland. The tissue lost its configuration, and the epithelium became scattered and almost vanished. Thus, afferent nerves are responsible for spinal processes pertaining to the trophic control of the prostate, activating its autonomic innervation. Hence, our data imply that innervation seems to be synergic with hormones for the healthy maintenance of the prostate. Thus, it is suggested that some prostate pathologies could be due to the failure of the autonomic neural pathways regulating the gland.

  12. Potentially toxic metals in ombrotrophic peat along a 400 km English-Scottish transect.

    PubMed

    Smith, E J; Hughes, S; Lawlor, A J; Lofts, S; Simon, B M; Stevens, P A; Stidson, R T; Tipping, E; Vincent, C D

    2005-07-01

    Four samples of ombrotrophic peat were collected from each of 10 upland locations in a transect from the southern Pennines to the Highland Boundary Fault, a total distance of ca. 400 km. Bulk compositions and other properties were determined. Total contents of Al and heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were determined following digestion with hydrofluoric acid, and concentrations of metals extractable with dilute nitric acid were also measured. Supernatants obtained from aqueous extractions of the peat samples were analysed for pH, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and concentrations of free metal ions (Al(3+), Ni(2+), etc.) were estimated by applying a chemical speciation model. Both total and HNO(3)-extractable metal concentrations varied along the transect, the highest values being found at locations close to industrial and former mining areas. The HNO(3)-extractable soil metal contents of Ni, Cu and Cd were appreciably lower than lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) for toxicity towards microorganisms in acid, organic rich soils. However, the contents of Zn at two locations, and of Pb at five locations exceeded LOECs, suggesting that they may be exerting toxic effects in the peats. Soil solution concentrations of free heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+)) were substantially lower than LOECs for toxicity towards vascular plants, whereas concentrations of Al(3+) were near to toxic levels at two locations.

  13. Panax notoginseng saponins improve recovery after spinal cord transection by upregulating neurotrophic factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Li, Yu; Li, Xuan-peng; Li, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng are neuroprotective, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, we established a rat model of thoracic (T10) spinal cord transection, and injected Panax notoginseng saponins (100 mg/kg) or saline 30 minutes after injury. Locomotor functions were assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale from 1 to 30 days after injury, and immunohistochemistry was carried out in the ventral horn of the spinal cord at 1 and 7 days to determine expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results show that at 7–30 days post injury, the BBB score was higher in rats treated with Panax notoginseng saponins than in those that received saline. Furthermore, at 7 days, more NGF- and BDNF-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the ventral horn of the spinal cord of rats that had received Panax notoginseng saponins than in those that received saline. These results indicate that Panax notoginseng saponins caused an upregulation of NGF and BDNF in rats with spinal cord transection, and improved hindlimb motor function. PMID:26487862

  14. Laparoscopic partial gastric transection and devascularization in order to enhance its flow

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Abente, Federico; Assalia, Ahmad; del Genio, Gianmattia; Rogula, Tomasz; Nocca, David; Ueda, Kazuki; Gagner, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background Esophagogastric fistula following an esophagectomy for cancer is very common. One of the most important factors that leads to its development is gastric isquemia. We hypothesize that laparoscopic gastric devascularization and partial transection is a safe operation that will enhance the vascular flow of the fundus of the stomach. Method Our study included eight pigs. Each animal had two operations. In the first one, a laparoscopic gastric devascularization and mobilization took place. Vascular flow was measured previous to the procedure and immediately after it with a laser doppler (endoscopic probe). After three weeks, a second operation took place. We re-measured the vascular flow and sent a sample of gastric fundus for histopathologic evaluation. Results The gastric fundus showed signs of neovascularization after both macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. These findings correlated with laser doppler measurements. Conclusion Laparoscopic gastric devascularization and partial transection is a safe procedure that increases the vascular flow of the stomach in a three week period. This finding can have a positive impact in terms of decreasing fistula formation. PMID:18606017

  15. Thermal acclimation of photosynthesis: a comparison of boreal and temperate tree species along a latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Dylan N; Kruger, Eric L

    2010-06-01

    Common gardens were established along a approximately 900 km latitudinal transect to examine factors limiting geographical distributions of boreal and temperate tree species in eastern North America. Boreal representatives were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), while temperate species were eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr ex. Marsh var. deltoides) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). The species were compared with respect to adjustments of leaf photosynthetic metabolism along the transect, with emphasis on temperature sensitivities of the maximum rate of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation (E(V)) and regeneration (E(J)). During leaf development, the average air temperature (T(growth)) differed between the coolest and warmest gardens by 12 degrees C. Evidence of photosynthetic thermal acclimation (metabolic shifts compensating for differences in T(growth)) was generally lacking in all species. Namely, neither E(V) nor E(J) was positively related to T(growth). Correspondingly, the optimum temperature (T(opt)) of ambient photosynthesis (A(sat)) did not vary significantly with T(growth). Modest variation in T(opt) was explained by the combination of E(V) plus the slope and curvature of the parabolic temperature response of mesophyll conductance (g(m)). All in all, species differed little in photosynthetic responses to climate. Furthermore, the adaptive importance of photosynthetic thermal acclimation was overshadowed by g(m)'s influence on A(sat)'s temperature response.

  16. Hepatic cysticercosis: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina; Kumar, Praveen; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Anand, Rama

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic cysticercosis is a very rare entity; only four cases have been reported to date. High-resolution ultrasonography of the abdomen is the initial and most reliable modality for evaluation of hepatic cysticercosis. Medical therapy is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of hepatic cysticercosis in a 28-year-old male who presented with right upper quadrant pain, fever, and jaundice. The article also describes the imaging patterns of hepatic cysticercosis based on different stages of evolution.

