Siu, Yuk Chuen; Lui, Tun Hing
Introduction: Unilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is one of the most common problems encountered in orthopedic practice. However, simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders is quite rare. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 75-year-old woman presented with simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following a trauma, complicated with a traction injury to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. Conclusions: Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. The excessive traction force during closed reduction may lead to nerve palsy. Clear documentation of neurovascular status and adequate imaging before and after a reduction should be performed. PMID:25685749
Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu
Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939
Hinton, A E; King, D
An example of anterior dislocation of the shoulder resulting from the positioning of a patient for skin grafting of burns is presented. Complications of positioning patients prone and with their arms abducted and practical measures for their avoidance are discussed.
Zaraa, Mourad; Sehli, Heithem; Mahjoub, Sabri; Dridi, Moez; Mbarek, Mondher
Vascular and nervous complications are rare after shoulder dislocation. We report the case of a double level arterial injury with neuropraxia following anterior shoulder dislocation that was diagnosed by MultiDetector-row Computed Tomographic (MDCT) angiography and treated by surgical bypass graft and embolectomy. Our case is original, not only because of the rarity of these complications, but also because of the thromboembolism of brachial artery which could be undiagnosed and could compromise prognosis.
Zaraa, Mourad; Sehli, Heithem; Mahjoub, Sabri; Dridi, Moez; Mbarek, Mondher
Vascular and nervous complications are rare after shoulder dislocation. We report the case of a double level arterial injury with neuropraxia following anterior shoulder dislocation that was diagnosed by MultiDetector-row Computed Tomographic (MDCT) angiography and treated by surgical bypass graft and embolectomy. Our case is original, not only because of the rarity of these complications, but also because of the thromboembolism of brachial artery which could be undiagnosed and could compromise prognosis. PMID:26566344
Razif, M A Mohamed; Rajasingam, V
We report a rare case of left axillary artery injury associated with anterior dislocation of the left shoulder in a 25 yrs old male as a result of a road traffic accident. The shoulder dislocation was reduced. A left upper limb angiogram showed an obstructed left axillary artery. The obstructed segment was surgically reconstructed with a Dacron graft. Six months post operation in follow up, he was found to have good left shoulder function and no neurovascular deficit. This is an injury that could have been easily missed without a simple clinical examination.
Anterior dislocation of the shoulder joint is a common presentation to hospital emergency departments (EDs). To compare the requirement for sedation and length of ED stay utilising the author's seated shoulder reduction technique (SRT) with traditional shoulder reduction (TSR) techniques in the ED. A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the ED between January 2005 and December 2007 was conducted. The review assessed technique, mean length of stay, sedation requirements and incidence of complications in patients who were treated with either the author's SRT or with TSR. A total of 486 patient charts were reviewed and 404 met inclusion criteria. Patients were categorised into the SRT group: 66 (16.3%) and TSR group: 338 (83.7%). Mean age of the groups was 30 years (SRT) vs. 29 years (TSR), with 80% being male. Mean length of stay in the SRT group was 1.5 hours (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) vs. TSR 2.9 hours (95% CI: 2.3-2.9; p<0.001). Sedation was not required in patients in the SRT group, but was required for all patients in the TSR group. No complications were reported in either group. In this study group, the author's technique was successful in reducing anterior shoulder dislocation, without the need for sedation, and reduced length of ED stay when compared to TSR techniques.
Denard, Patrick J.; Dai, Xuesong; Burkhart, Stephen S.
Purpose: Our purpose was to determine the relationship between number of preoperative shoulder dislocations and total dislocation time and the need to perform bone deficiency procedures at the time of primary anterior instability surgery. Our hypothesis was that need for bone deficiency procedures would increase with the total number and hours of dislocation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed of primary instability surgeries performed by a single surgeon. Patients with <25% glenoid bone loss were treated with an isolated arthroscopic Bankart repair. Those who also had an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair with remplissage. Patients with >25% glenoid bone loss were treated with Latarjet reconstruction. Number of dislocations and total dislocation time were examined for their relationship with the treatment method. Results: Ten arthroscopic Bankart repairs, 13 arthroscopic Bankart plus remplissage procedures, and 9 Latarjet reconstructions were available for review. Total dislocations (P = 0.012) and total hours of dislocation (P = 0.019) increased from the Bankart, to the remplissage, to the Latarjet groups. Patients with a total dislocation time of 5 h or more were more likely to require a Latarjet reconstruction (P = 0.039). Patients with only 1 preoperative dislocation were treated with an isolated Bankart repair in 64% (7 of 11) of cases, whereas those with 2 or more dislocations required a bone loss procedure in 86% (18 of 21) of cases (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Increasing number of dislocations and total dislocation time are associated with the development of glenoid and humeral head bony lesions that alter surgical management of anterior shoulder instability. The necessity for the addition of a remplissage to an arthroscopic Bankart repair or the use of a Latarjet reconstruction increases with only 1 recurrent dislocation. Level of evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. PMID:25709237
Sims, Kevin; Spina, Andreo
Objective: To present an evidence-informed approach to the nonoperative management of a first-time, traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Clinical Features: A 30-year-old mixed martial arts athlete, with no prior shoulder injuries, presented one day following a first-time, traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. An eight-week, individualized, intensive, nonoperative rehabilitation program was immediately begun upon presentation. Intervention and Outcome: Management consisted of immobilization of the shoulder in external rotation and a progressive rehabilitation program aimed at restoring range of motion, strength of the dynamic stabilizers, and proprioception of the shoulder. Eight weeks post-dislocation the patient had regained full range of motion and strength compared to the unaffected limb and apprehension and relocation tests for instability were negative. Conclusion: This case illustrates successful management of a first-time, traumatic, anterior shoulder dislocation using immobilization in external rotation combined with an intensive rehabilitation program. PMID:20037691
Stahnke, Michaela; Duddy, Martin J.
Pseudoaneurysms due to musculoskeletal trauma are rare and comprise less than 2% of all pseudoaneurysms. We report a case of axillary pseudoaneurysm following anterior dislocation of the shoulder. The patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.
Kalkar, İsmail; Esenyel, Cem Zeki; Saygılı, Mehmet Selçuk; Esenyel, Ayşın; Gürbüz, Hakan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation, who had been treated with repair of the Bankart lesion without capsuler plication. The study included 22 shoulders of 22 patients (16 males and 6 females) with a mean age of 28 years, who underwent Bankart repair between 2011 and 2014. Patients with bilateral shoulder instability, multiple instability, >25% glenoid bone loss, and those with a history of shoulder surgery were not included in the study. The average follow-up time was 21.2 months. Evaluation was made of the preoperative number of dislocations, postoperative recurrence, functional status, and daily activity performance of the patients. Shoulder range of motion was measured. The results were evaluated using the Rowe shoulder score and the Oxford shoulder instability score. Recurrence was observed in only one patient who had a shoulder dislocation after trauma, thus giving a recurrence rate of 4.5%. Shoulder range of motion was full in all except that one patient. The mean Rowe shoulder score was 95.5 (excellent) and Oxford shoulder stability score was 44.6 (excellent). No recurrent shoulder dislocation was observed in patients who underwent Bankart repair surgery. Plication was not performed with the Bankart repair. Close to full range of motion was obtained in all patients. In conclusion, Bankart repair alone can be considered to be sufficient for the treatment of traumatic recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
Shah, Rohi; Koris, Jacob; Wazir, Akhlaq; Srinivasan, Shyamsundar S
A 70-year-old man presented to accident and emergency with an isolated anteriorly dislocated shoulder, in the absence of a concomitant fracture. There was no neurovascular deficit at presentation, and the shoulder was reduced under sedation, using the Kocher's technique. Following this, the patient developed signs of hypovolaemic shock. Clinical examination revealed an expanding fullness in the deltopectoral area, with compromise of the limb neurovascular status. CT imaging confirmed an expanding haematoma from the axillary vessels, restricting left lung expansion. Once resuscitated, the patient was transferred to theatre for exploration of the bleeding vessels. Intraoperative findings included an avulsed anterior circumflex humeral artery that was subsequently ligated. Postoperatively, the patient developed axillary, radial, median and ulnar nerve neuropraxia, which improved clinically prior to discharge. The patient was ultimately discharged home after a lengthy inpatient stay. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Rouhani, Alireza; Navali, Amirmohammad
Untreated chronic shoulder dislocation eventually leads to functional disability and pain. Open reduction with different fixation methods have been introduced for most chronic shoulder dislocation. We hypothesized that open reduction and simultaneous Bankart lesion repair in chronic anterior shoulder dislocation obviates the need for joint fixation and leads to better results than previously reported methods. Eight patients with chronic anterior dislocation of shoulder underwent open reduction and capsulolabral complex repair after an average delay of 10 weeks from injury. Early motion was allowed the day after surgery in the safe position and the clinical and radiographic results were analyzed at an average follow-up of one year. The average Rowe and Zarin's score was 86 points. Four out of eight shoulders were graded as excellent, three as good and one as fair (Rowe and Zarins system). All patients were able to perform their daily activities and they had either mild or no pain. Anterior active forward flexion loss averaged 18 degrees, external active rotation loss averaged 17.5 degrees and internal active rotation loss averaged 3 vertebral body levels. Mild degenerative joint changes were noted in one patient. The results show that the overall prognosis for this method of operation is more favorable than the previously reported methods and we recommend concomitant open reduction and capsulolabral complex repair for the treatment of old anterior shoulder dislocation. Therapeutic study, Level IV (case series [no, or historical, control group]).
Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego da Costa; Cohen, Carina; Ejnisman, Benno; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; De Castro Pochini, Alberto; Cohen, Moises
Anterior traumatic dislocation is a common problem faced by orthopedic surgeons. After the first episode of shoulder dislocation, a combination of lesions can lead to chronic instability. The management in treatment of young athletes after the first acute anterior shoulder dislocation is controversial. The available literature supports early surgical treatment for young male athletes engaged in highly demanding physical activities after the first episode of traumatic dislocation of the shoulder. This is because of the best functional results and lower recurrence rates obtained with this treatment in this population. However, further clinical trials of good quality comparing surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for well-defined lesions are needed, especially for categories of patients who have a lower risk of recurrence. PMID:24198566
Vavken, Patrick; Sadoghi, Patrick; Quidde, Julia; Lucas, Robert; Delaney, Ruth; Mueller, Andreas M; Rosso, Claudio; Valderrabano, Victor
The objective of this study was to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize the data on recurrence rates after shoulder immobilization in internal versus external rotation in first-time, traumatic shoulder dislocations. We performed a systematic search of the keywords "(((external rotation) OR internal rotation) AND immobilization) AND shoulder" in the online databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and the Cochrane Library. Random-effects models were used to calculate the cumulatively pooled risk ratios (RRs) of recurrent shoulder dislocations. All analyses were also stratified by age. We included 5 studies with a total of 471 patients (230 internal rotation and 241 external rotation) published between 2001 and 2011 in English. The pooled random-effects RR for recurrence of shoulder dislocations at all ages was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-1.27; P = .278). The RR was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.38 to 1.29; P = .250) for patients aged 30 years or younger and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.32 to 1.88; P = .579) for those aged older than 30 years. The current best evidence does not support a relative effectiveness of immobilization in external rotation compared with internal rotation to avoid recurrent shoulder dislocations in patients with traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Donohue, Michael A; Owens, Brett D; Dickens, Jonathan F
Anterior shoulder instability in athletes may lead to time lost from participation and decreases in level of play. Contact, collision, and overhead athletes are at a higher risk than others. Athletes may successfully be returned to play but operative stabilization should be considered for long-term treatment of recurrent instability. Open and arthroscopic stabilization procedures for athletes with less than 20% to 25% bone loss improve return to play rates and decrease recurrent instability, with a slightly lower recurrence with open stabilization. For athletes with greater than 20% to 25% bone loss, an open osseous augmentation procedure should be considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Leclerc, Betty; Loisel, François; Ferrier, Maxime; Al Sayed, Mazen; Rinckenbach, Simon; Obert, Laurent
Introduction: Anterior shoulder dislocation can be associated with vascular and neurological complications. However, axillary artery injury associated with shoulder dislocation is rare and extremely rare without bone fracture. An early diagnosis of these complications allows predicting long-term functional outcomes. Methods: This article reports the case of a 66-year-old patient who presented an anterior shoulder dislocation after a ski fall without any neurological dysfunction or pulse deficit. Results: The first reduction attempts were unsuccessful and during the new attempt, we observed a hematoma. A CT scan showed a disruption of the axillary artery and a bilateral pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Neurovascular injury must be systematically sought before and after reduction, and a multidisciplinary approach is always necessary. PMID:28074775
Widjaja, Audi B; Tran, Anh; Bailey, Michael; Proper, Stewart
Bankart lesions and Hill-Sachs lesions are commonly associated with anterior shoulder dislocations. The presence of Bankart lesion indicates the need for surgical repair. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive in detecting these two lesions. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between Bankart lesions and Hill-Sachs lesions on MRI for patients with traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. Between 2003 and 2005, 61 patients from Alfred and Sandringham Hospitals had an MRI as part of the investigation for traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. The MRI scans were reviewed and subsequently confirmed by a radiologist to show the presence or absence of Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The data were then analysed by a statistician. Although patients with one of these lesions were more than two-and-a-half times as likely to have the other, small study numbers precluded this result from achieving statistical significance. (odds ratio, 2.67 (0.83-8.61), P = 0.10). Younger age was a strong predictor of a recurrence of shoulder dislocation (odds ratio, 0.93 (0.89-0.98), P = 0.005). The presence of Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions on MRI for the primary shoulder dislocation group was similar to the recurrent group (73% vs. 72% for Bankart lesion and 67% vs. 70% for Hill-Sachs lesion). There is a strong correlation between both lesions. This apparent trend can be useful in predicting the presence of a Bankart lesion when a Hill-Sachs lesion is identified on a plain radiograph. This study suggests the consideration of surgical repair after identification of a Hill-Sachs lesion on plain radiographs, especially for younger patients where the rate of re-dislocation is high.
McMahon, Patrick J; Chow, Stephen; Sciaroni, Laura; Yang, Bruce Y; Lee, Thay Q
A novel cadaveric model for anterior-inferior shoulder dislocation using forcible apprehension positioning is presented. This model simulates an in vivo mechanism and yields capsulolabral lesions. The scapulae of 14 cadaveric entire upper limbs (82 +/- 9 years, mean +/- standard deviation) were each rigidly fixed to a custom shoulder-testing device. A pneumatic system was used with pulleys and cables to simulate the rotator cuff and the deltoid muscles (anterior and middle portions). The glenohumeral joint was then positioned in the apprehension position of abduction, external rotation, and horizontal abduction. A 6-degree-of-freedom load cell (Assurance Technologies, Garner, North Carolina) measured the joint reaction force that was then resolved into three orthogonal components of compression force, anteriorly directed force, and superiorly directed force. With the use of a thrust bearing, the humerus was moved along a rail with a servomotor-controlled system at 50 mm/s that resulted in horizontal abduction. Force that developed passively in the pectoralis major muscle was recorded with an independent uniaxial load cell. Each of the glenohumeral joints dislocated anterior-inferior, six with avulsion of the capsulolabrum from the anterior-inferior glenoid bone and eight with capsulolabral stretching. Pectoralis major muscle force as well as the joint reaction force increased with horizontal abduction until dislocation. At dislocation, the magnitude of the pectoralis major muscle force, 609.6 N +/- 65.2 N was similar to the compression force, 569.6 N +/- 37.8 N. A cadaveric model yielded an anterior dislocation with a mechanism of forcible apprehension positioning when the appropriate shoulder muscles were simulated and a passive pectoralis major muscle was included. Capsulolabral lesions resulted, similar to those observed in vivo.
Peshin, Chetan; Jangira, Vivek; Gupta, Ravi Kumar; Jindal, Rohit
Neglected anterior dislocation of shoulder is rare in spite of the fact that the anterior dislocation of the shoulder is seen in around 90% of the acute cases. Most of the series of neglected dislocation describe posterior dislocation to be far more common.1,2 We hereby report a case of the neglected anterior shoulder dislocation in a 15 year old boy who had a history of epilepsy. There was a large Hill Sachs lesion in humeral head which was impacted in glenoid inferiorly and glenoid was eburnated at that margin. The humeral head was reconstructed with a tricortical iliac graft. Glenoid was reconstructed by transfer of coracoids process of scapula to antero-inferior glenoid (modified Latarjet procedure). This case is unique because management of humeral head defect with bone graft is not mentioned in anterior dislocation. PMID:26566343
Regauer, Markus; Polzer, Hans; Mutschler, Wolf
In spite of the fact that the Hippocrates method hardly has been evaluated in a scientific manner and numerous associated iatrogenic complications have been reported, this method remains to be one of the most common techniques for reducing anterior shoulder dislocations. We report the case of a 69-year-old farmer under coumarin anticoagulant therapy who sustained acute first time anterior dislocation of his dominant right shoulder. By using the Hippocrates method with the patient under general anaesthesia, the brachial vein was injured and an increasing hematoma subsequently caused brachial plexus paresis by pressure. After surgery for decompression and vascular suturing, symptoms declined rapidly, but brachial plexus paresis still was not fully reversible after 3 mo of follow-up. The hazardousness of using the Hippocrates method can be explained by traction on the outstretched arm with force of the operator's body weight, direct trauma to the axillary region by the physician's heel, and the topographic relations of neurovascular structures and the dislocated humeral head. As there is a variety of alternative reduction techniques which have been evaluated scientifically and proofed to be safe, we strongly caution against the use of the Hippocrates method as a first line technique for reducing anterior shoulder dislocations, especially in elder patients with fragile vessels or under anticoagulant therapy, and recommend the scapular manipulation technique or the Milch technique, for example, as a first choice.
Regauer, Markus; Polzer, Hans; Mutschler, Wolf
In spite of the fact that the Hippocrates method hardly has been evaluated in a scientific manner and numerous associated iatrogenic complications have been reported, this method remains to be one of the most common techniques for reducing anterior shoulder dislocations. We report the case of a 69-year-old farmer under coumarin anticoagulant therapy who sustained acute first time anterior dislocation of his dominant right shoulder. By using the Hippocrates method with the patient under general anaesthesia, the brachial vein was injured and an increasing hematoma subsequently caused brachial plexus paresis by pressure. After surgery for decompression and vascular suturing, symptoms declined rapidly, but brachial plexus paresis still was not fully reversible after 3 mo of follow-up. The hazardousness of using the Hippocrates method can be explained by traction on the outstretched arm with force of the operator’s body weight, direct trauma to the axillary region by the physician’s heel, and the topographic relations of neurovascular structures and the dislocated humeral head. As there is a variety of alternative reduction techniques which have been evaluated scientifically and proofed to be safe, we strongly caution against the use of the Hippocrates method as a first line technique for reducing anterior shoulder dislocations, especially in elder patients with fragile vessels or under anticoagulant therapy, and recommend the scapular manipulation technique or the Milch technique, for example, as a first choice. PMID:24649415
Caudevilla Polo, Santos; Estébanez de Miguel, Elena; Lucha López, Orosia; Tricás Moreno, José Miguel; Pérez Guillén, Silvia
Many techniques have been described for the reduction of anterior glenohumeral dislocation, but each of the techniques has its disadvantages. A new shoulder reduction technique is needed to overcome these disadvantages. An alternate technique of humerus axial traction with acromial fixation is presented. The technical description of this procedure focuses on the pre-reduction and post-reduction process. The use of acromial countertraction, the choice of the most loosely packed position of the shoulder joint, and the operator's ability to reduce muscle spasm are the main principles discussed. This modified technique increases the possibilities for the reduction of shoulder dislocation in different clinical situations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Maki, Nobukazu; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo
The incidence of reinjuries due to glenohumeral instability and the major risk factors for primary anterior shoulder dislocation in youth rugby players have been unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, mechanisms, and intrinsic risk factors of shoulder dislocation in elite high-school rugby union teams during the 2012 season. A total of 378 male rugby players from 7 high-school teams were investigated by use of self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of shoulder dislocation was 14.8%, and there were 21 events of primary shoulder dislocation of the 74 overall shoulder injuries that were sustained during the season (3.2 events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). During the season, 54.3% of the shoulders with at least one episode of shoulder dislocation had reinjury. This study also indicated that the persistence of glenohumeral instability might affect the player's self-assessed condition, regardless of the incidence during the current season. By a multivariate logistic regression method, a history of shoulder dislocation on the opposite side before the season was found to be a risk factor for contralateral primary shoulder dislocation (odds ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.97; P = .02). High-school rugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation are not playing at full capacity and also have a significant rate of reinjury as well as a high risk of dislocating the other shoulder. These findings may be helpful in deciding on the proper treatment of primary anterior shoulder dislocation in young rugby players. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... aftercare; Shoulder subluxation - aftercare; Shoulder reduction - aftercare; Glenohumeral joint dislocation ... that connect bone to bone) of the shoulder joint. All of these tissues help keep your arm ...
Matthews, D E; Roberts, T
We performed a prospective, randomized study to evaluate the use of injected lidocaine as an anesthetic for closed reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocations. Thirty consecutive patients who presented at the emergency department with acute anterior shoulder dislocations were randomly placed in one of two groups. One group received an intraarticular injection of 20 ml of 1% lidocaine and the other group, intravenous injections of morphine sulfate and midazolam. The groups were compared regarding time of reduction maneuver, difficulty of reduction, subjective pain, complications, and total time spent in the emergency department. The lidocaine provided adequate anesthesia and secondary relief of muscle spasm in 15 of 15 (100%) patients. When compared with the intravenous sedation group, the lidocaine group showed no statistically significant difference in time for reduction maneuver, difficulty of reduction, or subjective pain. The lidocaine group had no complications and had a statistically significant shorter emergency department visit when compared with the intravenous sedation group (mean, 78 minutes versus 186 minutes; P = 0.004). Lidocaine provides excellent anesthesia for patients with uncomplicated anterior shoulder dislocations and can be very beneficial when sedation is contraindicated. Lidocaine injections also proved to be cost effective in our institution, reducing total costs by as much as 62%.
Mishra, Amit; Sharma, Pulak; Chaudhary, Deepak
The Bankart lesion represents the most common form of labro-ligamentous injury in patients with traumatic dislocations of the shoulder leading to shoulder instability. We report the clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair of Bankart lesion in 50 patients. Sixty five patients with posttraumatic anterior dislocation of shoulder were treated by arthroscopic repair from Jan 2005 to Nov 2008. Fifty patients, with an average age of 26.83 years (range 18-45 years), were reviewed in the study. The average followup period was 27 months (range 24-36 months). University of California Los Angeles shoulder rating scale was used to determine the outcome after surgery. The recurrence rates, range of motion, as well as postoperative function and return to sporting activities were evaluated. Thirty six patients (72.0%) had excellent results, whereas seven patients (14.0%) had good results. The mean pre- and postoperative range of external rotation was 80.38° and 75.18°, respectively. Eighty-six percent patients had stability compared with the normal sided shoulder and were able to return to sports. There were no cases of redislocation observed in this study; however, three cases had mild laxity of the joint. Arthroscopic Bankart repair with the use of suture anchors is a reliable treatment method, with good clinical outcomes, excellent postoperative shoulder motion and low recurrence rates.
Mishra, Amit; Sharma, Pulak; Chaudhary, Deepak
Background: The Bankart lesion represents the most common form of labro-ligamentous injury in patients with traumatic dislocations of the shoulder leading to shoulder instability. We report the clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair of Bankart lesion in 50 patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty five patients with posttraumatic anterior dislocation of shoulder were treated by arthroscopic repair from Jan 2005 to Nov 2008. Fifty patients, with an average age of 26.83 years (range 18-45 years), were reviewed in the study. The average followup period was 27 months (range 24-36 months). University of California Los Angeles shoulder rating scale was used to determine the outcome after surgery. The recurrence rates, range of motion, as well as postoperative function and return to sporting activities were evaluated. Results: Thirty six patients (72.0%) had excellent results, whereas seven patients (14.0%) had good results. The mean pre- and postoperative range of external rotation was 80.38° and 75.18°, respectively. Eighty-six percent patients had stability compared with the normal sided shoulder and were able to return to sports. There were no cases of redislocation observed in this study; however, three cases had mild laxity of the joint. Conclusion: Arthroscopic Bankart repair with the use of suture anchors is a reliable treatment method, with good clinical outcomes, excellent postoperative shoulder motion and low recurrence rates. PMID:23325970
Osti, Michael; Gohm, Alexander; Benedetto, Karl Peter
The present study evaluates the clinical and radiological outcome following open reconstruction of avulsion fractures of the anterior glenoid rim in traumatic shoulder dislocation. A total of 20 patients (mean age 49.4 years) were treated with open reduction and cannulated screw fixation. Eighteen patients were available for clinical and radiological follow-up after 3.1 (2.0-6.5) years. The average Constant Score was 78 and the average Rowe Score was 90 points. Documented complications were implant failure in one and neurological dysfunction in one patient. Radiographs revealed the bony fragment located in an unimproved displaced position in one patient and a progress in osteoarthritic changes in three patients. No recurrent subluxation or dislocation was observed. Open reconstruction of glenoid rim fractures is a valuable procedure regarding medium-term subjective and objective outcome measures. Recurrent dislocation, glenoid defects and early onset of osteoarthritic degeneration can be avoided.
Watson, Scott; Allen, Benjamin; Grant, John A.
Context: Shoulder dislocations are common in contact sports, yet guidelines regarding the best treatment strategy and time to return to play have not been clearly defined. Evidence Acquisition: Electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase, were reviewed for the years 1980 through 2015. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Much has been published about return to play after anterior shoulder dislocation, but almost all is derived from expert opinion and clinical experience rather than from well-designed studies. Recommendations vary and differ depending on age, sex, type of sport, position of the athlete, time in the sport’s season, and associated pathology. Despite a lack of consensus and specific recommendations, there is agreement that before being allowed to return to sport, athletes should be pain free and demonstrate symmetric shoulder and bilateral scapular strength, with functional range of motion that allows sport-specific participation. Return to play usually occurs 2 to 3 weeks from the time of injury. Athletes with in-season shoulder instability returning to sport have demonstrated recurrence rates ranging from 37% to 90%. Increased bone loss, recurrent instability, and injury occurring near the end of season are all indications that may push surgeons and athletes toward earlier surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most athletes are able to return to play within 2 to 3 weeks but there is a high risk of recurrent instability. PMID:27255423
Watson, Scott; Allen, Benjamin; Grant, John A
Shoulder dislocations are common in contact sports, yet guidelines regarding the best treatment strategy and time to return to play have not been clearly defined. Electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase, were reviewed for the years 1980 through 2015. Clinical review. Level 4. Much has been published about return to play after anterior shoulder dislocation, but almost all is derived from expert opinion and clinical experience rather than from well-designed studies. Recommendations vary and differ depending on age, sex, type of sport, position of the athlete, time in the sport's season, and associated pathology. Despite a lack of consensus and specific recommendations, there is agreement that before being allowed to return to sport, athletes should be pain free and demonstrate symmetric shoulder and bilateral scapular strength, with functional range of motion that allows sport-specific participation. Return to play usually occurs 2 to 3 weeks from the time of injury. Athletes with in-season shoulder instability returning to sport have demonstrated recurrence rates ranging from 37% to 90%. Increased bone loss, recurrent instability, and injury occurring near the end of season are all indications that may push surgeons and athletes toward earlier surgical intervention. Most athletes are able to return to play within 2 to 3 weeks but there is a high risk of recurrent instability. © 2016 The Author(s).
Hanchard, Nigel C A; Goodchild, Lorna M; Kottam, Lucksy
Acute anterior dislocation, which is the most common type of shoulder dislocation, usually results from an injury. Subsequently, the shoulder is less stable and is more susceptible to re-dislocation, especially in active young adults. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2006. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of conservative interventions after closed reduction of traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. These might include immobilisation, rehabilitative interventions or both. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to September 2013), EMBASE (1980 to Week 38, 2013), CINAHL (1982 to September 2013), PEDro (1929 to November 2012), OTseeker (inception to November 2012) and trial registries. We also searched conference proceedings and reference lists of included studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing various conservative interventions versus control (no or sham treatment) or other conservative interventions applied after closed reduction of traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. All review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Results of comparable groups of trials were pooled. We included three randomised trials and one quasi-randomised trial, which involved 470 participants (371 male) with primary traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder reduced by various closed methods. Three studies evaluated mixed populations; in the fourth study, all participants were male and 80% were soldiers. All trials were at some risk of bias but to a differing extent. One was at high risk in all domains of the risk of bias tool, and one was at unclear or high risk in all domains; the other two trials were deemed to have predominantly low risk across all
Villar, R N; Palmer, I P
We describe 2 cases of recurrent dislocation of the shoulder in free-fall parachutists that occurred while falling free. We suggest that in such sportsmen surgical repair should be effected after the first dislocation.
Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Okamura, Kenji; Imai, Tomohito
We treated 15 highly active young men (16 shoulders) with traumatic primary anterior shoulder dislocation or subluxation using 3-week external rotation immobilization. Fourteen patients (14 shoulders) were members of the Self-Defense Force and the other patient (2 shoulders) was a high school student who played club-level rugby. Average patient age at the time of the primary injury was 21.3 years (range, 17-26 years). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 14 of 16 shoulders after the 3-week external rotation immobilization and showed that the anteroinferior labrum was reduced on the glenoid rim in 11 shoulders but remained medially displaced on the glenoid neck in 3 shoulders. Five shoulders, including these 3 shoulders, underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair after 3-week external rotation immobilization. Eleven shoulders continued nonoperative treatment after the immobilization. Four of 11 shoulders had no recurrence of symptoms for >2 years, and these patients were able to return to their preinjury activities. However, 7 shoulders experienced recurrence within 2 years. We concluded that external rotation immobilization may not be as effective as mentioned previously in highly active young men with primary traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation or subluxation. Whether a patient has instability symptom recurrence after external rotation immobilization depends on more than the fact that the anteroinferior labrum is not reduced on MRI. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Neto, Arnaldo Amado Ferreira; Benegas, Eduardo; Prada, Flávia de Santis; de Sousa, Augusto Tadeu Barros; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Sunada, Edwin Eiji
Objective: To evaluate the clinical result from the filling (“remplissage”) technique in association with Bankart lesion repair for treating recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. Methods: Nine patients (10 shoulders), with a mean follow-up of 13.7 months, presented traumatic recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. All of them had a Bankart lesion, associated with a Hill-Sachs lesion showing the “engaging” sign. The Hill-Sachs lesion defect was measured and showed an average bone loss of 17.3% (7.7% to 26.7%) in relation to the diameter of the humeral head. All the cases underwent arthroscopic repair of the Bankart lesion, together with filling of the Hill-Sachs lesion by means of tenodesis of the infraspinatus. Results: The Rowe score ranged from 22.5 (10 to 45) before the operation to 80.5 (5 to 100) after the operation (p > 0.001). The UCLA score ranged from 18.0 (8 to 29) to 31.1 (21 to 31) (p > 0.001). The measurements of external and internal rotation at abduction of 90° after the operation were 63.5° (45° to 90°) and 73° (50° to 92°) respectively. Two patients presented recurrence (one with dislocation and the other with subluxation). None of the patients presented pain in the region of the infraspinatus tendon after the operation. Conclusion: Over the short term, the filling (“remplissage”) arthroscopic technique produced improvements in functional scores and a low complication rate when used for treating glenohumeral instability associated with Hill-Sachs lesions. PMID:27027073
Chung, Hoejeong; Yoon, Yeo-Seung; Shin, Ji-Soo; Shin, John Junghun; Kim, Doosup
Shoulder dislocation is frequently encountered by orthopedists, and closed manipulation is often sufficient to treat the injury in an acute setting. Although most dislocations are diagnosed and managed promptly, there are rare cases that are missed or neglected, leading to a chronically dislocated state of the joint. They are usually irreducible and cause considerable pain and functional disability in most affected patients, prompting the need to find a surgical method to reverse the worsening conditions caused by the dislocated joint. However, there are cases of even greater rarity in which chronic shoulder dislocations are asymptomatic with minimal functional or structural degeneration in the joint. These patients are usually left untreated, and most show good tolerance to their condition without developing disabling symptoms or significant functional loss over time. We report on one such patient who had a chronic shoulder dislocation for more than 2 years without receiving treatment.
Chapus, V; Rochcongar, G; Pineau, V; Salle de Chou, É; Hulet, C
Early treatment of initial anterior glenohumeral dislocation in young patients is controversial and the interest of surgery, and notably arthroscopic stabilization, has not been demonstrated. A prospective study was therefore performed to assess (1) short-to-medium-term recurrence rate, (2) functional outcome, and (3) and medium-term osteoarthritis rate. Early arthroscopic stabilization by anterior capsule-labrum reinsertion after initial anterior shoulder dislocation is associated with low recurrence rate. Twenty-one patients with initial anterior dislocation were included between June 2002 and February 2004. All patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair within 30 days of dislocation. Patients were followed up prospectively, with clinical (Duplay and Constant scores) and radiological assessment (osteoarthritis). There were 5 recurrent dislocations (25%); 2 patients reported sensations of subluxation: i.e., 7 failures (35%). Mean Walch-Duplay score at 10 years was 88±1 (range, 30-100) and mean Rowe score 86±22 (range, 35-100). There was significant internal rotation deficit of one vertebral level between operated and contralateral shoulder (P < 0.005). At 10 years, 3 shoulders (15%) showed Samilson grade 1 centered glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Early arthroscopic capsule-labrum reinsertion by the Bankart technique in the month following initial anterior dislocation of the shoulder in patients under 25 years of age provided a low recurrence rate (35%) compared to the literature, including dislocation (25%) and subluxation (10%). Functional outcome was satisfactory, and osteoarthritis rate was low (15% Samilson grade 1). IV, prospective non-comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Post injection fibrosis leading to muscle contracture is a known complication. Deltoid fibrosis is known to occur following trauma or an intramuscular injection. Idiopathic Deltoid fibrosis leading to abduction contracture and anterior dislocation of the shoulder is a rare entity. Prompt diagnosis and surgery by distal release of fibrosed Deltoid muscle will lead to good functional recovery. PMID:23543744
Whelan, Daniel B; Kletke, Stephanie N; Schemitsch, Geoffrey; Chahal, Jaskarndip
The recurrence rate after primary anterior shoulder dislocation is high, especially in young, active individuals. Recent studies have suggested external rotation immobilization as a method to reduce the rate of recurrent shoulder dislocation in comparison to traditional sling immobilization. To assess and summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effect of internal rotation versus external rotation immobilization on the rate of recurrence after primary anterior shoulder dislocation. Meta-analysis. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and abstracts from recent proceedings were searched for eligible studies. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. Six randomized controlled trials (632 patients) were included in this review. Demographic and prognostic variables measured at baseline were similar in the pooled groups. The average age was 30.1 years in the pooled external rotation group and 30.3 years in the pooled internal rotation group. Two studies found that external rotation immobilization reduced the rate of recurrence after initial anterior shoulder dislocation compared with conventional internal rotation immobilization, whereas 4 studies failed to find a significant difference between the 2 groups. This meta-analysis suggested no overall significant difference in the rate of recurrence among patients treated with internal rotation versus external rotation immobilization (risk ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.42-1.14; P = .15). There was no significant difference in the rate of compliance between internal and external rotation immobilization (P = .43). The Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index scores were pooled across 3 studies, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .54). Immobilization in external rotation is not significantly more effective in reducing the recurrence rate after primary anterior shoulder dislocation than
Li, Yue; Jiang, Chunyan
Chronic locked anterior shoulder dislocation is a difficult clinical problem for patients and surgeons. Prior studies have proposed a variety of surgical techniques to address this problem; however, the failure rate is high. To our knowledge, there have been no previously published studies on the clinical outcome of the Latarjet procedure for the treatment of chronic locked anterior shoulder dislocation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term subjective, objective, and radiographic outcomes of patients with chronic locked anterior shoulder dislocation after a Latarjet procedure. From January 2005 to January 2013, 43 patients with chronic locked anterior shoulder dislocation were treated surgically in our institution. Open Latarjet procedures were performed in 35 patients. A subscapularis tenotomy or split was chosen on the basis of the ability to achieve open reduction. Outcomes were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, and the Constant-Murley rating scale. A comparison of the clinical outcomes among the patients who underwent subscapularis tenotomy and repair, those who underwent a procedure that used the subscapularis-splitting technique, and those who underwent a concomitant humeral head replacement was performed. Twenty-five shoulders of 25 patients were available for a mean follow-up of 31.6 months. At the time of the latest follow-up, the range of motion and the shoulder functional evaluations (VAS [p = 0.02], ASES [p = 0.01], Constant score [p = 0.01], and UCLA score [p = 0.04]) were significantly improved. The overall redislocation or subluxation rate was 48% (12 of 25): 0% (0 of 5) for the subscapularis-splitting group, 53% (8 of 15) for the subscapularis tenotomy and repair group, and 80% (4 of 5) for the humeral head replacement group. The ASES score (p = 0
Shuster, Michael; Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Boyd, Jeff; Gauthier, Charles; Shepherd, Lance; Turner, Chris
Research has demonstrated that experienced emergency physicians can identify a subgroup of patients with shoulder dislocation for whom pre-reduction radiographs do not alter patient management. Based on that research, a treatment guideline for the selective elimination of pre-reduction radiographs in clinically evident cases of anterior shoulder dislocation was developed and implemented. The primary objective of this study was to prospectively determine whether the treatment guideline safely eliminates unnecessary radiographs. We enrolled a convenience sample of patients who presented to our rural emergency department with possible shoulder dislocation between November 2000 and April 2001. Physicians scored their level of clinical diagnostic certainty on a 10-cm visual analogue scale prior to viewing pre-reduction radiographs (if obtained). Data were collected on clinical scoring and evaluation, compliance with the guideline, and outcomes. A total of 63 patients were enrolled, ranging in age from 17 to 79 years (mean = 33); 87.3% were male. Emergency physicians were certain of shoulder dislocation in 59 (93.7%) patients (95% CI, 84.5%-98.2%) and complied with the treatment guideline in 52 patients (82.5%). Most deviations from the treatment guideline involved the elimination of post-reduction radiographs (which the guideline recommends for all patients). The treatment guideline eliminated 56 (88.9%, 95% CI, 78.4%-95.4%) pre-reduction radiographs, as compared to the standard practice of obtaining pre-reduction films for all cases of suspected shoulder dislocation (p < 0.0001) Experienced emergency physicians are frequently certain of the diagnosis of anterior shoulder dislocation on clinical grounds alone and can comfortably and safely use this guideline for the selective elimination of pre-reduction radiographs. Compliance with the guideline substantially decreases pre-reduction radiographs. Validation of the guideline in other settings is warranted.
Bachhal, Vikas; Goni, Vijay; Taneja, Ashish; Shashidhar, B K; Bali, Kamal
Although bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder is not that uncommon, there have been only 12 published reports on bilateral anterior fracture dislocation of shoulder. The associated fractures have mostly been greater tuberosity fractures with bilateral three part fractures being reported in only two cases. To our knowledge, a bilateral four part anterior fracture dislocation of the shoulder has not yet been reported in the English literature. We here report a case of bilateral anterior fracture dislocation with four part fracture of both proximal humeri in a 60-year-old male due to electrocution. Considering the comparatively old age of the patient and excessive comminution of both the fractures, a bilateral hemiarthroplasty was done. At the last follow-up after more than 2 years, the patient was pain free with ability to comfortably carry out most of the activities of daily life. Through our case report, we highlight the rarity of the condition and review the available literature on the subject. We also emphasize the importance of meticulous perioperative planning when dealing with such cases to ensure a satisfactory long-term outcome.
Momenzadeh, Omid Reza; Pourmokhtari, Masoome; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Vosoughi, Amir Reza
The position of immobilization after anterior shoulder dislocation has been a controversial topic over the past decade. We compared the effect of post-reduction immobilization, whether external rotation or internal rotation, on coaptation of the torn labrum. Twenty patients aged <40 years with primary anterior shoulder dislocation without associated fractures were randomized to post-reduction external rotation immobilization (nine patients) or internal rotation (11 patients). After 3 weeks, magnetic resonance arthrography was performed. Displacement, separation, and opening angle parameters were assessed and analyzed. Separation (1.16 ± 1.11 vs 2.43 ± 1.17 mm), displacement (1.73 ± 1.64 vs 2.28 ± 1.36 mm), and opening angle (15.00 ± 15.84 vs 27.86 ± 14.74 °) in the externally rotated group were decreased in comparison to the internally rotated group. A statistically significant difference between groups was seen only for separation (p = 0.028); p values of displacement and opening angle were 0.354 and 0.099, respectively. External rotation immobilization after reduction of primary anterior shoulder dislocation could result in a decrease in anterior capsule detachment and labral reduction.
Sachit, Malhan; Shekhar, Agarwal; Shekhar, Srivastav; Joban, Singh Har
Late diagnoses of orthopedic injuries after epileptic crisis are a matter of concern. The rarity of correlation between seizure and specific trauma incidences such as bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation, may lead to improper estimation of the patient's clinical state, wrong treatment and unpleasant complications. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation associated with coracoid processes fracture after a seizure episode, in a young lady of 29 years. This is a rare event, however as patient is often disoriented after seizures, frequently this can be missed diagnosis. So this article puts emphasis on possibilities of rare diagnosis, which if treated promptly can lead to early restoration of complete movement. Although it is not a common problem, but one should have a high degree of suspicion and should always opt for further radiological examination if there is any doubt.
Aygün, Ümit; Duran, Turan; Oktay, Olcay; Sahin, Hilal; Calik, Yalkin
The glenoid version is an important factor in the etiology of anterior dislocation of the shoulder and the planning of shoulder surgery. Few reports compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of the glenoid version with those of computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to show that it is possible to use MRI instead of CT, which is accepted as the gold standard today for the evaluation of the glenoid version. A total of 55 patients with a history of 1 nonsurgically treated unilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulder who had both MRI and CT records for the dislocated shoulders constituted the study group. The glenoid version was measured in the axial plane on MRI and CT. Mean glenoid version measured by the observers was -1.6°±4.7° (95% confidence interval, -2.3° to -0.8°) and -1.8°±4.3° (95% confidence interval, -2.5° to -1.2°) by CT and MRI, respectively (P=.126). The evaluation of the CT and MRI measurements made by the 3 observers (X, Y, and Z) revealed no significant difference, as the P values of X CT - X MRI, Y CT - Y MRI, and Z CT - Z MRI were .550, .406, and .238, respectively. Interclass correlation among the 3 observers for CT and MRI was 0.996 and 0.981, respectively. The imaging methods of MRI and CT can be interchangeably used in the evaluation of the glenoid version in cases of anterior dislocation of the shoulder. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e687-e692.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Law, Billy Kan-Yip; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Ho, Eric Po-Yan; Chang, Joseph Jeremy Hsi-Tse; Chan, Kai-Ming
This study evaluated the surgical outcomes of young active patients with arthroscopic Bankart repair within 1 month after first-time anterior shoulder dislocation. From July 2002-October 2004, patients presented with first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation and treated with arthroscopic stabilization within 1 month of injury were retrospectively reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were performed before the operation in all cases. Cases with contralateral shoulder multidirectional instability or glenoid bone loss of more than 30% on preoperative computed tomography on the injury side were excluded. All patients were treated with arthroscopic Bankart repair, using metallic suture anchors or soft tissue bio-absorbable anchors by a same group of surgeons and followed the same rehabilitation protocol. Recurrence, instability signs, range of motion, WOSI score, Rowe score and complications were assessed. Thirty-eight patients were recruited: the average age was 21 (16-30). All patients had definite trauma history. Radiologically, all patients had Bankart/Hill-Sachs lesion. All the operations were done within 1 month after injury (6-25 days). The average hospital stay was 1.2 days (1-5 days). The average follow-up was 28 months (24-48 months). There were two cases of posttraumatic re-dislocation (5.2%). The average external rotation lag was 5 degrees (0-15) in 90 degrees shoulder abduction when compared with contralateral side. 95% of patients had excellent or good Rowe score. The average WOSI score was 83%. There was one case of transient ulnar nerve palsy and one case of superficial wound infection. This study concluded that immediate arthroscopic Bankart repair with an accelerated rehabilitation program is an effective and safe technique for treating young active patients with first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation.
Flint, John H.; Carlyle, Laura M.; Christiansen, Cory C.; Nepola, James V.
Dislocation of the shoulder and proximal humerus fracture with coexistent humeral shaft fracture is a rare injury reported in literature. There have been a total of 20 cases reported in the literature since 19401-13 (see Table 1). These injuries often occur as a result of high velocity trauma and most have been treated, at least partially, with invasive or operative management. We present the case of a woman with an anterior dislocation, three-part proximal humerus fracture and concomitant humerus shaft fracture and discuss her non-invasive treatment. PMID:19742096
da Silva, Luciana Andrade; da Costa Lima, Álvaro Gonçalves; Kautsky, Raul Meyer; Santos, Pedro Doneux; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Checchia, Sergio Luiz
Objective Evaluate the results and complications of Latarjet procedure in patients with anterior recurrent dislocation of the shoulder. Methods Fifty-one patients (52 shoulders) with anterior recurrent dislocation, surgically treated by Latarjet procedure, were analyzed retrospectively. The average follow-up time was 22 months, range 12–66 months; The age range was 15–59 years with a mean of 31; regarding sex, 42 (82.4%) patients were male and nine (17.6%) were female. The dominant side was affected in 29 (55.8%) shoulders. Regarding the etiology, 48 (92.3%) reported trauma and four (7.6%) had the first episode after a convulsion. Results The average elevation, lateral rotation and medial rotation of the operated shoulder were, respectively, 146° (60–80°), 59° (0–85°) and T8 (T5 gluteus), with statistical significance for decreased range of motion in all planes, compared with the other side. The scores of Rowe and UCLA were 90.6 and 31.4, respectively, in the postoperative period. Eleven shoulders (21.2%) had poor results: signs of instability (13.4%), non-union (11.5%) and early loosening of the synthesis material (1.9%). There was a correlation between poor results and convulsive patients (p = 0.026). Conclusion We conclude that the Latarjet procedure for correction of anterior recurrent dislocation leads to good and excellent results in 82.7% of cases. Complications are related to errors in technique. PMID:27218076
Eichinger, Josef K; Massimini, Daniel F; Kim, Jungryul; Higgins, Laurence D
Abnormal glenoid version is a risk factor for shoulder instability. However, the degree to which the variance in version (both anteversion and retroversion) affects one's predisposition for instability is not well understood. To determine the influence of glenoid version on anterior shoulder joint stability and to determine if the direction of the humeral head dislocation is a stimulus for the development of Hill-Sachs lesions. Controlled laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric shoulders (mean age, 59.4 ± 4.3 years) were tested using a custom shoulder dislocation device placed in a position of apprehension (90° of abduction with 90° of external rotation). Glenoid version was adjusted in 5° increments for a total of 6 version angles tested: +10°, +5°, 0°, -5°, -10°, and -15° (anteversion angles are positive, and retroversion angles are negative). Two humeral dislocation directions were tested. The first direction was true anterior through the anterior-posterior glenoid axis. The second dislocation direction was 35° inferior from the anterior-posterior glenoid axis based on the deforming force role of the pectoralis major. The force and energy to dislocate were recorded. Changes in glenoid version manifested a linear effect on the dislocation force. The energy to dislocate increased as a second-order polynomial as a function of increasing glenoid retroversion. Glenoid version of +10° anteversion and -15° retroversion was highly unstable, resulting in spontaneous dislocation in one-quarter (10/40) and one-half (25/40) of the specimens anteriorly and posteriorly, respectively, in the absence of an applied dislocation force. The greater tuberosity was observed to engage with the anterior glenoid rim, consistent with Hill-Sachs lesions, 40% more frequently when the dislocation direction was true anterior compared with 35° inferior from the anterior-posterior glenoid axis. The engagement of the greater tuberosity caused an increase in the energy required to
Horst, K; Von Harten, R; Weber, C; Andruszkow, H; Pfeifer, R; Dienstknecht, T; Pape, H C
Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions are often associated with anterior shoulder dislocation. The MRI technique is sensitive in diagnosing both injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions with MRI to determine the correlation in occurrence and defect sizes of these lesions. Between 2006 and 2013, 446 patients were diagnosed with an anterior shoulder dislocation and 105 of these patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. All patients were examined using MRI. Bankart lesions were classified as cartilaginous or bony lesions. Hill-Sachs lesions were graded I-III using a modified Calandra classification. The co-occurrence of injuries was high [odds ratio (OR) = 11.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.60-36.52; p < 0.001]. Patients older than 29 years more often presented with a bilateral injury (OR = 16.29; 95% CI = 2.71-97.73; p = 0.002). A correlation between a Bankart lesion and the grade of a Hill-Sachs lesion was found (ρ = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16-0.49; p < 0.001). Bankart lesions co-occurred more often with large Hill-Sachs lesions (O = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.02-1.52; p = 0.033). If either lesion is diagnosed, the patient is 11 times more likely to have suffered the associated injury. The size of a Hill-Sachs lesion determines the co-occurrence of cartilaginous or bony Bankart lesions. Age plays a role in determining the type of Bankart lesion as well as the co-occurrence of Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. This study is the first to demonstrate the use of high-quality MRI in a reasonably large sample of patients, a positive correlation of Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions in anterior shoulder dislocations and an association between the defect sizes.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Rizzello, Giacomo; Ciuffreda, Mauro; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcome, rate of recurrence, complications, and rate of postoperative osteoarthritis in patients with anterior shoulder instability managed with Latarjet, Bristow, or Eden-Hybinette procedures. A systematic review of the literature on management of anterior dislocation of the shoulder with glenoid bony procedures was performed. A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases using various combinations of the keywords "shoulder," "dislocation," "treatment," "Latarjet," "Bristow," "bone loss," "Eden-Hybinette," "iliac," "bone," "block," "clinical," "outcome," and "Bankart." The following data were extracted: demographics, bone defects and other lesions, type of surgery, outcome measurement, range of motion (ROM), recurrence of instability, complications, and osteoarthritis. A quantitative synthesis of all comparative studies was performed to compare bone block procedures and Bankart repair in terms of postoperative recurrence of instability and osteoarthritis. Forty-six studies were included and 3,211 shoulders were evaluated. The mean value of the Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) was 65 points. Preoperatively, the injuries detected most were glenoid bone loss and Bankart lesions. The Eden-Hybinette procedure had the highest rate of postoperative osteoarthritis and recurrence. Pooled results from comparative studies showed that the bone block procedures were associated with a lower rate of recurrence when compared with Bankart repair (odds ratio [OR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 0.74; P = .002), whereas there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of postoperative osteoarthritis (P = .79). The open Bristow-Latarjet procedure continues to be a valid surgical option to treat patients with anterior shoulder instability. Bone block procedures were associated with a lower rate of recurrence when compared with the Bankart repair. The Eden
Von Harten, R; Weber, C; Andruszkow, H; Pfeifer, R; Dienstknecht, T; Pape, H C
Objective: Bankart and Hill–Sachs lesions are often associated with anterior shoulder dislocation. The MRI technique is sensitive in diagnosing both injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate Bankart and Hill–Sachs lesions with MRI to determine the correlation in occurrence and defect sizes of these lesions. Methods: Between 2006 and 2013, 446 patients were diagnosed with an anterior shoulder dislocation and 105 of these patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. All patients were examined using MRI. Bankart lesions were classified as cartilaginous or bony lesions. Hill–Sachs lesions were graded I–III using a modified Calandra classification. Results: The co-occurrence of injuries was high [odds ratio (OR) = 11.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.60–36.52; p < 0.001]. Patients older than 29 years more often presented with a bilateral injury (OR = 16.29; 95% CI = 2.71–97.73; p = 0.002). A correlation between a Bankart lesion and the grade of a Hill–Sachs lesion was found (ρ = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16–0.49; p < 0.001). Bankart lesions co-occurred more often with large Hill–Sachs lesions (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.02–1.52; p = 0.033). Conclusion: If either lesion is diagnosed, the patient is 11 times more likely to have suffered the associated injury. The size of a Hill–Sachs lesion determines the co-occurrence of cartilaginous or bony Bankart lesions. Age plays a role in determining the type of Bankart lesion as well as the co-occurrence of Bankart and Hill–Sachs lesions. Advances in knowledge: This study is the first to demonstrate the use of high-quality MRI in a reasonably large sample of patients, a positive correlation of Bankart and Hill–Sachs lesions in anterior shoulder dislocations and an association between the defect sizes. PMID:24452107
García-Lamas L; Bravo-Giménez B; Mellado-Romero M; García-Rodríguez, R; Martín-López, C M; Cano-Egea, J M; Vilá y Rico, J
We reviewed the first cases that underwent arthroscopic surgery at our center due to relapsing glenohumeral stability of the shoulder. The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of the learning curve on the results obtained. We analyzed 137 patients who underwent surgery at Hospital 12 de Octubre in Madrid, Spain between.February 1999 and March 2010. A total of 101 patients met the inclusion criteria, and these patients were divided into two groups using a chronological order, the first 50 patients and the second 50 patients. There were no statistically significant differences in sex, age and laterality between both groups (p = 0.51, p = 0.15 and p = 0.23, respectively), so the groups were comparable. We compared the following between both groups: clinical outcomes, number of dislocations, reoperations and complications, i.e., implant migration, arthrosis and axillary nerve neuropathy. We also compared the functional results, which were measured using the Constant and Rowe scales. Four episodes of redislocation occurred in group 1 and 6 in group 2. Three reoperations were performed in group 1 and 6 in group 2. No statistically significant differences were found in the number of redislocations and reoperations (p = 50 and p = 0.48, respectively).
Yeap, J S; Lee, D J K; Fazir, M; Borhan, T A Muhd; Kareem, B A
The case notes of 102 patients (117 shoulder dislocations) were reviewed retrospectively to improve the understanding of the epidemiology of this common injury. Eighty-one dislocations were primary and 36 dislocations were second or recurrent dislocations. The age distribution was characterized by a peak in male patients aged between 21-30 years. The mean age for males was 30.5 years and 47.7 years for females. The male:female ratio in first time dislocations was 5:2, while it was 5:1 in recurrent dislocations. Ninety-eight percent were anterior dislocations and 2% were posterior dislocations. Greater tuberosity fractures were found in 17 patients and almost half of these patients were aged between 41-50 years. The most common cause of first time dislocation was a direct blow or fall onto the shoulder, accounting for 42 patients (55%). The majority of these patients were aged 40 years and above. Next common cause was motor vehicle accident which occurred mostly in the younger age group. Dislocations due to sporting injuries accounted for only 5.3% of all first time dislocations. Nearly 97% were successfully reduced without a general anaesthesia. Seventy-seven percent of the patients had their shoulders immobilized after reduction, mostly with body strapping only. Fifteen patients (14.7%) were referred for physiotherapy for stiffness. Few operations were performed for recurrent dislocations but surgery does not appear to be well accepted as yet by our patients.
Zwolak, P; Schnurr, C; Hackenbroch, M; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P
Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital entity characterized by unilateral partial or total hypoplasia of the major pectoralis muscle, breast and/or ipsilateral hand abnormalities. It has been reported in association with various structural and functional abnormalities. We report about a 23-year-old male kick-boxer with Poland's syndrome who presented in our department the history of two traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations due to boxing and self-reductions. Physical examination showed an instability of the left shoulder, and the MRI scans demonstrated a Bankart lesion. The patient had been treated with an arthroscopic Bankart repair; reattachment of the detached antero-inferior labrum down to the glenoid and repairing of the inferior gleno-humeral ligament complex. To our knowledge this is a first case report of a patient presenting with traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations due to kick-boxing associated with Poland's syndrome.
Kim, Doo-Sup; Yi, Chang-Ho; Yoon, Yeu-Seung
The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes between a primary dislocation group (group P) and a recurrent dislocation group (group R) with combined lesion of Bankart and type II SLAP lesions (type V SLAP lesion) and to evaluate incidence of type V SLAP lesion. In addition, the authors evaluated clinical outcomes of these patients by dividing two groups according to the sequence for Bankart and SLAP lesion suture. From May 2000 to May 2005, 310 patients who gave informed consent, underwent the diagnostic arthroscopy and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA). One hundred and ten patients met the following criteria: (1) post-traumatic primary or recurrent anterior shoulder instability, (2) a normal contralateral shoulder, (3) a type V SLAP lesion, and (4) minimum follow-up of two years. Group P included 42 patients, and group R, 68 patients. Among all patients, 58 patients who had Bankart lesions sutured first were included in group B, and 52 who had their SLAP lesions sutured beforehand, group S. Visual analogue scale, range of motion, Rowe and Constant score were used to compare results between group P and group R, also group B and group S. The incidence rates of type V SLAP lesion were 42.8% in group P and 32.0% in group R. The overall treatment results in our study were good. Even if the difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant, group P showed greater recovery of range of motion than group R in external rotation. No significant difference was found between the two different operative methods according to suture sequence. The incidence rates of type V SLAP lesion were 42.8% in the primary dislocation group and 32.0% in the recurrent dislocation group. The overall treatment results in our study were good. Although there was no statistical significance in surgical time between the two groups, when both SLAP and Bankart lesions are present, the Bankart lesion must be sutured first to reduce surgical time.
Olds, M; Ellis, R; Donaldson, K; Parmar, P; Kersten, P
Background Recurrent instability following a first-time anterior traumatic shoulder dislocation may exceed 26%. We systematically reviewed risk factors which predispose this population to events of recurrence. Methods A systematic review of studies published before 1 July 2014. Risk factors which predispose recurrence following a first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation were documented and rates of recurrence were compared. Pooled ORs were analysed using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Ten studies comprising 1324 participants met the criteria for inclusion. Recurrent instability following a first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation was 39%. Increased risk of recurrent instability was reported in people aged 40 years and under (OR=13.46), in men (OR=3.18) and in people with hyperlaxity (OR=2.68). Decreased risk of recurrent instability was reported in people with a greater tuberosity fracture (OR=0.13). The rate of recurrent instability decreased as time from the initial dislocation increased. Other factors such as a bony Bankart lesion, nerve palsy and occupation influenced rates of recurrent instability. Conclusions Sex, age at initial dislocation, time from initial dislocation, hyperlaxity and greater tuberosity fractures were key risk factors in at least two good quality cohort studies resulting in strong evidence as concluded in the GRADE criteria. Although bony Bankart lesions, Hill Sachs lesions, occupation, physiotherapy treatment and nerve palsy were risk factors for recurrent instability, the evidence was weak using the GRADE criteria—these findings relied on poorer quality studies or were inconsistent among studies. PMID:25900943
Federer, Andrew E; Taylor, Dean C; Mather, Richard C
Decision making in health care has evolved substantially over the last century. Up until the late 1970s, medical decision making was predominantly intuitive and anecdotal. It was based on trial and error and involved high levels of problem solving. The 1980s gave way to empirical medicine, which was evidence based probabilistic, and involved pattern recognition and less problem solving. Although this represented a major advance in the quality of medical decision making, limitations existed. The advantages of the gold standard of the randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) are well-known and this technique is irreplaceable in its ability to answer critical clinical questions. However, the RCT does have drawbacks. RCTs are expensive and can only capture a snapshot in time. As treatments change and new technologies emerge, new expensive clinical trials must be undertaken to reevaluate them. Furthermore, in order to best evaluate a single intervention, other factors must be controlled. In addition, the study population may not match that of another organization or provider. Although evidence-based medicine has provided powerful data for clinicians, effectively and efficiently tailoring it to the individual has not yet evolved. We are now in a period of transition from this evidence-based era to one dominated by the personalization and customization of care. It will be fueled by policy decisions to shift financial responsibility to the patient, creating a powerful and sophisticated consumer, unlike any patient we have known before. The challenge will be to apply medical evidence and personal preferences to medical decisions and deliver it efficiently in the increasingly busy clinical setting. In this article, we provide a robust review of the concepts of customized care and some of techniques to deliver it. We will illustrate this through a personalized decision model for the treatment decision after a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation.