  17. Warfare-related secondary anterior cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza; Ebrahimi, Azin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cranial bone defects secondary to global war cranial defects pose a unique reconstructive challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of alloplastic reconstructions of cranial bone with titanium mesh and fat graft after warfare-related cranial trauma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients at the plastic and reconstructive surgery ward of our hospital underwent anterior cranioplasty with titanium mesh with or without fat grafts from lower abdominal wall. Inclusion criteria were anterior cranial bone defect due to warfare injuries, the mean age of these patients was 31 years (range, 23–48 years). Ninety-five percent were male, and 5% were female. Average follow-up was 12 months. Fat grafts were used to help obliterate endocranial dead spaces. Results: Twenty-five patients (71%) had more than 0.5 cm dead space under cranial defects, and we used fat graft under the titanium mesh. The majority groups of patients (80%) were injured as a result of previous explosive device blasts with or without neurosurgical procedures in the past. The average patient age was 31 years, and 95% of patients were male. The mean anterior cranial defect size was 6 cm × 8 cm, and there were no wound infection or flap necrosis after operations. Conclusion: We recommend this procedure (titanium mesh with or without fat graft) for warfare injured cranial defects in secondary anterior cranial reconstructions. Fat grafts eliminates dead space and reduce secondary complications. PMID:27563609

  18. Transection of the deep metatarsal transverse ligament in Morton's neuroma surgery does not increase risk of splayfoot development.

    PubMed

    Kasparek, Maximilian; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Although operative excision is regarded as the treatment of choice in Morton's neuroma, it remains unclear whether transection of deep transverse metatarsal ligament (DTML) is a risk for metatarsal splaying and whether simultaneous surgery in adjacent intermetatarsal spaces is a risk for osteonecrosis of the adjacent metatarsals. Fifty-seven feet in 47 patients had excision of a Morton's neuroma, with a mean follow-up of 15.3 years. Feet were categorised depending upon whether the DTML was or was not divided. Pre-operative and post-operative intermetatarsal angles were measured on standardised weightbearing radiographs and inspected for evidence of osteonecrosis. Comparison of pre- and post-operative intermetatarsal angles in patients with surgery in the second web space showed no significant increase (transected p = 0.659, preserved p = 0.142). In regards to comparison of pre- and post-operative radiographic intermetatarsal angles in patients with surgery in the third web space, statistical analysis also did not show a significance increase (transected p = 0.240, preserved p = 0.078). Radiological assessment showed no signs of osteonecrosis of metatarsal heads, not even in cases of double-space surgery. In conclusion, DTML transection does not increase the intermetatarsal angle or the risk of splayfoot development. Moreover, transection is recommended due to an enhanced overview during surgery and better clinical outcome. Our data could also prove that double-space surgery is not a risk for avascular osteonecrosis.

  19. Cross-continental comparison of the functional composition and carbon allocation of two altitudinal forest transects in Ecuador and Rwanda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, Hans; Bauters, Marijn; Bruneel, Stijn; Demol, Miro; Taveirne, Cys; Van Der Heyden, Dries; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Tropical forests are key actors in the global carbon cycle. Predicting future responses of these forests to global change is challenging, but important for global climate models. However, our current understanding of such responses is limited, due to the complexity of forest ecosystems and the slow dynamics that inherently form these systems. Our understanding of ecosystem ecology and functioning could greatly benefit from experimental setups including strong environmental gradients in the tropics, as found on altitudinal transects. We setup two such transects in both South-America and Central Africa, focussing on shifts in carbon allocation, forest structure, nutrient cycling and functional composition. The Ecuadorian transect has 16 plots (40 by 40 m) and ranges from 400 to 3000 m.a.s.l., and the Rwandan transect has 20 plots (40 by 40 m) from 1500 to 3000 m.a.s.l. All plots were inventoried and canopy, litter and soil were extensively sampled. By a cross-continental comparison of both transects, we will gain insight in how different or alike both tropical forests biomes are in their responses, and how universal the observed altitudinal adaption mechanisms are. This could provide us with vital information of the ecological responses of both biomes to future global change scenarios. Additionally, comparison of nutrient shifts and trait-based functional composition allows us to compare the biogeochemical cycles of African and South-American tropical forests.

  20. Sustained Delivery of Dibutyryl Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate to the Transected Spinal Cord Via Oligo [(Polyethylene Glycol) Fumarate] Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Gemma E.; Knight, Andrew M.; Madigan, Nicolas N.; Gross, LouAnn; Chen, BingKun; Giraldo, Catalina Vallejo; Seo, Seungmae; Nesbitt, Jarred J.; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the use of oligo [(polyethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF) hydrogel scaffolds as vehicles for sustained delivery of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) to the transected spinal cord. dbcAMP was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres, which were embedded within the scaffolds architecture. Functionality of the released dbcAMP was assessed using neurite outgrowth assays in PC12 cells and by delivery to the transected spinal cord within OPF seven channel scaffolds, which had been loaded with Schwann cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our results showed that encapsulation of dbcAMP in microspheres lead to prolonged release and continued functionality in vitro. These microspheres were then successfully incorporated into OPF scaffolds and implanted in the transected thoracic spinal cord. Sustained delivery of dbcAMP inhibited axonal regeneration in the presence of Schwann cells but rescued MSC-induced inhibition of axonal regeneration. dbcAMP was also shown to reduce capillary formation in the presence of MSCs, which was coupled with significant functional improvements. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating PLGA microsphere technology for spinal cord transection studies. It represents a novel sustained delivery mechanism within the transected spinal cord and provides a platform for potential delivery of other therapeutic agents. PMID:21198413

  1. Chromium-induced toxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Lança, Sara; Alves, Amanda; Vieira, Ana Isabel; Barata, José; de Freitas, João; de Carvalho, Alvaro

    2002-12-01

    A clinical case of acute hepatitis in a patient undergoing an alternative medicine weight-reduction regimen is reported. Chromium polynicotinate had been ingested in combination with vegetable extracts over a 5-month period. Liver biopsy was compatible with toxic hepatitis and greatly elevated hepatic chromium levels were found (>10x normal). The clinical picture regressed following suspension of the medication.