This paper presents the main surgical techniques applied in the treatment of anterior recurrent shoulder dislocation, aiming the achievement of the normality of articulate movements. This was obtained by combining distinct surgical procedures, which allowed the recovery of a complete functional capacity of the shoulder, without jeopardizing the normality of movement, something that has not been recorded in the case of the tense sutures of the surgical procedures of Putti-Platt, Bankart, Latarjet, Dickson-O'Dell and others. The careful review of the methods applied supports the conclusion that recurrent shoulder dislocation can be cured, since cure has been obtained in 97% of the treated cases. However, some degree of limitation in the shoulder movement has been observed in most of the treated cases. Our main goal was to achieve a complete shoulder functional recovery, by treating simultaneously all of the anatomical-pathological lesions, without considering the so-called essential lesions. The period of post-operatory immobilization only last for the healing of soft parts; this takes place in a position of neutral shoulder rotation, since the use of vascular bone graft eliminates the need for long time immobilization, due to the shoulder stabilization provided by rigid fixation of the coracoid at the glenoid edge, as in the Latarjet's technique. Our procedure, used since 1959, comprises the association of several techniques, which has permitted shoulder healing without movement limitation. That was because of the tension reduction in the sutures of the subescapularis, capsule, and coracobraquialis muscles.
Hazmy, C H Wan; Parwathi, A
This retrospective study was conducted in a state hospital set-up and aimed at identifying the incidence of sports-related shoulder dislocations and their characteristics and the sports events involved. All patients with shoulder dislocation related to sporting activities admitted to the hospital from January 1999 to December 2002 were included in the study. There were 18 sports-related shoulder dislocations out of 106 all shoulder dislocations admitted during this 4-year period. The average age of the patients was 25.4 years. All but two were male. All were anterior dislocations. Recurrent dislocation constitutes 78% of the cases with an average of 3 times re-dislocation. Rugby and badminton were the major contributors to the injuries followed by volleyball, soccer and swimming. Conservative treatment was successfully instituted for 88% of the patients and 12% opted for surgical intervention.
Chen, Long; Xu, Zhao; Peng, Jing; Xing, Fei; Wang, Hong; Xiang, Zhou
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of arthroscopic and open Bankart repair for recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation using meta-analysis of data from clinical trials. Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, PUBMED and EMBASE were used to search and identify clinical trials that evaluated arthroscopic and open Bankart repair for recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. Methodological qualities of studies were assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Publication bias was detected using Begg's test and Egger's test. Sixteen trials involving 827 shoulders were included in the study. Based on Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias, three studies were rated as high quality and one study was rated as moderate quality among the randomized controlled trials. Another twelve case-control studies were rated as high quality based on Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. No significant publication bias was detected by Begg's test or Egger's test. Meta-analysis results indicated that arthroscopic repair has a significantly better recovery rate for external rotation at 90° of abduction, external rotation at side (P > 0.05) and forward flexion. However, arthroscopic repair had higher rates of recurrence and reoperation than open Bankart repair. Meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials and case-control studies demonstrated that arthroscopic repair and open Bankart repair were similar in safety. Arthroscopic repair resulted in better recovery of range of motion, but recurrence and reoperation rates were higher than open Bankart repair.
Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul
Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation.
Liu, An; Xue, Xinghe; Chen, Yunlin; Bi, Fanggang; Yan, Shigui
Conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective randomised controlled trials directly comparing (1) the rates of recurrence and (2) patient-based quality-of-life assessments after the external rotation (ER) or internal rotation (IR) immobilisation after primary anterior shoulder dislocation. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and ISI Web of Science were searched up to January 2013, using the Boolean operators as follows: (bankart lesion OR shoulder anterior dislocation) AND ((external rotation AND internal rotation) OR immobilisation). All prospective randomised controlled trials directly comparing recurrence rate and patient-based quality-of-life assessments between the ER and IR immobilisations were retrieved. No limitation of the language or publication year existed in our analysis. Seven of 896 studies involving 663 patients were included, 338 in the ER group and 325 in the IR group. No significant difference was observed in the recurrence rate at all ages (risk ratio (RR)=0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.03; p=0.067), at the age stratum of ≤30 years (RR=0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.29; p=0.250) and >30 years (RR=0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.97; p=0.722). Four trials adopted quality-of-life assessments, using the Constant-Murlay functional scoring system, the Rowe scoring system, the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI), the Disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons evaluation form (ASES). Only one trial demonstrated borderline statistical significance (p=0.05) and probable superiority of the ER group based on the ASES. No significant difference was observed in other three trials. Based on the results of our analysis, the ER immobilisation could not reduce the rates of recurrence after primary anterior shoulder dislocation or improve the quality of life compared with the IR immobilisation. More rigorous and adequately powered prospective randomised
Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; Freitas, José Márcio Alves; de Oliveira França, Flávio; Santos, Flávio Márcio Lago; de Simoni, Leandro Furtado; Godinho, Pedro Couto
Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic rotator cuff fixation and, when present, simultaneous repair of the Bankart lesion caused by traumatic dislocation; and to assess whether the size of the rotator cuff injury caused by traumatic dislocation has any influence on the postoperative clinical outcomes. Methods Thirty-three patients with traumatic shoulder dislocation and complete rotator cuff injury, with at least two years of follow up, were retrospectively evaluated. For analysis purposes, the patients were divided into groups: presence of fixed Bankart lesion or absence of this lesion, and rotator cuff lesions smaller than 3.0 cm (group A) or greater than or equal to 3.0 cm (group B). All the patients underwent arthroscopic repair of the lesions and were evaluated postoperatively by means of the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) score and strength measurements. Results The group with Bankart lesion repair had a postoperative UCLA score of 33.96, while the score of the group without Bankart lesion was 33.7, without statistical significance (p = 0.743). Group A had a postoperative UCLA score of 34.35 and group B, 33.15, without statistical significance (p = 0.416). Conclusion The functional outcomes of the patients who only presented complete rotator cuff tearing after traumatic shoulder dislocation, which underwent arthroscopic repair, were similar to the outcomes of those who presented an associated with a Bankart lesion that was corrected simultaneously with the rotator cuff injury. The extent of the original rotator cuff injury did not alter the functional results in the postoperative evaluation. PMID:27069884
Cobanoğlu, Mutlu; Yumrukcal, Feridun; Karataş, Cengiz; Duygun, Fatih
Ipsilateral shoulder and elbow dislocation is very rare and only six articles are present in the literature mentioning this kind of a complex injury. With this presentation we aim to emphasise the importance of assessing the adjacent joints in patients with trauma in order not to miss any accompanying pathologies. We report a case of a 43-year-old female patient with ipsilateral right shoulder and elbow dislocation treated conservatively. The patient reported elbow pain when first admitted to emergency service but she was diagnosed with simultaneous ipsilateral shoulder and elbow injury and treated conservatively. As a more painful pathology may mask the additional ones, one should hasten to help before performing a complete evaluation. Any harm caused to the patient due to this reason would not be a complication but a malpractice.
Çobanoğlu, Mutlu; Yumrukcal, Feridun; Karataş, Cengiz; Duygun, Fatih
Ipsilateral shoulder and elbow dislocation is very rare and only six articles are present in the literature mentioning this kind of a complex injury. With this presentation we aim to emphasise the importance of assessing the adjacent joints in patients with trauma in order not to miss any accompanying pathologies. We report a case of a 43-year-old female patient with ipsilateral right shoulder and elbow dislocation treated conservatively. The patient reported elbow pain when first admitted to emergency service but she was diagnosed with simultaneous ipsilateral shoulder and elbow injury and treated conservatively. As a more painful pathology may mask the additional ones, one should hasten to help before performing a complete evaluation. Any harm caused to the patient due to this reason would not be a complication but a malpractice. PMID:24859563
Streufert, Ben; Reed, Shelby D.; Orlando, Lori A.; Taylor, Dean C.; Huber, Joel C.; Mather, Richard C.
Background: Although surgical management of a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation (FTASD) can reduce the risk of recurrent dislocation, other treatment characteristics, costs, and outcomes are important to patients considering treatment options. While patient preferences, such as those elicited by conjoint analysis, have been shown to be important in medical decision-making, the magnitudes or effects of patient preferences in treating an FTASD are unknown. Purpose: To test a novel shared decision-making tool after sustained FTASD. Specifically measured were the following: (1) importance of aspects of operative versus nonoperative treatment, (2) respondents’ agreement with results generated by the tool, (3) willingness to share these results with physicians, and (4) association of results with choice of treatment after FTASD. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A tool was designed and tested using members of Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online panel. The tool included an adaptive conjoint analysis exercise, a method to understand individuals’ perceived importance of the following attributes of treatment: (1) chance of recurrent dislocation, (2) cost, (3) short-term limits on shoulder motion, (4) limits on participation in high-risk activities, and (5) duration of physical therapy. Respondents then chose between operative and nonoperative treatment for hypothetical shoulder dislocation. Results: Overall, 374 of 501 (75%) respondents met the inclusion criteria, of which most were young, active males; one-third reported prior dislocation. From the conjoint analysis, the importance of recurrent dislocation and cost of treatment were the most important attributes. A substantial majority agreed with the tool’s ability to generate representative preferences and indicated that they would share these preferences with their physician. Importance of recurrence proved significantly predictive of respondents’ treatment choices
Combined Arthroscopic Bankart Repair and Coracoid Process Transfer to Anterior Glenoid for Shoulder Dislocation in Rugby Players: Evaluation Based on Ability to Perform Sport-Specific Movements Effectively.
Tasaki, Atsushi; Morita, Wataru; Yamakawa, Akira; Nozaki, Taiki; Kuroda, Eishi; Hoshikawa, Yoshimitsu; Phillips, Barry B
To evaluate the outcomes of a combination of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and an open Bristow procedure in relation to the subjective quality of performance in movements that are typical in rugby. Forty shoulders in 38 players who underwent surgery for traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder were reviewed. In all cases, arthroscopic Bankart repair was followed by a Bristow procedure, with preservation of the repaired capsular ligaments, during the same operation. The mean age at the time of surgery was 21 years. Patients were asked to describe common rugby maneuvers (tackle, hand-off, jackal, and saving) preoperatively and postoperatively as "no problem," "insufficient," or "impossible." There were no recurrent dislocations at a mean follow-up of 30.5 months. The mean Rowe score improved significantly from 65.0 (range, 55 to 75) to 97.5 (range, 95 to 100) (P < .001) after surgery. Preoperatively, regarding the tackling motion, none of the patients reported having no problem, whereas the ability was described as insufficient for 23 shoulders and impossible for 17 shoulders. Postoperatively, no problem with tackling was reported for 36 shoulders, whereas insufficiency was reported for 4. The results for the hand-off, jackal, and saving maneuvers were similar (P < .001). No patient rated any of the motions as impossible postoperatively. This combined surgical procedure clearly is effective in preventing recurrent dislocation in rugby players; however, some players complained of insufficiency in the quality of their play when they were tackling or performing other rugby-specific movements. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poggetti, Andrea; Castellini, Iacopo; Neri, Elisabetta; Marchettil, Stefano; Lisanti, Michele
Neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is a very rare condition, often related to seizures or major trauma. Open reduction is recommended whenever Hill-Sachs lesion is >25% of the joint and the dislocation is elder than 3 weeks. We describe a case report of a 28-year-old man left handed Jehovah's Witness laborer assessed 12 weeks after bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation. The patient was evaluated with clinical examination, and it was observed an asymptomatic intrarotation of both shoulders with a mild left circumflex nerve deficit. He was able to perform flexion and abduction of both arms up to 60° and 10° of extrarotation. Pre-operative constant scores were 49 in left and 55 in right shoulder, pre-operative disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores were 57 in left and 53 in right shoulder, and visual analogue scales (VAS) was 2. Radiological examination were bilateral anteroposterior shoulder X-rays and computer tomography scan. The surgeon treated both shoulder (not simultaneously) by open reduction and Bristow-Latarjet coracoids transfer procedure. A 1 year after operations, left flexion was 180° while right was 160, bilateral abduction was 180. He was able to return to his pre-injury activities, the constant score was 89 left and 83 right, DASH score was 17 left and 13 right and VAS was 0. Atraumatic bilateral neglected anterior shoulder dislocation can be treated with open Bristow-Latarjet procedure to provide a stable glenohumeral joint in laborer patient and permit a return to the pre-injury activities, to create a greater extension of the glenoid arc and to avoid future dislocation.
Poggetti, Andrea; Castellini, Iacopo; Neri, Elisabetta; Marchettil, Stefano; Lisanti, Michele
Introduction: Neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is a very rare condition, often related to seizures or major trauma. Open reduction is recommended whenever Hill-Sachs lesion is >25% of the joint and the dislocation is elder than 3 weeks. Case Report: We describe a case report of a 28-year-old man left handed Jehovah’s Witness laborer assessed 12 weeks after bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation. The patient was evaluated with clinical examination, and it was observed an asymptomatic intrarotation of both shoulders with a mild left circumflex nerve deficit. He was able to perform flexion and abduction of both arms up to 60° and 10° of extrarotation. Pre-operative constant scores were 49 in left and 55 in right shoulder, pre-operative disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores were 57 in left and 53 in right shoulder, and visual analogue scales (VAS) was 2. Radiological examination were bilateral anteroposterior shoulder X-rays and computer tomography scan. The surgeon treated both shoulder (not simultaneously) by open reduction and Bristow-Latarjet coracoids transfer procedure. A 1 year after operations, left flexion was 180° while right was 160, bilateral abduction was 180. He was able to return to his pre-injury activities, the constant score was 89 left and 83 right, DASH score was 17 left and 13 right and VAS was 0. Conclusion: Atraumatic bilateral neglected anterior shoulder dislocation can be treated with open Bristow-Latarjet procedure to provide a stable glenohumeral joint in laborer patient and permit a return to the pre-injury activities, to create a greater extension of the glenoid arc and to avoid future dislocation. PMID:27299079
Shibano, Koji; Koishi, Hayato; Futai, Kazuma; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi
Bankart repair postoperative complications include loss of shoulder motion and shoulder instability. The primary reason that postoperative complications develop may be excessive imbrication of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) or inadequate repair position. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the influence of inadequate repair by computer simulation for a normal shoulder joint. Magnetic resonance images of 10 normal shoulder joints were acquired for 7 positions every 30° from the maximum internal rotation to the maximum external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. The shortest 3-dimensional path of the AIGHL in each rotational orientation was calculated. We used computer simulations to anticipate the loss of motion and instability by changing the AIGHL length and insertion sites on the glenoid. The AIGHL length measured 50 ± 5 mm at the maximum external shoulder rotation. AIGHL shortening by 3, 6, and 9 mm made the angle of maximum external rotation 80°, 68°, and 54°, respectively. A superior deviation of 3, 6, and 9 mm on the glenoid insertion resulted in a maximum external rotation angle of 85°, 79°, and 77°. An inferior deviation of 3, 6, and 9 mm produced humeral head translation of 1.7, 2.9, and 3.6 mm. Simulation of both excessive imbrication and deviation of the insertion position led to quantitative prediction of the resulting loss of motion and instability. These findings will be useful for anticipating complications after Bankart repair. Basic science study, computer modeling, imaging. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Zhu, Yiming; Jiang, Chunyan; Song, Guanyang
Very few studies have compared open Latarjet versus arthroscopic Latarjet procedures. To compare the clinical and computed tomographic outcomes between open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedures. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A prospective, comparative study was performed. The open Latarjet group included 44 patients, and the arthroscopic Latarjet group included 46 patients. All patients had more than 2 years of clinical follow-up (range of motion, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES] score, Constant-Murley score, and Rowe score). The position of the transferred coracoid, the screw orientation, and graft resorption were evaluated on computed tomography (CT) scan. The surgery time for the open group was significantly shorter than that for the arthroscopic group ( P = .003). No recurrent dislocation occurred in either group. The apprehension test was negative in all patients in both groups. At the final follow-up, no significant difference was detected between the open group and the arthroscopic group regarding any of the clinical outcome measurements. The transferred coracoid graft was level with the glenoid in all patients in both groups. The open group had better position in the superior-inferior direction compared with the arthroscopic group ( P < .001). No significant difference was found in screw orientation between the 2 groups ( P = .102). At 1 year after surgery, patients in the arthroscopic group had significantly less resorption compared with patients in the open group ( P = .044). Both procedures are effective for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation with marked glenoid bone loss. The open group had better position in the superior-inferior direction compared with the arthroscopic group. At 1 year after surgery, patients in the arthroscopic Latarjet group showed notably less graft resorption compared with patients in the open Latarjet group.
Maki, Nobukazu; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Urayama, Shingo; Kaneko, Kazuo
Background: Characteristics of rugby tackles that lead to primary anterior shoulder dislocation remain unclear. Purpose: To clarify the characteristics of tackling that lead to shoulder dislocation and to assess the correlation between the mechanism of injury and morphological damage of the glenoid. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eleven elite rugby players who sustained primary anterior shoulder dislocation due to one-on-one tackling between 2001 and 2014 were included. Using an assessment system, the tackler’s movement, posture, and shoulder and head position were evaluated in each phase of tackling. Based on 3-dimensional computed tomography, the glenoid of the affected shoulder was classified into 3 types: intact, erosion, and bone defect. Orientation of the glenoid defect and presence of Hill-Sachs lesion were also evaluated. Results: Eleven tackles that led to primary shoulder dislocation were divided into hand, arm, and shoulder tackle types based on the site at which the tackler contacted the ball carrier initially. In hand and arm tackles, the tackler’s shoulder joint was forcibly moved to horizontal abduction by the impact of his upper limb, which appeared to result from an inappropriate approach to the ball carrier. In shoulder tackles, the tackler’s head was lowered and was in front of the ball carrier at impact. There was no significant correlation between tackle types and the characteristics of bony lesions of the shoulder. Conclusion: Although the precise mechanism of primary anterior shoulder dislocation could not be estimated from this single-view analysis, failure of individual tackling leading to injury is not uniform and can be caused by 2 main factors: failure of approach followed by an extended arm position or inappropriate posture of the tackler at impact, such as a lowered head in front of the opponent. These findings indicate that injury mechanisms should be assessed for each type of tackle, as it is unknown
Ozer, Hamza; Baltaci, Gül; Selek, Hakan; Turanli, Sacit
Injuries after an electric shock, such as dermal burns, motor and sensory nerve deficits, fractures and dislocations, are reported in the literature. Posterior dislocation of the shoulder after electric-shock is the common musculoskeletal injury. Bilateral dislocation, either anterior or posterior, is rarely seen and reported. We report a case of bilateral shoulder fracture dislocation in opposite directions following an electric-shock and discuss the mechanism, the diagnosis and the treatment.
Dannenbaum, Joseph; Krueger, Chad A; Johnson, Anthony
Objective This review article aims to describe the techniques, success rates, advantages and disadvantages of commonly used anterior shoulder reduction maneuvers. A review of literature was performed and each article was reviewed for the reported success rates, advantages, disadvantages and technical notes for each anterior shoulder reduction technique. There are a wide variety of very successful shoulder reduction maneuvers, each with their own specific set of advantages and disadvantages. While there are some situations that may favor one of these anterior shoulder reduction techniques over another; it is largely left up to the healthcare provider to determine which maneuver is best on a patient-to-patient basis. Shoulder dislocation; shoulder subluxation; shoulder reduction; orthopaedics, emergency medicine. 2012.
Samilson, R L; Prieto, V
Although posterior dislocation of the shoulder is a rare injury in athletes, failure to recognize and properly manage acute dislocation may have serious consequences. The article discusses the incidence, mechanism of injury, classification, pathologic findings, clinical and radiologic diagnosis, and management.
Szyluk, Karol J.; Jasiński, Andrzej; Mielnik, Michał; Koczy, Bogdan
Background The incidence of shoulder joint dislocation has been estimated at 11–26 per 100 000 population per year. In our opinion, basic epidemiological data need to be continually updated in studies of large populations. To study the incidence of posttraumatic dislocation of the shoulder joint in the Polish population. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated the entire Polish population between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2015. To identify the study group, data collected in the electronic database of the National Health Fund were used. The study group was divided into subgroups to detect possible differences in the incidence of shoulder dislocation with regard to age, sex, and season of the year (month) when the dislocation occurred. Results The cumulative size of the study sample was 192.72 million over the 5 years of the study. We identified 51 409 patients with first posttraumatic shoulder dislocation, at a mean age of 50.83 years (SD 21.12), from 0 to 104 years. The incidence of traumatic shoulder dislocations for the entire study group ranged from 24.75/100 000/year (number of posttraumatic shoulder dislocations per 100 000 persons per year) to 29.09/100 000/year, for a mean of 26.69/100 000/year. Conclusions In this study, the overall incidence of first-time posttraumatic shoulder dislocations in the Polish general population was 26.69 per 100 000 persons per year. These results are higher than estimates presented by other authors. It is necessary to study, regularly update, and monitor this problem in the general population. PMID:27777396
Behr, Ian; Blint, Andy; Trenhaile, Scott
Ipsilateral dislocation of the shoulder and elbow is an uncommon injury. A literature review identified nine previously described cases. We are reporting a unique case of ipsilateral posterior shoulder dislocation and anterior elbow dislocation along with concomitant intra-articular fractures of both joints. This is the first report describing this combination of injuries. Successful treatment generally occurs with closed reduction of ipsilateral shoulder and elbow dislocations, usually reducing the elbow first. When combined with a fracture at one or both locations, closed reduction of the dislocations in conjunction with appropriate fracture management can result in a positive functional outcome.
Behr, Ian; Blint, Andy; Trenhaile, Scott
Ipsilateral dislocation of the shoulder and elbow is an uncommon injury. A literature review identified nine previously described cases. We are reporting a unique case of ipsilateral posterior shoulder dislocation and anterior elbow dislocation along with concomitant intra-articular fractures of both joints. This is the first report describing this combination of injuries. Successful treatment generally occurs with closed reduction of ipsilateral shoulder and elbow dislocations, usually reducing the elbow first. When combined with a fracture at one or both locations, closed reduction of the dislocations in conjunction with appropriate fracture management can result in a positive functional outcome. PMID:26403884
Sperling, John W; Pring, Maya; Antuna, Samuel A; Cofield, Robert H
Currently, there are no published series with mid- to long-term results on patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty for locked posterior dislocation of the shoulder. We reviewed the results of patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty for locked posterior dislocation of the shoulder to determine the results, the risk factors for an unsatisfactory outcome, and the rates of failure. Twelve shoulder arthroplasties were performed at our institution, between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1997, in 12 patients who had a locked posterior dislocation of the shoulder. All 12 patients were followed up for a minimum of 5 years (mean, 9.0 years) or until the time of revision surgery. There was significant pain relief (P <.001) as well as improvement in external rotation from -13 degrees to 28 degrees (P =.001). On the basis of a modified Neer result rating system, there was 1 excellent, 6 satisfactory, and 5 unsatisfactory results. Three patients underwent revision surgery for posterior instability (two) and component loosening (one). Recurrent instability occurred in two patients in the early postoperative period. There were no cases of recurrent instability greater than 1 year from the time of surgery. The data from this study suggest that shoulder arthroplasty for locked posterior dislocation provides pain relief and improved motion. Among those with recurrent posterior instability, it usually appears in the early postoperative period.
Frank, Rachel M.; Mellano, Chris; Shin, Jason J.; Feldheim, Terrence F.; Mascarenhas, Randhir; Yanke, Adam Blair; Cole, Brian J.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes following revision anterior shoulder stabilization performed either via all-arthroscopic soft tissue repair or via Latarjet coracoid transfer. Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 91 shoulders undergoing revision anterior shoulder stabilization was performed. All patients underwent prior soft tissue stabilization; those with prior open bone grafting procedures were excluded. For patients with 25% glenoid bone loss, Latarjet was performed (n=28). Patients were queried regarding recurrent instability (subluxation or dislocation). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using validated patient reported outcome questionnaires including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). Results: A total of 63 shoulders in 62 patients (46 males, 16 females) with an average age of 23.2 ± 6.9 years were included in the revision arthroscopy group. At an average follow-up of 46.9 ± 16.8 months (range, 15 to 78), the mean WOSI score was 80.1 (range, 15.0 to 100), and there were significant improvements (p<0.001) in ASES (63.7 to 85.1), SST (6.2 to 9.1), and VAS pain scores (2.89 to 0.81). Recurrent instability occurred in 12 of 63 shoulders (19%); the number of prior surgeries and baseline hyperlaxity were significant risk factors for failure (p<0.001 and p=0.04, respectively). No patients developed clinical or radiographic evidence of arthritis. A total of 28 shoulders in 28 patients (21 male, 7 female) with an average age of 27.5 years (range 14 to 45) were included in the Latarjet group. Thirteen (46%) had more than one previous stabilization attempt. ), the average WOSI score was 71.9, and there were significant improvements (p<0.001) in ASES (65.7 to 87.0), SST (7.2 to 10.3), and VAS (3.1 to 1.1). Recurrent instability occurred in 2 of 28 shoulders
Nakagawa, Shigeto; Mizuno, Naoko; Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Tachibana, Yuta; Mae, Tatsuo
Recently, bony defects of the glenoid in patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability have been increasingly noticed. The bone fragment of a bony Bankart lesion is often utilized for Bankart repair, but the fragment is at times smaller than the glenoid defect. The reason for this mismatch in size is unknown. The bone fragment of a bony Bankart lesion might gradually be absorbed over time. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 163 shoulders were prospectively examined by computed tomography. In shoulders with bony Bankart lesions, glenoid defects and bone fragment absorption were assessed, and findings were compared with the time elapsed after the primary traumatic episode. When a bone fragment was not detected despite loss of the normal contour of the glenoid rim, the findings were classified as erosions if the rim appeared round and slightly compressed and classified as complete bone fragment absorption if the rim appeared straight and sharp. There were no glenoid defects in 55 shoulders, erosions in 16 shoulders, and glenoid defects in 92 shoulders. The size of the glenoid defect was 0% to 10% in 15 shoulders, 10% to 20% in 44, 20% to 30% in 26, 30% to 40% in 6, and 40% to 50% in 1. The average defect size was 7.9% in shoulders scanned at <1 year, 10.7% between 1 and 2 years, and 11.3% at >2 years, indicating no relationship with time after trauma. Regarding bone fragment absorption, all 92 shoulders with glenoid defects showed absorption to some extent. The extent of absorption was <50% in 32 shoulders, >50% in 45, and 100% in 15. The average extent of absorption was 51.9% in shoulders scanned at <1 year, 65.3% between 1 and 2 years, and 70.0% at >2 years, indicating a significant relationship with time after trauma. Bone fragment absorption was seen in all of the shoulders with bony Bankart lesions. Most bone fragments showed severe absorption within 1 year after the primary traumatic episode. Before arthroscopic Bankart repair, not only
Carpinteiro, Eduardo Palma; Barros, Andre Aires
Background: The shoulder is the most complex joint in the body. The large freedom of motion in this joint is the main cause of instability. Instability varies in its degree, direction, etiology and volition and there is a large spectrum of conditions. Methods: Based on literature research and also in our own experience, we propose to elucidate the reader about the natural history of instability and its importance for the appropriate management of this pathology, by answering the following questions: What happens in the shoulder after the first dislocation? Which structures suffer damage? Who are the patients at higher risk of recurrence? How does the disease evolve without treatment? Will surgical treatment avoid future negative outcomes and prevent degenerative joint disease? Who should we treat and when? Results: 80% of anterior-inferior dislocations occur in young patients. Recurrent instability is common and multiple dislocations are the rule. Instability is influenced by a large number of variables, including age of onset, activity profile, number of episodes,delay between first episode and surgical treatment. Conclusion: Understanding the disease and its natural evolution is determinant to decide the treatment in order to obtain the best outcome. It is crucial to identify the risk factors for recurrence. Delay in surgical treatment, when indicated, leads to worse results. Surgical technique should address the type and severity of both soft tissue and bone lesions, when present.
Carpinteiro, Eduardo Palma; Barros, Andre Aires
The shoulder is the most complex joint in the body. The large freedom of motion in this joint is the main cause of instability. Instability varies in its degree, direction, etiology and volition and there is a large spectrum of conditions. Based on literature research and also in our own experience, we propose to elucidate the reader about the natural history of instability and its importance for the appropriate management of this pathology, by answering the following questions: What happens in the shoulder after the first dislocation? Which structures suffer damage? Who are the patients at higher risk of recurrence? How does the disease evolve without treatment? Will surgical treatment avoid future negative outcomes and prevent degenerative joint disease? Who should we treat and when? 80% of anterior-inferior dislocations occur in young patients. Recurrent instability is common and multiple dislocations are the rule. Instability is influenced by a large number of variables, including age of onset, activity profile, number of episodes,delay between first episode and surgical treatment. Understanding the disease and its natural evolution is determinant to decide the treatment in order to obtain the best outcome. It is crucial to identify the risk factors for recurrence. Delay in surgical treatment, when indicated, leads to worse results. Surgical technique should address the type and severity of both soft tissue and bone lesions, when present.
Hazmy, C H Wan; Parwathi, A
This retrospective study was conducted in a state hospital set-up and aimed at identifying the magnitude of shoulder dislocations and their demographic data, characteristics of the injury, mechanism and predisposing factors, and the instituted treatment. Patients with radiographic evidence of shoulder dislocation admitted to the hospital from January 1999 to December 2002 were included. Data were recorded from the case notes. There were 105 shoulder dislocations with male predomination in 77% cases and age ranged between 11 and 90 years (average 30.9 years). The right shoulder was affected in 68% of the cases. The contributing events were fall in 37% of cases, road traffic accident 23%, sports 17% and pathological conditions 13%. Anterior dislocation occurred in 96.2% of the cases. Posterior and inferior dislocations encountered in two patients for each type. Twelve dislocations were associated fracture of the greater tuberosity, two each with humeral neck fracture and cerebral injuries. First time dislocation occurred in 73.6% of the cases. The recurrences ranged between 2 to 6 times (average 3.4 times). Closed manipulative reduction and strapping was the definitive treatment in 92.4% of the cases and the remaining needed surgical reconstruction. Four patients had open reduction and internal fixation of the associated fractures while another four had arthroscopic Bankart's repair. In conclusion, shoulder dislocation represents the most common shoulder problems. It afflicted young adults of reproductive age (21-40 years) and participation in sports was a risk factor in men. Women over 40 years and fall were at risk to develop shoulder dislocation.
Hantes, Michael; Raoulis, Vasilios
Background: In the last years, basic research and arthroscopic surgery, have improved our understanding of shoulder anatomy and pathology. It is a fact that arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability has evolved considerably over the past decades. The aim of this paper is to present the variety of pathologies that should be identified and treated during shoulder arthroscopy when dealing with anterior shoulder instability cases. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding arthroscopic shoulder anatomy, anatomic variants, and arthroscopic findings in anterior shoulder instability, is presented. In addition, correlation of arthroscopic findings with physical examination and advanced imaging (CT and MRI) in order to improve our understanding in anterior shoulder instability pathology is discussed. Results: Shoulder instability represents a broad spectrum of disease and a thorough understanding of the pathoanatomy is the key for a successful treatment of the unstable shoulder. Patients can have a variety of pathologies concomitant with a traditional Bankart lesion, such as injuries of the glenoid (bony Bankart), injuries of the glenoid labrum, superiorly (SLAP) or anteroinferiorly (e.g. anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion, and Perthes), capsular lesions (humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament), and accompanying osseous-cartilage lesions (Hill-Sachs, glenolabral articular disruption). Shoulder arthroscopy allows for a detailed visualization and a dynamic examination of all anatomic structures, identification of pathologic findings, and treatment of all concomitant lesions. Conclusion: Surgeons must be well prepared and understanding the normal anatomy of the glenohumeral joint, including its anatomic variants to seek for the possible pathologic lesions in anterior shoulder instability during shoulder arthroscopy. Patient selection criteria, improved surgical techniques, and implants available have contributed to the enhancement of
Abrams, Jeffrey S; Bradley, James P; Angelo, Richard L; Burks, Robert
Arthroscopy is considered a relatively new technique for the surgical repair of an unstable shoulder. Shoulder arthroscopy has grown in popularity and is considered the gold standard for treating carefully selected patients. Despite its increasing popularity, the procedure has a significant learning curve and has resulted in early higher recurrence rates when compared with patients treated with open techniques. With the addition of newer instrumentation, the refinement of techniques, and additional capsular plication and tensioning, outcomes for patients treated with shoulder arthroscopy should continue to improve. A major distinguishing feature in selecting appropriate candidates for shoulder arthroscopy is whether there have been significant bone changes resulting from dislocation recurrence. Recurrent anterior dislocation may create an anterior glenoid rim fracture, erosion loss from multiple recurrences, and an impression defect on the posterior aspect of the humeral head. The loss of contact area between the "ball and cup" may compromise the results of techniques that restore the anatomic restraints of soft tissues. Early intervention is becoming recognized as an important factor in patient selection for arthroscopic treatment. Imaging studies after traumatic injuries include radiographs, CT scans, possible articular contrast studies, and MRIs. These studies can identify and quantify rim fractures and the remaining articular contact in patients with recurrent subluxations, allowing for earlier appropriate intervention. Patients with significant bone loss may be best treated with an open procedure that allows grafting of the deficiency. Arthroscopic techniques to repair fractures or graft deficiencies continue to evolve. Rim fractures can be anatomically repaired with a suture anchor technique when recognized early. Rim erosion from chronic recurrent dislocations may require a combination of soft-tissue reattachment and coracoid grafting. Humeral head defects
Rubenstein, D L; Jobe, F W; Glousman, R E; Kvitne, R S; Pink, M; Giangarra, C E
We did an anterior capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent subluxation or dislocation of the shoulder in 75 athletes after failure of conservative therapy. Average follow-up was 39 months (range 28 to 60 months). The results were 77% excellent, 75% good, 3% fair, and 5% poor. Seventy-five percent of the professional and 100% of the college baseball players returned to their previous level of competition. Seventy-seven percent of the professional pitchers were able to return to professional pitching. The range of motion at follow-up was full in 79% of the athletes. No infections or nerve injuries occurred. The anterior capsulolabral reconstruction procedure combined with an early rehabilitation program appears to provide an improved outcome compared with previously reported procedures for anterior instability of the shoulder in athletes.
Rathore, Sameer; Kasha, Srinivas; Yeggana, Srinivas
Injuries causing fracture dislocation of shoulder and brachial plexus palsy are extremely rare. As per authors' knowledge, three part fracture of proximal humerus with shoulder dislocation and brachial plexus palsy has not been reported in the literature. A 53 year old female sustained a three part fracture of right proximal humerus along with dislocation of shoulder joint and brachial plexus palsy following a fall from a flight of stairs. Fracture was managed by plating of proximal humerus and brachial palsy was followed up with electrodiagnostic studies and regular physiotherapy. Fracture united by three months and patient had near complete recovery of brachial palsy. Authors have discussed diagnostic modalities and management options in the article. Clinician should always look for clinical evidence of brachial plexus injury in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation. Signs of nerve injury with shoulder fracture dislocation are easily overlooked or incorrectly attributed to pain due to bony injury. Subsequent loss of shoulder function in elderly is often thought to be due to immobilization and stiffness. Clinical suspicion can help in diagnosing the often missed neurological injuries and can help in improving outcomes.
Rathore, Sameer; Kasha, Srinivas; Yeggana, Srinivas
Introduction: Injuries causing fracture dislocation of shoulder and brachial plexus palsy are extremely rare. As per authors’ knowledge, three part fracture of proximal humerus with shoulder dislocation and brachial plexus palsy has not been reported in the literature. Case presentation: A 53 year old female sustained a three part fracture of right proximal humerus along with dislocation of shoulder joint and brachial plexus palsy following a fall from a flight of stairs. Fracture was managed by plating of proximal humerus and brachial palsy was followed up with electrodiagnostic studies and regular physiotherapy. Fracture united by three months and patient had near complete recovery of brachial palsy. Authors have discussed diagnostic modalities and management options in the article. Conclusion: Clinician should always look for clinical evidence of brachial plexus injury in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation. Signs of nerve injury with shoulder fracture dislocation are easily overlooked or incorrectly attributed to pain due to bony injury. Subsequent loss of shoulder function in elderly is often thought to be due to immobilization and stiffness. Clinical suspicion can help in diagnosing the often missed neurological injuries and can help in improving outcomes. PMID:28819602
Ketenci, Ismail Emre; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Ulusoy, Ayhan; Yanik, Hakan Serhat; Mutlu, Serhat; Durakbasa, Mehmet Oguz
Introduction Posterior dislocation of the shoulder is a rare and commonly missed injury. Unilateral dislocations occur mostly due to trauma. Bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are even more rare and result mainly from epileptic seizures. Electrical injury is a rare cause of posterior shoulder dislocation. Injury mechanism in electrical injury is similar to epileptic seizures, where the shoulder is forced to internal rotation, flexion and adduction. Presentation of case This report presents a case of bilateral posterior shoulder dislocation after electrical shock. We were able to find a few individual case reports describing this condition. The case was acute and humeral head impression defects were minor. Our treatment in this case consisted of closed reduction under general anesthesia and applying of orthoses which kept the shoulders in abduction and external rotation. A rehabilitation program was begun after 3 weeks of immobilization. After 6 months of injury the patient has returned to work. 20 months postoperatively, at final follow-up, he was painless and capable of performing all of his daily activities. Discussion The amount of bilateral shoulder dislocations after electrical injury is not reported but is known to be very rare. The aim of this case presentation is to report an example for this rare entity, highlight the difficulties in diagnosis and review the treatment options. Conclusion Physical examination and radiographic evaluation are important for quick and accurate diagnosis. PMID:26904192
de Almeida Filho, Ildeu Afonso; de Castro Veado, Marco Antônio; Fim, Márcio; da Silva Corrêa, Lincoln Vargas; de Carvalho Junior, Antônio Enéas Rangel
Objective: To clinically and radiologically evaluate patients who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment for anterior shoulder instability by means of the Bankart technique, using metal anchors. Methods: This was a retrospective study on 49 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of anterior shoulder instability between 2002 and 2007. The patients were evaluated using the Carter-Rowe score and the Samilson and Prieto classification. The mean age at the time of surgery was 30 years. The mean length of follow-up was 42.7 months (ranging from 18 to 74). 85% of the patients were male. Results: The mean Carter-Rowe score was 83 points (ranging from 30 to 100) including 31 excellent results, 7 good, 3 fair and 8 poor. Recurrent dislocation was observed in 16% (8 patients), and 37.5% of them were of traumatic origin. Joint degeneration was present in 32.5% of the cases, including 5 cases of grade 1, 6 cases of grade 2 and 2 cases of grade 3. The average loss of external rotation was 12° and the loss of anterior elevation was 8°. There was a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.05) between arthritis and age at first dislocation, age at surgery and crackling. 92% of the patients reported high degrees of satisfaction after the procedure. Among the complications, there were two cases of stiff shoulder, one patient with prominence of the synthesis material and one case of anchor loosening. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair of anterior shoulder instability using metal anchors was shown to be effective, with a low complication rate. PMID:27042624
Saxena, Vishal; D'Aquilla, Kevin; Marcoon, Shannon; Krishnamoorthy, Guruprasad; Gordon, Joshua A.; Carey, James L.; Borthakur, Ari; Kneeland, J. Bruce; Kelly, John D.; Reddy, Ravinder; Sennett, Brian J.
Background Patients who suffer anterior shoulder dislocations are at higher risk of developing glenohumeral arthropathy, but little is known about the initial cartilage damage after a primary shoulder dislocation. T1ρ is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that allows quantification of cartilage proteoglycan content and can detect physiologic changes in articular cartilage. Purpose To establish baseline T1ρ MRI values for glenoid and humeral head cartilage, determine if T1ρ MRI can detect glenohumeral cartilage damage following traumatic primary shoulder dislocation, and assess for patterns in cartilage damage in anterior shoulder dislocation. Study Design Prospective cohort study Methods Nine male patients (mean age 32.0 years, range 20-59) who sustained first-time anterior shoulder dislocations underwent 3T T1ρ MRI. Five healthy controls (mean age 27.4 years, range 24-30) without prior dislocation or glenohumeral arthritis also underwent 3T T1ρ MRI. The T1ρ relaxation constant was determined for the entire glenoid and humeral head for dislocation patients and healthy controls. The glenoid and humeral head were divided into nine zones, and T1ρ values were determined for each zone in dislocated and control shoulders to identify patterns in cartilage damage in dislocated shoulders. Results Average overall T1ρ values for humeral head cartilage in dislocated shoulders were significantly greater than controls (41.7ms ± 3.9 versus 38.4ms ± 0.6, respectively; p = 0.03). However, average overall T1ρ values for glenoid cartilage were not significantly different in dislocated shoulders compared to controls (44.0ms ± 3.3 versus 44.6ms ± 2.4, respectively; p = 0.40), suggesting worse damage to humeral head cartilage. T1ρ values in the posterior-middle humeral head were higher in dislocation patients compared to controls (41.5ms ± 3.8 versus 38.2ms ± 2.2, respectively; p = 0.021) and trended toward significance in the posterior-superior and middle
Cuffolo, Giulio; Coomber, Ross; Burtt, Simon; Gray, Jim
Summary We present a case of a 24-year-old man who suffered acute shoulder pain and subsequent inability to move his arm while lifting weights in the bench-press position. He attended A&E where he was examined and X-rays were performed. He was diagnosed with presumed pectoralis major tendon rupture and was discharged to fracture clinic the following day with analgesia. On review in clinic he was found to have a posterior shoulder dislocation and was taken to theatre for relocation under anaesthesia. This case report examines the mechanism, investigations and management of posterior shoulder dislocation. PMID:24557475
Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Youngbok; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Lim, Hwa-Kyung; Kim, Joo-Yong
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of stress radiography using the Telos GA-IIE as a clinical methodology to evaluate shoulder instability. On 36 anterior shoulder dislocators and 23 uninjured volunteers, 4 types of stress radiographs were captured while applying 15 daN of force anteriorly (AER0 and AER60) and posteriorly (PER0 and PER60) at 2 different positions: (1) 90° of abduction combined with 0° external rotation and (2) 90° of abduction combined with 60° external rotation. The results of the anterior drawer test and of the same test under anesthesia were correlated. AER0 and AER60 from the affected shoulder revealed significantly larger displacement than on the normal side (P < .05), and all 4 radiographs from the affected joints demonstrated significantly larger displacement (P < .05) than in the volunteers. Among the 4 types of radiographs, AER0 and AER60 showed significantly higher displacement in the patients (P < .001), whereas there were no differences in the volunteers (P = .167). The results of the anterior drawer test positively correlated to AER60 (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.453; P = .005) and AER0 (PCC = 0.529; P = .001), and those of examination under anesthesia weakly correlated to AER60 (PCC = 0.287; P = .264) but highly correlated to AER0 (PCC = 0.695; P = .002). Stress radiographs on the affected shoulder frequently correlated with physical examinations, and the displacement of >3 mm on AER0 suggests anterior instability. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lim, Jason B T; Tan, Andrew H C
The spectrum of pathoanatomic lesions encountered in anterior shoulder dislocation is broad. There could be a presence of loose bodies, chondral and osteochondral, in the shoulder joint and also concomitant rotator cuff partial tears resulting from acute and chronic shoulder instability. We present one case report of a 46-year-old male Chinese with an uncommon case of Bankart lesion, with a full thickness chondral defect over the superior glenoid articular surface manifesting as a large intra-articular loose cartilaginous body. The patient presented with persistent shoulder pain with signs of shoulder instability. He underwent arthroscopic repair of his Bankart lesion with the removal of intra-articular loose body. We aim to discuss the diagnosis, radiological imaging, as well as, arthroscopic treatment of loose body in the glenohumeral joint due to anterior shoulder dislocation in our report. In our case report, we highlight the importance to identify other associated injuries from the history and examination after an episode of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Arthroscopic treatment is a useful minimally invasive option to remove the large fragment of intra-articular loose body and also repair the Bankart lesion in the same setting. Both of these lesions must be treated as they are crucial for pain relief, as well as stabilizing the shoulder, to prevent further episodes of dislocation.
Whelan, Daniel B; Litchfield, Robert; Wambolt, Elizabeth; Dainty, Katie N
The traditional treatment for primary anterior shoulder dislocations has been immobilization in a sling with the arm in a position of adduction and internal rotation. However, recent basic science and clinical data have suggested recurrent instability may be reduced with immobilization in external rotation after primary shoulder dislocation. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare the (1) frequency of recurrent instability and (2) disease-specific quality-of-life scores after treatment of first-time shoulder dislocation using either immobilization in external rotation or immobilization in internal rotation in a group of young patients. Sixty patients younger than 35 years of age with primary, traumatic, anterior shoulder dislocations were randomized (concealed, computer-generated) to immobilization with either an internal rotation sling (n = 29) or an external rotation brace (n = 31) at a mean of 4 days after closed reduction (range, 1-7 days). Patients with large bony lesions or polytrauma were excluded. The two groups were similar at baseline. Both groups were immobilized for 4 weeks with identical therapy protocols thereafter. Blinded assessments were completed by independent observers for a minimum of 12 months (mean, 25 months; range, 12-43 months). Recurrent instability was defined as a second documented anterior dislocation or multiple episodes of shoulder subluxation severe enough for the patient to request surgical stabilization. Validated disease-specific quality-of-life data (Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index [WOSI], American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons evaluation [ASES]) were also collected. Ten patients (17%, five from each group) were lost to followup. Reported compliance with immobilization in both groups was excellent (80%). With the numbers available, there was no difference in the rate of recurrent instability between groups: 10 of 27 patients (37%) with the external rotation brace versus 10 of 25 patients (40%) with the
Savoie, Felix H; O'Brien, Michael J
The disabled throwing shoulder is a multifactorial problem. Laxity of the glenohumeral joint is necessary to achieve a satisfactory velocity. Normal wear and tear with throwing may convert this normal amount of excessive translation into instability. Instability in the throwing athlete manifests itself in 2 forms: traumatic anterior instability that happens to occur in a throwing athlete and excessive anterior subluxation because of overuse that occurs in conjunction with the disabled throwing shoulder. In most cases, it is difficult to determine by physical examination or imaging how much laxity is too much; therefore, the managing physician should always err on the side of caution. A trial of rest and rehabilitation should always be attempted before any consideration of surgery. The multifactorial issues in the disabled throwing athlete should be corrected during this phase of treatment, including assessment and treatment of hip abnormalities, restoration of satisfactory core strength, correction of scapular dyskinesis, and an evaluation and correction of any biomechanical abnormalities in the throwing mechanism. Surgical management of anterior instability in the throwing shoulder depends on the mechanism of injury. The traumatic anterior instability patient is managed by acute surgical repair without a shift, utilizing mattress sutures to prevent suture chondromalacia on the humeral head or glenoid. The anterior laxity management centers on the posterior superior labrum, although occasionally the anterior labrum or capsule may be involved as well. Overall, symptomatic anterior instability is less common in the throwing shoulder. Jobe and colleagues are credited with the first successful technique for the correction of anterior instability in the throwing athlete, the anterior capsulolabral reconstruction by a subscapularis split. The success of this technique paved the way for the adoption of the current arthroscopic techniques that are utilized to correct
Hart, R; Sváb, P; Krejzla, J
The aim of this prospective study was to report on an open approach to a bony defect of the glenoid associated with anterior shoulder instability, using a modified Latarjet procedure, in elderly patients. From 2003 to 2005, 11 patients older than 50 years underwent an open Latarjet procedure performed by two senior surgeons. The mean age of the patients was 65 years (range, 51 to 79 years). All of them were available for follow-up examination. There were seven women and four men. The study inclusion criteria were a bony defect of the anterior glenoid confirmed by a CT scan, age over 50 years, and three or more previous dislocations.The mean pre-operative forward elevation was 121.2 degrees+/-16.6 degrees (range, 40 degrees-180 degrees) and external rotation was 43.3 degrees+/-13.1 degrees (range, 5 degrees-80 degrees). The mean number of dis- locations before surgery was 4.8 (range, 3-8). The Latarjet operation makes use of a large coracoid bone graft to extend the glenoid articular surface by means of a lengthened bone platform, and a sling effect of the conjoined tendon passing through the subscapularis muscle. The Constant-Murley score was used to evaluate the results. Shoulder stability and function were restored in all 11 patients at a minimum follow-up of 4 years (range, 49-69 months). There was no recurrence of instability. The range of motion was minimally reduced; the mean loss of elevation was 18.8 degrees and the mean loss of external rotation was 4.0 degrees. The mean Constant-Murley score increased from 56.4+/-13.3 points preoperatively to 81.8+/-11.3 points post-operatively (p<0.05). No significant post-operative complications were observed. It is necessary to differentiate between the Latarjet procedure and its modification popularised by Helfet as the Bristow or the Bristow-Latarjet operation. The Bristow procedure transfers only the tip of the coracoid, along with the attached con- joined tendon, to the anterior side of the neck. This procedure
Background Recent studies have shown effective clinical results after arthroscopic Bankart repair (ABR) but have shown several risk factors for re-dislocation after surgery. We evaluated whether patients are at a risk for re-dislocation during the first year after ABR, examined the recurrence rate after ABR, and sought to identify new risk factors. Methods We performed ABR using bioabsorbable suture anchors in 102 consecutive shoulders (100 patients) with traumatic anterior shoulder instability. Average patient age and follow-up period was 25.7 (range, 14–40) years and 67.5 (range, 24.5–120) months, respectively. We evaluated re-dislocation after ABR using patient telephone interviews (follow-up rate, 100%) and correlated re-dislocation with several risk factors. Results Re-dislocation after ABR occurred in nine shoulders (8.8%), of which seven sustained re-injuries within the first year with the arm elevated at 90° and externally rotated at 90°. Of the remaining 93 shoulders without re-dislocation, 8 had re-injury under the same conditions within the first year. Thus, re-injury within the first year was a risk for re-dislocation after ABR (P < 0.001, chi-squared test). Using multivariate analysis, large Hill-Sachs lesions (odds ratio, 6.77, 95% CI, 1.24–53.6) and <4 suture anchors (odds ratio, 9.86, 95% CI, 2.00–76.4) were significant risk factors for re-dislocation after ABR. Conclusions The recurrence rate after ABR is not associated with the time elapsed and that repair strategies should augment the large humeral bone defect and use >3 anchors during ABR. PMID:24993404
Shibata, Hideaki; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hidehiro; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shirahama, Masahiro; Shiba, Naoto
Recent studies have shown effective clinical results after arthroscopic Bankart repair (ABR) but have shown several risk factors for re-dislocation after surgery. We evaluated whether patients are at a risk for re-dislocation during the first year after ABR, examined the recurrence rate after ABR, and sought to identify new risk factors. We performed ABR using bioabsorbable suture anchors in 102 consecutive shoulders (100 patients) with traumatic anterior shoulder instability. Average patient age and follow-up period was 25.7 (range, 14-40) years and 67.5 (range, 24.5-120) months, respectively. We evaluated re-dislocation after ABR using patient telephone interviews (follow-up rate, 100%) and correlated re-dislocation with several risk factors. Re-dislocation after ABR occurred in nine shoulders (8.8%), of which seven sustained re-injuries within the first year with the arm elevated at 90° and externally rotated at 90°. Of the remaining 93 shoulders without re-dislocation, 8 had re-injury under the same conditions within the first year. Thus, re-injury within the first year was a risk for re-dislocation after ABR (P < 0.001, chi-squared test). Using multivariate analysis, large Hill-Sachs lesions (odds ratio, 6.77, 95% CI, 1.24-53.6) and <4 suture anchors (odds ratio, 9.86, 95% CI, 2.00-76.4) were significant risk factors for re-dislocation after ABR. The recurrence rate after ABR is not associated with the time elapsed and that repair strategies should augment the large humeral bone defect and use >3 anchors during ABR.
Milgrom, C; Mann, G; Finestone, A
The computerized database of the Israeli Defence Forces Medical Corps monitors recurrent shoulder dislocations before citizens are eligible for military induction, during the years of regular military service, and during the time of eligibility for reserve army service. With the computerized database of the Israeli Defence Forces Medical Corps, between the years of 1978 to 1995 the prevalence rate of subjects with recurrent shoulder dislocations less than or equal to 21 years of age was found to be 19.7 of 10,000 for men and 5.01 of 10,000 for women. The prevalence rate of subjects with a history of shoulder dislocations in the male population between the ages of 22 and 33 years was 42.4 of 10,000. Forty-four percent were judged to be sufficiently unstable to warrant surgery, but only 55% of these actually underwent surgery. These epidemiologic data may be important if arthroscopic shoulder surgery is being considered after a first shoulder dislocation.
Schofer, M D; Diehl, A; Theisen, C; Timmesfeld, N; Heyse, T J; Fuchs-Winkelmann, S; Efe, T
The aim of the study was to survey the current state of the conservative and operative treatment of anterior shoulder instability and its rehabilitation in German hospitals. A previously evaluated online questionnaire was sent out to all German hospitals with orthopaedic or trauma surgery departments. The Federal Statistical Office's hospital list was the basis for the selection of hospitals. The questions referred to the year 2007. The survey, including 3 reminders, was conducted over 3 months. The questionnaire consisted of 6 response categories: always (100%), almost always (99-81%), predominantly (80-51%), rarely (50-21%), almost never (20-1%) and never (0%). The response rate was 41% and 67% of these had carried out shoulder stabilisations. In total, 99.2% of the 67% were evaluable. The proportion of shoulder surgery was 8.4% of the total number of operations. Shoulder stabilisations represented 10.6% of these operations. A specialised shoulder department existed in 22.9%. Conservative treatment was carried out with an immobilisation of the arm "predominantly", "almost always" and "always" for internal rotation in 70.8% and in 23.4% for external rotation. The shoulders were "predominantly", "almost always" and "always" stabilised in an arthroscopic technique in 68.2% and in an open one in 31.8% of the clinics. With 92.9%, the Bankart repair was the most common operation. Shoulder instability was principally treated with the arthroscopic technique, regardless of the care level and department and is considered the best surgical technique. Physiotherapy was prescribed "always" and "almost always" in 99.3%. The rate of reluxation after conservative treatment was estimated at 35.5%, after operative open anterior shoulder stabilisation at 9.1% and after arthroscopic shoulder stabilization at 10.6%. Nevertheless, 49.4% of respondents expected the best results after arthroscopic treatment. Participants, who mainly applied the arthroscopic technique, expected a lower
Peltz, Cathryn D; Zauel, Roger; Ramo, Nicole; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J
Traumatic glenohumeral joint (GHJ) dislocations are common, resulting in significant shoulder disability and pain. Previous research indicates that bony morphology is associated with an increased risk of injury in other joints (eg, the knee), but the extent to which bony morphology is associated with traumatic GHJ dislocation is unknown. This study assessed GHJ morphology in patients with anterior GHJ instability and in a control population of healthy volunteers. Bilateral computed tomography scans were used to measure GHJ morphology in both shoulders of 11 patients with instability and 11 control subjects. Specific outcome measures included the glenoid radius of curvature (ROC) in the anterior/posterior (A/P) and superior/inferior (S/I) directions, humeral head ROC, A/P and S/I conformity index, and A/P and S/I stability angle. Compared with the control subjects, the glenoid of the instability the injured shoulder in patients with instability was flatter (ie, higher ROC) in the A/P (P = .001) and S/I (P = .01) directions and this finding was also true for uninjured, contralateral shoulder (A/P: P = .01, S/I: P = .03). No differences in GHJ morphology were detected between the instability patients' injured and contralateral shoulders (P > .07). Similarly, no differences in GHJ morphology were detected between the control subjects' dominant and nondominant shoulders (P > .51). There are significant differences in GHJ morphology between healthy control subjects and both shoulders (injured and uninjured, contralateral) of patients diagnosed with anterior instability after GHJ dislocation. These findings are important clinically because they suggest that glenoid morphology may influence the risk of GHJ dislocation. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pagnani, Michael J; Dome, David C
American football players have been reported to be at high risk for postoperative instability after arthroscopic stabilization of anterior shoulder instability. While some authors have recommended open methods of stabilization in athletes who play contact sports, there are few data in the literature showing more favorable results with use of an open technique. We reviewed the results of an open technique of anterior shoulder stabilization in fifty-eight American football players after a minimum of two years of follow-up. Fifty-eight American football players underwent open stabilization with use of a standardized technique for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Forty-seven patients had recurrent dislocations, and the remaining eleven had recurrent subluxations. The average age of the patients was 18.2 years, and the average duration of follow-up was thirty-seven months. Patients were evaluated according to the shoulder scoring system of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and with use of the shoulder instability score described by Rowe and Zarins. There were no postoperative dislocations. Postoperative subluxation occurred in two patients, neither of whom had had a dislocation prior to the operation. Forward flexion and external rotation returned to within 5 of those of the contralateral shoulder in forty-nine patients. The average score according to the system of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons was 97.0 points, and the average Rowe and Zarins score was 93.6 points. Fifty-five patients had a good or excellent result, and fifty-two of the fifty-eight returned to playing football for at least one year. One patient was forced to stop playing because of recurrent instability. Open stabilization is a predictable method of restoring shoulder stability in American football players while maintaining a range of motion approximating that found after arthroscopic stabilization. Postoperative stability appears to be superior to that
Khira, Yousuf M; Salama, Adel M
Locked posterior shoulder dislocation is an uncommon condition and is associated with a reverse Hill-Sachs lesion in 50% of cases. The condition is likely to occur in cases of violent trauma, seizures, or electric shock. Unrecognized dislocation with humeral head fracture affects joint function and humeral head vascularity and may lead to chronic instability, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. A group of 12 patients, including 10 men and 2 women, with neglected locked posterior shoulder dislocation with a reverse Hill-Sachs lesion were treated with the modified McLaughlin technique. The added bone graft from the iliac crest was impacted in the defect and fixed with screws. Mean follow-up was 30 months (range, 24-48 months). The range of forward flexion was 150˚ to 175˚ (average, 165˚), external rotation ranged from 60˚ to 80˚ (average, 75˚), internal rotation ranged from 40˚ to 60˚ (average, 50˚), and average abduction was 150˚ (range, 145˚-160˚). The modified University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) scoring system was used for postoperative clinical evaluation. Total UCLA scores immediately postoperatively ranged from 22 to 28 points (average, 26.5 points) and averaged 30 points (range, 28-33 points) at last follow-up. No recurrence of dislocation occurred during the follow-up period. Of the study patients, 10 returned to their previous job and 2 modified their manual work. The modified McLaughlin technique with added iliac crest bone graft to fill the defect and prevent humeral head deformity is a successful technique for the treatment of patients with chronic locked posterior shoulder dislocation. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].
Alkaduhimi, H; van der Linde, J A; Flipsen, M; van Deurzen, D F P; van den Bekerom, M P J
Our objective is to provide a systematic and technical guide on how to reduce a shoulder dislocation, based on techniques that have been described in literature for patients with anterior and posterior shoulder instability. A PubMed and EMBASE query was performed, screening all relevant literature on the closed reduction techniques. Studies regarding open reduction techniques and studies with fracture dislocations were excluded. In this study we give an overview of 23 different techniques for closed reduction and 17 modifications of these techniques. In this review article we present a complete overview of the techniques, that have been described in the literature for closed reduction for shoulder dislocations. This manuscript can be regarded as a clinical guide how to perform a closed reduction maneuver, including several technical tips and tricks to optimize the success rate and to avoid complications. There are 23 different reduction techniques with 17 modifications of these techniques. Knowledge of the different techniques is highly important for a good reduction.