  2. Spontaneous healing of retroperitoneal chylous leakage following anterior lumbar spinal surgery: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Su, I-Chang

    2007-01-01

    Cisterna chyli is prone to injury in any retroperitoneal surgery. However, retroperitoneal chylous leakage is a rare complication after anterior spinal surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only ten cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of a 49-year-old man who had lumbar metastasis and associated radiculopathy. He had transient retroperitoneal chylous leakage after anterior tumor decompression, interbody bony fusion, and instrumental fixation from L2 to L4. The leakage stopped spontaneously after we temporarily clamped the drain tube. Intraperitoneal ascites accumulation developed thereafter due to nutritional loss and impaired hepatic reserves. We gathered ten reported cases of chylous leak after anterior thoracolumbar or lumbar spinal surgery, and categorized all these cases into two groups, depending on the integrity of diaphragm. Six patients received anterior spinal surgery without diaphragm splitting. Postoperative chylous leak stopped after conservative treatment. Another five cases received diaphragm splitting in the interim of anterior spinal surgery. Chylous leakage stopped spontaneously in four patients. The remaining one had a chylothorax secondary to postop chyloretroperitoneum. It was resolved only after surgical intervention. In view of these cases, all the chylous leakage could be spontaneously closed without complications, except for one who had a secondary chylothorax and required thoracic duct ligation and chemopleurodesis. We conclude that intraoperative diaphragm splitting or incision does not increase the risk of secondary chylothorax if it was closed tightly at the end of the surgery and the chest tube drainage properly done. PMID:17273839

  3. Spontaneous healing of retroperitoneal chylous leakage following anterior lumbar spinal surgery: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Su, I-Chang; Chen, Chang-Mu

    2007-12-01

    Cisterna chyli is prone to injury in any retroperitoneal surgery. However, retroperitoneal chylous leakage is a rare complication after anterior spinal surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only ten cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of a 49-year-old man who had lumbar metastasis and associated radiculopathy. He had transient retroperitoneal chylous leakage after anterior tumor decompression, interbody bony fusion, and instrumental fixation from L2 to L4. The leakage stopped spontaneously after we temporarily clamped the drain tube. Intraperitoneal ascites accumulation developed thereafter due to nutritional loss and impaired hepatic reserves. We gathered ten reported cases of chylous leak after anterior thoracolumbar or lumbar spinal surgery, and categorized all these cases into two groups, depending on the integrity of diaphragm. Six patients received anterior spinal surgery without diaphragm splitting. Postoperative chylous leak stopped after conservative treatment. Another five cases received diaphragm splitting in the interim of anterior spinal surgery. Chylous leakage stopped spontaneously in four patients. The remaining one had a chylothorax secondary to postop chyloretroperitoneum. It was resolved only after surgical intervention. In view of these cases, all the chylous leakage could be spontaneously closed without complications, except for one who had a secondary chylothorax and required thoracic duct ligation and chemopleurodesis. We conclude that intraoperative diaphragm splitting or incision does not increase the risk of secondary chylothorax if it was closed tightly at the end of the surgery and the chest tube drainage properly done.

  4. Neonatal hepatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eve A

    2003-10-01

    Conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia in an infant indicates neonatal liver disease. This neonatal hepatitis syndrome has numerous possible causes, classified as infective, anatomic/structural, metabolic, genetic, neoplastic, vascular, toxic, immune and idiopathic. Any infant who is jaundiced at 2-4 weeks old needs to have the serum conjugated bilirubin measured, even if he/she looks otherwise well. If conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia is present, a methodical and comprehensive diagnostic investigation should be performed. Early diagnosis is critical for the best outcome. In particular, palliative surgery for extrahepatic biliary atresia has the best chance of success if performed before the infant is 8 weeks old. Definitive treatments available for many causes of neonatal hepatitis syndrome should be started as soon as possible. Alternatively, liver transplantation may be life saving. Supportive care, especially with attention to nutritional needs, is important for all infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome.

  5. Diagnosis of hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong Eun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problems leading to severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV is a circular, partly double-stranded DNA virus with various serological markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM and IgG, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe. It is transmitted by sexual, parenteral and vertical route. One significant method to diminish the burden of this disease is timely diagnosis of acute, chronic and occult cases of HBV. First step of HBV diagnosis is achieved by using serological markers for detecting antigens and antibodies. In order to verify first step of diagnosis, to quantify viral load and to identify genotypes, quantitative or qualitative molecular tests are used. In this article, the serological and molecular tests for diagnosis of HBV infection will be reviewed. PMID:27761442

  6. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinbo; Hu, Zhijian; Wu, Junwei; Bai, Lishan; Chai, Xinqun

    2011-11-19

    Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is rare and poses a challenge for diagnosis and management. We presented a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in a 53-year-old female with a complaint of right upper abdominal pain. Computer tomography scans revealed a hypervascular mass in segment 4 of the liver. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed a carcinoid tumor. No other lesions were found by the radiological investigations. Surgery resection was performed and histopathological examination revealed a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Three years later, recurrence was found and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. After transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, the patient has been free of symptom and had no radiological disease progression for over 6 months. Surgical resection combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is effective to offer excellent palliation.

  7. Alcoholic hepatitis: current management.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.

  8. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  9. Adipocytokines and Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Neeraj K.; Anania, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome pose significant risk for progression of many types of chronic illnesses, including liver disease. Hormones released from adipocytes, adipocytokines, associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, have been shown to control hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the final common pathway that can result in cirrhosis, and can ultimately require liver transplantation. Initially, two key adipocytokines, leptin and adiponectin, appeared to control many fundamental aspects of the cell and molecular biology related to hepatic fibrosis and its resolution. Leptin appears to act as a profibrogenic molecule while adiponectin possesses strong-anti-fibrotic properties. In this review, we emphasize pertinent data associated with these, and recently discovered, adipocytokines that may drive or halt the fibrogenic response in the liver. PMID:25656826

  10. The Anterior Branch of the Left Inferior Phrenic Artery Arising from the Right Inferior Phrenic Artery: An Angiographic and CT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hieda, Masashi Toyota, Naoyuki; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Masaki; Horiguchi, Jun; Ito, Katsuhide

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the frequency and anatomical pattern of the anterior branch of the left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA) arising from the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA). Angiography of the RIPA for patients (n = 140) with hepatic malignancy was retrospectively reviewed. The frequency at which the anterior branch of the LIPA arose from the RIPA was 14.3% (20 of 140 patients [pts]). Among the three branches that may arise from the RIPA in these cases (the anterior branch of the LIPA and the anterior and posterior branches of the RIPA), the anterior branch of the LIPA was the first branch of the RIPA in 9 of 20 pts (45%), and the posterior branch of the RIPA in 11 of 20 pts (55%). The anterior branch of the LIPA ran along the ventral side of the esophagus or stomach and supplied the esophagogastric region and dome of the left diaphragm in all cases. In conclusion, the anterior branch of the LIPA arises from the RIPA at a comparatively high frequency. In embolization of the RIPA, to effectively treat and avoid possible complications, interventionalists should be aware of this potential variant anatomy.