D’Ambrosi, Riccardo; Perfetti, Carlo; Garavaglia, Guido; Taverna, Ettore
This case presents the challenges of the surgical management for a patient with a history of recurrent posterior shoulder instability and subsequently traumatic anterior dislocation. The patient was already on the waiting list for an arthroscopic posterior stabilization with anchors, when a car accident caused an additional anterior shoulder dislocation. This traumatic anterior dislocation created a bone loss with a glenoid fracture and aggravated the preexisting posterior instability. In order to address both problems, we decided to perform an arthroscopically assisted Latarjet procedure for anterior instability and to stabilize with a bone graft for posterior instability. To our best knowledge, this type of surgical procedure has so far never been reported in the literature. The purpose of this report is to present the surgical technique and to outline the decision making process. PMID:26288539
Yahiro, M A; Matthews, L S
Anterior shoulder instability is a common and functionally disabling problem in young athletes. The goal in treatment of this condition is a stable, yet mobile, joint. Current methods now being utilized in the arthroscopic stabilization of the anterior shoulder include staple capsulorrhaphy, removable rivet capsulorrhaphy, cannulated screw fixation, and the transglenoid suture technique. These techniques and the clinical experience with each are reviewed, with an emphasis on providing stability, improving function, and allowing earlier rehabilitation in the unstable shoulder of the athlete.
Amir, Moaath A.; Alenazi, Bashir; Wyse, Richard K.H.; Tamimi, Waleed; Kujan, Omar; Khan, Tajdar; Alenzi, Faris Q.
Posterior dislocation of the shoulder is a rare injury that occurs secondary to trauma and seizures. Diagnosis is often missed and treatment is challenging. Neglected posterior dislocation is associated with Hill-Sachs lesion which leads to locking of dislocation. Correct diagnosis is achieved by history taking, a physical examination and appropriate imaging. In neglected shoulder dislocation with uncontrolled seizure and humeral head defects of up to 45% the McLaughlin procedure shows excellent results at follow-up. PMID:26430452
Khater, Ahmad Hany; Sobhy, Mohamed H; Said, Hatem G; Kandil, Ahmed; Reda, Walid; Seifeldin, Ahmed Fouad; Moustafa, Ramez; Elassal, Maher A; Kamel, Ezzat M
Seizures, commonly due to epilepsy, are known to cause shoulder instability. Tramadol addiction has recently been found to induce seizures in patients who exceed the recommended dose. Because of the easy accessibility and low cost of tramadol, an increasingly alarming phenomenon of tramadol abuse has been demonstrated in recent years. The purpose of this multicenter study was to investigate shoulder instability resulting from tramadol-induced seizure (TIS) as well as to recommended management for such shoulder instability. The hypothesis was that TIS leads to anterior shoulder dislocations with major bony defects, which favors bony reconstructive procedures as a suitable method of treatment. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This prospective case series study was conducted on 73 patients (78 shoulders) who presented with anterior shoulder dislocations and a clear history of tramadol abuse. The mean age of the patients was 26.8 years, and the mean number of dislocations was 14. The mean duration of addiction was 17 months, with a mean dose of 752 mg of tramadol hydrochloride per day. Glenoid and humeral bone loss ranged from 15% to 35% and from 15% to 40%, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 28 months. All patients underwent an open Latarjet procedure. Postoperative mean Rowe score and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score at final follow-up (24 months) improved significantly from 20 to 84 and from 44 to 91, respectively (P < .05). The patient satisfaction rate reached 95%, and the mean period of return to work was 12.8 weeks. Five patients (9%) had postoperative seizures due to relapse of the tramadol abuse, but only 3 patients (5%) had redislocations with nonunion or breakage of the graft or hardware. Tramadol addiction has evolved as an important cause of seizures that can result in shoulder dislocation. Anterior shoulder instability with TIS occurs mainly with higher levels of addiction and results in significant humeral and/or glenoid bone defects
Field, Larry D; Ryu, Richard K N; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Provencher, Matthew
Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization offers several potential advantages compared with open surgery, including the opportunity to more accurately evaluate the glenohumeral joint at the time of diagnostic assessment; comprehensively address multiple pathologic lesions that may be identified; and avoid potential complications unique to open stabilization, such as postoperative subscapularis failure. A thorough understanding of normal shoulder anatomy and biomechanics, along with the pathoanatomy responsible for anterior, posterior, and multidirectional shoulder instability patterns, is very important in the management of patients who have shoulder instability. The treating physician also must be familiar with diagnostic imaging and physical examination maneuvers that are required to accurately diagnose shoulder instability.
Zhao, Hong-Sheng; Jing, Guang-Wu; Zhang, Jian-Jun
To explore the method of reduction of anterior dislocation of shoulder joint, evaluate the clinical effects of proneposition modified Hippocrates methods. From February 1998 to April 2011, 1 028 patients, 689 males and 339 females, with anterior dislocation of shoulder joint were treated with manipulation of proneposition modified Hippocrates methods. The average age was 38.3 years (ranged from 11 to 86 years). Thirty-two cases by Hippocrates method failure to reset success, 86 cases combined with geater tuberosity tore of humerus. One thousand and twenty-seven example applications, it took average 50 s, 1 case was cured due to a combination of humerus surgical neck fracture. Eighty-six cases combined with greater tuberosity tore of humerus, 84 cases reached anatomical reattachment or nearly anatomical reattachment, 2 cases of large bone pieces instability were reduced by percutaneous needle. According to Neer score, there are 1 012 excellent cases, 15 good cases. Proneposition modified Hippocrates method is better than Hippocrates. It has the advantage of anesthesia, lower expense, short replacement, less pain, easier to master, and worth applying widely.
Tuckman, David V; Dines, David M
The use of shoulder arthroplasty has been increasing over the last decade, with nearly 20,000 shoulder arthroplasties being performed each year. Although many patients have excellent results, there exists a subset of patients in whom anterior catching shoulder pain develops after arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to examine this group of patients and explore treatment options and outcomes for this condition. We undertook a review of 8 shoulders in 7 patients who were treated for anterior shoulder pain radiating into the biceps muscle after shoulder arthroplasty. Three patients had a hemiarthroplasty for fracture, and five had a total shoulder arthroplasty. All patients had anterior shoulder pain with physical examination findings consistent with biceps tendon pathology. Definitive diagnosis and treatment consisted of either arthroscopy, in 7 of 8 shoulders, or an open procedure, in 1 of 8 shoulders. The range of motion improved in all shoulders. The hemiarthroplasty group showed an increase in flexion of 36 degrees (range, 68 degrees -104 degrees ), external rotation of 23 degrees (range, 11 degrees -34 degrees ), and internal rotation to L4. The total shoulder group demonstrated an increase in flexion of 50 degrees (range, 66 degrees -166 degrees ), external rotation of 27 degrees (range, 22 degrees -39 degrees ), and internal rotation to L3. The Hospital for Special Surgery score improved in all shoulders, with all patients being satisfied with their final outcome. Pain scores improved from a mean of 6.9 (range, 4-9) preoperatively to 1.4 (range, 0.5-2) postoperatively on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 indicating the most pain. The role of the biceps tendon in the pathology of anterior shoulder pain after shoulder arthroplasty appears to be consistent with fibrosis and inflammation. Initial results, achieved with arthroscopic debridement or tenodesis, were encouraging.
Gilon, Y; Johnen, J; Nizet, J L
Anterior dislocation of the temporomandibular joint is not uncommon and requires prompt management. A defect of dislocation reduction can lead to severe functional impairment of a complex, and often active joint. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively obvious. It is made by the frontline medical team, general practitioner or emergency doctor. Recurrent cases are a matter for maxillofacial surgeons. This article describes a conventional technique for anterior dislocation reduction, to achieve urgently. The second part of the article deals with the specialized surgical treatment of relapsing forms.
Septic arthritis of the shoulder is uncommon in adults, and complete dislocation of the glenohumeral joint following septic arthritis is extremely rare. We report a case of pathologic shoulder dislocation secondary to septic arthritis in an intravenous drug abuser. PMID:20062648
Kumar, Sunil; Rathi, Akhilesh; Sehrawat, Sunil; Gupta, Vikas; Talwar, Jatin; Arora, Sumit
Open anterior dislocation of the hip is a very rare injury, especially in adults. It is a hyperabduction, external rotation and extension injury. Its combination with open posterior dislocation of the elbow has not been described in English language-based medical literature. Primary resuscitation, debridement, urgent reduction of dislocation, and adequate antibiotic support resulted in good clinical outcome in our patient. At 18 months follow-up, no signs of avascular necrosis of the femoral head or infection were observed.
Ee, Gerard W W; Mohamed, Sedeek; Tan, Andrew H C
The arthroscopic method offers a less invasive technique of Bankart repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability. We would like to report the 2 year clinical outcomes of bio-absorbable suture anchors used in traumatic anterior dislocations of the shoulder. Data from 79 shoulders in 74 patients were collected over 4 years (2004-2008). Each patient was followed-up over a period of 2 years. The patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair using bio-absorbable suture anchors for their shoulder instability. These surgeries were performed at a single institution by a single surgeon over the time period. The patients were assessed with two different outcome measurement tools. The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) score. The scores were calculated before surgery and at the 2-year follow-up. The recurrence rates, range of motion as well post-operative function and return to sporting activities were evaluated. SST results from the 12 domains showed a significant improvement from a mean of 6.1 ± 3.1 to 11.1 ± 1.8 taken at the 2-year follow-up (p < 0.0001). Data from the UCLA scale showed a Pre and Post Operative Mean of 20.2 ± 5.0 and 32.4 ± 4.6 respectively (p < 0.0001). 34 had excellent post-operative scores, 35 had good scores, 1 had fair score and 3 had poor scores. 75% of the patients returned to sports while 7.6% developed a recurrence of shoulder dislocation or subluxation. Arthroscopic Bankart repair with the use of suture anchors is a reliable treatment method, with good clinical outcomes, excellent post-operative shoulder motion and low recurrence rates.
Background The arthroscopic method offers a less invasive technique of Bankart repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability. We would like to report the 2 year clinical outcomes of bio-absorbable suture anchors used in traumatic anterior dislocations of the shoulder. Methods Data from 79 shoulders in 74 patients were collected over 4 years (2004 - 2008). Each patient was followed-up over a period of 2 years. The patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair using bio-absorbable suture anchors for their shoulder instability. These surgeries were performed at a single institution by a single surgeon over the time period. The patients were assessed with two different outcome measurement tools. The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) score. The scores were calculated before surgery and at the 2-year follow-up. The recurrence rates, range of motion as well post-operative function and return to sporting activities were evaluated. Results SST results from the 12 domains showed a significant improvement from a mean of 6.1 ± 3.1 to 11.1 ± 1.8 taken at the 2-year follow-up (p < 0.0001). Data from the UCLA scale showed a Pre and Post Operative Mean of 20.2 ± 5.0 and 32.4 ± 4.6 respectively (p < 0.0001). 34 had excellent post-operative scores, 35 had good scores, 1 had fair score and 3 had poor scores. 75% of the patients returned to sports while 7.6% developed a recurrence of shoulder dislocation or subluxation. Conclusion Arthroscopic Bankart repair with the use of suture anchors is a reliable treatment method, with good clinical outcomes, excellent post-operative shoulder motion and low recurrence rates. PMID:21672187
Anani, Abalo; Yannick, Dellanh; Gamal, Ayouba; Assang, Dossim
Anterior traumatic dislocations of the hip are much less common than posterior dislocations. To date, 14 cases of open anterior dislocation of the hip associated with such injuries, acetabular and femoral head fractures and femoral vascular and nerve damage have been reported. We present a case of a 23-year-old male who sustained open anterior dislocation of the hip with ipsilateral fracture of the greater trochanter after an accident on the public highway. Additional lesions included an iliac wing fracture and a perineal wound. We report this case because of the rarity and seriousness of this injury due to its progressive complications and difficulties related to its management, which are typical to a developing country like ours. PMID:27247749
Iosifidis, Michael I; Giannoulis, Ioannis; Traios, Stavros; Giantsis, Georgios
We present the case of a patient who sustained simultaneous bilateral posterior dislocation of the shoulder after a possible epileptic fit. The confirmation of the diagnosis was reached only by a computed tomography (CT) scan, after the clinical suspicion. Under general anesthesia, close reduction of both shoulder dislocations was done. Posterior dislocation of the shoulder-especially the bilateral one-is very rare. When the history describes an electric shock or convulsive seizure, any shoulder injury demands a careful clinical and radiological evaluation. It is usually associated with reverse Hill-Sachs lesion (an impression defect of the anteromedial aspect of the humeral head), in which the size determines the treatment options.
Hatch, Mark D; Hennrikus, William L
Traumatic anterior shoulder instability from recurrent dislocations or subluxations is a debilitating problem for the teenage athlete. The risk of recurrent instability is high in this adolescent population. We performed a retrospective case series analysis of adolescent athletes with recurrent instability treated with open Bankart repair and evaluated functional outcomes as well as redislocation rates. The retrospective study included 21 teenage patients with Bankart lesions and recurrent anterior shoulder instability. There were 19 males (90%) and 2 females (10%) with an average age of 16 years (range, 14 to 18 y). Patients were evaluated based on Rowe and UCLA shoulder scores, return to previous level of sport, external rotation, and recurrence. The average number of anchors used to repair the Bankart lesion was 3 (range, 2 to 5). One patient was lost to follow-up at 6 months after surgery. The remaining 20 patients all had at least 2-year follow-up. The recurrent instability rate was zero. In total, 100% of patients had an excellent result based on an average Rowe score of 96.5 points of 100 points (a score of 90 to 100 is an excellent result). In total, 100% of patients had good/excellent result based on an average UCLA shoulder score of 34 of 35 (a score >27 is a good/excellent result). At final follow-up, 7 patients (34%) had lost an average of 11 degrees of external rotation (range, 5 to 20 degrees) on the injured shoulder with the arm at the side compared with the noninjured shoulder. Contact teenage athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability can be treated with open Bankart repair with a low recurrence, excellent functional shoulder outcomes, and return to sport. A small amount of external rotation may be lost with this technique. Care must be taken when considering this method with throwing athletes (ie, quarterback or pitcher). The open Bankart should remain a viable alternative for the adolescent population with recurrent anterior
Fedorka, Catherine J; Mulcahey, Mary K
The shoulder is the most common joint to dislocate in the human body, with the dislocation often occurring in the anterior direction. This injury frequently results in soft tissue injury (eg, labral tear, capsular stretching) or bone injury (eg, glenoid or humeral head bone loss), which commonly leads to persistent deficits of shoulder function and a high risk of subsequent instability episodes in young, active patients. Patients with a significant degree of glenoid bone loss (> 25%) may require surgical intervention using the Latarjet procedure, which is an open bony augmentation of the glenoid. This procedure involves transferring the tip of the coracoid to the anteroinferior glenoid, creating a bony block and musculotendinous sling to prevent instability. Rehabilitation after the procedure is a slow progression over 4 to 6 months to regain range of motion and strength, while protecting the bony augmentation. Recent reports have shown success with the Latarjet procedure, as indicated by patient satisfaction scores and a low rate of recurrent instability.
Itoi, Eiji; Kitamura, Toshio; Hitachi, Shin; Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sano, Hirotaka
Shoulder dislocation often recurs, especially in the younger population. Immobilization in external rotation, in which a Bankart lesion is displaced in the anterior, medial, and inferior directions, was introduced as a new method of nonoperative treatment, but its clinical efficiency is controversial. In terms of reducing the lesion, it is reasonable to incorporate not only external rotation, which makes the anterior soft tissues tight to push the lesion posteriorly and laterally, but also abduction, which makes the inferior soft tissues tight to push the lesion superiorly. Abducting the arm during immobilization in external rotation will improve the reduction of a Bankart lesion. Controlled laboratory study. There were 37 patients with initial shoulder dislocation enrolled in this study. After reduction, MRI was taken in 4 positions of the shoulder: adduction and internal rotation (Add-IR), adduction and external rotation (Add-ER), 30° of abduction and 30° of external rotation (Abd-30ER), and 30° of abduction and 60° of external rotation (Abd-60ER). On radial slices, the separation, displacement of the labrum, and opening angle of the capsule were measured. Add-ER improved the reduction of the anterior labrum but not the inferior labrum when compared with Add-IR. Both Abd-30ER and Abd-60ER improved the reduction of the inferior labrum as compared with Add-IR. Furthermore, Abd-60ER improved the reduction more than Add-ER. Among the 4 positions tested, Abd-60ER is the best position in terms of reducing the Bankart lesion. Abducting the shoulder during immobilization in external rotation is demonstrated to improve the reduction of the Bankart lesion. Therefore, this position is expected to reduce the recurrence rate after initial dislocation of the shoulder. Future clinical trials are necessary. © 2015 The Author(s).
Gyawali, Gopal Prasad; Pokharel, Bishnu; Pokharel, Rohit Kumar
Anterior dislocation of the elbow joint is a rare entity and is usually associated with injuries to surrounding bony and soft tissues. Simple dislocation of the joint is managed conservatively. An eight years old girl had traumatic anterior dislocation of the elbow joint with intact distal neurovascular status. X-rays showed no associated bony injury. Close reductions failed. Per operative findings showed no intra-articular fracture and the radial head was button holed into the anterior joint capsule. Reduction was achieved openly and maintained in a posterior slab for four weeks. Active and assisted mobilization started after removal of the slab. At ten month follow-up there was almost full range of movement of the joint.
Shah, Aakash A; Selesnick, F Harlan
Traumatic anterior shoulder instability has been well documented to have associated lesions such as a Bankart tear, humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL), Hill-Sachs lesion, fracture, and nerve injury. To our knowledge, the combined Bankart and HAGL injury in a single acute anterior shoulder dislocation has not yet been reported. We describe a traumatic first-time anterior-inferior shoulder dislocation in a professional basketball player with a combined Bankart and HAGL lesion. The patient underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair followed by open repair of the HAGL lesion with an open capsular shift reconstruction. At 3 years' follow-up, the patient had returned to an elite level of play, with an excellent outcome.
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Ali; Zarei, Ahmad Reza
Despite recent advances in arthroscopic soft tissue repair and reconstruction for shoulder instability, Latarjet procedure is continuously a method of choice for many cases of unstable shoulders. To evaluate the clinical results of minimally invasive modified Latarjet technique in recurrent, traumatic anterior shoulder instability associated with obvious Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions. Between 2007 and 2013, 36 consequent patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability who underwent modified Latarjet operation were enrolled in this prospective study. The MRI studies revealed labrum detachment and Hill-Sachs lesion in all shoulders. For all patients, demographic and injury data were obtained and Constant Shoulder score, Rowe score, and UCLA scores were completed by related surgeon. Stability of the shoulder was assessed with the Jobe's relocation test preoperatively. The patients were followed up at two weeks, one month, three months, and six months from the date of the surgery and evaluated for probable complications. Above mentioned assessments were completed again at the time of the final follow-up. The average age of the enrolled patients was 24.6 (ranging from 18 to 33 years) and 35 patients out of the total of 36 patients were males. Motor-vehicle accidents were the major cause of the injuries (52%) with the average interval between the injury and operation of 3.1 ± 1.2 years (Ranging from 1 to 5 years). The average number of incidents of dislocations between the injury date and the surgery was 7.2 ± 2.1 (Ranging from 4 to 20). The average follow-up period was 37 months (Ranging from 12 to 65 months). All patients had Jobe's relocation test (Apprehension sign) pre-operatively and negative Jobe's relocation test post-operation. Significant improvements in functional scores were demonstrated postoperatively compared to preoperational assessment in all cases. Final follow up radiographs showed union of all the grafts and patients reported no incidents of
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Ali; Zarei, Ahmad Reza
Background: Despite recent advances in arthroscopic soft tissue repair and reconstruction for shoulder instability, Latarjet procedure is continuously a method of choice for many cases of unstable shoulders. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical results of minimally invasive modified Latarjet technique in recurrent, traumatic anterior shoulder instability associated with obvious Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions. Patients and Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, 36 consequent patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability who underwent modified Latarjet operation were enrolled in this prospective study. The MRI studies revealed labrum detachment and Hill-Sachs lesion in all shoulders. For all patients, demographic and injury data were obtained and Constant Shoulder score, Rowe score, and UCLA scores were completed by related surgeon. Stability of the shoulder was assessed with the Jobe’s relocation test preoperatively. The patients were followed up at two weeks, one month, three months, and six months from the date of the surgery and evaluated for probable complications. Above mentioned assessments were completed again at the time of the final follow-up. Results: The average age of the enrolled patients was 24.6 (ranging from 18 to 33 years) and 35 patients out of the total of 36 patients were males. Motor-vehicle accidents were the major cause of the injuries (52%) with the average interval between the injury and operation of 3.1 ± 1.2 years (Ranging from 1 to 5 years). The average number of incidents of dislocations between the injury date and the surgery was 7.2 ± 2.1 (Ranging from 4 to 20). The average follow-up period was 37 months (Ranging from 12 to 65 months). All patients had Jobe’s relocation test (Apprehension sign) pre-operatively and negative Jobe’s relocation test post-operation. Significant improvements in functional scores were demonstrated postoperatively compared to preoperational assessment in all cases. Final follow up radiographs showed
Sudesh, Pebam; Rangdal, Sushil; Bali, Kamal; Kumar, Vishal; Gahlot, Nitesh; Patel, Sandeep
The dislocation of a shoulder joint in infancy is extremely rare and is usually the result of traumatic birth injuries, a sequel to brachial plexus injury, or a true congenital dislocation of shoulder. With more advanced obstetric care, the incidence of first two types has drastically decreased. We report a case of true congenital dislocation of shoulder, second of its kind, in a child who was delivered by cesarean section thereby negating any influence of trauma. We report the case because of its rarity, and review the available literature on this topic. We also discuss the management options when encountered with such a rare case scenario. PMID:21655006
Stein, Drew A; Polatsch, Daniel B; Gidumal, Ramesh; Rose, Donald J
In this article, we report the case of a healthy young woman who sustained an anterior hip dislocation while participating in a noncontact activity (ballet dancing). The patient's atraumatic dislocation failed closed reduction secondary to interposition of anterior capsule and rectus femoris muscle. Open reduction using a Smith-Petersen approach was concentric and stable. Postinjury femoral nerve neuropraxia resolved within 6 weeks. At 2-year follow-up, the patient was without complications of the injury-including avascular necrosis and posttraumatic arthritis. She returned to dancing and is now asymptomatic.
Almeida, Alexandre; Menegotto, Samuel Millán; Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto de; Agostini, Ana Paula; Almeida, Letícia Agostini de
Analyze the postoperative follow-up of patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy for treatment of anterior instability and correlate with the prevalence of recurrence. A six-question survey was applied by phone and mail to 65 patients, seeking information on the current result of the surgical procedure. All patients were treated arthroscopically for anterior shoulder instability, with at least 12 months of postoperative time. Patients with associated posterior labial lesions and revision surgeries were not included. At the time of the survey the patients had a median of 56 (IQR: 34.5-110.5) postoperative months. The mean sample age was 24.6 years (maximum = 47, minimum = 12; SD = 7.3). Complaint of pain in the shoulder was observed in 20 patients (30.7%). Dislocation recurrence was observed in 10 patients (15.3%). Forty-four patients (67.6%) considered their shoulder normal, which was more frequent in non-recurrence patients (p < 0.001). Forty-three patients (66.1%) returned to their previous level of sport and there was no difference between recurrence and non-recurrence patients (p = 0.456). It was found that the prevalence of recurrence was 5.6 (95% CI: 1.30-24.46) times higher in individuals who abandoned monitoring before six months postoperatively (p = 0.012). The abandonment of postoperative monitoring in the early stages, when the patients receive orientation for muscle strengthening, proprioceptive education, and dangerous movements to avoid, can increase the rates of recurrent shoulder dislocation in patients treated for anterior instability by arthroscopy.
Chung, Josephine Yuen Man; Cheng, Chi Hung; Graham, Colin A; Rainer, Timothy H
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a specially designed chair for closed reduction of acute shoulder dislocations. This was a prospective, non-blinded randomised controlled trial conducted in a university affiliated emergency department (ED). The inclusion criteria were (1) age ≥18 years; (2) anterior or posterior shoulder dislocation without fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus; (3) patient who is able to communicate and cooperate. Participants were randomly assigned using a computer generated random number sequence into one of two groups--either the traditional practice group or Oxford chair group. Administration of intravenous sedation was only permitted in the traditional practice group due to the concerns of sedation use in the sitting position while unsupported on the chair. The primary outcome measure was length of ED stay. The secondary outcome measures were length of time for the procedure, successful reduction rate, levels of pain experienced by patients in different time periods before and after the reduction. Sixty eligible patients were recruited, 30 in each group. The median lengths of stay in the ED in Oxford chair group (n=30) and traditional method group (n=30) were 152 min and 173 min respectively (p=0.183). The median procedure time was 3 min for the Oxford chair group compared to 5 min in the traditional method group (p=0.179). The success rate for the Oxford chair method was 77% (23/30). There were no statistically or clinically significant differences of pain score at any point. The chair method had a 77% success rate in reducing acute shoulder dislocations without sedation. There was no difference in pain level experienced by patients between the chair method and the traditional method. Patient factors, including patients who have had previous shoulder surgery and patients who have fracture dislocations, contribute to the reduced efficacy of the chair method. It remains possible that the chair method
Mercier, Numa; Saragaglia, Dominique
Anterior shoulder instability is a common problem. The Latarjet procedure has been advocated as an option for the treatment of anteroinferior shoulder instability. The purpose of this paper is to explain our surgical procedure titled “Mini-open Latarjet Procedure.” We detailed patient positioning, skin incision, subscapularis approach, and coracoid fixation. Then, we reviewed the literature to evaluate the clinical outcomes of this procedure. PMID:22191039
Nakagawa, Shigeto; Ozaki, Ritsuro; Take, Yasuhiro; Iuchi, Ryo; Mae, Tatsuo
While the combination of a glenoid defect and a Hill-Sachs lesion in a shoulder with anterior instability has recently been termed a bipolar lesion, their relationship is unclear. To investigate the relationship of the glenoid defect and Hill-Sachs lesion and the factors that influence the occurrence of these lesions as well as the recurrence of instability. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The prevalence and size of both lesions were evaluated retrospectively by computed tomography scanning in 153 shoulders before arthroscopic Bankart repair. First, the relationship of lesion prevalence and size was investigated. Then, factors influencing the occurrence of bipolar lesions were assessed. Finally, the influence of these lesions on recurrence of instability was investigated in 103 shoulders followed for a minimum of 2 years. Bipolar lesions, isolated glenoid defects/isolated Hill-Sachs lesions, and no lesion were detected in 86, 45, and 22 shoulders (56.2%, 29.4%, and 14.4%), respectively. As the glenoid defect became larger, the Hill-Sachs lesion also increased in size. However, the size of these lesions showed a weak correlation, and large Hill-Sachs lesions did not always coexist with large glenoid defects. The prevalence of bipolar lesions was 33.3% in shoulders with primary instability and 61.8% in shoulders with recurrent instability. In relation to the total events of dislocations/subluxations, the prevalence was 44.2% in shoulders with 1 to 5 events, 69.0% in shoulders with 6 to 10 events, and 82.8% in shoulders with ≥11 events. Regarding the type of sport, the prevalence was 58.9% in athletes playing collision sports, 53.3% in athletes playing contact sports, and 29.4% in athletes playing overhead sports. Postoperative recurrence of instability was 0% in shoulders without lesions, 0% with isolated Hill-Sachs lesions, 8.3% with isolated glenoid defects, and 29.4% with bipolar lesions. The presence of a bipolar lesion significantly influenced the
Dickens, Jonathan F; Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; Kilcoyne, Kelly; Allred, C Dain; Svoboda, Steven J; Sullivan, Robert; Tokish, John M; Peck, Karen Y; Rue, John-Paul
There is no consensus on the optimal treatment of in-season athletes with anterior shoulder instability, and limited data are available to guide return to play. To examine the likelihood of return to sport and the recurrence of instability after an in-season anterior shoulder instability event based on the type of instability (subluxation vs dislocation). Additionally, injury factors and patient-reported outcome scores administered at the time of injury were evaluated to assess the predictability of eventual successful return to sport and time to return to sport during the competitive season. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Over 2 academic years, 45 contact intercollegiate athletes were prospectively enrolled in a multicenter observational study to assess return to play after in-season anterior glenohumeral instability. Baseline data collection included shoulder injury characteristics and shoulder-specific patient-reported outcome scores at the time of injury. All athletes underwent an accelerated rehabilitation program without shoulder immobilization and were followed during their competitive season to assess the success of return to play and recurrent instability. Thirty-three of 45 (73%) athletes returned to sport for either all or part of the season after a median 5 days lost from competition (interquartile range, 13). Twelve athletes (27%) successfully completed the season without recurrence. Twenty-one athletes (64%) returned to in-season play and had subsequent recurrent instability including 11 recurrent dislocations and 10 recurrent subluxations. Of the 33 athletes returning to in-season sport after an instability event, 67% (22/33) completed the season. Athletes with a subluxation were 5.3 times more likely (odds ratio [OR], 5.32; 95% CI, 1.00-28.07; P = .049) to return to sport during the same season when compared with those with dislocations. Logistic regression analysis suggests that the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (OR, 1
Chen, Chang-Hong; Dong, Qi-Rong; Zhou, Rong-Kui; Zhen, Hua-Qing; Jiao, Ya-Jun
Introduction: Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. Results: According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). Conclusion: The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate. PMID
Chen, Chang-Hong; Dong, Qi-Rong; Zhou, Rong-Kui; Zhen, Hua-Qing; Jiao, Ya-Jun
Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate.
Queipo-de-Llano Temboury, Alfonso; Lara, Jorge Mariscal; Fernadez-de-Rota, Antonio; Queipo-de-Llano, Enrique
Anterior elbow dislocation is an infrequent lesion, usually produced by direct trauma to the proximal ulna after a fall on the elbow in flexion, and is often associated with soft tissue injuries. The authors report a case of a complex injury produced by a high-energy trauma in the right arm of a 65-year-old patient. His limb was trapped inside an industrial spin-dryer, resulting in a closed anterior elbow dislocation, diaphyseal ulnar shaft, radial styloid process fractures, and an associated compartment syndrome. The injury mechanism and its treatment are described to better manage the soft tissue injury and early elbow mobilization using the FEARM hinged external fixator. A good result was achieved, with almost complete restoration of the patient's arm functions, and he has returned to his previous working activities.
Baker, Russell T.; Nasypany, Alan; Reordan, Don
Background and Purpose Shoulder instability, a common issue among athletes who engage in contact sports, may lead to recurrent subluxations, or partial dislocations of the shoulder. Young athletic patients generally respond poorly to the nonsurgical treatments for shoulder instability that are commonly utilized. The purpose of this case report is to describe the effects of the treatment guided by the Mulligan Concept (MC) coupled with reflex neuromuscular stabilization (RNS) also known as reactive neuromuscular training (RNT), on an adolescent football player with glenohumeral joint (GHJ) instability who sustained a traumatic anterior subluxation. Case Description The MC shoulder Mobilization with Movement (MWM) and RNS were applied in the treatment of an anterior shoulder subluxation injury sustained by a competitive adolescent football player. The Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), the Disability in the Physically Active (DPA) scale, the Patient specific Functional Scale (PSFS) and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), were administered in order to identify patient-reported outcomes. Outcomes The shoulder MWM and RNS provided immediate relief of all of the patient's pain and increased ROM after the first treatment. The use of the coupled treatments resulted in a resolution of pain, an increase in range of motion (ROM) and improvement in perceived stability. A minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was reported on the NPRS and minimal detectable changes (MDC) were reported on the NRS and PSFS, after the first treatment. Equally important, MCIDs were reported on the DPA scale and SPADI scale over the course of treatment. Discussion In this case report, the MC shoulder MWM, coupled with RNS, was an effective treatment for this patient and provided a short time to resolution (6 treatments; 19 days) compared to other descriptions of recovery in the literature. Clinicians treating patients who display anterior shoulder instability can consider this as
Hudson, Robinetta A; Baker, Russell T; Nasypany, Alan; Reordan, Don
Shoulder instability, a common issue among athletes who engage in contact sports, may lead to recurrent subluxations, or partial dislocations of the shoulder. Young athletic patients generally respond poorly to the nonsurgical treatments for shoulder instability that are commonly utilized. The purpose of this case report is to describe the effects of the treatment guided by the Mulligan Concept (MC) coupled with reflex neuromuscular stabilization (RNS) also known as reactive neuromuscular training (RNT), on an adolescent football player with glenohumeral joint (GHJ) instability who sustained a traumatic anterior subluxation. The MC shoulder Mobilization with Movement (MWM) and RNS were applied in the treatment of an anterior shoulder subluxation injury sustained by a competitive adolescent football player. The Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), the Disability in the Physically Active (DPA) scale, the Patient specific Functional Scale (PSFS) and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), were administered in order to identify patient-reported outcomes. The shoulder MWM and RNS provided immediate relief of all of the patient's pain and increased ROM after the first treatment. The use of the coupled treatments resulted in a resolution of pain, an increase in range of motion (ROM) and improvement in perceived stability. A minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was reported on the NPRS and minimal detectable changes (MDC) were reported on the NRS and PSFS, after the first treatment. Equally important, MCIDs were reported on the DPA scale and SPADI scale over the course of treatment. In this case report, the MC shoulder MWM, coupled with RNS, was an effective treatment for this patient and provided a short time to resolution (6 treatments; 19 days) compared to other descriptions of recovery in the literature. Clinicians treating patients who display anterior shoulder instability can consider this as a viable treatment option. Even though current literature
Yang, Scott; Feuchtbaum, Eric; Werner, Brian C; Cho, Woojin; Reddi, Vasantha; Arlet, Vincent
Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) often present with a disfiguring shoulder imbalance. Shoulder balance (Sh.B) is of significant importance to the patient's self-perception. Previous studies have correlated Sh.B with respect to only the clinical posterior view correlated with radiographs. It is important, however, to address Sh.B with respect to anterior view of the patients' shoulders as if patients were viewing in a mirror. In this study, we evaluated the anterior Sh.B and correlated it with posterior Sh.B clinically and radiographically in Lenke type 1 and 2 curves. An online scoliosis database was queried to identify 74 AIS patients with Lenke 1 (n = 55, age 15.28 ± 3.35) and 2 (n = 19, age 15.66 ± 3.72) curves with a complete set of PA radiographs and anterior and posterior photos. Radiographic measures for Sh.B included Cobb angles, T1 tilt, first rib angle, and clavicle-rib intersection angle. Clinical measures for Sh.B included inner shoulder angle, outer shoulder angle, and axillary fold angle. Regression analysis with Pearson's correlation and ANOVA for statistical significance was used for analysis. For Lenke 1 curves, there was moderate statistically significant correlation between anterior and posterior clinical Sh.B (R = 0.35-0.41). There was only weak to moderate correlation between radiographic and clinical measures. For Lenke 2 curves, there was a weak to moderate correlation between anterior and posterior clinical Sh.B (R = 0.25-0.45), though not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant correlation between any radiographic measures and posterior Sh.B. There was, however, moderate and significant correlation between radiographic measures and anterior Sh.B. There is no strong correlation between anterior and posterior clinical Sh.B, and surgeons should evaluate both sides in planning deformity correction, especially in Lenke 2 curves. None of the radiographic measures showed strong correlation
Chbani, B; Lahrach, K; Amar, M-F; Ibnlkadi, K; Elmoubaker, S; Bennani, A; Marzouki, A; Boutayeb, F
In view of the comparative frequency of posterior dislocations of the elbow, it is rather remarkable that anterior dislocations of that joint should be among the rarest of injuries . Our case is one of the first cases of anterior dislocation of the elbow without any periarticular fracture or pre-existing deformities around the elbow .
GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; BARBADORO, PAMELA
Purpose the present prospective open-label study was designed to gain further insights into a condition thought to constitute a neglected but not uncommon syndrome characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process, not related to rotator cuff or pectoralis minor tendinopathy, long head of the biceps tendon disorders, or instability. The aim was to clarify its prevalence, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and response to corticosteroid injections. Methods patients with primary anterior shoulder pain precisely reproduced by deep pressure on the apex of the coracoid process were recruited. Patients with clinical or instrumental signs of other shoulder disorders were excluded. Patients were given an injection of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg/ml 1 ml at the coracoid trigger point. They were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days and at 2 years using Equal Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) and the Italian version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Results between January 1 and December 31 2010, we treated 15 patients aged 26–66 years. The majority were women (86.67%). At 15 days, 6 (40%) patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms, while 9 (60%) complained of residual symptoms and received another injection. At 30 days, 14 (93.33%) patients were pain-free and very satisfied. At 2 years, the 14 patients who had been asymptomatic at 30 days reported that they had experienced no further pain or impaired shoulder function. The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed a significant effect of time on EQ-VAS and SST scores. Conclusions the present study documents the existence, and characteristics, of a “coracoid syndrome” characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process and showed that the pain is usually amenable to steroid treatment. This syndrome should be clearly distinguished from anterior shoulder pain due to other causes, in
Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, David M; Dines, Joshua S
Anterior shoulder instability with bone loss can be a difficult problem to treat. It usually involves a component of either glenoid deficiency or a Hill-Sachs lesion. Recent data shows that soft tissue procedures alone are typically not adequate to provide stability to the shoulder. As such, numerous surgical procedures have been described to directly address these bony deficits. For glenoid defects, coracoid transfer and iliac crest bone block procedures are popular and effective. For humeral head defects, both remplissage and osteochondral allografts have decreased the rates of recurrent instability. Our review provides an overview of current literature addressing these treatment options and others for addressing bone loss complicating anterior glenohumeral instability. PMID:26085984
Aboalata, Mohamed; Plath, Johannes E; Seppel, Gernot; Juretzko, Julia; Vogt, Stephan; Imhoff, Andreas B
Anterior-inferior shoulder instability is a common injury in young patients, particularly those practicing overhead-throwing sports. Long-term results after open procedures are well studied and evaluated. However, the long-term results after arthroscopic repair and risk factors of recurrence require further assessment. Arthroscopic Bankart repair results are comparable with those of open repair as described in the literature. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 180 shoulders with anterior-inferior shoulder instability were stabilized arthroscopically, met the inclusion criteria and the patients were able to be contacted at a minimum of 10-year follow-up. Of these patients, 143 agreed to participate in the study. Assessment was performed clinically in 104 patients using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons score, Rowe score, and the Dawson 12-item questionnaire. The Samilson-Prieto score was used to assess degenerative arthropathy in radiographs available for 100 shoulders. Additionally, 15 patients participated through a specific questionnaire and 24 patients through a telephone survey. The overall redislocation rate was 18.18%. Redislocation rates for the different types of fixation devices were as follows: FASTak/Bio-FASTak, 15.1% (17/112); SureTac, 26.3% (5/19); and Panalok, 33.3% (4/12). Concomitant superior labral anterior-posterior repair had no effect on clinical outcome. Redislocation rate was significantly affected by the patient's age and duration of postoperative rehabilitation. Redislocation rate tended to be higher if there had been more than 1 dislocation preoperatively ( P = .098). Severe dislocation arthropathy was observed in 12% of patients, and degenerative changes were significantly correlated with the number of preoperative dislocations, patient age, and number of anchors. The patient satisfaction rate was 92.3%, and return to the preinjury sport level was possible in
Wu, G; Jiang, C Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, Y M; Li, F L; Li, X
To present the surgical technique and to evaluate the results of the modified arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure has proven to be a reliable method of treatment for difficult anteroinferior instability of the shoulder joint. However, there is no anterior capsule reattachment and too much subscapularis damage for the classic procedure. From February 2013, we modified the classic procedure with reattachment of anterior joint capsule and muscle-tendon junction splitting of subscapularis. Coracoid graft position was evaluated using CT scanning. From March 2012 to August 2014, 51 modified Latarjet procedures were successfully performed arthroscopically for patients with anterior shoulder instability. According to the CT scanning at the final follow up, the graft was flush with the glenoid in 94.1%, and medially placed in 5.9%. Vertical positioning was perfect in 96.0% (2 to 5 o'clock), too high in 2.0%, and too low in 2.0%. There were no cases of recurrent dislocation or subluxation. The modified arthroscopic Latarjet procedure has shown satisfactory results with good graft positioning. It is a minimal invasive and accurate approach, which combines the advantages of the open procedure.
Gutkowska, Olga; Martynkiewicz, Jacek; Gosk, Jerzy
Anterior glenohumeral dislocation affects about 2% of the general population during the lifetime. The incidence of traumatic glenohumeral dislocation ranges from 8.2 to 26.69 per 100 000 population per year. The most common complication is recurrent dislocation occurring in 17–96% of the patients. The majority of patients are treated conservatively by closed reduction and immobilization in internal rotation for 2–3 weeks. However, no clear conservative treatment protocol exists. Immobilization in external rotation can be considered an alternative. A range of external rotation braces are commercially available. The purpose of this work was to review the current literature on conservative management of glenohumeral dislocation and to compare the results of immobilization in internal and external rotation. A comprehensive literature search and review was performed using the keywords “glenohumeral dislocation”, “shoulder dislocation”, “immobilization”, “external rotation”, and “recurrent dislocation” in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases from their inceptions to May 2016. Three cadaveric studies, 6 imaging studies, 10 clinical studies, and 4 meta-analyses were identified. The total number of 734 patients were included in the clinical studies. Literature analysis revealed better coaptation of the labrum on the glenoid rim in external rotation in cadaveric and imaging studies. However, this tendency was not confirmed by lower redislocation rates or better quality of life in clinical studies. On the basis of the available literature, we cannot confirm the superiority of immobilization in external rotation after glenohumeral dislocation when compared to internal rotation. A yet-to-be-determined group of patients with specific labroligamentous injury pattern may benefit from immobilization in external rotation. Further studies are needed to identify these patients. PMID:28710344
Hwang, Hyung Bin; Yim, Hye Bin; Kim, Hyun Seung
Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality. PMID:25971181
Dahlin, Lars B; Erichs, Kristina; Andersson, Charlotte; Thornqvist, Catharina; Backman, Clas; Düppe, Henrik; Lindqvist, Pelle; Forslund, Marianne
Posterior dislocation of the shoulder in brachial plexus birth palsy during the first year of life is rare but the incidence increases with age. The aim was to calculate the incidence of these lesions in children below one year of age. The incidence of brachial plexus birth lesion and occurrence of posterior shoulder dislocation was calculated based on a prospective follow up of all brachial plexus patients at an age below one in Malmö municipality, Sweden, 2000-2005. The incidence of brachial plexus birth palsy was 3.8/1000 living infants and year with a corresponding incidence of posterior shoulder dislocation (history, clinical examination and x-ray) during the first year of 0.28/1000 living infants and year, i.e. 7.3% of all brachial plexus birth palsies. All children with a brachial plexus birth lesion (incidence 3.8 per thousand) should be screened, above the assessment of neurological recovery, during the first year of life for posterior dislocation of the shoulder (incidence 0.28 per thousand) since such a condition may occur in 7% of children with a brachial plexus birth lesion.
Maiotti, Marco; Russo, Raffaele; Zanini, Antonio; Schröter, Steffen; Massoni, Carlo; Bianchedi, Diana
This study presents the preliminary results of a new arthroscopic technique consisting of the association of 2 procedures, capsulolabral repair and subscapularis augmentation tenodesis, in the treatment of traumatic anterior shoulder instability with both glenoid bone loss and a Hill-Sachs lesion. Eighty-nine patients engaged in sports were enrolled in this retrospective case-series study with 2 to 5 years' follow-up. All patients underwent a computed tomography scan to assess the percentage of glenoid bone loss by the Pico method. A prior stabilization procedure had failed in 20 patients, who were then segregated into a different group. Visual analog scale (VAS), Rowe, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores were used to assess the results. Only 3 of 89 patients had a post-traumatic redislocation. The mean length of follow-up was 31.5 months (range, 25-60 months). The VAS, Rowe, and ASES scores showed significant improvements: The VAS score decreased from a mean of 3.1 to 0.5 (P = .0157), the Rowe score increased from 58.9 to 94.1 (P = .0215), and the ASES score increased from 68.5 to 95.5 (P = .0197). The mean deficit of external rotation was 6° with the arm at the side of the trunk, and the mean deficit was 3° with the arm in 90° of abduction. The described procedure is a reproducible and effective technique used to restore joint stability in patients engaged in sports who have incurred anterior recurrent shoulder dislocation associated with glenoid bone loss (<25%) and a Hill-Sachs lesion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patrizio, Luigi; Sabetta, Ettore
Posterior dislocation of the shoulder is an unfrequent event that often occurs as a consequence of a direct trauma or epileptic crisis. Frequently the posterior dislocations are misunderstood, so they become chronic lesions. We reported a case of an acute posterior left shoulder dislocation with lesser tuberosity fracture and reverse Hill-Sachs lesions which involved more than 25% of the articular surface of the humeral head, in a 57-old-year man with right hemiparesis. We performed a synthesis of the lesser tuberosity with a screw, and we restored the shape of the humeral head with allograft. We achieved a good result that allows the patient to be able to do his previous activities of daily living. PMID:22084780
Patrizio, Luigi; Sabetta, Ettore
Posterior dislocation of the shoulder is an unfrequent event that often occurs as a consequence of a direct trauma or epileptic crisis. Frequently the posterior dislocations are misunderstood, so they become chronic lesions. We reported a case of an acute posterior left shoulder dislocation with lesser tuberosity fracture and reverse Hill-Sachs lesions which involved more than 25% of the articular surface of the humeral head, in a 57-old-year man with right hemiparesis. We performed a synthesis of the lesser tuberosity with a screw, and we restored the shape of the humeral head with allograft. We achieved a good result that allows the patient to be able to do his previous activities of daily living.
Shields, Edward; Mirabelli, Mark; Amsdell, Simon; Thorsness, Robert; Goldblatt, John; Maloney, Michael; Voloshin, Ilya
Previous studies have investigated outcomes of simultaneous rotator cuff (RC) repair and superior labral injury repair; however, there is limited information in the literature on outcomes of simultaneous RC repair and Bankart lesion repair after acute shoulder dislocations. To determine functional and imaging outcomes of simultaneous arthroscopic RC repair and Bankart repair after acute shoulder dislocations and to compare functional outcomes to contralateral, asymptomatic shoulders. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic simultaneous RC repair and Bankart repair with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were recruited. All patients had suffered an acute shoulder dislocation. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Constant-Murley, and Short Form (SF)-36 scores were obtained. The affected shoulder also underwent ultrasound imaging to assess the integrity of the RC. Thirteen patients (mean age, 58.8 ± 11.2 years; mean follow-up, 38.5 ± 12.3 months) were recruited. In a comparison of the affected versus unaffected shoulder, there were no significant differences in the mean ASES score (89.7 ± 12.6 vs 95.0 ± 6.7, respectively), mean Constant score (80.5 ± 18.9 vs 86.8 ± 7.9, respectively), or mean abduction strength (15.4 ± 6.4 lb vs 15.4 ± 5.2 lb, respectively) (P > .05). The mean SF-36 physical component summary was 48.4. According to ultrasound imaging, there were persistent/recurrent full-thickness tears in 4 patients, and 1 patient had a new full-thickness tear. At follow-up, patients with full-thickness RC tears in the affected shoulder compared with their unaffected shoulder showed similar mean ASES scores (90.9 ± 11.8 vs 97.6 ± 4.3, respectively), mean Constant scores (77.8 ± 20.3 vs 84.8 ± 7.2, respectively), and mean abduction strength (11.5 ± 5.3 lb vs 12.6 ± 4.5 lb, respectively) (P > .05). After simultaneous arthroscopic repair of the RC and a Bankart lesion in patients after shoulder
Kumar, Rakesh; Sekhawat, Vishal; Sankhala, SS; Bijarnia, Isha
Introduction: In view of the comparative frequency of posterior dislocations of the elbow, it is rather remarkable that anterior dislocations of that joint should be among the rarest of injuries. Authors report a case of acute anterior dislocation with old fracture of medial epicondyle. Case Report: 22 years old male presented with acute pain and tenderness with deformity of right elbow joint and inability to move the elbow joint after he fell down during an episode of seizure. There was no neurovascular deficit. Radiological examination confirmed anterior dislocation of elbow joint with an ununited medial epicondyle fracture. Elbow was reduced under general anesthesia in emergency operation theatre. Conclusion: Anterior dislocation of elbow is very rare. Early diagnosis and proper reduction of dislocation is key of normal functioning of elbow joint. PMID:27298973
An elite soccer player presented with a classic acute anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint complicated by axillary nerve damage. The incidence, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, conservative treatment and rehabilitation of the anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation and associated axillary nerve damage are discussed in this paper. ImagesFigure 3
Saba, Luca; De Filippo, Massimo
To evaluate retrospectively the diagnostic accuracy of MR arthrography, compared with arthroscopy, in research of the glenoid labrum tear in patients with a first episode of traumatic anterior shoulder instability (TUBS). We retrospectively reviewed the MR arthrography shoulder images of 118 patients with a first episode of TUBS, between June 2014 and May 2016. The overall accuracy of MR arthrography compared with arthroscopy of the glenoid labrum lesions was 94%, sensitivity 93%, and specificity 96%. The sensitivity of MR arthrography for Perthes lesion was 71.4%, and for ALPSA lesion, it was 91%. Slap lesion occurred in 11 out of 77 cases (9.3% of 118 cases). The Hill-Sachs lesion occurred in 48 out of 118 cases (40.7%), while the Hill-Sachs reverse lesion in 4 cases (3.4%). The MR arthrography is accurate in detecting labral injuries. However, other studies are needed to assess the less frequent tear, as Perthes lesion. The presence of the Hill-Sachs lesion could provide useful information about the level of the shoulder instability.
Collin, P; Rochcongar, P; Thomazeau, H
Results of the Latarjet procedure for chronic anterior shoulder instability using a coracoid block are known in terms of recurrence, but not in terms of apprehension. We studied a prospective consecutive series of shoulders treated with the Latarjet method in order to determine whether patients forget their shoulder or whether they are still bothered, particularly during sports activities. The series included 74 patients with chronic anterior shoulder instability treated with a coracoid block according to the Latarjet procedure. Sixty-nine were available for review and 66 had complete radiographic explorations (93.2%). The Duplay score was used to classify sports activities. Mean age was 26.5 years; 90% of the patients practiced sports. The surgical procedure was performed by the same operator for 78% of patients. The Duplay score and the Constant score were determined and standard x-rays (four views) were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was then applied to the subpopulation presenting persistent apprehension. Follow-up was at least 24 months, average follow-up 50 months. Four patients presented secondary dislocation and two subluxation; 85% of patients were satisfied, 6% were hesitant and 9% were dissatisfied. The Duplay score was: excellent (18.8%), good (49.9%), fair (20.2%) and poor (10.1%). External elbow rotation (RE1) was limited by 17.69 degrees compared with the other side. Eighty-seven percent of patients resumed their sports activity five months postoperatively on average; 34% presented persistent apprehension. This subpopulation was examined separately. Multivariate analysis demonstrated two significantly independent factors of persistent apprehension: recovery of RE1 at 30 days postop, and total recovery of R1 at last follow-up. The radiographies demonstrated degenerative lesions in 10.6% of patients. The satisfaction rate of 85% and the 9% failure rate are similar to earlier reports. Our
McLaughlin, Richard James; Miniaci, Anthony; Jones, Morgan H.
Background: One complication of anteroinferior glenohumeral shoulder dislocation is a critical bone defect that requires surgical repair to prevent recurrent instability. However, controversy exists regarding the surgical management because both open and arthroscopic surgeries have respective advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, it is difficult to determine the patient’s preferred treatment, as factors that influence treatment choice include recurrence rates, morbidity of the procedures, and patient preferences. Hypothesis: Patients who have a higher probability of recurrent instability after arthroscopic surgery will select open surgery whereas patients with a lower probability of recurrent instability after arthroscopic surgery will favor arthroscopy. Study Design: Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A decision tree was constructed to model each hypothetical outcome after open or arthroscopic surgery for glenohumeral instability in patients with bone defects. A literature review was performed to determine the probability of occurrence for each node while utility values for each outcome were obtained via patient-administered surveys given to 50 patients without prior history of shoulder injury or dislocation. Fold-back analysis was then performed to show the optimal treatment strategy. Finally, sensitivity analysis established the thresholds at which open treatment becomes the optimal treatment. Results: The ultimate expected value—the objective evaluation of all potential outcomes after choosing either open or arthroscopic surgery—was found to be greater for arthroscopic surgery than for open surgery (87.17 vs 81.64), indicating it to be the preferred treatment. Results of sensitivity analysis indicated that open surgery becomes the preferred treatment when probability of recurrence after arthroscopic treatment is ≥23.8%, although varying the utility, defined as an aggregate patient preference for a particular outcome, has no
Polyzois, Ioannis; Dattani, Rupen; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer; Narvani, A Ali
Management of first shoulder dislocation following reduction remains controversial. The two main options are immobilisation and arthroscopic stabilisation. The aim of this article is to highlight some of the issues that influence decision making when discussing management options with these patients, including natural history of the first time dislocation, outcomes of surgery and non-operative management particularly on the risk of future osteoarthritis (OA), the effects of delaying surgery and the optimal method of immobilisation. Extensive literature review was performed looking for previous publication addressing 4 points. i) Natural history of primary shoulder dislocation ii) Effect of surgical intervention on natural history iii) Risk of long term osteoarthritis with and without surgical intervention iv) Immobilisation techniques post reduction. Individuals younger than 25 years old are likely to re-dislocate with non-operative management. Surgery reduces risk of recurrent instability. Patients with recurrent instability appear to be at a higher risk of OA. Those who have surgical stabilisation do not appear to be at a higher risk than those who dislocate just once, but are less likely to develop OA than those with recurrent instability. Delaying surgery makes the stabilisation more demanding due to elongation of capsule, progressive labro-ligamentous injury, prevalence and severity of glenoid bone loss. Recent studies have failed to match the preliminary outcomes associated with external rotation braces. Defining the best timing and type of treatment remains a challenge and should be tailored to each individual’s age, occupation and degree of physical activity. PMID:27200385
Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovsky, Joel; Strose, Eric; Nascimento, Luís Gustavo Prata; Bueno, Rogério Serpone; Almeida, Luís Henrique Oliveira
Objective: To determine: 1) whether the patients had been oriented to use immobilization for at least four weeks and which type of immobilization was prescribed, 2) how many dislocations occurred until the patient received information about the need of surgery, 3) How long it takes for patients to have an appointment with a shoulder surgeon, 4) How many dislocations the patient had at the time of surgery. Material and Methods: Of the 100 patients surgically treated or waiting for surgery at outpatient facilities, we interviewed 61 patients with questions related to the mechanism of dislocation, emergency service sites, guidelines for acute event treatment and follow-up, time elapsed until surgery and follow-up. Collected data were submitted to analysis. Results: Only 13 patients (22%) had received correct information about their lesion, prognosis concerning recurrence, and about the need of surgery and expert follow-up in recurrent cases. None of our patients received proper information about type and duration of immobilization. Conclusion: None of our patients had received proper orientation to remain immobilized for four weeks, and the types of immobilization vary from a handmade sling to a manufactured Velpeau. Most of our patients (78%) did not receive proper orientation about specialized follow-up and surgery after their second episode of dislocation. The time for a specialized appointment with shoulder surgeon ranges from four to six months, with 1-100 dislocation episodes at the moment of surgery. PMID:27077064
Noheria, Amit; Cha, Yong-Mei; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Friedman, Paul A
A 53-year-old man underwent implantation of a totally subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD; Boston Scientific). He was positioned supine, with the left arm abducted, externally rotated (i.e. palm up) and strapped to the arm extender. The generator was placed in the left mid-axillary line along the 5th-6th intercostal spaces and the defibrillation coil was tunneled anterior to the sternum. Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing with 65 Jcaused a forceful pectoralis twitch. The patient woke up with a painful anteriorly dislocated left shoulder. Glenohumeral dislocation due to DFT testing has not been previously reported. It is likely that this complication is specific to the S-ICD implantation, and is related to positioning with the arm abducted, externally rotated, and immobilized, and use of greater defibrillation energy with current pathway through the bulk of the pectoralis muscle.Precautions may include extending the arm palm down, strapping the arm loosely, and adduction of the arm for DFT testing.
Zimmermann, Stefan M; Scheyerer, Max J; Farshad, Mazda; Catanzaro, Sabrina; Rahm, Stefan; Gerber, Christian
Various operative techniques are used for treating recurrent anterior shoulder instability, and good mid-term results have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder stability after treatment with the 2 commonly performed procedures, the arthroscopic Bankart soft-tissue repair and the open coracoid transfer according to Latarjet. A comparative, retrospective case-cohort analysis of 360 patients (364 shoulders) who had primary repair for recurrent anterior shoulder instability between 1998 and 2007 was performed. The minimum duration of follow-up was 6 years. Reoperations, overt recurrent instability (defined as recurrent dislocation or subluxation), apprehension, the subjective shoulder value (SSV), sports participation, and overall satisfaction were recorded. An open Latarjet procedure was performed in 93 shoulders, and an arthroscopic Bankart repair was done in 271 shoulders. Instability or apprehension persisted or recurred after 11% (10) of the 93 Latarjet procedures and after 41.7% (113) of the 271 arthroscopic Bankart procedures. Overt instability recurred after 3% of the Latarjet procedures and after 28.4% (77) of the Bankart procedures. In the Latarjet group, 3.2% of the patients were not satisfied with their result compared with 13.2% in the Bankart group (p = 0.007). Kaplan-Meier analysis of survivorship, with apprehension (p < 0.001), redislocation (p = 0.01), and operative revision (p < 0.001) as the end points, documented the substantial superiority of the Latarjet procedure and the decreasing effectiveness of the arthroscopic Bankart repair over time. Twenty percent of the first recurrences after arthroscopic Bankart occurred no earlier than 91 months postoperatively, as opposed to the rare recurrences after osseous reconstruction, which occurred in the early postoperative period, with only rare late failures. In this retrospective cohort study, the arthroscopic Bankart procedure was inferior to the open Latarjet procedure for
Lynch, Joseph R; Clinton, Jeremiah M; Dewing, Christopher B; Warme, Winston J; Matsen, Frederick A
Bone loss of the glenoid and/or humerus is a common consequence of traumatic anterior shoulder instability and can be a cause of recurrent instability after a Bankart repair. Accurate characterization of the size and location of osseous defects associated with traumatic instability is important when planning treatment. Open or arthroscopic soft tissue repairs are usually sufficient when less than 25% of the width of the glenoid bone has been lost. Bone replacement techniques may be necessary when glenoid bone loss is greater than 25% of the glenoid width. Glenoid bone restoration techniques include the use of a tricortical iliac crest graft or the transfer of the coracoid process to the area of glenoid deficiency. Bone grafting becomes a strong consideration when soft tissue repairs have failed to restore stability. Treatment of these severe defects may be followed by osteoarthritis. The destabilizing effects of anterior glenoid bone defects are compounded by concurrent defects of the posterior-lateral humeral head, commonly known as Hill-Sachs lesions, which can engage the glenoid defect. Large humeral head defects can be treated by transhumeral bone grafting techniques or osteoarticular allograft reconstruction. Prosthetic replacement of the proximal humerus is considered for humeral head defects involving more than 40% of the articular surface. Understanding the importance of humeral and glenoid bone deficiencies may help guide the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability.
Owens, Brett D; Dickens, Jonathan F; Kilcoyne, Kelly G; Rue, John-Paul H
Shoulder dislocation and subluxation injuries are common in young athletes and most frequently occur during the competitive season. Controversy exists regarding optimal treatment of an athlete with an in-season shoulder dislocation, and limited data are available to guide treatment. Rehabilitation may facilitate return to sport within 3 weeks, but return is complicated by a moderate risk of recurrence. Bracing may reduce the risk of recurrence, but it restricts motion and may not be tolerated in patients who must complete certain sport-specific tasks such as throwing. Surgical management of shoulder dislocation or subluxation with arthroscopic or open Bankart repair reduces the rate of recurrence; however, the athlete is unable to participate in sport for the remainder of the competitive season. When selecting a management option, the clinician must consider the natural history of shoulder instability, pathologic changes noted on examination and imaging, sport- and position-specific demands, duration of treatment, and the athlete's motivation.
Shoulder surgeons need to be aware of the critical size of the glenoid or humeral osseous defects seen in patients with anterior shoulder instability, since the considerable size of osseous defect is reported to cause postoperative instability. Biomechanical studies have identified the size of the osseous defect which affects stability. Since engagement always occurs between a Hill-Sachs lesion and the glenoid rim, when considering the critical size of the Hill-Sachs lesion, we have to simultaneously consider the size of the glenoid osseous defect. With the newly developed concept of the glenoid track, we are able to evaluate whether a large Hill-Sachs lesion is an "on-track" or "off-track" lesion, and to consider both osseous defects together. In case of an off-track Hill-Sachs lesion, if the glenoid defect is less than 25%, no treatment is required. In this case, the Latarjet procedure or arthroscopic remplissage procedure can be a treatment option. However, if the glenoid defect is more than 25%, treatment such as bone grafting is required. This will convert an off-track lesion to an on-track lesion. After the bone graft or Latarjet procedure, if the Hill-Sachs lesion persists as off-track, then further treatment is necessitated. In case with an on-track Hill-Sachs lesion and a less than 25% glenoid defect, arthroscopic Bankart repair alone is enough. PMID:26640623
Gulacti, Umut; Can, Cagdas; Erdogan, Mehmet Ozgur; Lok, Ugur; Buyukaslan, Hasan
Patient: Male, 57 Final Diagnosis: Typ 2 Superior labrum anterior-posterior lesion Symptoms: Shoulder pain after trauma Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Orthopedics and Traumatology • Emergency Medicine Objective: Rare disease Background: Due to the anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of the shoulder, traumatic soft-tissue lesions are more common than osseous lesions. Superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions are an uncommon a cause of shoulder pain. SLAP is injury or separation of the glenoid labrum superior where the long head of biceps adheres. SLAP lesions are usually not seen on plain direct radiographs. Shoulder MRI and magnetic resonance arthrography are useful for diagnosis. Case Report: A 57-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department due to a low fall on his shoulder. In physical examination, active and passive shoulder motion was normal except for painful extension. Anterior-posterior shoulder x-ray imaging was normal. The patient required orthopedics consultation in the emergency observation unit due to persistent shoulder pain. In shoulder MRI, performed for diagnosis, type II lesion SLAP was detected. The patient was referred to a tertiary hospital due to lack of arthroscopy in our hospital. Conclusions: Shoulder traumas are usually soft-tissue injuries with no findings in x-rays. SLAP lesion is an uncommon cause of traumatic shoulder pain. For this reason, we recommend orthopedic consultation in post-traumatic persistent shoulder pain. PMID:23961305
Shymon, Stephen J; Roocroft, Joanna; Edmonds, Eric W
Arthroscopic and open Bankart repairs have proven efficacy in adults with recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Although studies have included children in their analysis, none have previously compared functional outcomes or redislocation rates between these 2 methodologies for anteroinferior glenoid labrum repair in this young population. We hypothesize that open and arthroscopic Bankart repair in children will have similar functional outcomes and redislocation rates, but differing results from adults treated in a similar manner. A retrospective chart review was performed on all Bankart repairs performed between 2006 and 2010 at a tertiary care children's hospital. A shift in treatment modalities occurred in 2008 creating 2 cohorts, open and arthroscopic. Brachial plexus injury, congenital soft-tissue disorder, or incomplete charts were excluded. Demographics, age at surgery, follow-up length, and sport were recorded. Telephone interviews were then performed obtaining the most current QuickDASH (Disability Arm, Shoulder, or Hand), WOSI (Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index), SF-12 (Short Form 12), SANE (Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation), and verbal pain scores; as well as, inquiring about recurrent dislocation and further surgery. Ninety-nine children (16.9±1.5 y) were included (28 open, 71 arthroscopic). There were no differences in preoperative demographics. Fifty-one patients completed the questionnaires (11 open, 40 arthroscopic). No significant differences in the outcomes scores were seen between the 2 groups. Of the 99 patients, 21 (21%) had redislocation or secondary surgery; there was no significant difference in failure rate between groups (4 open, 17 arthroscopic). A plotted survival curve demonstrated that the adolescent shoulder undergoing Bankart repair for recurrent traumatic anterior instability has a 2-year survival of 86% and a 5-year survival of only 49%, regardless of technique. In adolescents, there is no significant difference in
Kim, Weon-Yoo; Han, Chang-Whan; Kim, Yong-Hwan
A sacrococcygeal dislocation is a rare occurrence, and the treatment options vary. Initial treatment is nonoperative, consisting of a manual reduction with a gloved finger and local rest. Acute operative treatment of a failed closed reduction is unusual. We report a case of an acute irreducible anteriorly dislocated coccyx successfully treated with a minimally invasive technique: joystick reduction and Steinman pin fixation.
Martel, Éder Menegassi; Rodrigues, Airton; dos Santos Neto, Francisco José; Dahmer, Cleiton; Ranzzi, Abel; Dubiela, Rafaella Scuzziato
Objective To clinically and radiologically evaluate the results from videoarthroscopic treatment using metal anchors in patients with recurrent shoulder dislocation and its complications. Methods This was a retrospective study on 47 patients (47 shoulders) operated by the shoulder group of the orthopedic hospital between February 2010 and February 2012. A questionnaire, interview and physical and radiographic examinations were used, with the classification of Samilson and Pietro. The mean postoperative follow-up was 33 months (range 12–47 months). The statistical analysis consisted of using Fisher's exact test through the IBM SPSS 22 statistical software. The significance level used was 5%. Results Recurrence was observed in nine cases. The patients were, on average, 26.5 years old at the first episode, and 19.1% were aged 20 years or under. Among these, 55.6% presented recurrence. In relation to age at the time of the surgical procedure, the average age was 27 years, and 12.8% were aged 20 years or under. Nineteen patients presented prominent anchors and, of these, 21% manifested arthrosis. Conclusion There was a statistically identified correlation between the recurrence rate and age less than or equal to 20 years at the times of first dislocation and the surgical procedure. Further studies should be conducted in order to compare the use of absorbable anchors, which despite higher cost, may provide lower risk of developing glenohumeral arthrosis in some cases. PMID:26962500
... a common injury in contact sports, such as football and hockey, and in sports that may involve ... the injury, your family doctor or the emergency room physician may recommend that an orthopedic surgeon examine ...
Yang, Justin S; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Cote, Mark P; Edgar, Cory M; Arciero, Robert A
Recurrent anterior glenohumeral dislocation in the setting of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion is high. The Latarjet procedure has been well described for restoring glenohumeral stability in patients with >25% glenoid bone loss. However, the treatment for patients with combined humeral head and mild (<25%) glenoid bone loss remains unclear. This study reports on the outcomes of the modified Latarjet for patients with combined humeral and glenoid defects and compares the results for patients with ≤25% glenoid bone loss versus patients with >25% glenoid bone loss. The hypothesis was that the 2 groups would have equivalent subjective outcomes and recurrence rates. Cohort Study; Level of evidence, 3. Modified Latarjet was performed in 40 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability, engaging Hill-Sachs by examination confirmed with arthroscopy, and ≤25% anterior glenoid bone loss (group A). A second group of 12 patients were identified to have >25% glenoid bone loss with an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion (group B). The mean follow-up time was 3.5 years. All patients were assessed for their risk of recurrence using the Instability Severity Index score and Beighton score and had preoperative 3-dimensional imaging to assess humeral and glenoid bone loss. Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), recurrence rate, radiographs, range of motion, and dynamometer strength were used to assess outcomes. A multivariate analysis was performed. Glenoid bone loss averaged 15% in group A compared with 34% in group B. Both groups had comparable WOSI scores (356 vs 475; P = .311). In multivariate analysis, the number of previous surgeries and Beighton score were directly correlated with WOSI score in Latarjet patients. The SANE score was better in group A (86 vs 77; P = .02). Group B experienced more loss of external rotation (9.2° vs 15.8°; P = .0001) and weaker thumbs-down abduction and external rotation strength (P < .032
Espandar, Ramin; Eraghi, Amir Sobhani; Mardookhpour, Shirin
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature ageing disorder that is characterized by accelerated degenerative changes of the cutaneous, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. Mean age at diagnosis is 2.9 years and generally leading to death at approximately 13 years of age due to myocardial infarction or stroke. Orthopedic manifestations of HGPS are multiple and shoulder dislocation is a rare skeletal trauma in progeria syndrome. Our patient had simultaneous shoulder and hip dislocation associated with a low energy trauma. This subject has not been reported. Treatment accomplished as close reduction under general anesthesia and immobilization.
Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A.; Sirio, Adrian; Dilernia, Fernando Diaz; Bertona, Agustin; Maignon, Gastón D.; Bongiovanni, Santiago L.
Background: The high demands to the glenohumeral joint and the violent shoulder blows experienced during martial arts (MA) could compromise return to sports and increase the recurrence rate after arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability in these athletes. Purpose: To report the functional outcomes, return to sports, and recurrences in a series of MA athletes with anterior shoulder instability treated with arthroscopic stabilization with suture anchors. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive MA athletes were treated for anterior shoulder instability at a single institution between January 2008 and December 2013. Range of motion (ROM), the Rowe score, a visual analog scale (VAS), and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System (ASOSS) were used to assess functional outcomes. Return-to-sport and recurrence rates were also evaluated. Results: The mean age at the time of surgery was 25.4 years (range, 18-35 years), and the mean follow-up was 71 months (range, 36-96 months). No significant difference in preoperative and postoperative shoulder ROM was found. The Rowe, VAS, and ASOSS scores showed statistical improvement after surgery (P < .001). In all, 19 athletes (95%) returned to sports. However, only 60% achieved ≥90% recovery after surgery. The recurrence rate was 20%. Conclusion: In this retrospective study of a consecutive cohort of MA athletes, arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization significantly improved functional scores. However, only 60% of the athletes achieved the same level of competition, and there was a 20% recurrence rate. PMID:28932751
Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Sirio, Adrian; Dilernia, Fernando Diaz; Bertona, Agustin; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L
The high demands to the glenohumeral joint and the violent shoulder blows experienced during martial arts (MA) could compromise return to sports and increase the recurrence rate after arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability in these athletes. To report the functional outcomes, return to sports, and recurrences in a series of MA athletes with anterior shoulder instability treated with arthroscopic stabilization with suture anchors. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 20 consecutive MA athletes were treated for anterior shoulder instability at a single institution between January 2008 and December 2013. Range of motion (ROM), the Rowe score, a visual analog scale (VAS), and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System (ASOSS) were used to assess functional outcomes. Return-to-sport and recurrence rates were also evaluated. The mean age at the time of surgery was 25.4 years (range, 18-35 years), and the mean follow-up was 71 months (range, 36-96 months). No significant difference in preoperative and postoperative shoulder ROM was found. The Rowe, VAS, and ASOSS scores showed statistical improvement after surgery (P < .001). In all, 19 athletes (95%) returned to sports. However, only 60% achieved ≥90% recovery after surgery. The recurrence rate was 20%. In this retrospective study of a consecutive cohort of MA athletes, arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization significantly improved functional scores. However, only 60% of the athletes achieved the same level of competition, and there was a 20% recurrence rate.
Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Kyo; Inna, Prashanth; Noh, Won; Lee, Dong-Ki; Lee, Soon-Hyuck
Pediatric sacroiliac joint injuries are uncommon. Significant pelvis ring disruptions in children are rare, and their management is complicated by patient size, differences in bony architecture, and future growth and remodeling potential. We present a rare case of anterior sacroiliac joint dislocation associated with triradiate cartilage injury with a posterior sacroiliac dislocation on the contralateral side. This appears to be the first such case reported in the literature.
de Pablo Márquez, B; Castillón Bernal, P; Bernaus Johnson, M C; Ibañez Aparicio, N M
Elbow dislocation is the most frequent dislocation in the upper limb after shoulder dislocation. Closed reduction is feasible in outpatient care when there is no associated fracture. A review is presented of the different reduction procedures.
Spiegl, Ulrich J A; Ryf, Christian; Hepp, Pierre; Rillmann, Paavo
Studies dealing with acute osseous Bankart lesions and corresponding treatment strategies are rare. The purpose of this study is to analyze the results after applying our treatment algorithm for acute glenoid rim fractures caused by first time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. 25 patients were included in this retrospective case series. All patients sustained a first time shoulder dislocation caused by ski or snowboard accidents. An osseous Bankart lesion was detected in all shoulders. Operative therapy was performed in patients with osseous defects of 5% or more, otherwise conservative therapy was initiated. Primary study outcome parameter was the Rowe score. Additionally, the outer rotation deficit and operative complications were analysed. 12 patients showed a defect size of less than 5% and were treated conservatively. The average lesion size was 2%. For these patients, the Rowe score was excellent in 58%, good in 25%, and moderate in 17% of patients. Three patients (25%) complained about a feeling of instability. 13 patients had a lesion size of more than 5%, average 15%, and were treated operatively. The Rowe score for this group was excellent in 54%, good in 31%, and moderate results in 15% of patients. One patient (8%) complained about a feeling of instability, without recurrent dislocations. There were no statistically significant differences between both study groups (ROWE score: p = 0.98). Applying our treatment algorithm for acute osseous Bankart lesions consisting of a conservative strategy for small defect sizes and a surgical approach for medium-sized and large defects leads to encouraging mid-term results and a low rate of recurrent instability in active patients.
Background Studies dealing with acute osseous Bankart lesions and corresponding treatment strategies are rare. The purpose of this study is to analyze the results after applying our treatment algorithm for acute glenoid rim fractures caused by first time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. Methods 25 patients were included in this retrospective case series. All patients sustained a first time shoulder dislocation caused by ski or snowboard accidents. An osseous Bankart lesion was detected in all shoulders. Operative therapy was performed in patients with osseous defects of 5% or more, otherwise conservative therapy was initiated. Primary study outcome parameter was the Rowe score. Additionally, the outer rotation deficit and operative complications were analysed. Results 12 patients showed a defect size of less than 5% and were treated conservatively. The average lesion size was 2%. For these patients, the Rowe score was excellent in 58%, good in 25%, and moderate in 17% of patients. Three patients (25%) complained about a feeling of instability. 13 patients had a lesion size of more than 5%, average 15%, and were treated operatively. The Rowe score for this group was excellent in 54%, good in 31%, and moderate results in 15% of patients. One patient (8%) complained about a feeling of instability, without recurrent dislocations. There were no statistically significant differences between both study groups (ROWE score: p = 0.98). Conclusions Applying our treatment algorithm for acute osseous Bankart lesions consisting of a conservative strategy for small defect sizes and a surgical approach for medium-sized and large defects leads to encouraging mid-term results and a low rate of recurrent instability in active patients. PMID:24160987
Dickens, Jonathan F; Rue, John-Paul; Cameron, Kenneth L; Tokish, John M; Peck, Karen Y; Allred, C Dain; Svoboda, Steven J; Sullivan, Robert; Kilcoyne, Kelly G; Owens, Brett D
The debate continues regarding the optimal treatment of intercollegiate contact athletes with in-season anterior shoulder instability. To examine return to sport and recurrent instability in the season after the index in-season anterior instability event. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Forty-five contact intercollegiate athletes treated nonoperatively or with arthroscopic stabilization were prospectively followed in a multicenter observational study to evaluate return to play (RTP) and recurrent instability in the season after an initial in-season anterior glenohumeral instability event. Baseline data collection included sport played, previous instability events, direction of instability, type of instability (subluxation or dislocation), and treatment method (nonoperative management or arthroscopic stabilization). All nonoperatively treated athletes underwent a standardized accelerated rehabilitation program without shoulder immobilization. Surgical stabilization was performed arthroscopically in all cases, and successful RTP was evaluated during the next competitive season after complete rehabilitation. Thirty-nine of 45 intercollegiate contact athletes had remaining National Collegiate Athletic Association eligibility and were followed through the subsequent competitive season after the index instability event. Of the 10 athletes electing nonoperative treatment, 4 (40%) successfully returned to play without recurrence during the subsequent season. Of the 29 athletes treated surgically, 26 (90%) were able to successfully return to play without recurrence the following season (recurrence: n = 1; inadequate function: n = 2). Athletes who underwent surgical reconstruction before the next season were 5.8 times (95% CI, 1.77-18.97; P = .004) more likely to complete the subsequent season without recurrent instability. Of the 29 athletes electing surgical stabilization, there was no difference (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.10-9.24; P > .99) in RTP between the 9
Joint dislocation ... It may be hard to tell a dislocated joint from a broken bone . Both are emergencies that ... to repair a ligament that tears when the joint is dislocated is needed. Injuries to nerves and ...
Flury, Matthias; Rickenbacher, Dominik; Audigé, Laurent
Restoration of shoulder stability after humeral avulsion of glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) lesions can be achieved with arthroscopy, yet limited evidence exists on its benefit. We evaluated objective and subjective outcomes after arthroscopic refixation of a HAGL lesion. Between 2009 and 2012, 8 patients were treated arthroscopically for anterior shoulder instability associated with a HAGL lesion and invited for a follow-up examination. Radiographic assessment of joint centering and osteoarthritis, clinical assessment including Constant and Rowe scores, and complications as well as functional outcomes using the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, Subjective Shoulder Value, and Simple Shoulder Test were documented. Six patients were postoperatively examined at a median time of 29 months (range, 12-38). Four patients had up to 6 previous luxation events. Two patients had a concomitant labral lesion, and another 2 had an associated rotator cuff tear. Positive preoperative apprehension and relocation test results for 5 patients were negative at follow-up. No neurologic lesion was noted both before and after surgery. Shoulder motion did not improve significantly; lower internal and external rotation relative to the contralateral shoulder was reported. The Rowe score improved significantly from baseline (median score change, 65 points; P = .027), with 2 and 4 patients rating "good" and "excellent" at follow-up, respectively. Final median Constant score, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, Subjective Shoulder Value, and Simple Shoulder Test scores were 77.3 points, 91.0 points, 90%, and 87.5 points, respectively. Arthroscopic stabilization of a HAGL lesion is a safe, feasible, and reproducible technique. In our patient cohort, good shoulder stability could be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Saxena, Rushil Kumar; Medhi, Jnanankar
We report a rare case of bilateral spontaneous anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation in a 75-year-old man with pseudoexfoliation (PXF). He underwent uneventful phacoemulsification in both eyes with in-the-bag IOL implantation 9 years back. In the right eye, single piece poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOL (+19 D) and in the left eye, single piece acrylic foldable IOL (+19 D) were implanted. An attempt at pharmacological IOL repositioning was unsuccessful. The dislocated IOLs were explanted and exchanged with scleral suture fixated PMMA IOLs. Vision improved to 20/30 in both eyes following surgery, without any associated ocular morbidity. We believe that zonular weakness secondary to PXF, capsular contraction, and myopia together were the predisposing factors for partial anterior dislocation of IOLs and IOL exchange with scleral suture fixation of IOL is a safe and effective treatment option. PMID:26655008
de Oliveira, Anderson Luiz; Machado, Eduardo Gomes
Open anterior hip dislocation is a rare condition and results from high-energy trauma. Ten cases of open anterior dislocation have been described in the literature so far. Its rarity is due to the inherent stability of the joint, its deep position in the pelvis, with strong ligaments and bulky muscles around the articulation. Several factors influence the prognosis, such as the degree of compounding, the associated soft tissue injuries, the age of the patient and, mainly, the delay in reduction. The main complications are: arthrosis of the hip, with incidence of 50% of cases, when associated with fractures of the femoral head; and osteonecrosis of the femoral head, with incidence between 1.7 and 40% (in closed anterior dislocation). Because of the rarity and the potential disability of this lesion, we report a case in a 46-year-old man, involved in an automobile accident. The hip was reduced (anterior superior dislocation) in the first three hours of the trauma. The patient was kept non-weight bearing until sixth week, with complete weight bearing after 10th week. After one year follow-up, the functional result was poor (Harris Hip Score: 52), probably because of the associated labral tear, but without signs of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in magnetic resonance imaging.
Wang, Biao; Zhu, Yue; Jiao, Ying; Wang, Feng; Liu, Xinchun; Zhu, Haitao; Tu, Guanjun; Liang, Deyong
The preliminary results from a new anterior-posterior surgical approach are reported. To report a novel surgical approach, which was successfully applied to treat 8 cervical facet dislocation patients. The combined anterior-posterior surgical procedure is used as a common approach in the treatment of cervical facet dislocations. However, some problems may arise during the application of this approach, and as a result, surgeons must change the initial surgical plan to anterior-posterior-anterior approach. Between December 2011 and June 2012, 8 patients had facet dislocations were surgically treated by the new anterior-posterior approach. After anterior discectomy, a peek frame cage containing autologous iliac bone particles or tricalcium phosphate bone substitute was inserted in the interspace and fixed with a peek composite buttress plate screwed into the inferior vertebral body. Then, the anterior wound was closed and the patient was turned prone. Through a posterior midline approach, the posterior elements were exposed and the reduction was gradually achieved by posteriorly translating the superior segment and progressively positioning the patient's neck into extension. Then lateral mass or pedicle screws and titanium rods were placed in a favorable and satisfactory position, which was demonstrated by the intraoperative plain radiographs. A posterolateral fusion was performed and the posterior wound was closed. With the use of this new approach, all the patients had obtained successful reduction and satisfactory anatomic sagittal alignment. No instances of neurological deterioration and instrument failure occurred, no complications were owing to the use of this technique, and 4 patients existed neurological functional recovery at the most recent follow-up visit. This reported surgical approach is an efficient and safe way for the treatment of traumatic cervical facet dislocations.
Li, Haoxi; Yong, Zhiyao; Chen, Zhaoxiong; Huang, Yufeng; Lin, Zhoudan; Wu, Desheng
Abstract Treatment of cervical fracture and dislocation by improving the anterior cervical technique. Anterior cervical approach has been extensively used in treating cervical spine fractures and dislocations. However, when this approach is used in the treatment of locked facet joints, an unsatisfactory intraoperative reduction and prying reduction increases the risk of secondary spinal cord injury. Thus, herein, the cervical anterior approach was improved. With distractor and screw elevation therapy during surgery, the restoration rate is increased, and secondary injury to the spinal cord is avoided. To discuss the feasibility of the surgical method of treating traumatic cervical spine fractures and dislocations and the clinical application. This retrospective study included the duration of patients’ hospitalization from January 2005 to June 2015. The potential risks of surgery (including death and other surgical complications) were explained clearly, and written consents were obtained from all patients before surgery. The study was conducted on 86 patients (54 males and 32 females, average age of 40.1 ± 5.6 years) with traumatic cervical spine fractures and dislocations, who underwent one-stage anterior approach treatment. The effective methods were evaluated by postoperative follow-up. The healing of the surgical incision was monitored in 86 patients. The follow-up duration was 18 to 36 (average 26.4 ± 7.1) months. The patients achieved bones grafted fusion and restored spine stability in 3 to 9 (average 6) months after the surgery. Statistically, significant improvement was observed by Frankel score, visual analog scale score, Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and correction rate of the cervical spine dislocation pre- and postoperative (P < .01). The modified anterior cervical approach is simple with a low risk but a good effect in reduction. In addition, it can reduce the risk of iatrogenic secondary spinal cord injury and maintain optimal
Kraeutler, Matthew J; Currie, Dustin W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Roos, Karen G; McCarty, Eric C; Comstock, R Dawn
Shoulder dislocations occur frequently in athletes across a variety of sports. This study provides an updated descriptive epidemiological analysis of shoulder dislocations among high school and college athletes and compares injury rates and patterns across these age groups. There would be no difference in injury rates/patterns between high school and college athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Shoulder dislocation data from the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) databases were analyzed from the 2004/2005 through 2013/2014 (NCAA) or 2005/2006 through 2013/2014 (RIO) academic years in 11 different sports. Rate ratios (RRs) and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were calculated to make comparisons between age groups. During the study period, 598 shoulder dislocations were reported during 29,249,482 athlete-exposures (AEs) among high school athletes, for an overall shoulder dislocation rate of 2.04 per 100,000 AEs; 352 shoulder dislocations were reported during 13,629,533 AEs among college athletes, for an overall injury rate of 2.58 per 100,000 AEs. College athletes had a higher rate of shoulder dislocation than high school athletes (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11-1.44). However, the injury rate in football was lower in collegiate than high school athletes (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.62). Surgery was performed to correct 28.0% of high school and 29.6% of college shoulder dislocations. Shoulder dislocations resulted in longer return-to-play times than other shoulder injuries. Overall, shoulder dislocation rates were higher among collegiate than high school athletes. This may be due to greater contact forces involved in sports at higher levels of play, although the increased rate in high school football warrants additional research. Higher shoulder dislocation rates within collegiate athletics are likely due to the higher level of intensity at this level of play, with
Colegate-Stone, Toby J; van der Watt, Christelle; de Beer, Joe F
The optimal management of anterior shoulder instability in athletes continues to be a challenge. The present study aimed to evaluate the functional outcomes of athletes with anterior shoulder instability following modified Latarjet reconstruction through assessing the timing of return to sport and complications. Retrospective assessment was performed of athletes (n = 56) who presented with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and were treated with modified congruent arc Latarjet reconstruction over a 1-year period. Rugby union was the predominant sport performed. Pre-operative instability severity index scores were assessed. Postoperative complications were recorded as was the time taken for the athlete to return to sport. Arthroscopic evaluation revealed that 86% of patients had associated bony lesions affecting the glenohumeral joint. The overall complication rate relating to the Latarjet reconstruction was 7%. No episodes of recurrent shoulder instability were noted. Of the patients, 89% returned to competitive sport at the same level as that prior to surgery. The mean time post surgery to returning to full training was 3.2 months. The modified congruent arc Latarjet procedure facilitates early rehabilitation and return to sport. These results support our systematic management protocol of performing modified Latarjet surgery in contact sport athletes with recurrent anterior instability.
van der Watt, Christelle; de Beer, Joe F
Background The optimal management of anterior shoulder instability in athletes continues to be a challenge. The present study aimed to evaluate the functional outcomes of athletes with anterior shoulder instability following modified Latarjet reconstruction through assessing the timing of return to sport and complications. Methods Retrospective assessment was performed of athletes (n = 56) who presented with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and were treated with modified congruent arc Latarjet reconstruction over a 1-year period. Rugby union was the predominant sport performed. Pre-operative instability severity index scores were assessed. Postoperative complications were recorded as was the time taken for the athlete to return to sport. Results Arthroscopic evaluation revealed that 86% of patients had associated bony lesions affecting the glenohumeral joint. The overall complication rate relating to the Latarjet reconstruction was 7%. No episodes of recurrent shoulder instability were noted. Of the patients, 89% returned to competitive sport at the same level as that prior to surgery. The mean time post surgery to returning to full training was 3.2 months. Conclusions The modified congruent arc Latarjet procedure facilitates early rehabilitation and return to sport. These results support our systematic management protocol of performing modified Latarjet surgery in contact sport athletes with recurrent anterior instability. PMID:27582973
Mochizuki, Yu; Hachisuka, Hiroki; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Oomae, Hiromichi; Yokoya, Shin; Ochi, Mitsuo
Many clinicians believe that a large bony defect of the glenoid must be treated with bone grafting when a Bankart procedure is performed. Various types of bone graft, such as open bone graft, Eden-Hybinnette, J-bone graft, coracoid transfer, and Latarjet, have been used. These require open procedures that are difficult to perform arthroscopically. We performed an arthroscopic autologous bone graft and an arthroscopic Bankart repair at the same time to treat a patient with recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint and a large bony Bankart lesion. We harvested from the lateral site of the acromion 2 bones that were 2.7 mm in cylindrical diameter. We transplanted these bones to the large bony defect of the anteroinferior area of the glenoid and placed anchors between the 2 plugs. During the 30 months since the surgery was performed, the patient has not experienced dislocation or apprehension about the shoulder. A 3-dimensional computed tomography scan showed enlargement of the glenoid surface. Our surgical procedure offers promise for treatment of patients with recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint and a large bony Bankart lesion because it allows the surgeon to alter the size and the grafted site of the cylindrical bone according to the size of the defect.
... Dislocations can occur in contact sports, such as football and hockey, and in sports in which falls ... downhill skiing, gymnastics and volleyball. Basketball players and football players also commonly dislocate joints in their fingers ...
Yang, Ying-guo; Cai, Xiao-bing; Wang, Xiao-min; Zhu, Yong-gan; Pan, He-yong
To explore causes of shoulder pain and propose prevention measures in treating acromioclavicular joint dislocation. From January 2005 to January 2013, 86 patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation (Tossy III) were treated with hook plate fixation, and were divided into two groups. Bsaed on recovery of shoulder function mostly, the patients who suffered from rest pain, motion pain were named as shoulder pain group, while the patients without pain were named as painless group. In shoulder pain group, there were 21 cases including 15 males and and 6 females ranging the age from 22 to 62 years old with an average of (40.6±11.2) years old. There were 8 cases were on the left side and 13 cases were on the right side. In painless group, there were 65 cases including 36 males and and 29 females ranging the age from 19 to 65 years old with an average of (40.0±11.3) years old. There were 33 cases were on the left side and 32 cases were on the right side. The time from injury to operation ranged from 3 h to 8 d with an average of 34.6 h. Shoulder function of all patients were normal before injuried. Postoperative pain, activity of daily living (ADL), range of motion, deltoid muscle strength were compared. Anteflexion,rear protraction, abduction and upthrow of shoulder joint were also compared. Postoperative complications between two groups were observed and compared. All patients were followed up from 12 to 48 months with an average of 18.5 months. Constant-Murley score were used to evaluate clinical efficacy at the least following up, and 13 cases got an excellent results, 5 moderate, 2 good and 1 poor in shoulder pain group ; while 61 cases were obtained excellent results, 3 moderate and 1 good in painless group. There were significantly differences between two groups in Constant-Murley score and activity of shoulder joint (P<0.05). In shoulder pain group, 3 cases were disconnected, 1 case occurred stress fracture, 9 cases were subacromial impingement syndrome, 5
Gragnaniello, Cristian; Seex, Kevin A; Eisermann, Lukas G; Claydon, Matthew H; Malham, Gregory M
The authors report on 2 cases of anterior dislocation of the Maverick lumbar disc prosthesis, both occurring in the early postoperative period. These cases developed after experience with more than 50 uneventful cases and were therefore thought to be unrelated to the surgeon's learning curve. No similar complications have been previously reported. The anterior Maverick device has a ball-and-socket design made of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum metal plates covered with hydroxyapatite. The superior and inferior endplates have keels to resist translation forces. The patient in Case 1 was a 52-year-old man with severe L4-5 discogenic pain; and in Case 2, a 42-year-old woman with disabling L4-5 and L5-S1 discogenic back pain. Both patients were without medical comorbidities and were nonsmokers with no risk factors for osteoporosis. Both had undergone uneventful retroperitoneal approaches performed by a vascular access surgeon. Computed tomography studies on postoperative Day 2 confirmed excellent prosthesis placement. Initial recoveries were uneventful. Two weeks postoperatively, after stretching (extension or hyperextension) in bed at home, each patient suffered the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain with anterior dislocation of the Maverick prosthesis. The patients were returned to the operating room and underwent surgery performed by the same spinal and vascular surgeons. Removal of the Maverick prosthesis and anterior interbody fusion with a separate cage and plate were performed. Both patients had recovered well with good clinical and radiological recovery at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Possible causes of the anterior dislocation of the Maverick prosthesis include the following: 1) surgeon error: In both cases the keel cuts were neat, and early postoperative CT confirmed good placement of the prosthesis; 2) equipment problem: The keel cuts may have been too large because the cutters were worn, which led to an inadequate press fit of the implants; 3) prosthesis
Chernchujit, Bancha; Zonthichai, Nutthapon
Introduction: We aimed to compare the accuracy between the standard anterior technique of shoulder injection and the new superomedial technique modified from Neviaser arthroscopic portal placement. Intra-articular placement, especially at the long head of biceps (LHB) tendon, and needle depth were evaluated. Methods: Fifty-eight patients (ages 57 ± 10 years) requiring shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position were recruited. Needle punctures for both techniques were performed by an experienced sports medicine orthopedist. Patients were anesthetized, and the shoulder placed in the neutral position. A single needle was passed through the skin, with only one redirection allowed per trial. The superomedial technique was performed, then the anterior technique. Posterior-portal arthroscopy determined whether needle placement was inside the joint. The percentage of intra-articular needle placements for each technique defined accuracy. When inside the joint, the needle’s precise location was determined and its depth measured. A marginal χ2 test compared results between techniques. Results: The superomedial technique was significantly more accurate than the anterior technique (84% vs. 55%, p < 0.05). For superomedial versus anterior attempts, the LHB tendon was penetrated in 4% vs. 28% of patients, respectively, and the superior labrum in 35% vs. 0% of patients, respectively; the needle depth was 42 ± 7 vs. 32 ± 7 mm, respectively (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The superomedial technique was more accurate, penetrating the LHB tendon less frequently than the standard anterior technique. A small-diameter needle was needed to minimize superior labral injury. The superomedial technique required a longer needle to access the shoulder joint. PMID:27163102
Venkatram, N; Wurm, V; Houshian, S
We describe an unusual case of a missed anterior dislocation of the elbow joint in a 1 year old girl who presented with a pulled elbow. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anterior dislocation as a result of a pulled elbow in the literature. We would like to highlight the rarity of this presentation and the importance of chronological assessment and management in the accident and emergency department. PMID:16714491
Okada, K; Tasaki, T; Komatsu, S; Asakura, K
A case of traumatic anterior dislocation of C4 is presented. A 65-year-old man who was beastly drunken fell down backward and severely struck occipital region against the door and immediately developed tetraplegia. Neurological examination 12 hours after the trauma revealed complete flaccid tetraplegia, abdominal respiration, bladder-bowel disturbance, anesthesia below C5 and hyperpathia in C3 and C4 dermatomes. Plain films of the cervical spine disclosed anterior dislocation of C4 upon C5 approximately 6 mm and possible disc herniation of C4/5. On Amipaque cervical myelography via C1C2 lateral puncture, there was almost complete block of the dye at C4/5 level. With diagnosis of acute cervical spinal cord injury on C4/5 caused by pincer mechanism and herniated disc material, the patient was operated on 19 hours after the trauma by anterior discectomy of C4/5 and fusion under Crutchfield skull traction. Neurological recovery began with the right leg from the day after the operation and it's recovery pattern showed the syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury reported by Schneider. The patient discharged on March '84 four months after the trauma walking by himself with tetraparesis especially weakness of the hands and hypesthesia of glove and stocking type. We emphasized importance of Amipaque cervical myelography via C1C2 lateral puncture and anterior approach on the treatment of acute cervical spinal cord injury to be done as soon as possible.
Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad
Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768
Ropars, Mickaël; Cretual, Armel; Kaila, Rajiv; Bonan, Isabelle; Hervé, Anthony; Thomazeau, Hervé
There is a paucity of data detailing management of anterior capsular redundancy (ACR) when using the Latarjet procedure for unidirectional instability. This study aimed to describe the surgical management and to assess the clinical profile of patients presenting with anterior capsular redundancy [ACR(+)] with anterior shoulder instability. Seventy-seven patients who had a Latarjet procedure were followed for a 55-month period. Per-operative ACR was assessed during surgery. ACR was considered present if the inferior capsular flap of a Neer T-shaft capsulorrhaphy was able to cover the superior capsular flap with the arm in the neutral position. Patients with ACR(+) received an additional Neer capsulorrhaphy, while patients with ACR(-) did not. This per-operative finding was correlated with demographics, clinical, radiological pre-operative data and surgical outcome. Patients presenting with a per-operative ACR(+) were significantly associated with a sulcus sign (P < 0.001), a Beighton score >4 (P < 0.01), a low-energy instability history (P < 0.05), a predominant history of subluxations (P < 0.05), fewer Hill-Sachs lesion (P < 0.05) and a female gender (P < 0.05), but not significantly with external rotation >85°. Open standard Latarjet procedures with Neer capsulorrhaphy in ACR(+) patients showed excellent or good results and stability rate of 95 %. All patients except four who presented with a new dislocation after surgery were satisfied with their outcome. Thirteen patients (16 %) had a persistent apprehension sign at the last follow-up. ACR(+) and ACR(-) groups did not show significant difference in the mean values of Rowe, Walch-Duplay and Constant-Murley scores. ACR correlated with a sulcus sign, Beighton score and instability history. In anterior shoulder instability associated with ACR, the Latarjet procedure with a Neer capsulorrhaphy appears a satisfactory treatment alternative to arthroscopic or open capsular shift. It decreased
Steed, Jeremiah T; Drexler, Kathlyn; Wooldridge, Adam N; Ferguson, Matthew
Arthroscopic rotator cuff tendon repair is a common elective procedure performed by trained orthopaedic surgeons with a relatively low complication rate. Specifically, isolated neuropraxia of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) is a very rare complication of shoulder arthroscopy. An analysis of peer-reviewed published literature revealed only three articles reporting a total of seven cases that describe this specific complication following standard shoulder arthroscopic procedures. This article reports on three patients diagnosed with AIN neuropraxia following routine shoulder arthroscopy done by a single surgeon within a three-year period. All three patients also underwent open biceps tenodesis immediately following completion of the arthroscopic procedures. The exact causal mechanism of AIN neuropraxia following shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis is not known. This case report reviews possible mechanisms with emphasis on specific factors that make a traction injury the most likely etiology in these cases. We critically analyze our operating room setup and patient positioning practices in light of the existing biomechanical and cadaveric research to propose changes to our standard practices that may help to reduce the incidence of this specific postoperative complication in patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis.
Wooldridge, Adam N.
Arthroscopic rotator cuff tendon repair is a common elective procedure performed by trained orthopaedic surgeons with a relatively low complication rate. Specifically, isolated neuropraxia of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) is a very rare complication of shoulder arthroscopy. An analysis of peer-reviewed published literature revealed only three articles reporting a total of seven cases that describe this specific complication following standard shoulder arthroscopic procedures. This article reports on three patients diagnosed with AIN neuropraxia following routine shoulder arthroscopy done by a single surgeon within a three-year period. All three patients also underwent open biceps tenodesis immediately following completion of the arthroscopic procedures. The exact causal mechanism of AIN neuropraxia following shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis is not known. This case report reviews possible mechanisms with emphasis on specific factors that make a traction injury the most likely etiology in these cases. We critically analyze our operating room setup and patient positioning practices in light of the existing biomechanical and cadaveric research to propose changes to our standard practices that may help to reduce the incidence of this specific postoperative complication in patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis. PMID:28567319
Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Patel, Nirav K; Bull, Anthony MJ; Reilly, Peter
AIM: To systematically evaluate the evidence-based literature on surgical treatment interventions for elite rugby players with anterior shoulder instability. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar using the following search terms: “rugby” and “shoulder” in combination with “instability” or “dislocation”. All articles published from inception of the included data sources to January 1st 2014 that evaluated surgical treatment of elite rugby players with anterior shoulder instability were examined. RESULTS: Only five studies were found that met the eligibility criteria. A total of 379 shoulders in 376 elite rugby union and league players were included. All the studies were retrospective cohort or case series studies. The mean Coleman Methodological Score for the 5 studies was 47.4 (poor). Owing to heterogeneity amongst the studies, quantitative synthesis was not possible, however a detailed qualitative synthesis is reported. The overall recurrence rate of instability after surgery was 8.7%, and the mean return to competitive play, where reported, was 13 mo. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic stabilization has been performed successfully in acute anterior instability and there is a preference for open Latarjet-type procedures when instability is associated with osseous defects. PMID:25992318
Moroder, Philipp; Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Pomwenger, Werner; Oberhauser, Florian; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Tauber, Mark; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Rudi
To determine whether anterior shoulder instability is associated with an inherent deficiency of the bony glenoid concavity, which results in a reduced bony shoulder stability ratio (BSSR). In this case-control study, we searched the institutional database for patients treated for unilateral recurrent anterior shoulder instability. We included 30 consecutive patients with atraumatic instability, 30 consecutive patients with traumatic instability, and 36 matched healthy controls, for a total of 96 shoulders. Computed tomography images of the unaffected shoulders of the instability patients were compared with images of the ipsilateral shoulders of age- and sex-matched healthy controls for differences in glenoid morphology. By use of a mathematical formula based on Pythagorean trigonometric identities, the mean BSSRs of the different groups were calculated and compared. Validation of the formula was accomplished by finite element analysis. The mean BSSR of atraumatic instability patients was 17.9% ± 8.5% and therefore significantly lower than the mean BSSR of 31.1% ± 7.5% of the control group (13.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1% to 17.4%; P < .001). The mean BSSR of the traumatic instability group was higher, at 23.9% ± 8.5% (P = .007), but still showed a deficit of 7.2% (95% CI, 2.8% to 11.7%; P = .002) compared with controls. The atraumatic instability group showed a mean reduction of 0.9 mm (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.1 mm; P < .001) in concavity depth and a decrease of 2.9° (95% CI, 0.4° to 5.3°; P = .021) in concavity retroversion, whereas the traumatic instability patients had a reduction of 0.4 mm (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.8 mm; P = .006) in concavity depth. Neither of the instability groups differed significantly from their respective controls in terms of glenoid concavity diameter, head radius, or glenoid vault morphology. Anterior shoulder instability is associated with an inherent flattening of the bony glenoid concavity, which significantly decreases the
Mizuno, Naoko; Denard, Patrick J; Raiss, Patric; Melis, Barbara; Walch, Gilles
The Latarjet procedure is effective in managing anterior glenohumeral instability in the short term, but there is concern for postoperative arthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome after the Latarjet procedure and to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for glenohumeral arthritis after this procedure. A retrospective review was conducted of 68 Latarjet procedures at a mean of 20 years postoperatively. The mean age at surgery was 29.4 years. Functional outcome was determined by the Rowe score, subjective shoulder value, and recurrence of instability. Preoperative arthritis and postoperative radiographs were reviewed to evaluate the development or progression of arthritis. The mean Rowe score increased from 37.9 preoperatively to 89.6 at final follow-up (P < .001). The mean subjective shoulder value was 90.9% at final follow-up. The postoperative rate of recurrence was 5.9%. Of the 60 shoulders without arthritis preoperatively, 12 (20%) had developed arthritis at final follow-up. Among the 8 shoulders with preoperative arthritis (all stage 1), 4 (50%) demonstrated progression of arthritis at final follow-up. Overall, postoperative arthritis was stage 1 in 14.7%, stage 2 in 5.9%, and stage 3 in 8.8% of cases; no stage 4 arthritis was observed. Risk factors for postoperative arthritis were older age, high-demand sports activity, and lateral overhang of coracoid bone graft. The Latarjet procedure provides excellent long-term outcomes in the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. Twenty years after the Latarjet procedure, arthritis may develop or progress in 23.5% of cases, but the majority of arthritis is mild. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gottschalk, Lionel J.; Bois, Aaron J.; Shelby, Marcus A.; Miniaci, Anthony; Jones, Morgan H.
Background: There is a strong correlation between glenoid defect size and recurrent anterior shoulder instability. A better understanding of glenoid defects could lead to improved treatments and outcomes. Purpose: To (1) determine the rate of reporting numeric measurements for glenoid defect size, (2) determine the consistency of glenoid defect size and location reported within the literature, (3) define the typical size and location of glenoid defects, and (4) determine whether a correlation exists between defect size and treatment outcome. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane databases were searched for clinical studies measuring glenoid defect size or location. We excluded studies with defect size requirements or pathology other than anterior instability and studies that included patients with known prior surgery. Our search produced 83 studies; 38 studies provided numeric measurements for glenoid defect size and 2 for defect location. Results: From 1981 to 2000, a total of 5.6% (1 of 18) of the studies reported numeric measurements for glenoid defect size; from 2001 to 2014, the rate of reporting glenoid defects increased to 58.7% (37 of 63). Fourteen studies (n = 1363 shoulders) reported defect size ranges for percentage loss of glenoid width, and 9 studies (n = 570 shoulders) reported defect size ranges for percentage loss of glenoid surface area. According to 2 studies, the mean glenoid defect orientation was pointing toward the 3:01 and 3:20 positions on the glenoid clock face. Conclusion: Since 2001, the rate of reporting numeric measurements for glenoid defect size was only 58.7%. Among studies reporting the percentage loss of glenoid width, 23.6% of shoulders had a defect between 10% and 25%, and among studies reporting the percentage loss of glenoid surface area, 44.7% of shoulders had a defect between 5% and 20%. There is significant variability in the way glenoid bone loss is measured, calculated
Cho, Nam Su; Yi, Jin Woong; Lee, Bong Gun; Rhee, Yong Girl
Only a few studies have provided homogeneous analysis of open revision surgery after a failed arthroscopic Bankart procedure. Open Bankart revision surgery will be effective in a failed arthroscopic anterior stabilization but inevitably results in a loss of range of motion, especially external rotation. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-six shoulders that went through traditional open Bankart repair as revision surgery after a failed arthroscopic Bankart procedure for traumatic anterior shoulder instability were enrolled for this study. The mean patient age at the time of revision surgery was 24 years (range, 16-38 years), and the mean duration of follow-up was 42 months (range, 25-97 months). The preoperative mean range of motion was 173 degrees in forward flexion and 65 degrees in external rotation at the side. After revision surgery, the ranges measured 164 degrees and 55 degrees, respectively (P = .024 and .012, respectively). At the last follow-up, the mean Rowe score was 81 points, with 88.5% of the patients reporting good or excellent results. After revision surgery, redislocation developed in 3 shoulders (11.5%), all of which had an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion and associated hyperlaxity (2+ or greater laxity on the sulcus sign). Open revision Bankart surgery for a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair can provide a satisfactory outcome, including a low recurrence rate and reliable functional return. In open revision Bankart surgery after failed stabilization for traumatic anterior shoulder instability, the surgeon should keep in mind the possibility of a postoperative loss of range of motion and a thorough examination for not only a Bankart lesion but also other associated lesions, including a bone defect or hyperlaxity, to lower the risk of redislocation.
Rupp, S; Berninger, K; Hopf, T
The objective was to study prevalence and underlying pathology of "swimmer's shoulder". Twenty-two competitive swimmers of national "D-Kader" (elite development swimmers) were evaluated by means of questionnaire, clinical examination and isokinetic testing of external rotation and internal rotation. At the examination current interfering pain necessitating a cessation or reduction of practice was found in 5 (23%) athletes. At isokinetic testing 8 (36%) athletes complained of shoulder pain. Any history of pain was seen in 14 (64%) swimmers. A positive impingement sign was noted in 11 (50%) athletes. Apprehension sign which is indicative of anterior instability was found in 11 (50%) swimmers. Clinical equivalents of dysfunction of scapulothoracic muscles such as scapular winging (5 athletes) and shoulder protraction (12 athletes) were noted. For comparison of results of isokinetic testing a control group of non-swimmers was selected matching the group of swimmers exactly in terms of age, sex and dominant side. External rotation/internal rotation ratio of peak torque and total work at 60 deg/sec and 180 deg/sec was significantly lower in swimmers than in controls. The ratio was independent of sex, dominant side, history of pain and pain at examination. During internal rotation competitive swimmers produced significantly higher peak torques and total work than controls. There was no significant difference in external rotation. In conclusion there are several different abnormalities of function contributing to the pathology of "swimmer's shoulder":--Laxity of anterior-inferior capsuloligamentous structures with atruamatic anterior instability due to repetitive overload.--Impingement with rotator cuff tendinitis.--Muscular imbalance of the rotator cuff muscles and scapulothoracic dysfunction.
Vedova, Franco Della; Ibáñez, Maximiliano; Alvarez, Victoria; Lépore, Salvador; Sulzle, Vanina Ojeda; Galan, Hernán; Slullitel, Daniel
Introduction: Bankart lesion is the anterior glenohumeral instability most common associated injury. Tears at glenohumeral ligaments can be intra substance or at humeral insertion, this location may be the cause of instability. Posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (PHAGL) can be an isolated or associated cause of instability and it is usually related to the posterior glenohumeral instability. The aim of this article is to report the clinical assessment and postoperative outcomes of 6 patients with PHAGL with anterior shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: We evaluated six patients with PHAGL due to anterior glenohumeral instability arthroscopically repaired. All 6 patients developed the lesion after a sports-related trauma. Sixty six per cent of patients had associated intra-articular shoulder pathologies. The diagnosis with MRI arthrogram (with gadolinium) was performed preoperatively in 50% of patients. Postoperative evaluation was made with Rowe, ASES and WOSI scores. Results: All patients returned to their previous sports level. One patient had a recurrence. Postoperative scores results are WOSI: 13.13%, Rowe 83.33 and ASES 95.83. Discussion: Humeral avulsions of glenohumeral ligaments represent 25% of capsulolabral injuries. PHAGL injury was initially described as a cause of posterior instability, but according to two other series, our study shows that this lesion may also cause anterior instability. It is critical to have a high index of suspicion and make a correct arthroscopic examination to diagnose this injury, because arthroscopic repair of PHAGL has good postoperative outcomes.
Arthroscopic Bankart repair combined with remplissage technique for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability with engaging Hill-Sachs lesion: a report of 49 cases with a minimum 2-year follow-up.
Zhu, Yi-Ming; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Jin; Shen, Jie-Wei; Jiang, Chun-Yan
Engaging Hill-Sachs lesions are known to be a risk factor for recurrence dislocation after arthroscopic repair in patients with anterior shoulder instability. For a large engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, arthroscopic remplissage is a solution. Arthroscopic Bankart repair combined with the Hill-Sachs remplissage technique can achieve good results without significant impairment of shoulder function. Case Series; Level of evidence, 4. Forty-nine consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair and Hill-Sachs remplissage for anterior shoulder instability were followed up for a mean duration of 29.0 months (range, 24-35 months). There were 42 males and 7 females with a mean age of 28.4 years (range, 16.7-54.7 years). All patients had diagnosed traumatic unidirectional anterior shoulder instability with a bony lesion of glenoid and an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. Physical examination, radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed during postoperative follow-up. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, and Rowe score were used to evaluate shoulder function. The active forward elevation increased a mean of 8.0° (range, -10° to 80°) postoperatively. However, the patients lost 1.9° (range, -40° to 30°) of external rotation to the side. Significant improvement was detected with regard to the ASES score (84.7 vs 96.0, P < .001), Constant score (93.3 vs 97.8, P = .005), and Rowe score (36.8 vs 89.8, P < .001).There were 1 redislocation, 2 subluxations, and 1 patient with a positive apprehension test; the overall failure rate was 8.2% (4 of 49). Successful healing of the infraspinatus tendon within the Hill-Sachs lesion was shown by magnetic resonance imaging. Arthroscopic Bankart repair combined with Hill-Sachs remplissage can restore shoulder stability without significant impairment of shoulder function in patients with engaging Hill-Sachs lesions.
... sure kids wear the appropriate safety gear during sports activities. Supervise children when they're playing — a hard fall can happen anywhere, anytime. Avoid tugging hard on a young child's arm or shoulder, which can cause injury or ...
Chaudhury, Salma; Delos, Demetris; Dines, Joshua S; Altchek, David W; Dodson, Christopher C; Newman, Ashley M; O'Brien, Stephen J
Shoulder instability is a relatively common problem. Even with contemporary surgical techniques, instability can recur following both open and arthroscopic fixation. Surgical management of capsular insufficiency in anterior shoulder stabilization represents a significant challenge, particularly in young, active patients. There are a limited number of surgical treatment options. The Laterjet technique can present with a number of intraoperative challenges and postoperative complication. We report an arthroscopic subscapularis tenodesis technique as a salvage procedure for challenging glenohumeral instability cases. Sutures are passed through the subscapularis tendon and capsule before they are tied as one in the subdeltoid psace. The rotator interval is closed with superior and medial advancement of anterior and inferior tissue. This technical note carefully describes this procedure with useful technical tips, illustrations, and diagrams. Two clinical cases are described involving patients with recurrent instability following failed surgery who were successfully managed with this procedure. Both cases described resulted in improved shoulder stability, range of motion, and function following management with this surgical technique. This arthroscopic subscapularis tenodesis procedure is proposed as a useful alternative repair technique for cases of recurrent instability after failed surgery with isolated capsular insufficiency. It is believed that this arthroscopic subscapularis tenodesis technique can potentially provide similar outcomes to open bone block stabilization procedures, while reducing the risks associated with those procedures.
King, D; Hume, P; Gianotti, S; Clark, T
King et al. reported that of 5 941 moderate to serious claims resulting in medical treatment for rugby league injuries, the knee, shoulder, and head and neck body sites and soft tissue and fracture-dislocation injuries were most frequent and costly in the New Zealand national no-fault injury compensation corporation database during 1999 to 2007. However, additional analyses of knee, shoulder and head and neck body sites by soft tissue and fracture-dislocation injury types was required to enable a greater understanding of the nature of injuries most likely to be seen by sports medical personnel dealing with rugby league players. From 1999 to 2007 the injury claims and costs for head and neck soft tissue, fracture-dislocations, shoulders soft tissue significantly increased. Knee soft tissue injury claims and costs significantly decreased from 1999 to 2007. There was no significant difference in knee fracture-dislocation injury claims but there was a significant increase in knee fracture-dislocation injury costs from 1999 to 2007. Changes in the nature of injuries may be related to changes in defensive techniques employed in rugby league during this time. Sports medical personnel dealing with rugby league players should focus their injury prevention strategies on reducing musculoskeletal injuries to the head and shoulder. There should be a focus on increasing awareness of correct tackling technique, head injury awareness and management of suspected cervical spine injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mukhopadhyaya, Udayaditya; Chakraborti, Chandana; Mondal, Anindita; Pattyanayak, Ujjal; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Tripathi, Partha
We report a 13-year-old child with Noonan Syndrome who developed spontaneous dislocation of the crystalline lens in anterior chamber leading to pupillary block glaucoma in the left eye and subluxation of lens in right eye. Intracapsular extraction of the dislocated lens was done in the left eye. Prompt diagnosis and management is needed in such cases to avoid glaucoma and corneal endothelial cell damage. We could not find any such case after thorough Medline search. PMID:25374640
Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovisky, Joel; Nascimento, Luis Gustavo Prata; Bueno, Rogério Serpone; Almeida, Luiz Henrique Oliveira; Strose, Eric; Helmer, Fábio Fernando
Objective: Evaluate the results from the Latarjet procedure in patients with anterior recurrent dislocation of the shoulder who present bone loss of the glenoid cavity greater than 25%. Methods: Twenty six male patients underwent the Latarjet procedure, The bone loss was evaluated by means of radiography using the Bernageau view and by means of CAT scan. The patients were evaluated with regard to range of motion, using the Rowe and UCLA scales, before and after the operation, and by radiographs to assess the presence of arthrosis, position and consolidation of the graft and positioning of the screws. Statistical analysis was used to assess whether there was any relationship between the number of episodes of dislocation and the presence of arthrosis, , and any relationship between arthrosis and limitations on lateral rotation. Differences in range of motion between the operated and unaffected sides and in the UCLA and Rowe scale. Results: The means for elevation and lateral rotation were statistically poorer on the operated side. The UCLA and Rowe scale showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in the clinical-functional results (P < 0.001 for both). There was a relationship between the number of episodes of dislocation and the presence of arthrosis, We also did not observe any correlation between limitations on lateral rotation and arthrosis. Conclusion: The Latarjet procedure is an efficient method for cases of severe erosion of the glenoid margin. PMID:27027053
Dumont, Guillaume D; Fogerty, Simon; Rosso, Claudio; Lafosse, Laurent
The arthroscopic Latarjet procedure combines the benefits of arthroscopic surgery with the low rate of recurrent instability associated with the Latarjet procedure. Only short-term outcomes after arthroscopic Latarjet procedure have been reported. To evaluate the rate of recurrent instability and patient outcomes a minimum of 5 years after stabilization performed with the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients who underwent the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure before June 2008 completed a questionnaire to determine whether they had experienced a dislocation, subluxation, or further surgery. The patients also completed the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). A total of 62 of 87 patients (64/89 shoulders) were contacted for follow-up. Mean follow-up time was 76.4 months (range, 61.2-100.7 months). No patients had reported a dislocation since their surgery. One patient reported having subluxations since the surgery. Thus, 1 patient (1.59%) had recurrent instability after the procedure. The mean ± standard deviation aggregate WOSI score was 90.6% ± 9.4%. Mean WOSI domain scores were as follows: Physical Symptoms, 90.1% ± 8.7%; Sports/Recreation/Work, 90.3% ± 12.9%; Lifestyle, 93.7% ± 9.8%; and Emotions, 88.7% ± 17.3%. The rate of recurrent instability after arthroscopic Latarjet procedure is low in this series of patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up. Patient outcomes as measured by the WOSI are good. © 2014 The Author(s).
Bohu, Yoann; Klouche, Shahnaz; Lefevre, Nicolas; Peyrin, Jean-Claude; Dusfour, Bernard; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Ribaut, Aurélie; Herman, Serge
An understanding of the epidemiology of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in rugby union players could help develop targeted prevention programmes and treatment. We performed a multiyear epidemiological survey of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in a large cohort of rugby players. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed prospectively for five playing seasons (2008-2013) in all players licensed in the French Rugby Union. Rugby players were categorised into five groups by age. The player and the team physician reported the injury to the club insurance company if it occurred during training or a match. The goals of the study were to define the rate, type and causes of shoulder dislocation/subluxation. 88,044 injuries were reported, including 1345 (1.5%) episodes of dislocation/subluxation in 1317 men and 28 women, mean age 22.5±5.9 years. About 10/10,000 men and 5/10,000 women reported an episode of shoulder dislocation/subluxation per season, including 83/10,000 senior professionals, 17/10,000 senior amateurs, 21/10,000 juniors, 12/10,000 cadets and <1/10,000 rugby school players. Shoulder dislocation/subluxation was significantly more frequent in senior and junior players (p<0.001). Injuries mainly occurred during a match (66%) in the middle of the season (44%). The most frequent playing position was forwards (56%) and the main mechanism was tackling (69%). When reported, the history of recurrence was found in 66% of injured players, fractures in 22% and acromioclavicular injury in 6.7%. Nerve injury was associated with shoulder dislocation in 6% of cases. Senior professionals and junior male forward rugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation/subluxation should receive special attention from sports medicine professionals and orthopaedic surgeons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Wójtowicz, Piotr; Szafarowski, Tomasz; Migacz, Ewa; Krzeski, Antoni
The anterior cervical spine surgery is a common procedure to stabilize vertebrae damaged by various diseases. The plates and screws are usually used in the spine fixation. This kind of instrumentation may detach from the bones which is a rare but well-known complication. A 77-year-old male presented to the otorhinolaryngology department with throat pain, choking, and dysphagia. At first the angioedema was diagnosed and he was treated conservatively. The endoscopy revealed laryngeal edema, being more defined on the right side with right vocal fold paresis. CT scans showed the stabilizing plate with two screws attached tightly and the back-out of the third screw toward soft tissue of the neck. In the meantime, his condition deteriorated and he needed tracheotomy. In few days the surgical removal of the dislocated screw was performed successfully. Although two-month follow-up reported no obstruction of the larynx, the vocal folds paresis with gradual functional improvement was observed. Long-term complication of anterior spine surgery sometimes may suggest laryngeal angioedema at first. If the conservative treatment is ineffective and there is a history of anterior spine surgery, the clinicians should consider the displacement of the plate or screws in differential diagnosis. PMID:25755901
Maiotti, Marco; Massoni, Carlo; Russo, Raffaele; Schroter, Steffen; Zanini, Antonio; Bianchedi, Diana
To assess the short-term outcomes of the arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation (ASA) technique, consisting of a tenodesis of the upper third of the subscapularis tendon and a Bankart repair, and its effect on shoulder external rotation. Patients selected for this study were involved in contact sports, with a history of traumatic recurrent shoulder dislocations and a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were patients with glenoid bone loss (GBL) ranging from 5% to 25%, anterior capsular deficiency, and Hill-Sachs lesion who underwent ASA technique. Exclusion criteria were GBL >25%, multidirectional instability, preexisting osteoarthritis, and overhead sports activities. Visual analog scale (VAS) scale for pain, Rowe score, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores were used to assess results. Loss of shoulder external rotation was measured with the arm at the side (ER1 position) or 90° in abduction (ER2 position). Analysis of variance and Fisher tests were used for data evaluation. Significance was established at P ≤ .05. One hundred ten patients (84 men and 26 women, mean age 27 years) were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 40.5 months (range: 24 to 65 months). In 98 patients, a Hill-Sachs lesion was observed and in 57 patients a capsular deficiency was present. Three patients (2.7%) had a traumatic redislocation. At final follow-up, the mean scores were as follows: VAS scale decreased from a mean of 3.5 to 0.5 (P = .015), Rowe score increased from 57.4 to 95.3 (P = .035), and ASES score increased from 66.5 to 96.5 (P = .021). The mean deficit of external rotation was 8° ± 2.5° in the ER1 position and 4° ± 1.5° in the ER2 position. The ASA procedure has been shown to be effective in restoring joint stability in patients practicing sports, affected by chronic anterior shoulder instability associated with anterior GBL (<25%), capsular deficiency, and Hill-Sachs lesions, with mild restriction of external rotation. Level IV
Batailler, Cécile; Fary, Camdon; Batailler, Pierre; Servien, Elvire; Neyret, Philippe; Lustig, Sébastien
We hypothesize that a dual mobility cup can be safely used via the direct anterior approach, without increasing the risk of complications or incorrect positioning. This retrospective study compared 201 primary total hip arthroplasties using a dual mobility cup performed via direct anterior approach without a traction table, to 101 arthroplasties performed via posterolateral approach. Implant positioning, function scores, and early complications were recorded. Implant positioning was appropriate in both groups, with a higher cup anteversion in direct anterior approach. The complications rates were similar in both groups, with no dislocation or infection. The direct anterior approach without traction table associated with a dual mobility cup does not increase the risk of complications or non-optimal positioning of implants. This strategy is interesting for patients with high risk of post-operative dislocation.