  11. Comparison of Methods for the Reconstruction of the Hepatic Artery in Mouse Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinjing; Li, Song; Lv, Xiangwei; Wang, Liming; Liu, Qinlong

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouse model of arterialized orthotopic liver transplantation (AOLT) has played an important role in biomedical research. The available methods of sutured anastomosis for reconstruction of the hepatic artery are complicated, resulting in a high incidence of complications and failure. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a new model of AOLT in mice. Materials and methods Male inbred C57BL/6 mice were used in this study. A continuous suture approach was applied to connect the suprahepatic inferior vena cava (SHVC). The portal vein and infrahepatic inferior vena cava (IHVC) were connected according to the "two-cuff" method. The common bile duct was connected by a biliary stent. We used the stent (G3 group) or aortic trunk (G2 group) to reconstruct the hepatic artery. The patency of the hepatic artery was verified by transecting the artery near the graft after one week. The survival rate of the recipients and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, hepatic pathologic alterations, apoptosis and necrosis were observed at one week postoperatively. Results The patency of the hepatic artery was verified in eight of ten mice in G3 and in six of ten mice in G2. The 7-day survival rate, extents of necrosis and apoptosis, and TGF-β levels were not significantly different among the three groups (P>0.05). However, the serum ALT levels and operation time were markedly lower in G3 compared with G2 or G1 (both P<0.05). Conclusions Reconstruction of the hepatic artery using a stent can be performed quickly with a high rate of patency. This model simplifies hepatic artery anastomosis and should be promoted in the field of biomedical research. PMID:26207367

  12. Biliary obstruction due to a huge simple hepatic cyst treated with laparoscopic resection.

    PubMed

    Kaneya, Yohei; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hirakata, Atsushi; Matsushita, Akira; Suzuki, Seiji; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Sasajima, Koji; Uchida, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Most hepatic cysts are asymptomatic, but complications occasionally occur. We describe a patient with biliary obstruction due to a huge simple hepatic cyst treated with laparoscopic resection. A 60-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of a nontender mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed the following: serum total bilirubin, 0.6 mg/dL; serum aspartate aminotransferase, 100 IU/L; serum alanine aminotransferase, 78 IU/L; serum alkaline phosphatase, 521 IU/L; and serum gamma glutamic transpeptidase, 298 IU/L. Abdominal computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a huge hepatic cyst, 13 cm in diameter, at the hepatic hilum, accompanied by dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct and obstruction of the common bile duct. We diagnosed biliary obstruction due to a huge hepatic cyst at the hepatic hilum, and laparoscopic surgery was performed. A huge hepatic cyst was seen at the hepatic hilum. After needle puncture of the huge cyst, the anterior wall of the cyst was unroofed, and cholecystectomy was done. Intraoperative cholangiography through a cystic duct revealed stenosis of the duct. Subsequent decapsulation of the cyst was performed in front of the common bile duct. After this procedure, cholangiography revealed that the stenosis of the common bile duct had resolved. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the hepatic cyst was benign. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the results of liver function tests normalized. The patient was discharged 7 days after operation. Computed tomography 3 months after operation revealed disappearance of the hepatic cyst and no dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct.

  13. Surgical anatomy of the anterior clinoid process.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Le, Phuong; Natori, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2004-04-01

    We studied the surgical anatomy of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) and its adjacent structures in cadaver heads. We paid special attention to the anatomical relationships between the ACP and adjacent structures to determine the surgical landmarks for safe anterior clinoidectomy. Thirty-five cadaver heads were dissected and the ACP regions were examined in 55 skull sides. We observed that in eight sides the ACP had been pneumatized from the sphenoid sinus. The caroticoclinoid foramen was revealed in only eight sides. The extra-ocular nerves ran forward to the superior orbital fissure at the inferolateral aspect of the ACP, with the oculomotor nerve being closest. The posterolateral area of the carotico-oculomotor membrane was thin and incomplete in nine sides. The study clarified the anatomical relationship between the ACP and its surrounding structures, and identified the major variations experienced. We used these to identify anatomical landmarks to assist the surgeon in the planning of a safe and effective anterior clinoidectomy.

  14. Serratus anterior paralysis in the young athlete.

    PubMed

    Gregg, J R; Labosky, D; Harty, M; Lotke, P; Ecker, M; DiStefano, V; Das, M

    1979-09-01

    Ten cases of isolated, complete paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle were diagnosed in young athletes during a three-year period. One patient had recurrent partial paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle, the first such case reported. From studies on cadavera and clinical observations, we concluded that paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle results from a traction injury to the long thoracic nerve of Bell. Since full recovery usually occurs in an average of nine months, surgical methods of treatment should be reserved for patients in whom function fails to return after a two-year period. Non-strenuous use of the involved extremity with avoidance of the precipitating activity, followed by exercises designed to maintain the range of motion of the shoulder and to increase the strength of associated muscles, is advocated for treatment of acute or repetitive injuries to the long thoracic nerve of Bell.

  15. Anterior chamber collapse syndrome in a koala.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Vl; Naranjo, C; Bernays, Me

    2014-05-01

    Anterior chamber collapse syndrome has been recognised in various species and is associated with early-life ocular disease or trauma. It is important to differentiate this acquired condition from a congenital malformation. An adult female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) was referred for assessment of buphthalmos and severe keratitis of the right eye. The degree of keratitis obstructed examination of intraocular structures. Enucleation of the affected eye was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was anterior chamber collapse syndrome and secondary glaucoma. This case contributes to the limited information available in the literature on anterior chamber collapse syndrome, a disease unique in having secondary glaucoma with minimal or no inflammation. The case also expands the literature available on ocular disease in koalas. More specifically, this is the only reported case of glaucoma, of any aetiology, in the koala. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Silicone oil in the anterior chamber.

    PubMed

    Gao, R L; Neubauer, L; Tang, S; Kampik, A

    1989-01-01

    A total of 42 cases (42 eyes) with silicone oil in the anterior chamber after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and after silicone oil injection into the vitreous cavity (SIV) were analyzed. The main complications caused by silicone oil were corneal endothelial cell damage and secondary glaucoma. Specular microscopy showed decreased cell density, apparent pleomorphism of endothelial cells, and increased corneal thickness. In some cases, edematous and necrotic endothelial cells were found. The characteristic optical artifacts resulting from silicone oil coming into contact with the endothelium, such as a bright reflex, reversed pattern of illumination, and interference fringes, were also observed. There was a definite correlation between elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and the presence of silicone oil in the anterior chamber; the IOP dropped significantly on removal of the oil. The treatment and prevention of conditions involving silicone oil in the anterior chamber are briefly discussed.

  17. [Amoxicillin-induced hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Oxlund, Jakob; Ferguson, Alan Hamilton

    2011-06-27

    Amoxicillin with and without clavulanic acid is a widely used antibiotic in adults and children alike. The drug is used prophylactically as well as therapeutically. In Denmark, it has not been described that amoxicillin alone can lead to hepatitis. In literature often referenced by Danish physicians (medicin.dk and Lægemiddelkataloget), hepatotoxicity is not listed as a side effect. However, in the present case, a 61 year-old male who suffered a tick bite and was treated prophylactically with amoxicillin without clavulanic acid presented with pharmacologically induced hepatitis 20 days after treatment.

  18. Fulminant viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Saumya; Chowdhury, Raiyan; Ye, Carrie; Karvellas, Constantine J

    2013-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition wherein the previously healthy liver rapidly deteriorates, resulting in jaundice, encephalopathy, and coagulopathy. There are approximately 2000 cases per year of ALF in the United States. Viral causes (fulminant viral hepatitis [FVH]) are the predominant cause of ALF in developing countries. Given the ease of spread of viral hepatitis and the high morbidity and mortality associated with ALF, a systematic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of FVH is required. In this review, the authors describe the viral causes of ALF and review the intensive care unit management of patients with FVH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Retrograde ejaculation after anterior lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Emily M; McBeth, Zachary L; Henry, Sarah E; Cooley, Robert; Burger, Evalina L; Cain, Christopher M J; Patel, Vikas V

    2012-09-15

    A retrospective cohort study. To compare the incidence of retrograde ejaculation (RE) after anterior lumbar spine surgery with disc replacement versus fusion with the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP). Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has become a popular choice for treating a number of pathologies, largely because it preserves the posterior paravertebral muscles and ligaments. Despite these advantages, the anterior approach is also associated with various complications, one of which is RE. A recent study has questioned whether the risk of RE is increased by the use of BMP in ALIF procedures rather than by the approach alone. We conducted a retrospective review of all male patients who received ALIF using BMP or artificial disc replacement (ADR) on at least the L5-S1 level between 2004 and 2011. Medical records were evaluated for the occurrence of RE, and patients were contacted via the phone to obtain current information. The incidence of RE was then compared between the 2 anterior lumbar surgery procedures. Of the 95 cases of anterior surgery including L5-S1, 54 patients underwent ALIF with BMP (56.8%) and 41 patients were treated with ADR (43.2%). Postoperative RE occurred in 4 of the 54 ALIF patients (7.4%) and in 4 of the 41 ADR patients (9.8%). The incidence of RE was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.7226). At latest follow-up, 1 ALIF and 1 ADR patient reported resolution of the RE. This study found that RE occurred at a similar rate in patients treated with ADR and ALIF with BMP. The overall rate of RE after retroperitoneal anterior lumbar surgery was higher than expected, which underscores the importance of counseling patients about this risk and specifically questioning patients about the symptoms of RE at postoperative visits.

  20. The skewer technique for anterior capsule remnants.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S D; McCarthy, E F

    1984-07-01

    A technique has been developed which enables the removal of a narrow, long remnant of anterior capsule which is connected inferiorly and inadvertently left during planned extracapsular cataract surgery. The technique is especially useful when the wound has already been partly or completely closed. A partial thickness incision is made at the limbus and a short 30-gauge needle is inserted through the incision into the anterior chamber. The needle then skewers the remnant, tearing it along its edge. The end of the capsular remnant is put on stretch by grasping its edge with a small forceps. This results in a transverse tear, with amputation of the remnant.

  1. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Reshma; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Deshpande, Shrikant; Patkar, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema. Here we present a case of anterior ischemic optic neurapathy associated with dengue fever. PMID:27843231

  2. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Reshma; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Deshpande, Shrikant; Patkar, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema. Here we present a case of anterior ischemic optic neurapathy associated with dengue fever.

  3. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma Arising From the Anterior Mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiyoshi; Fumimoto, Satoshi; Fukada, Takehisa; Ichihashi, Yoshio; Ochi, Kaoru; Satomi, Hidetoshi; Morita, Takuya; Hanaoka, Nobuharu; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Katsumata, Takahiro

    2017-05-01

    Plasmacytomas are a localized proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow and soft tissue. Extramedullary plasmacytomas are rare and typically solitary plasma cell neoplasms originating from extraosseous organs and tissues. A 31-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a rapidly growing abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram. Chest computed tomography showed that the lesion was located in the anterior mediastinum. She underwent surgery, and the tumor was diagnosed as an extramedullary plasmacytoma. She remains well 2 years postoperatively without recurrence. An extremely rare case of an anterior mediastinal extramedullary plasmacytoma is presented. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptome response to infraorbital nerve transection in the gonadally intact male rat barrel cortex: RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Orczyk, John J; Sethia, Rishabh; Doster, Dominique; Garraghty, Preston E