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Doblas, Jesús; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Boffa, Juan José; Cuscó, Xavier; Cugat, Ramón
To report the return to sports and recurrence rates in competitive soccer players after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair using knotless suture anchors at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. All competitive soccer players with anterior glenohumeral instability treated by arthroscopic capsulolabral repair using knotless suture anchors between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively identified through the medical records. Inclusion criteria were: no previous surgical treatment of the involved shoulder, absence of glenoid or tuberosity fractures, absence of large Hill-Sachs or glenoid bone defect, minimum follow-up of 5 years, instability during soccer practice or games, and failure of non-surgical treatment. The charts of included players were reviewed, and a phone call was performed in a cross-sectional manner to obtain information on: current soccer, return to soccer, recurrence of instability, shoulder function (Rowe score), and disability [Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score and Quick-DASH Sports/Performing Arts Module]. Fifty-seven young male soccer players were finally included with a median (range) follow-up of 8 (5-10) years. Forty-nine (86 %) of the soccer players were able to return to soccer and 36 of them (73 %) at the same pre-injury level. There were 6 (10.5 %) re-dislocations in the 57 players, all of them of traumatic origin produced during soccer and other unrelated activities. The main reasons to not return to soccer were: knee injuries (two players), changes in personal life (two players), and job-related (three players). None of the players quit playing soccer because of their shoulder instability injury. The median (range) Rowe score, Quick-DASH score, and Quick-DASH sports score were 80 (25-100), 2.3 (0-12.5), and 0 (0-18.8), respectively. Competitive soccer players undergoing arthroscopic capsulolabral repair with knotless suture anchors for shoulder instability without significant bone loss demonstrate excellent return to
Leroux, Timothy S; Saltzman, Bryan M; Meyer, Maximilian; Frank, Rachel M; Bach, Bernard R; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N
It has been reported that arthroscopic shoulder stabilization yields higher rates of failure in contact or collision athletes as compared with open shoulder stabilization; however, this is largely based upon studies that do not employ modern, evidence-based surgical indications and techniques for arthroscopic shoulder stabilization. To (1) determine the pooled failure rate across all studies reporting failure after primary arthroscopic shoulder stabilization for anterior shoulder instability in contact or collision athletes and (2) stratify failure rates according to studies that use evidence-based surgical indications and techniques. Systematic review. A review of PubMed, Medline, and Embase was performed to identify all clinical studies with a minimum of 1-year follow-up that reported failure rates after arthroscopic shoulder stabilization for anterior shoulder instability in contact or collision athletes. Data pertaining to patient demographics, clinical and radiographic preoperative assessment, surgical indications, surgical technique, rehabilitation, and outcome were collected from each included study. An overall failure rate was determined across all included studies. After this, a secondary literature review was performed to identify factors related to patient selection and surgical technique that significantly influence failure after primary arthroscopic shoulder stabilization. Failure rates were then determined among included studies that used these evidence-based indications and techniques. Overall, 26 studies reporting on 779 contact or collision athletes met the inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 19.9 years, 90.3% were male, and the most common sport was rugby. There was considerable variability in the reporting of patient demographics, preoperative assessment, surgical indications, surgical technique, and patient outcomes. Across all included studies, the pooled failure rate after arthroscopic shoulder stabilization in the contact or
Ersen, A; Bayram, S; Birisik, F; Atalar, A C; Demirhan, M
Powerful contractions during epileptic seizures may cause shoulder dislocation and instability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the functional and radiographic results of the Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder dislocation in patients with epilepsy and compare the functional results of these patients with the results of patients without epilepsy. Is latarjet procedure effective in epileptic patients as non-epileptic patients with anterior shoulder instability? 11 shoulders of 9 patients with epileptic seizures causing anterior shoulder instability were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had a Latarjet procedure after neurologic evaluation and treatment arrangement. Epileptic seizures after the operation and shoulder dislocation after a seizure were investigated. For functional evaluation, ROWE, ASES and Constant scores were utilized whereas standard X-Ray views were used for radiologic evaluation. The results of epileptic patients with Latarjet procedure were compared with non-epileptic patients (53 patients, 54 shoulders) for anterior shoulder instability. Three (33%) of the 9 epileptic patients had recurrent seizures after Latarjet procedure, whereas 1 of the 11 shoulders (9%) had dislocation after an epileptic seizure. Functional scores were found to be significantly improved in epileptic (p<0.001) and non- epileptic patients (p<0.001). No significant differences for functional results were found between epileptic and non-epileptic patients after Latarjet procedure for anterior instability (p>0.05). One shoulder of 11 in the patients with epilepsy group (9%) and one shoulder of the 54 shoulders non-epileptic patients group (1.8%) had a redislocation. The rate of postoperative redislocation was significantly higher in patients with epilepsy (p: 0,008). Epileptic patients have a high rate of recurrent seizures even with proper medical treatment. Significant functional improvements and shoulder stability may be achieved after Latarjet procedure in
Results of Arthroscopic Bankart Lesion Repair in Patients with Post-Traumatic Anterior Instability of the Shoulder and a Non-Engaging Hill-Sachs Lesion with a Suture Anchor after a Minimum of 6-Year Follow-Up
Szyluk, Karol; Jasiński, Andrzej; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Mielnik, Michał; Koczy, Bogdan
Background Shoulder instability is an important clinical problem. Arthroscopic surgery is an established treatment modality in shoulder instability, but it continues to be associated with a high rate of recurrences and complications. The purpose of the study was to analyze late outcomes of arthroscopic repair of Bankart lesions in patients with post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability and non-engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, with special focus on the incidence and causes of recurrences and complications. Material/Methods We investigated 92 patients (92 shoulders) who underwent surgery on account of post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability. The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 to 12.5 years (mean: 8.2 years). All patients were operated on in the lateral decubitus position using FASTak 2.8-mm suture anchors (FASTak, Arthrex, Naples, Florida). Treatment outcomes were evaluated using the Rowe and University of California at Los Angeles rating system (UCLA). Results According to Rowe scores, there were 71 (81.5%) excellent, 12 (12.6%) good, 5 (5.3%) satisfactory, and 2 (2.1%) poor results. Rowe scores improved in a statistically significant manner (p=0.00) post-surgery, to a mean of 90 (range: 25–100). Treatment outcomes measured as UCLA scores improved in a statistically significant manner (p=0.00), reaching post-operative levels of 12–35 (mean: 33.5). There were 9 recurrences, 1 case of axillary nerve praxia, and 1 case of anchor loosening. Conclusions With rigorous criteria for qualifying patients for surgery, arthroscopic treatment of post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability produces good outcomes and low recurrence and complication rates irrespective of the number of previous dislocations, age, or sex. PMID:26256225
Results of Arthroscopic Bankart Lesion Repair in Patients with Post-Traumatic Anterior Instability of the Shoulder and a Non-Engaging Hill-Sachs Lesion with a Suture Anchor after a Minimum of 6-Year Follow-Up.
Szyluk, Karol; Jasiński, Andrzej; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Mielnik, Michał; Koczy, Bogdan
Shoulder instability is an important clinical problem. Arthroscopic surgery is an established treatment modality in shoulder instability, but it continues to be associated with a high rate of recurrences and complications. The purpose of the study was to analyze late outcomes of arthroscopic repair of Bankart lesions in patients with post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability and non-engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, with special focus on the incidence and causes of recurrences and complications. We investigated 92 patients (92 shoulders) who underwent surgery on account of post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability. The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 to 12.5 years (mean: 8.2 years). All patients were operated on in the lateral decubitus position using FASTak 2.8-mm suture anchors (FASTak, Arthrex, Naples, Florida). Treatment outcomes were evaluated using the Rowe and University of California at Los Angeles rating system (UCLA). According to Rowe scores, there were 71 (81.5%) excellent, 12 (12.6%) good, 5 (5.3%) satisfactory, and 2 (2.1%) poor results. Rowe scores improved in a statistically significant manner (p=0.00) post-surgery, to a mean of 90 (range: 25-100). Treatment outcomes measured as UCLA scores improved in a statistically significant manner (p=0.00), reaching post-operative levels of 12-35 (mean: 33.5). There were 9 recurrences, 1 case of axillary nerve praxia, and 1 case of anchor loosening. With rigorous criteria for qualifying patients for surgery, arthroscopic treatment of post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability produces good outcomes and low recurrence and complication rates irrespective of the number of previous dislocations, age, or sex.
Laudner, Kevin G; Metz, Betsy; Thomas, David Q
Context Approximately 62% of all cheerleaders sustain some type of orthopaedic injury during their cheerleading careers. Furthermore, the occurrence of such injuries has led to inquiry regarding optimal prevention techniques. One possible cause of these injuries may be related to inadequate conditioning in cheerleaders. Objective To determine whether a strength and conditioning program produces quantifiable improvements in anterior glenohumeral (GH) laxity and stiffness. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A sample of 41 collegiate cheerleaders (24 experimental and 17 control participants) volunteered. No participants had a recent history (in the past 6 months) of upper extremity injury or any history of upper extremity surgery. Intervention(s) The experimental group completed a 6-week strength and conditioning program between the pretest and posttest measurements; the control group did not perform any strength training between tests. Main Outcome Measure(s) We measured anterior GH laxity and stiffness with an instrumented arthrometer. We conducted a group × time analysis of variance with repeated measures on time (P < .05) to determine differences between groups. Results A significant interaction was demonstrated, with the control group having more anterior GH laxity at the posttest session than the strengthening group (P = .03, partial η2 = 0.11). However, no main effect for time (P = .92) or group (P = .97) was observed. In another significant interaction, the control group had less anterior GH stiffness at the posttest session than the strengthening group (P = .03, partial η2 = 0.12). Main effects for time (P = .02) and group (P = .004) were also significant. Conclusions Cheerleaders who participate in a shoulder-strengthening program developed less anterior GH laxity and more stiffness than cheerleaders in the control group. PMID:23672322
Laudner, Kevin G; Metz, Betsy; Thomas, David Q
Approximately 62% of all cheerleaders sustain some type of orthopaedic injury during their cheerleading careers. Furthermore, the occurrence of such injuries has led to inquiry regarding optimal prevention techniques. One possible cause of these injuries may be related to inadequate conditioning in cheerleaders. To determine whether a strength and conditioning program produces quantifiable improvements in anterior glenohumeral (GH) laxity and stiffness. Descriptive laboratory study. University laboratory. A sample of 41 collegiate cheerleaders (24 experimental and 17 control participants) volunteered. No participants had a recent history (in the past 6 months) of upper extremity injury or any history of upper extremity surgery. The experimental group completed a 6-week strength and conditioning program between the pretest and posttest measurements; the control group did not perform any strength training between tests. We measured anterior GH laxity and stiffness with an instrumented arthrometer. We conducted a group × time analysis of variance with repeated measures on time (P < .05) to determine differences between groups. A significant interaction was demonstrated, with the control group having more anterior GH laxity at the posttest session than the strengthening group (P = .03, partial η2 = 0.11). However, no main effect for time (P = .92) or group (P = .97) was observed. In another significant interaction, the control group had less anterior GH stiffness at the posttest session than the strengthening group (P = .03, partial η2 = 0.12). Main effects for time (P = .02) and group (P = .004) were also significant. Cheerleaders who participate in a shoulder-strengthening program developed less anterior GH laxity and more stiffness than cheerleaders in the control group.
Metzger, Paul D; Barlow, Brian; Leonardelli, Dominic; Peace, William; Solomon, Daniel J; Provencher, Matthew T
The optimal treatment of Hill-Sachs injuries is difficult to determine and is potentiated by the finding that a Hill-Sachs injury becomes more important in the setting of glenoid bone loss, making engagement of the humeral head on the glenoid inherently easier. The "glenoid track" concept was developed to biomechanically quantify the effects of a combined glenoid and humeral head bony defects on instability. To clinically evaluate humeral head engagement on the glenoid by utilizing glenoid track measurements of both humeral head and glenoid bone loss. Retrospective cohort. A total of 205 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability were evaluated, and of these, 140 patients (68%; 9 females [6%] and 131 males [94%]) with a Hill-Sachs lesion and a mean age of 27.6 years (range, 15-47 years; standard error of mean [SEM], 0.59) were included in the final magnetic resonance angiogram [MRA]) analysis. Bipolar bone loss measures of glenoid bone loss (sagittal oblique MRA) and multiple size measures of the Hill-Sachs injury (coronal, axial, and sagittal MRA) were recorded. Based on the extent of the bipolar lesion, patients were classified with glenoid track as either outside and engaging of the glenoid on the humeral head (OUT-E) or inside and nonengaging (IN-NE). The 2 groups were then compared with clinical evidence of engagement on examination under anesthesia (EUA) using video arthroscopy, number of dislocations, length of instability, and patient age. The mean glenoid bone loss was 7.6% (range, 0%-29%; SEM, 1.20%), and 31 of 140 (22%) patients demonstrated clinical engagement on EUA. Radiographically, 19 (13.4%) patients were determined to be OUT-E, while 121 (86.6%) were IN-NE and not expected to engage. Of those 19 patients with suggested radiographic engagement (OUT-E), 16 (84.5%) had clinical evidence of engagement versus only 12.4% that clinically engaged (15/121) without radiographic evidence of engagement (IN-NE) (P < .001). Younger age and a greater
Chahal, Jaskarndip; Marks, Paul H; Macdonald, Peter B; Shah, Prakesh S; Theodoropoulos, John; Ravi, Bheeshma; Whelan, Daniel B
The objective of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of anatomic Bankart repair in patients with a first-time shoulder dislocation compared with either arthroscopic lavage or traditional sling immobilization. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, and a clinical trials registry for ongoing and completed randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing anatomic Bankart repair with either rehabilitation or arthroscopic lavage. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodologic quality, and extracted data. Pooled analyses were performed by use of a random-effects model, and risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. We included 3 randomized trials and 1 quasi-randomized trial comprising 228 patients. Of the included trials, 2 compared anatomic Bankart repair with sling immobilization whereas 2 compared Bankart repair with arthroscopic lavage. A meta-analysis of all 4 trials showed that the rate of recurrent instability was significantly lower among participants undergoing anatomic Bankart repair compared with those undergoing either immobilization or arthroscopic lavage (RR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.33). Subgroup analysis showed that this effect persisted when Bankart repair was compared with arthroscopic lavage alone (2 studies) (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.31) or sling immobilization alone (2 studies) (RR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.67). Western Ontario Shoulder Instability scores were better with anatomic Bankart repair compared with either arthroscopic lavage or immobilization (2 studies) (mean difference, -232; 95% CI, -317 to -146). There is evidence to suggest treatment of young patients with a first-time shoulder dislocation with anatomic Bankart repair with the goal of lowering the rate of recurrent instability over the long-term and improving short-term quality of life. Level II, systematic review of Level I and II studies
Simoni, P; Scarciolla, L; Kreutz, J; Meunier, B; Beomonte Zobel, B
Superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears include a number of abnormal changes of the superior glenoid labrum. SLAP tears have been first reported in elite young atlete and are caused by repetitive overhead motion or by a fall on an outstretched arm. SLAP can lead to chronic pain and instability of shoulder. A diagnosis of SLAP may be difficult on the basis of clinical tests. Hence, modern imaging, including computed tomography arthrography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) play a key role in the diagnosis of SLAP. The large number of normal anatomic variants of the superior labrum and the surrounding structures make the interpretation of SLAP challenging on imaging and at arthroscopy. In this article the imaging of SLAP are discussed in detail along with relevant anatomy, anatomic variants and biomechanics.
Aydin, Nuri; Sirin, Evrim; Arya, Alp
After the improvement in arthroscopic shoulder surgery, superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears are increasingly recognized and treated in persons with excessive overhead activities like throwers. Several potential mechanisms for the pathophysiology of superior labral tears have been proposed. The diagnosis of this condition can be possible by history, physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging combination. The treatment of type 1 SLAP tears in many cases especially in older patients is non-operative but some cases need arthroscopic intervention. The arthroscopic management of type 2 lesions in older patients can be biceps tenodesis, but young and active patients like throwers will need an arthroscopic repair. The results of arthroscopic repair in older patients are not encouraging. The purpose of this study is to perform an overview of the diagnosis of the SLAP tears and to help decision making for the surgical management. PMID:25035838
Camp, Christopher L.; Dahm, Diane L.; Krych, Aaron J.
Anterior shoulder instability is often accompanied by a Hill-Sachs defect on the humeral head that can contribute to recurrent instability if not addressed at the time of surgery. We describe a method of performing arthroscopic remplissage to treat engaging Hill-Sachs lesions in patients with glenohumeral instability. It has the benefits of being an efficient procedure that can be performed with minimal technical difficulty and can be used to augment other stabilization procedures such as labral repair. The indications for this technique include the presence of an engaging Hill-Sachs defect in patients will little or no glenoid bone loss. In appropriately selected patients, arthroscopic remplissage has shown reduced rates of recurrent instability. PMID:26697311
Russo, R; Giudice, G; Ciccarelli, M; Vernaglia Lombardi, L; Cautiero, F
Purpose of this study is to analyze the results of a consecutive series of 139 patients affected with anterior-inferior shoulder instability and treated by arthroscopic capsuloplasty using the Thal method with absorbable and non-absorbable Mitek knotless anchors. Much attention was paid to the preoperative and intraoperative selection of patients, excluding from the arthroscopic procedure those with bony Bankart lesions measuring more than 25%, with an inverted-pear glenoid, with engaged Hill-Sachs lesions and patients with HAGL lesions. Pre- and postoperative clinical evaluation was carried out using the Rowe scale. Scores rose from 45-55 to 96 postoperatively. Intra-articular mobilization of the anchors did not occur and peri-metallic lysis was not manifested. Areas of bone resorption were observed in 7 cases (7/38, 18.4%) with the presence of peri-insertional geodes with biological anchors, but this had no effect on the clinical results.
Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Ratte, Louis; Poignard, Alexandre; Auregan, Jean-Charles; Queinnec, Steffen; Hernigou, Philippe; Allain, Jérôme
Frequent complications of posterolateral instrumented fusion have been reported after treatment of degenerative scoliosis in elderly patients. Considering that in some cases, most of the symptomatology of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) is a consequence of the segmental instability at the dislocated level, the use of minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) to manage symptoms can be advocated to reduce surgical morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the midterm outcomes of 1- or 2-level minimally invasive ALIFs in ADS patients with 1- or 2-level dislocations. A total of 47 patients (average age 64 years; range 43-80 years) with 1- or 2-level ALIF performed for ADS (64 levels) in a single institution were included in the study. An independent spine surgeon retrospectively reviewed all the patients' medical records and radiographs to assess operative data and surgery-related complications. Clinical outcome was reported using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the visual analog scale (VAS) for lumbar and leg pain. Intraoperative data and complications were collected. Fusion and risk for adjacent-level degeneration were assessed. The mean follow-up duration was 3 years (range 1-10 years). ODI, and back and leg pain VAS scores were significantly improved at last follow-up. A majority of patients (74%) had a statistically significant improvement in their ODI score of more than 20 points at latest follow-up and 1 had a worsening of his disability. The mean operating time was 166 minutes (range 70-355 minutes). The mean estimated blood loss was 410 ml (range 50-1700 ml). Six (5 major and 1 minor) surgical complications (12.7% of patients) and 13 (2 major and 11 minor) medical complications (27.7% of patients) occurred without death or wound infection. Fusion was achieved in 46 of 47 patients. Surgery resulted in a slight but significant decrease of the Cobb angle, and improved the pelvic parameters and lumbar lordosis, but had no
Brelin, Alaina; Dickens, Jonathan F
Posterior shoulder instability is a relatively uncommon condition, occurring in ∼10% of those with shoulder instability. Because of the rarity of the condition and the lack of knowledge in treatment, it is often misdiagnosed or patients experience a delay in diagnosis. Posterior instability typically affects athletes participating in contact or overhead sports and is usually the result of repetitive microtrauma or blunt force with the shoulder in the provocative position of flexion, adduction, and internal rotation, leading to recurrent subluxation events. Acute traumatic posterior dislocations are rare injuries with an incidence rate of 1.1 per 100,000 person years. This rate is ∼20 times lower than that of anterior shoulder dislocations. Risk factors for recurrent instability are: (1) age below 40 at time of first instability; (2) dislocation during a seizure; (3) a large reverse Hill-Sachs lesion; and (4) glenoid retroversion. A firm understanding of the pathoanatomy, along with pertinent clinical and diagnostic modalities is required to accurately diagnosis and manage this condition.
Lian, L Y; Zhang, L J; Zhao, Q
Contracture of the deltoid muscle, a relatively uncommon disorder in children, can be caused by repeated intramuscular injection, trauma, or congenital disease. The typical clinical manifestations of deltoid contracture (i.e., a palpable fibrous cord within the deltoid muscle, abduction contracture of the shoulder, winged scapula, and skin dimpling over the fibrous bands), however, may be atypical or even lacking, thus, leading to misdiagnosis. The procedure going from misdiagnosis to recognition of the correct diagnosis is reviewed in a 7-year-old boy with deltoid contracture.
Plath, Johannes E; Aboalata, Mohamed; Seppel, Gernot; Juretzko, Julia; Waldt, Simone; Vogt, Stephan; Imhoff, Andreas B
Glenohumeral osteoarthritis is a well-documented, long-term complication of open stabilization procedures. However, there is a lack of knowledge about long-term radiographic outcome after arthroscopic Bankart procedures. Glenohumeral osteoarthritis will develop less frequently in arthroscopic Bankart repair compared with open repairs reported in the literature. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The inclusion criteria for this study were (1) all-arthroscopic Bankart repair for a (2) symptomatic anteroinferior shoulder instability and (3) a minimum follow-up of 10 years. True anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were obtained to evaluate the prevalence and grade of osteoarthritis according to the Samilson classification. Patients were assessed by the Constant score and examined for passive external rotation deficits. Of 165 shoulders that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 100 were available for evaluation. The median Constant score at an average±SD 156.2±18.5 months after Bankart repair was 94 (range, 46-100). Twenty-one shoulders (21%) sustained a recurrent dislocation. Overall, 31% of shoulders showed no evidence of glenohumeral osteoarthritis; 41% showed mild, 16% moderate, and 12% severe degenerative changes. Osteoarthritis did not correlate with Constant score results (P=.427). The grade of osteoarthritis was significantly associated with the number of preoperative dislocations (P=.016), age at initial dislocation (P=.005) and at surgery (P=.002), and the number of anchors used (P=.001), whereas time from initial dislocation to surgery (P=.854) and external rotation deficit at 0° and 90° of abduction (P=.104 and .348, respectively) showed no significant correlation. Recurrent dislocation did not affect the presence or grade of osteoarthritis (P=.796 and .665, respectively). At an average 13 years after arthroscopic Bankart repair, osteoarthritic changes are a common finding and, overall, are comparable with reports in the literature regarding open
[Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22-32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise.
[Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise. PMID:26957774
Aydın, Adem; Atmaca, Halil; Müezzinoğlu, Ümit Sefa
Traumatic dislocation of the knee joint is an uncommon complex, multiple ligamentous injury resulting from a high-energy trauma. Significant lack of functions can be seen because of both early and late complications of these injuries such as popliteal artery disruption, peroneal nerve injury, persistent instability and posttraumatic arthritis. Therefore, the emergency surgery is necessary due to possibility of neurovascular compromise and limb loss. Controversies over operative versus closed immobilization of traumatic complex, multiple ligamentous knee injury are still debated. We report a case of traumatic anterior dislocation of the right knee with an ipsilateral tibial shaft fracture in association with right popliteal artery occlusion of a professional athlete who was returned to his sports activity by surgical treated tibia fracture and conservative treatment of the knee dislocation.
Gaudet, Sylvain; Tremblay, Jonathan; Begon, Mickael
The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in peak muscle activity and recruitment patterns during high- and low-velocity, concentric and eccentric, internal and external isokinetic shoulder rotations. Electromyographic activity of the rotator cuff and eight superficial muscles of the shoulder girdle was recorded on 25 healthy adults during isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotation at 60°/s and 240°/s. Peak muscle activity, electromyographic envelopes and peak isokinetic moments were analyzed using three-factor ANOVA and statistical parametric mapping. The subscapularis and serratus anterior showed moderate to high peak activity levels during each conditions, while the middle and posterior deltoids, upper, middle and lower trapezius, infraspinatus and supraspinatus showed higher peak activity levels during external rotations (+36.5% of maximum voluntary activation (MVA)). The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi were more active during internal rotations (+40% of MVA). Only middle trapezius and pectoralis major electromyographic activity decreased with increasing velocity. Peak muscle activity was similar or lower during eccentric contractions, although the peak isokinetic moment increased by 35% on average. The subscapularis and serratus anterior appear to be important stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint and scapula. Isokinetic eccentric training at high velocities may allow for faster recruitment of the shoulder girdle muscles, which could improve joint stability during shoulder internal and external rotations.
Archetti Netto, Nicola; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Lenza, Mario; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, João Carlos
The objective of this study was to compare the functional assessments of arthroscopy and open repair for treating Bankart lesion in traumatic anterior shoulder instability. Fifty adult patients, aged less than 40 years, with traumatic anterior shoulder instability and the presence of an isolated Bankart lesion confirmed by diagnostic arthroscopy were included in the study. They were randomly assigned to receive open or arthroscopic treatment of an isolated Bankart lesion. In all cases of both groups, the lesion was repaired with metallic suture anchors. The primary outcomes included the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. After a mean follow-up period of 37.5 months, 42 patients were evaluated. On the DASH scale, there was a statistically significant difference favorable to the patients treated with the arthroscopic technique, but without clinical relevance. There was no difference in the assessments by University of California, Los Angeles and Rowe scales. There was no statistically significant difference regarding complications and failures, as well as range of motion, for the 2 techniques. On the basis of this study, the open and arthroscopic techniques were effective in the treatment of traumatic anterior shoulder instability. The arthroscopic technique showed a lower index of functional limitation of the upper limb, as assessed by the DASH questionnaire; this, however, was not clinically relevant. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mesiha, Mena M; Derwin, Kathleen A; Sibole, Scott C; Erdemir, Ahmet; McCarron, Jesse A
Anterior tears of the supraspinatus tendon are more likely to be clinically relevant than posterior tears of the supraspinatus. We hypothesized that anterior tears of the supraspinatus tendon involving the rotator cuff cable insertion are associated with greater tear gapping, decreased tendon stiffness, and increased regional tendon strain under physiologic loading conditions compared with equivalently sized tears of the rotator cuff crescent. Twelve human cadaveric shoulders were randomized to undergo simulation of equivalently sized supraspinatus tears of either the anterior rotator cuff cable (n = 6) or the adjacent rotator cuff crescent (n = 6). For each specimen, the supraspinatus tendon was cyclically loaded from 10 N to 180 N, and a custom three-dimensional optical system was used to track markers on the surface of the tendon. Tear gap distance, stiffness, and regional strains of the supraspinatus tendon were calculated. The tear gap distance of large cable tears (median gap distance, 5.2 mm) was significantly greater than that of large crescent tears (median gap distance, 1.3 mm) (p = 0.002), the stiffness of tendons with a small (p = 0.002) or large (p = 0.002) cable tear was significantly greater than that of tendons with equivalently sized crescent tears, and regional strains across the supraspinatus were significantly increased in magnitude and altered in distribution by tears involving the anterior insertion of the rotator cuff cable. These findings support our hypothesis that the rotator cuff cable, which is in the most anterior 8 to 12 mm of the supraspinatus tendon immediately posterior to the bicipital groove, is the primary load-bearing structure within the supraspinatus for force transmission to the proximal part of the humerus. Conversely, in the presence of an intact rotator cuff cable, the rotator cuff crescent insertion is relatively stress-shielded and plays a significantly lesser role in supraspinatus force transmission. Clinicians should
Vascellari, Alberto; Ramponi, Carlo; Venturin, Davide; Ben, Giulia; Blonna, Davide; Coletti, Nicolò
The purpose of this study was to evaluate validity and responsiveness of the Degree of Shoulder Involvement in Sport (DOSIS) scale. A web-based survey was developed to test the construct validity of the DOSIS scale. Fifty-three patients with a median age of 33 years (range 17-59) were included in the study. Convergent validity was evaluated by external correlation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r) of the DOSIS with the Brophy-Marx and Tegner activity scales, the Western Ontario shoulder instability index (WOSI), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36). Responsiveness was analysed by relative efficiency calculation of the DOSIS versus the Brophy-Marx and Tegner activity scales. The DOSIS showed strong correlation with the Brophy-Marx and Tegner activity scales, a moderate correlation with the WOSI and SST scores, and a moderate correlation with the physical functioning, role physical and role emotional subscores of the SF-36. The distribution of the DOSIS scores had no serious ceiling or floor effects. The DOSIS demonstrated lesser responsiveness when compared to the Brophy-Marx and Tegner activity scales. The DOSIS showed an adequate validity and responsiveness. The clinical relevance of this study is that the DOSIS scale can be used for sport-specific shoulder assessment in patients after surgery for anterior instability. III.
Martinez, Angel Antonio; Navarro, Evelio; Iglesias, Daniel; Domingo, Javier; Calvo, Angel; Carbonel, Ignacio
The purpose of this study is to report the long-term follow-up result of allograft reconstruction of segmental defect of the humeral head associated with posterior dislocation of the shoulder. Six men underwent operative management of defects of the humeral head involving 40% of the articular surface, following posterior dislocation of the humeral head. The period of time between dislocation and surgery ranged from 7 to 8 weeks. The defect in the head was filled with an allogeneic segment of humeral head contoured to restore the spherical shape. All the patients returned to their occupation 4 months later. All the cases were evaluated clinically and by radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scan at a mean of 122 (96-144) months after the operative procedure. Three men had no complaints of pain, instability, clicking or catching, whereas three had pain, clicking, catching and stiffness. The three patients with good clinical result showed also good radiographic result. The computed tomography (CT) confirmed incorporation of the allograft and no osteoarthrosis. Another patient had a good clinical and radiographic result until the eighth postoperative year. At 8-year follow-up examination, this patient developed shoulder osteoarthrosis and he had pain and stiffness. He needed an arthroplasty 10 years after the operation. The other two patients developed collapse of the graft and osteoarthrosis that were yet evident at 4-year follow-up. These patients required a shoulder arthroplasty 8 years after the procedure. We conclude that the treatment of segmental defects of the humeral head associated with posterior dislocations of the shoulder by allograft reconstruction has a good long-term follow-up result in 50% of the patients.
Waterman, Brian R; Chandler, Philip J; Teague, Edward; Provencher, Matthew T; Tokish, John M; Pallis, Mark P
To describe the short-term clinical outcomes of glenoid bone block augmentation in a high-demand population, as well as to describe its clinical success and complications at greater than 2 years' follow-up in an at-risk military population. All patients undergoing anterior capsulorrhaphy with coracoid process transfer or anterior bone block augmentation (Current Procedural Terminology code 23662 or 23460) for shoulder instability between 2006 and 2012 were isolated from the Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool. Demographic and occupational parameters were identified, and multiple surgical factors and clinical outcomes were extracted from the medical record and US Defense Manpower Data Center. A total of 64 service members (65 shoulders) underwent anterior bone block procedures, including coracoid transfer (n = 59, 90.8%), distal tibial allograft (n = 3, 4.6%), and autologous or allograft iliac crest bone graft (n = 3, 4.6%). This group was predominately comprised of men (n = 59), and the mean age was 25.9 years (range, 19 to 45 years). A total of 19 perioperative complications, including 8 neurologic injuries, 6 infections, and 4 hardware failures, occurred in 16 patients (25%). At a mean 2.4-year follow-up, 21 patients (32.8%) reported persistent shoulder pain and 15 patients (23.4%) disclosed subjective apprehension or recurrent instability. Secondary surgical procedures were performed in 12 patients (18.8%), including 4 revisions (6.3%). Ultimately, 20 patients (31.3%) underwent a medical discharge for persistent shoulder disability. Univariate analysis showed that the presence of a perioperative complication (P = .049) and tobacco use (P = .038) were associated with increased risk of subsequent surgical failure. Anterior glenoid bone block procedures for shoulder instability with concomitant bone loss enable a return to high-demand physical function. The short-term complication profile (25%), recurrence rate (23%), and
Ropars, M; Fournier, A; Campillo, B; Bonan, I; Delamarche, P; Crétual, A; Thomazeau, H
The aim of this study was to evaluate two methods of clinical assessment for external rotation of the shoulder to optimise the diagnosis of hyperlaxity in patients being selected for surgery for stabilisation of chronic anterior instability. External rotation was evaluated in 70 healthy student volunteers by two examiners (intertester study) using two methods of assessment at 15-day intervals (intratester study). The first method used was the protocol described for the Instability Severity Index Score (ISIS). In this case, the subject was evaluated in the sitting position, bilaterally with passive range of motion movements. The shoulder was considered hyperlax if ER1 was greater than 85°. With the second, so-called "elbow on the table" (EOT) method, the subject was evaluated in the decubitus dorsal position, unilaterally with passive range of motion. The subject was considered to be hyperlax if ER1 was greater than 90°. Kappa values for intra- and intertester agreement with the ISIS method were average, while they were satisfactory with the intraclass coefficient (ICC). Kappa values for inter- and intratester agreement with the EOT method were average and good, respectively. This tendency was confirmed by the ICC which went from good to excellent for the two examiners in both series of measurements using the EOT method, showing better reproducibility with this method. Our study confirms that the most reproducible method for assessing external rotation is obtained by unilateral assessment of the patient in the decubitus dorsal position, with passive range of motion. An ER1 of 90° is the necessary threshold for hyperlaxity because of elbow retropulsion with this method, which provides immediate and visual evaluation and eliminates the necessity of goniometry.
Bonnevialle, Nicolas; Azoulay, Vadim; Faraud, Amélie; Elia, Fanny; Swider, Pascal; Mansat, Pierre
The aim of this study was to evaluate mid-term outcomes of Bankart repair with Hill-Sachs remplissage (BHSR) and to highlight prognostic factors of failure. Thirty-four patients operated on for anterior shoulder instability with BHSR were enrolled in a prospective non-randomised study. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed at 1.5, three, six months and yearly thereafter. Outcome measures included Rowe and Walch-Duplay score. At mean follow-up of 35 months (24-63), the Rowe and Walch-Duplay scores reached respectively 92.7 and 88.2 points. The mean deficit in external rotation was 6° in ER1 and 1° in ER2 (p = 0.4, p = 0.9 respectively). Five patients (14.7%) had a recurrence of instability and three others had a persistent anterior apprehension. In the failure group, the Hill-Sachs lesion was deeper (26% vs 19% of the humeral diameter; p = 0.04) and range of motion at 1.5 months postoperatively was greater. Age at surgery, pre-operative instability severity index score (ISIS), hyperlaxity, type and level of sport, amount of glenoid bone loss had no correlation with failure rate. The rate of failure at mid-term follow-up of BHSR was higher than commonly reported. The premature recovery of range of motion seems to be a clinical sign of failure at follow-up. Moreover, in case of deep Hill-Sachs lesion (>20%) an alternative procedure should be considered. Level IV.
Cho, Nam Su; Yoo, Jae Hyun; Juh, Hyung Suk; Rhee, Yong Girl
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results of isolated arthroscopic Bankart repair and those of arthroscopic Bankart repair with posterior capsulodesis for anterior shoulder instability with engaging Hill-Sachs lesions. Thirty-five shoulders that underwent isolated arthroscopic Bankart repair (Bankart group) and 37 shoulders that underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair with posterior capsulodesis (remplissage group) for anterior shoulder instability with engaging Hill-Sachs lesions were evaluated retrospectively. The mean age at the time of the surgery was 26.1 ± 7.0 years in the Bankart group and 24.8 ± 9.0 years in the remplissage group. At the final follow-up, the Rowe and UCLA scores significantly improved in both the Bankart and remplissage groups (P < 0.001, in both groups). The post-operative mean deficit in external rotation at the side was 3° ± 10° in the Bankart group and 8° ± 23° in the remplissage group (P = n.s. and P = 0.044, respectively). There was no decrease in muscle strength in either group. The recurrence rate was 25.7 % in the Bankart group and 5.4 % in the remplissage group (P = 0.022). Arthroscopic Bankart repair with posterior capsulodesis demonstrated good clinical outcomes with a low recurrence rate in the treatment for anterior shoulder instability with an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. Although a limitation in external rotation was observed, there was no significant limitation of any other motion and no decrease in muscle strength after the remplissage procedure. Posterior capsulodesis alone for remplissage should be considered as a surgical technique that can replace the conventional method. Case-control study, Level III.
Clancy, William G., Jr.
A description is given of typical sport-related injuries to the shoulder area. These include: (1) brachial plexus injuries; (2) peripheral nerve injuries about the shoulder; (3) acromioclavicular injuries; (4) sternoclavicular injuries; (5) shoulder dislocations; (6) recurrent traumatic subluxation/dislocations; and (7) overuse injuries.…
Clancy, William G., Jr.
A description is given of typical sport-related injuries to the shoulder area. These include: (1) brachial plexus injuries; (2) peripheral nerve injuries about the shoulder; (3) acromioclavicular injuries; (4) sternoclavicular injuries; (5) shoulder dislocations; (6) recurrent traumatic subluxation/dislocations; and (7) overuse injuries.…
Choi, C; Ogilvie-Harris, D
Objectives: To assess the results of inferior capsular shift for multidirectional instability of the shoulder in athletes. Methods: Multidirectional instability was surgically corrected in 53 shoulders in 47 athletes who engaged in contact sports. A history of major trauma was found in eight patients, the others having had minor episodes. Before surgery, all patients had complex combinations of instabilities. The surgical approach was selected according to the predominant direction of instability. Results: Anterior inferior capsular shift was carried out in 37 shoulders, and anterior dislocation recurred in three. In one of these, it was anterior alone, one was anterior and inferior, and one was unstable in all three directions. After posterior inferior capsular shift in 16 shoulders, one dislocation occurred anteriorly and one posteriorly. With the anterior approach, four athletes could not return to sport. Two patients treated with the posterior approach could not return to sport. Of these six failures, five patients had had bilateral repairs. Successful repair based on the criteria of the American Shoulder and Elbow Association was achieved in 92% of anterior repairs and 81% of posterior repairs. Successful return to sport was noted in 82% of patients with anterior repairs, 75% with posterior repairs, and 17% with bilateral repairs. Overall, there were five subsequent dislocations, three in the anterior repair group (8%), and two in the posterior repair group (12%). Conclusions: Inferior capsular shift can successfully correct multidirectional instability in most players of contact sports, but the results in bilateral cases are poor. PMID:12145120
Rhee, Yong Girl; Lim, Chan Teak; Cho, Nam Su
A number of reports have been made on the muscle strength at the last follow-up after arthroscopic or open Bankart repairs. Few have analyzed the change over time in muscle strength and compared the changes between different operative methods. Muscle strength recovers faster after arthroscopic Bankart repair than after open Bankart repair, and the final muscle strength is not different between the 2 procedures. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty patients with anterior shoulder instability and an isolated Bankart lesion were enrolled for this study. Thirty patients underwent open Bankart repair (open group), and 30 patients went through arthroscopic Bankart repair (arthroscopic group). The open group demonstrated markedly weaker muscle strength during forward elevation than did the arthroscopic group up to 3 months after surgery, but the difference narrowed to about 5% at 6 months (P = .074). At 6 months after surgery, the muscle strength of the open group measured 85.8% +/- 11.5% in forward elevation, 89.5% +/- 10.3% in external rotation, and 89.3% +/- 13.3% in internal rotation. The corresponding figures of the arthroscopic group were 90.6% +/- 8.6%, 92.1% +/- 9.1%, and 92.1% +/- 11.7%. As for external and internal rotations, the open group demonstrated markedly weaker muscle strength 6 weeks after surgery, but the differences were reduced to about 6% and 4%, respectively, at 3 months (P = .092 and .163, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in final muscle strength 12 months after the operation between the 2 groups (P = .503, .468, and .659, respectively). Muscle strength recovered faster with an arthroscopic procedure than with an open procedure during the early postoperative periods, and strength was restored to the level of the unaffected side at 6 months postoperatively. In the group with open Bankart repairs, the muscle strength during forward elevation recovered slower than did external and internal rotation muscle
Ouyang, Shao-bo; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Hong-bin; Liao, Lan; Zhu, Hong-shui
To investigate the stress distributions under load in 3 types of all-ceramic continuous crowns of the lower anterior teeth with differential shoulder thickness. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) was used to scan the in vitro mandibular central incisors, and achieve three-dimensional finite element model of all-ceramic continuous crowns with different shoulder width by using Mimics, Abaqus software. Different load conditions were simulated based on this model to study the effect of shoulder width variation on finite element analysis of 3 kinds of different all-ceramic materials of incisors fixed continuous crowns of the mandibular. Using CBCT, Mimics10.01 software and Abaqus 6.11 software, three-dimensional finite element model of all-ceramic continuous crowns of the mandibular incisor, abutment, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone was established. Different ceramic materials and various shoulder width had minor no impact on the equivalent stress peak of periodontal membrane, as well as alveolar bone. With the same shoulder width and large area of vertical loading of 120 N, the tensile stress was the largest in In-Ceram Alumina, followed by In-Ceram Zirconia and the minimum was IPS.Empress II. Under large area loading of 120 N 45° labially, when the material was IPS.Empress II, with the shoulder width increased, the porcelain plate edge of the maximum tensile stress value increased, while the other 2 materials had no obvious change. Finite element model has good geometric similarity. In the setting range of this study, when the elastic modulus of ceramic materials is bigger, the tensile stress of the continuous crown is larger. Supported by Research Project of Department of Education, Jiangxi Province (GJJ09130).
Aydin, Nuri; Unal, Mehmet Bekir; Asansu, Mustafa; Tok, Okan
Prior studies revealed the presence of superior labrum anterior-to-posterior (SLAP) injury together with Bankart lesions in some patients. The purpose of the study is to compare the clinical results of isolated Bankart repairs with the clinical results of Bankart repairs when performed with concomitant SLAP repairs. The patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability were evaluated retrospectively. Group 1 consisted of 19 patients who had arthroscopic SLAP repair together with Bankart repair. The mean age of the patients was 23. Group 2 consisted of 38 patients who underwent isolated Bankart repair. The mean age was 24. Knotless anchors were used in both groups. The mean follow-up was 34 months (range: 26-72). In group 1, the mean preoperative Constant score was 84 (range: 74-90, standard deviation (SD): 5.91) and Rowe score was 64.1 (range: 40-70, SD: 8.14). In group 2, the preoperative Constant score was 84.4 (range: 70-96, SD: 5.88) and Rowe score was 60 (range: 45-70, SD: 7.95). In group 1, the postoperative mean Constant score raised to 96.8 (range: 88-100, SD: 2.91) and the mean Rowe score raised to 92.3 (range: 85-100, SD: 5.17). In group 2, the postoperative mean Constant score was 94.9 (range: 88-100, SD: 3.70) and the mean Rowe score was 94.2 (range: 80-100, SD: 4.71). The difference between the scores of two groups was insignificant ( p > 0.05). When the numbers of redislocations and range of motion were compared, no significant difference was found ( p > 0.05). Accompanying SLAP repair in surgical treatment with Bankart repair for shoulder instability does not affect the results negatively. Properly repaired labral tears extending from anterior inferior to the posterior superior of the glenoid in instability treatment have the same outcome in overall results as repaired isolated Bankart lesions.
Hsu, Jason E; Reuther, Katherine E; Sarver, Joseph J; Lee, Chang Soo; Thomas, Stephen J; Glaser, David L; Soslowsky, Louis J
The rotator cuff musculature imparts dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. In particular, the balance between the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus posteriorly, often referred to as the rotator cuff "force couple," is critical for concavity compression and concentric rotation of the humeral head. Restoration of this anterior-posterior force balance after chronic, massive rotator cuff tears may allow for deltoid compensation, but no in vivo studies have quantitatively demonstrated an improvement in shoulder function. Our goal was to determine if restoring this balance of forces improves shoulder function after two-tendon rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Forty-eight rats underwent detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. After four weeks, rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no repair, infraspinatus repair, and two-tendon repair. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral forces, braking, propulsion, and step width were significantly different between the infraspinatus and no repair group and similar between the infraspinatus and two-tendon repair groups at almost all time points. These results suggest that repairing the infraspinatus back to its insertion site without repair of the supraspinatus can improve shoulder function to a level similar to repairing both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons. Clinically, a partial repair of the posterior cuff after a two-tendon tear may be sufficient to restore adequate function. An in vivo model system for two-tendon repair of massive rotator cuff tears is presented. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Hsu, Jason E.; Reuther, Katherine E.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Lee, Chang Soo; Thomas, Stephen J.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
The rotator cuff musculature imparts dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. In particular, the balance between the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus posteriorly, often referred to as the rotator cuff “force couple,” is critical for concavity compression and concentric rotation of the humeral head. Restoration of this anterior-posterior force balance after chronic, massive rotator cuff tears may allow for deltoid compensation, but no in vivo studies have quantitatively demonstrated an improvement in shoulder function. Our goal was to determine if restoring this balance of forces improves shoulder function after two-tendon rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Forty-eight rats underwent detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. After four weeks, rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no repair, infraspinatus repair, and two-tendon repair. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral forces, braking, propulsion, and step width were significantly different between the infraspinatus and no repair group and similar between the infraspinatus and two-tendon repair groups at almost all time points. These results suggest that repairing the infraspinatus back to its insertion site without repair of the supraspinatus can improve shoulder function to a level similar to repairing both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons. Clinically, a partial repair of the posterior cuff after a two tendon tear may be sufficient to restore adequate function. An in vivo model system for two-tendon repair of massive rotator cuff tears is presented. PMID:21308755
Jung, Da-Eun; Moon, Dong-Chul
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the ratio between the upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles during diverse shoulder abduction exercises applied with vibrations in order to determine the appropriate exercise methods for recovery of scapular muscle balance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed shoulder abduction at various shoulder joint abduction angles (90°, 120°, 150°, 180°) with oscillation movements. [Results] At 120°, all the subjects showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle in comparison with the upper trapezius muscle. However, no significant difference was found at angles other than 120°. [Conclusion] To selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, applying vibration stimuli at the 120° shoulder abduction position is considered to be appropriate.
... injured. Common problems include Sprains and strains Dislocations Separations Tendinitis Bursitis Torn rotator cuffs Frozen shoulder Fractures Arthritis Health care providers diagnose shoulder problems by using your medical history, a physical exam, and imaging tests. Often, the first treatment ...
Burt, David M.
Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder may arise spontaneously; however, recent evidence suggests that traumatic events may play a role in this syndrome. Variable degrees of injury around the circumference of the glenoid have been reported, ranging from Bankart and Kim lesions to 270° of injury and even 360° of injury. Hyperabduction injury may cause inferior subluxation of the shoulder and result in traumatic isolated injury to the inferior labrum from anterior to posterior. This particular lesion spans approximately 180° of the inferior hemisphere and may lead to symptomatic MDI. In contrast to open or arthroscopic plication procedures for atraumatic MDI without labral injury, the goal in these cases is anatomic arthroscopic repair of the inferior labrum tear without the need for capsular plication, volume reduction, or rotator interval closure. PMID:25685683
Lech, Osvandré; Piluski, Paulo; Tambani, Renato; Castro, Nero; Pimentel, Gilnei
Objective: To evaluate the integrity of the subscapularis tendon by strength, function and magnetic resonance imaging after deltopectoralis access for anterior shoulder instability. Methods: 20 patients with anterior shoulder instability have been evaluated. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, with a mean of 40 months. Only male patients were included, with a mean of age of 29 years (20 − 42 years). The patients have been submitted to physical examinations of mobility, muscular strength, Belly Test and Gerber Test. The isokinetic strength in internal and external rotation, in angular speeds of 600/s and 1800/s, for both shoulders was measured using a dynamometer. In 15 patients magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out on both shoulders for evaluating the thickness, cross-sectional area and atrophy of the subscapularis muscle. Results: A significant difference was found between torque peaks at the speed of 600/s for internal (p=0.036) and external (p=0.008) rotation. However, at 1800/s the opposite happens (internal rotation: p=0.133; external rotation: p=0.393). Subscapularis muscle thickness and area are significantly smaller than the normal side, with a deficit of 19% and 23%, respectively. According to Rowe and UCLA scores, we find excellent and good results for the majority of patients, with a mean of 88 and 31.6 points, respectively. Conclusion: Despite of the good functional results, open surgery can limit strength and reduce the thickness and the cross-sectional area of subscapularis muscle. However, the best results were found in the patients who had the dominant side operated. PMID:27004190
Rafert, J A; Long, B W; Hernandez, E M; Kreipke, D L
One of the most common fractures of the humeral head resulting from an anterior dislocation is the Hill-Sachs defect. Other special radiographic positions to demonstrate this injury may prove difficult for the patient to assume and maintain. An axillary shoulder projection with exaggerated external rotation is easy to position and clearly demonstrates the Hill-Sachs defect.
Cote, Mark P
A benefit of systematic review (SR) research methods is that well-performed reviews allow authors and readers to identify weaknesses and variability in the orthopaedic literature. An SR on the topic of recurrence rates after conservative treatment of first-time shoulder dislocation provides an excellent example. The example reviews studies covering more than one-half century of time and employing varying methodological designs; the results include estimates of recurrence of shoulder dislocation ranging widely (from 4% to 94.5%). These methods and results raise concerns over the comparability of the studies included in the review. Fortunately, the authors are careful in their use of these data. Although there is little doubt that the review includes a heterogeneous group of articles (and patients), there is value in knowing that much of the variability in the reported rate of recurrence could be related to variations in patient age. Future research, building on more than 50 years of study, would be wise to consider the rate of recurrence among specific age groups. This seems a worthy finding and demonstrates the value of SR methods and the importance of critical analysis of research data. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bhatia, Deepak N
Anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone loss has been described as "bony-instability," and this condition is usually treated with an anterior glenoid bone grafting procedure (Latarjet procedure). The Latarjet procedure involves transfer of the horizontal limb of the coracoid process along with the conjoint tendon to the anterior glenoid rim, and is traditionally performed as an open surgical procedure. Recently, an arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure has been described; the technique necessitates the use of specialized instrumentation and involves excision of the entire anterior capsule to facilitate coracoid fixation. We describe a new "freehand" arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure, and, in addition, a simultaneous capsular shift to further optimize mid and end range stability. This technique eliminates the use of additional instrumentation and can be done using routine arthroscopic instruments. Preliminary experience with this technique suggests that the arthroscopic Latarjet and capsular shift is a technically demanding procedure. Glenohumeral capsule can be preserved, and this should be attempted wherever possible to optimize stability. Additional specialized instrumentation would probably reduce surgical time; however, the procedure can be performed with routine instruments.
Ersen, Ali; Birisik, Fevzi; Ozben, Hakan; Atalar, Ata Can; Sahinkaya, Turker; Seyahi, Aksel; Demirhan, Mehmet
Latarjet, which is a coracoid bone block procedure, is an effective treatment for anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss. During this reconstructive procedure the subscapularis may be tenotomized or be split to expose the glenoid neck. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of subscapularis management on functional outcomes and internal and external rotation durability and strength. Hypothesis is that the subscapularis split approach will result in better functional results and superior internal rotation strength and endurance. The study included 48 patients [median age 30 (range 16-69); 42 males, 6 females], who underwent a modified Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability. There were 20 patients in the subscapularis tenotomy group and 28 patients in the subscapularis split group. The groups were compared isokinetically using a computerized dynamometer for internal and external rotation durability and strength. At the latest follow-up, the patients were evaluated with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and ROWE scores for functional outcomes. At a median follow-up period of 25 (range 12-73) months after the Latarjet procedure, the internal rotation durability was significantly higher in the split group (p = 0.045). However, a statistically significant difference could not be found for internal and external rotational strengths (n.s.). There was also no significant difference between the final ASES and ROWE scores (n.s.). Although both approaches offer promising results, the subscapularis split approach appears to provide better internal rotation durability compared to subscapularis tenotomy. Therefore, the subscapularis split approach may be more preferable for the management of the subscapularis muscle during Latarjet procedure. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.
Lee, Chong-Suh; Chung, Sung-Soo; Shin, Seong-Kee; Park, Yong-Serk; Park, Sung-Jun; Kang, Kyung-Chung
A retrospective radiographic analysis. To evaluate changes of upper thoracic curve and shoulder balance in thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients treated by anterior selective thoracic fusion using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and to identify adequacy of earlier criteria of double thoracic (DT) curve for anterior correction. Although anterior and posterior scoliosis correction show many differences in correction mechanisms, fusion levels, loss of correction etc., the criteria of DT curve was applied without differences. There are no reports about these differences. Forty patients were followed for a minimum of 3 years (range, 3-8 y). The magnitude and flexibility of upper thoracic, lower thoracic, and the superior portion of the lower thoracic curve were measured using full length standing and side-bending radiographs before surgery, at 1 week postoperatively, and at last follow-up. The correction rate and loss of correction of these curves were calculated and preoperative and postoperative radiographic shoulder heights (RSHs) were measured. RSH was defined as balanced (shoulder height difference <10 mm), mildly imbalanced (10-20 mm), or moderately imbalanced (>20 mm). T1 tilt and coronal balance were also evaluated. Patients were divided into groups based on these factors and postoperative RSH was compared. Flexibility of the upper thoracic curve was 46% and magnitude of the upper thoracic curve was corrected spontaneously from 28.6±7.8 degrees to 17.9±7.0 degrees with a 37.4% correction rate that did not change during follow-up. On average, preoperative left shoulder was 6.3±10.5 mm lower than right shoulder and this changed to 10.4±11.8 mm and 6.0±8.2 mm higher than right shoulder at 1 week postoperatively and at last follow-up, respectively. The group with an upper thoracic curve of ≥30 degrees or a superior portion of the lower thoracic curve of ≥30 degrees preoperatively had a higher left shoulder postoperatively (P=0.016, 0
Koo, Samuel S; Burkhart, Stephen S; Ochoa, Eloy
We present a modified arthroscopic technique used to treat anterior shoulder instability associated with mild glenoid bone loss and a large Hill-Sachs lesion. The procedure aims to convert a bony intra-articular defect into an extra-articular defect by insetting the infraspinatus into the Hill-Sachs lesion. The arthroscopic procedure is performed with the patient in the lateral decubitus position, and the same portals used for anterior instability repair are used for this technique. The sequence of steps involves placing and passing the glenoid anchors and sutures and then waiting to tie the anterior sutures until after the humeral suture anchors have been placed. The subacromial bursa is cleared; then 2 transtendon suture anchors are placed in the Hill-Sachs lesion. Next, the previously placed Bankart repair sutures are tied, and finally, the remplissage sutures are tied in the subacromial space over the infraspinatus by use of the transtendon double-pulley technique. This technique uses the eyelets of the 2 suture anchors as pulleys and creates a double-mattress suture.
Duan, Chunyue; Hu, Jianzhong; Wang, Xiyang; Wu, Jianhuang
To explore the clinical value of early and one-stage posterior laminectomy decompression, fracture reconstruction and lateral mess screw fixation combined with anterior cervical corpectomy or discectomy for the treatment of fresh and severe lower cervical spine fracture and dislocation. A total of 156 consecutive cases of severe fracture and dislocation of lower cervical spine were reviewed from January 2008 to January 2015. Skull traction was installed when the patients were enrolled in the hospital, so the operation was performed as early as possible. Firstly, the posterior procedure was applied to the patients prone on a frame. A standard posterior laminectomy, fixation and fusion were performed with lateral mass screws and rods. The cervical spine reconstruction was achieved by laminecomy, partially facetectomy, leverage and distraction. The technique of rotating rod was applied to recover the sequence of the cervical and keep or increase the zygopophysis and lordosis of the cervical on the sagittal plane. After the skull traction removed, a standard anterior approach to the cervical spine was initiated as the second stage of the procedure. Anterior cervical corpectomy or discectomy, spinal cord decompression, antograft and cervical spine auto-locking plate fixation were carried out. The stability, the fusion rate of the injured segments and spinal cord decompression were observed on the regular postoperative X-ray film and CT scan. The function of the spinal cord was evaluated by American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification. A total of 137 cases were followed-up, 19 failed to follow-up and 8 of them were due to death. The follow-up time was from 9.0 months to 35.0 months (mean: 13.7 months). All patients got completely reduction of the cervical spine. The injured segments were stable. There was no patient of bone graft no-fusion. The cervical intervertebral height and lordosis were reconstructed and maintained and all grafts were fused at the
Yang, Baohui; Lu, Teng
For patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures, surgical methods have mainly included the single anterior approach, single posterior approach, and combined anterior-posterior approach. However, various surgical procedures were utilized because the fractures have not been clearly classified according to presence of displacement in these previous studies. Consequently, controversies have been raised regarding the selection of the surgical procedure. This study retrospective analysis was conducted in 12 patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations and explored single-session combined anterior-posterior approach for the treatment of AS with obvious displaced lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations which has demonstrated advantages such as good stabilization, satisfied fracture healing, and easy postoperative cares. However, to some extent, the difficulty and risk of this approach should be considered. Attention should be paid to the prevention of perioperative complications. PMID:28133616
Yang, Baohui; Lu, Teng; Li, Haopeng
For patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures, surgical methods have mainly included the single anterior approach, single posterior approach, and combined anterior-posterior approach. However, various surgical procedures were utilized because the fractures have not been clearly classified according to presence of displacement in these previous studies. Consequently, controversies have been raised regarding the selection of the surgical procedure. This study retrospective analysis was conducted in 12 patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations and explored single-session combined anterior-posterior approach for the treatment of AS with obvious displaced lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations which has demonstrated advantages such as good stabilization, satisfied fracture healing, and easy postoperative cares. However, to some extent, the difficulty and risk of this approach should be considered. Attention should be paid to the prevention of perioperative complications.
Queipo-de-Llano, A; Lombardo-Torre, M; Leiva-Gea, A; Delgado-Rufino, F B; Luna-González, F
In the treatment of unstable pelvic ring fractures, external fixators have the limitation of not adequately stabilizing the injured posterior elements. This article presents a novel and simple technique of temporary external fixation of the pelvic ring, able to produce compression of both the anterior and posterior pelvic elements. A curved flexible carbon-fiber rod is used, pre-tensioned before attachment to supra-acetabular Schanz screws. Although more extensive clinical experience is required, favorable preliminary results in a series of 13 patients with unstable pelvic fracture were encouraging: the aim of closing the posterior and anterior elements of the pelvic ring was achieved in all cases treated with this technique, and 12 patients survived. Radiological results were excellent in 3 cases and good in 9 cases. No major complications, such as secondary displacement, vertical re-displacement or deep infection, were observed. Mean operative time was 25min, compatible with emergency management.
Tudisco, C; Bisicchia, S; Savarese, E; Ippolito, E
Background: There is still debate about the best treatment option for highly recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation in patients with severe impairment of the anterior capsule and/or recurrence after either arthroscopic or open capsulorrhaphy. Materials and Methods: The clinical and radiological findings of 7 patients treated with an open capsulorrhaphy stabilized with an “8 plate” for a highly recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation with severe impairment of the anterior capsule and a large Bankart lesion were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up evaluation included VAS for pain, Constant-Murley, Simple Shoulder Test, ASES, UCLA, Quick DASH, Rowe, Walsch-Duplay scores, as well as X-rays of the operated shoulder. Results: At follow-up none of the patients reported subsequent dislocations. Range of motion of the shoulder was complete in all cases, but one. Results of the functional scoring systems were satisfactory. X-rays showed no osteolysis and good position of the plate. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature about an open capsular tensioning and Bankart lesion repair performed with an “8 plate”. We believe that this is a reliable and effective procedure to address traumatic anterior re-dislocation of the gleno-humeral joint when the capsule is extensively torn and frayed or in revision cases. Moreover the “8 plate” is ideal to be applied in such a narrow space on the slant surface of the scapular neck close to the glenoid rim. PMID:25621080
Hayashida, Kenji; Yoneda, Minoru; Mizuno, Naoko; Fukushima, Sunao; Nakagawa, Shigeto
To assess the clinical results of arthroscopic Bankart repair with the knotless suture anchor for traumatic recurrent anterior shoulder instability. A total of 47 patients with traumatic recurrent anterior shoulder instability and without severe glenoid bone defect who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair with knotless suture anchors and were followed-up for longer than 2 years were included in the present study. The average age at surgery was 26 years (range, 16 to 49 years), with an average follow-up period of 28 months (range, 24 to 38 months). Clinical score as evaluated by the modified Rowe score advanced from 31 points to 91 points. In all, 35 patients were scored as excellent and 6 as good; the success rate was 87% (41 of 47), and the recurrence rate was 6.4% (3 of 47). External rotation was reduced by 8 degrees at adduction and by 6 degrees at 90 degrees of abduction. Of 12 patients, 7 (58%) returned completely to collision sports at preinjury levels, and 2 of 12 (17%) returned at a lower level. We experienced anchor-related trouble in 3 cases. One was the backwardness of the anchor at 2 months after operation. Breakage of the anchor loop occurred during the procedures in 2 cases. The clinical results of arthroscopic Bankart repair with knotless suture anchor were favorable; however, some pitfalls, such as the backwardness of the anchor and cutting of the anchor loop, were experienced. When using this anchor, its properties should be well recognized. Level IV, therapeutic case series.
Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Greve, Júlia Maria D’Andréa; Camanho, Gilberto Luis
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to compare the dislocation of the center of gravity and postural balance in sedentary and recreational soccer players with and without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the Biodex Balance System (BBS). METHOD Sixty-four subjects were divided into three groups: a) soccer players who were post- anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; b) soccer players with no anterior cruciate ligament injuries; and c) sedentary subjects. The subjects were submitted to functional stability tests using the Biodex Balance System. The instability protocols used were level eight (more stable) and level two (less stable). Three stability indexes were calculated: the anteroposterior stability index, the mediolateral stability index, and the general stability index. RESULTS Postural balance (dislocation) on the reconstructed side of the athletes was worse than on the side that had not undergone reconstruction. The postural balance of the sedentary group was dislocated less on both sides than the reconstructed knees of the athletes without anterior cruciate ligament injuries. There were no differences in postural balance with relation to left/right dominance for the uninjured athletes and the sedentary individuals. CONCLUSION The dislocation of the center of gravity and change in postural balance in sedentary individuals and on the operated limb of Surgery Group are less marked than in the soccer players from the Non Surgery Group and on the non-operated limbs. The dislocation of the center of gravity and the change in postural balance from the operated limb of the soccer players is less marked than in their non-operated limbs. PMID:19330239
Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Camanho, Gilberto Luis
The objective of this study was to compare the dislocation of the center of gravity and postural balance in sedentary and recreational soccer players with and without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the Biodex Balance System (BBS). Sixty-four subjects were divided into three groups: a) soccer players who were post- anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; b) soccer players with no anterior cruciate ligament injuries; and c) sedentary subjects. The subjects were submitted to functional stability tests using the Biodex Balance System. The instability protocols used were level eight (more stable) and level two (less stable). Three stability indexes were calculated: the anteroposterior stability index, the mediolateral stability index, and the general stability index. Postural balance (dislocation) on the reconstructed side of the athletes was worse than on the side that had not undergone reconstruction. The postural balance of the sedentary group was dislocated less on both sides than the reconstructed knees of the athletes without anterior cruciate ligament injuries. There were no differences in postural balance with relation to left/right dominance for the uninjured athletes and the sedentary individuals. The dislocation of the center of gravity and change in postural balance in sedentary individuals and on the operated limb of Surgery Group are less marked than in the soccer players from the Non Surgery Group and on the non-operated limbs. The dislocation of the center of gravity and the change in postural balance from the operated limb of the soccer players is less marked than in their non-operated limbs.
Ahmed, Issaq; Ashton, Fiona; Robinson, Christopher Michael
Arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift is a well-established technique for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes following arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift and to identify risk factors that are predictive of recurrence of glenohumeral instability. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database consisting of 302 patients who had undergone arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift for the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. The prevalence of patient and injury-related risk factors for recurrence was assessed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the predicted probability of recurrence within two years. The chief outcome measures were the risk of recurrence and the two-year functional outcomes assessed with the Western Ontario shoulder instability index (WOSI) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores. The rate of recurrent glenohumeral instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift was 13.2%. The median time to recurrence was twelve months, and this complication developed within one year in 55% of these patients. The risk of recurrence was independently predicted by the patient's age at surgery, the severity of glenoid bone loss, and the presence of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion (all p < 0.001). These variables were incorporated into a model to provide an estimate of the risk of recurrence after surgery. Varying the cutoff level for the predicted probability of recurrence in the model from 50% to lower values increased the sensitivity of the model to detect recurrences but decreased the positive predictive value of the model to correctly predict failed repairs. There was a significant improvement in the mean WOSI and DASH scores at two years postoperatively (both p < 0.001), but the mean scores in the group with recurrence were significantly lower than those in the group
Alemán Navas, R M; Martínez Mendoza, M G
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation can be classified into four groups (anterior, posterior, lateral, and superior) depending on the direction of displacement and the location of the condylar head. All the groups are rare except for anterior dislocation. 'Inverse' TMJ dislocation is a bilateral anterior and superior dislocation with impaction of the mandible over the maxilla; to the authors' knowledge only two cases have previously been reported in the literature. Inverse TMJ dislocation has unique clinical and radiographic findings, which are described for this case. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jiménez, Juan Matus; Guerrero, José Suárez; León, Raúl Torres
The sternoclavicle joint takes part in stability and normal rotation of clavicle in shoulder movement. Its injury infrequent and the luxation in children is more rare. It is classified in previous and retrosternal. The most common causes are by sport trauma and car accidents. In children differential diagnosis includes proximal epiphyseal displacement of clavicle. The clinical picture is pain, sternum or thorax deformity and limitation in range of motion of the arm. The treatment is conservative or surgical, and indications to surgical treatment are pain when moving, range of motion limitation or concomitant complications. In the surgical treatment, the reduction of the clavicle is made with a percutaneous clamp and then protecting the position with a bandage in "eight". Other options are open reduction of the clavicle and subclavian plasty, reduction open and to make plastias with grafts of subclavio,fascia latae or proximal third clavicle resection and cerclage with wire. We present a clinical case and surgical treatment with a novel surgical technique.
Urch, Ekaterina; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M
Historically, reverse shoulder arthroplasty was reserved for older, low-demand patients in whom rotator cuff arthropathy was diagnosed. Other common indications included sequelae of previously treated proximal humerus fractures, failed anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty, tumor resection, and rheumatoid arthritis in the elderly population. Unpredictable implant durability and high complication rates have limited the use of reverse shoulder arthroplasty to a narrow group of patients. Over the past decade, however, research has led to an improved understanding of the biomechanics behind reverse shoulder prostheses, which has improved implant design and surgical techniques. Consequently, orthopaedic surgeons have slowly begun to expand the indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty to include a wider spectrum of shoulder pathologies. Recent studies have shown promising results for patients who undergo reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of acute proximal humerus fractures, massive rotator cuff tears without arthropathy, primary osteoarthritis, and chronic anterior dislocation, as well as for younger patients who have rheumatoid arthritis. These data suggest that, with judicious patient selection, reverse shoulder arthroplasty can be an excellent treatment option for a growing patient cohort.
Schmid, Samuel L; Farshad, Mazda; Catanzaro, Sabrina; Gerber, Christian
Recurrence of anterior shoulder instability after operative repair is an uncommon but disabling condition for which treatment options have been insufficiently studied. Coracoid transfer as described by Latarjet is a highly successful primary operation for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that this procedure is also effective for treating recurrent glenohumeral instability after previous operative repair. Forty-nine consecutive patients with either one (n = 32), two (n = 12), or at least three (n = 5) previous stabilizations other than a Latarjet procedure and recurrence of anterior glenohumeral instability associated with a lesion of the anterior aspect of the glenoid rim had revision with a coracoid transfer as described by Latarjet. Clinical outcomes at a mean of thirty-eight months postoperatively included the subjective shoulder value, the Constant-Murley score, and glenohumeral stability. Standardized anteroposterior and axial radiographs before and after the Latarjet revision were used to grade the degree of glenohumeral osteoarthritis. The results in all forty-nine patients were reviewed. No shoulder redislocated, subluxations recurred in two patients, and five patients reported slight, unspecified shoulder symptoms. No revision surgery was needed. Forty-three shoulders (88%) were subjectively graded as excellent or good; three, fair; and three, poor. Dissatisfaction was associated with persistent pain, and patients with preoperative pain had a twentyfold higher probability of having postoperative pain. The mean subjective shoulder value increased from 53% preoperatively to 79% at the time of follow-up (p < 0.001), and the Constant-Murley score remained high (80% preoperatively and 85% at the time of follow-up; p = 0.061). Optimal graft placement was obtained in thirty cases and was related to better clinical outcome and less progression of osteoarthritis than was suboptimal graft placement
Papalia, R.; Tecame, A.; Torre, G.; Narbona, P.; Maffulli, N.; Denaro, V.
Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and mechanisms of lesion, risk factors and return to sport were extracted and analyzed. The main reported data were incidence, mechanism of injury and type of lesion. Most of the studies report tackle as the main event responsible for shoulder trauma (between 50% and 85%), while the main lesions reported were Bankart lesions, Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP tears), anterior dislocation and rotator cuff tears. Open or arthroscopic repair improve clinical outcomes. Shoulder lesions are common injuries in rugby players. Surgical treatment seems to be effective in for rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability. More and better designed studies are needed for a higher Level of Evidence analysis of this topic. PMID:26535182
Papalia, R; Tecame, A; Torre, G; Narbona, P; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V
Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and mechanisms of lesion, risk factors and return to sport were extracted and analyzed. The main reported data were incidence, mechanism of injury and type of lesion. Most of the studies report tackle as the main event responsible for shoulder trauma (between 50% and 85%), while the main lesions reported were Bankart lesions, Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP tears), anterior dislocation and rotator cuff tears. Open or arthroscopic repair improve clinical outcomes. Shoulder lesions are common injuries in rugby players. Surgical treatment seems to be effective in for rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability. More and better designed studies are needed for a higher Level of Evidence analysis of this topic.
Sbordone, L; Barone, A; Ramaglia, L
The authors discuss the outcomes of therapy for CMDs and present a clinical case reporting an alternative method for the treatment of disc displacement. The orthopaedic therapy for CMDs is based on the use of interocclusal splints. Two kind of splints are prescribed to patients with CMDs: stabilization or repositioning splint. The former is used for a conservative treatment, the latter for irreversible treatment. In view of the poor long-term success of repositioning therapy, the cost of subsequent dental treatment, and the great potential for iatrogenic occlusal and muscular problems, the authors believe that the initial treatment approaches should be, in any case, conservative, reversible, and non invasive. The authors prescribe to their patients the repositioning splint for use either part-time or full time use. Part-time use is effective for preventing disc displacement without reduction. If used full time, once joint noises, pain, and displacement are decreased, the appliance should be adjusted to/or replaced with a stabilization appliance to allow posterior positioning of the mandible into a more physiologically stable position. The authors present a clinical case, a 27 yo female with disc displacement with reduction was treated with stabilization splint. After 6 weeks of therapy she returned reporting a temporary closed lock and sharp pain in the left TMJ. An anterior repositioning splint was fabricated in order to position the mandible forward. After 10 weeks of this treatment the patient reported absence of joint/muscle symptoms and of joint noise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Liu, Baoge; Zhu, Di; Yang, Jiang; Zhang, Yao; VanHoof, Tom; Okito, Jean-Pirre Kalala
To investigate the upper-extremity abduction, and lifting limitations and associated factors after anterior cervical decompression and fusion. A total of 117 patients who underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylosis were assessed retrospectively. Their upper-extremity abduction and lifting capacity after operation and manual muscle test grade for deltoid muscle strength and its sensory status were recorded. In addition, spinal cord function (Japanese Orthopaedic Association and Neck Disability Index scores) and C4-5 intervertebral height (radiographs) were assessed. Finally, high signal and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament were observed by T2 magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, respectively. Seven individuals had a decrease in muscle strength, with 2 patients also exhibiting sensory defect. Six individuals had bilateral weakness of deltoid and biceps brachii and 1 of unilateral. After 8-16 months of follow-up, the abduction function and lift capacity were restored. The manual muscle test grade recovered to 5 and 4 degrees, respectively, in 6 and 1 patients. Two patients remained with sensory defect. The mean recovery time 19.7 days on average, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores significantly improved. Among the 117 patients, less than 2-level decompression showed upper-extremity function limitations in 1 of 67 (1.5%), whereas more than a 3-level decompression resulted in greater rate in 6 of 50 (12%), a significant difference (P < 0.05). No significant difference was obtained in C4-5 intervertebral heights, as well as for rates of C3-5 high signal area in magnetic resonance imaging. The rate of upper-extremity abduction and lifting limitation after anterior cervical decompression and fusion is low, indicating a good prognosis after active treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Approximately 85% of vaginal deliveries are accompanied by perineal trauma. The objective of this trial is to compare the incidence and degree of perineal trauma after primary delivery of the anterior compared with the posterior shoulder during vaginal birth. The hypothesis is that primary delivery of the posterior shoulder reduces the rate and degree of perineal trauma. Methods/design This is a single-centre, randomized controlled trial, with computer-generated randomization in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Women planning their first vaginal delivery (n = 650) are randomized to primary delivery of either the anterior or posterior shoulder. The primary outcome is any perineal trauma. Additional outcomes are the perineal injury subtypes, postpartum bleeding, umbilical artery pH, Apgar score at 5 minutes and any neonatal birth trauma. Perineal trauma is assessed by a midwife or doctor blinded to the method of shoulder delivery. All midwives are trained in the two methods of shoulder delivery and in the grading of perineal tears. The trial is being undertaken at a Danish community hospital with 1,600 yearly deliveries. Data will be analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Recruitment started in January 2013 and the trial is planned to proceed for 24 months. Discussion Most delivery assistance techniques are based on tradition and heritage and lack objective evidence. This trial provides an example of how vaginal delivery techniques can be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. The results of this trial will clarify the role that delivery of the shoulders has on perineal trauma and thereby provide knowledge to recommendations on birthing technique. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01937546. PMID:25047001
Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Checchia, Caio Santos; Checchia, Sergio Luiz; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; do Val Sella, Guilherme
Description of a new surgical technique for treating the shoulders of patients with sequelae of obstetric paralysis. Preliminary analysis on the results obtained from this technique. Five consecutive patients underwent the proposed surgical procedure, consisting of arthroscopic anterior joint release followed by transfer of the latissimus dorsi tendon (elongated and reinforced with a homologous tendon graft) to the posterosuperior portion of the greater tubercle, using a single deltopectoral approach. All the patients were reevaluated after a minimum postoperative period of twelve months. The functional assessment was based on the range of motion and the modified Mallet classification system. Statistical analyses were not possible because of the small sample. Overall, passive and active lateral rotations increased, while medial rotation decreased. The other movements (elevation, capacity to place a hand in the mouth and capacity to place a hand behind the neck) had less consistent evolution. The mean modified Mallet score improved by 4.2 points (from 11.4 to 15.6). The latissimus dorsi tendon can be transferred to the posterosuperior portion of the greater tubercle through a single deltopectoral approach when elongated and reinforced with a homologous tendinous graft.
Popp, Dominik; Schöffl, Volker
Surgical treatment of superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) lesion becomes more and more frequent which is the consequence of evolving progress in both, imaging and surgical technique as well as implants. The first classification of SLAP lesions was described in 1990, a subdivision in four types existed. The rising comprehension of pathology and pathophysiology in SLAP lesions contributed to increase the types in SLAP classification to ten. Concerning the causative mechanism of SLAP lesions, acute trauma has to be differed from chronic degeneration. Overhead athletes tend to develop a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit which forms the basis for two controversial discussed potential mechanisms of pathophysiology in SLAP lesions: Internal impingement and peel-back mechanism. Clinical examination often remains unspecific whereas soft tissue imaging such as direct or indirect magnetic resonance arthrography has technically improved and is regarded to be indispensable in detection of SLAP lesions. Concomitant pathologies as Bankart lesions, rotator cuff tears or perilabral cysts should be taken into consideration when planning a personalized therapeutic strategy. In addition, normal variants such as sublabral recess, sublabral hole, Buford complex and other less common variants have to be distinguished. The most frequent SLAP type II needs a sophisticated approach when surgical teatment comes into consideration. While SLAP repair is considered to be the standard operative option, overhead athletes benefit from a biceps tenodesis because improved patient-reported satisfaction and higher rate of return to pre-injury level of sports has been reported. PMID:26495243
Oberkircher, Ludwig; Born, Sebastian; Struewer, Johannes; Bliemel, Christopher; Buecking, Benjamin; Wack, Christina; Bergmann, Martin; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Krüger, Antonio
Injuries of the subaxial cervical spine including facet joints and posterior ligaments are common. Potential surgical treatments consist of anterior, posterior, or anterior-posterior fixation. Because each approach has its advantages and disadvantages, the best treatment is debated. This biomechanical cadaver study compared the effect of different facet joint injuries on primary stability following anterior plate fixation. Fractures and plate fixation were performed on 15 fresh-frozen intact cervical spines (C3-T1). To simulate a translation-rotation injury in all groups, complete ligament rupture and facet dislocation were simulated by dissecting the entire posterior and anterior ligament complex between C-4 and C-5. In the first group, the facet joints were left intact. In the second group, one facet joint between C-4 and C-5 was removed and the other side was left intact. In the third group, both facet joints between C-4 and C-5 were removed. The authors next performed single-level anterior discectomy and interbody grafting using bone material from the respective thoracic vertebral bodies. An anterior cervical locking plate was used for fixation. Continuous loading was performed using a servohydraulic test bench at 2 N/sec. The mean load failure was measured when the implant failed. In the group in which both facet joints were intact, the mean load failure was 174.6 ± 46.93 N. The mean load failure in the second group where only one facet joint was removed was 127.8 ± 22.83 N. In the group in which both facet joints were removed, the mean load failure was 73.42 ± 32.51 N. There was a significant difference between the first group (both facet joints intact) and the third group (both facet joints removed) (p < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). In this cadaver study, primary stability of anterior plate fixation for dislocation injuries of the subaxial cervical spine was dependent on the presence of the facet joints. If the bone in one or both facet joints is damaged
Pouliart, Nicole; Marmor, Simon; Gagey, Olivier
Although an anteroinferior capsulolabral detachment (typical Bankart lesion) has been evaluated in other experimental studies, it has not yet been tested with an apprehension test in an intact shoulder model. Adjacent combinations of 4 zones of the capsuloligamentous complex were sequentially detached from the glenoid neck in 50 cadaveric shoulders. Stability was tested before and after each resection step: inferior stability with a sulcus test and anterior stability with an anterior drawer test and with a load-and-shift test in the apprehension position. A metastable anteroinferior dislocation occurred in 18 specimens after section of 3 zones and in 14 only after section of 4 zones. A locked dislocation occurred after section of all 4 zones in 33 specimens and in the other 17 shoulders only after the posterior capsule was also cut. The humeral head cannot dislocate anteroinferiorly when there only is a Bankart lesion. In our study superior and posterior extension was necessary before the tensioning mechanism in external rotation and abduction failed enough for dislocation to occur. Because the Bankart lesion is most likely not the only lesion present in patients with recurrent dislocation, a careful search for other lesions needs to be done when one is attempting surgical treatment. These lesions would need to be treated as well if one wants to avoid the risk of residual instability.
Moroder, Philipp; Odorizzi, Marco; Pizzinini, Severino; Demetz, Ernst; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Peter
Neglected osseous glenoid defects are thought to be one of the reasons for the reported high rates of recurrent instability at long-term follow-up after Bankart repair. We hypothesized that open Bankart repair for the treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability in the absence of a substantial osseous glenoid defect would result in a lower long-term recurrence rate than has been reported in previous long-term studies. Forty-seven patients were treated with a primary modified open Bankart repair for recurrent anterior shoulder instability between 1989 and 1994. Double-contrast computed tomography scanning was used to exclude patients with a substantial osseous glenoid defect. Forty patients (85.1%) were available for subjective and objective follow-up at a minimum of twenty years (maximum, twenty-five years). Twenty-six patients (65%) underwent clinical examination as well as bilateral shoulder radiography, and fourteen (35%) completed a self-assessment questionnaire and were interviewed by telephone. Seven patients (17.5%) had a recurrence of instability, and six of them had the instability occur after more than eight years without symptoms. The mean Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index score (and standard deviation) was 256.7 ± 284.8 points; the mean Rowe score, 88.7 ± 12.0 points; and the mean Subjective Shoulder Value, 90.1% ± 10.5%.The mean range of motion of the affected shoulder was decreased by 4° of abduction (p = 0.009), two levels of internal rotation (p = 0.003), 5° of internal rotation in 90° of abduction (p = 0.005), 7° of external rotation in neutral position (p < 0.001), and 7° of external rotation in 90° of abduction (p = 0.004) compared with the contralateral side. The collective instability arthropathy (CIA) index was 0.92 for the affected side and 0.35 for the contralateral side. Open Bankart repair provides good results twenty years after surgery in terms of subjective and objective outcome measurements. However, the long
Stafford, Harry; Boggess, Blake; Toth, Alison; Berkoff, David
Subtalar dislocation is the simultaneous dislocation of the talocalcaneal and talonavicular joints of the foot, typically caused by falls from heights, twisting leg injuries and motor vehicle accidents. The dislocation can occur medially, lateral, anterior or posterior, but most commonly occurs from inversion injury producing a medial dislocation. These dislocations may be accompanied by fractures. Careful physical examination must be performed to assess for neurovascular compromise. Most subtalar dislocations can be treated with closed reduction under sedation. However, if the dislocation is associated with an open fracture it may require reduction in the operating room. Treatment should include postreduction plain x-ray and CT scan to evaluate for proper alignment and for fractures. This article presents a case of medial subtalar dislocation in a 23-year-old football player.
Sandrey, Michelle A
Calvert E, Chambers GK, Regan W, Hawkins RH, Leith JM. Special physical examination tests for superior labrum anterior-posterior shoulder injuries are clinically limited and invalid: a diagnostic systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(5):558-563. The systematic review focused on diagnostic accuracy studies to determine if evidence was sufficient to support the use of superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) physical examination tests as valid and reliable. The primary question was whether there was sufficient evidence in the published literature to support the use of SLAP physical examination tests as valid and reliable diagnostic test procedures. Studies published in English were identified through database searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database (1970-2004) using the search term SLAP lesions. The medical subject headings of arthroscopy, shoulder joint, and athletic injuries were combined with test or testing, physical examination, and sensitivity and specificity to locate additional sources. Other sources were identified by rereviewing the reference lists of included studies and review articles. Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) focused on the physical examination of SLAP lesions, and (3) presented original data. A study was excluded if the article was limited to a clinical description of 1 or more special tests without any research focus to provide clinical accuracy data or if it did not focus on the topic. The abstracts that were located through the search strategies were reviewed, and potentially relevant abstracts were selected. Strict epidemiologic methods were used to obtain and collate all relevant studies; the authors developed a study questionnaire to record study name, year of publication, study design, sample size, and statistics. Validity of the diagnostic test study was determined by applying the 5 criteria proposed by Calvert et al. If the study met the inclusion and validity
Sandrey, Michelle A.
Reference/Citation: Calvert E, Chambers GK, Regan W, Hawkins RH, Leith JM. Special physical examination tests for superior labrum anterior-posterior shoulder injuries are clinically limited and invalid: a diagnostic systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(5):558–563. Clinical Question: The systematic review focused on diagnostic accuracy studies to determine if evidence was sufficient to support the use of superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) physical examination tests as valid and reliable. The primary question was whether there was sufficient evidence in the published literature to support the use of SLAP physical examination tests as valid and reliable diagnostic test procedures. Data Sources: Studies published in English were identified through database searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database (1970–2004) using the search term SLAP lesions. The medical subject headings of arthroscopy, shoulder joint, and athletic injuries were combined with test or testing, physical examination, and sensitivity and specificity to locate additional sources. Other sources were identified by rereviewing the reference lists of included studies and review articles. Study Selection: Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) focused on the physical examination of SLAP lesions, and (3) presented original data. A study was excluded if the article was limited to a clinical description of 1 or more special tests without any research focus to provide clinical accuracy data or if it did not focus on the topic. Data Extraction: The abstracts that were located through the search strategies were reviewed, and potentially relevant abstracts were selected. Strict epidemiologic methods were used to obtain and collate all relevant studies; the authors developed a study questionnaire to record study name, year of publication, study design, sample size, and statistics. Validity of the diagnostic test study was determined by
Ingram, David; Engelhardt, Christoph; Farron, Alain; Terrier, Alexandre; Müllhaupt, Philippe
Modelling the shoulder's musculature is challenging given its mechanical and geometric complexity. The use of the ideal fibre model to represent a muscle's line of action cannot always faithfully represent the mechanical effect of each muscle, leading to considerable differences between model-estimated and in vivo measured muscle activity. While the musculo-tendon force coordination problem has been extensively analysed in terms of the cost function, only few works have investigated the existence and sensitivity of solutions to fibre topology. The goal of this paper is to present an analysis of the solution set using the concepts of torque-feasible space (TFS) and wrench-feasible space (WFS) from cable-driven robotics. A shoulder model is presented and a simple musculo-tendon force coordination problem is defined. The ideal fibre model for representing muscles is reviewed and the TFS and WFS are defined, leading to the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution. The shoulder model's TFS is analysed to explain the lack of anterior deltoid (DLTa) activity. Based on the analysis, a modification of the model's muscle fibre geometry is proposed. The performance with and without the modification is assessed by solving the musculo-tendon force coordination problem for quasi-static abduction in the scapular plane. After the proposed modification, the DLTa reaches 20% of activation.
Storey, Phil; Macinnes, Scott J; Ali, Amjid; Potter, David
Background The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the results of the Sheffield bone block procedure for anteroinferior bone loss in traumatic shoulder instability. In this modified open technique, the medial half of coracoid process without its soft tissue attachments is used to provide congruent augmentation of the anteroinferior glenoid and secured with two screws. Methods In this retrospective consecutive case series (2007–11), all patients having recurrent traumatic instability with glenoid bone loss > 20% and/or a large Hill–Sachs lesion were included. The shoulder function was evaluated clinically and by Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS; by post/telephone). Results There were 84 patients in this series with a large proportion engaged in contact sports. Mean (range) age was 33 years (16 years to 45 years); male : female, 59 : 8; mean (range) follow-up period was 48 months (36 months to 84 months) and the response rate 89% (75/84). Mean postoperative OSIS was 43 (33 to 46) and one patient had re-dislocation (1.3%). No neurovascular complications/hardware failure/non-union/infections were noted. By 6 months, 85% patients had returned to pre-injury sport and 93% had returned to pre-injury work. Conclusions The Sheffield bone block procedure provides reliable and satisfactory results in patients having recurrent instability with glenoid bone loss and/or a large Hill–Sachs lesion with minimal complications and an excellent chance of returning to original sport and occupation. PMID:27583007
Arthroscopic Bankart repair associated with subscapularis augmentation (ASA) versus open Latarjet to treat recurrent anterior shoulder instability with moderate glenoid bone loss: clinical comparison of two series.
Russo, R; Della Rotonda, G; Cautiero, F; Ciccarelli, M; Maiotti, M; Massoni, C; Di Pietto, F; Zappia, M
The treatment of chronic anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss is still debated. The purpose of this study is to compare short-term results of two techniques treating chronic shoulder instability with moderate glenoid bone loss: bone block according to open Latarjet-Patte procedure and arthroscopic Bankart repair in association with subscapularis augmentation. Ninety-one patients with moderate anterior glenoid bone loss underwent from 2011 to 2015. From these patients, two groups of 20 individuals each have been selected. The groups were homogeneous in terms of age, gender, dominance and glenoid bone loss. In group A, an open Latarjet procedure has been performed, and in group B, an arthroscopic Bankart repair associated with subscapularis augmentation has been performed. The mean follow-up in group A was 21 months (20-39 months), while in group B was 20 months (15-36 months). QuickDash score, Constant and Rowe shoulder scores, were used for evaluations of results. The mean preoperative rate of QuickDash score was 3.6 for group A and 4.0 for group B; Rowe Score was 50.0 for group A and 50.0 for group B. Preoperative mean Constant score was 56.2 for Latarjet-Patte and 55.2 for Bankart plus ASA. Postoperative mean QuickDash score was in group A 1.8 and 1.7 in group B; Rowe Score was 89.8 and 91.6; Constant Score was 93.3 and 93.8. No complications related to surgery have been observed for both procedures. Not statistically significant difference was reported between the two groups (p > .05). Postoperatively, the mean deficit of external rotation in ER1 was -9° in group A and -8 in group B; In ER2, the mean deficit was -5° in both groups (p = .0942). Arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation of Bankart repair is an effective procedure for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss without any significant difference in comparison with the well-known open Latarjet procedure.
Biomechanical analysis of anterior bone graft augmentation with reversed shoulder arthroplasty in large combined glenoid defects compared with total bony joint line reconstruction (modified bony-increased-offset reversed shoulder arthroplasty).
Königshausen, Matthias; Sverdlova, Nina; Mersmann, Corinna; Ehlert, Christoph; Jettkant, Birger; Dermietzel, Rolf; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik
The aim of this biomechanical study was to compare 2 surgical techniques for the reconstruction of large, combined, uncontained glenoid defects with reversed shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Three groups of scapulae with RSA were tested by the application of a physiological combination of compressive/shear loads in Sawbones (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon Island, WA, USA) and cadavers. Two of the groups (both Sawbones and cadaveric specimens) consisted of anterior combined defects (14 mm in depth), and the third group served as a control group (only Sawbones specimens). The first group with an anterior combined defect was reconstructed with anterior bone grafts to contain the defect and cancellous bone to fill the central defect before RSA with partial bony joint line reconstruction (p-BJR). In the second group with an anterior combined defect, the dorsal rim was reamed and the joint line was reconstructed with a bone disc fully covering the peg. This total BJR (t-BJR) corresponds to the technique of bony-increased-offset-RSA (BIO-RSA). At 150 µm of displacement, the loadings in the inferior-superior (IS) direction were significantly more stable than those in the anterior-to-posterior (AP) direction within both reconstructed defect groups (P ≤ .002). In contrast, no significant differences were found between the partial BJR and t-BJR group in either direction (Sawbones: AP: P = .29; IS: P = .44; cadavers: AP: P = .67; IS: P = .99). The control group revealed significantly higher values in all loadings of the IS direction and significantly higher loadings at 40 µm and 150 µm in the AP direction. Both techniques could be applied for such complex defects provided that there is sufficient medial bone stock for a t-BJR. Significantly greater stability was found in the IS direction than in the AP direction within each group, which could be explained by the longer screw anchoring within the superior and inferior columns. Both
Lai, Davy; Ma, Hsiao-Li; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Wu, Jiunn-Jer
This retrospective study was to demonstrate the clinical outcome of open Bankart repair with suture anchors for recurrent anterior shoulder instability, and to compare surgical results of small (<3 clock units) and large (>3 clock units) Bankart lesions. With an average follow-up of 55.6 months (2-8 years), there were 82 patients (60 right, 22 left shoulders) with the mean age of 27 years accepting open Bankart repair with suture anchors and capsular shift procedure by the same team. According to surgical findings, these patients were grouped into small (<3 clock units) and large (>3 clock units) Bankart lesions. Subjective outcomes were recorded according to the Bankart scoring system of Rowe. Rowe scores averaged 85.9+/-12.9 (range 25-100). The patients, 92-7 %, had objectively excellent or good results. Twenty nine patients (35.4%) had small Bankart lesions and 53 patients had large Bankart lesions. The Rowe scores in small Bankart lesions were better than that in large Bankart lesions (93.5+/-6.8 vs. 81.8+/-13.6, Wilcoxon rank sum test, P<0.001). Mean scores of stability (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P=0.043), motion (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P=0.037), and function (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P<0.001) in small lesions also had superior outcomes than in large lesions. Four patients (4.9%) got fair results and two (2.4%) patients got poor results at the end of follow-up. The average loss of external rotation is 10 degrees . Open Bankart repair with the aid of suture anchors still got satisfactory results in the treatment of traumatic recurrent anterior instability of the shoulder. The size of the Bankart lesion was a factor affecting surgical outcome. Small Bankart lesions usually got better results than large Bankart lesions.
Vadillo-Carstensen, L; Luna-Pizarro, D; Cruz-Alvarez, D; Hernández-Cuevas, V
The injury of the cruciate ligaments secondary to knee dislocation is caused by high energy trauma; its incidence rate is less than 0.02%; there are multiple treatments, with surgery being the most common one. To determine the functional characteristics of patients who underwent cruciate ligament plasty and sustained knee dislocation. An observational, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted including all adult patients with a diagnosis of cruciate ligament injury resulting from knee dislocation who were surgically treated from January 2006 to December 2007. Two knee functional assessment scales were used. A total of 16 patients were included, 12 males and 4 females; mean age was 32.1 years. The Knee Society Clinical Rating Scale had a positive correlation with the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale (r = 0.836) with p = 0.001. The functional results of patients treated surgically are diverse. This study was not conducted as a controlled clinical trial due to the absence of randomization, which was not possible due to the infrequency of the condition. It will be necessary to confirm the results after a longer follow-up and in a comparative, double-blind study of patients undergoing surgery.
Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J.; Tirefort, Jérôme; Kolo, Frank C.; Chagué, Sylvain; Cunningham, Grégory; Charbonnier, Caecilia
Abstract Despite the fact that surgery is commonly used to treat glenohumeral instability, there is no evidence that such treatment effectively corrects glenohumeral translation. The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to analyze the effect of surgical stabilization on glenohumeral translation. Glenohumeral translation was assessed in 11 patients preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively following surgical stabilization for anterior shoulder instability. Translation was measured using optical motion capture and computed tomography. Preoperatively, anterior translation of the affected shoulder was bigger in comparison to the normal contralateral side. Differences were significant for flexion and abduction movements (P < 0.001). Postoperatively, no patients demonstrated apprehension and all functional scores were improved. Despite absence of apprehension, postoperative anterior translation for the surgically stabilized shoulders was not significantly different from the preoperative values. While surgical treatment for anterior instability limits the chance of dislocation, it does not seem to restore glenohumeral translation during functional range of motion. Such persistent microinstability may explain residual pain, apprehension, inability to return to activity and even emergence of dislocation arthropathy that is seen in some patients. Further research is necessary to better understand the causes, effects, and treatment of residual microinstability following surgical stabilization of the shoulder. PMID:27495043
Background There have been increasing numbers of publications in recent years on minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for total hip arthroplasty (THA), reporting results with the use of different head sizes, tribologic and functional outcomes. This study presents the results and early complication rates after THA using the direct anterior approach (DAA) in combination with head sizes ≥ 36 mm. Methods A total of 113 patients with THA were included in the study. The Harris Hip Score (HHS) was determined, a radiographic evaluation was carried out, and complications were recorded. The minimum follow-up period was 2 years (means 35 ± 7 months). Results The HHS improved from 43.6 (± 12) to 88.2 (± 14; P < 0.01). One early infection occurred, one periprosthetic fracture, and three cases of aseptic stem loosening. No incorrect positioning of the implants was observed, and there were no dislocations. Conclusion THA with the minimally invasive DAA in combination with large heads is associated with good to very good functional results in the majority of cases. The complication rates are not increased. The rate of dislocation mainly as an complication of the first two years can be markedly reduced in particular. PMID:24621189
Bhatia, Deepak N
The arthroscopic remplissage procedure is an effective addition to a standard anterior repair in traumatic anterior shoulder instability associated with large humeral defects. The double-barrel remplissage is an all-intra-articular technique that uses a double-pulley, sliding, and self-retaining knot mechanism called the double-barrel knot. A 70° arthroscope (posterior portal) is necessary for adequate visualization of the humeral defect and the rotator cuff. Trans-tendon anchors (single or double loaded) are inserted into the superior and inferior aspects of the humeral defect through a cannula that is placed posterior to the infraspinatus. Placement of anchors is facilitated by insertion of a guidewire, as well as an anchor sleeve that is threaded over it. The double-barrel knot is formed using the anchors as a double-pulley system, and the knot is tensioned after the anterior repair is complete. Intra-articular visualization confirms adequate approximation and compression of the infraspinatus tendon and capsule into the defect. Advantages include an increased surface area (footprint) for healing and ease of knotting without the necessity for additional subacromial dissection.
Gil-Albarova, J; Rebollo-González, S; Gómez-Palacio, V E; Herrera, A
The records of 4 children of under 14 years of age treated at our institution for traumatic sternoclavicular dislocation (SCJ) were reviewed. Closed reduction in posterior SCJ after computed tomography (CT) was successful as immediate procedure. For anterior SCJ instability, open reduction and SCJ reconstruction obtained satisfactory results. Conservative treatment of SCJ subluxation for asymptomatic children was sufficient. Radiographs in "serendipity view" were useful for confirming reduction and stability in children. No postoperative CT was needed for this purpose. Closed reduction in posterior SCJ dislocation and surgical treatment in anterior SCJ dislocation in young children can provide stability and a satisfactory return to a normal function, but with some limitation when intense or competitive shoulder motion is required during sport. Young children and parents should be aware about this possibility. Conservative treatment of SCJ subluxation for asymptomatic children is useful. Reflection is required regarding the correct imaging examination after treatment to check stable reduction in a SCJ injury.
In midwifery textbooks not much has been written about the management of shoulder dystocia, although it sometimes occurs, and midwives conducting the delivery have to know how to manage it. Should dystocia occurs when the shoulders are stuck in the antero-posterior diameter of the outlet. Sometimes the shoulders fail to rotate into the antero-posterior diameter; in this situation the shoulders are in the oblique diameter of the outlet. This usually happens when the baby is big, weighing more than 4 kilograms. In such cases, the head is big, and it is difficult to deliver the face and the chin. The woman should be in lithotomy position, with the buttocks slightly beyond the end of the bed. The baby's air passages should be sucked of mucus and liquid, so that respiration is initiated. A wide episiotomy should be performed to enlarge the outlet. If the shoulders are in the oblique diameter of the outlet, the midwife should correct the position by hooking a finger into the anterior axilla and rotate the shoulders forward to the antero-posterior diameter of the outlet, before attempting to deliver the shoulders. The next step is the delivery of the posterior shoulder. The midwife puts a finger into the axilla of the posterior shoulder, and by gentle traction downwards, the posterior shoulder is freed. After this, the anterior shoulder is delivered the normal way. This can be aided by applying pressure on the anterior shoulder above the pubic. If the above management fails, then the assistance of the obstetrician must be sought. It is important to recognize large babies before birth in order to initiate appropriate measures before the woman goes into labor. During delivery, the shoulders must be rotated into the antero-posterior diameter of the outlet before attempting to deliver them.
Pandya, Nirav K; Colton, Anne; Webner, David; Sennett, Brian; Huffman, G Russell
The overall purpose of our study was to examine the sensitivity of physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance (MR) arthrogram for the identification of arthroscopically confirmed SLAP lesions of the shoulder. An analysis of 51 consecutive patients with arthroscopically confirmed SLAP lesions and no history of shoulder dislocation was performed. Before undergoing surgery, all patients underwent a standardized physical examination and had either an MRI and/or MR arthrogram performed. Sensitivity analysis was then performed on the results of both the physical examination maneuvers and the radiologic imaging compared to the arthroscopic findings at surgery. The sensitivity of O'Brien's (active compression) test was 90%, whereas the Mayo (dynamic) shear was 80% and Jobe's relocation test was 76%. The sensitivity of a physical examination with any 1 of these 3 SLAP provocative tests being positive was 100%. Neer's sign (41%) and Hawkin's impingement tests (31%) each had low sensitivity for SLAP lesions. The sensitivity of MRI for SLAP lesions was 67% when interpreted by the performing surgeon, 53% when read by a radiologist. When the MR arthrograms were analyzed alone, the sensitivity was 72% (surgeon) and 50% (radiologist), respectively. All 3 physical examination maneuvers traditionally considered provocative for SLAP pathology (O'Brien's, Mayo shear, and Jobe's relocation) were sensitive for the diagnosis of SLAP lesions. MRI and MR arthrogram imaging had lower sensitivity than these physical examination tests in diagnosing SLAP lesions. Patient history, demographics, and the surgeon's physical examination should remain central to the diagnosis of SLAP lesions. Level II, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients with universally applied gold standard.
Lebus, George F.; Raynor, Martin B.; Nwosu, Samuel K.; Wagstrom, Emily; Jani, Sunil S.; Carey, James L.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.; Cox, Charles L.; Kuhn, John E.
Background: Shoulder instability is a common cause of pain and dysfunction in young, active patients. While studies have analyzed risk factors for recurrent instability and failure after instability surgery, few have examined which variables are associated with initial surgery in this patient population. Purpose: To identify variables that may be associated with surgical intervention in patients with shoulder instability in the context of the FEDS (frequency, etiology, direction, severity) classification, a system that may be useful in the surgical treatment of shoulder instability patients. Study Design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A database of patients treated for shoulder instability from 3 separate institutions from 2005 to 2010 was generated using International Classification of Diseases–9th Revision data. Data were collected via retrospective review. Injury data were categorized according to the FEDS system. Data were analyzed for significance, with the primary outcome of surgical intervention. Summary statistics were used to assess which variables were associated with eventual surgery. To test the unadjusted bivariate associations between shoulder surgery and each data point, Pearson chi-square tests were used for categorical variables and Wilcoxon tests were used for continuous variables. Results: Over the study time period, 377 patients were treated for shoulder instability. Patients who had surgery were more likely younger, had recurrent instability, and had their initial injury while playing a sport. Most patients had anterior instability; however, there was a greater proportion of posterior instability patients in the operative group. Severity of dislocation, measured by whether the patient required help to relocate the shoulder, was not significantly associated with eventual surgery. While imaging was not available for all patients, surgical patients were more likely to have magnetic resonance imaging findings of
Instability and recurrent dislocation of the shoulder result from injuries affecting the capsule, ligaments or bones. The positive diagnosis rests on careful clinical investigation where a well-oriented questioning plays an essential role. Paraclinical examinations, such as radiography, ultrasonography, CT and MRI, provide a very accurate assessment of the state of relevant structures. Surgical treatment consists of a stabilizing operation which may be Bankart operation (i.e. suture of the detached capsule onto the anterior part of the glenoid labrum), or a Latarget operation (i.e. screwing of a bony buttress) when the anterior part of the glenoid labrum is deformed by a fracture or worn out by frequent passages of the humeral head. When thoughtfully decided and well executed, these operations regularly give excellent results with resumption of previous activities at the same performance level.
Neimkin, Michael G; Reggie, Sara; Holds, John B
A 57-year-old healthy female underwent enucleation for choroidal melanoma with primary implantation of a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate sphere (AlphaSphere, Addition Technology, Des Plaines, IL). Her course was uneventful, with successful prosthetic fitting 6 weeks postoperatively. She returned 2 years later, with anterior displacement of the implant, poor implant movement, and poor prosthetic fit. There was no defect in the conjunctiva, Tenon's layer or evidence of inflammation. Successful orbital implant exchange was performed, replacing the AlphaSphere with an eyebank-scleral wrapped acrylic implant. Intraoperative findings revealed dissolution of the scaffolding aspect of the anterior implant, with loss of extraocular muscle attachments and no fibrovascular ingrowth. This case demonstrates late AlphaSphere failure in an otherwise unremarkable course; further review of similar cases or a larger study is warranted to examine the efficacy of this relatively new implant.
Pouliart, Nicole; Gagey, Olivier
This study investigated whether an anteroinferior capsulolabral lesion is sufficient to allow the humeral head to dislocate and whether a limited inferior approach for creating the lesions influenced the results compared with an all-arthroscopic approach. Four ligamentous zones of the glenohumeral capsule were sequentially detached from the glenoid neck and labrum in 20 cadaver shoulders through an inferior approach. Before and after each resection step, inferior stability was tested using a sulcus test and anterior stability using a drawer test and an apprehension maneuver. Dislocation was only possible when at least 3 zones were cut. This study confirmed that superior and posterior extension of the classic anteroinferior Perthes-Bankart lesion is necessary before the capsular restraint in external rotation and abduction is overcome and dislocation occurs. Lesions other than the Perthes-Bankart need to be investigated when recurrent dislocation is treated, because this anteroinferior injury is most probably not the sole factor responsible for the instability.
Sakuda, Keita; Sanada, Shigeru; Tanaka, Rie; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Hayashi, Norio; Matsuura, Yukihiro
Our purpose in this study was to develop a functional form of radiography and to perform a quantitative analysis for the shoulder joint using a dynamic flat panel detector (FPD) system. We obtained dynamic images at a rate of 3.75 frames per second (fps) using an FPD system. Three patients and 5 healthy controls were studied with a clinically established frontal projection, with abduction of the arms. The arm angle, glenohumeral angle (G-angle), and scapulothoracic angle (S-angle) were measured on dynamic images. The ratio of the G-angle to the S-angle (GSR) was also evaluated quantitatively. In normal subjects, the G-angle and S-angle changed gradually along with the arm angle. The G-angle was approximately twice as large as the S-angle, resulting in a GSR of 2 throughout the abduction of the shoulder. Changes in G-angle and S-angle tended to be irregular in patients with shoulder disorders. The GSR of the thoracic outlet syndrome, recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint, and anterior serratus muscle paralysis were 3-7.5, 4-9.5, and 3.5-7.5, respectively. The GSR of the anterior serratus muscle paralysis improved to approximately 2 after orthopedic treatment. Our preliminary results indicated that functional radiography by FPD and computer-aided quantitative analysis is useful for diagnosis of some shoulder disorders, such as the thoracic outlet syndrome, recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint, and anterior serratus muscle paralysis. The technique and procedures described comprise a simple, functional shoulder radiographic method for evaluation of the therapeutic effects of surgery and/or rehabilitation.
Schröter, S; Krämer, M; Welke, B; Hurschler, C; Russo, R; Herbst, M; Stöckle, U; Ateschrang, A; Maiotti, M
Anterior shoulder dislocation is common. The treatment of recurrence with glenoid bone defect is still considered controversial. A new arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation has recently been described that functions to decrease the anterior translation of the humeral head. The purpose of the presented study was to examine the biomechanical effect on glenohumeral joint motion and stability. Eight fresh frozen cadaver shoulders were studied by use of a force guided industrial robot fitted with a six-component force-moment sensor to which the humerus was attached. The testing protocol includes measurement of glenohumeral translation in the anterior, anterior-inferior and inferior directions at 0°, 30° and 60° of glenohumeral abduction, respectively, with a passive humerus load of 30N in the testing direction. The maximum possible external rotation was measured at each abduction angle applying a moment of 1Nm. Each specimen was measured in a physiologic state, as well as after Bankart lesion with an anterior bone defect of 15-20% of the glenoid, after arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation and after Bankart repair. The arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation decreased the anterior and anterior-inferior translation. The Bankart repair did not restore the mechanical stability compared to the physiologic shoulder group. External rotation was decreased after arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation compared to the physiologic state, however, the limitation of external rotation was decreased at 60° abduction. The arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation investigated herein was observed to restore shoulder stability in an experimental model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kordasiewicz, Bartłomiej; Małachowski, Konrad; Kicinski, Maciej; Chaberek, Sławomir; Pomianowski, Stanisław
The aim of this study was to compare early clinical results after open and arthroscopic Latarjet stabilisation in anterior shoulder instability. Our hypothesis was the results of arthroscopic stabilisation were comparable with the results of open procedure. The clinical results of the patients after primary Latarjet procedure were analysed. Patients operated on between 2006 and 2011 using an open technique composed the OPEN group and patients operated on arthroscopically between 2011 and 2013 composed the ARTHRO group; 48 out of 55 shoulders (87%) in OPEN and 62 out of 64 shoulders (97%) in ARTHRO were available to follow-up. The average age at surgery was 28 years in OPEN and 26 years in ARTHRO. The mean follow-up was 54.2 months in OPEN and 23.4 months in ARTHRO. Intra-operative data were analysed regarding time of surgery, concomitant lesions and complications. Patient results were assessed with Walch-Duplay, Rowe, VAS scores and subjective self-evaluation of satisfaction and shoulder function. Computed tomography scan evaluation was used to assess the graft healing. Average time of surgery was significantly shorter in ARTHRO than OPEN: respectively 110 and 120 minutes. The number of intra-operative complications was six (12.5%) in OPEN and five (8.1%) in ARTHRO. The results were comparable in both groups, with no significant difference between OPEN and ARTHRO group: satisfaction rate - 96.8% and 91.9%, shoulder function - 92.2% and 90%, Walch-Duplay score - 83.9 and 76.7 respecively. A significant difference was reported in Rowe score: 87.8 in OPEN and 78.9 in ARTHRO. Another significant difference was found in the presence of "subjective apprehension"-a term referring to the subjective perception of instability with no signs of instability at clinical examination - 28.7% in OPEN and 50% in ARTHRO. Range of motion in both groups were comparable, however patients in OPEN had significantly lower loss of external rotation in adduction to the side comparing to the
Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Elhassan, Bassem; Diller, David; Massimini, Daniel; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of arthroscopic capsulolabral repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability and to compare the outcome in patients who have Bankart lesions versus those with anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesions. This study included 99 patients (93 shoulders), 72 male and 17 female, with a mean age of 32 years, who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair for traumatic, recurrent anterior shoulder instability, by use of suture anchors. In 67 shoulders (72%) a discrete Bankart lesion was repaired, and in 26 shoulders (28%) an ALPSA lesion was repaired. The 2 groups were analyzed with regard to the number of preoperative dislocations and number of postoperative recurrences. At a mean follow-up of 47 months (range, 24 to 98 months), recurrence of instability was documented in 10 shoulders (10.7%). Of the shoulders, 5 had Bankart lesions (7.4%) and 5 had ALPSA lesions (19.2%) (P = .0501). The mean number of dislocations or subluxations before the index surgery was significantly higher in the ALPSA group (mean, 12.3 [range, 2 to 57]) than in the Bankart group (mean, 4.9 [range, 2 to 24]) (P < .05). However, there were no significant differences in the number of anchors used, incidence of minor glenoid erosion, or incidence of bony Bankart lesions between the groups (P > .05 for all). Patients with ALPSA lesions present with a higher number of recurrent dislocations than those with discrete Bankart lesions. In addition, the failure rate after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair is higher in the ALPSA group than in the Bankart group. Level IV, therapeutic case series.
Senna, Luís Filipe; Pires E Albuquerque, Rodrigo
Obtaining axillary radiographs of the shoulder in acute trauma is not always feasible. The authors present a new modification of this radiographic view, in order to assess the anatomic relationship between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity. The incidence is performed with the patient sitting on X-ray table, with the affected limb supported thereon. The authors describe the case of a 28-year-old male who suffered an anterior glenohumeral dislocation that was clearly evidenced by this modified radiograph. The concentric relationship between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity was also easily confirmed by obtaining such radiograph after the reduction maneuver.
Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Ilka, Shahab; Dashtbani, Hasan; Sahebozamani, Mansour
The glenohumeral joint becomes dislocated more than any other major joint because it maintains a wide range of motion and its stability is inherently weak. The most common complication following acute initial shoulder dislocation is recurrent dislocation or chronic instability. Imbalance of strength and range of motion in individuals with anterior dislocation can be a contributing factor in recurrent dislocation as well. This case-control study consisted of 24 individuals with a mean age of 24.29±4.33 years, and a mean dislocation rate of 5.37±3.62 times. Isometric cuff strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer and for range of motion, the Leighton flexometer was used in internal and external rotational motions of both upper extremities. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. The internal and external range of motion of the injured glenohumeral joint was lower than the uninjured joint (P<0.001). Similarly, the internal and external rotation strength of the injured joint was lower than the uninjured joint (P<0.001). According to previous data, imbalance of strength and range of motion in individuals with anterior shoulder dislocation can be a contributing factor in long-term disability and increased recurrent dislocation and our finding confirm decreased range of motion and strength in our patients. Hence, proper exercise and rehabilitation plans need to be developed for those suffering from this complication.
Separated shoulder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A separated shoulder is an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments ...
Beranger, Jean Sébastien; Klouche, Shahnaz; Bauer, Thomas; Demoures, Thomas; Hardy, Philippe
The aim of this study was to assess return-to-sport outcomes following the Latarjet-Bristow procedure. This retrospective study included all athletes <50 years old, who underwent a Latarjet-Bristow procedure for anterior shoulder instability in 2009-2012. Main criteria assessments were the number of athletes returning to any sport and the number returning to the same sport at their preinjury level. The main follow-up was 46.8 ± 9.7 months. Forty-seven patients were analyzed, 46 men/1 women, mean age 27.9 ± 7.9 years. Eighteen patients practiced competitive sports and 29 recreational sports. None of them were professional athletes. One hundred percent returned to sports after a mean 6.3 ± 4.3 months. Thirty/47 (63.8 %) patients returned to the same sport at the same level at least and 10/47 (21.3 %) patients changed sport because of their shoulder. Compared to patients who returned to the same sport at the same level, patients who changed sports or returned to a lower level had practiced overhead or forced overhead sports [OR = 4.7 (1.3-16.9), p = 0.02] before surgery, experienced avoidance behavior at the final follow-up (p = 0.002), apprehension (p = 0.00001) and had a worse Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index score and sub-items (p = 0.003) except for daily activities (p = 0.21). At the final follow-up, 45/47 (95.7 %) patients were still practicing a sport. All the patients returned to sports, most to their preinjury sport at the same level. Patients who practiced an overhead sport were more likely to play at a lower level or to change sport postoperatively. IV, retrospective study-Case series with no comparison group.
Karataglis, D.; Agathangelidis, F.
Background: Anterior shoulder instability has been successfully managed arthroscopically over the past two decades with refined “anatomic” reconstruction procedures involving the use of anchors for the repositioning and re-tensioning of the antero-inferior capsuloligamentous complex, in an effort to recreate its “bumper effect”. Methods: Research and online content related to arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability was reviewed and their results compared. Results: The short- and mid-term results of this technique have been very satisfactory. The greatest number of recent reports suggests that long-term results (>5 years follow-up) remain rather satisfactory, especially in the absence of significant glenoid bone loss (>20-25%). In these studies recurrent instability, in the form of either dislocation or subluxation, ranges from 5.1 to over 20%, clinical scores, more than 5 years after the index procedure, remain good or excellent in >80% of patient population as do patient satisfaction and return to previous level of activities. As regards arthroscopic non-anatomic bony procedures (Latarjet or Bristow procedures) performed in revision cases or in the presence of >20-25% bone loss of the anteroinferior aspect of the glenoid, recent reports suggest that their long-term results are very satisfactory both in terms of re-dislocation rates and patient satisfaction. Conclusion: It appears that even “lege artis” performance of arthroscopic reconstruction decelerates but does not obliterate the degenerative procedure of dislocation arthropathy. The presence and grade of arthritic changes correlate with the number of dislocations sustained prior to the arthroscopic intervention, the number of anchors used and the age at initial dislocation and surgery. However, the clinical significance of radiologically evident dislocation arthropathy is debatable. PMID:28400881
Degen, Ryan M; Giles, Joshua W; Boons, Harm W; Litchfield, Robert B; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S
The coracoacromial ligament (CAL) is an important restraint to superior shoulder translation. The effect of CAL release on superior stability following the Latarjet is unknown; therefore, our purpose was to compare the effect of two Latarjet techniques and allograft reconstruction on superior instability. Eight cadaveric specimens were tested on a simulator. Superior translation was monitored following an axial force in various glenohumeral rotations (neutral, internal, and external) with and without muscle loading. Three intact CAL states were tested (intact specimen, 30% glenoid bone defect, and allograft reconstruction) and two CAL deficient states (classic Latarjet (classicLAT) and congruent-arc Latarjet (congruentLAT)). In neutral without muscle loading, a significant increase in superior translation occurred with the classicLAT as compared to 30% defect (P = 0.046) and allograft conditions (P = 0.041). With muscle loading, the classicLAT (P = 0.005, 0.002) and the congruentLAT (P = 0.018, 0.021) had significantly greater superior translation compared to intact and allograft, respectively. In internal rotation, only loaded tests produced significant results; specifically, classicLAT increased translation compared to all intact CAL states (P < 0.05). In external rotation, only unloaded tests produced significant results with classicLAT and congruentLAT allowing greater translations than intact (P ≤ 0.028). For all simulations, the allograft was not significantly different than intact (P > 0.05) and no differences (P = 1.0) were found between classicLAT and congruentLAT. In most simulations, CAL release with the Latarjet lead to increased superior humeral translation. The choice of technique for glenoid bone loss reconstruction has implications on the magnitude of superior humeral translation. This previously unknown effect requires further study to determine its clinical and kinematic outcomes.
Degen, Ryan M.; Giles, Joshua W.; Boons, Harm W.; Litchfield, Robert B.; Johnson, James A.; Athwal, George S.