    2016-01-01

    The effects of infraorbital nerve (ION) transection on gene expression in the adult male rat barrel cortex were investigated using RNA sequencing. After a 24-hour survival duration, 98 genes were differentially regulated by ION transection. Differentially expressed genes suggest changes in neuronal activity, excitability, and morphology. The production of mRNA for neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BNDF), was decreased following ION transection. Several potassium channels showed decreased mRNA production, whereas a sodium channel (Na(V)β4) associated with burst firing showed increased mRNA production. The results may have important implications for phantom-limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. Future experiments should determine the extent to which changes in RNA result in changes in protein expression, in addition to utilizing laser capture microdissection techniques to differentiate between neuronal and glial cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cross-continental comparison of the functional composition and carbon allocation of two altitudinal forest transects in Ecuador and Rwanda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauters, Marijn; Bruneel, Stijn; Demol, Miro; Taveirne, Cys; Van Der Heyden, Dries; Boeckx, Pascal; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Cizungu, Landry; Verbeeck, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are key actors in the global carbon cycle. Predicting future responses of these forests to global change is challenging, but important for global climate models. However, our current understanding of such responses is limited, due to the complexity of forest ecosystems and the slow dynamics that inherently form these systems. Our understanding of ecosystem ecology and functioning could greatly benefit from experimental setups including strong environmental gradients in the tropics, as found on altitudinal transects. We setup two such transects in both South-America and Africa, focussing on shifts in carbon allocation, forest structure and functional composition. By a cross-continental comparison of both transects, we will gain insight in how different or alike both tropical forests biomes are in their responses, and how universal the observed adaption mechanisms are.

  6. Expanding biological data standards development processes for US IOOS: visual line transect observing community for mammal, bird, and turtle data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fornwall, M.; Gisiner, R.; Simmons, S. E.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Canonico, G.; Halpin, P.; Goldstein, P.; Fitch, R.; Weise, M.; Cyr, N.; Palka, D.; Price, J.; Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    The US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has recently adopted standards for biological core variables in collaboration with the US Geological Survey/Ocean Biogeographic Information System (USGS/OBIS-USA) and other federal and non-federal partners. In this Community White Paper (CWP) we provide a process to bring into IOOS a rich new source of biological observing data, visual line transect surveys, and to establish quality data standards for visual line transect observations, an important source of at-sea bird, turtle and marine mammal observation data. The processes developed through this exercise will be useful for other similar biogeographic observing efforts, such as passive acoustic point and line transect observations, tagged animal data, and mark-recapture (photo-identification) methods. Furthermore, we suggest that the processes developed through this exercise will serve as a catalyst for broadening involvement by the larger marine biological data community within the goals and processes of IOOS.

  7. Hepatitis A transmitted by food.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Anthony E

    2004-03-01

    Hepatitis A is caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route, either by direct contact with an HAV-infected person or by ingestion of HAV-contaminated food or water. Foodborne or waterborne hepatitis A outbreaks are relatively uncommon in the United States. However, food handlers with hepatitis A are frequently identified, and evaluation of the need for immunoprophylaxis and implementation of control measures are a considerable burden on public health resources. In addition, HAV-contaminated food may be the source of hepatitis A for an unknown proportion of persons whose source of infection is not identified.

  8. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F. B.; Luzar, Jeffrey B.; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11–40% of village and control sites or on 29–72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  9. The Basin-and-Range Province (BRP): a key GeoFrame transect in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Bruhn, R. L.; Miller, E. L.; Lowry, A. R.; Smith, R. B.; Lerch, D.; Gashawbeza, E.; Colgan, J.; Keranen, K.

    2006-12-01

    GeoFrame seeks to provide an integrated geologic framework for EarthScope in order to better understand the "construction, stabilization, and modification of the North American continent through time", with emphasis on integration of geologic time and history with EarthScope imaging of the crust and mantle. The BRP provides an excellent region to tackle these problems, where continental crust constructed and thickened by a series of Phanerozoic events is currently being modified within the archetypal broad continental rift. Geologic and geochronologic studies across the BRP are of sufficient resolution to enable the mapping of discrete domains with distinct magmatic and extensional histories. These distinct domains are obvious targets for EarthScope imaging, to answer whether they correspond to regions of different lithospheric composition (from seismic P- and S-velocity), structure (from seismic reflectivity and receiver-function converters) and rheology (from integrated gravity, thermal and compositional studies) or represent only surficial complexities. We offer our detailed BRP geophysical transect in progress as a possible model for other GeoFrame investigations. The first controlled-source FlexArray experiment, recorded in 2004 across the NW margin of the BRP from northeastern California to north-central Nevada, was a multi-scale imaging experiment designed to answer questions arising from geologic and geochronologic studies. Results include: 1) vibroseis images of the active Surprise Valley fault to 5 km depth that help constrain rate of fault slip along the western boundary of the BRP; 2) strong lateral velocity and density contrasts ascribed to pre-extensional crustal architecture, including the Sierra Nevada batholith across NW Nevada; 3) lower crust with homogeneous P-wave velocity, Vp/Vs ratio consistent with significant mafic intrusion, and crustal thickness changes compatible with geologic estimates of extension. The many regional-scale challenges

  10. A Wide-Angle Seismic Reflection Transect across the Moroccan Atlas (SIMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.; Teixell, A.; Gallart, J.; Levander, A.; Ayarza, P.; Kchikach, A.; Amrhar, M.; Charroud, M.

    2010-12-01

    The plate boundary between Africa and Europe is a diffuse feature that includes a very young intra-continental Cenozoic orogenic belt, the Atlas Orogen. The Atlas is characterized by a topographic relief which can reach 4000 m; less than 20% shortening has been reported by geologic studies. The small amount of shortening does not explain the high topographic relief. Furthermore, potential field geophysical studies and previous low resolution refraction experiments report a maximum crustal thickness of 40 km. These suggesting that the orogen is out of isostatic equilibrium and that asthenospheric upwelling is needed to support the mountain load. A 700 km long deep seismic wide-angle reflection transect has been acquired by an international team to constrain the crustal thickness, topography of the Moho and the seismic velocity structure. The north-south oriented transect extends from the Sahara Desert south of Merzouga near the Algeria border, to Ceuta at the Gibraltar arc (on the north coast of Morocco) crossing the High and Middle Atlas and the Rif mountain ranges. Seismic energy released at 6 shot points generated by detonating approximately, 1 TM of explosives was recorded by ~ 900 Reftek-125a (TEXAN) seismic recorders from the IRIS-PASSCAL pool. The seismic stations were deployed with an average station spacing of 650-750 m. The 6 shot points were located within the southern part of the transect with a shot spacing of ~60-70 km. The preliminary analysis of this high resolution data reveals: a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio; and interpreted PmP reflected phase which samples the crust mantle boundary. SIMA is one component of the PICASSO research initiative. This multinational research programme that includes a series of multi-disciplinary geophysical projects (The Spanish TopoIberia and Siberia Projects; the US-Spanish-Irish PICASSO project, with participation from Germany and France). These studies are designed to develop new understanding of the

  11. Upper Cretaceous molluscan record along a transect from Virden, New Mexico, to Del Rio, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobban, W.A.; Hook, S.C.; McKinney, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Updated age assignments and new collections of molluscan fossils from lower Cenomanian through upper Campanian strata in Texas permit a much refined biostratigraphic correlation with the rocks of New Mexico and the Western Interior. Generic names of many Late Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from Texas are updated to permit this correlation. Strata correlated in the west-to-east transect include the lower Cenomanian Beartooth Quartzite and Sarten Sandstone of southwest New Mexico, and the Eagle Mountains Formation, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and. basal beds of the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations of the Texas-Mexico border area. Middle Cenomanian strata are lacking in southwestern New Mexico but are present in the lower parts of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas Formations in southwest Texas. Upper Cenomanian and lower Turonian rocks are present at many localities in New Mexico and Texas in the Mancos Shale and Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. Middle Turonian and younger rocks seem to be entirely nonmarine in southwestern New Mexico, but they are marine in the Rio Grande area in the Chispa. Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. The upper part of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas contain late Turonian fossils. Rocks of Coniacian and Santonian age are present high in the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations, and in the lower part of the Austin. The San Carlos, Aguja, Pen, and Austin Formations contain fossils of Campanian age. Fossils representing at least 38 Upper Cretaceous ammonite zones are present along the transect. Collections made in recent years in southwestern New Mexico and at Sierra de Cristo Rey just west of downtown El Paso, Texas, have been well treated and do not need revision. Taxonomic names and zonations published in the pre-1970 literature on the Rio Grande area of Texas have been updated. New fossil collections from the Big Bend National Park, Texas, allow for a much refined correlation

  12. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, José M V; Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F B; Luzar, Jeffrey B; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M; Silvius, Kirsten M

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11-40% of village and control sites or on 29-72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  13. Picoplankton community structure on the Atlantic Meridional Transect: a comparison between seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Sleigh, Michael A.; Burkill, Peter H.; Leakey, Raymond J. G.

    2000-04-01

    Samples collected from 10 depths at 25 stations in September-October 1996 and 12 depths at 28 stations in April-May 1997 on an Atlantic Meridional Transect between the British Isles and the Falkland Islands were analysed by flow cytometry to determine the numbers and biomass of four categories of picoplankton: Prochlorococcus spp, Synechococcus spp, picoeukaryotic phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria. The composition of the picoplankton communities confirmed earlier findings ( Zubkov, Sleigh, Tarran, Burkill & Leakey, 1998) about distinctive regions along the transect and indicated that the stations should be grouped into five provinces: northern temperate, northern Atlantic gyre, equatorial, southern Atlantic gyre and southern temperate, with an intrusion of upwelling water off the coast of Mauritania between the northern Atlantic gyre and equatorial waters. Prochlorococcus was the most numerous phototrophic organism in waters of both northern and southern gyres and in the equatorial region, at concentrations in excess of 0.1×10 6ml -1; it also dominated plant biomass in the gyres, but the biomass of the larger picoeukaryotic algae equalled that of Prochlorococcus in the equatorial region; higher standing stocks of both Prochlorococcus and picoeukaryotes were present in spring than in autumn in waters of both gyres. In temperate waters at both ends of the transect the numbers and biomass of picoeukaryotes and, more locally, of Synechococcus increased, and the Synechococcus, particularly, were more numerous in spring than in autumn. There was a pronounced southward shift of the main populations of both Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus in April-May in comparison to those of September-October, associated with seasonal changes in solar radiation, the abundance of Prochlorococcus dropping sharply near the 17°C contour, while Synechococcus was still present at temperatures below 10°C. Picoeukaryotes were more tolerant of low temperatures and lower light levels

  14. Charactering Spatial Variability of Soil Properties Measured on a Transect by Multifractal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz González, A.; Valcarcel Armesto, M.; Dafonte Dafonte, J.; Mirás Avalos, J. M.; da Silva Días, R.; Marinho, M. A.; de Abreu, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial variability of soils in landscapes has been studied in different ways, for example in terms of soil survey reliability, soil development and erosive processes. Due to the advent of site-specific management in the 1990s, there is now an increasing interest in measuring the amount of soil variability within a field. Methods for assessing spatial variability also include use of transect techniques to sample soil sequences. On the other hand, over the past few decades fractal and multifractal models have been applied in the evaluation of the spatial variability of soil attributes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of general soil properties and extractable nutrients measured along a transect by means of multifractal analysis. The field work was conducted at the experimental farm of CIAM located in Mabegondo, A Coruña, Spain on a gently slope. The soil was loamy textured. Soil samples were taken at 66 points located 0.8 m apart along a transect of 52 m. Samples were analyzed for pH, organic matter content (OM), exchangeable K, Mg and Ca, exchangeable H+Al, and DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. In addition, sum of bases (SB), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and percent base saturation (V) were calculated from exchangeable cations. For all the studied statistical moments the logarithm of the normalized measures varied linearly (r2 > 0.87) with the logarithm of the measurement scale, meaning that the distribution of the measure could be considered as a fractal. The scaling properties of the soil properties studied were further characterized to determine if the scaling types was monofractal or multifractal. To this effect selected indices were calculated from the generalized dimension function, Dq. So for a distribution with a monofractal tendency values of the correlation dimension D2 and the entropy dimension, D1, become similar to the capacity dimension, D0, however D0 >D1 > D2 if the distribution has a tendency to

  15. Effects of supplemental intra-articular lubricin and hyaluronic acid on the progression of posttraumatic arthritis in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient rat knee.