Background: The coracoacromial ligament (CAL) is an important restraint to superior shoulder translation. The effect of CAL release on superior stability following the Latarjet is unknown; therefore, our purpose was to compare the effect of two Latarjet techniques and allograft reconstruction on superior instability. Materials and Methods: Eight cadaveric specimens were tested on a simulator. Superior translation was monitored following an axial force in various glenohumeral rotations (neutral, internal, and external) with and without muscle loading. Three intact CAL states were tested (intact specimen, 30% glenoid bone defect, and allograft reconstruction) and two CAL deficient states (classic Latarjet (classicLAT) and congruent-arc Latarjet (congruentLAT)). Results: In neutral without muscle loading, a significant increase in superior translation occurred with the classicLAT as compared to 30% defect (P = 0.046) and allograft conditions (P = 0.041). With muscle loading, the classicLAT (P = 0.005, 0.002) and the congruentLAT (P = 0.018, 0.021) had significantly greater superior translation compared to intact and allograft, respectively. In internal rotation, only loaded tests produced significant results; specifically, classicLAT increased translation compared to all intact CAL states (P < 0.05). In external rotation, only unloaded tests produced significant results with classicLAT and congruentLAT allowing greater translations than intact (P ≤ 0.028). For all simulations, the allograft was not significantly different than intact (P > 0.05) and no differences (P = 1.0) were found between classicLAT and congruentLAT. Discussion: In most simulations, CAL release with the Latarjet lead to increased superior humeral translation. Conclusion: The choice of technique for glenoid bone loss reconstruction has implications on the magnitude of superior humeral translation. This previously unknown effect requires further study to determine its clinical and kinematic
Faria, Rafael Salomon Silva; Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Amin, Bruno de Oliveira; Tenor Junior, Antonio Carlos; da Costa, Miguel Pereira; Filardi Filho, Cantídio Salvador; Batista, Cleber Gonçalves; Brasil Filho, Rômulo
Objective To radiologically evaluate the healing of the coracoclavicular ligaments after surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation. Methods Ten patients who had undergone surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation via a posterosuperior route at least one year earlier were invited to return for radiological assessment using magnetic resonance. This evaluation was done by means of analogy with the scale described in the literature for studying the healing of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and for measuring the healed coracoclavicular ligaments. Results A scar structure of fibrous appearance had formed in 100% of the cases. In 50% of the cases, the images of this structure had a good appearance, while the other 50% were deficient. Conclusion Late postoperative evaluation using magnetic resonance, on patients who had been treated for acute acromioclavicular dislocation using a posterosuperior route in the shoulder, showed that the coracoclavicular ligaments had healed in 100% of the cases, but that this healing was deficient in 50%. PMID:26229916
Calvert, Eric; Chambers, Gordon Keith; Regan, William; Hawkins, Robert H; Leith, Jordan M
The diagnosis of a superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) lesion through physical examination has been widely reported in the literature. Most of these studies report high sensitivities and specificities, and claim to be accurate, valid, and reliable. The purpose of this study was to critically evaluate these studies to determine if there was sufficient evidence to support the use of the SLAP physical examination tests as valid and reliable diagnostic test procedures. Strict epidemiologic methodology was used to obtain and collate all relevant articles. Sackett's guidelines were applied to all articles. Confidence intervals and likelihood ratios were determined. Fifteen of 29 relevant studies met the criteria for inclusion. Only one article met all of Sackett's critical appraisal criteria. Confidence intervals for both the positive and negative likelihood ratios contained the value 1. The current literature being used as a resource for teaching in medical schools and continuing education lacks the validity necessary to be useful. There are no good physical examination tests that exist for effectively diagnosing a SLAP lesion.
Clavert, Philippe; Kempf, Jean-François; Kahn, Jean-Luc
The specific aims of this experiment were (1) to develop a clinically relevant model of anteroinferior shoulder dislocation in the apprehension position to compare the biomechanics of the intact anterior capsuloligamentous structures, and (2) to evaluate the initial strength of an open Bankart and of a coracoid abutment procedure. Fifteen shoulders from deceased donors were used. For the intact shoulders, mean peak load was 486 N, and stiffness was 26,7 N/mm. For the Bankart repair, the mean peak load was 264 N, and mean stiffness was 14.1 N/mm. Transosseous repairs failed by suture pullout through soft tissues. For the coracoid abutment repair, the mean peak load was 607 N and stiffness was 25.57 N/mm. This study reveals that the biomechanical performance of the Bankart and coracoid abutment repairs fails to reproduce the properties of the natural intact state.
... bones: your upper arm bone (humerus), your shoulder blade (scapula), and your collarbone (clavicle). The head of ... ﬁts into a shallow socket in your shoulder blade. Strong connective tissue, called the shoulder capsule, surrounds ...
Nakagawa, Shigeto; Ozaki, Ritsuro; Take, Yasuhiro; Mae, Tatsuo; Hayashida, Kenji
Although good clinical outcomes have been reported after arthroscopic bony Bankart repair, the extent of bone union is still unclear. To investigate bone union after arthroscopic bony Bankart repair and its influence on postoperative recurrence of instability. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Among 113 consecutive shoulders that underwent arthroscopic bony Bankart repair, postoperative evaluation of bone union by computed tomography (CT) was performed at various times in 81 shoulders. Bone union was investigated during 3 periods: 3 to 6 months postoperatively (first period), 7 to 12 months postoperatively (second period), and 13 months or more postoperatively (third period). The influence of the size of the preoperative glenoid defect and the size of the bone fragment on bone union was investigated, as well as the influence of bone union on postoperative recurrence of instability. In shoulders with bone union, bone fragment remodeling and changes in the glenoid defect size were also investigated. The bone union rate was 30.5% in the first period, 55.3% in the second period, and 84.6% in the third period. Among 53 shoulders with CT evaluation in the second period or later and follow-up for a minimum of 1 year, there was complete union in 33 shoulders (62.3%), partial union in 3 (5.7%), nonunion in 8 (15.1%), and no fragment on CT in 9 (17.0%). The complete union rate was 50% for 22 shoulders with small bone fragments (<5% of the glenoid diameter), 56.3% for 16 shoulders with medium fragments (5%-10%), and 86.7% for 15 shoulders with large fragments (>10%). The recurrence rate for postoperative instability was only 6.1% for shoulders with complete union, while it was 50% for shoulders with partial union, nonunion, no fragment, and no fragment on CT. The recurrence rate was significantly higher (36.4%) in shoulders with small fragments, but it was significantly lower in shoulders with bone union. In shoulders with bone union, the bone fragment frequently became
Use proper techniques when exercising or playing sports. Keep your knee strong and flexible. Some cases of knee dislocation may not be preventable, especially if physical factors make you more likely to dislocate your knee.
Balke, Maurice; Shafizadeh, Sven; Bouillon, Bertil; Banerjee, Marc
The aim of this study was to evaluate the current state of treatment in traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation in Germany and to detect changes over the last 12 years. Seven hundred ninety-six trauma and/or orthopaedic departments were found in the German hospital directory 2012. The websites of each department were searched for the email address of the responsible shoulder surgeon (if applicable) or the head of the department. Seven hundred forty-six email addresses were found, and emails with the request to participate in an online survey were sent in January 2013. Six hundred seventy-five emails probably reached the correct addressee. Seventy-one emails were rejected, and no contact could be made. One-hundred ninety-one (28 %) participated in the study. The data were compared to similar data from a survey on shoulder dislocation performed in the same department and published in 2001. After the first-time traumatic shoulder dislocation in patients aged younger than 30 years participating in sports, 14 % of the participants would prefer conservative treatment, 83 % arthroscopic, and 3 % open surgery. When surgery was indicated, arthroscopic Bankart repair was the treatment of choice for 93 % of the participants. In 2001, 27 % had indicated conservative treatment after the first-time shoulder dislocation in active patients younger than 30 years. When surgery was indicated, 66 % had performed arthroscopic and 34 % open stabilization. For the standard arthroscopic Bankart repair without concomitant injuries, 41 % of the participants use two and 54 % three suture anchors. Knotless anchors were preferred by 72 %. In the case of glenoid bone loss greater than 25 %, only 46 % perform a procedure for glenoid bone augmentation. Fifteen percent of the participants always recommended immobilization in external rotation after traumatic first-time shoulder dislocation. The majority of participants recommend arthroscopic Bankart repair with two or three suture
Fakih, Riad; Hamie, Muhieddine Rada; Yassine, Mahmoud Sami
Conservative treatment of posttraumatic anteroinferior shoulder instability leads to a high failure rate and consequently high recurrence in young and active population. Each recurrence can increase the structural damage of both bony structures and soft tissues (Hill-Sachs lesion, Bankart lesion). Remplissage technique combined with Bankart repair have been proposed as a treatment option. Early arthroscopic treatment for shoulder dislocation will result in better outcome and lower recurrence rate than nonoperative management. We retrospectively reviewed 60 cases from 2010 to 2015 treated by remplissage technique with Bankart repair or closed reduction for anterior shoulder dislocation. All surgeries and closed reductions were done by the same surgeon. Mean age of patients was 30 years, most of them males having experienced one or more recurrent dislocations; mean follow-up was 2 years. Patients with Hill-Sachs lesions < 40% on the articular surface and < 20% of bone defect in the glenoid cavity were included. Exclusion criteria were: glenohumeral arthritis or other inflammation, fracture around the shoulder joint, elderly patients with osteoporosis. All patients included in the study were followed up after 6, 12 and 24 months. Rowe score was used to assess the stability of the shoulders and goniometry to assess the range of motion of the glenohumeral joints. The results confirm that the remplissage technique with Bankart repair takes the upper hand over the conservative management and does not produce any severe adverse effect on postoperative shoulder range of motion. A slight restriction (≈10º) observed in external rotation did not prevent 69% of patients from resuming their preinjury sports activities. At the last follow-up, 90% of patients had a stable shoulder. Conservative management was associated with high rate of recurrence limiting the daily activity of our patients and interfering with their return to sports activities. Except from the recurrence of
Beckmann, Nicholas; Crawford, Lindsay
Sternoclavicular injuries are relatively rare, composing less than 1 % of all musculoskeletal fractures or dislocations. When sternoclavicular injuries do occur, they typically present as an isolated dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint without associated fracture of the clavicle or manubrium. However, in patients with unfused medial clavicle physis, sternoclavicular joint injuries can present as a fracture-dislocation through the unfused physis. These physeal injuries are important to recognize as the displaced epiphysis can block reduction of the sternoclavicular joint. We present a case of a 15-year-old female basketball player presenting with suspected sternoclavicular joint injury after sustaining a direct blow to the left shoulder. An initial shoulder CT confirmed the presence of the clinically suspected posterior sternoclavicular dislocation without fracture identified. An MRI of the left sternoclavicular joint was then performed for suspected physeal fracture, which confirmed the presence of a fracture through the medial clavicle physis with anterior displacement of the unossified epiphysis, blocking reduction of the metaphysis. Given the findings on MRI, the pediatric orthropedic surgeon was able to counsel the family of the high likelihood of failed closed reduction of the sternoclavicular joint requiring conversion to open reduction and internal fixation. The patient underwent successful open reduction and internal fixation of the medial clavical physeal fracture after an initial gentle attempt at closed reduction was unsuccessful.
von Rüden, C; Hackl, S; Woltmann, A; Friederichs, J; Bühren, V; Hierholzer, C
The dislocated posterolateral fragment of the distal tibia is considered as a key fragment for the successful reduction of comminuted ankle fractures. The reduction of this fragment can either be achieved indirectly by joint reduction using the technique of closed anterior-posterior screw fixation, or directly using the open posterolateral approach followed by plate fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome after stabilization of the dislocated posterolateral tibia fragment using either closed reduction and screw fixation, or open reduction and plate fixation via the posterolateral approach in complex ankle fractures. In a prospective study between 01/2010 and 12/2012, all mono-injured patients with closed ankle fractures and dislocated posterolateral tibia fragments were assessed 12 months after osteosynthesis. Parameters included: size of the posterolateral tibia fragment relative to the tibial joint surface (CT scan, in %) as an indicator of injury severity, unreduced area of tibial joint surface postoperatively, treatment outcome assessed by using the "Ankle Fracture Scoring System" (AFSS), as well as epidemiological data and duration of the initial hospital treatment. In 11 patients (10 female, 1 male; age 51.6 ± 2.6 years [mean ± SEM], size of tibia fragment 42.1 ± 2.5 %) the fragment fixation was performed using a posterolateral approach. Impaired postoperative wound healing occurred in 2 patients of this group. In the comparison group, 12 patients were treated using the technique of closed anterior-posterior screw fixation (10 female, 2 male; age 59.5 ± 6.7 years, size of tibia fragment 45.9 ± 1.5 %). One patient of this group suffered an incomplete lesion of the superficial peroneal nerve. Radiological evaluation of the joint surface using CT scan imaging demonstrated significantly less dislocation of the tibial joint surface following the open posterolateral approach (0.60 ± 0.20 mm) compared to the closed
Background and purpose Immobilization in external rotation (ER) for shoulder dislocation has been reported to improve the coaptation of Bankart lesions to the glenoid. We compared the position of the labrum in patients treated with immobilization in ER or internal rotation (IR). A secondary aim was to evaluate the rate of Bankart lesions. Patients and methods 55 patients with primary anterior shoulder dislocation, aged between 16 and 40 years, were randomized to immobilization in ER or IR. Computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed shortly after the injury. After the immobilization, MRI arthrography was performed. We evaluated the rate of Bankart lesions and measured the separation and displacement of the labrum as well as the length of the detached part of the capsule on the glenoid neck. Results Immobilization in ER reduced the number of Bankart lesions (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.1 –13; p = 0.04). Separation decreased to a larger extent in the ER group than in the IR group (mean difference 0.6 mm, 95% CI: 0.1 – 1.1, p = 0.03). Displacement of the labrum and the detached part of the capsule showed no significant differences between the groups. Interpretation Immobilization in ER results in improved coaptation of the labrum after primary traumatic shoulder dislocation. PMID:19916693
Liavaag, Sigurd; Stiris, Morten Georg; Lindland, Elisabeth Stokke; Enger, Martine; Svenningsen, Svein; Brox, Jens Ivar
Immobilization in external rotation (ER) for shoulder dislocation has been reported to improve the coaptation of Bankart lesions to the glenoid. We compared the position of the labrum in patients treated with immobilization in ER or internal rotation (IR). A secondary aim was to evaluate the rate of Bankart lesions. 55 patients with primary anterior shoulder dislocation, aged between 16 and 40 years, were randomized to immobilization in ER or IR. Computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed shortly after the injury. After the immobilization, MRI arthrography was performed. We evaluated the rate of Bankart lesions and measured the separation and displacement of the labrum as well as the length of the detached part of the capsule on the glenoid neck. Immobilization in ER reduced the number of Bankart lesions (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.1 -13; p = 0.04). Separation decreased to a larger extent in the ER group than in the IR group (mean difference 0.6 mm, 95% CI: 0.1 - 1.1, p = 0.03). Displacement of the labrum and the detached part of the capsule showed no significant differences between the groups. Immobilization in ER results in improved coaptation of the labrum after primary traumatic shoulder dislocation.
Papadopoulos, H; Edwards, R S
Anterior dislocation of the mandibular condyle is commonly seen in patients with chronic dislocation of their temporomandibular joints. Posterior, superior and lateral dislocation is rare. Superolateral dislocation of an intact condyle, let alone intact mandible is uncommon, usually occurring after a traumatic insult to the mandible. The authors report on such a case, and its management.
Figueiredo, Eduardo A; Belangero, Paulo S; Cohen, Carina; Louchard, Rafael L; Terra, Bernardo B; Pochini, Alberto C; Andreoli, Carlos V; Cohen, Moisés; Ejnisman, Benno
The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological data and evaluate the clinical results of traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability in rodeo athletes. Thirteen patients, all male, with a mean age of 23.2 (18-31) years old, with anterior glenohumeral instability were include in this study. In 9 patients, the right side was affected. The mean time elapsed between injury and undergoing surgery was 56 months (24-120 months). The surgical technique used (arthroscopic or open bone block procedure) was chosen based on the ISIS (Instability Severity Index Score). Only professional athletes who had been in the sport for at least 60 months were included. Functional evaluation was conducted using the UCLA scale, after a 24-month follow-up period. The number of dislocation episodes varied from 10 to 100 (mean 27 episodes). All of the patients were submitted a surgical treatment open bone block procedure, due to their degree of sport participation, type of sport (forced overhead and collision) and the presence of associated bone defect lesions. According to UCLA criteria, the results were excellent in 12 patients and good in one. The mean time elapsed before returning to the sport was five months, varying between two and ten months. Complications included one patient developing axillary neuropraxia, which was completely resolved six months after the operation, and another patient developed a superficial skin infection. The rodeo athletes with anterior shoulder instability had serious associated bony lesions and has good outcome after bone block procedure.
Flicker, P L
Acute peritendinitis calcarea, adhesive capsulitis, and anterior acromion impingement syndrome are common problems of the shoulder. Needle and drug therapy are indicated to relieve pain in the treatment of acute cases, with a regular home program of exercise essential for successful results in all cases. Surgery is recommended only if the nonoperative approach is unsuccessful.
Zarezade, Abolghasem; Dehghani, Mohammad; Rozati, Ali Reza; Banadaki, Hossein Saeid; Shekarchizade, Neda
Background: Anterior shoulder dislocation is the most common major joint dislocation. In patients with recurrent shoulder dislocation, surgical intervention is necessary. In this study, two methods of treatment, Bankart arthroscopic method and open Bristow procedure, were compared. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial survey had been done in the orthopedic department of Alzahra and Kashani hospitals of Isfahan during 2008-2011. Patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation who were candidates for surgical treatment were randomly divided into two groups, one treated by Bankart arthroscopic technique and the other treated by Bristow method. All the patients were assessed after the surgery using the criteria of ROWE, CONSTANT, UCLA, and ASES. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Six patients (16.22%) had inappropriate condition with ROWE score (score less than 75); of them, one had been treated with Bristow and five with Bankart (5.26 vs. 27.78). Nine patients (24.32%) had appropriate condition, which included six from Bristow group and three treated by Bankart technique (31.58 vs. 16.67). Finally, 22 patients (59.46%) showed great improvement with this score, which included 12 from Bristow and 10 from Bankart groups (63.16 vs. 55.56). According to Fisher's exact test, there were no significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.15). Conclusion: The two mentioned techniques did not differ significantly, although some parameters such as level of performance, pain intensity, use of analgesics, and range of internal rotation showed more improvement in Bristow procedure. Therefore, if there is no contraindication for Bristow procedure, it is preferred to use this method. PMID:25590034
Ruci, Vilson; Duni, Artid; Cake, Alfred; Ruci, Dorina; Ruci, Julian
AIM: To evaluate the functional outcomes of the Bristow-Latarjet procedure in patients with recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Personal clinical records of 42 patients with 45 operated shoulders were reviewed retrospectively. Patient age at time of first dislocation, injury mechanism, and number of recurring dislocations before surgery were recorded. The overall function and stability of the shoulder was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty five (78%) of the scapulohumeral humeral instabilities were caused by trauma. The mean number of recurring dislocations was 9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0–18); one patient had had 17 recurrences. Mean follow-up 46 months (95% CI, 16-88). No dislocation happened postoperatively. Four patients have fibrous union (9%). Only two had clinical sign of pain and discomfort. One of them was reoperated for screw removal with very good post-operative result. The overall functional outcome was good, with a mean Rowe score of 88 points (95% CI, 78–100). Scores of 27 (64%) of the patients were excellent, 9 (22%) were good, 4 (9.5%) were fair, and 2 (4.5%) were poor. CONCLUSION: The Bristow-Latarjet procedure is a very good surgical treatment for recurrent anterior-inferior instability of the glenohumeral joint. It must not be used for multidirectional instability or psychogenic habitual dislocations. PMID:27275242
Ruci, Vilson; Duni, Artid; Cake, Alfred; Ruci, Dorina; Ruci, Julian
To evaluate the functional outcomes of the Bristow-Latarjet procedure in patients with recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. Personal clinical records of 42 patients with 45 operated shoulders were reviewed retrospectively. Patient age at time of first dislocation, injury mechanism, and number of recurring dislocations before surgery were recorded. The overall function and stability of the shoulder was evaluated. Thirty five (78%) of the scapulohumeral humeral instabilities were caused by trauma. The mean number of recurring dislocations was 9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-18); one patient had had 17 recurrences. Mean follow-up 46 months (95% CI, 16-88). No dislocation happened postoperatively. Four patients have fibrous union (9%). Only two had clinical sign of pain and discomfort. One of them was reoperated for screw removal with very good post-operative result. The overall functional outcome was good, with a mean Rowe score of 88 points (95% CI, 78-100). Scores of 27 (64%) of the patients were excellent, 9 (22%) were good, 4 (9.5%) were fair, and 2 (4.5%) were poor. The Bristow-Latarjet procedure is a very good surgical treatment for recurrent anterior-inferior instability of the glenohumeral joint. It must not be used for multidirectional instability or psychogenic habitual dislocations.
Donohue, Michael A; Mauntel, Timothy C; Dickens, Jonathan F
The glenohumeral joint is one of the most frequently dislocated joints and occurs with increasing frequency in collision and contact athletes, especially those in sports that repeatedly place the glenohumeral joint in a position of vulnerability. Nonoperative management of shoulder instability especially in young contact athletes results in unacceptably high recurrence rates; thus, early surgical stabilization has become commonplace. Surgical stabilization typically yields acceptable outcomes. However, recurrent anterior instability may occur following a previous stabilization procedure at rates of 7% to 12%. Recurrent glenohumeral instability represents a treatment challenge for orthopedic surgeons as it not only has the potential to result in subsequent surgery, therapy, and missed activity time, but also has been associated with long-term degenerative joint changes. Thus, recurrent instability requires close examination to determine underlying pathology leading to failure. Evaluation of underlying pathology requires consideration of patient activity-related factors, hyperlaxity and multidirectional instability, glenoid bone loss, glenoid track lesions, and other pathologic lesions. Revision surgical stabilization approaches include arthroscopic and open stabilization, as well as glenoid osseous augmentation procedures. Postoperative rehabilitation and release to sports and activity must be tailored to protect the shoulder from continued instability. Understanding that risk of recurrent glenohumeral instability and the risk factors associated with it are essential so that these factors may be mitigated and recurrent instability prevented.
... cut) by bringing the shoulder through a full range of motion. Arthroscopic surgery can also be used to cut ... if you develop shoulder pain that limits your range of motion for an extended period. People who have diabetes ...
... bones: your upper arm bone (humerus), your shoulder blade (scapula), and your collarbone (clavicle). Ball and socket. ... ﬁts into a rounded socket in your shoulder blade. This socket is called the glenoid. A slippery ...
... the opening at the end of the shoulder blade, called the socket. This type of joint allows ... head. The socket part (glenoid) of your shoulder blade will be replaced with a smooth plastic shell ( ...
... the rotator cuff, give the shoulder its wide range of motion. Swelling, damage, or bone changes around the rotator ... you are recovering from tendinitis, continue to do range-of-motion exercises to avoid frozen shoulder . Practice good posture ...
A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical and patient-reported outcomes following two procedures for recurrent traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder: Latarjet procedure vs. Bankart repair.
An, Vincent Vinh Gia; Sivakumar, Brahman Shankar; Phan, Kevin; Trantalis, John
The Bankart repair and Latarjet procedure are both viable surgical options for recurrent traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder joint. The anatomic repair is the more popular option, with 90% of surgeons internationally choosing the Bankart repair as the initial treatment. There has been no previous review directly comparing the 2 techniques. Hence, we aimed to systematically review studies to compare the outcomes of Bankart repairs vs. the Latarjet procedure for recurrent instability of the shoulder. Six electronic databases were searched for original, English-language studies comparing the Bankart and Latarjet procedures. Studies were critically appraised using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Data were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of the selected studies. Eight comparative studies were identified with 795 shoulders; 416 of them underwent open or arthroscopic Bankart repairs, and 379 were repaired by the open Latarjet procedure. Primary and revision procedures were studied. The Latarjet procedure conferred significantly lower risk of recurrence and redislocation. There was no significant difference in the rates of complication requiring reoperation between the two procedures. Rowe scores were higher and loss of external rotation lower in the Latarjet group compared with the Bankart repair group. Our studies demonstrate that the Latarjet procedure is a viable and possibly superior alternative to the Bankart repair, offering greater stability with no significant increase in complication rate. However, the studies identified were retrospective and of limited quality, and therefore randomized controlled trials with large populations of patients or prospective assessment of national orthopedic registries should be employed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giles, Joshua W; Boons, Harm W; Elkinson, Ilia; Faber, Kenneth J; Ferreira, Louis M; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S
Glenohumeral instability with glenoid bone loss is commonly treated with the Latarjet procedure. The procedure involves transfer of the coracoid and conjoint tendon, which is thought to provide a stabilizing sling effect; however, its significance is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of the Latarjet procedure, with and without conjoint tendon loading, on shoulder stability and range of motion (ROM). A custom simulator was used to evaluate anterior shoulder stability and ROM in 8 cadaveric shoulders. Testing conditions included intact, 30% glenoid defect, and Latarjet with and without conjoint loading. Unloaded and 10-N loaded states were tested in adduction and 90° abduction. Outcome variables included dislocation, stiffness (neutral and 60° external rotation), and internal-external rotational ROM. All 30% defects dislocated in abduction external rotation. The loaded Latarjet prevented dislocation in all specimens, whereas the unloaded Latarjet stabilized 6 of 8 specimens. In abduction external rotation, there were no significant differences in stiffness between loaded and unloaded transfers (P = .176). In adduction, there were no significant differences between the intact and the loaded Latarjet (P ≥ .228); however, in neutral rotation, the unloaded Latarjet (P = .015) and the 30% defects (P = .011) were significantly less stiff. Rotational ROM in abduction was significantly reduced with the loaded Latarjet (P = .014) compared with unloaded Latarjet, and no differences were found in adduction. These findings indicate that glenohumeral stability is improved, but not fully restored to intact, with conjoint tendon loading. The results support the existence of the sling effect and its importance in augmenting stability provided by the transferred coracoid. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Willemot, Laurent B; Eby, Sarah F; Thoreson, Andrew R; Debeer, Phillipe; Victor, Jan; An, Kai-Nan; Verborgt, Olivier
Bone grafting procedures are increasingly popular for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. In patients with a high risk of recurrence, open coracoid transplantation is preferred but can be technically demanding. Free bone graft glenoid augmentation may be an alternative strategy for high-risk patients without significant glenoid bone loss. This biomechanical cadaveric study assessed the stabilizing effect of free iliac crest bone grafting of the intact glenoid and the importance of sagittal graft position. Eight fresh frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested. The bone graft was fixed on the glenoid neck at 3 sagittal positions (50%, 75%, and 100% below the glenoid equator). Displacement and reaction force were monitored with a custom device while translating the humeral head over the glenoid surface in both anterior and anteroinferior direction. Peak force (PF) increased significantly from the standard labral repair to the grafted conditions in both anterior (14.7 ± 5.5 N vs 27.3 ± 6.9 N) and anteroinferior translation (22.0 ± 5.3 N vs 29.3 ± 6.9 N). PF was significantly higher for the grafts at the 50% and 75% positions compared with the grafts 100% below the equator with anterior translation. Anteroinferior translation resulted in significantly higher values for the 100% and 75% positions compared with the 50% position. This biomechanical study confirms improved anterior glenohumeral stability after iliac crest bone graft augmentation of the anterior glenoid. The results also demonstrate the importance of bone graft position in the sagittal plane, with the ideal position determined by the direction of dislocation. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mook, William R.; Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Horan, Marilee P.; Millett, Peter J.
Objectives: Although the Latarjet procedure for the treatment of recurrent shoulder instability is highly successful, reasons for failure are often unclear. The purpose of our study was to evaluate clinical and anatomic characteristics that were predictive of continued instability or poor outcomes following the Latarjet procedure. Methods: In this IRB approved study, patients who underwent open coracoid Latarjet procedures for anteroinferior instability with glenoid bone loss (>20%) prior to October of 2012 were included. Anatomic measurements of coracoid size (anteroposterior surface area, maximal coracoid width), conjoint and subscapularis tendon widths, estimated glenoid defect surface area, Hill-Sach's Interval, and projected postoperative glenoid track engagement were obtained from preoperative cross-sectional imaging. When the projected glenoid track was smaller than the Hill-Sach's interval, the lesion was determined to be outside-&-engaged compared to inside-&-non-engaged. Patient reported subjective data that was prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed included patient satisfaction, instability events, SANE score, ASES score, DASH score, and SF-12 PCS. Patients that progressed to another shoulder surgery not related to instability were considered complications and patients that continued to experience dislocations or who underwent revision instability surgeries were considered failures. Results: Thirty-nine shoulders in 39 patients (34 men, 5 women) with a mean age of 26 (range 16-43) were included at a mean follow-up was 3.3 years (2- 7.9 years). There were 25 out of 39 that had prior stabilization surgery and 6 workman's compensation claims. One patient was revised due to broken hardware at 2 months and one because of coracoid nonunion at 18 months. One patient experienced postsurgical adhesive capsulitis treated surgically at a year. All subjective outcome scores significantly improved (p<.05) and a 9 out of 10 median satisfaction score was
Wadsworth, C T
Widespread use of the label "frozen shoulder" as a diagnosis for any stiff and painful shoulder condition has led to its becoming a rather meaningless, catchall term. In addition to confounding both the lay public and health care professionals, this indiscriminate labeling may prevent a patient from receiving appropriate treatment. In this article, I define frozen shoulder and review its pathologic and etiologic factors, epidemiology, natural history, and diagnosis. I present this information in correlation with an examination process to assist physical therapists in identifying suspected cases of frozen shoulder. I also present the current options for treatment, including physical therapy management with physical agents and exercise.
Westerheide, Kenneth J; Karzel, Ronald P
Ganglion cysts of the shoulder and concomitant suprascapular nerve compression should be considered in the differential diagnosis of shoulder pain. They are associated commonly with labral tears, most commonly SLAP lesions. MRI has become commonplace in evaluating shoulder pain and has led to the increased awareness of shoulder cysts. MRI accurately demonstrates the size and location of ganglions, which is critical when planning surgical intervention. It also has shown the frequent association of intra-articular pathology with these cysts. Despite that MRI can detect atrophy, the diagnosis of suprascapular nerve compression can be confirmed only by EMG/NCS, because the presence of a cyst does not necessarily mean the nerve is compressed. Likewise, a positive EMG does not confirm that the compression is caused by a ganglion cyst. EMG/NCVs are necessary for confirming the diagnosis and evaluating nerve and muscle function. A trial of nonoperative management is warranted; however, this is associated with a high failure rate. Aspiration techniques are successful for decompression of the cysts and initial pain relief; however, the intra-articular pathology is not addressed and there is a higher rate of recurrence. Open resection of the ganglion cyst is successful; however, the intra-articular labral tears are not addressed, which can lead to recurrence and the morbidity of the cyst excision is not warranted. Shoulder arthroscopy has led to the identification of associated intra-articular pathology such as SLAP lesions. These were not appreciated previously with open surgery and therefore were not addressed. Arthroscopic techniques have evolved to allow decompression of the ganglion cysts and repair of the labral lesions. This should decrease the possibility of recurrence of the cyst by eliminating the cyst and the pathologic lesion that created it. Arthroscopic excision also avoids much of the morbidity of the open approach and allows intra-articular pathology to be
Dual-window subscapularis-sparing approach: a new surgical technique for combined reconstruction of a glenoid bone defect or bankart lesion associated with a HAGL lesion in anterior shoulder instability.
Bhatia, Deepak N
Combined bankart lesion and humeral avulsion of glenohumeral ligament lesion (HAGL) is a well-described pathologic complex in anterior shoulder instability; open surgical approaches with and without arthroscopic assistance have been suggested for simultaneous 1-stage repair of these lesions. Presence of a significant glenoid bone defect (inverted-pear glenoid) adds to the complexity of the problem and necessitates a bony reconstruction procedure. Open surgical approaches described for management of this combined lesion complex in anterior shoulder instability necessitate a subscapularis-cutting approach; suboptimal healing of the tenotomized subscapularis and subsequent delayed rehabilitation predisposes to late subscapularis dysfunction, and this compromises clinical outcomes. This study describes a new surgical technique that utilizes a dual-window approach through the subscapularis muscle; the dual window enables access to the glenoid and humeral lesions without the need for a subscapularis tenotomy. The approach can be used to perform a congruent-arc Latarjet procedure (for glenoid bone defects) or a Bankart repair (for capsulolabral lesions), in combination with a HAGL repair. Preliminary arthroscopy is essential to identify significant bone defects and HAGL lesions. The dual-window approach for reconstruction of the lesions involves (1) a lateral "subscapularis-sparing" window to identify and repair the HAGL lesion; (2) a medial "subscapularis muscle-splitting" window to perform either a glenoid capsulolabral reconstruction or a congruent-arc Latarjet procedure; and (3) a balanced inferior capsular shift and lateralization procedure of the glenohumeral capsule. Technical tips and guidelines to avoid complications are discussed, and a rehabilitation protocol is presented.
Anton, H. A.
The frozen shoulder is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. Most patients slowly improve over 12 to 24 months. Some have prolonged loss of movement, pain, and associated disability. Treatments include physiotherapy, corticosteroid injections, and manipulation. Clinical trials of these treatments have produced conflicting results. PMID:8374364
The frequency of shoulder dystocia in different reports has varied, ranging 0.2-3% of all vaginal deliveries. Once a shoulder dystocia occurs, even if all actions are appropriately taken, there is an increased frequency of complications, including third- or fourth-degree perineal lacerations, postpartum hemorrhage, and neonatal brachial plexus palsies. Health care providers have a poor ability to predict shoulder dystocia for most patients and there remains no commonly accepted model to accurately predict this obstetric emergency. Consequently, optimal management of shoulder dystocia requires appropriate management at the time it occurs. Multiple investigators have attempted to enhance care of shoulder dystocia by utilizing protocols and simulation training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crowell, Michael S; Tragord, Bradley S
Case report. Comprehensive treatment strategies are needed for individuals with glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis (OA), especially when they are young and active. Prior dislocation, with or without subsequent shoulder stabilization surgery, complicates the clinical presentation and increases the risk of OA progression. The purpose of this case report was to describe an orthopaedic manual physical therapy approach used in a patient with glenohumeral joint OA who presented with shoulder pain and impaired movement. CASE DESCRIPTION A 38-year-old male military officer presented with left-shoulder pain of 2 months in duration that was unrelieved with a subacromial injection. He reported a history of anterior-inferior dislocation with subsequent stabilization surgery 15 years prior and arthroscopic subacromial decompression 2 years prior. Physical examination demonstrated painful limitations in shoulder elevation and internal/external rotation movements, stiffness with testing using accessory glides, and rotator cuff and scapular musculature weakness associated with pain. Treatment consisted of 5 sessions provided over 4 weeks. The plan of care included manual physical therapy, exercises, and progressive functional activities specifically tailored to the patient's clinical presentation. Shoulder Pain and Disability Index scores decreased from 43% to 17%, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale average score improved from 3.0 to 7.3 out of 10. After 4 additional weeks of a home exercise program, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score was 4% and Patient-Specific Functional Scale average score was 9.0. Improvements in self-reported function were maintained at 6 months. Four "booster" treatment sessions were administered at 9 months, contributing to sustained outcomes through 1 year. In a young, active patient with glenohumeral joint OA, clinically meaningful short-term improvements in self-reported function and pain, maintained at 1 year, were observed with manual
Durall, Chris J.; Manske, Robert C.; Davies, George J.
Identifies shoulder exercises commonly performed in fitness centers that may contribute to or exacerbate glenohumeral joint (shoulder) injury, describing alternative exercises that may be substituted and a offering rationale for the variations. The article focuses on anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, subacromial impingement (primary…
Durall, Chris J.; Manske, Robert C.; Davies, George J.
Identifies shoulder exercises commonly performed in fitness centers that may contribute to or exacerbate glenohumeral joint (shoulder) injury, describing alternative exercises that may be substituted and a offering rationale for the variations. The article focuses on anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, subacromial impingement (primary…
Schenck, Robert C.; Richter, Dustin L.; Wascher, Daniel C.
Background: Traumatic knee dislocation is becoming more prevalent because of improved recognition and increased exposure to high-energy trauma, but long-term results are lacking. Purpose: To present 2 cases with minimum 20-year follow-up and a review of the literature to illustrate some of the fundamental principles in the management of the dislocated knee. Study Design: Review and case reports. Methods: Two patients with knee dislocations who underwent multiligamentous knee reconstruction were reviewed, with a minimum 20-year follow-up. These patients were brought back for a clinical evaluation using both subjective and objective measures. Subjective measures include the following scales: Lysholm, Tegner activity, visual analog scale (VAS), Short Form–36 (SF-36), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and a psychosocial questionnaire. Objective measures included ligamentous examination, radiographic evaluation (including Telos stress radiographs), and physical therapy assessment of function and stability. Results: The mean follow-up was 22 years. One patient had a vascular injury requiring repair prior to ligament reconstruction. The average assessment scores were as follows: SF-36 physical health, 52; SF-36 mental health, 59; Lysholm, 92; IKDC, 86.5; VAS involved, 10.5 mm; and VAS uninvolved, 2.5 mm. Both patients had excellent stability and were functioning at high levels of activity for their age (eg, hiking, skydiving). Both patients had radiographic signs of arthritis, which lowered 1 subject’s IKDC score to “C.” Conclusion: Knee dislocations have rare long-term excellent results, and most intermediate-term studies show fair to good functional results. By following fundamental principles in the management of a dislocated knee, patients can be given the opportunity to function at high levels. Hopefully, continued advances in the evaluation and treatment of knee dislocations will improve the long-term outcomes for these patients in the
Boileau, Pascal; Thélu, Charles-Édouard; Mercier, Numa; Ohl, Xavier; Houghton-Clemmey, Robert; Carles, Michel; Trojani, Christophe
Arthroscopic Bankart repair alone cannot restore shoulder stability in patients with glenoid bone loss involving more than 20% of the glenoid surface. Coracoid transposition to prevent recurrent shoulder dislocation according to Bristow-Latarjet is an efficient but controversial procedure. We determined whether an arthroscopic Bristow-Latarjet procedure with concomitant Bankart repair (1) restored shoulder stability in this selected subgroup of patients, (2) without decreasing mobility, and (3) allowed patients to return to sports at preinjury level. We also evaluated (4) bone block positioning, healing, and arthritis and (5) risk factors for nonunion and coracoid screw pullout. Between July 2007 and August 2010, 79 patients with recurrent anterior instability and bone loss of more than 20% of the glenoid underwent arthroscopic Bristow-Latarjet-Bankart repair; nine patients (11%) were either lost before 2-year followup or had incomplete data, leaving 70 patients available at a mean of 35 months. Postoperative radiographs and CT scans were evaluated for bone block positioning, healing, and arthritis. Any postoperative dislocation or any subjective complaint of occasional to frequent subluxation was considered a failure. Physical examination included ROM in both shoulders to enable comparison and instability signs (apprehension and relocation tests). Rowe and Walch-Duplay scores were obtained at each review. Patients were asked whether they were able to return to sports at the same level and practice forced overhead sports. Potential risk factors for nonhealing were assessed. At latest followup, 69 of 70 (98%) patients had a stable shoulder, external rotation with arm at the side was 9° less than the nonoperated side, and 58 (83%) returned to sports at preinjury level. On latest radiographs, 64 (91%) had no osteoarthritis, and bone block positioning was accurate, with 63 (90%) being below the equator and 65 (93%) flush to the glenoid surface. The coracoid graft
Simple elbow dislocation refers to those elbow dislocations that do not involve an osseous injury. A complex elbow dislocation refers to an elbow that has dislocated with an osseous injury. Most simple elbow dislocations are treated nonoperatively. Understanding the importance of the soft tissue injury following a simple elbow dislocation is a key to being successful with treatment.
... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Exercise and Fitness, Injury Rehabilitation, Prevention and WellnessTags: Exercise Prescription, pain relievers, Shoulder Problems, sports medicine Exercise and Fitness, Injury Rehabilitation, Prevention and ...
... of the shoulder uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...
ERCIN, ERSIN; BILGILI, MUSTAFA GOKHAN; ONES, HALIL NADIR; KURAL, CEMAL
Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented. PMID:26889473
Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Ones, Halil Nadir; Kural, Cemal
Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented.
Uga, Daisuke; Endo, Yasuhiro; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify activation of the infraspinatus and scapular stabilizing muscles during shoulder external rotation at various shoulder elevation angles. [Subjects] Twenty subjects participated in this study and all measurements were performed on the right shoulder. [Methods] Isometric shoulder external rotation strength and surface electromyographic data were measured with the shoulder at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° elevation in the scapular plane. The electromyographic data were collected from the infraspinatus, upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles. These measurements were compared across the various shoulder elevation angles. [Results] The strength measurements did not differ significantly by angulation. The infraspinatus activity was 92%, 75%, 68%, and 57% of the maximum voluntary contraction, which significantly decreased as shoulder elevation increased. The serratus anterior activity was 24%, 48%, 53%, and 62% of the maximum voluntary contraction, which significantly increased as shoulder elevation increased. [Conclusion] Shoulder external rotation torque was maintained regardless of shoulder elevation angle. The shoulder approximated to the zero position as the shoulder elevation increased so that infraspinatus activity decreased and the scapular posterior tilting by the serratus anterior might generate shoulder external rotation torque. PMID:26957748
Wong, Ivan; Amar, Eyal; Coady, Catherine M.; Dilman, Daryl B.; Smith, Ben
Objectives: Background: The results of arthroscopic anterior labral (Bankart) repair have been shown to have high failure rate in patients with significant glenoid bone loss. Several reconstruction procedures using bone graft have been described to overcome the bone loss, including autogenous coracoid transfer to the anterior glenoid (Latarjet procedure) as well as iliac crest autograft and tibial allografts. In recent years, trends toward minimally invasive shoulder surgery along with improvements in technology and technique have led surgeons to expand the application of arthroscopic treatment. Purpose: This study aims to perform a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to evaluate the clinical and radiological follow up of patient who underwent anatomic glenoid reconstruction using distal tibia allograft for the treatment of shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss at 1-year post operation time point. Methods: Between December 2011 and January 2015, 55 patients underwent arthroscopic stabilization of the shoulder by means of capsule-labral reattachment to glenoid ream and bony augmentation of glenoid bone loss with distal tibial allograft for recurrent instability of the shoulder. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation included general assessment by the western Ontario shoulder instability index (WOSI) questionnaire, preoperative and postoperative radiographs and CT scans. Results: Fifty-five patients have been evaluated with mean age of 29.73 years at time of the index operation. There were 40 males (mean age of 29.66) and 15 female (mean age of 29.93). Minimum follow up time was 12 months. The following adverse effects were recorded: none suffered from recurrent dislocation, 2 patients suffered from bone resorption but without overt instability, 1 patient had malunion due to screw fracture, none of the patients had nonunion. The mean pre-operative WOSI score was 36.54 and the mean postoperative WOSI score was 61.0. Conclusion: Arthroscopic
Morris, Alfred D; Kemp, Graham J; Frostick, Simon P
We studied shoulder muscle activity in multidirectional instability (MDI) and multidirectional laxity (MDL) of the shoulder, our hypothesis being that altered muscle activity plays a role in their pathogenesis. Six muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, anterior deltoid, middle deltoid, and posterior deltoid) were investigated by use of intramuscular dual fine-wire electrodes in 7 normal shoulders, 5 MDL shoulders, and 6 MDI shoulders. Each subject performed 5 types of exercise (rotation in neutral, 45 degrees of abduction, 90 degrees of abduction, flexion/extension, and abduction/adduction) on an isokinetic muscle dynamometer at two rates, 90 degrees /s and 180 degrees /s. After filtering, rectification, and smoothing, the electromyography signal was normalized by using the peak voltage of the movement cycle. In subjects with MDI, compared with normal subjects, activity patterns of the anterior deltoid were different during rotation in neutral and 90 degrees of abduction, whereas those of the middle and posterior deltoid were different during rotation in 90 degrees of abduction. In subjects with MDL, the posterior deltoid showed increased activity compared with normal subjects during adduction. Activity patterns of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis appeared similar in both groups. Dual fine-wire electromyography offers insight into the complex role of shoulder girdle muscle function in normal movement and in instability. Altered patterns of shoulder girdle muscle activity and imbalances in muscle forces support the theory that impaired coordination of shoulder girdle muscle activity and inefficiency of the dynamic stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint are involved in the etiology of MDI. Interestingly, the abnormalities are in the deltoid rather than the muscles of the rotator cuff.
Mahran, M A; Sayed, A T; Imoh-Ita, F
In this study, we aimed to distinguish true shoulder dystocia from mere difficulty with delivery of the shoulder, by investigating the risk factors that lead to shoulder dystocia. Shoulder dystocia is a bony problem which occurs when either the anterior or, less commonly, the posterior fetal shoulder impacts on the maternal symphysis pubis or sacral promontory. Failure to apply the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) clinical diagnostic criteria for shoulder dystocia has made it susceptible to over-diagnosis due to inclusion of all difficult shoulder deliveries, including those related to an inappropriate maternal position. This was a retrospective analysis of risk factors associated with 56 cases of shoulder dystocia which occurred in West Middlesex University Hospital between 2003 and 2004. The cases were analysed in two categories, good outcome and poor outcome, and compared with each other. The poor outcome had represented true shoulder dystocia. The incidence of shoulder dystocia increased from 0.94% in 2003 to 1.37% in 2004. However, the incidence of those with a poor outcome decreased from 45.4% of the whole shoulder dystocia group in 2003, to 17.6% in 2004 (p = 0.03). There were no clear diagnostic criteria documented in the notes for the condition other than the birth attendants' opinion and the turtle sign. This may either reflect over-diagnosis from increased awareness or possibly improvement in the outcome due to training and education. Interestingly, at least four risk factors were identified in each of the cases with poor outcome. A registrar conducting the delivery, forceps delivery for delayed second stage and the turtle sign were significantly common findings among the true shoulder dystocia group. Multiple risk factors can be a good predictor for the occurrence of shoulder dystocia. Applying the RCOG diagnostic criteria for shoulder dystocia may lead to improvement in diagnosis and therefore a better understanding of the risk
Brumitt, Jason; Sproul, Alma; Lentz, Philip; McIntosh, Linda; Rutt, Richard
Wrestling is a popular sport in the United States at both the high school and collegiate levels. Traditionally a men's sport, participation by female athletes in wrestling is increasing. There exists a paucity of literature regarding injury incidence in women's wrestling. This lack of information challenges the ability of sports medicine and strength training professionals to design optimal injury prevention programs, training routines, and rehabilitation strategies. The objective of this report is to detail the successful conservative rehabilitation of a female wrestler after an initial glenohumeral dislocation. Case report. A 20-year-old female wrestling student-athlete presented to the university's sports medicine team after sustaining an anteriorly dislocated right shoulder. The patient had the goal to return back to competition in time for the National Championships. An evidenced-supported, non-traumatic glenohumeral instability rehabilitation protocol combined with weight-bearing exercises simulating functional sport positions was implemented with the goal of returning the injured collegiate female wrestler back to sport. At the end of the rehabilitation program the athlete demonstrated full active range of motion, good strength in the right shoulder, and reported her pain rating at a 1/10. The conservative rehabilitation strategy utilized in this case enabled the patient to return to wrestling and successfully compete at the National Championships.
Díaz Heredia, Jorge; Ruiz Iban, Miguel Angel; Ruiz Diaz, Raquel; Moros Marco, Santos; Gutierrez Hernandez, Juan Carlos; Valencia, Maria
Background: There is a low incidence of posterior instability which is present in only 2% to 10% of all unstable shoulders. The posterior instable shoulder includes different manifestations like fixed dislocation, recurrent subluxation or dislocation. Methods: Research and online content related to posterior instability is reviewed. Natural history, clinical evaluation and imaging are described. Results: An awareness of the disorder, together with a thoughtful evaluation, beginning with the clinical history, usually leads to proper diagnosis. An appropriate physical exam, taking in account hyperlaxity and specific tests for posterior instability should be done. Conclusion: Posterior shoulder instability is an uncommon condition and is challenging to diagnose. There is not a single injury that is responsible for all cases of recurrent shoulder dislocation or subluxation, and the presence of soft tissue lesions or bone alterations should be evaluated, with the use of adequate simple radiology and multiplanar imaging.
Willemot, Laurent B.; Eby, Sarah F.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Debeer, Phillipe; Victor, Jan; An, Kai-Nan; Verborgt, Olivier
Background Bone grafting procedures are increasingly popular for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. In cases with high risk of recurrence, open coracoid transplantation is preferred but can be technically demanding. Free bone graft glenoid augmentation may be an alternative strategy for high-risk patients without significant glenoid bone loss. This biomechanical cadaver study aims to assess the stabilizing effect of free iliac crest bone grafting of the intact glenoid and the importance of sagittal graft position. Methods Eight fresh frozen cadaver shoulders were tested. The bone graft was fixed on the glenoid neck at three sagittal positions (50%, 75% and 100% below the glenoid equator). Displacement and reaction force were monitored with a custom device while translating the humeral head over the glenoid surface in both anterior and antero-inferior direction. Results Peak force (PF) increased significantly from the standard labral repair to the grafted conditions in both anterior (14.7 (±5.5 N) vs. 27.3 (±6.9 N)) and antero-inferior translation (22.0 (±5.3 N) vs. 29.3 (±6.9 N)). PF was significantly higher for the grafts at the 50% and 75% positions, compared to the grafts 100% below the equator with anterior translation. Antero-inferior translation resulted in significantly higher values for the 100% and 75% positions compared to the 50% position. Conclusions This biomechanical study confirms improved anterior glenohumeral stability after iliac crest bone graft augmentation of the anterior glenoid. The results also demonstrate the importance of bone graft position in the sagittal plane, with the ideal position determined by the direction of dislocation. PMID:25457786
Keeley, David W.; Oliver, Gretchen D.; Dougherty, Christopher P.
Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical history questionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationships between both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Although peak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to the development of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% of shoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding 4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reported shoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appears that those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to report experiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force. PMID:23486209
Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P
Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical history questionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationships between both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Although peak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to the development of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% of shoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding 4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reported shoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appears that those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to report experiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force.
Romero Pérez, B; Marcos García, A; Medina Henríquez, J A; Muratore Moreno, G
Elbow dislocation is second in frequency, after the shoulder, whereas bilateral dislocation is uncommon, even less than dislocations with concurrent associated fractures. One of the least frequent associations is the Essex-Lopresti injury which consists of a fracture of the radial head affecting the distal radioulnar joint with injury to the interosseous membrane. This is a case of bilateral elbow dislocation, one of the elbows associated with the Essex-Lopresti injury. During treatment, the premature closed reduction prevails, previously making sure the elbow is stable, the premise which will determine the orthopedic or surgical treatment of the injury.
Jain, Nitin B.; Yamaguchi, Ken
Background We assessed the contribution of reverse shoulder arthroplasty to overall utilization of primary shoulder arthroplasty, and present age and sex stratified national rates of shoulder arthroplasty. We also assessed contemporary complication rates, mortality, and indications for shoulder arthroplasty, as well as estimates and indications for revision arthroplasty. Methods We used the Nationwide Inpatient Samples for 2009–2011 to calculate estimates of shoulder arthroplasty and assessed trends using joinpoint regression. Results The cumulative estimated utilization of primary shoulder arthroplasty (total anatomical, hemi, and reverse) increased significantly from 52,397 procedures (95% CI=47,093–57,701) in 2009 to 67,184 cases (95% CI=60,638–73,731) in 2011. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty accounted for 42% of all primary shoulder arthroplasty procedures in 2011. The diagnosis of concomitant diagnosis of osteoarthritis and rotator cuff impairment was found in only 29.8% of reverse shoulder arthroplasty cases. The highest rate of reverse shoulder arthroplasty was in the 75–84 year female sub-group (77; 95% CI=67–87). Revision cases were 8.8% and 8.2% of all shoulder arthroplasties in 2009 and 2011, respectively, and 35% of revision cases were secondary to mechanical complications/loosening while 18% were due to dislocation. Conclusions The utilization of primary shoulder arthroplasty significantly increased in just a three year time span, with a major contribution from reverse shoulder arthroplasty in 2011. Indications appear to have expanded as a large percentage of patients did not have rotator cuff pathology. The burden from revision arthroplasties was also substantial and efforts to optimize outcomes and longevity of primary shoulder arthroplasty are needed. Level of evidence Epidemiology Study, Database Analysis PMID:25304043
Jaggi, Anju; Noorani, Ali; Malone, Alex; Cowan, Joseph; Lambert, Simon; Bayley, Ian
Purpose: The aim of this study is to present muscle patterns observed with the direction of instability in a series of patients presenting with recurrent shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was carried out on shoulder instability cases referred for fine wire dynamic electromyography (DEMG) studies at a specialist upper limb centre between 1981 and 2003. An experienced consultant clinical neurophysiologist performed dual needle insertion into four muscles (pectoralis major (PM), latissimus dorsi (LD), anterior deltoid (AD) and infraspinatus (IS)) in shoulders that were suspected to have increased or suppressed activation of muscles that could be contributing to the instability. Raw EMG signals were obtained while subjects performed simple uniplanar movements of the shoulder. The presence or absence of muscle activation was noted and compared to clinical diagnosis and direction of instability. Results: A total of 140 (26.6%) shoulders were referred for fine wire EMG, and 131 studies were completed. Of the shoulders tested, 122 shoulders (93%) were identified as having abnormal patterns and nine had normal patterns. PM was found to be more active in 60% of shoulders presenting with anterior instability. LD was found to be more active in 81% of shoulders with anterior instability and 80% with posterior instability. AD was found to be more active in 22% of shoulders with anterior instability and 18% with posterior instability. IS was found to be inappropriately inactive in only 3% of shoulders with anterior instability but in 25% with posterior instability. Clinical assessment identified 93% of cases suspected to have muscle patterning, but the specificity of the clinical assessment was only correct in 11% of cases. Conclusion: The DEMG results suggest that increased activation of LD may play a role in both anterior and posterior shoulder instability; increased activation of PM may play a role in anterior instability. PMID:23493512
Monica, James; Vredenburgh, Zachary; Korsh, Jeremy; Gatt, Charles
Acute shoulder injuries in adults are often initially managed by family physicians. Common acute shoulder injuries include acromioclavicular joint injuries, clavicle fractures, glenohumeral dislocations, proximal humerus fractures, and rotator cuff tears. Acromioclavicular joint injuries and clavicle fractures mostly occur in young adults as the result of a sports injury or direct trauma. Most nondisplaced or minimally displaced injuries can be treated conservatively. Treatment includes pain management, short-term use of a sling for comfort, and physical therapy as needed. Glenohumeral dislocations can result from contact sports, falls, bicycle accidents, and similar high-impact trauma. Patients will usually hold the affected arm in their contralateral hand and have pain with motion and decreased motion at the shoulder. Physical findings may include a palpable humeral head in the axilla or a dimple inferior to the acromion laterally. Reduction maneuvers usually require intra-articular lidocaine or intravenous analgesia. Proximal humerus fractures often occur in older patients after a low-energy fall. Radiography of the shoulder should include a true anteroposterior view of the glenoid, scapular Y view, and axillary view. Most of these fractures can be managed nonoperatively, using a sling, early range-of-motion exercises, and strength training. Rotator cuff tears can cause difficulty with overhead activities or pain that awakens the patient from sleep. On physical examination, patients may be unable to hold the affected arm in an elevated position. It is important to recognize the sometimes subtle signs and symptoms of acute shoulder injuries to ensure proper management and timely referral if necessary.
Lugo, Roberto; Kung, Peter; Ma, C Benjamin
The biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint depend on the interaction of both static and dynamic-stabilizing structures. Static stabilizers include the bony anatomy, negative intra-articular pressure, the glenoid labrum, and the glenohumeral ligaments along with the joint capsule. The dynamic-stabilizing structures include the rotator cuff muscles and the other muscular structures surrounding the shoulder joint. The combined effect of these stabilizers is to support the multiple degrees of motion within the glenohumeral joint. The goal of this article is to review how these structures interact to provide optimal stability and how failure of some of these mechanisms can lead to shoulder joint pathology.
Fitzgibbons, Peter G; Louie, Dexter; Dyer, George Sinclair Mitchell; Blazar, Philip; Earp, Brandon
Historically, the published literature on "terrible triad" injuries has shown a high rate of unacceptable results. The use of systematic treatment protocols may improve functional outcome. The authors performed a retrospective study of all patients aged 18 years or older who underwent surgical treatment for "terrible triad" elbow fracture dislocation at their institution over a period 7 years. Surgical treatment involved fixation or replacement of the radial head, repair of the anterior capsule or coronoid fracture in most cases, and repair of the lateral collateral ligament. Outcomes included grip strength, range of motion, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire score, and a visual analog score for pain as well as radiographic assessment of arthritis, maintenance of reduction, and development of heterotopic ossification. Eighteen patients were identified and 11 enrolled. Seven patients had suture fixation of the coronoid fragment and anterior capsule, 2 had screw fixation, and 2 had no repair of the coronoid. The radial head was replaced in 9 patients and repaired in 1, and a fracture fragment was excised in another. The average follow-up was 38 months. The average arc of motion of the injured elbow was 112° and that of the contralateral elbow was 142°. The average DASH score was 19.7 (scale, 0-100). The average visual analog score for pain was 2.2 (scale, 0-10). No patients had recurrent elbow instability. Three patients underwent further surgical procedures, all for loss of motion. The authors concluded that a systematic approach to the fixation of "terrible triad" elbow fracture dislocations can provide predictable elbow stability and functional range of motion in the medium term.
The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body. It requires an extensive support system to create mobility while providing stability. Although there are many etiologies of shoulder pain, weakness, and instability, most injuries in the shoulder are due to overuse. Rotator cuff tears, labral tears, calcific tendinopathy, and impingement often result from chronic overuse injuries. Acute injuries include dislocations that can cause labral tears or other complications. Frozen shoulder refers to a typically benign condition of restricted range of motion that may spontaneously resolve but can cause prolonged pain and discomfort. The history combined with specific shoulder examination techniques can help family physicians successfully diagnose shoulder conditions. X-ray imaging typically is sufficient to rule out more serious etiologies when evaluating patients with shoulder conditions. However, imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study or ultrasonography for rotator cuff tears, and MRI study with intra-articular contrast for labral tears, is needed to confirm these diagnoses. Corticosteroid injections and physical therapy are first-line treatments for most shoulder conditions. Surgical options typically are reserved for patients for whom conservative treatments are ineffective, and typically are performed arthroscopically.
Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises
Objective To evaluate the expression of the genes COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1 and COL5A1 in the glenohumeral capsule of patients with traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder. Methods Samples from the glenohumeral capsule of 18 patients with traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder were evaluated. Male patients with a positive grip test and a Bankart lesion seen on magnetic resonance imaging were included. All the patients had suffered more than one episode of shoulder dislocation. Samples were collected from the injured glenohumeral capsule (anteroinferior region) and from the macroscopically unaffected region (anterosuperior region) of each patient. The expression of collagen genes was evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription with quantitative analysis (qRT-PCR). Results The expression of COL1A1, COL1A2 and COL3A1 did not differ between the two regions of the shoulder capsule. However, it was observed that the expression of COL5A1 was significantly lower in the anteroinferior region than in the anterosuperior region (median ± interquartile range: 0.057 ± 0.052 vs. 0.155 ± 0.398; p = 0.028) of the glenohumeral capsule. Conclusion The affected region of the glenohumeral capsule in patients with shoulder instability presented reduced expression of COL5A1. PMID:26229875
Rehim, Shady A.; Maynard, Mallory A.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.