    PubMed

    Teeple, Erin; Elsaid, Khaled A; Jay, Gregory D; Zhang, Ling; Badger, Gary J; Akelman, Matthew; Bliss, Thomas F; Fleming, Braden C

    2011-01-01

    Lubricin and hyaluronic acid lubricate articular cartilage and prevent wear. Because lubricin loss occurs after anterior cruciate ligament injury, intra-articular lubricin injections may reduce cartilage damage in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. This study was conducted to determine if lubricin and/or hyaluronic acid supplementation will reduce cartilage damage in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-six male rats, 3 months old, underwent unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection. They were randomized to 4 treatments: (1) saline (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]), (2) hyaluronic acid (HA), (3) purified human lubricin (LUB), and (4) LUB and HA (LUB+HA). Intra-articular injections were given twice weekly for 4 weeks starting 1 week after surgery. Knees were harvested 1 week after the final injection. Radiographs of each limb and synovial fluid lavages were obtained at harvest. Histologic analysis was performed to assess cartilage damage using safranin O/fast green staining. Radiographs were scored for the severity of joint degeneration using the modified Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Synovial fluid levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycan, collagen II breakdown, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and lubricin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Treatment with LUB or LUB+HA significantly decreased radiographic and histologic scores of cartilage damage (P = .039 and P = .015, respectively) when compared with the PBS and HA conditions. There was no evidence of an effect of HA nor was the LUB effect HA-dependent, suggesting that the addition of HA did not further reduce damage. The synovial fluid of knees treated with LUB had significantly more lubricin in the synovial fluid at euthanasia, although there were no differences in the other cartilage metabolism biomarkers. Supplemental intra-articular LUB reduced cartilage damage in the anterior cruciate ligament-transected

  16. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Wang, R.; Han, X.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate containing soils than in the non-carbonate containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate containing soils. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate containing soils, leading to different rates, risks, and impacts of acidification. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  17. PEDIATRIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION WITH EX-SITU LIVER TRANSECTION AND THE APPLICATION OF THE HUMAN FIBRINOGEN AND THROMBIN SPONGE IN THE WOUND AREA.

    PubMed

    Vicentine, Fernando Pompeu Piza; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; Azevedo, Ramiro Anthero de; Benini, Barbara Burza; Linhares, Marcelo Moura; Lopes-Filho, Gaspar de Jesus; Martins, Jose Luiz; Salzedas-Netto, Alcides Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Surgical strategy to increase the number of liver transplants in the pediatric population is the ex-situ liver transection (reduction or split). However, it is associated with complications such as hemorrhage and leaks. The human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge is useful for improving hemostasis in liver surgery. Compare pediatric liver transplants with ex-situ liver transection (reduction or split) with or without the human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge. Was performed a prospective analysis of 21 patients submitted to liver transplantation with ex-situ liver transection with the application of the human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge in the wound area (group A) and retrospective analysis of 59 patients without the sponge (group B). The characteristics of recipients and donors were similar. There were fewer reoperations due to bleeding in the wound area in group A (14.2%) compared to group B (41.7%, p=0.029). There was no difference in relation to the biliary leak (group A: 17.6%, group B: 5.1%, p=0.14). There was a lower number of reoperations due to bleeding of the wound area of ​​the hepatic graft when the human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge were used. Estratégia cirúrgica para aumentar o número de transplantes hepáticos na população pediátrica é a transecção hepática ex-situ (redução ou split). No entanto, ela está associada com complicações, tais como hemorragia e fístulas. A esponja de fibrinogênio e trombina humana é útil para melhorar a hemostasia nas operações hepáticas. Comparar transplantes hepáticos pediátricos com transecção hepática ex-situ (redução ou split) com ou sem a esponja de fibrinogênio e trombina humana. Foi realizada análise prospectiva de 21 pacientes submetidos ao transplante de fígado com transecção hepática ex-situ com a aplicação da esponja de fibrinogênio e trombina humana na área cruenta (grupo A) e análise retrospectiva de 59 pacientes sem a esponja (grupo B). As características dos

  18. [Recent acquisitions on viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Resti, M; Tucci, F; Vierucci, A

    1990-01-01

    In the last years the research on viral hepatitis let to better understand the biological, molecular, immunological and epidemiologic characteristics of the viruses that are responsible for hepatitis. The first studied virus was hepatitis B virus (HBv). The scientific attention is still, today, focused on that virus since new markers of infectivity and biological importance in early diagnosis and in disease evolution have been found. The most important result in the last years in the field of viral hepatitis has been, however, the identification of agents responsible for Non-A-Non-B hepatitis. Its epidemiology and clinical importance are discussed in the present paper. Virus C is the most important parenteral agent of NANB hepatitis. Its epidemiology in at risk populations and its role in post-transfusional and cryptogenetic hepatitis are here discussed. The research of new markers of HCV infection is today considered a main goal since the role of the only marker now available is still under discussion.

  19. [The pathology of hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Schaff, Zsuzsa; Gógl, Alíz; Dóra, Réka; Halász, Tünde

    2015-05-24

    The hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus, which belongs to the genus Hepaciviruses of the family Flaviviridae. Chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and ultimately even liver cancer may develop in over 80% of infected cases. The histological features of hepatitis C and hepatitis caused by other hepatotropic viruses show many similarities, however, certain specific histological characteristics are observable. Accordingly, intense lymphocytic infiltration around the periportal areas, steatosis and biliary alterations are frequent findings. Further characteristics of hepatitis C include liver cell destruction (apoptosis, necrosis), periportal inflammation and fibrosis, the degrees of which can be determined by means of the histology activity index. Our knowledge on the hepatitis C virus genome and the mechanism of replication of the virus have established the use of modern, direct-acting antivirals in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  20. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Amanda L; Forney, Karin A; Oleson, Erin M; Barlow, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5) and NWHI (n = 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97