The eponym Monteggia fracture-dislocation originally referred to a fracture of the shaft of the ulna accompanied by anterior dislocation of the radial head that was described by Giovanni Battista Monteggia of Italy in 1814. Subsequently, a further classification system based on the direction of the radial head dislocation and associated fractures of the radius and ulna was proposed by Jose Luis Bado of Uruguay in 1958. This article investigates the evolution of treatment, classification, and outcomes of the Monteggia injury and sheds light on the lives and contributions of Monteggia and Bado. PMID:24792923
Lützner, Jörg; Krummenauer, F; Lübke, J; Kirschner, S; Günther, K-P; Bottesi, M
Both open and arthroscopic Bankart repair are established procedures in the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. While the open procedure is still considered as the "golden standard" functional outcome is supposed to be better in the arthroscopic procedure. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the functional outcome between open and arthroscopic Bankart repair. In 199 patients a Bankart procedure with suture anchors was performed, either arthroscopically in presence of an detached, but not elongated capsulolabral complex (40) or open (159). After a median time of 31 months (12 to 67 months) 174 patients were contacted and agreed to follow-up, 135 after open and 39 after arthroscopic Bankart procedure. Re-dislocations occurred in 8% after open and 15% after arthroscopic Bankart procedure. After open surgery 4 of the 11 re-dislocations occurred after a new adequate trauma and 1 of the 6 re-dislocations after arthroscopic surgery. Re-dislocations after arthroscopic procedure occurred earlier than after open Bankart repair. An external rotation lag of 20 degrees or more was observed more often (16%) after open than after arthroscopic surgery (3%). The Rowe score demonstrated "good" or "excellent" functional results in 87% after open and in 80% patients after arthroscopic treatment. In this retrospective investigation the open Bankart procedure demonstrated good functional results. The arthroscopic treatment without capsular shift resulted in a better range of motion, but showed a tendency towards more frequently and earlier recurrence of instability. Sensitive patient selection for arthroscopic Bankart repair is recommended especially in patients with more than five dislocations.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent cause of disability in the USA, affecting up to 32.8% of patients over the age of sixty. Treatment of shoulder OA is often controversial and includes both nonoperative and surgical modalities. Nonoperative modalities should be utilized before operative treatment is considered, particularly for patients with mild-to-moderate OA or when pain and functional limitations are modest despite more advanced radiographic changes. If conservative options fail, surgical treatment should be considered. Although different surgical procedures are available, as in other joints affected by severe OA, the most effective treatment is joint arthroplasty. The aim of this work is to give an overview of the currently available treatments of shoulder OA. PMID:23365745
Poggetti, A; Novi, M; Rosati, M; Battistini, P; Parchi, P; Lisanti, M
Introduction: Most published floating clavicle report a dislocation or fracture of one or both ends of the clavicle. Case Presentation: We reported a new framework of this injury in a young triathlon athlete; medial-end displaced fracture with co-existent double disruption of the superior shoulder suspensory complex (SSSC) with the anterior shoulder arch wholly disconnected from the nearby structure. Conclusion: The management of these complex fractures remains an open debate. The infrequent publications and the rarity of this type of injuries don’t support the surgeon about the choice of the best possible treatment. However, if they are involved Patients with high functional demands, the Authors suggest the surgical management of medial-end clavicle fractures followed by restoration of SSSC complex if damaged on more than two locations. PMID:28116259
A, Poggetti; M, Novi; M, Rosati; P, Battistini; P, Parchi; M, Lisanti
Most published floating clavicle report a dislocation or fracture of one or both ends of the clavicle. We reported a new framework of this injury in a young triathlon athlete; medial-end displaced fracture with co-existent double disruption of the superior shoulder suspensory complex (SSSC) with the anterior shoulder arch wholly disconnected from the nearby structure. The management of these complex fractures remains an open debate. The infrequent publications and the rarity of this type of injuries don't support the surgeon about the choice of the best possible treatment. However, if they are involved Patients with high functional demands, the Authors suggest the surgical management of medial-end clavicle fractures followed by restoration of SSSC complex if damaged on more than two locations.
Kemp, Adam L; King, Joseph J; Farmer, Kevin W; Wright, Thomas W
Wheelchair-dependent patients have a high incidence of shoulder pathology, often causing severe impairment. This study reports outcomes of wheelchair-dependent lower extremity-impaired patients with symptomatic shoulder arthritis or severe rotator cuff pathology treated with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Data for 19 wheelchair-dependent patients who had an RTSA for symptomatic arthritis or rotator cuff pathology, or both, were obtained from the University of Florida Shoulder Arthroplasty Database. Included were 16 of 19 shoulders with adequate follow-up averaging 40 months. Functional outcome scores included the Simple Shoulder Test, University of California Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and 12-item Short Form (SF-12) health survey. Objective measures were active elevation, external rotation, and internal rotation. Radiographs were evaluated for lucent lines, notching, and prosthetic loosening. All measured parameters, except the SF-12, significantly improved at the final follow-up. Functional outcome scores included Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, 45; Simple Shoulder Test, 7; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, 73; University of California Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale, 30; Constant, 70; and SF-12, 33. Active elevation was 112°, and active external rotation was 29°. Most patients (83%) were satisfied. The complication rate was 25%; baseplate failure and dislocation occurred early, and periprosthetic humeral fracture secondary to infection occurred late. The notching rate was 42%. Shoulder pain and dysfunction due to arthritis and rotator cuff pathology can result in the loss of independence in wheelchair-dependent patients. We investigated whether RTSA can sustain the increased loads placed by these patients during transfers. Wheelchair-dependent patients can benefit from an RTSA for shoulder pain and dysfunction but must accept worsened
Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Alonso Hidalgo, Ignacio; Sirio, Adrian; Puig Dubois, Julieta; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L
There is no universally accepted definition of "contact" or "collision" sports in the literature. The few available studies evaluating contact and collision sports consider them to be synonymous. However, athletes in collision sports purposely hit or collide with each other or with inanimate objects with greater force and frequency than in contact sports, which could jeopardize functional outcomes. To compare the functional outcomes, return to sports, and recurrences in a series of contact and collision athletes with a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation treated using arthroscopic stabilization with suture anchors. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 56 athletes were enrolled in this study, including 22 contact athletes and 34 collision athletes. All athletes underwent arthroscopic shoulder stabilization using suture anchors. Range of motion, the Rowe score, a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System (ASOSS) were used to assess functional outcomes. Return to sports and recurrences were also evaluated. The mean age at the time of surgery was 22.2 years, and the mean follow-up was 62.4 months (range, 36-94 months). No significant difference in shoulder motion was found between preoperative and postoperative results or between the contact and collision groups. The Rowe, VAS, and ASOSS scores showed statistical improvement in both groups after surgery (P = .001). Patients in the contact group returned to sports significantly faster than those in the collision group (5.2 vs 6.9 months, respectively; P = .01). In all, 43 athletes (76.8%) returned to near-preinjury sports activity levels (≥90% recovery) after surgery: 86.4% of patients in the contact group and 70.6% in the collision group (P = .04). The total recurrence rate was 8.9%. There were 5 recurrences (14.7%) in the collision group and no recurrences in the contact group (P < .01). Arthroscopic stabilization for anterior instability of the shoulder is a
Yoganandan, Narayan; Stadter, Gregory W.; Halloway, Dale E.; Pintar, Frank A.
CIREN and NASS-CDS databases were used to analyze nearside impact injuries. Front seat occupants with and without shoulder injuries were examined on an individual basis in both databases. All vehicles were from model year 2000 or newer. Variables such as the type of collision, change in velocity, principal direction force, demographics, injuries scored by the MAIS and ISS metrics, and injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were included. Shoulder injuries included fractures to the humerus, scapula and clavicle, and associated joint traumas. The median changes in velocities for occupants with and without shoulder injuries were 36 and 32 km/h in CIREN and 29 and 32 km/h in NASS databases. Approximately two-thirds of all cases occurred below 40 km/h. In both databases, the clavicle, scapula and humerus fractures, and AC joint dislocations were found, and the scapula fracture was associated with the clavicle, AC joint, acromion and humerus injuries in few occupants. The clavicle fracture was associated with AC joint and humerus injuries only in the NASS database. Thorax, abdomen and pelvic injuries and skull fractures increased with the presence of shoulder injuries in both databases, albeit not at the same rate. Anterior oblique loading was more frequent than pure lateral loading in both databases suggesting the importance of the oblique vector in side impact trauma. These findings underscore a need for detailed examinations of shoulder load-sharing using biomechanical studies to better understand its role in side impact traumas, shoulder biofidelity and injury assessments in dummies. PMID:24406953
Werthel, Jean-David; Schoch, Bradley; Sperling, John W; Cofield, Robert; Elhassan, Bassem T
Polio infection can often lead to orthopedic complications such as arthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, skeletal deformation, and chronic instability of the joints. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes and associated complications of arthroplasty in shoulders with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Seven patients (average age, 70 years) were treated between 1976 and 2013 with shoulder arthroplasty for the sequelae of polio. One patient underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty, 2 had a hemiarthroplasty, and 4 had total shoulder arthroplasty. Average follow-up was 87 months. Outcome measures included pain, range of motion, and postoperative modified Neer ratings. Overall pain scores improved from 5 to 1.6 points (on a 5-point scale) after shoulder arthroplasty. Six shoulders had no or mild pain at latest follow-up, and 6 shoulders rated the result as much better or better. Mean shoulder elevation improved from 72° to 129°, and external rotation improved from 11° to 56°. Average strength in elevation decreased from 3.9 to 3.4 postoperatively, and external rotation strength decreased from 3.9 to 3.3. This, however, did not reach significance. Evidence of muscle imbalance with radiographic instability was found in 4 shoulders that demonstrated superior subluxation, anterior subluxation, or both. This remained asymptomatic. No shoulder required revision or reoperation. Shoulder arthroplasty provides significant pain relief and improved motion in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Muscle weakness may be responsible for postoperative instability, and careful selection of the patient with good upper extremity muscles must be made. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Giorgi, Silvana; Garofalo, Raffaele; Tafuri, Silvio; Cesari, Eugenio; Rose, Giacomo Delle; Castagna, Alessandro
the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of arthroscopic capsuloplasty in the treatment of failed primary arthroscopic treatment of glenohumeral instability. we retrospectively examined at a minimum of 3-years follow-up 22 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment between 1999 and 2007 who had recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a post-surgical failure. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate which variable could influence the definitive result and clinical outcomes at final follow-up. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. we observed after revision surgery an overall failure rate of 8/22 (36.4%) including frank dislocations, subluxations and also apprehension that seriously inhibit the patient's quality of life. No significant differences were observed in the examined parameters. according to our outcomes we generally do not recommend an arthroscopic revision procedure for failed instability surgery.
Blonna, Davide; Bellato, Enrico; Caranzano, Francesco; Assom, Marco; Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo
The arthroscopic Bankart repair and open Bristow-Latarjet procedure are the 2 most commonly used techniques to treat recurrent shoulder instability. To compare in a case control-matched manner the 2 techniques, with particular emphasis on return to sport after surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A study was conducted in 2 hospitals matching 60 patients with posttraumatic recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a minimum follow-up of 2 years (30 patients treated with arthroscopic Bankart procedure and 30 treated with open Bristow-Latarjet procedure). Patients with severe glenoid bone loss and revision surgeries were excluded. In one hospital, patients were treated with arthroscopic Bankart repair using anchors; in the other, patients underwent the Bristow-Latarjet procedure. Patients were matched according to age at surgery, type and level of sport practiced before shoulder instability (Degree of Shoulder Involvement in Sports [DOSIS] scale), and number of dislocations. The primary outcomes were return to sport (Subjective Patient Outcome for Return to Sports [SPORTS] score), rate of recurrent instability, Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS), Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), and range of motion (ROM). After a mean follow-up of 5.3 years (range, 2-9 years), patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair obtained better results in terms of return to sport (SPORTS score: 8 vs 6; P = .02) and ROM in the throwing position (86° vs 79°; P = .01), and they reported better subjective perception of the shoulder (SSV: 86% vs 75%; P = .02). No differences were detectable using the OSIS or WOSI. The rate of recurrent instability was not statistically different between the 2 groups (Bankart repair 10% vs Bristow-Latarjet 0%; P = .25), although the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference in this parameter. The multiple regression analysis showed that the independent
Szerlip, Benjamin W; Morris, Brent J; Edwards, T Bradley
Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has become increasingly popular for the treatment of complex shoulder injuries, including proximal humerus fractures and fixed glenohumeral dislocation, in the elderly population. The early to midterm results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures are promising compared with the results of unconstrained humeral head replacement, and patients may have more predictable improvement with less dependence on bone healing and rehabilitation. However, long-term follow-up is needed, and surgeons must be familiar with various complications that are specific to reverse shoulder arthroplasty. To achieve optimal patient outcomes for the management of traumatic shoulder injuries, surgeons must have a comprehensive understanding of the current implant options, indications, and surgical techniques for reverse shoulder arthroplasty.
"Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described.
... bones: your upper arm bone (humerus), your shoulder blade (scapula), and your collarbone (clavicle). The shoulder is ... ﬁts into a shallow socket in your shoulder blade. This socket is called the glenoid. The surfaces ...
Bessière, Charles; Trojani, Christophe; Carles, Michel; Mehta, Saurabh S; Boileau, Pascal
Arthroscopic Bankart repair and open Latarjet bone block procedure are widely considered mainstays for surgical treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability. The choice between these procedures depends mainly on surgeon preference or training rather than published evidence. We compared patients with recurrent posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability treated with arthroscopic Bankart or open Latarjet procedure in terms of (1) frequency and timing of recurrent instability, (2) risk factors for recurrent instability, and (3) patient-reported outcomes. In this retrospective comparative study, we paired 93 patients undergoing open Latarjet procedures with 93 patients undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repairs over the same period for posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability by one of four surgeons at the same center. Both groups were comparable except that patients in the Latarjet group had more glenoid lesions and more instability episodes preoperatively. Minimum followup was 4 years (mean, 6 years; range, 4-10 years). Patients were assessed with a questionnaire, including stability, Rowe score, and return to sports. Recurrent instability was defined as at least one episode of recurrent dislocation or subluxation. Return to sports was evaluated using a 0% to 100% scale that patients completed after recovery from surgery. Various risk factors for recurrent instability were also analyzed. At latest followup, 10% (nine of 93) in the Latarjet group and 22% (20 of 93) in the Bankart group demonstrated recurrent instability (p = 0.026; odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17-0.91). Ten recurrences in the Bankart group (50%) occurred after 2 years, compared to only one (11%) in the Latarjet group. Reoperation rate was 6% and 7% in the Bankart and Latarjet groups, respectively. In both groups, patients younger than 20 years had higher recurrence risk (p = 0.019). In the Bankart group, independent factors predictive for recurrence were practice of competitive sports and
Sharda, Praveen; DuFosse, Julian
Subtalar dislocations are rare in routine orthopedic practice. While many of these dislocations are a result of high-energy injuries such as fall from a height or traffic accidents, it is not uncommon for patients to present after slipping down a few stairs. Two types of dislocation have been described, medial and lateral. The type of dislocation is described according to the position of the foot. In lateral subtalar dislocation the head of talus is found medially and the calcaneus is dislocated laterally. The navicular may lie dorsolateral to the talus. The reverse is true of lateral dislocation. Medial dislocation has been referred to as "basketball foot" due to its preponderance in basketball players.4 The deciding factor is the inverted or everted position of the foot when the force is dissipated through the weak talonavicular and talocalcaneal ligaments. This article presents a case of an adult with lateral subtalar dislocation following a fall.
Shakya, S; Ongole, R; Sumanth, K N; Denny, C E
Dislocation of the condyle of the mandible is a common condition that may occur in an acute or chronic form. It is characterised by inability to close the mouth with or without pain. Dislocation has to be differentiated from subluxation which is a self reducible condition. Dislocation can occur in any direction with anterior dislocation being the commonest one. Various predisposing factors have been associated with dislocation like muscle fatigue and spasm, the defect in the bony surface like shallow articular eminence, and laxity of the capsular ligament. People with defect in collagen synthesis like Ehler Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome are said to be genetically predisposed to this condition. Various treatment modalities have been used ranging from conservative techniques to surgical methods. Acute dislocations can be reduced manually or with conservative approach and recurrent and chronic cases can be reduced by surgical intervention. Though the dislocation in our case was 4 months a simple manual reduction proved to be successful. We believe that manual reduction can be attempted as first line of treatment prior to surgical intervention.
Madadi, Firooz; Tahririan, Mohammad A.; Karami, Mohsen; Madadi, Firoozeh
Congenital dislocation of the knee (CDK) is a rare disorder. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with bilateral knee stiffness, marked anterior bowing of both legs, and inability to walk without aid. Radiologic investigation revealed bilateral knee joint dislocation accompanied by severe anterior bowing of both tibia proximally and posterior bowing of both femur distally, demonstrating a complicated congenital knee dislocation. Two-staged open reduction with proximal tibial osteotomy was performed to align the reduced knee joints. The patient was completely independent in her daily activities after surgical correction. PMID:27847857
Zhu, Yichao; Chapman, Stephen Jonathan; Acharya, Amit
The Peach-Koehler expression for the stress generated by a single (non-planar) curvilinear dislocation is evaluated to calculate the dislocation self stress. This is combined with a law of motion to give the self-induced motion of a general dislocation curve. A stability analysis of a rectilinear, uniformly translating dislocation is then performed. The dislocation is found to be susceptible to a helical instability, with the maximum growth rate occurring when the dislocation is almost, but not exactly, pure screw. The non-linear evolution of the instability is determined numerically, and implications for slip band formation and non-Schmid behavior in yielding are discussed.
Bloomer, I.; Charap, J.M.
Dislocation continuity is derived from the Bilby--Kondo theory of dislocations using exterior calculus. Dislocation density is represented by the torsion vector-valued two-form. Burgers vectors are associated with the vector part of the torsion while dislocation lines are associated with the two-form part. The exterior derivative of the torsion is shown to vanish when the crystal curvature vanishes. This implies two simultaneous continuity conditions: Burgers vector conservation and continuity of dislocation lines. On the other hand, dislocation continuity is violated when the curvature does not vanish. Since this can occur on grain boundaries it is inferred that grain boundaries are regions where crystal curvature is concentrated.
Lee, Thay Q; McMahon, Patrick J
After spinal cord injury, excessive burden falls on the upper extremity, especially the shoulder. Overall, 51% of persons with spinal cord injury have shoulder problems. Common shoulder problems in persons with spinal cord injury begin with muscle imbalance that can lead to glenohumeral instability, impingement disease, rotator cuff tears, and subsequent degenerative joint disease. These problems can be attributed to the functional demands placed on the shoulder that are specific to patients with spinal cord injury, including overhead activities, wheelchair use, and transfers. Despite preventive exercises, shoulder problems in persons with spinal cord injury remain a significant problem, causing pain and functional limitations. The biomechanics of the shoulder for persons with spinal cord injury resulting from changes in muscle plasticity will be elucidated. Specifically, the effects of scapular protraction that can result from muscle imbalance, the age-dependent properties of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament, and the influence of the dynamic restraints around the shoulder will be addressed.
Argintar, Evan; Heckmann, Nathanael; Wang, Lawrence; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q
The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical effects of the remplissage repair combined with Bankart repair for engaging Hill-Sachs lesions on range of motion (ROM), translation, and glenohumeral kinematics. Six cadaveric shoulders were tested using a custom shoulder testing system. ROM, kinematics, and anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior glenohumeral translations were quantified at 0° and 60° glenohumeral abduction. Six conditions were tested: intact, Bankart lesion, Bankart with 40 % Hill-Sachs lesion, Bankart repair, Bankart repair with remplissage, and remplissage repair alone. Humeral external rotation (ER) and total range of motion increased significantly after the creation of the Bankart lesion at both 0° and 60° abduction. The Bankart repair restored ER to intact values at 0° and 60° abduction, and the addition of the remplissage repair did not significantly alter range of motion from the Bankart repair alone. AP translation increased following the creation of the Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions and was restored with the Bankart repair; the remplissage did not alter translation from the Bankart repair alone. At maximum ER at 60° abduction, the apex of the humeral head shifted posteriorly and inferiorly with remplissage repair. The addition of the remplissage procedure combined with Bankart repair for treatment of large Hill-Sachs lesions had no statistically significant effect on ROM or translation, but altered the kinematics of the glenohumeral joint. Thus, by addressing the humeral bone defect following an anterior shoulder dislocation, the remplissage technique with concurrent Bankart repair may be a relatively minimally invasive option for converting engaging Hill-Sachs lesions to non-engaging and promoting shoulder stability, though further biomechanical and clinical studies are warranted.
Hajji, Rita; Zrihni, Youssef; Naouli, Hamza; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif
Elbow dislocations are the most frequently encountered after shoulder dislocations. In their vast majority, these injuries carry a good prognosis. Although, concomitant arterial injury is rare and make them more serious. In this paper, we report a case of a 17 year old woman with opened elbow dislocation with arterial injury associated to an artery variation: "accessory brachial artery".
Hajji, Rita; Zrihni, Youssef; Naouli, Hamza; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif
Elbow dislocations are the most frequently encountered after shoulder dislocations. In their vast majority, these injuries carry a good prognosis. Although, concomitant arterial injury is rare and make them more serious. In this paper, we report a case of a 17 year old woman with opened elbow dislocation with arterial injury associated to an artery variation: "accessory brachial artery" PMID:26161188
Bushnell, Brandon D; Creighton, R Alexander; Herring, Marion M
Instability of the shoulder is a common problem treated by many orthopaedists. Instability can result from baseline intrinsic ligamentous laxity or a traumatic event-often a dislocation that injures the stabilizing structures of the glenohumeral joint. Many cases involve soft-tissue injury only and can be treated successfully with repair of the labrum and ligamentous tissues. Both open and arthroscopic approaches have been well described, with recent studies of arthroscopic soft-tissue techniques reporting results equal to those of the more traditional open techniques. Over the last decade, attention has focused on the concept of instability of the shoulder mediated by bony pathology such as a large bony Bankart lesion or an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. Recent literature has identified unrecognized large bony lesions as a primary cause of failure of arthroscopic reconstruction for instability, a major cause of recurrent instability, and a difficult diagnosis to make. Thus, although such bony lesions may be relatively rare compared with soft-tissue pathology, they constitute a critically important entity in the management of shoulder instability. Smaller bony lesions may be amenable to arthroscopic treatment, but larger lesions often require open surgery to prevent recurrent instability. This article reviews recent developments in the diagnosis and treatment of bony instability.
Escamilla, Rafael F; Yamashiro, Kyle; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R
The rotator cuff performs multiple functions during shoulder exercises, including glenohumeral abduction, external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR). The rotator cuff also stabilizes the glenohumeral joint and controls humeral head translations. The infraspinatus and subscapularis have significant roles in scapular plane abduction (scaption), generating forces that are two to three times greater than supraspinatus force. However, the supraspinatus still remains a more effective shoulder abductor because of its more effective moment arm. Both the deltoids and rotator cuff provide significant abduction torque, with an estimated contribution up to 35-65% by the middle deltoid, 30% by the subscapularis, 25% by the supraspinatus, 10% by the infraspinatus and 2% by the anterior deltoid. During abduction, middle deltoid force has been estimated to be 434 N, followed by 323 N from the anterior deltoid, 283 N from the subscapularis, 205 N from the infraspinatus, and 117 N from the supraspinatus. These forces are generated not only to abduct the shoulder but also to stabilize the joint and neutralize the antagonistic effects of undesirable actions. Relatively high force from the rotator cuff not only helps abduct the shoulder but also neutralizes the superior directed force generated by the deltoids at lower abduction angles. Even though anterior deltoid force is relatively high, its ability to abduct the shoulder is low due to a very small moment arm, especially at low abduction angles. The deltoids are more effective abductors at higher abduction angles while the rotator cuff muscles are more effective abductors at lower abduction angles. During maximum humeral elevation the scapula normally upwardly rotates 45-55 degrees, posterior tilts 20-40 degrees and externally rotates 15-35 degrees. The scapular muscles are important during humeral elevation because they cause these motions, especially the serratus anterior, which contributes to scapular upward rotation
Ko, Sang-Hun; Cha, Jae-Ryong; Hwang, Il-Yeong; Choe, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Seok
Background Recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be associated with a large osseous defect in the posterosuperior part of the humeral head. Our hypothesis is that remplissage is more effective to prevent recurrence of glenohumeral instability without a severe motion deficit. Methods Engaging Hill-Sachs lesions were observed in 48 of 737 patients (6.5%). Twenty-four patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair combined with remplissage (group I) and the other 24 patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair alone (group II). Clinical outcomes were prospectively evaluated by assessing the range of motion. Complications, recurrence rates, and functional results were assessed utilizing the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Rowe score, and the Korean Shoulder Score for Instability (KSSI) score. Capsulotenodesis healing after remplissage was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. Results The average ASES, Rowe, and KSSI scores were statistically significantly higher in group I than group II. The frequency of recurrence was statistically significantly higher in group II. The average loss in external rotation measured with the arm positioned at the side of the trunk was greater in group II and that in abduction was also higher in group II. Conclusions Compared to single arthroscopic Bankart repair, the remplissage procedure combined with arthroscopic Bankart repair was more effective to prevent the recurrence of anterior shoulder instability without significant impact on shoulder mobility in patients who had huge Hill-Sachs lesions. PMID:27904726
Ko, Sang-Hun; Cha, Jae-Ryong; Lee, Chae-Chil; Hwang, Il-Yeong; Choe, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Seok
Recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be associated with a large osseous defect in the posterosuperior part of the humeral head. Our hypothesis is that remplissage is more effective to prevent recurrence of glenohumeral instability without a severe motion deficit. Engaging Hill-Sachs lesions were observed in 48 of 737 patients (6.5%). Twenty-four patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair combined with remplissage (group I) and the other 24 patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair alone (group II). Clinical outcomes were prospectively evaluated by assessing the range of motion. Complications, recurrence rates, and functional results were assessed utilizing the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Rowe score, and the Korean Shoulder Score for Instability (KSSI) score. Capsulotenodesis healing after remplissage was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. The average ASES, Rowe, and KSSI scores were statistically significantly higher in group I than group II. The frequency of recurrence was statistically significantly higher in group II. The average loss in external rotation measured with the arm positioned at the side of the trunk was greater in group II and that in abduction was also higher in group II. Compared to single arthroscopic Bankart repair, the remplissage procedure combined with arthroscopic Bankart repair was more effective to prevent the recurrence of anterior shoulder instability without significant impact on shoulder mobility in patients who had huge Hill-Sachs lesions.
Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman
The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.
Welsh, Mark F; Willing, Ryan T; Giles, Joshua W; Athwal, George S; Johnson, James A
The purpose of this study was to employ subject-specific computer models to evaluate the interaction of glenohumeral range-of-motion and Hill-Sachs humeral head bone defect size on engagement and shoulder dislocation. We hypothesized that the rate of engagement would increase as defect size increased, and that greater shoulder ROM would engage smaller defects. Three dimensional computer models of 12 shoulders were created. For each shoulder, additional models were created with simulated Hill-Sachs defects of varying severities (XS=15%, S=22.5%, M=30%, L=37.5%, XL=45% and XXL=52.5% of the humeral head diameter, respectively). Rotational motion simulations without translation were conducted. The simulations ended if the defect engaged the anterior glenoid rim with resultant dislocation. The results showed that the rate of engagement was significantly different between defect sizes (0.001
Bayam, Levent; Ahmad, Mudussar A; Naqui, Syed Z; Chouhan, Aroonkumar; Funk, Lennard
We conducted a study to ascertain specific patterns of pain in patients with common shoulder disorders and to describe a comprehensive shoulder pain map. We prospectively studied 94 cases involving an upper limb pain map and correlated the maps with the final diagnoses made by 2 clinicians who were blinded to the pain map findings. Pattern, severity, and type of pain were specific to each common shoulder disorder. In subacromial impingement, pain was predominantly sharp, occurred around the anterior aspect of the shoulder, radiated down the arm, and was associated with dull, aching pain radiating to the hand. A similar pain pattern was found in rotator cuff tears. In acromioclavicular joint pathology, pain was sharp, stabbing, and well localized to the anterosuperior shoulder area. Glenohumeral joint arthritis was marked by the most severe pain, which occurred in a mixed pattern and affected the entire arm. Whereas the pain of instability was a mixture of sharp and dull pain, the pain of calcific tendonitis was severe and sharp. Both pains were limited to the upper arm and shoulder. Pain mapping revealed definitive patterns for shoulder pathologies. We advocate using pain maps as useful diagnostic guides and research tools.
Valkering, Kars P; Stokman, Remco D; Bijlsma, Taco S; Brohet, Richard M; van Noort, Arthur
After shoulder trauma, most fractures and dislocations are easily recognized on radiographic examination; however, the opposite is true for rotator cuff injuries. As a consequence, shoulder complaints may persist or arise due to unrecognized cuff injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of shoulder pain and symptomatic rotator cuff ruptures 1 year after shoulder trauma without fracture or dislocation. This prospective descriptive study included all the patients presented at our emergency department between January 2007 and January 2008 after a trauma to the shoulder without fracture or dislocation. One year after trauma, this cohort was interviewed by telephone and re-examined at the outpatient clinic on indication. Of the 217 patients included, all had been pain-free before the trauma. One year after trauma, 69 patients (32%) were still suffering from shoulder pain. Of these patients, 31 were re-examined and 27 had already been re-examined in the meantime. In total, 20 of these 58 patients (34%) were diagnosed with a symptomatic rotator cuff rupture, representing a prevalence of 9% among the included patients. Emergency physicians should be aware that normal radiography does not exclude the presence of a rotator cuff tear in patients with a history of shoulder trauma. Regular follow-up is essential for discovering rotator cuff injuries. In this study, 32% still suffered from shoulder pain 1 year after shoulder trauma, and re-examination revealed a prevalence of 9% symptomatic rotator cuff ruptures.
Ialenti, Marc N.; Mulvihill, Jeffrey D.; Feinstein, Max; Zhang, Alan L.; Feeley, Brian T.
Background: Anterior shoulder instability can be a disabling condition for the young athlete; however, the best surgical treatment remains controversial. Traditionally, anterior shoulder instability was treated with open stabilization. More recently, arthroscopic repair of the Bankart injury with suture anchor fixation has become an accepted technique. Hypothesis: No systematic reviews have compared the rate of return to play following arthroscopic Bankart repair with suture anchor fixation with the Bristow-Latarjet procedure and open stabilization. We hypothesized that the rate of return to play will be similar regardless of surgical technique. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis focused on return to play following shoulder stabilization. Inclusion criteria included studies in English that reported on rate of return to play and clinical outcomes following primary arthroscopic Bankart repair with suture anchors, the Latarjet procedure, or open stabilization. Statistical analyses included Student t tests and analyses of variance. Results: Sixteen papers reporting on 1036 patients were included. A total of 545 patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair with suture anchors, 353 with the Latarjet procedure, and 138 with open repair. No significant difference was found in patient demographic data among the studies. Patients returned to sport at the same level of play (preinjury level) more consistently following arthroscopic Bankart repair (71%) or the Latarjet procedure (73%) than open stabilization (66%) (P < .05). Return to play at any level and postoperative Rowe scores were not significantly different among studies. Recurrent dislocation was significantly less following the Latarjet procedure (3.5%) than after arthroscopic Bankart repair (6.6%) or open stabilization (6.7%) (P < .05). Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrates a greater rate of return to play at the preinjury
Koorevaar, Rinco C T; Haanstra, Tsjitske; Van't Riet, Esther; Lambers Heerspink, Okke F O; Bulstra, Sjoerd K
Patient satisfaction after a surgical procedure is dependent on meeting preoperative expectations. There is currently no patient expectations survey available for patients undergoing shoulder surgery that is validated, reliable, and easy to use in daily practice. The aim of this study was to develop a Patient Expectations of Shoulder Surgery (PESS) survey. In 315 patients, answers to an open-ended question about patient expectations were collected before shoulder surgery to develop the PESS survey. Patients' expectations of the PESS survey were associated with clinical outcome (change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score). Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 patients scheduled for shoulder surgery, and test-retest reliability was evaluated. Six items were included in the PESS survey: pain relief, improved range of motion, improved ability to perform daily activities, improved ability to perform work, improved ability to participate in recreational activities and sports, and stop shoulder from dislocating. Three of the 6 expectations were significantly associated with clinical outcome after shoulder surgery. Test-retest reliability was high with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.52-0.92. The PESS survey is a valid and reliable survey that can be used in future clinical research and in daily orthopedic practice. We believe that the preoperative evaluation of patient expectations should be a standard procedure before shoulder surgery. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takagi, Yohei; Oi, Takanori; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Inui, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Juichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Nobuhara, Katsuya
Soft tissues of the shoulder undergoes substantial stresses due to humeral head movement, and this may contribute to throwing shoulder injuries in baseball pitchers. Prevention and management of throwing shoulder injuries critically rely on reduction of shear force at the shoulder joint. However, the amount and direction of the force applied to the shoulder during the throwing motion have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to analyze forces applied to the shoulder during a baseball pitch. We performed biomechanical analysis of 213 baseball pitchers of various ages and skill levels. Throwing motion was analyzed with a 3-dimensional motion capture system. The Euler angle sequence was adopted to describe angular values of the upper arm relative to the trunk for shoulder rotation, and inverse dynamics was used to estimate the resultant joint forces at the shoulder. There was a significant relation between horizontal abduction/adduction angle and resultant anterior/posterior force at the point of maximum external rotation (MER) (r = -0.63, P < .01), whereby increased horizontal abduction was associated with increased resultant anterior force. There was a significant but weak correlation between abduction/adduction angle and superior/inferior force at MER (r = 0.24, P < .01). Comparison among the groups with variable ages and skill levels showed larger horizontal abduction and smaller external rotation angles at MER in the adult amateur player group, whereas normalized compression force and internal rotation torque values at MER were smaller in the junior high school- and elementary school-aged groups. These results suggest that excessive horizontal abduction at MER increases anterior shear force in the shoulder and may lead to shoulder injuries. Focusing on reducing horizontal abduction at MER in the throwing motion may be key to preventing and managing shoulder injuries in baseball pitchers. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow
Iwamoto, Masami; Miki, Kazuo; Yang, King H.
Previous studies in both fields of automotive safety and orthopedic surgery have hypothesized that immobilization of the shoulder caused by the shoulder injury could be related to multiple rib fractures, which are frequently life threatening. Therefore, for more effective occupant protection, it is important to understand the relationship between shoulder injury and multiple rib fractures in side impact. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human shoulder in order to understand this relationship. The shoulder model included three bones (the humerus, scapula and clavicle) and major ligaments and muscles around the shoulder. The model also included approaches to represent bone fractures and joint dislocations. The relationships between shoulder injury and immobilization of the shoulder are discussed using model responses for lateral shoulder impact. It is also discussed how the injury can be related to multiple rib fractures.
Uga, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the relationship between scapular dyskinesis and shoulder external rotation strength and muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] Both shoulders of 20 healthy males were evaluated. They were classified into 19 normal, 8 subtly abnormal, and 13 obviously abnormal shoulders using the scapular dyskinesis test. Subtly abnormal shoulders were subsequently excluded from the analysis. Shoulder external rotation strength and muscle activity (infraspinatus, serratus anterior, upper, middle, and lower trapezius) were measured in 2 positions using a handheld dynamometer and surface electromyography while sitting in a chair with shoulder 0° abduction and flexion (1st position), and while lying prone on the elbows with the shoulders elevated in the zero position (zero position). The strength ratio was calculated to quantify the change in strength between the positions (zero position / 1st position). [Results] In the obviously abnormal shoulder group, the strength in the 1st position was significantly stronger, the strength ratio was significantly smaller, and the serratus anterior in the zero position showed significantly lower activity than the normal shoulder group. [Conclusion] In shoulder external rotation in the zero position, in obviously abnormal shoulders, the serratus anterior is poorly recruited, weakening the shoulder external rotation strength. PMID:27190434
Spoliti, Marco; De Cupis, Mauro; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco
Summary Introduction: acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation is common in athletes and in contact sports and about 9% of shoulder injuries involves this joint. The majority of these AC lesions can be successfully treated conservatively but high grade dislocation and some cases of type III dislocation need a surgical treatment. Many different operative techniques have been described over the years. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of arthroscopic stabilization of AC joint dislocation with TightRope® system. Materials and methods: nineteen patients with acute AC dislocation were treated by arthroscopic fixation with TightRope® system. Any associated lesions were repaired. All patients were assessed before surgery (T0), at 3 months (T1), at 6 months (T2) and at 1 year after the surgery (T3) using a visual analogic scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley Score (CMS). All patients were evaluated with X-ray. Results: six AC-joint dislocations involved the right shoulder and thirteen the left shoulder. Ten were type III dislocation, three were type IV and six were type V dislocation. We found a statistically significant reduction of pain (p< 0.01) at T1 compared to the pretreatment scores. The CMS measures showed an improvement between T1, T2 and T3, but the difference was statistically significant only between T1 and T3 (p= 0.017). The postoperative X-Ray of the shoulder showed a good reduction of the AC joint dislocation. We had 1 case of recurrence and 2 cases of loss of intraoperative reduction. Conclusion: arthroscopic technique for acute AC joint dislocations with the use of the TightRope® device is minimally invasive and it allows an anatomic restoration of the joint. It is a safe and effective procedure ensuring stable AC joint reconstruction and good cosmetic results. PMID:25767774
Wake, Hirofumi; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Keiichiro; Inoue, Hajime; Nagayama, Noriyuki
Fracture-dislocations of the coronoid and olecranon were produced experimentally, and their onset mechanisms were analyzed to clarify the effects of compression force on the coronoid and olecranon. The study used two-dimensional finite element method (2D-FEM) simulations and static loading experiments. The latter applied axial force distally to 40 cadaveric elbows. Posterior fracture-dislocations occurred between 15 degrees of extension and 30 degrees of flexion, anterior or posterior fracture-dislocations at 60 degrees, and only anterior fracture-dislocations at 90 degrees. Injuries were mainly to anterior or posterior support structures. The 2D-FEM simulations showed that the stress concentration areas moved from the coronoid process to the olecranon as position changed from extension to flexion. The very high frequency of concurrent fracture-dislocations of radial head or neck in the current study indicated that the radial head may also function as a stabilizer in the anterior support system.
Tearing and inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder muscles can occur in sports which require the ... pitching, swimming, and lifting weights. Most often the shoulder will heal if a break is taken from ...
... collarbone (clavicle) meets the top of the shoulder blade (acromion of the scapula). It is not the ... connects the collarbone and top of the shoulder blade. These tears can also come from car accidents ...
... imbalance in the rotator cuff or scapular muscles, postural abnormalities, shoulder joint instability, or improper training or ... with elastic tubing. Figure 2. Shoulder protraction exercise (balance with one arm on wobble board or deflated ...
Huygen, Frank; Patijn, Jacob; Rohof, Olav; Lataster, Arno; Mekhail, Nagy; van Kleef, Maarten; Van Zundert, Jan
Painful shoulder complaints have a high incidence and prevalence. The etiology is not always clear. Clinical history and the active and passive motion examination of the shoulder are the cornerstones of the diagnostic process. Three shoulder tests are important for the examination of shoulder complaints: shoulder abduction, shoulder external rotation, and horizontal shoulder adduction. These tests can guide the examiner to the correct diagnosis. Based on this diagnosis, in most cases, primarily a conservative treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possibly in combination with manual and/or exercise therapy can be started. When conservative treatment fails, injection with local anesthetics and corticosteroids can be considered. In the case of frozen shoulder, a continuous cervical epidural infusion of local anesthetic and small doses of opioids or a pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the nervus suprascapularis can be considered.
... Most people have a full recovery with full range of motion without surgery. ... should focus on stretching of the shoulder and range of motion. Avoid exercises to strengthen your shoulder until the ...
Demirkiran, Nihat Demirhan; Kar, Adem
Scapular dislocation, also known as locked scapula or scapulothoracic dislocation, is a rare entity that can be identified as extrathoracic or intrathoracic dislocation, depending on the penetration of the scapula into the thoracic cavity. The 3 reported cases of intrathoracic scapular dislocations in the literature are associated with a preexisting condition, such as sternoclavicular separation, prior rib fracture, thoracotomy for a lung transplant procedure, or surgical resection of superior ribs during breast or pulmonary tumor excisions. There are also 3 published cases of intrathoracic scapular impaction, involving comminuted scapular fractures with intrathoracic impaction of the inferior fragment through intercostal space. We report an intrathoracic scapular dislocation that was not associated with fracture of the scapula or predisposing factors. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pure intrathoracic dislocation.
Moros, Chris; Ahmad, Christopher S
Bone deficiencies of either the humeral head or glenoid fossa may cause recurrent shoulder instability following soft tissue stabilization procedures. The engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, a major risk factor for instability, has been identified in a majority of patients with recurrent anterior instability. Guidance for surgical management of large humeral head deficiency presents few available options, with even fewer clinical data to support any one technique. Anteroinferior glenoid deficiency has also been a well-documented source of recurrent instability. The Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure corrects the glenoid defect by restoring the architecture of the inferior rim. Although coracoid transfer addresses containment on the glenoid, a concomitant large humeral head defect is at risk for engagement on the corrected glenoid. This article describes a case of a 50-year-old man presenting with recurrent right shoulder dislocations status post-open stabilization procedure 10 years prior. Radiologic evaluation demonstrated a large Hill-Sachs lesion with adjacent chondral derangement and a nonunion bony Bankart lesion. The Arthrosurface HemiCap humeral head resurfacing prosthesis (Arthrosurface Inc, Franklin, Massachusetts) was used to address the Hill-Sachs lesion with a Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure. We were unable to identify examples in the literature of the HemiCap used in the correction of a Hill-Sachs lesion for recurrent anterior instability. The HemiCap prosthesis has the benefit of correcting the Hill-Sachs lesion and adjacent chondral defect while preserving uninvolved articular surface. The combination of surgical interventions produced a successful result.
Deutch, Søren R; Olsen, Bo S; Jensen, Steen L; Tyrdal, Stein; Sneppen, Otto
Pathological external forearm rotation (PEFR) relates to posterolateral elbow joint instability, and is considered a possible requisite step in a simple posterior elbow joint dislocation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsuloligamentous restraint to PEFR. In all, 18 elbow joint specimens were examined in a joint analysis system developed for experimental elbow dislocation. Sequential cutting of capsule and ligaments followed by stability testing provided specific data relating to each capsuloligamentous structure. The primary stabilizers against PEFR in the extended elbow were the anterior capsule and the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), whereas in the flexed elbow the anterior capsule did not have a stabilizing effect. In flexed joint positions, the LCLC seems to be the only immediate stabilizer against PEFR, and thereby against posterolateral instability and possibly against posterior dislocation. The medial collateral ligament did not have any immediate stabilizing effect, but it prevented the final step of the posterior dislocation.
Atkinson, Cameron T; Pappas, Nick D; Lee, Donald H
Elbow dislocations are a high-energy traumatic event resulting in loss of congruence of a stable joint. The majority of elbow dislocations can be reduced by closed means and treated conservatively. We present a case of an irreducible elbow dislocation with reduction blocked by the radial head buttonholed through the lateral ligamentous complex. We performed open reduction with release followed by repair of the lateral ligamentous complex. Clinicians need to understand this unique variant of an elbow dislocation to appropriately treat this operative injury.
Ariza, M. P.; Ortiz, M.
In this work, we present an application of the theory of discrete dislocations of Ariza and Ortiz (2005) to the analysis of dislocations in graphene. Specifically, we discuss the specialization of the theory to graphene and its further specialization to the force-constant model of Aizawa et al. (1990). The ability of the discrete-dislocation theory to predict dislocation core structures and energies is critically assessed for periodic arrangements of dislocation dipoles and quadrupoles. We show that, with the aid of the discrete Fourier transform, those problems are amenable to exact solution within the discrete-dislocation theory, which confers the theory a distinct advantage over conventional atomistic models. The discrete dislocations exhibit 5-7 ring core structures that are consistent with observation and result in dislocation energies that fall within the range of prediction of other models. The asymptotic behavior of dilute distributions of dislocations is characterized analytically in terms of a discrete prelogarithmic energy tensor. Explicit expressions for this discrete prelogarithmic energy tensor are provided up to quadratures.
Pu, Qin; Huang, Ruijin; Brand-Saberi, Beate
The muscles of the shoulder region are important for movements of the upper limbs and for stabilizing the girdle elements by connecting them to the trunk. They have a triple embryonic origin. First, the branchiomeric shoulder girdle muscles (sternocleidomastoideus and trapezius muscles) develop from the occipital lateral plate mesoderm using Tbx1 over the course of this development. The second population of cells constitutes the superficial shoulder girdle muscles (pectoral and latissimus dorsi muscles), which are derived from the wing premuscle mass. This muscle group undergoes a two-step development, referred to as the "in-out" mechanism. Myogenic precursor cells first migrate anterogradely into the wing bud. Subsequently, they migrate in a retrograde manner from the wing premuscle mass to the trunk. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling is involved in this outward migration. A third group of shoulder muscles are the rhomboidei and serratus anterior muscles, which are referred to as deep shoulder girdle muscles; they are thought to be derived from the myotomes. It is, however, not clear how myotome cells make contact to the scapula to form these two muscles. In this review, we discuss the development of the shoulder girdle muscle in relation to the different muscle groups.
Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Pádua, David Victoria Hoffmann; Martins, Marcelo Giovanini; Teixeira, João Carlos de Medeiros; De Nadai, Anderson
Sternoclavicular dislocations account for less than 5% of all dislocations of the scapular belt. Most cases of anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint do not present symptoms. However, some patients may develop chronic anterior instability and remain symptomatic, and surgical treatment is indicated in these cases. There is a scarcity of reports in the literature relating to reconstruction using the long palmar tendon in cases of traumatic anterior instability. Although rare, these injuries deserve rapid diagnosis and efficient treatment in order to avoid future complications. The aim of this report was to report on a case of a motocross competitor who developed chronic traumatic anterior instability of the sternoclavicular joint and underwent surgical reconstruction using the autogenous long palmar tendon. The patient was a 33-year-old man with a history of anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular subsequent to a fall during a maneuver in a motocross competition. Conservative treatment was instituted initially, consisting of use of a functional sling to treat the symptoms for 3 weeks, along with physiotherapeutic rehabilitation for 3 months. We chose to use a modification of the "figure of eight" technique based on the studies by Spencer and Kuhn. A longitudinal incision of approximately 10 cm was made at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. The graft from the ipsilateral long palmar tendon was passed through the orifices in the form of a modified "figure of eight" and its ends were sutured together. The patient was immobilized using an American sling for 4 weeks. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient no longer presented pain or instability when movement of the sternoclavicular joint was required. Minor discomfort and slight prominence of the sternoclavicular joint continued to be present but did not affect the patient's activities. Thus, the patient was able to return to racing 6 months after the operation. Our study presented a case of
Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Pádua, David Victoria Hoffmann; Martins, Marcelo Giovanini; Teixeira, João Carlos de Medeiros; De Nadai, Anderson
Sternoclavicular dislocations account for less than 5% of all dislocations of the scapular belt. Most cases of anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint do not present symptoms. However, some patients may develop chronic anterior instability and remain symptomatic, and surgical treatment is indicated in these cases. There is a scarcity of reports in the literature relating to reconstruction using the long palmar tendon in cases of traumatic anterior instability. Although rare, these injuries deserve rapid diagnosis and efficient treatment in order to avoid future complications. The aim of this report was to report on a case of a motocross competitor who developed chronic traumatic anterior instability of the sternoclavicular joint and underwent surgical reconstruction using the autogenous long palmar tendon. The patient was a 33-year-old man with a history of anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular subsequent to a fall during a maneuver in a motocross competition. Conservative treatment was instituted initially, consisting of use of a functional sling to treat the symptoms for 3 weeks, along with physiotherapeutic rehabilitation for 3 months. We chose to use a modification of the “figure of eight” technique based on the studies by Spencer and Kuhn. A longitudinal incision of approximately 10 cm was made at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. The graft from the ipsilateral long palmar tendon was passed through the orifices in the form of a modified “figure of eight” and its ends were sutured together. The patient was immobilized using an American sling for 4 weeks. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient no longer presented pain or instability when movement of the sternoclavicular joint was required. Minor discomfort and slight prominence of the sternoclavicular joint continued to be present but did not affect the patient's activities. Thus, the patient was able to return to racing 6 months after the operation. Our study presented a case
Schoch, Bradley; Werthel, Jean-David; Cofield, Robert; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Sperling, John W
Chondrolysis is a rare complication after shoulder arthroscopy leading to early joint destruction. Shoulder arthroplasty may be considered for end-stage chondrolysis, but concerns exist about implant survivorship, given the younger age of this population. This study aimed to assess pain relief, function, and survivorship of shoulder arthroplasty for chondrolysis and to assess risk factors for failure. Between January 2000 and January 2013, 26 consecutive shoulders with chondrolysis were treated at our institution with shoulder arthroplasty. All shoulders had a prior arthroscopic procedure that predated a phase of rapid joint destruction. Twenty-three shoulders were followed up for a minimum of 2 years or until reoperation (mean, 4.0 years; range, 0.7-8.6 years). The mean age of the patients was 40 years (range, 21-58 years). Outcome measures included pain, range of motion, postoperative modified Neer ratings, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, complications, and reoperations. At most recent follow-up, only 14 of 23 shoulders had no or mild pain. Overall pain scores improved from 4.7 to 2.6 points. Abduction and external rotation improved significantly. Five shoulders required reoperation, 2 for glenoid loosening and 1 each for infection, instability, and stiffness. Subjectively, 8 patients rated their shoulder as much better, 7 as better, 4 the same, and 4 worse. Most recent American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores averaged 64 points (range, 20-95 points). Shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of chondrolysis improves pain and range of motion. However, patient satisfaction is variable. Early follow-up shows a higher than expected rate of reoperation (25%). Patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty for chondrolysis should be counseled appropriately about expectations after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goz, Vadim; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Hecht, Andrew C.
Study Design Case series of two arytenoid dislocations after anterior cervical discectomy. Objective To recognize arytenoid dislocation as a possible cause of prolonged hoarseness in patients after anterior cervical discectomies. Summary of Background Data Prolonged hoarseness is a common postoperative complication after anterior cervical spine surgery. The etiology of prolonged postoperative hoarseness is usually related to a paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, other causes of postoperative hoarseness may be overlooked in this clinical scenario. Other possible etiologies include pharyngeal and laryngeal trauma, hematoma and edema, injury of the superior laryngeal nerve, as well as arytenoid cartilage dislocation. Arytenoid dislocation is often misdiagnosed as vocal fold paresis due to recurrent or laryngeal nerve injury. Methods We report two cases of arytenoid dislocation and review the literature on this pathology. Results Two patients treated with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion experienced prolonged postoperative hoarseness. Arytenoid dislocation was confirmed by flexible fiber-optic laryngoscopy in both cases. The dislocations experienced spontaneous reduction at 6 weeks and 3 months postsurgery. Conclusions Arytenoid dislocation must be considered in the differential diagnosis of prolonged postoperative hoarseness and evaluated for using direct laryngoscopy, computed tomography, or a laryngeal electromyography. Upon diagnosis, treatment must be considered immediately. Slight dislocations can reduce spontaneously without surgical intervention; however, operative intervention may be required at times. PMID:24436851
Goz, Vadim; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Hecht, Andrew C
Study Design Case series of two arytenoid dislocations after anterior cervical discectomy. Objective To recognize arytenoid dislocation as a possible cause of prolonged hoarseness in patients after anterior cervical discectomies. Summary of Background Data Prolonged hoarseness is a common postoperative complication after anterior cervical spine surgery. The etiology of prolonged postoperative hoarseness is usually related to a paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, other causes of postoperative hoarseness may be overlooked in this clinical scenario. Other possible etiologies include pharyngeal and laryngeal trauma, hematoma and edema, injury of the superior laryngeal nerve, as well as arytenoid cartilage dislocation. Arytenoid dislocation is often misdiagnosed as vocal fold paresis due to recurrent or laryngeal nerve injury. Methods We report two cases of arytenoid dislocation and review the literature on this pathology. Results Two patients treated with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion experienced prolonged postoperative hoarseness. Arytenoid dislocation was confirmed by flexible fiber-optic laryngoscopy in both cases. The dislocations experienced spontaneous reduction at 6 weeks and 3 months postsurgery. Conclusions Arytenoid dislocation must be considered in the differential diagnosis of prolonged postoperative hoarseness and evaluated for using direct laryngoscopy, computed tomography, or a laryngeal electromyography. Upon diagnosis, treatment must be considered immediately. Slight dislocations can reduce spontaneously without surgical intervention; however, operative intervention may be required at times.
Minor, Andrew M.
A comparison of dislocation dynamics in two hexagonal close-packed metals has revealed that dislocation movement can vary substantially in materials with the same crystal structure, associated with how the dislocations relax when stationary.
Mann, D L; Littke, N
Twenty-one elite-calibre archers (M = 12, F = 9) were investigated concerning all past and present archery-related shoulder injuries, using a questionnaire and physical examination. The questionnaire revealed that 11 of 21 archers had complained of significant shoulder injuries either currently or during their careers. While 9/12 men never had shoulder problems during an average of 13.5 years, only 4/9 women escaped injury during a mean 10.9 year competitive career. Deficits in training programs were noted, including lack of training and non-specific exercises. Clinical examination demonstrated shoulder asymmetry and decreased flexibility in the drawing arm (DA) shoulder. Functional testing revealed a positive impingement sign in 6/21 DA shoulders. Supraspinatus testing showed abnormalities in 4/21 DA shoulders. Pain was referred posteriorly with the impingement maneuver in 5/21 DA shoulders and abnormal external rotation testing was observed in 8/21 DA shoulders. Generally, the females had proportionally more signs and symptoms of shoulder injury than the men, especially involving the DA shoulder. Testing implicated supraspinatus impingement/tendonitis and infraspinatus/teres minor traction tendonitis. These clinical findings correlated with cadaver prosection observations.
Hovelius, Lennart; Vikerfors, Ola; Olofsson, Anders; Svensson, Olle; Rahme, Hans
In 2 Swedish hospitals, 88 consecutive shoulders underwent Bankart repair (B), and 97 consecutive shoulders underwent Bristow-Latarjet repair (B-L) for traumatic anterior recurrent instability. Mean age at surgery was 28 years (B-L group) and 27 years (B group). All shoulders had a follow-up by letter or telephone after a mean of 17 years (range, 13-22 years). The patients answered a questionnaire and completed the Western Ontario Shoulder Index (WOSI), Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and SSV (Simple Shoulder Value) assessments. Recurrance resulted revision surgery in 1 shoulder in the B-L group and in 5 shoulders in the B group (P = .08). Redislocation or subluxation after the index operation occurred in 13 of 97 B-L shoulders and in 25 of 87 of B shoulders (after excluding 1 patient with arthroplasty because of arthropathy, P = .017). Of the 96 Bristow shoulders, 94 patients were very satisfied/satisfied compared with 71 of 80 in the B series (P = .01). Mean WOSI score was 88 for B-L shoulders and 79 for B shoulders (P = .002). B-L shoulders also scored better on the DASH (P = .002) and SSV (P = .007). Patients had 11° loss of subjectively measured outward rotation with the arm at the side after B-L repair compared with 19° after Bankart (P = .012). The original Bankart, with tunnels through the glenoid rim, had less redislocation(s) or subluxation(s) than shoulders done with anchors (P = .048). Results were better after the Bristow-Latarjet repair than after Bankart repairs done with anchors with respect to postoperative stability and subjective evaluation. Shoulders with original Bankart repair also seemed to be more stable than shoulders repaired with anchors. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Koçak Altıntaş, Ayşe Gül; Omay, Aslıhan Esra; Çelik, Selda
In this report, three cases with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and advanced age with spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL) and capsule tension ring (CTR) dislocation were presented. All of our cases experienced progressive vision loss without an episode of strenuous physical activity, trauma, or any other ocular disease. Spontaneous dislocation was observed 2.5 to 8 years after uneventful phacosurgery. Each patient underwent complete IOL and CTR removal combined with anterior chamber IOL implantation. No complications were noticed during follow-up. As a result, capsule tension ring does not prevent late IOL dislocation after uncomplicated phacosurgery in the presence of PEX. Therefore, close follow-up is essential for patients with PEX. PMID:28405485
Payer, M; Wetzel, S; Kelekis, A; Jenny, B
We present a case of traumatic vertical atlantoaxial dislocation of 16 millimetres with a fatal outcome. We hypothesize that this extremely rare traumatic vertical atlantoaxial dislocation results from insufficiency of the C1/C2 facet capsules after rupture of the tectorial membrane and the alar ligaments.
Burgos, J; Alvarez-Montero, R; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Rapariz, J M
Proximal tibiofibular dislocation is an exceptional lesion. Rarer still is its presentation in childhood. We describe the clinical case of a 6-year-old boy, the victim of a road accident. He had a tibiofibular dislocation associated with a metaphyseal fracture of the tibia.
ParaDiS is software capable of simulating the motion, evolution, and interaction of dislocation networks in single crystals using massively parallel computer architectures. The software is capable of outputting the stress-strain response of a single crystal whose plastic deformation is controlled by the dislocation processes.
Reiche, M.; Kittler, M.; Uebensee, H.; Pippel, E.; Haehnel, A.; Birner, S.
Dislocations exhibit a number of exceptional electronic properties resulting in a significant increase in the drain current of MOSFETs if defined numbers of these defects are placed in the channel. Measurements on individual dislocations in Si refer to a supermetallic conductivity. A model of the electronic structure of dislocations is proposed based on experimental measurements and tight-binding simulations. It is shown that the high strain level on the dislocation core—exceeding 10 % or more—causes locally dramatic changes in the band structure and results in the formation of a quantum well along the dislocation line. This explains experimental findings (two-dimensional electron gas, single-electron transitions). The energy quantization within the quantum well is most important for supermetallic conductivity.
Skiba, Oxana; Gracie, Robert; Potapenko, Stanislav
Improving the reliability of micro-electronic devices depends in part on developing a more in-depth understanding of dislocations because dislocations are barriers to charge carriers. To this end, the quasi-static simulation of discrete dislocations dynamics in materials under mechanical and electrical loads is presented. The simulations are based on the extended finite element method, where dislocations are modelled as internal discontinuities. The strong and weak forms of the boundary value problem for the coupled system are presented. The computation of the Peach-Koehler force using the J-integral is discussed. Examples to illustrate the accuracy of the simulations are presented. The motion of the network of the dislocations under different electrical and mechanical loads is simulated. It was shown that even in weak piezoelectric materials the effect of the electric field on plastic behaviour is significant.
Bouliane, M; Saliken, D; Beaupre, L A; Silveira, A; Saraswat, M K; Sheps, D M
In this study we evaluated whether the Instability Severity Index Score (ISIS) and the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) could detect those patients at risk of failure following arthroscopic Bankart repair. Between April 2008 and June 2010, the ISIS and WOSI were recorded pre-operatively in 110 patients (87 male, 79%) with a mean age of 25.1 years (16 to 61) who underwent this procedure for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. A telephone interview was performed two-years post-operatively to determine whether patients had experienced a recurrent dislocation and whether they had returned to pre-injury activity levels. In all, six (5%) patients had an ISIS > 6 points (0 to 9). Of 100 (91%) patients available two years post-operatively, six (6%) had a recurrent dislocation, and 28 (28%) did not return to pre-injury activity. No patient who dislocated had an ISIS > 6 (p = 1.0). There was no difference in the mean pre-operative WOSI in those who had a re-dislocation and those who did not (p = 0.99). The pre-operative WOSI was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in those who did not return to pre-injury activity, whereas the ISIS was not associated with return to pre-injury activity (p = 0.13). In conclusion, neither the pre-operative ISIS nor WOSI predicted recurrent dislocation within two years of arthroscopic Bankart repair. Patients with a lower pre-operative WOSI were less likely to return to pre-injury activity. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.